WorldWideScience

Sample records for grouped firing order

  1. Ordered groups and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the connections between topology and ordered groups. It begins with a self-contained introduction to orderable groups and from there explores the interactions between orderability and objects in low-dimensional topology, such as knot theory, braid groups, and 3-manifolds, as well as groups of homeomorphisms and other topological structures. The book also addresses recent applications of orderability in the studies of codimension-one foliations and Heegaard-Floer homology. The use of topological methods in proving algebraic results is another feature of the book. The book was written to serve both as a textbook for graduate students, containing many exercises, and as a reference for researchers in topology, algebra, and dynamical systems. A basic background in group theory and topology is the only prerequisite for the reader.

  2. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  3. [Social crisis, spontaneous groups and group order].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Lucila; Kordon, Diana

    2002-12-01

    Argentina has gone through very difficult times during the last years and, in particularly, new kinds of social practices have emerged in order to cope with the crisis. This situation demands and urges a new type of reflection upon the double role of groups, as tools to transform reality and as a way to elaborate those processes regarding subjectivity. In this paper we analyse some topics regarding the groupal field (considering spontaneous groups as well as groupal devices that allow to elaborate the crisis). We consider social bond to be the condition of possibility for the existence of the psyche and of time continuity, and that it also makes possible personal and social elaboration of trauma, crisis and social catastrophe. We develop some aspects of an specific device (the reflection group), which we have already depicted in another moment, showing it's usefulness to cope with social crisis and to promote the subjective elaboration of crisis.

  4. Delay-induced diversity of firing behavior and ordered chaotic firing in adaptive neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yubing; Wang Li; Xu Bo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of time delay on the firing behavior and temporal coherence and synchronization in Newman–Watts thermosensitive neuron networks with adaptive coupling. At beginning, the firing exhibit disordered spiking in absence of time delay. As time delay is increased, the neurons exhibit diversity of firing behaviors including bursting with multiple spikes in a burst, spiking, bursting with four, three and two spikes, firing death, and bursting with increasing amplitude. The spiking is the most ordered, exhibiting coherence resonance (CR)-like behavior, and the firing synchronization becomes enhanced with the increase of time delay. As growth rate of coupling strength or network randomness increases, CR-like behavior shifts to smaller time delay and the synchronization of firing increases. These results show that time delay can induce diversity of firing behaviors in adaptive neuronal networks, and can order the chaotic firing by enhancing and optimizing the temporal coherence and enhancing the synchronization of firing. However, the phenomenon of firing death shows that time delay may inhibit the firing of adaptive neuronal networks. These findings provide new insight into the role of time delay in the firing activity of adaptive neuronal networks, and can help to better understand the complex firing phenomena in neural networks.

  5. Design guide for fire protection of grouped electrical cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungan, K.W.

    1991-05-01

    This paper develops design guidance for fire protection of grouped electrical cables using previous research and the concept of design objectives based on damage limits. A quantitative approach is taken to establishing performance-oriented design objectives and addressing fires exposing cables as well as cable fires. A one-page Design Calculation Checklist is developed and examples are shown. In addition, testing was done for placement of linear thermal detection on cable trays and recommendations are given. 32 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  6. Higher class groups of Eichler orders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xuejun; Kuku, Aderemi

    2003-11-01

    In this paper, we prove that if A is a quaternion algebra and Λ an Eichler order in A, then the only p-torsion possible in even dimensional higher class groups Cl 2n (Λ) (n ≥ 1) are for those rational primes p which lie under prime ideals of O F at which Λ are not maximal. (author)

  7. First Order Fire Effects Model: FOFEM 4.0, user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Robert E. Keane; James K. Brown

    1997-01-01

    A First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM) was developed to predict the direct consequences of prescribed fire and wildfire. FOFEM computes duff and woody fuel consumption, smoke production, and fire-caused tree mortality for most forest and rangeland types in the United States. The model is available as a computer program for PC or Data General computer.

  8. Combining ungrouped and grouped wildfire data to estimate fire risk

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez-Magallanes, I.

    2013-10-11

    © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Frequently, models are required to combine information obtained from different data sources and on different scales. In this work, we are interested in estimating the risk of wildfire ignition in the USA for a particular time and location by merging two levels of data, namely, individual points and aggregate count of points into areas. The data for federal lands consist of the point location and time of each fire. Nonfederal fires are aggregated by county for a particular year. The probability model is based on the wildfire point process. Assuming a smooth intensity function, a locally weighted likelihood fit is used, which incorporates the group effect. A logit model is used under the assumption of the existence of a latent process, and fuel conditions are included as a covariate. The model assessment is based on a residual analysis, while the False Discovery Rate detects spatial patterns. A benefit of the proposed model is that there is no need of arbitrary aggregation of individual fires into counts. A map of predicted probability of ignition for the Midwest US in 1990 is included. The predicted ignition probabilities and the estimated total number of expected fires are required for the allocation of resources.

  9. Order and Mystery in Negotiation Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Linda L.; Bullis, Connie

    A preliminary study investigating the perceptions of intergroup relations in the bargaining process supports Kenneth Burke's concepts of order and mystery. Questionnaires, interviews, and direct observations of teachers' and school boards' teams involved in contract negotiations show that people closest to the bargaining saw more order in the…

  10. Advancing investigation and physical modeling of first-order fire effects on soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Massman; John M. Frank; Sacha J. Mooney

    2010-01-01

    Heating soil during intense wildland fires or slash-pile burns can alter the soil irreversibly, resulting in many significant long-term biological, chemical, physical, and hydrological effects. To better understand these long-term effects, it is necessary to improve modeling capability and prediction of the more immediate, or first-order, effects that fire can have on...

  11. Guide relative to the application of the order on 31/12/99. Subject: fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The decree of the 31.12.1999 is applied to the existing nuclear facilities. The study of fire risks is updated at the moment of reexamination of safety in order to show that the dispositions implemented to prevent a fire or an explosion (linked to this one) and eventually to limit the consequences on environment, are adapted and answer to the exigence of the order. This revision can be presented as a file that will be integrate to the safety report especially when a new safety examination is not planned before the first january 2010. (N.C.)

  12. Monte Carlo simulations on marker grouping and ordering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J; Jenkins, J; Zhu, J; McCarty, J; Watson, C

    2003-08-01

    Four global algorithms, maximum likelihood (ML), sum of adjacent LOD score (SALOD), sum of adjacent recombinant fractions (SARF) and product of adjacent recombinant fraction (PARF), and one approximation algorithm, seriation (SER), were used to compare the marker ordering efficiencies for correctly given linkage groups based on doubled haploid (DH) populations. The Monte Carlo simulation results indicated the marker ordering powers for the five methods were almost identical. High correlation coefficients were greater than 0.99 between grouping power and ordering power, indicating that all these methods for marker ordering were reliable. Therefore, the main problem for linkage analysis was how to improve the grouping power. Since the SER approach provided the advantage of speed without losing ordering power, this approach was used for detailed simulations. For more generality, multiple linkage groups were employed, and population size, linkage cutoff criterion, marker spacing pattern (even or uneven), and marker spacing distance (close or loose) were considered for obtaining acceptable grouping powers. Simulation results indicated that the grouping power was related to population size, marker spacing distance, and cutoff criterion. Generally, a large population size provided higher grouping power than small population size, and closely linked markers provided higher grouping power than loosely linked markers. The cutoff criterion range for achieving acceptable grouping power and ordering power differed for varying cases; however, combining all situations in this study, a cutoff criterion ranging from 50 cM to 60 cM was recommended for achieving acceptable grouping power and ordering power for different cases.

  13. Bi-orderings on pure braided Thompson's groups

    OpenAIRE

    Burillo, Jose; Gonzalez-Meneses, Juan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper it is proved that the pure braided Thompson’s group BF admits a bi-order, analog to the bi-order of the pure braid groups. Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional

  14. The homological functor of a Bieberbach group with a cyclic point group of order two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassim, Hazzirah Izzati Mat; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Ali, Nor Muhainiah Mohd; Masri, Rohaidah; Idrus, Nor'ashiqin Mohd

    2014-07-01

    The generalized presentation of a Bieberbach group with cyclic point group of order two can be obtained from the fact that any Bieberbach group of dimension n is a direct product of the group of the smallest dimension with a free abelian group. In this paper, by using the group presentation, the homological functor of a Bieberbach group a with cyclic point group of order two of dimension n is found.

  15. The Group Evacuation Behavior Based on Fire Effect in the Complicated Three-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively depict the group evacuation behavior in the complicated three-dimensional space, a novel pedestrian flow model is proposed with three-dimensional cellular automata. In this model the calculation methods of floor field and fire gain are elaborated at first, and the transition gain of target position at the next moment is defined. Then, in consideration of pedestrian intimacy and velocity change, the group evacuation strategy and evolution rules are given. Finally, the experiments were conducted with the simulation platform to study the relationships of evacuation time, pedestrian density, average system velocity, and smoke spreading velocity. The results had shown that large-scale group evacuation should be avoided, and in case of large pedestrian density, the shortest route of evacuation strategy would extend system evacuation time.

  16. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  17. CERN'S Fire and Rescue Group Gets New Ambulance

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The arrival of a new vehicle is always an important moment in the life of a fire station. So when a new ambulance was delivered to the CERN Fire Brigade on Wednesday 16 September 2000, it was given a warm welcome, attended by staff of the different divisions involved in its purchase. It took a year from the first administrative moves to the day of acquisition. On the one hand there were the calls for tender needed for such a purchase and on the other the development of this custom-designed ambulance with its unique features. Three visits to the manufacturer had to be made, including two to the head office of the Miesen factory at Bonn to study and incorporate in the ambulance the special requirements called for by its future users. These requirements, born from the past experience of CERN’s ambulance crews, concerned not only interior arrangements but also included a new side panel, opening up a stowage compartment where everything will be put that gets dirty during ambulance operations. This will minimize ...

  18. Automorphism group of nonabelian groups of order p{sup 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmin, Nor Haniza [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Barakat, Yasamin [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Malaysia and Islamic Azad University-Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-19

    Let G be a nonabelian group of order p{sup 3}, where p is a prime number. Then G is a two generated group that its commutator, centre and Frattini subgroup coincide and are of order p. Hence, the quotient group of G over its centre and also Frattini quotient group of G, both are of order p{sup 2}. However, the first mentioned quotient is isomorphic to the inner group of G, which is a normal subgroup of automorphism group of G. Whereas, Frattini quotient group of G is an abelian elementary group that can be considered as a vector space of dimension two over Z{sub p}, the field of integers modulo p. In this paper, we consider to apply these properties of G to characterize the automorphism group of G.

  19. Combining ungrouped and grouped wildfire data to estimate fire risk

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez-Magallanes, I.

    2013-01-01

    particular year. The probability model is based on the wildfire point process. Assuming a smooth intensity function, a locally weighted likelihood fit is used, which incorporates the group effect. A logit model is used under the assumption of the existence

  20. Renormalization group analysis of order parameter fluctuations in fermionic superfluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obert, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this work fluctuation effects in two interacting fermion systems exhibiting fermionic s-wave superfluidity are analyzed with a modern renormalization group method. A description in terms of a fermion-boson theory allows an investigation of order parameter fluctuations already on the one-loop level. In the first project a quantum phase transition between a semimetal and a s-wave superfluid in a Dirac cone model is studied. The interplay between fermions and quantum critical fluctuations close to and at the quantum critical point at zero and finite temperatures are studied within a coupled fermion-boson theory. At the quantum critical point non-Fermi liquid and non-Gaussian behaviour emerge. Close to criticality several quantities as the susceptibility show a power law behaviour with critical exponents. We find an infinite correlation length in the entire semimetallic ground state also away from the quantum critical point. In the second project, the ground state of an s-wave fermionic superfluid is investigated. Here, the mutual interplay between fermions and order parameter fluctuations is studied, especially the impact of massless Goldstone fluctuations, which occur due to spontaneous breaking of the continuous U(1)-symmetry. Fermionic gap and bosonic order parameter are distinguished. Furthermore, the bosonic order parameter is decomposed in transverse and longitudinal fluctuations. The mixing between transverse and longitudinal fluctuations is included in our description. Within a simple truncation of the fermion-boson RG flow, we describe the fermion-boson theory for the first time in a consistent manner. Several singularities appear due the Goldstone fluctuations, which partially cancel due to symmetry. Our RG flow captures the correct infrared asymptotics of the system, where the collective excitations act as an interacting Bose gas. Lowest order Ward identities and the massless Goldstone mode are fulfilled in our truncation.

  1. Driven similarity renormalization group: Third-order multireference perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Evangelista, Francesco A

    2017-03-28

    A third-order multireference perturbation theory based on the driven similarity renormalization group (DSRG-MRPT3) approach is presented. The DSRG-MRPT3 method has several appealing features: (a) it is intruder free, (b) it is size consistent, (c) it leads to a non-iterative algorithm with O(N 6 ) scaling, and (d) it includes reference relaxation effects. The DSRG-MRPT3 scheme is benchmarked on the potential energy curves of F 2 , H 2 O 2 , C 2 H 6 , and N 2 along the F-F, O-O, C-C, and N-N bond dissociation coordinates, respectively. The nonparallelism errors of DSRG-MRPT3 are consistent with those of complete active space third-order perturbation theory and multireference configuration interaction with singles and doubles and show significant improvements over those obtained from DSRG second-order multireference perturbation theory. Our efficient implementation of the DSRG-MRPT3 based on factorized electron repulsion integrals enables studies of medium-sized open-shell organic compounds. This point is demonstrated with computations of the singlet-triplet splitting (Δ ST =E T -E S ) of 9,10-anthracyne. At the DSRG-MRPT3 level of theory, our best estimate of the adiabatic Δ ST is 3.9 kcal mol -1 , a value that is within 0.1 kcal mol -1 from multireference coupled cluster results.

  2. Different interest group views of fuels treatments: survey results from fire and fire surrogate treatments in a Sierran mixed conifer forest, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Jason J. Moghaddas; Scott L. Stephens

    2008-01-01

    The present paper discusses results from a survey about the acceptance of and preferences for fuels treatments of participants following a field tour of the University of California Blodgett Forest Fire and Fire Surrogate Study Site. Although original expectations were that tours would be composed of general members of the public, individual tour groups ultimately were...

  3. Mars together and FIRE and ICE: Report of the joint US/Russian technical working groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Cold War's end opened an opportunity for greater cooperation in planetary exploration for the United States and Russia. Two study groups were formed, Mars Together and FIRE and ICE. The Mars Together team developed a concept for a flight in 1998 that merged one U.S. Mars Surveyor 98 mission with the former Russian Mars 96 mission to further understanding of the Mars surface and atmosphere. The FIRE and ICE team developed concepts for a dual-spacecraft mission to the solar corona and for a mission to Pluto. The missions, scientific potential, and open issues are described.

  4. Mars together and FIRE and ICE: Report of the joint US/Russian technical working groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Cold War's end opened an opportunity for greater cooperation in planetary exploration for the United States and Russia. Two study groups were formed, Mars Together and FIRE and ICE. The Mars Together team developed a concept for a flight in 1998 that merged one U.S. Mars Surveyor 98 mission with the former Russian Mars 96 mission to further understanding of the Mars surface and atmosphere. The FIRE and ICE team developed concepts for a dual-spacecraft mission to the solar corona and for a mission to Pluto. The missions, scientific potential, and open issues are described.

  5. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  6. First-order fire effects on herbs and Shrubs: present knowledge and process modeling needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten Stephan; Melanie Miller; Matthew B. Dickinson

    2010-01-01

    Herbaceous plants and shrubs have received little attention in terms of fire effects modeling despite their critical role in ecosystem integrity and resilience after wildfires and prescribed burns. In this paper, we summarize current knowledge of direct effects of fire on herb and shrub (including cacti) vegetative tissues and seed banks, propose key components for...

  7. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; environmental consequences fact sheet 02: First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Sutherland

    2004-01-01

    FOFEM 5.2 is a simple, yet versatile computer program that predicts first order fire effects using text and graphic outputs. It can be used in a variety of situations including: determining acceptable upper and lower fuel moistures for conducting prescribed burns, determining the number of acres that may be burned on a given day without exceeding particulate emission...

  8. The Ordered Capacitated Multi-Objective Location-Allocation Problem for Fire Stations Using Spatial Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Bolouri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the positions of facilities, and allocating demands to them, is a vitally important problem. Location-allocation problems are optimization NP-hard procedures. This article evaluates the ordered capacitated multi-objective location-allocation problem for fire stations, using simulated annealing and a genetic algorithm, with goals such as minimizing the distance and time as well as maximizing the coverage. After tuning the parameters of the algorithms using sensitivity analysis, they were used separately to process data for Region 11, Tehran. The results showed that the genetic algorithm was more efficient than simulated annealing, and therefore, the genetic algorithm was used in later steps. Next, we increased the number of stations. Results showed that the model can successfully provide seven optimal locations and allocate high demands (280,000 to stations in a discrete space in a GIS, assuming that the stations’ capacities are known. Following this, we used a weighting program so that in each repetition, we could allot weights to each target randomly. Finally, by repeating the model over 10 independent executions, a set of solutions with the least sum and the highest number of non-dominated solutions was selected from among many non-dominated solutions as the best set of optimal solutions.

  9. On some homological functors of Bieberbach group of dimension four with dihedral point group of order eight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Siti Afiqah; Ali, Nor Muhainiah Mohd; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Idrus, Nor'ashiqin Mohd; Masri, Rohaidah

    2014-06-01

    A Bieberbach group is a torsion free crystallographic group, which is an extension of a free abelian group of finite rank by a finite point group, while homological functors of a group include nonabelian tensor square, exterior square and Schur Multiplier. In this paper, some homological functors of a Bieberbach group of dimension four with dihedral point group of order eight are computed.

  10. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  11. Fractional-order leaky integrate-and-fire model with long-term memory and power law dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Wondimu W; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Mondal, Argha

    2017-09-01

    Pyramidal neurons produce different spiking patterns to process information, communicate with each other and transform information. These spiking patterns have complex and multiple time scale dynamics that have been described with the fractional-order leaky integrate-and-Fire (FLIF) model. Models with fractional (non-integer) order differentiation that generalize power law dynamics can be used to describe complex temporal voltage dynamics. The main characteristic of FLIF model is that it depends on all past values of the voltage that causes long-term memory. The model produces spikes with high interspike interval variability and displays several spiking properties such as upward spike-frequency adaptation and long spike latency in response to a constant stimulus. We show that the subthreshold voltage and the firing rate of the fractional-order model make transitions from exponential to power law dynamics when the fractional order α decreases from 1 to smaller values. The firing rate displays different types of spike timing adaptation caused by changes on initial values. We also show that the voltage-memory trace and fractional coefficient are the causes of these different types of spiking properties. The voltage-memory trace that represents the long-term memory has a feedback regulatory mechanism and affects spiking activity. The results suggest that fractional-order models might be appropriate for understanding multiple time scale neuronal dynamics. Overall, a neuron with fractional dynamics displays history dependent activities that might be very useful and powerful for effective information processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. On the abelianization of all Bieberbach groups of dimension four with symmetric point group of order six

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Tan Yee; Idrus, Nor'ashiqin Mohd; Masri, Rohaidah; Fauzi, Wan Nor Farhana Wan Mohd; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Hassim, Hazzirah Izzati Mat

    2014-12-01

    A torsion free crystallographic group, which is known as a Bieberbach group, has many interesting properties. The properties of the groups can be explored by computing the homological functors of the groups. In the computation of the homological functors, the abelianization of groups plays an important role. The abelianization of a group can be constructed by computing its derived subgroup. In this paper, the construction of the abelianization of all Bieberbach groups of dimension four with symmetric point group of order six are shown. Groups, Algorithms and Programming (GAP) software is used to assist the construction.

  13. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 11 on Aircraft Fire Safety. Volume 2. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    which make burning metal particles a potent igni- tion source and extinguishment of bulk metal fires a difficult task. In the latter case, the difficulty...aircraft to fires induced by uncon- tained engine failures and internal engine metal fires . With respect to the uncontained engine failure current engine

  14. Safety climate in the US federal wildland fire management community: influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Brooke Baldauf McBride

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate (High Reliability Organising Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity) in the US federal wildland fire management community. Of particular interest were differences between perceptions based on...

  15. Safety climate in the federal fire management community: Influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Baldauf McBride; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organizational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate in the US federal fire management community (HRO Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity). Multiple analyses of variance revealed that all types of characteristics had a significant effect on...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  17. The nonabelian tensor square of Bieberbach group of dimension five with dihedral point group of order eight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, Wan Nor Farhana Wan Mohd; Idrus, Nor'ashiqin Mohd; Masri, Rohaidah; Sarmin, Nor Haniza

    2014-07-01

    The nonabelian tensor product was originated in homotopy theory as well as in algebraic K-theory. The nonabelian tensor square is a special case of the nonabelian tensor product where the product is defined if the two groups act on each other in a compatible way and their action are taken to be conjugation. In this paper, the computation of nonabelian tensor square of a Bieberbach group, which is a torsion free crystallographic group, of dimension five with dihedral point group of order eight is determined. Groups, Algorithms and Programming (GAP) software has been used to assist and verify the results.

  18. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  19. Affording and Constraining Local Moral Orders in Teacher-Led Ability-Based Mathematics Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi; Shuker, Mary Jane; Higgins, Joanna; Loveridge, Judith

    2015-01-01

    How teachers position themselves and their students can influence the development of afforded or constrained local moral orders in ability-based teacher-led mathematics lessons. Local moral orders are the negotiated discursive practices and interactions of participants in the group. In this article, the developing local moral orders of 12 teachers…

  20. About a definition of metric over an abelian linearly ordered group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bice Cavallo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A G-metric over an abelian linearly ordered group G = (G,⊙,≤ is a binary operation, d G , verifying suitable properties. We consider a particular G metric derived by the group operation ⊙ and the total weak order ≤, and show that it provides a base for the order topology associated to G.

  1. Group-ICA model order highlights patterns of functional brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eAbou Elseoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state networks (RSNs can be reliably and reproducibly detected using independent component analysis (ICA at both individual subject and group levels. Altering ICA dimensionality (model order estimation can have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the RSNs as well as their parcellation into sub-networks. Recent evidence from several neuroimaging studies suggests that the human brain has a modular hierarchical organization which resembles the hierarchy depicted by different ICA model orders. We hypothesized that functional connectivity between-group differences measured with ICA might be affected by model order selection. We investigated differences in functional connectivity using so-called dual-regression as a function of ICA model order in a group of unmedicated seasonal affective disorder (SAD patients compared to normal healthy controls. The results showed that the detected disease-related differences in functional connectivity alter as a function of ICA model order. The volume of between-group differences altered significantly as a function of ICA model order reaching maximum at model order 70 (which seems to be an optimal point that conveys the largest between-group difference then stabilized afterwards. Our results show that fine-grained RSNs enable better detection of detailed disease-related functional connectivity changes. However, high model orders show an increased risk of false positives that needs to be overcome. Our findings suggest that multilevel ICA exploration of functional connectivity enables optimization of sensitivity to brain disorders.

  2. Bismut's way of the Malliavin calculus for large order generators on a Lie group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léandre, Rémi

    2018-01-01

    We adapt Bismut's mechanism of the Malliavin Calculus to right invariant big order generator on a Lie group. We use deeply the symmetry in order to avoid the use of the Malliavin matrix. As an application, we deduce logarithmic estimates in small time of the heat kernel.

  3. Nodal approximations of varying order by energy group for solving the diffusion equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, J.T.

    1992-02-01

    The neutron flux across the nuclear reactor core is of interest to reactor designers and others. The diffusion equation, an integro-differential equation in space and energy, is commonly used to determine the flux level. However, the solution of a simplified version of this equation when automated is very time consuming. Since the flux level changes with time, in general, this calculation must be made repeatedly. Therefore solution techniques that speed the calculation while maintaining accuracy are desirable. One factor that contributes to the solution time is the spatial flux shape approximation used. It is common practice to use the same order flux shape approximation in each energy group even though this method may not be the most efficient. The one-dimensional, two-energy group diffusion equation was solved, for the node average flux and core k-effective, using two sets of spatial shape approximations for each of three reactor types. A fourth-order approximation in both energy groups forms the first set of approximations used. The second set used combines a second-order approximation with a fourth-order approximation in energy group two. Comparison of the results from the two approximation sets show that the use of a different order spatial flux shape approximation results in considerable loss in accuracy for the pressurized water reactor modeled. However, the loss in accuracy is small for the heavy water and graphite reactors modeled. The use of different order approximations in each energy group produces mixed results. Further investigation into the accuracy and computing time is required before any quantitative advantage of the use of the second-order approximation in energy group one and the fourth-order approximation in energy group two can be determined

  4. 77 FR 50204 - Star Entertainment Group, Inc., Order of Suspension of Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] Star Entertainment Group, Inc., Order of... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Star Entertainment Group, Inc. (``Star Entertainment'') because of questions regarding the accuracy of the company's financial statements...

  5. Birth order and mortality in two ethno-linguistic groups: Register-based evidence from Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jan; Cederström, Agneta; Rostila, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has documented an association between birth order and suicide, although no study has examined whether it depends on the cultural context. Our aim was to study the association between birth order and cause-specific mortality in Finland, and whether it varies by ethno-linguistic affiliation. We used data from the Finnish population register, representing a 5% random sample of all Finnish speakers and a 20% random sample of Swedish speakers, who lived in Finland in any year 1987-2011. For each person, there was a link to all children who were alive in 1987. In total, there were 254,059 siblings in 96,387 sibling groups, and 9797 deaths. We used Cox regressions stratified by each siblings group and estimated all-cause and cause-specific mortality risks during the period 1987-2011. In line with previous research from Sweden, deaths from suicide were significantly associated with birth order. As compared to first-born, second-born had a suicide risk of 1.27, third-born of 1.35, and fourth- or higher-born of 1.72, while other causes of death did not display an evident and consistent birth-order pattern. Results for the Finnish-speaking siblings groups were almost identical to those based on both ethno-linguistic groups. In the Swedish-speaking siblings groups, there was no increase in the suicide risk by birth order, but a statistically not significant tendency towards an association with other external causes of death and deaths from cardiovascular diseases. Our findings provided evidence for an association between birth order and suicide among Finnish speakers in Finland, while no such association was found for Swedish speakers, suggesting that the birth order effect might depend on the cultural context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  7. Braving the Swarm: Lowering Anticipated Group Bias in Integrated Fire/Police Units Facing Paramilitary Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    application on an iPhone, transferred to a laptop, and transcribed from iTunes to a Microsoft Word document, and eventually collated on an Excel...of fire-bomb attacks on churches in Malaysia , Pakistan, and Iraq. During the Mumbai attacks, the police source said that the terrorists deliberately...storm in 1990 that threatened its national route hub in Louisville, Kentucky (Larsen, 2007, p. 205). Local employees could not make it to work after

  8. Generation of High-order Group-velocity-locked Vector Solitons

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, X. X.; Wu, Z. C.; Zhang, Q.; Li, L.; Tang, D. Y.; Shen, D. Y.; Fu, S. N.; Liu, D. M.; Zhao, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    We report numerical simulations on the high-order group-velocity-locked vector soliton (GVLVS) generation based on the fundamental GVLVS. The high-order GVLVS generated is characterized with a two-humped pulse along one polarization while a single-humped pulse along the orthogonal polarization. The phase difference between the two humps could be 180 degree. It is found that by appropriate setting the time separation between the two components of the fundamental GVLVS, the high-order GVLVS wit...

  9. Role of oxygen-containing functional groups in forest fire-generated and pyrolytic chars for immobilization of copper and nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandbod, Maryam; Merritt, Christopher R; Rashti, Mehran Rezaei; Singh, Balwant; Boyd, Sue E; Srivastava, Prashant; Brown, Christopher L; Butler, Orpheus M; Kookana, Rai S; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-01-01

    Char as a carbon-rich material, can be produced under pyrolytic conditions, wildfires or prescribed burn offs for fire management. The objective of this study was to elucidate mechanistic interactions of copper (Cu 2+ ) and nickel (Ni 2+ ) with different chars produced by pyrolysis (green waste, GW; blue-Mallee, BM) and forest fires (fresh-burnt by prescribed fire, FC; aged char produced by wild fire, AC). The pyrolytic chars were more effective sorbents of Cu 2+ (∼11 times) and Ni 2+ (∼5 times) compared with the forest fire chars. Both cross-polarization (CPMAS-NMR) and Bloch decay (BDMAS-NMR) 13 C NMR spectroscopies showed that forest fire chars have higher woody components (aromatic functional groups) and lower polar groups (e.g. O-alkyl C) compared with the pyrolytic chars. The polarity index was greater in the pyrolytic chars (0.99-1.34) than in the fire-generated chars (0.98-1.15), while aromaticity was lower in the former than in the latter. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopies indicated the binding of carbonate and phosphate with both Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ in all chars, but with a greater extent in pyrolytic than forest fire-generated chars. These findings have demonstrated the key role of char's oxygen-containing functional groups in determining their sorption capacity for the Cu 2+ and Ni 2+ in contaminated lands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Examination of changes in pathology tests ordered by Diagnosis-Related Group (DRGs) following CPOE introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio, Elia; Georgiou, Andrew; Toouli, George; Eigenstetter, Alex; Li, Ling; Wilson, Roger; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2013-01-01

    Electronic test ordering, via the Electronic Medical Record (EMR), which incorporates computerised provider order entry (CPOE), is widely considered as a useful tool to support appropriate pathology test ordering. Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are clinically meaningful categories that allow comparisons in pathology utilisation by patient groups by controlling for many potentially confounding variables. This study used DRG data linked to pathology test data to examine changes in rates of test ordering across four years coinciding with the introduction of an EMR in six hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. This method generated a list of high pathology utilisation DRGs. We investigated patients with a Chest pain DRG to examine whether tests rates changed for specific test groups by hospital emergency department (ED) pre- and post-EMR. There was little change in testing rates between EDs or between time periods pre- and post-EMR. This is a valuable method for monitoring the impact of EMR and clinical decision support on test order rates.

  11. Group theory for magnetic structure determination: Recent developments and quadrupolar ordering analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: sikora@novell.ftj.agh.edu.pl; Pytlik, L. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Bialas, F. [Nowy Sacz School of Busines-National Louis University, 33-300 Nowy Sacz (Poland); Malinowski, J. [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH-University of Science and Technology, al.Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)

    2007-09-13

    In this paper, the recent developments in practical applications of symmetry analysis are described. The theoretical basis shortly described in Section 1 has been implemented in several computer applications, one of which is the program 'MODY-win', developed by the authors of the paper. The program calculates the so-called basis vectors of irreducible representations of a given symmetry group, which can be used for calculation of possible ordering modes. Its practical application is demonstrated on some examples, presenting the recent aspects of using the symmetry analysis to description of various types of ordering encountered in solids. The scalar-type ordering (occupation probability) is discussed shortly for occupation of interstitial sites by hydrogen atoms in inter-metallic compounds. The description of vector ordering is demonstrated on the magnetic ordering modes, with special attention focused on the freedom that is left in the structure after imposing all the symmetry constraints. In practice, the final ordering mode usually contains some free parameters that cannot be determined from the symmetry itself. The last application presented in the paper is the description of quadrupolar ordering, recently found in some compounds of 4f (5f) elements. For the latter case, an additional advantage is demonstrated by calculation of possible displacements of neighboring atoms after the establishment of non-zero quadrupolar order parameter on the central atom.

  12. Topology of unitary groups and the prime orders of binomial coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, HaiBao; Lin, XianZu

    2017-09-01

    Let $c:SU(n)\\rightarrow PSU(n)=SU(n)/\\mathbb{Z}_{n}$ be the quotient map of the special unitary group $SU(n)$ by its center subgroup $\\mathbb{Z}_{n}$. We determine the induced homomorphism $c^{\\ast}:$ $H^{\\ast}(PSU(n))\\rightarrow H^{\\ast}(SU(n))$ on cohomologies by computing with the prime orders of binomial coefficients

  13. A Statistically-Hiding Integer Commitment Scheme Based on Groups with Hidden Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Fujisaki, Eiichiro

    2002-01-01

    We present a statistically-hiding commitment scheme allowing commitment to arbitrary size integers, based on any (Abelian) group with certain properties, most importantly, that it is hard for the committer to compute its order. We also give efficient zero-knowledge protocols for proving knowledge...... input is chosen by the (possibly cheating) prover. -  - Our results apply to any group with suitable properties. In particular, they apply to a much larger class of RSA moduli than the safe prime products proposed in [14] - Potential examples include RSA moduli, class groups and, with a slight...

  14. Radiative corrections to e+e- reactions to all orders in α using the renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Y.S.

    1983-01-01

    Renormalization group technique is used to improve the accuracy of the lowest order radiative corrections in QED. The exponentiation of infrared terms comes automatically. It also leads to exponentiation of the vertex functions. It predicts the existence of conversion of photons into pairs and the result agrees with the Kroll-Wada relation. Kinoshita-Lee-Nauenberg cancellation of mass singularities occurs to all order in α in leading log approximation in the final state if we sum over all the final states. Higher order corrections to the order α 3 asymmetry is shown to be small. The results are used to derive useful formulas for the radiative corrections to processes such as e + e - → μ + μ - , e + e - → μ + μ - γ, e + e - → hadron continuum, e + e - → very narrow resonance such as phi, and e + e - → not very narrow resonance such as Z 0

  15. Nonparametric Second-Order Theory of Error Propagation on Motion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunfeng; Chirikjian, Gregory S

    2008-01-01

    Error propagation on the Euclidean motion group arises in a number of areas such as in dead reckoning errors in mobile robot navigation and joint errors that accumulate from the base to the distal end of kinematic chains such as manipulators and biological macromolecules. We address error propagation in rigid-body poses in a coordinate-free way. In this paper we show how errors propagated by convolution on the Euclidean motion group, SE(3), can be approximated to second order using the theory of Lie algebras and Lie groups. We then show how errors that are small (but not so small that linearization is valid) can be propagated by a recursive formula derived here. This formula takes into account errors to second-order, whereas prior efforts only considered the first-order case. Our formulation is nonparametric in the sense that it will work for probability density functions of any form (not only Gaussians). Numerical tests demonstrate the accuracy of this second-order theory in the context of a manipulator arm and a flexible needle with bevel tip.

  16. The fire assay preconcentration of the platinum group elements for the neutron activation analysis of geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the work that has been carried out using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to develop a rapid and reliable method for the determination of the platinum group elements (PGE: Pt, Pd, Ir, Ru, Rh, and Os) and Au in geological, environmental and industrial samples. The method is based on the now established method of preconcentration with fire assay, followed by NAA of the separated PGE and Au. Recent developments have seen improvements in the technique to eliminate losses due to dissolution procedures, and complete recovery of the elements prior to analysis. The method is now being used to validate inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy methods for analysis of the PGE

  17. Oscilacije nagibnog sklopa oruđa pri opaljenju / Oscillation of elevating group on artillery weapon during firing test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Ristić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available U radu su opisane oscilacije nagibnog sklopa artiljerijskog oruđa koje nastaju pri opaljenju. Nagibni sklop prikazanje kao kruto telo sa jednim stepenom slobode kretanja (rotacija u vertikalnoj ravni. Model oscilovanja upoređenje sa eksperimentalnim rezultatima realnog modela oscilovanja oruđa (oscilacije nagibnog sklopa sa više stepeni slobode kretanja. Date su razlike između proračunskog i realnog modela oscilovanja i analiza njihovih parametara. / The oscillation of elevating group on artillery weapon during firing test are described in this paper. The elevation group is represented a rigid body of DOF (rotation in vertical plane. The model oscillation is compared -with the experimental results of real model oscillation (oscillations of elevating group with more degrees of freedom. A difference sizes among simplify and real model oscillation are given, and some of their parameters are analyzed.

  18. Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...... functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost....

  19. Thermal stability and molecular ordering of organic semiconductor monolayers: effect of an anchor group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew O F; Knauer, Philipp; Resel, Roland; Ringk, Andreas; Strohriegl, Peter; Werzer, Oliver; Sferrazza, Michele

    2015-06-08

    The thermal stability and molecular order in monolayers of two organic semiconductors, PBI-PA and PBI-alkyl, based on perylene derivatives with an identical molecular structure except for an anchor group for attachment to the substrate in PBI-PA, are reported. In situ X-ray reflectivity measurements are used to follow the stability of these monolayers in terms of order and thickness as temperature is increased. Films have thicknesses corresponding approximately to the length of one molecule; molecules stand upright on the substrate with a defined structure. PBI-PA monolayers have a high degree of order at room temperature and a stable film exists up to 250 °C, but decomposes rapidly above 300 °C. In contrast, stable physisorbed PBI-alkyl monolayers only exist up to 100 °C. Above the bulk melting point at 200 °C no more order exists. The results encourage using anchor groups in monolayers for various applications as it allows enhanced stability at the interface with the substrate. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. FRANX. Application for analysis and quantification of the APS fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snchez, A.; Osorio, F.; Ontoso, N.

    2014-01-01

    The FRANX application has been developed by EPRI within the Risk and Reliability User Group in order to facilitate the process of quantification and updating APS Fire (also covers floods and earthquakes). By applying fire scenarios are quantified in the central integrating the tasks performed during the APS fire. This paper describes the main features of the program to allow quantification of an APS Fire. (Author)

  1. The Interaction Between Control Rods as Estimated by Second-Order One-Group Perturbation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-10-01

    The interaction effect between control rods is an important problem for the reactivity control of a reactor. The approach of second order one-group perturbation theory is shown to be attractive due to its simplicity. Formulas are derived for the fully inserted control rods in a bare reactor. For a single rod we introduce a correction parameter b, which with good approximation is proportional to the strength of the absorber. For two and more rods we introduce an interaction function g(r ij ), which is assumed to depend only on the distance r ij between the rods. The theoretical expressions are correlated with the results of several experiments in R0, ZEBRA and the Aagesta reactor, as well as with more sophisticated calculations. The approximate formulas are found to give quite good agreement with exact values, but in the case of about 8 or more rods higher-order effects are likely to be important

  2. The Interaction Between Control Rods as Estimated by Second-Order One-Group Perturbation Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Rolf

    1966-10-15

    The interaction effect between control rods is an important problem for the reactivity control of a reactor. The approach of second order one-group perturbation theory is shown to be attractive due to its simplicity. Formulas are derived for the fully inserted control rods in a bare reactor. For a single rod we introduce a correction parameter b, which with good approximation is proportional to the strength of the absorber. For two and more rods we introduce an interaction function g(r{sub ij}), which is assumed to depend only on the distance r{sub ij} between the rods. The theoretical expressions are correlated with the results of several experiments in R0, ZEBRA and the Aagesta reactor, as well as with more sophisticated calculations. The approximate formulas are found to give quite good agreement with exact values, but in the case of about 8 or more rods higher-order effects are likely to be important.

  3. Discrete gravity as a local theory of the Poincare group in the first-order formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gionti, Gabriele [Vatican Observatory Research Group, Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Specola Vaticana, V-00120 Citta Del Vaticano (Vatican City State, Holy See,)

    2005-10-21

    A discrete theory of gravity, locally invariant under the Poincare group, is considered as in a companion paper. We define a first-order theory, in the sense of Palatini, on the metric-dual Voronoi complex of a simplicial complex. We follow the same spirit as the continuum theory of general relativity in the Cartan formalism. The field equations are carefully derived taking in account the constraints of the theory. They look very similar to first-order Einstein continuum equations in the Cartan formalism. It is shown that in the limit of small deficit angles these equations have Regge calculus, locally, as the only solution. A quantum measure is easily defined which does not suffer the ambiguities of Regge calculus, and a coupling with fermionic matter is easily introduced.

  4. Discrete gravity as a local theory of the Poincare group in the first-order formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gionti, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    A discrete theory of gravity, locally invariant under the Poincare group, is considered as in a companion paper. We define a first-order theory, in the sense of Palatini, on the metric-dual Voronoi complex of a simplicial complex. We follow the same spirit as the continuum theory of general relativity in the Cartan formalism. The field equations are carefully derived taking in account the constraints of the theory. They look very similar to first-order Einstein continuum equations in the Cartan formalism. It is shown that in the limit of small deficit angles these equations have Regge calculus, locally, as the only solution. A quantum measure is easily defined which does not suffer the ambiguities of Regge calculus, and a coupling with fermionic matter is easily introduced

  5. 12G: code for conversion of isotope-ordered cross-section libraries into group-ordered cross-section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnik, W.M. II; Bosler, G.E.

    1977-09-01

    Many current reactor physics codes accept cross-section libraries in an isotope-ordered form, convert them with internal preprocessing routines to a group-ordered form, and then perform calculations using these group-ordered data. Occasionally, because of storage and time limitations, the preprocessing routines in these codes cannot convert very large multigroup isotope-ordered libraries. For this reason, the I2G code, i.e., ISOTXS to GRUPXS, was written to convert externally isotope-ordered cross section libraries in the standard file format called ISOTXS to group-ordered libraries in the standard format called GRUPXS. This code uses standardized multilevel data management routines which establish a strategy for the efficient conversion of large libraries. The I2G code is exportable contingent on access to, and an intimate familiarization with, the multilevel routines. These routines are machine dependent, and therefore must be provided by the importing facility. 6 figures, 3 tables

  6. Lie group classification of first-order delay ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir A.; Kozlov, Roman; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Winternitz, Pavel

    2018-05-01

    A group classification of first-order delay ordinary differential equations (DODEs) accompanied by an equation for the delay parameter (delay relation) is presented. A subset of such systems (delay ordinary differential systems or DODSs), which consists of linear DODEs and solution-independent delay relations, have infinite-dimensional symmetry algebras—as do nonlinear ones that are linearizable by an invertible transformation of variables. Genuinely nonlinear DODSs have symmetry algebras of dimension n, . It is shown how exact analytical solutions of invariant DODSs can be obtained using symmetry reduction.

  7. Renormalization group improved bottom mass from {Upsilon} sum rules at NNLL order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Andre H.; Stahlhofen, Maximilian [Wien Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Ruiz-Femenia, Pedro [Wien Univ. (Austria). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Valencia Univ. - CSIC (Spain). IFIC

    2012-09-15

    We determine the bottom quark mass from non-relativistic large-n {Upsilon} sum rules with renormalization group improvement at next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic order. We compute the theoretical moments within the vNRQCD formalism and account for the summation of powers of the Coulomb singularities as well as of logarithmic terms proportional to powers of {alpha}{sub s} ln(n). The renormalization group improvement leads to a substantial stabilization of the theoretical moments compared to previous fixed-order analyses, which did not account for the systematic treatment of the logarithmic {alpha}{sub s} ln(n) terms, and allows for reliable single moment fits. For the current world average of the strong coupling ({alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z})=0.1183{+-}0.0010) we obtain M{sub b}{sup 1S}=4.755{+-}0.057{sub pert} {+-}0.009{sub {alpha}{sub s}}{+-}0.003{sub exp} GeV for the bottom 1S mass and anti m{sub b}(anti m{sub b})=4.235{+-}0.055{sub pert}{+-}0.003{sub exp} GeV for the bottom MS mass, where we have quoted the perturbative error and the uncertainties from the strong coupling and the experimental data.

  8. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of a nickel sulfide fire assay button to determine the platinum group elements and gold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asif, M.; Parry, S.J.; Malik, H. (Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Silwood Park, Ascot (United Kingdom). Centre for Analytical Research in the Environment)

    1992-08-01

    Platinum group elements and gold were determined in reference materials SARM 7 and MA 1b using fire assay with 0.5 g of nickel prior to neutron activation analysis. The method is simple and rapid, avoiding the dissolution step where losses occur, particularly of gold. The problem of standardizing the button mass was overcome by using a spiking technique. The method is best suited to samples with little or no copper, when the detection limits can be as low as 0.002, 0.025, 0.018, 0.0002, 0.002, 0.020 and 0.2 mg kg[sup -1] for Rh, Pd, Pt, Ir, Au, Os and Ru, respectively. (author).

  9. Towards the Development of a Second-Order Approximation in Activity Coefficient Models Based on Group Contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Constantinou, Leonidas; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A simple modification of group contribution based models for estimation of liquid phase activity coefficients is proposed. The main feature of this modification is that contributions estimated from the present first-order groups in many instances are found insufficient since the first-order groups...... correlation/prediction capabilities, distinction between isomers and ability to overcome proximity effects....

  10. Progress Report Phase I: Use, access, and fire/fuels management attitudes and preferences of user groups concerning the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt F. Anschuetz; Carol B. Raish

    2010-01-01

    This document represents a progress report of activities completed during Phase I of the study titled, Use, Access, and Fire/Fuels Management Attitudes and Preferences of User Groups Concerning the Valles Caldera National Preserve (VCNP) and Adjacent Areas, and the preliminary findings of this work.

  11. Fire safety requirements for electrical cables towards nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electrical power supply forms a very important part of any nuclear reactor. Power supplies have been categorized in to class I, II, III and IV from reliability point. The safety related equipment are provided with highly reliable power supply to achieve the safety of very high order. Vast network of cables in a nuclear reactor are grouped and segregated to ensure availability of power to at least one group under all anticipated occurrences. Since fire can result in failures leading to unavailability of power caused by common cause, both passive and active fire protection methods are adopted in addition to fire detection system. The paper describes the requirement for passive fire protection to electrical cables viz. fire barrier and fire breaks. The paper gives an account of the tests required to standardize the products. Fire safety implementation for cables in research reactors is described

  12. Simulation of a coal-fired power plant using mathematical programming algorithms in order to optimize its efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzolakis, G.; Papanikolaou, P.; Kolokotronis, D.; Samaras, N.; Tourlidakis, A.; Tomboulides, A.

    2012-01-01

    Since most of the world's electric energy production is mainly based on fossil fuels and need for better efficiency of the energy conversion systems is imminent, mathematical programming algorithms were applied for the simulation and optimization of a detailed model of an existing lignite-fired power plant in Kozani, Greece (KARDIA IV). The optimization of its overall thermal efficiency, using as control variables the mass flow rates of the steam turbine extractions and the fuel consumption, was performed with the use of the simulation and optimization software gPROMS. The power plant components' mathematical models were imported in software by the authors and the results showed that further increase to the overall thermal efficiency of the plant can be achieved (a 0.55% absolute increase) through reduction of the HP turbine's and increase of the LP turbine's extractions mass flow rates and the parallel reduction of the fuel consumption by 2.05% which also results to an equivalent reduction of the greenhouse gasses. The setup of the mathematical model and the flexibility of gPROMS, make this software applicable to various power plants. - Highlights: ► Modeling and simulation of the flue gases circuit of a specific plant. ► Designing of modules in gPROMS FO (Foreign Objects). ► Simulation of the complete detailed plant with gPROMS. ► Optimization using a non-linear optimization algorithm of the plant's efficiency.

  13. Brain order disorder 2nd group report of f-EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Francois; Gogtay, Nitin; Giedd, Jay; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Brown, David; Tran, Binh Q.; Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming-Kai; Cha, Jae; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Ma, Lien; Willey, Jefferson; Wu, Jerry; Oh, Kenneth; Landa, Joseph; Lin, C. T.; Jung, T. P.; Makeig, Scott; Morabito, Carlo Francesco; Moon, Qyu; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Lee, Soo-Young; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Szu, Harold H.; Kaur, Balvinder; Byrd, Kenneth; Dang, Karen; Krzywicki, Alan; Familoni, Babajide O.; Larson, Louis; Harkrider, Susan; Krapels, Keith A.; Dai, Liyi

    2014-05-01

    Since the Brain Order Disorder (BOD) group reported on a high density Electroencephalogram (EEG) to capture the neuronal information using EEG to wirelessly interface with a Smartphone [1,2], a larger BOD group has been assembled, including the Obama BRAIN program, CUA Brain Computer Interface Lab and the UCSD Swartz Computational Neuroscience Center. We can implement the pair-electrodes correlation functions in order to operate in a real time daily environment, which is of the computation complexity of O(N3) for N=102~3 known as functional f-EEG. The daily monitoring requires two areas of focus. Area #(1) to quantify the neuronal information flow under arbitrary daily stimuli-response sources. Approach to #1: (i) We have asserted that the sources contained in the EEG signals may be discovered by an unsupervised learning neural network called blind sources separation (BSS) of independent entropy components, based on the irreversible Boltzmann cellular thermodynamics(ΔS function. (i) Although the entropy itself is not the information per se, but the concurrence of the entropy sources is the information flow as a functional-EEG, sketched in this 2nd BOD report. Area #(2) applying EEG bio-feedback will improve collective decision making (TBD). Approach to #2: We introduce a novel performance quality metrics, in terms of the throughput rate of faster (Δt) & more accurate (ΔA) decision making, which applies to individual, as well as team brain dynamics. Following Nobel Laureate Daniel Kahnmen's novel "Thinking fast and slow", through the brainwave biofeedback we can first identify an individual's "anchored cognitive bias sources". This is done in order to remove the biases by means of individually tailored pre-processing. Then the training effectiveness can be maximized by the collective product Δt * ΔA. For Area #1, we compute a spatiotemporally windowed EEG in vitro average using adaptive time-window sampling. The sampling rate depends on the type of neuronal

  14. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  15. A new class of group field theories for 1st order discrete quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oriti, D.; Tlas, T.

    2008-01-01

    Group Field Theories, a generalization of matrix models for 2d gravity, represent a 2nd quantization of both loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity. In this paper, we construct a new class of Group Field Theory models, for any choice of spacetime dimension and signature, whose Feynman

  16. Equipping tomorrow's fire manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Dicus

    2008-01-01

    Fire managers are challenged with an ever-increasing array of both responsibilities and critics. As in the past, fire managers must master the elements of fire behavior and ecology using the latest technologies. In addition, today’s managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group of vocal stakeholders while also...

  17. FIRE-PRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterfall, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM), is a service company in the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies who provides services worldwide (outside of the USA) to Shell Operating Companies. It has defined and recommended for implementation by Shell Companies a policy on safety (Enhanced Safety Management policy) to manage the total safety aspects of all they do, including the design, engineering, installation and operation of their facilities worldwide. This policy affects all activities in such a way as to avoid harm to health of, or injury to employees and others as well as avoiding damage to property. This in turn reflects through specific policies and standards for investment strategy, engineering and operations of facilities. With average Group losses due to major fires and explosion (for each incident over Brit-pounds 100,000) between 1988 and 1990 being of the order of Brit-pounds 28 million, there is an obvious potential to effectively employ fire protection criteria in design. However, Shell need to ensure the cost-effective application of protective measures, but first and foremost it is essential not to jeopardize life or risk damage to the environment. FIRE-PRAN has the possibility to do this efficiently as it is A systematic team approach for identification of all potential fire and explosion hazards and consequences, and a means for developing optimal means of protection for all types of facilities. It should thus be considered as an auditing technique, but one that fits into the overall safe management of activities. This paper discusses the status of development of the FIRE-PRAN technique following its successful application over a number of years to a variety of equipment and installations

  18. The construction of arbitrary order ERKN methods based on group theory for solving oscillatory Hamiltonian systems with applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Lijie, E-mail: bxhanm@126.com; Wu, Xinyuan, E-mail: xywu@nju.edu.cn

    2016-10-15

    In general, extended Runge–Kutta–Nyström (ERKN) methods are more effective than traditional Runge–Kutta–Nyström (RKN) methods in dealing with oscillatory Hamiltonian systems. However, the theoretical analysis for ERKN methods, such as the order conditions, the symplectic conditions and the symmetric conditions, becomes much more complicated than that for RKN methods. Therefore, it is a bottleneck to construct high-order ERKN methods efficiently. In this paper, we first establish the ERKN group Ω for ERKN methods and the RKN group G for RKN methods, respectively. We then rigorously show that ERKN methods are a natural extension of RKN methods, that is, there exists an epimorphism η of the ERKN group Ω onto the RKN group G. This epimorphism gives a global insight into the structure of the ERKN group by the analysis of its kernel and the corresponding RKN group G. Meanwhile, we establish a particular mapping φ of G into Ω so that each image element is an ideal representative element of the congruence class in Ω. Furthermore, an elementary theoretical analysis shows that this map φ can preserve many structure-preserving properties, such as the order, the symmetry and the symplecticity. From the epimorphism η together with its section φ, we may gain knowledge about the structure of the ERKN group Ω via the RKN group G. In light of the theoretical analysis of this paper, we obtain high-order structure-preserving ERKN methods in an effective way for solving oscillatory Hamiltonian systems. Numerical experiments are carried out and the results are very promising, which strongly support our theoretical analysis presented in this paper.

  19. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  20. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  1. Assessing and grouping chemicals applying partial ordering Alkyl anilines as an illustrative example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer

    2018-06-03

    In chemistry there is a long tradition in classification. Usually methods are adopted from the wide field of cluster analysis. Here, based on the example of 21 alkyl anilines we show that also concepts taken out from the mathematical discipline of partially ordered sets may also be applied. The chemical compounds are described by a multi-indicator system. For the present study four indicators, mainly taken from the field of environmental chemistry were applied and a Hasse diagram was constructed. A Hasse diagram is an acyclic, transitively reduced, triangle free graph that may have several components. The crucial question is, whether or not the Hasse diagram can be interpreted from a structural chemical point of view. This is indeed the case, but it must be clearly stated that a guarantee for meaningful results in general cannot be given. For that further theoretical work is needed. Two cluster analysis methods are applied (K-means and a hierarchical cluster method). In both cases the partitioning of the set of 21 compounds by the component structure of the Hasse diagram appears to be better interpretable. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  3. Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated

  4. Renormalization group for centrosymmetric gauge transformations of the dynamic motion for a Markov-ordered polymer chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, I.D.; Zhuravskii, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    A method is proposed for calculating the vibrational-state density averaged over all configurations for a polymer chain with Markov disorder. The method is based on using a group of centrally symmetric gauge transformations that reduce the dynamic matrix for along polymer chain to renormalized dynamic matrices for short fragments. The short-range order is incorporated exactly in the averaging procedure, while the long-range order is incorporated in the self-consistent field approximation. Results are given for a simple skeletal model for a polymer containing tacticity deviations of Markov type

  5. Study on the Post-Fire Safe-Shutdown Analysis for CANDU NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Hwan; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to study a method of the Post-Fire Safe-Shutdown Analysis in order to apply to CANDU NPPs when one group of the Safety Structures, Systems and Components(SCCs) is failed by Fire. The purpose of Fire Protection is prevention, suppression of the fire and mitigation of the effect on the Nuclear Safety. When fire takes place at the Nuclear Power Plants(NPPs), the reactor should achieve and maintain safe shut-down condition and minimize radioactive material release to an environment. The purpose of the Post-Fire SSA process is an evaluation process during a fire at NPPs. At this study, the process was conceptually adopted for control room complex of CANDU NPPs. The Core Damage Frequency of the Reactor will be evaluated more accurately if the SSA is adopted adequately at a fire.

  6. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  7. Age-related differences in functional nodes of the brain cortex - a high model order group ICA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Littow

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional MRI measured with blood oxygen dependent (BOLD contrast in the absence of intermittent tasks reflects spontaneous activity of so called resting state networks (RSN of the brain. Group level independent component analysis (ICA of BOLD data can separate the human brain cortex into 42 independent RSNs. In this study we evaluated age related effects from primary motor and sensory, and, higher level control RSNs. 168 healthy subjects were scanned and divided into three groups: 55 adolescents (ADO, 13.2 ± 2.4 yrs, 59 young adults (YA, 22.2 ± 0.6yrs , and 54 older adults (OA, 42.7 ± 0.5 yrs, all with normal IQ. High model order group probabilistic ICA components (70 were calculated and dual regression analysis was used to compare 21 RSN’s spatial differences between groups. The power spectra were derived from individual ICA mixing matrix time series of the group analyses for frequency domain analysis. We show that primary sensory and motor networks tend to alter more in younger age groups, whereas associative and higher level cognitive networks consolidate and re-arrange until older adulthood. The change has a common trend: both spatial extent and the low frequency power of the RSN’s reduce with increasing age. We interpret these result as a sign of normal pruning via focusing of activity to less distributed local hubs.

  8. 36 CFR 261.52 - Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire. 261.52 Section 261.52... in Areas Designated by Order § 261.52 Fire. When provided by an order, the following are prohibited: (a) Building, maintaining, attending or using a fire, campfire, or stove fire. (b) Using an explosive...

  9. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic tool to actual plants, With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and oil fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena, Trial simulation of fire hazard as Metal-Clad Switch Gear Fire of ONAGAWA NPP in Tohoku earthquake (HEAF accident). (author)

  10. Orientation and Order of the Amide Group of Sphingomyelin in Bilayers Determined by Solid-State NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumori, Nobuaki; Yamaguchi, Toshiyuki; Maeta, Yoshiko; Murata, Michio

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol (Chol) are considered essential for the formation of lipid rafts; however, the types of molecular interactions involved in this process, such as intermolecular hydrogen bonding, are not well understood. Since, unlike other phospholipids, SM is characterized by the presence of an amide group, it is essential to determine the orientation of the amide and its order in the lipid bilayers to understand the nature of the hydrogen bonds in lipid rafts. For this study, 1′-13C-2-15N-labeled and 2′-13C-2-15N-labeled SMs were prepared, and the rotational-axis direction and order parameters of the SM amide in bilayers were determined based on 13C and 15N chemical-shift anisotropies and intramolecular 13C-15N dipole coupling constants. Results revealed that the amide orientation was minimally affected by Chol, whereas the order was enhanced significantly in its presence. Thus, Chol likely promotes the formation of an intermolecular hydrogen-bond network involving the SM amide without significantly changing its orientation, providing a higher order to the SM amide. To our knowledge, this study offers new insight into the significance of the SM amide orientation with regard to molecular recognition in lipid rafts, and therefore provides a deeper understanding of the mechanism of their formation. PMID:26083921

  11. Groups of integral transforms generated by Lie algebras of second-and higher-order differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, S.; Wolf, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    The authors study the construction and action of certain Lie algebras of second- and higher-order differential operators on spaces of solutions of well-known parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic linear differential equations. The latter include the N-dimensional quadratic quantum Hamiltonian Schroedinger equations, the one-dimensional heat and wave equations and the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation. In one approach, the usual similarity first-order differential operator algebra of the equation is embedded in the larger one, which appears as a quantum-mechanical dynamic algebra. In a second approach, the new algebra is built as the time evolution of a finite-transformation algebra on the initial conditions. In a third approach, the algebra to inhomogeneous similarity algebra is deformed to a noncompact classical one. In every case, we can integrate the algebra to a Lie group of integral transforms acting effectively on the solution space of the differential equation. (author)

  12. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  13. FRANX. Application for analysis and quantification of the APS fire; FRANK. Aplicacion para el analisis y cuantificacion de los APS de incendios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snchez, A.; Osorio, F.; Ontoso, N.

    2014-07-01

    The FRANX application has been developed by EPRI within the Risk and Reliability User Group in order to facilitate the process of quantification and updating APS Fire (also covers floods and earthquakes). By applying fire scenarios are quantified in the central integrating the tasks performed during the APS fire. This paper describes the main features of the program to allow quantification of an APS Fire. (Author)

  14. Short-range order in alloys of nickel with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, F.A.

    1981-08-01

    Experimental measurements of the diffuse X-ray scattering intensity were performed on alloys of Ni with Rh and Os. The atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters αsub(i) and the size-effect parameters βsub(i) were calculated from these measurements. It is established that SRO and size-effect exist in Ni-Rh and Ni-Os alloys analogously as in a few other alloys of Ni with the elements of group VIII of the periodic table. The experimental data was interpreted theoretically by calculating the interaction energies from the pseudo-potentials and the effective valencies of the individual components of the systems studied. It was found that theoretically calculated values of the interaction energies for these alloys are inconsistent with the experimentally determined sign of the SRO parameter. (author)

  15. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  16. COMPUTATIONAL SIMULATION OF FIRE DEVELOPMENT INSIDE A TRADE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin LUPU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Real scale fire experiments involve considerable costs compared to computational mathematical modelling. This paperwork is the result of such a virtual simulation of a fire occurred in a hypothetical wholesale warehouse comprising a large number of trade stands. The analysis starts from the ignition source located inside a trade stand towards the fire expansion over three groups of compartments, by highlighting the heat transfer, both in small spaces, as well as over large distances. In order to confirm the accuracy of the simulation, the obtained values are compared to the ones from the specialized literature.

  17. Manual fire fighting tactics at Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Moon, Chan Kook

    2012-01-01

    The general requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plant (NPP) are fire protection program, fire hazard analysis, and fire prevention features. In addition, specific fire protection requirements such as water supplies, fire detection, fire protection of safe related equipment, and safe shutdown capabilities must be provided. Particularly, manual fire fighting is required as specific requirements with the provisions to secure manual fire suppression, fire brigade and its training, and administrative controls for manual fire fighting. If a fire is alarmed and confirmed to be a real fire, the fire brigade must take manual fire fighting activities as requested at fire protection program. According to the present requirements in itself, there is not any specific manual fire fighting ways or practical strategies. In general, fire zones or compartments at NPPs are built in a confined condition. In theory, the fire condition will change from a combustible-controlled fire to a ventilation-governing fire with the time duration. In case of pool fire with the abundant oxygen and flammable liquid, it can take just a few minutes for the flash-over to occur. For the well-confined fire zone, it will change from a flame fire to a smoldering state before the entrance door is opened by the fire brigade. In this context, the manual fire fighting activities must be based on a quantitative analysis and a fire risk evaluation. At this paper, it was suggested that the fire zones at NPPs should be grouped on the inherent functions and fire characteristics. Based on the fire risk characteristics and the fire zone grouping, the manual fire fighting tactics are suggested as an advanced fire fighting solution

  18. Overview of the 2013 FireFlux II grass fire field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.B. Clements; B. Davis; D. Seto; J. Contezac; A. Kochanski; J.-B. Fillipi; N. Lareau; B. Barboni; B. Butler; S. Krueger; R. Ottmar; R. Vihnanek; W.E. Heilman; J. Flynn; M.A. Jenkins; J. Mandel; C. Teske; D. Jimenez; J. O' Brien; B. Lefer

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the dynamics of fire-atmosphere interactions and the role of micrometeorology on fire behaviour the FireFlux campaign was conducted in 2006 on a coastal tall-grass prairie in southeast Texas, USA. The FireFlux campaign dataset has become the international standard for evaluating coupled fire-atmosphere model systems. While FireFlux is one...

  19. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  20. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  1. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  2. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  3. Improvement of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Improvements of fire protection measures for nuclear power plants were performed as following items: Development of fire hazard analysis method. Application of developed Fire Dynamic Tool to actual plants (FDT{sup S}), With regard to fire tests for the fire data acquisition, cable fire test and High Energy Arcing Faults (HEAF) fire test were performed. Implementation of fire hazard analysis code and simulation were performed as following items: Fire analysis codes FDS, SYLVIA, and CFAST were implemented in order to analyze the fire progression phenomena. Trial simulation of HEAF accident of Onagawa NPP in Tohoku earthquake. (author)

  4. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  5. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  6. Impact of fires on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.; Zmajkovic, I.

    1990-01-01

    Factors which are relevant with respect to fire hazard are summarized based on Revision 1 of IAEA Safety Guide No. 50-SG-D2, ''Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants'', of 1990. They include data acquisition, quantification of fire risks, assessment of adequacy of fire protection measures, modification of the fire protection system proposed. According to the above document, fire hazard analysis should define and document those parts of the fire protection system that must be present in order to secure safe operation of the nuclear power plant. (Z.M.). 2 appendices, 4 refs

  7. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  8. Fuzzy forecasting based on two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups and the probabilities of trends of fuzzy logical relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Chen, Shen-Wen

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for fuzzy forecasting based on two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups and the probabilities of trends of fuzzy-trend logical relationships. Firstly, the proposed method fuzzifies the historical training data of the main factor and the secondary factor into fuzzy sets, respectively, to form two-factors second-order fuzzy logical relationships. Then, it groups the obtained two-factors second-order fuzzy logical relationships into two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups. Then, it calculates the probability of the "down-trend," the probability of the "equal-trend" and the probability of the "up-trend" of the two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationships in each two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship group, respectively. Finally, it performs the forecasting based on the probabilities of the down-trend, the equal-trend, and the up-trend of the two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationships in each two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship group. We also apply the proposed method to forecast the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index (TAIEX) and the NTD/USD exchange rates. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods.

  9. Effect of Solution Focused Group Counseling for High School Students in Order to Struggle with School Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of solution focused group counseling upon high school students struggling with school burnout was analyzed. The research was an experimental study in which a pre-test post-test control group random design was used, depending upon the real experimental model. The study group included 30 students that volunteered from…

  10. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  11. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-01-01

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met

  12. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  13. 77 FR 73655 - Epic Marketplace, Inc., and Epic Media Group, LLC; Analysis of Proposed Consent Order To Aid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... action or make final the agreement's proposed order. Epic Marketplace, Inc. (``Epic'') is an advertising company that engages in online behavioral advertising, which is the practice of tracking a consumer's online activities in order to deliver advertising targeted to the consumer's interests. Epic is a wholly...

  14. Characterization of potential fire regimes: applying landscape ecology to fire management in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardel, E.; Alvarado, E.; Perez-Salicrup, D.; Morfín-Rios, J.

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge and understanding of fire regimes is fundamental to design sound fire management practices. The high ecosystem diversity of Mexico offers a great challenge to characterize the fire regime variation at the landscape level. A conceptual model was developed considering the main factors controlling fire regimes: climate and vegetation cover. We classified landscape units combining bioclimatic zones from the Holdridge life-zone system and actual vegetation cover. Since bioclimatic conditions control primary productivity and biomass accumulation (potential fuel), each landscape unit was considered as a fuel bed with a particular fire intensity and behavior potential. Climate is also a determinant factor of post-fire recovery rates of fuel beds, and climate seasonality (length of the dry and wet seasons) influences fire probability (available fuel and ignition efficiency). These two factors influence potential fire frequency. Potential fire severity can be inferred from fire frequency, fire intensity and behavior, and vegetation composition and structure. Based in the conceptual model, an exhaustive literature review and expert opinion, we developed rules to assign a potential fire regime (PFR) defined by frequency, intensity and severity (i.e. fire regime) to each bioclimatic-vegetation landscape unit. Three groups and eight types of potential fire regimes were identified. In Group A are fire-prone ecosystems with frequent low severity surface fires in grasslands (PFR type I) or forests with long dry season (II) and infrequent high-severity fires in chaparral (III), wet temperate forests (IV, fire restricted by humidity), and dry temperate forests (V, fire restricted by fuel recovery rate). Group B includes fire-reluctant ecosystems with very infrequent or occasional mixed severity surface fires limited by moisture in tropical rain forests (VI) or fuel availability in seasonally dry tropical forests (VII). Group C and PFR VIII include fire-free environments

  15. Exploratory analysis of methods for automated classification of laboratory test orders into syndromic groups in veterinary medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C Dórea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes--syndromic surveillance--using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. METHODS: This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. RESULTS: High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995 was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F(1-macro, due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight. A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F(1-micro= 0.994 and F(1-macro = .955, however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. CONCLUSION: The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish

  16. Fuzzy forecasting based on two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups and particle swarm optimization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyi-Ming; Manalu, Gandhi Maruli Tua; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liu, Hsiang-Chuan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a new method for fuzzy forecasting based on two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups and particle swarm optimization (PSO) techniques. First, we fuzzify the historical training data of the main factor and the secondary factor, respectively, to form two-factors second-order fuzzy logical relationships. Then, we group the two-factors second-order fuzzy logical relationships into two-factors second-order fuzzy-trend logical relationship groups. Then, we obtain the optimal weighting vector for each fuzzy-trend logical relationship group by using PSO techniques to perform the forecasting. We also apply the proposed method to forecast the Taiwan Stock Exchange Capitalization Weighted Stock Index and the NTD/USD exchange rates. The experimental results show that the proposed method gets better forecasting performance than the existing methods.

  17. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  18. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  19. Life after the pan and the fire: Depression, order, attachment, and the legacy of abuse among North Korean refugee youth and adolescent children of North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Lee, Jung Yun; Kang, Chulhee

    2015-07-01

    Given previous research on depression, history of physical abuse, family order, attachment, and parenting, we hypothesized that the physical abuse-depression relationship would be moderated by (a) family order and (b) attachment, and that (c) attachment and family order would interact significantly in predicting depression. Hypotheses were tested in South Korea in a random cluster sample of 82 youth aged 15-25 who were either themselves North Korean refugees (n=39) or who were born to North Korean refugee mothers in China (n=43). A qualitative interview was used to shed further light on the findings. Family order appears to be a protective factor against depression in that more order is associated with a weakened past abuse-depression relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Introduction-2nd Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference: The fire environment-innovations, management, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne Cook; Bret W. Butler

    2007-01-01

    The 2nd Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference: Fire Environment -- Innovations, Management and Policy was held in Destin, FL, March 26-30, 2007. Following on the success of the 1st Fire Behavior and Fuels Conference, this conference was initiated in response to the needs of the National Wildfire Coordinating Group -- Fire Environment Working Team.

  1. Fire Hazards Analysis for the Inactive Equipment Storage Sprung Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MYOTT, C.F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objective of DOE Order 5480.1A are met. The order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved

  2. Spectral data for a pair of matrices of order three and an action of the group GL(2,Z)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretin, Yurii A

    2011-01-01

    We consider the 10-dimensional complex space whose points are cubic curves on the projective complex plane with three marked points. The triples of marked points on the curve are defined up to equivalence of divisors. We construct a natural action of the group GL(2,Z) on this space.

  3. Ordered self-assembled monolayers terminated with different chemical functional groups direct neural stem cell linage behaviours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Shenglian; Liu, Xi; He, Jin; Wang, Xiumei; Wang, Ying; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have been a promising candidate for stem cell-based nerve tissue regeneration. Therefore, the design of idea biomaterials that deliver precise regulatory signals to control stem cell fate is currently a crucial issue that depends on a profound understanding of the interactions between NSCs with the surrounding micro-environment. In this work, self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold with different chemical groups, including hydroxyl (−OH), amino (−NH 2 ), carboxyl (−COOH) and methyl (−CH 3 ), were used as a simple model to study the effects of surface chemistry on NSC fate decisions. Contact angle measurement and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) examination implied that all types of alkanethiols self-assembled on gold into a close-packed phase structure with similar molecular densities. In this study, we evaluated NSC adhesion, migration and differentiation in response to different chemical functional groups cultured under serum-free conditions. Our studies showed that NSCs exhibited certain phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to surface chemical groups. Compared with other functional groups, the SAMs with hydroxyl end-groups provided the best micro-environment in promoting NSC migration and maintaining an undifferentiated or neuronal differentiation state.  −NH 2 surfaces directed neural stem cells into astrocytic lineages, while NSCs on  −COOH and  −CH 3 surfaces had a similar potency to differentiate into three nerve lineages. To further investigate the possible signaling pathway, the gene expression of integrin β1 and β4 were examined. The results indicated that a high expression of β1 integrin would probably have a tight correlation with the expression of nestin, which implied the stemness of NSCs, while β4 integrin seemed to correspond to the differentiated NSCs. The results presented here give useful information for the future design of biomaterials to regulate the preservation

  4. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  5. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  6. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of burnt areas time series in Mediterranean regions suggests that ecosystems characterising this area consist primarily of species highly vulnerable to the fire but highly resilient, as characterized by a significant regenerative capacity after the fire spreading. In a few years the area burnt may once again be covered by the same vegetation present before the fire. Similarly, Mediterranean conifer forests, which often refers to plantations made in order to reforest the areas most severely degraded with high erosion risk, regenerate from seed after the fire resulting in high resilience to the fire as well. Only rarely, and usually with negligible damages, fire affects the areas covered by climax species in relation with altitude and soil types (i.e, quercus, fagus, abies). On the basis of these results, this paper shows how the simple Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is able to reproduce the forest fire regime in terms of number of fires and burned area, describing whit good accuracy the actual fire perimeters. The original Drossel-Schwabl model has been slightly modified in this work by introducing two parameters (probability of propagation and regrowth) specific for each different class of vegetation cover. Using model selection methods based on AIC, the model with the optimal number of classes with different fire behaviour was selected. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are situated in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in

  7. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  8. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  9. Historical fire behavior of forest fires occurred from 2002 to 2011 in the Forest Enterprise Minas de Matahambre, Pinar del Río, Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Pedro Ramos Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest fires are a global problem. In all cases, they occur and develop showing certain regularities, imposed mainly by weather, fuel and topography. To evaluate these regularities of spatial and temporal character helps to explain the phenomenon in order to plan their management in a given territory. In correspondence with the above mentioned the present paper aims at evaluating the historical fire behavior of the forest fires occurred from 2002 to 2011 in the Forest Enterprise Minas de Matahambre. To carry out this objective the database, which collects the fires occurred at the enterprise, was updated. Its data processing was carried out with the Integrated Management Database System for Forest Fires (SIMBDIF, in Spanish. In addition, it can be mentioned that in the same period 87 fires occurred and as a result affected a surface of 1,515.11 ha. The fire season was observed between the months of March and May. During the day the 58.62% of fires occurred between 14:00 and 17:00 hours. The main causes were the streak of lightning with the 62.07%, while the 47.08% of burned areas was caused by negligence. Most fires (72.41% are grouped into the size class I and II (< 4.0 ha, indicating the good efficiency of the protection service.

  10. Optimizing prescribed fire allocation for managing fire risk in central Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Ager, Alan A; Salis, Michele; Day, Michelle A; Vega-Garcia, Cristina

    2018-04-15

    We used spatial optimization to allocate and prioritize prescribed fire treatments in the fire-prone Bages County, central Catalonia (northeastern Spain). The goal of this study was to identify suitable strategic locations on forest lands for fuel treatments in order to: 1) disrupt major fire movements, 2) reduce ember emissions, and 3) reduce the likelihood of large fires burning into residential communities. We first modeled fire spread, hazard and exposure metrics under historical extreme fire weather conditions, including node influence grid for surface fire pathways, crown fraction burned and fire transmission to residential structures. Then, we performed an optimization analysis on individual planning areas to identify production possibility frontiers for addressing fire exposure and explore alternative prescribed fire treatment configurations. The results revealed strong trade-offs among different fire exposure metrics, showed treatment mosaics that optimize the allocation of prescribed fire, and identified specific opportunities to achieve multiple objectives. Our methods can contribute to improving the efficiency of prescribed fire treatment investments and wildfire management programs aimed at creating fire resilient ecosystems, facilitating safe and efficient fire suppression, and safeguarding rural communities from catastrophic wildfires. The analysis framework can be used to optimally allocate prescribed fire in other fire-prone areas within the Mediterranean region and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Decomposition of group-velocity-locked-vector-dissipative solitons and formation of the high-order soliton structure by the product of their recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Li, Lei; Geng, Ying; Wang, Hanxiao; Su, Lei; Zhao, Luming

    2018-02-01

    By using a polarization manipulation and projection system, we numerically decomposed the group-velocity-locked-vector-dissipative solitons (GVLVDSs) from a normal dispersion fiber laser and studied the combination of the projections of the phase-modulated components of the GVLVDS through a polarization beam splitter. Pulses with a structure similar to a high-order vector soliton could be obtained, which could be considered as a pseudo-high-order GVLVDS. It is found that, although GVLVDSs are intrinsically different from group-velocity-locked-vector solitons generated in fiber lasers operated in the anomalous dispersion regime, similar characteristics for the generation of pseudo-high-order GVLVDS are obtained. However, pulse chirp plays a significant role on the generation of pseudo-high-order GVLVDS.

  12. the Role of Muslim Groups in Combating Terrorism in Indonesia: a Study of the Nahdlatul Ulama Under the New Order

    OpenAIRE

    Baharruddin

    2015-01-01

    Thank you very much for Hasanuddin University This paper focuses on the role of Muslim groups especially Nahdlatul Ulama in combating terrorism in Indonesia. Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) is one of the largest Islamic organization in Indonesia. It has many followers and sympathizers in Indonesia. Therefore, NU has the important role to participate in fighting terrorism in Indonesia. The series bombings incident in Indonesia have happened since after the 11 September 2001 World Trade Centre and Pent...

  13. Evaluation of a post-fire tree mortality model for western US conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon M. Hood; Charles W McHugh; Kevin C. Ryan; Elizabeth Reinhardt; Sheri L. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Accurately predicting fire-caused mortality is essential to developing prescribed fire burn plans and post-fire salvage marking guidelines. The mortality model included in the commonly used USA fire behaviour and effects models, the First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM), BehavePlus, and the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS), has not...

  14. On functional bases of the first-order differential invariants for non-conjugate subgroups of the Poincaré group $P(1,4$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Fedorchuk

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available It is established which functional bases of the first-order differential invariants of the splitting and non-splitting subgroups of the Poincaré group $P(1,4$ are invariant under the subgroups of the extended Galilei group $widetilde G(1,3 subset P(1,4$. The obtained sets of functional bases are classified according to dimensions.

  15. The fire course and consequences to be drawn from the fire in the Browns Ferry nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, N.

    1977-01-01

    After a short description of the fire course and the fire fighting measures during the cable fire at Browns Ferry nuclear power station, the effects on the safety system are given in chronological order, and consequences are drawn for a general fire protection programme for nuclear power plants. In this context, the licensing guideline of the NRC for fire protection in nuclear power plants is mentioned, which took particular account of the consequences to be drawn from the Browns Ferry fire. (ORU) [de

  16. The development of fire detection robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sucuoğlu, Hilmi Saygın

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to design and manufacture a fire detection robot that especially operates in industrial areas for fire inspection and early detection. Robot is designed and implemented to track prescribed paths with obstacle avoidance function through obstacle avoidance and motion planning units and to scan the environment in order to detect fire source using fire detection unit. Robot is able to track patrolling routes using virtual lines that defined to the motion planning unit. ...

  17. On classification of finite groups with four generators, three of which having orders p,p,q (p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacoub, K.R.

    1984-03-01

    Finite groups with two independent generators attracted the attention of authors for several years. The author, having started on such groups in his PhD Thesis in 1953, discussed later on the existence and the structure of finite groups with three generators, one being of arbitrary order and the other two having given orders [Pub. Math. Debrecen, 11, 32-38(1964), 13, 9-16(1966)] and others. Recently, the author started the problem of finite groups with four generators a,b,c and d when b,c and d have the same odd prime order p. It is the object of the present paper to deal with a similar problem when the given orders are p, p and q with p q together with the particular case when m is an element of set containing p,q will be kept to a further discussion. The present paper consists actually of two main parts, the first deals with the case p does not divide q-1 while the second deals with the case p divides q-1. (author)

  18. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  19. Windscale fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  20. Experimental study of fire barriers preventing vertical fire spread in ETISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the external thermal insulation system (ETIS has been applied increasingly in a large amount of buildings for energy conservation purpose. However, the increase use of combustible insulation materials in the ETIS has raised serious fire safety problems. Fires involving this type of ETIS have caused severe damage and loss. In order to improve its fire safety, fire barriers were suggested to be installed. This paper introduces fire experiments that have been done to study the effects of fire barriers on preventing vertical fire spread along the ETIS. The experiments were performed according to BS 8414-1:2002 “Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1: Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the building”. The test facility consists of a 9 m high wall. The fire sources were wood cribs with a fire size of 3 ± 0.5 MW. The insulation materials were expanded polystyrene foam (EPS. The fire barrier was a horizontal strip of rockwool with a width of 300 mm. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures outside and inside the ETIS. A series of experiments with different fire scenarios were done: no fire barrier, two fire barriers and three fire barriers at different heights. Test results were compared. The results show that the ETIS using EPS without fire barriers almost burned out, while the ETIS with fire barriers performed well in preventing fire spread. The temperatures above the fire barrier were much lower than those below the fire barrier, and most of the insulation materials above the top fire barrier stayed in place.

  1. Barriers to community-directed fire restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Hull; Bruce E. Goldstein

    2006-01-01

    Wild fire disasters create novel situations and challenges for natural resource managers, including working with emergent community groups that have a great deal of motivation for change, little familiarity with agency protocol, and strong preferences for the goals and methods of forest fire restoration, some of which may run counter to agency norms. After a fire,...

  2. Using a second-order turbulence radiative-convective model to study the cloud/radiation interaction with the FIRE data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.Y.J.

    1992-01-01

    It is well recognized that extended sheets of low-level stratus and stratocumulus clouds are a persistent feature over the eastern parts of the major ocean basins associated with the quasipermanent subtropical high-pressure systems. These clouds exert a strong influence on climate through their high albedo, compared with the underlying surface, and their low altitude. The former leads to a reduction of the net incoming shortwave flux into the atmosphere and the latter leads to an infrared loss in a way essentially the same as the cloud-free conditions. Randall et al.[1984] estimated that an increase of a few percent of global low-level stratiform clouds may offset the warming caused by a doubling of the atmos-pheric CO 2 . The Atmospheric Radiation Measure-ment (ARM) Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, is envisioning a locale in the Eastern North Pacific for extensive measure-ments of stratiform boundary-layer clouds and their interaction with atmospheric radiation. Thus, a physically-based parameterization sheme for marine low-level stratiform clouds can be developed for general circulation models (GCMs). This paper is a modeling study with the current understanding of the important physical processes associated with a cloud-capped boundary layer. The numerical model is a high-resolution one-dimensional version of the second-order turbulence convective/radiative model developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

  3. Normal edge-transitive and $ frac{1}{2}$-arc-transitive Cayley graphs on non-abelian groups of order $2pq$ , $p > q$ are primes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ashrafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Darafsheh and Assari in [Normal edge-transitive Cayley graphs onnon-abelian groups of order 4p, where p is a prime number,Sci. China Math. {bf 56} (1 (2013 213$-$219.] classified the connected normal edge transitive and$frac{1}{2}-$arc-transitive Cayley graph of groups of order$4p$. In this paper we continue this work by classifying theconnected Cayley graph of groups of order $2pq$, $p > q$ areprimes. As a consequence it is proved that $Cay(G,S$ is a$frac{1}{2}-$edge-transitive Cayley graph of order $2pq$, $p> q$ if and only if $|S|$ is an even integer greater than 2, $S =T cup T^{-1}$ and $T subseteq { cba^{i} | 0 leq i leq p- 1}$ such that $T$ and $T^{-1}$ are orbits of $Aut(G,S$ andbegin{eqnarray*}G &=& langle a, b, c | a^p = b^q = c^2 = e, ac = ca, bc = cb, b^{-1}ab = a^r rangle,G &=& langle a, b, c | a^p = b^q = c^2 = e, c ac = a^{-1}, bc = cb, b^{-1}ab = a^r rangle,end{eqnarray*}where $r^q equiv 1 (mod p$.

  4. Risk Insights Gained from Fire Incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, Mardy; Nowlen, Steven P.

    1999-01-01

    There now exist close to 20 years of history in the application of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) for the analysis of fire risk at nuclear power plants. The current methods are based on various assumptions regarding fire phenomena, the impact of fire on equipment and operator response, and the overall progression of a fire event from initiation through final resolution. Over this same time period, a number of significant fire incidents have occurred at nuclear power plants around the world. Insights gained from US experience have been used in US studies as the statistical basis for establishing fire initiation frequencies both as a function of the plant area and the initiating fire source.To a lesser extent, the fire experience has also been used to assess the general severity and duration of fires. However, aside from these statistical analyses, the incidents have rarely been scrutinized in detail to verify the underlying assumptions of fire PRAs. This paper discusses an effort, under which a set of fire incidents are being reviewed in order to gain insights directly relevant to the methods, data, and assumptions that form the basis for current fire PRAs. The paper focuses on the objectives of the effort, the specific fire events being reviews methodology, and anticipated follow-on activities

  5. Determination of platinum group elements and gold in reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with nickel sulphide fire-assay collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morcelli, C.P.R.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Kakazu, M.; Enzweiler, J.

    2002-01-01

    Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after NiS fire assay were used to determine platinum group elements (PGE) and Au in the geological reference materials peridotite GPt-3 and pyroxene peridotite GPt-4 (IGGE, China). INAA has been one of the most useful analytical techniques for PGEs and Au determination, due to its high sensitivity and accuracy. After the fire assay, the NiS button is dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid, leaving a residue of insoluble PGE sulphides; the solution is filtered and the filter is directly irradiated with neutrons. In more recent years, ICP-MS with nickel fire assay collection and tellurium coprecipitation has been used as a mean of analysing PGE, with the main advantage of avoiding problems of losses of PGE during the HCl digestion of the NiS button. Buttons were prepared by mixing the sample (10-15 g) with fluxes, nickel and sulphur in a fire clay crucible and fused at temperatures around 1000 deg C. For NAA, the filters containing the PGEs and Au were irradiated at the IEA-R1 research nuclear reactor at IPEN. The measurements of the induced gamma-ray activity were carried out in an hyperpure Ge detector. In general, the results obtained by the two techniques were in good agreement with recommended values. INAA results exhibited higher values than the recommended values for Pd and Pt in GPt-3, while the opposite effect was observed for GPt-4 sample. Ru was not detected by INAA. On the other hand, Rh and Ir were determined more accurately by INAA (relative errors better than 10%). The ICP-MS analytical technique showed better detection limits, and all the PGE were determined. Results obtained for Pt and Pd presented accuracy better than 5% while losses were observed for Os and Ir. (author)

  6. A Third-Order p-Laplacian Boundary Value Problem Solved by an SL(3,ℝ Lie-Group Shooting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chein-Shan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The boundary layer problem for power-law fluid can be recast to a third-order p-Laplacian boundary value problem (BVP. In this paper, we transform the third-order p-Laplacian into a new system which exhibits a Lie-symmetry SL(3,ℝ. Then, the closure property of the Lie-group is used to derive a linear transformation between the boundary values at two ends of a spatial interval. Hence, we can iteratively solve the missing left boundary conditions, which are determined by matching the right boundary conditions through a finer tuning of r∈[0,1]. The present SL(3,ℝ Lie-group shooting method is easily implemented and is efficient to tackle the multiple solutions of the third-order p-Laplacian. When the missing left boundary values can be determined accurately, we can apply the fourth-order Runge-Kutta (RK4 method to obtain a quite accurate numerical solution of the p-Laplacian.

  7. Ethyl group as matrix modifier and inducer of ordered domains in hybrid xerogels synthesised in acidic media using ethyltriethoxysilane (ETEOS) and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Xabier; Moriones, Paula; Echeverría, Jesús C.; Luquin, Asunción; Laguna, Mariano; Garrido, Julián J.

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid silica xerogels favourably combine the properties of organic and inorganic components in one material; consequently these materials are useful for multiple applications. The versatility and mild synthetic conditions provided by the sol-gel process are ideal for the synthesis of hybrid materials. The specific aims of this study were to synthesise hybrid xerogels in acidic media using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and ethyltriethoxysilane (ETEOS) as silica precursors, and to assess the role of the ethyl group as a matrix modifier and inducer of ordered domains in xerogels. All xerogels were synthesised at pH 4.5, at 60 °C, with 1:4.75:5.5 TEOS:EtOH:H 2 O molar ratio. Gelation time exponentially increased with the ETEOS molar ratio. Incorporation of the ethyl groups into the structure of xerogels reduced cross-linking, increased the average siloxane bond length, and promoted the formation of ordered domains. As a result, a transition from Q n to T n signals detected in the 29 Si NMR spectra, the Si–O structural band in the FTIR spectra shifted to lower wavelength, and a new peak in the XRD pattern at 2θ < 10° appeared in the XRD patterns. Mass spectroscopy detected fragments with high numbers of silicon atoms and a polymeric distribution. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Hybrid xerogels were synthesised for ETEOS/TEOS mixtures up to 80% ETEOS. • The gelification time exponentially increased with ETEOS content. • FTIR, XRD and MAS NMR demonstrated the presence of ethyl groups into xerogels. • For ETEOS contents ≤30%, ethyl group acted as matrix modifier. • For ETEOS contents ≥30%, ethyl groups induced the formation of ordered domains

  8. Applications of Living Fire PRA models to Fire Protection Significance Determination Process in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Cheng, Chen; Chung-Kung, Lo; Tsu-Jen, Lin; Ching-Hui, Wu; Lin, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The living fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models for all three operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Taiwan had been established in December 2000. In that study, a scenario-based PRA approach was adopted to systematically evaluate the fire and smoke hazards and associated risks. Using these fire PRA models developed, a risk-informed application project had also been completed in December 2002 for the evaluation of cable-tray fire-barrier wrapping exemption. This paper presents a new application of the fire PRA models to fire protection issues using the fire protection significance determination process (FP SDP). The fire protection issues studied may involve the selection of appropriate compensatory measures during the period when an automatic fire detection or suppression system in a safety-related fire zone becomes inoperable. The compensatory measure can either be a 24-hour fire watch or an hourly fire patrol. The living fire PRA models were used to estimate the increase in risk associated with the fire protection issue in terms of changes in core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF). In compliance with SDP at-power and the acceptance guidelines specified in RG 1.174, the fire protection issues in question can be grouped into four categories; red, yellow, white and green, in accordance with the guidelines developed for FD SDP. A 24-hour fire watch is suggested only required for the yellow condition, while an hourly fire patrol may be adopted for the white condition. More limiting requirement is suggested for the red condition, but no special consideration is needed for the green condition. For the calculation of risk measures, risk impacts from any additional fire scenarios that may have been introduced, as well as more severe initiating events and fire damages that may accompany the fire protection issue should be considered carefully. Examples are presented in this paper to illustrate the evaluation process. (authors)

  9. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  10. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  11. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  12. Smoke management guide for prescribed and wildland fire: 2001 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin C. Hardy; Roger D. Ottmar; Janice L Peterson; John E. Core; Paula Seamon

    2001-01-01

    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group's (NWCG) Fire Use Working Team has assumed overall responsibility for sponsoring the development and production of this revised Smoke Management Guide for Prescribed and Wildland Fire (the "Guide"). The Mission Statement for the Fire Use Working Team includes the need to coordinate and advocate the use of fire to...

  13. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  14. Kindle Fire HDX for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Nancy C

    2013-01-01

    Spark your interest in Kindle Fire HDX and start burning through books, movies, music, and more with this bestselling guide! The Kindle Fire HDX is Amazon's premiere tablet. With its new, more powerful Android operating system, this latest version has some exciting bells and whistles along with the features that have made the Fire a tablet fan favorite: access to the amazing Amazon Appstore, online music storage, a large music and video store, a huge e-book library, and easy one-step ordering from Amazon. This full-color, For Dummies guide shows you how to take advantage of all the Kindle Fi

  15. Second-order perturbation theory with a density matrix renormalization group self-consistent field reference function: theory and application to the study of chromium dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2011-09-07

    We present a second-order perturbation theory based on a density matrix renormalization group self-consistent field (DMRG-SCF) reference function. The method reproduces the solution of the complete active space with second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) when the DMRG reference function is represented by a sufficiently large number of renormalized many-body basis, thereby being named DMRG-CASPT2 method. The DMRG-SCF is able to describe non-dynamical correlation with large active space that is insurmountable to the conventional CASSCF method, while the second-order perturbation theory provides an efficient description of dynamical correlation effects. The capability of our implementation is demonstrated for an application to the potential energy curve of the chromium dimer, which is one of the most demanding multireference systems that require best electronic structure treatment for non-dynamical and dynamical correlation as well as large basis sets. The DMRG-CASPT2/cc-pwCV5Z calculations were performed with a large (3d double-shell) active space consisting of 28 orbitals. Our approach using large-size DMRG reference addressed the problems of why the dissociation energy is largely overestimated by CASPT2 with the small active space consisting of 12 orbitals (3d4s), and also is oversensitive to the choice of the zeroth-order Hamiltonian. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. Synthesis of knowledge of extreme fire behavior: volume I for fire managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Werth; Brian E. Potter; Craig B. Clements; Mark A. Finney; Scott L. Goodrick; Martin E. Alexander; Miguel G. Cruz; Jason A. Forthofer; Sara S. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group definition of extreme fire behavior (EFB) indicates a level of fire behavior characteristics that ordinarily precludes methods of direct control action. One or more of the following is usually involved: high rate of spread, prolific crowning/spotting, presence of fire whirls, and strong convection column. Predictability is...

  17. Synthesis of knowledge of extreme fire behavior: volume 2 for fire behavior specialists, researchers, and meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Werth; Brian E. Potter; Martin E. Alexander; Craig B. Clements; Miguel G. Cruz; Mark A. Finney; Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick; Chad Hoffman; W. Matt Jolly; Sara S. McAllister; Roger D. Ottmar; Russell A. Parsons

    2016-01-01

    The National Wildfire Coordinating Group’s definition of extreme fire behavior indicates a level of fire behavior characteristics that ordinarily precludes methods of direct control action. One or more of the following is usually involved: high rate of spread, prolific crowning/ spotting, presence of fire whirls, and strong convection column. Predictability is...

  18. High-order-harmonic generation from solids: The contributions of the Bloch wave packets moving at the group and phase velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tao-Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Huan; Bian, Xue-Bin

    2018-01-01

    We study numerically the Bloch electron wave-packet dynamics in periodic potentials to simulate laser-solid interactions. We introduce an alternative perspective in the coordinate space combined with the motion of the Bloch electron wave packets moving at group and phase velocities under the laser fields. This model interprets the origins of the two contributions (intra- and interband transitions) in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) processes by investigating the local and global behaviours of the wave packets. It also elucidates the underlying physical picture of the HHG intensity enhancement by means of carrier-envelope phase, chirp, and inhomogeneous fields. It provides a deep insight into the emission of high-order harmonics from solids. This model is instructive for experimental measurements and provides an alternative avenue to distinguish mechanisms of the HHG from solids in different laser fields.

  19. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  20. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Sustainable Development of Power Grid Enterprises Based on the Model of Fuzzy Group Ideal Point Method and Combination Weighting Method with Improved Group Order Relation Method and Entropy Weight Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Dai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As an important implementing body of the national energy strategy, grid enterprises bear the important responsibility of optimizing the allocation of energy resources and serving the economic and social development, and their levels of sustainable development have a direct impact on the national economy and social life. In this paper, the model of fuzzy group ideal point method and combination weighting method with improved group order relation method and entropy weight method is proposed to evaluate the sustainable development of power grid enterprises. Firstly, on the basis of consulting a large amount of literature, the important criteria of the comprehensive evaluation of the sustainable development of power grid enterprises are preliminarily selected. The opinions of the industry experts are consulted and fed back for many rounds through the Delphi method and the evaluation criteria system for sustainable development of power grid enterprises is determined, then doing the consistent and non dimensional processing of the evaluation criteria. After that, based on the basic order relation method, the weights of each expert judgment matrix are synthesized to construct the compound matter elements. By using matter element analysis, the subjective weights of the criteria are obtained. And entropy weight method is used to determine the objective weights of the preprocessed criteria. Then, combining the subjective and objective information with the combination weighting method based on the subjective and objective weighted attribute value consistency, a more comprehensive, reasonable and accurate combination weight is calculated. Finally, based on the traditional TOPSIS method, the triangular fuzzy numbers are introduced to better realize the scientific processing of the data information which is difficult to quantify, and the queuing indication value of each object and the ranking result are obtained. A numerical example is taken to prove that the

  2. Group theoretical arguments on the Landau theory of second-order phase transitions applied to the phase transitions in some liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosciszewski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The phase transitions between liquids and several of the simplest liquid crystalline phases (nematic, cholesteric, and the simplest types of smectic A and smectic C) were studied from the point of view of the group-theoretical arguments of Landau theory. It was shown that the only possible candidates for second-order phase transitions are those between nematic and smectic A, between centrosymmetric nematic and smectic C and between centrosymmetric smectic A and smectic C. Simple types of density functions for liquid crystalline phases are proposed. (author)

  3. Life after fire: the impact of fire on species composition and diversity in coastal heathlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bargmann, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Fire prone coastal heathlands are widespread, and range from naturally fire prone Mediterranean-type heathlands, to the anthropogenic heathlands of north-west Europe. Regardless of its source, fire is an important disturbance factor in these systems. This thesis investigates the effects of fire on the species diversity and composition of two heathland systems; one in south-eastern Tasmania and one in western Norway. I ask whether two important species groups in heathland, plants and carabids ...

  4. Nonmathematical models for evolution of altruism, and for group selection (peck order-territoriality-ant colony-dual-determinant model-tri-determinant model).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, P J

    1972-02-01

    Mathematical biologists have failed to produce a satisfactory general model for evolution of altruism, i.e., of behaviors by which "altruists" benefit other individuals but not themselves; kin selection does not seem to be a sufficient explanation of nonreciprocal altruism. Nonmathematical (but mathematically acceptable) models are now proposed for evolution of negative altruism in dual-determinant and of positive altruism in tri-determinant systems. Peck orders, territorial systems, and an ant society are analyzed as examples. In all models, evolution is primarily by individual selection, probably supplemented by group selection. Group selection is differential extinction of populations. It can act only on populations preformed by selection at the individual level, but can either cancel individual selective trends (effecting evolutionary homeostasis) or supplement them; its supplementary effect is probably increasingly important in the evolution of increasingly organized populations.

  5. Introduction: Strengthening the foundation of wildland fire Effects prediction for research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Dickinson; Kevin C. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    As prescribed fire use increases and the options for responding to wildfires continue to expand beyond suppression, the need for improving fire effects prediction capabilities be¬comes increasingly apparent. The papers in this Fire Ecology special issue describe recent advances in fire effects prediction for key classes of direct (first-order) fire effects. Important...

  6. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tsiagkouris, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  7. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  8. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  9. Inhomogeneous ordered states and translational nature of the gauge group in the Landau continuum theory: II. Applications of the general theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, A. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    A group theory approach to description of phase transitions to an inhomogeneous ordered state, proposed in the preceding paper, is applied to two problems. First, a theory of the state of a liquid-crystalline smectic type-A phase under the action of uniaxial pressure is developed. Second, a model of strengthening in quasicrystals is constructed. According to the proposed approach, the so-called elastic dislocations always appear during the phase transitions in an inhomogeneous deformed state in addition to static dislocations, which are caused by peculiarities of the crystal growth or by other features in the prehistory of a sample. The density of static dislocations weakly depends on the external factors, whereas the density of elastic dislocations depends on the state. An analogy between the proposed theory of the inhomogeneous ordered state and the quantum-field theory of interaction between material fields is considered. On this basis, the phenomenological Ginzburg-Landau equation for the superconducting state is derived using the principle of locality of the transformation properties of the superconducting order parameter with respect to temporal translations

  10. Factors controlling seedling germination after fire in Mediterranean gorse shrublands. Implications for fire prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, M; Raventós, J; González-Hidalgo, J C

    2005-07-01

    In Western Mediterranean areas, fires are frequent in forests established on old croplands where woody resprouting species are scarce and post-fire regeneration is limited to obligate-seeder species, such as Mediterranean gorse (Ulex parviflorus), that accumulate a great deal of fine dry fuel, increasing the risk of other severe fires. Under these conditions, fuel control techniques are required in order to prevent fires of high intensity and severity and the subsequent economic and ecological damage. Prescribed fires present an alternative to fuel control, and recent studies demonstrate that, under optimum climatic conditions, fire-line intensity values fall within the limits of those recommended for fire prescription. However, a better understanding of the consequences of fire on the regeneration of vegetation is needed in order to evaluate the suitability of prescribed fires as a technique for fuel reduction in Mediterranean gorse ecosystems. This paper analyses the factors controlling seedling germination after fire to make an evaluation from an ecological perspective of whether fire prescription is a suitable technique for fuel control in mature Mediterranean gorse shrublands. The results show that small differences in the composition of vegetation play a decisive role in fire behaviour, and have a decisive influence on the system's capacity for regeneration. Fire severity is low in mixed Mediterranean gorse communities with a low continuity of dead fine fuel (including Cistus sp., Rosmarinus sp., etc.) and fire creates a wide range of microhabitats where seedling emergence is high. In contrast, where U. parviflorus is more dominant, fire severity is higher and the regeneration of vegetation could be hindered. Our conclusions suggest that detailed studies of the composition of plant communities are required in order to decide whether prescribed burning should be applied.

  11. Fire Regime Characteristics along Environmental Gradients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Vanesa Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concern regarding global change has increased the need to understand the relationship between fire regime characteristics and the environment. Pyrogeographical theory suggests that fire regimes are constrained by climate, vegetation and fire ignition processes, but it is not obvious how fire regime characteristics are related to those factors. We used a three-matrix approach with a multivariate statistical methodology that combined an ordination method and fourth-corner analysis for hypothesis testing to investigate the relationship between fire regime characteristics and environmental gradients across Spain. Our results suggest that fire regime characteristics (i.e., density and seasonality of fire activity are constrained primarily by direct gradients based on climate, population, and resource gradients based on forest potential productivity. Our results can be used to establish a predictive model for how fire regimes emerge in order to support fire management, particularly as global environmental changes impact fire regime characteristics.

  12. The analysis of fire losses and characteristics of residential fires based on investigation data in Selangor, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a research in progress where authors seek to investigate the factors of residential fires. As part of the research, this paper aims to analyse the fire problems faced by the community of Malaysia. Data regarding residential fires between 2012 and 2014 was collected from fire investigation reports prepared by the Selangor Fire and Rescue Department. Descriptive analysis is conducted to summarize the data collected and describe the common phenomenon of residential fires. The distributions of the fire characteristics suggested that residential fires are commonly occurred during daytime, confined within the room of fire origin, caused by electrical failure and cooking negligence, started from kitchen, and occurred in multi-units housing. Further analysis will be conducted in order to investigate the relationships between the characteristics and residential fires.

  13. Browns Ferry fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkleroad, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  14. Fire, humans and landscape. Is there a connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valese, Eva; Ascoli, Davide; Conedera, Marco; Held, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Fire evolved on the earth under the direct influence of climate and the accumulation of burnable biomass at various times and spatial scales. As a result, fire regimes depend not only on climatic and biological factors, but also greatly reflect the cultural background of how people do manage ecosystems and fire. A new awareness among scientists and managers has been rising about the ecological role of fire and the necessity to understand its past natural and cultural dynamics in different ecosystems, in order to preserve present ecosystem functionality and minimize management costs and negative impacts. As a consequence we assisted in the last decades to a general shift from the fire control to the fire management approach, where fire prevention, fire danger rating, fire ecology, fire pre-suppression and suppression strategies are fully integrated in the landscape management. Nowadays, a large number of authors recognize that a total suppression strategy, as the one adopted during last decades, leads to a fire paradox: the more we fight for putting out all fires, the more extreme events occur and cause long term damages. The aim of this review is to provide a state of art about the connection between fire, humans and landscape, along time and space. Negative and positive impacts on ecosystem services and values are put in evidence, as well as their incidence on human aptitude to fire use as to fire suppression. In order to capture a consistent fragment of fire history, palaeofires and related palynological studies are considered. They enable a valuable, even if partial, look at the millenary fire regime. Actual strategies and future directions are described in order to show what are the alternatives for living with fire, since removing completely this disturbance from earth is not a option, nor feasible neither advisable. Examples from the world, in particular from the Alps and the Mediterranean basin, are shown for better illustrating the signature of

  15. Impact of the buildings areas on the fire incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srekl, Jože; Golob, Janvit

    2010-03-01

    A survey of statistical studies shows that probability of fires is expressed by the equation P(A) = KAα, where A = total floor area of the building and K and  are constants for an individual group, or risk category. This equation, which is based on the statistical data on fires in Great Britain, does not include the impact factors such as the number of employees and the activities carried out in these buildings. In order to find out possible correlations between the activities carried out in buildings, the characteristics of buildings and number of fires, we used a random sample which included 134 buildings as industrial objects, hotels, restaurants, warehouses and shopping malls. Our study shows that the floor area of buildings has low impact on the incidence of fires. After analysing the sample of buildings by using multivariate analysis we proved a correlation between the number of fires, floor area of objects, work operation period (per day) and the number of employees in objects.

  16. Synthesis, spectral and third-order nonlinear optical properties of terpyridine Zn(II) complexes based on carbazole derivative with polyether group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming; Liu, Yanqiu; Wang, Hui; Luo, Junshan; Li, Dandan; Zhang, Shengyi; Li, Shengli; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2015-01-01

    Four novel Zn(II) terpyridine complexes (ZnLCl2, ZnLBr2, ZnLI2, ZnL(SCN)2) based on carbazole derivative group were designed, synthesized and fully characterized. Their photophysical properties including absorption and one-photon excited fluorescence, two-photon absorption (TPA) and optical power limiting (OPL) were further investigated systematically and interpreted on the basis of theoretical calculations (TD-DFT). The influences of different solvents on the absorption and One-Photon Excited Fluorescence (OPEF) spectral behavior, quantum yields and the lifetime of the chromophores have been investigated in detail. The third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties were investigated by open/closed aperture Z-scan measurements using femtosecond pulse laser in the range from 680 to 1080 nm. These results revealed that ZnLCl2 and ZnLBr2 exhibited strong two-photon absorption and ZnLCl2 showed superior optical power limiting property.

  17. Current Status of Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    The approach for fire risk assessment to be applied within periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis. For that purpose, a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. This standard event tree has to be adapted to each critical fire zone or room. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. In order to perform a quantitative fire risk assessment, a basic data base must be established which should, e.g., include initiating frequencies, reliability data for all fire protection measures, fire barriers, etc. Detailed plant-specific information is needed on ignition sources, detection and extinguishing systems, manual fire fighting, stationary fire suppression systems. As one contributor to fire specific PSA input data, reliability data for the active fire protection measures are required for the application in the fire specific event tree analysis. These data needed to be estimated are unavailabilities per demand or failure rates per hour of plant operation for those components or systems belonging to the active fire protection means. The data on potential failures or unavailabilities per demand of the respective fire protection measures were gained from the plant specific documentation of inspection and maintenance. The assessment whether the detected findings are estimated as failures or only as deficiencies or deteriorations requires a deep insight in the plant specific operating conditions for the fire protection means and needs careful engineering

  18. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardil Forradellas, A.; Molina Terrén, D.M.; Oliveres, J.; Castellnou, M.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU). PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future. Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012), in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season) in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha) located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea. Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height. Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume. Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior. (Author)

  19. Fire effects in Pinus uncinata Ram plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil Forradellas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding fire ecology of main forest species is essential for a sound, scientifically based on managing of wildlands and also to assess likely implications due to changes in fire regime under a global change scenario. Few references can be found about fire ecology of Pinus uncinata Ram. (PU. PU species grows in the Central Pyrenees where large, severe wildland fires did not occur frequently in the past. However, several fires with extreme fire behavior have affected PU stands in last years and they might disturb other PU forest in the future.Area of study: Cabdella fire (February 2012, in Lleida province, is one of the several wildland fires occurred in 2012 (winter season in the Central Pyrenees. Fire affected a large PU plantation (102 ha located at 1.800-2,100 meters above the sea.Material and methods: We have analyzed first order fire effects in three fireline intensity thresholds along three years in terms of mortality ratio, scorched height, percentage of scorched crown volume and bark char height.Main results: PU seems to be a very tolerant species to low and medium fire line intensity but fire effects were very significant when fire line intensity was high. In medium fireline intensity sites, probability of mortality ranged from 15 to 30% and the dead trees had the highest values on scorched height and percentage of scorched crown volume.Research highlights: Results from this work supports that prescribed burning might be used to efficiently decrease fuel load and fuel vertical continuity while avoiding considerable PU mortality. It also displayed that when fuel management has been implemented, PU mortality might be limited even under extreme fire behavior.Abbreviations used: PU: Pinus uncinata Ram.

  20. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  1. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  2. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  3. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...

  4. Enhancing adaptive capacity for restoring fire-dependent ecosystems: the Fire Learning Network's Prescribed Fire Training Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Spencer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed fire is a critical tool for promoting restoration and increasing resilience in fire-adapted ecosystems, but there are barriers to its use, including a shortage of personnel with adequate ecological knowledge and operational expertise to implement prescribed fire across multijurisdictional landscapes. In the United States, recognized needs for both professional development and increased use of fire are not being met, often because of institutional limitations. The Fire Learning Network has been characterized as a multiscalar, collaborative network that works to enhance the adaptive capacity of fire management institutions, and this network developed the Prescribed Fire Training Exchanges (TREXs to address persistent challenges in increasing the capacity for prescribed fire implementation. Our research was designed to investigate where fire professionals face professional barriers, how the TREX addresses these, and in what ways the TREX may be contributing to the adaptive capacity of fire management institutions. We evaluated the training model using surveys, interviews, focus groups, and participant observation. We found that, although the training events cannot overcome all institutional barriers, they incorporate the key components of professional development in fire; foster collaboration, learning, and network building; and provide flexible opportunities with an emphasis on local context to train a variety of professionals with disparate needs. The strategy also offers an avenue for overcoming barriers faced by contingent and nonfederal fire professionals in attaining training and operational experience, thereby increasing the variety of actors and resources involved in fire management. Although it is an incremental step, the TREX is contributing to the adaptive capacity of institutions in social-ecological systems in which fire is a critical ecological process.

  5. Vegetation responses to season of fire in an aseasonal, fire-prone fynbos shrubland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tineke Kraaij

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Season of fire has marked effects on floristic composition in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate shrublands. In these winter-rainfall systems, summer-autumn fires lead to optimal recruitment of overstorey proteoid shrubs (non-sprouting, slow-maturing, serotinous Proteaceae which are important to the conservation of floral diversity. We explored whether fire season has similar effects on early establishment of five proteoid species in the eastern coastal part of the Cape Floral Kingdom (South Africa where rainfall occurs year-round and where weather conducive to fire and the actual incidence of fire are largely aseasonal. We surveyed recruitment success (ratio of post-fire recruits to pre-fire parents of proteoids after fires in different seasons. We also planted proteoid seeds into exclosures, designed to prevent predation by small mammals and birds, in cleared (intended to simulate fire fynbos shrublands at different sites in each of four seasons and monitored their germination and survival to one year post-planting (hereafter termed ‘recruitment’. Factors (in decreasing order of importance affecting recruitment success in the post-fire surveys were species, pre-fire parent density, post-fire age of the vegetation at the time of assessment, and fire season, whereas rainfall (for six months post-fire and fire return interval (>7 years had little effect. In the seed-planting experiment, germination occurred during the cooler months and mostly within two months of planting, except for summer-plantings, which took 2–3 months longer to germinate. Although recruitment success differed significantly among planting seasons, sites and species, significant interactions occurred among the experimental factors. In both the post-fire surveys and seed planting experiment, recruitment success in relation to fire- or planting season varied greatly within and among species and sites. Results of these two datasets were furthermore inconsistent, suggesting

  6. Vegetation responses to season of fire in an aseasonal, fire-prone fynbos shrubland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaij, Tineke; Cowling, Richard M; van Wilgen, Brian W; Rikhotso, Diba R; Difford, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Season of fire has marked effects on floristic composition in fire-prone Mediterranean-climate shrublands. In these winter-rainfall systems, summer-autumn fires lead to optimal recruitment of overstorey proteoid shrubs (non-sprouting, slow-maturing, serotinous Proteaceae) which are important to the conservation of floral diversity. We explored whether fire season has similar effects on early establishment of five proteoid species in the eastern coastal part of the Cape Floral Kingdom (South Africa) where rainfall occurs year-round and where weather conducive to fire and the actual incidence of fire are largely aseasonal. We surveyed recruitment success (ratio of post-fire recruits to pre-fire parents) of proteoids after fires in different seasons. We also planted proteoid seeds into exclosures, designed to prevent predation by small mammals and birds, in cleared (intended to simulate fire) fynbos shrublands at different sites in each of four seasons and monitored their germination and survival to one year post-planting (hereafter termed 'recruitment'). Factors (in decreasing order of importance) affecting recruitment success in the post-fire surveys were species, pre-fire parent density, post-fire age of the vegetation at the time of assessment, and fire season, whereas rainfall (for six months post-fire) and fire return interval (>7 years) had little effect. In the seed-planting experiment, germination occurred during the cooler months and mostly within two months of planting, except for summer-plantings, which took 2-3 months longer to germinate. Although recruitment success differed significantly among planting seasons, sites and species, significant interactions occurred among the experimental factors. In both the post-fire surveys and seed planting experiment, recruitment success in relation to fire- or planting season varied greatly within and among species and sites. Results of these two datasets were furthermore inconsistent, suggesting that proteoid

  7. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  8. Modeling fire spatial non-stationary in Portugal using GWR and GAMLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Ana C. L.; Amaral Turkman, Maria A.; Bistinas, Ioannis; Pereira, José M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Portuguese wildfires are responsible for large environmental, ecological and socio-economic impacts and, in the last decade, vegetation fires consumed on average 140.000ha/year. Portugal has a unique fires-atlas of burnt scar perimeters covering the 1975-2009 period, which allows the assessment of the fire most affected areas. It's crucial to understand the influence of the main drivers of forest fires and its spatial distribution in order to set new management strategies to reduce its impacts. Thus, this study aims at evaluating the spatial stationarity of the fire-environment relationship using two statistical approaches: Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) and Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS). Analysis was performed using a regular 2kmx2km cell size grid, a total of 21293 observations overlaying the mainland of Portugal. Fire incidence was determined as the number of times each grid cell burned in the 35 years period. For the GWR analysis the group of environmental variables selected as predictors are: ignition source (population density (PD)); vegetation (proportion of forest and shrubland (FORSHR)); and weather (total precipitation of the coldest quarter (PCQ). Results showed that the fire-environment relationship is non-stationary, thus the coefficient estimates of all the predictors vary spatially, both in magnitude and sign. The most statistically significant predictor is FORSHR, followed by the PCQ. Despite the relationship between fire incidence and PD is non-stationary, only 9% of the observations are statistically significant at a 95% level of confidence. When compared with the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) global model, 53% of the R2 statistic is above the 26% global estimated value, meaning a better explanation of the fire incidence variance with the local model approach. Using the same environmental variables, fire incidence was also modeled using GAMLSS to characterize nonstationarities in fire incidence. It is

  9. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'', and DOE 6430.1A, ''General Design Criteria''. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ''Glove Box Fire Protection'' and ''Filter Plenum Fire Protection''. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities

  10. How does a servant leader fuel the service fire? A multilevel model of servant leadership, individual self identity, group competition climate, and customer service performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhijun; Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Mingjian

    2015-03-01

    Building on a social identity framework, our cross-level process model explains how a manager's servant leadership affects frontline employees' service performance, measured as service quality, customer-focused citizenship behavior, and customer-oriented prosocial behavior. Among a sample of 238 hairstylists in 30 salons and 470 of their customers, we found that hair stylists' self-identity embedded in the group, namely, self-efficacy and group identification, partially mediated the positive effect of salon managers' servant leadership on stylists' service performance as rated by the customers, after taking into account the positive influence of transformational leadership. Moreover, group competition climate strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and service performance. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. New methods in order to determine the extent of temporary blinding from laser and LED light and proposal how to allocate into blinding groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter; Ott, Günter; Brose, Martin; Dollinger, Klaus

    2010-02-01

    recovery time tVA has been found to obey the dose relationship: tVA /s ~ 3.7•ln(energy/μJ) - 16.2 in the case of a green HB-LED in the power range 0.12 mW to 1.5 mW and for exposure durations between 1 s and 8 s. Further investigations were performed with other LED colors especially as far as threshold values for temporary blinding are concerned. The afterimage duration tafterimage,fv produced by a red laser beam was determined to be: tafterimage,fv/s ~ 50.6•ln[(P•texp)/μJ] - 13.4, for laser output powers P between 10 μW and 30 μW with exposure durations texp from 0.25 s up to 10 s, when the beam hits the fovea. Additional results have been achieved with a green laser at a wavelength of 532 nm and compared with the respective values at 632.8 nm. The results of the research project suggest classifying light sources like laser and LEDs into so-called blinding groups. In total 3 different groups which reflect the obtained results and are proposed in order to fulfil the requirements of special classification and might be regarded as an appropriate assistance to perform a risk analysis.

  12. How do occupational rehabilitation clinicians approach participants on long-term sick leave in order to facilitate return to work? A focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Eftedal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to explore occupational rehabilitation clinicians’ experiences on how to approach their participants on long-term sick leave in order to facilitate return to work (RTW. Methods An exploratory qualitative design was used. Four focus groups were conducted with 29 clinicians working on interdisciplinary inpatient and outpatient occupational rehabilitation teams in Norway. The clinicians shared narratives from clinical practice. Transcripts were analysed, and results were reported by use of systematic text condensation. Results The clinicians used several approaches to facilitate RTW among individuals on sick leave. Three themes emerged as especially important in order to succeed: 1 To get a basic understanding of the participant’s life-world through a mapping process; 2 To build a therapeutic alliance through communication characterised by sensitivity to the participants’ needs and emotional concerns; and 3 To initiate processes of change that increase the possibilities for RTW. Four main areas targetable for change were identified, three directed at the individual and one encompassing the participants’ surroundings. These approaches were: a To increase feelings of confidence and coping; b To increase the participants’ awareness of their own limits; c To challenge inefficient and negative attitudes and thoughts related to the sick-role; and d Close and immediate dialogue with key stakeholders. Conclusions To increase the possibilities for RTW among individuals on long-term sick leave, a thorough mapping process and the construction of a therapeutic alliance are seen as crucial elements in approaches by occupational rehabilitation clinicians. By gaining the participants’ trust and identifying their barriers and possibilities for work, the clinicians can target modifiable factors, especially at the individual level, and obstacles for RTW in their individual surroundings. This study

  13. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  14. Fire hazards analysis for the uranium oxide (UO3) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) documents the deactivation end-point status of the UO 3 complex fire hazards, fire protection and life safety systems. This FHA has been prepared for the Uranium Oxide Facility by Westinghouse Hanford Company in accordance with the criteria established in DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection and RLID 5480.7, Fire Protection. The purpose of the Fire Hazards Analysis is to comprehensively and quantitatively assess the risk from a fire within individual fire areas in a Department of Energy facility so as to ascertain whether the objectives stated in DOE Order 5480.7, paragraph 4 are met. Particular attention has been paid to RLID 5480.7, Section 8.3, which specifies the criteria for deactivating fire protection in decommission and demolition facilities

  15. Hidden among Sea Anemones: The First Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of the Order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia) Reveals a Novel Group of Hexacorals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Estefanía; Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Brugler, Mercer R.; Crowley, Louise M.; Grajales, Alejandro; Gusmão, Luciana; Häussermann, Verena; Reft, Abigail; Daly, Marymegan

    2014-01-01

    Sea anemones (order Actiniaria) are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae). Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein). We also erect subgroups within these two newly-erected suborders

  16. Hidden among sea anemones: the first comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction of the order Actiniaria (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Hexacorallia reveals a novel group of hexacorals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (order Actiniaria are among the most diverse and successful members of the anthozoan subclass Hexacorallia, occupying benthic marine habitats across all depths and latitudes. Actiniaria comprises approximately 1,200 species of solitary and skeleton-less polyps and lacks any anatomical synapomorphy. Although monophyly is anticipated based on higher-level molecular phylogenies of Cnidaria, to date, monophyly has not been explicitly tested and at least some hypotheses on the diversification of Hexacorallia have suggested that actiniarians are para- or poly-phyletic. Published phylogenies have demonstrated the inadequacy of existing morphological-based classifications within Actiniaria. Superfamilial groups and most families and genera that have been rigorously studied are not monophyletic, indicating conflict with the current hierarchical classification. We test the monophyly of Actiniaria using two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes with multiple analytical methods. These analyses are the first to include representatives of all three currently-recognized suborders within Actiniaria. We do not recover Actiniaria as a monophyletic clade: the deep-sea anemone Boloceroides daphneae, previously included within the infraorder Boloceroidaria, is resolved outside of Actiniaria in several of the analyses. We erect a new genus and family for B. daphneae, and rank this taxon incerti ordinis. Based on our comprehensive phylogeny, we propose a new formal higher-level classification for Actiniaria composed of only two suborders, Anenthemonae and Enthemonae. Suborder Anenthemonae includes actiniarians with a unique arrangement of mesenteries (members of Edwardsiidae and former suborder Endocoelantheae. Suborder Enthemonae includes actiniarians with the typical arrangement of mesenteries for actiniarians (members of former suborders Protantheae, Ptychodacteae, and Nynantheae and subgroups therein. We also erect subgroups within these two newly

  17. Integrated approach to fire safety at the Krsko nuclear power plant - fire protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Cerjak, J.; Spiler, J.; Ioannidi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPP Krsko) is a Westinghouse design, single-unit, 1882 Megawatt thermal (MWt), two-loop, pressurized water nuclear power plant. The fire protection program at NPP Krsko has been reviewed and reports issued recommending changes and modifications to the program, plant systems and structures. Three reports were issued, the NPP Krsko Fire Hazard Analysis (Safe Shout down Separation Analysis Report), the ICISA Analysis of Core Damage Frequency Due to Fire at the NPP Krsko and IPEEE (Individual Plant External Event Examination) related to fire risk. The Fire Hazard Analysis Report utilizes a compliance - based deterministic approach to identification of fire area hazards. This report focuses on strict compliance from the perspective of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), standards, guidelines and acceptance criteria and does not consider variations to comply with the intent of the regulations. The probabilistic analysis methide used in the ICISA and IPEEE report utilizes a risk based nad intent based approach in determining critical at-risk fire areas. NPP Krsko has already completed the following suggestions/recommendations from the above and OSART reports in order to comply with Appendix R: Installation of smoke detectors in the Control Room; Installation of Emergency Lighting in some plant areas and of Remote Shout down panels; Extension of Sound Power Communication System; Installation of Fire Annunciator Panel at the On-site Fire Brigade Station; Installation of Smoke Detection System in the (a) Main Control Room Panels, (b) Essential Service Water Building. (c) Component Cooling Building pump area, chiller area and HVAC area, (d) Auxiliary Building Safety pump rooms, (e) Fuel Handling room, (f) Intermediate Building AFFW area and compressor room, and (g) Tadwaste building; inclusion of Auxiliary operators in the Fire Brigade; training of Fire Brigade Members in Plant Operation (9 week course); Development of Fire Door Inspection and

  18. Utilizing Multi-Sensor Fire Detections to Map Fires in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S. M.; Picotte, J. J.; Coan, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project began a cooperative effort between the US Forest Service (USFS) and the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess burn severity all large fires that have occurred in the United States since 1984. Using Landsat imagery, MTBS is mandated to map wildfire and prescribed fire that meet specific size criteria: greater than 1000 acres in the west and 500 acres in the east, regardless of ownership. Relying mostly on federal and state fire occurrence records, over 15,300 individual fires have been mapped. While mapping recorded fires, an additional 2,700 "unknown" or undocumented fires were discovered and assessed. It has become apparent that there are perhaps thousands of undocumented fires in the US that are yet to be mapped. Fire occurrence records alone are inadequate if MTBS is to provide a comprehensive accounting of fire across the US. Additionally, the sheer number of fires to assess has overwhelmed current manual procedures. To address these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Applied Sciences Program is helping to fund the efforts of the USGS and its MTBS partners (USFS, National Park Service) to develop, and implement a system to automatically identify fires using satellite data. In near real time, USGS will combine active fire satellite detections from MODIS, AVHRR and GOES satellites with Landsat acquisitions. Newly acquired Landsat imagery will be routinely scanned to identify freshly burned area pixels, derive an initial perimeter and tag the burned area with the satellite date and time of detection. Landsat imagery from the early archive will be scanned to identify undocumented fires. Additional automated fire assessment processes will be developed. The USGS will develop these processes using open source software packages in order to provide freely available tools to local land managers providing them with the capability to assess fires at the local level.

  19. [Economic impact of etanercept and adalimumab biosimilars on hospitals scale covered by PharmAlp'Ain, a hospitals grouping of orders for health products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berreur, B; Guerin, F; Christophe, B; Limido, G; Paubel, P

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the economic impact of future prescriptions of etanercept and adalimumab biosimilars at the territorial scale covered by PharmAlp'Ain, a hospitals grouping of orders for health products. Determination of the number and status of patients (naive or in continuation of treatment) from the National Database "Datamart de Consommation Inter-Régimes" of health insurance, concerned by a dispensation in a pharmacy of etanercept or adalimumab in 2015. Calculation of potential savings in case of biosimilar requirements according to 3 hypotheses: 63% (rate observed in a previous study) of initiations are treated with biosimiliaries and the others by princeps (H 1 ); all initiations under biosimilars and continuation therapy with the princeps (H 2 ) or all patients are treated with biosimilars (H 3 ). The annual savings are estimated at 237,000 € with the H 1 hypothesis. In the case of H 2 , the expected savings would be 376,200 € per year. In the case of H 3 , savings for the community could reach almost 1,282,800 € per year. The arrival of biosimilars allows significant savings for medicines market. According to the French recommendations in 2016, the expected savings are between the H 1 and H 2 hypothesis. The rate of penetration of biosimilars depends on many factors such as the involvement of health professionals, patient adherence, or health authority recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of the fire PSA methodology and the fire analysis computer code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsunori, Ogura; Tomomichi, Ito; Tsuyoshi, Uchida; Yusuke, Kasagawa

    2009-01-01

    Fire PSA methodology has been developed and was applied to NPPs in Japan for power operation and LPSD states. CDFs of preliminary fire PSA for power operation were the higher than that of internal events. Fire propagation analysis code system (CFAST/FDS Network) was being developed and verified thru OECD-PRISME Project. Extension of the scope for LPSD state is planned to figure out the risk level. In order to figure out the fire risk level precisely, the enhancement of the methodology is planned. Verification and validation of phenomenological fire propagation analysis code (CFAST/FDS Network) in the context of Fire PSA. Enhancement of the methodology such as an application of 'Electric Circuit Analysis' in NUREG/CR-6850 and related tests in order to quantify the hot-short effect precisely. Development of seismic-induced fire PSA method being integration of existing seismic PSA and fire PSA methods is ongoing. Fire PSA will be applied to review the validity of fire prevention and mitigation measures

  1. Fire hazards evaluation for light duty utility arm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUCKFELDT, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A, Fire Protection, a Fire Hazards Analysis must be performed for all new facilities. LMHC Fire Protection has reviewed and approved the significant documentation leading up to the LDUA operation. This includes, but is not limited to, development criteria and drawings, Engineering Task Plan, Quality Assurance Program Plan, and Safety Program Plan. LMHC has provided an appropriate level of fire protection for this activity as documented

  2. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  3. Perspective methods of fire and explosion protection of 'Ukrytie' object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhmatov, V.D.; Potikha, V.M.; Shkarabura, N.G.

    1999-01-01

    There are 5 atomic power stations in Ukraine-Chernobyl, Zaporozhe, Rivne, Khmelnytsk, Yuzhnoukrainsk. Fire statistics on them: 1993 - 5 fires, 1994 - 2, 1995 - 2, 1996 - 3, 1997-98 no fires. The most valuable unique experience, accumulated in Ukraine, -is extinguishing of different fires, arising in the radioactive zone. There were the following kinds of fires: burning roof of the 4-th bloc; forest fires; fires in cable tunnels; spilled oil in wrecked constructions and buildings. Professional impulse fire-extinguisher is one of the most perspective developments. These fire-extinguishers have high power, range and scale of action. They are universal: able to solve different tasks in extinguishing, to decontaminate, for group and individual light and heat protection, for preventing explosions of dust and gas of up to 50 m 3 volume and in the open space

  4. Thermal Radiation for Structural Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    The lecture notes give a short introduction of the theory of thermal radiation. The most elementary concepts and methods are presented in order to give a fundamental knowledge for calculation of the load bearing capacities of fire exposed building constructions....

  5. Climate change impact on landscape fire and forest biomass dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve current understandings of fire regimes. The estimation of biomass dynamics at the stand scale is essential for understanding landscape scale biomass dynamics, particularly in order to understand the potential effects of fire regimes. This study presented a synthesis of research results obtained from stand scale studies together with fire behaviour and weather variables. Landscape structure, topography and climate conditions were also considered. Integration of the data was conducted with the SEM-LAND model, a spatially explicit model for landscape dynamics. Equations for the model were presented, including fire initiation and spread, as well as a lightning fire process and simulated fire suppression. Results indicated that fire suppression could alter the distribution of fire sizes. The effect of tree and stand mortality on forest biomass estimates was also discussed along with the impact of climate change on fire regimes. Results indicate that fire activities are likely to increase. Results also demonstrate that fire frequency and size distribution are correlated without human intervention. Theoretical negative exponential forest age distribution is not always supported by empirical observations. Point-based fire frequency and fire cycle definitions are special cases from a computational perspective. Detection of quantitative interrelationships may simplify preconditions for estimating fire regimes, and serve as a means to address incomplete empirical observations. 12 refs., 3 figs

  6. Modelling the meteorological forest fire niche in heterogeneous pyrologic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Antonella; Ricotta, Carlo; Conedera, Marco; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris

    2015-01-01

    Fire regimes are strongly related to weather conditions that directly and indirectly influence fire ignition and propagation. Identifying the most important meteorological fire drivers is thus fundamental for daily fire risk forecasting. In this context, several fire weather indices have been developed focussing mainly on fire-related local weather conditions and fuel characteristics. The specificity of the conditions for which fire danger indices are developed makes its direct transfer and applicability problematic in different areas or with other fuel types. In this paper we used the low-to-intermediate fire-prone region of Canton Ticino as a case study to develop a new daily fire danger index by implementing a niche modelling approach (Maxent). In order to identify the most suitable weather conditions for fires, different combinations of input variables were tested (meteorological variables, existing fire danger indices or a combination of both). Our findings demonstrate that such combinations of input variables increase the predictive power of the resulting index and surprisingly even using meteorological variables only allows similar or better performances than using the complex Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI). Furthermore, the niche modelling approach based on Maxent resulted in slightly improved model performance and in a reduced number of selected variables with respect to the classical logistic approach. Factors influencing final model robustness were the number of fire events considered and the specificity of the meteorological conditions leading to fire ignition.

  7. A fire risk analysis method for nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormieres, Yannick; Lacoue, Jocelyne [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SA2I, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2013-07-01

    A fire safety analysis (FSA) is requested to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures set by the operator of a nuclear facility. An IRSN document outlines a global process for such a comprehensive fire safety analysis and focuses on compliance with performance criteria for fire protection measures. These performance criteria are related to the vulnerability of targets to effects of fire, and not only based upon outside radiological consequences caused by a fire. In his FSA, the operator has to define the safety functions to be preserved in the case of a fire in order to be compliant with nuclear safety objectives. Then, the operator has to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures, defined according to defence in depth principles. One of the key points of the fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. Given the large number of possible fire scenarios, it is then necessary to evaluate ''reference fires'' which are envelope of all possible fire scenarios and which are used by the operator for the design of fire protection measures. (orig.)

  8. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  9. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  10. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  11. The impact of state fire safe cigarette policies on fire fatalities, injuries, and incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folz, David H; Shults, Chris

    Cigarettes are a leading cause of civilian deaths in home fires. Over the last decade, state fire service leaders and allied interest groups succeeded in persuading state lawmakers to require manufacturers to sell only low-ignition strength or "fire safe" cigarettes as a strategy to reduce these fatalities and the injuries and losses that stem from them. This article examines whether the states' fire safe cigarette laws actually helped to save lives, prevent injuries, and reduce the incidence of home fires ignited by cigarettes left unattended by smokers. Controlling for the effects of key demographic, social, economic, and housing variables, this study finds that the states' fire-safe cigarette policies had significant impacts on reducing the rate of smoking-related civilian fire deaths and the incidence of fires started by tobacco products. The findings also suggest that the states' fire safe cigarette policies may have helped to reduce the rate of smoking-related fire injuries. The study shows that collective actions by leaders in the fire service across the states can result in meaningful policy change that protects lives and advances public safety even when a political consensus for action is absent at the national level.

  12. Analysis of Fire Data in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Al-Jabri

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to illustrate the problem of fire accidents in the Sultanate of Oman and their causes in order to find out how the existing data could be used as a base to improve fire resistance, to detect the weak points (vulnerability to fire in existing structures, and to minimize fire occurrences in places where it is high. This will also provide useful recommendations with regard to fire safety including causes, people’s awareness and education, etc.  Fire data in Oman were collected from two sources: The Directorate General of Civil Defence (Public Relations Department and Sultan Qaboos University library. The collected data represent the number of fires in Oman during the last decade.  It also includes fire distribution by type and averages.  The analysis shows that there is a linear increase in the number of fire accidents in the last decade with time.  Many factors are included as potential sources, which are explained in the paper, and suggestions are made for possible control.

  13. Fire Resistance Tests of Various Fire Protective Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas GRIGONIS

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Tests were carried out on more than 14 different samples of fire protective coatings in order to investigate a relation between the thickness of the intumescent fire protection coating and the time of exposure to heat. A number of coatings of different chemical composition enabled to determine the fire resistance behaviour patterns. During test the one-side and volumetric methods were employed in observance of the standard temperature-time curves. For one-side method, the coating was applied on one side and all edges of the specimen, whereas for volumetric test the specimens were completely covered with fire protective coating. It is shown that a layer of coating protects the specimen's surface from heat exposure for a certain period of time until full oxidation of the coating occurs. The efficiency of fire protective coatings also depends on thickness of the charred layer of the side exposed to heat.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.257

  14. 7 CFR 30.12 - Fire-cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire-cure. 30.12 Section 30.12 Agriculture Regulations... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.12 Fire-cure. To cure tobacco under artificial atmospheric conditions by the use of open fires, the smoke and...

  15. Foam for combating mine fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-09-01

    The application of foam in dealing with underground fire is well known due to its smothering action by cutting off air feed to burning fuel as well as acting as coolant. Besides plugging air feed to fire, water could be virtually reached to the fire affected areas much beyond the jet range as underground galleries with low roof restrict jet range of water. This method also enables a closer approach of a fire fighting team by isolating the toxic gases and smoke with a foam plug. The paper describes the development of high expansion foam composition and its application technology in order that foam plug method can be suitably utilized for combating mine fires in India. Three compositions were recommended for generation of high expansion foam: (a) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulphate, 0.15 to 0.2% sodium carboxy methyl cellulose, 0.1% booster; (b) 0.5% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.12 to 0.15% alkaline solution of gum arabic, 0.1 to 0.2% ferrous gluconate; and (c) 0.35% sodium/ammonium lauryl sulfate, 0.20% booster, 0.2% xylene sulfonate.

  16. Parametric Fires for Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants and contra......The authorities, the construction association, and a number of companies in Denmark have supported the author writing a guide for design of building structures for parametric fires. The guide is published by the ministry as a supplement to the building regulations. However, consultants...... and contractors have asked for a reference in English in order to make the guide-lines and the background for them available internationally. The paper therefore presents recommendations from the design guide especially concerning how to assess parametric design fires based on the opening factor method for large...... compartments. Findings leading to the guide-lines are discussed, and it is indicated what a safe design fire model means for structural design and how it differs from a safe design fire model for evacuation. Furthermore, the paper includes some experiences from the application of the design guide in practise...

  17. Feasibility study for new ecolabels for the product group: Wood pellet firings. Final report; Machbarkeitsstudie fuer neue Umweltzeichen fuer die Produktgruppe: Holzpelletfeuerungen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, E.; Weiss, J.; Hirschl, B.

    2002-07-01

    This assessment is a feasibility study according to ISO 14024. It deals with the question whether an ecolabel is suitable for wood pellet heating systems and how concrete criteria for an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants could be specified. The study begins with a comprehensive market analysis in order to identify possible plants for which an ecolabel would make sense. In the main part of the study, the environmental relevance of the chosen plants is analysed. For this analysis, plant manufacturers were interviewed and a comparison between wood pellet heating systems and heating systems which use gas, oil or wood was carried out. On the basis of this analysis, it was possible to derive a number of criteria which were discussed with company representatives and other experts in this field. As a result of this dialogue and the investigation process as a whole, the introduction of an ecolabel for wood pellet heating plants can be recommended. Wood pellet heating systems are characterized by their high level of automatation and the use of standardized fuels with constant high quality. Thus, they reach high combustion quality with low emission rates, and risks of misuse are minimized. They may contribute to the increased use of renewable energies and thereby to the achievement of climate protection goals. The proposed certification principles comprise requirements regarding (a) the efficient energy use (efficiency factor under partial load and nominal load, plant's supplementary energy consumption), (b) emission values for CO, NO{sub x}, dust and organic substances, (c) the offer of additional services, as well as (d) requirements with regard to the operating instructions. The transcription of the label is proposed as 'Ecolabel.. because low emission and energy-efficient'. (orig.) [German] Beim vorliegenden Gutachten handelt es sich um eine Machbarkeitsstudie nach ISO 14024. Es behandelt die Frage, ob ein Umweltzeichen fuer Holzpelletfeuerungen

  18. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  19. SOLVENT FIRE BY-PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-05-22

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) conducted a burn test of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent to determine the combustion products. The testing showed hydrogen fluoride gas is not a combustion product from a solvent fire when up to 70% of the solvent is consumed. The absence of HF in the combustion gases may reflect concentration of the modifier containing the fluoride groups in the unburned portion. SwRI reported results for other gases (CO, HCN, NOx, formaldehyde, and hydrocarbons). The results, with other supporting information, can be used for evaluating the consequences of a facility fire involving the CSSX solvent inventory.

  20. Transport fire safety engineering in the European Union - project TRANSFEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Maria RADZISZEWSKA-WOLIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Article presents European Research project (of FP7-SST-2008-RTD-1 for Surface transportation TRANSFEU. Projects undertakes to deliver both a reliable toxicity measurement methodology and a holistic fire safety approach for all kind of surface transport. It bases on a harmonized Fire Safety Engineering methodology which link passive fire security with active fire security mode. This all embracing system is the key to attain optimum design solutions in respect to fire safety objectives as an alternative to the prescriptive approach. It will help in the development of innovative solutions (design and products used for the building of the surface transport which will better respect the environment.In order to reach these objectives new toxicity measurement methodology and related classification of materials, new numerical fire simulation tools, fire test methodology (laboratory and full scale and a decisive tool to optimize or explore new design in accordance to the fire safety requirements will be developed.

  1. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well beyond fire-fighting. It ranges from monitoring confined spaces to dealing with flooding and preventing chemical hazards. A wide range of equipment enables them to fulfil thei...

  2. Individual-level movement bias leads to the formation of higher-order social structure in a mobile group of baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tyler R; Clarke, Parry M; Henzi, S Peter; Barrett, Louise

    2017-07-01

    In mobile social groups, influence patterns driving group movement can vary between democratic and despotic. The arrival at any single pattern of influence is thought to be underpinned by both environmental factors and group composition. To identify the specific patterns of influence driving travel decision-making in a chacma baboon troop, we used spatially explicit data to extract patterns of individual movement bias. We scaled these estimates of individual-level bias to the level of the group by constructing an influence network and assessing its emergent structural properties. Our results indicate that there is heterogeneity in movement bias: individual animals respond consistently to particular group members, and higher-ranking animals are more likely to influence the movement of others. This heterogeneity resulted in a group-level network structure that consisted of a single core and two outer shells. Here, the presence of a core suggests that a set of highly interdependent animals drove routine group movements. These results suggest that heterogeneity at the individual level can lead to group-level influence structures, and that movement patterns in mobile social groups can add to the exploration of both how these structures develop (i.e. mechanistic aspects) and what consequences they have for individual- and group-level outcomes (i.e. functional aspects).

  3. Historical Fire Perimeters (2000 to 2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  4. Digitally controlled twelve-pulse firing generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berde, D.; Ferrara, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Control System Studies for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that accurate thyristor firing in the AC-to-DC conversion system is required in order to achieve good regulation of the various field currents. Rapid update and exact firing angle control are required to avoid instabilities, large eddy currents, or parasitic oscillations. The Prototype Firing Generator was designed to satisfy these requirements. To achieve the required /plus or minus/0.77/degree/firing accuracy, a three-phase-locked loop reference was designed; otherwise, the Firing Generator employs digital circuitry. The unit, housed in a standard CAMAC crate, operates under microcomputer control. Functions are performed under program control, which resides in nonvolatile read-only memory. Communication with CICADA control system is provided via an 11-bit parallel interface

  5. Impact of forest fires on particulate matter and ozone levels during the 2003, 2004 and 2005 fire seasons in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, V; Miranda, A I; Carvalho, A; Schaap, M; Borrego, C; Sá, E

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to estimate the impact of forest fires on air pollution applying the LOTOS-EUROS air quality modeling system in Portugal for three consecutive years, 2003-2005. Forest fire emissions have been included in the modeling system through the development of a numerical module, which takes into account the most suitable parameters for Portuguese forest fire characteristics and the burnt area by large forest fires. To better evaluate the influence of forest fires on air quality the LOTOS-EUROS system has been applied with and without forest fire emissions. Hourly concentration results have been compared to measure data at several monitoring locations with better modeling quality parameters when forest fire emissions were considered. Moreover, hourly estimates, with and without fire emissions, can reach differences in the order of 20%, showing the importance and the influence of this type of emissions on air quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards

  7. A fire hazard analysis at the Ignalina nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerud, F.; Magnusson, T.

    1998-01-01

    The fire hazard analysis (FHA) of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) Unit no.1 was initiated during 1997 and is estimated to finalise in summer 1998. The reason for starting a FHA was a recommendation in the Safety Analysis Report and its review to prioritise a systematic FHA. Fire protection improvements had earlier been based on engineering assessments, but further improvements required a systematic FHA. It is also required by the regulator for licensing of unit no.1. In preparation of the analysis it was decided to perform a deterministic FHA to fulfil the requirements in the IAEA draft of a Safety Practice ''Preparation of Fire Hazard Analyses for Nuclear Power Plants''. As a supporting document the United States Department of Energy Reactor Core Protection Evaluation Methodology for Fires at RBMK and WWER Nuclear Power Plants (RCPEM) was agreed to be used. The assistance of the project is performed as a bilateral activity between Sweden and UK. The project management is the responsibility of the INPP. In order to transfer knowledge to the INPP project group, training activities are arranged by the western team. The project will be documented as a safety case. The project consists of parties from INPP, Sweden, UK and Russia which makes the project very dependent of good communication procedures. The most difficult problems is except from the problems with translation, the problems with different standards and lack of testing protocols of the fire protection installations and problems to set the right level of screening criteria. There is also the new dimension of making it possible to take credit for the fire brigade in the safety case, which can bring the project into difficulties. The most interesting challenges for the project are to set the most sensible safety levels in the screening phase, to handle the huge volume of rooms for survey and screening, to maintain the good exchange of fire- and nuclear safety information between all the parties involved

  8. Fire analog: a comparison between fire plumes and energy center cooling tower plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orgill, M.M.

    1977-10-01

    Thermal plumes or convection columns associated with large fires are compared to thermal plumes from cooling towers and proposed energy centers to evaluate the fire analog concept. Energy release rates of mass fires are generally larger than for single or small groups of cooling towers but are comparable to proposed large energy centers. However, significant physical differences exist between cooling tower plumes and fire plumes. Cooling tower plumes are generally dominated by ambient wind, stability and turbulence conditions. Fire plumes, depending on burning rates and other factors, can transform into convective columns which may cause the fire behavior to become more violent. This transformation can cause strong inflow winds and updrafts, turbulence and concentrated vortices. Intense convective columns may interact with ambient winds to create significant downwind effects such as wakes and Karman vortex streets. These characteristics have not been observed with cooling tower plumes to date. The differences in physical characteristics between cooling tower and fire plumes makes the fire analog concept very questionable even though the approximate energy requirements appear to be satisfied in case of large energy centers. Additional research is suggested in studying the upper-level plume characteristics of small experimental fires so this information can be correlated with similar data from cooling towers. Numerical simulation of fires and proposed multiple cooling tower systems could also provide comparative data.

  9. A spatio-temporal analysis of fires in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Strydom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and history of fires in Africa has led to the continent being named "the fire continent". Fires are common on the continent and lead to a high number of annual fire disasters which result in many human fatalities and considerable financial loss. Increased population growth and concentrated settlement planning increase the probability of fire disasters and the associated loss of human life and financial loss when disasters occur. In order to better understand the spatial and temporal variations and characteristics of fires in South Africa, an 11-year data set of MODIS-derived Active Fire Hotspots was analysed using an open source geographic information system. The study included the mapping of national fire frequency over the 11-year period. Results indicate that the highest fire frequency occurred in the northeastern regions of South Africa, in particular the mountainous regions of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga, and in the Western Cape. Increasing trends in provincial fire frequency were observed in eight of the nine provinces of South Africa, with Mpumalanga the only province for which a decrease in annual fire frequency was observed. Temporally, fires were observed in all months for all provinces, although distinct fire seasons were observed and were largely driven by rainfall seasons. The southwestern regions of South Africa (winter-rainfall regions experienced higher fire frequencies during the summer months and the rest of the country (summer-rainfall regions during the winter months. Certain regions those which experienced bimodal rainfall seasons did not display distinct fire seasons because of the complex wet and dry seasons. Investigation into the likely effects of climate change on South African fire frequency revealed that increased air temperatures and events such as La Niña have a marked effect on fire activity.

  10. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  11. A review of fire interactions and mass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Sara S. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire...

  12. Review of the IAEA fire symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA Symposium on Fire Protection and Fire Fighting in Nuclear Installations covered a large scope in the field in order to provide the opportunity for screening all aspects of present technology, research and development, standardization, licensing and fire fighting practices. Although application to any nuclear facility was within its scope, the majority of presentations concerned nuclear power plants. The approach to fire protection is the classical one in all plant designs: reduction of fire loads, appropriate zoning, manual and automatic extinguishment. However, methods of analysis and consequence prediction are changing. Computerized fire modelling is becoming a powerful tool in this area; probabilistic analytical methods are being improved, though they are not yet used widely for fire hazards. Differences in opinion were revealed in the definition of barrier resistance, the prediction of cable insulation behaviour and the optimal design of extinguishing systems. Greater international co-operation, especially in these areas, may be a good way of optimizing results with limited resources. Discussion contributions showed interest in exchange of experience in more specialized topics and encouraged the IAEA to increase its activity in the area of fire protection. (orig.)

  13. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  14. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  15. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  16. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  17. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  18. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  19. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  20. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  1. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  2. The OECD FIRE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angner, A.; Berg, H.P.; Roewekamp, M.; Werner, W.; Gauvain, J.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic modelling of fire scenarios is still difficult due to the scarcity of reliable data needed for deterministic and probabilistic fire safety analysis. Therefore, it has been recognized as highly important to establish a fire event database on an international level. In consequence, several member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have decided in 2000 to establish the International Fire Data Exchange Project (OECD FIRE) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data related to fire events at nuclear power plants. This paper presents the OECD FIRE project objectives, work scope and current status of the OECD FIRE database after 3 years of operation as well as first preliminary statistical insights gained from the collected data. (orig.)

  3. Blast/fire interactions: Asilomar conference, April 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.B.; Alger, R.S.

    1981-08-01

    This report summarizes the proceedings of the FEMA-sponsored conference on blast/fire research held April 20-24, 1981, at Asilomar, California. This conference, the fourth of our annual series, convened a select group of authorities on fire effects, airblast effects, structural responses, and related technologies to explore avenues of research for remedying the technical deficiencies that limit analytical progress and to seek means for providing interim guidance to mitigation planning and countermeasure implementation. A redirected R and D program (derived by consensus of conferee recommendations) that appears consistent with national priorities and the perceived urgency for increased national security is offered. Program elements are listed in priority order, and contingent levels of funding are provided to aid FEMA budgetary planning

  4. CAFE: A Computer Tool for Accurate Simulation of the Regulatory Pool Fire Environment for Type B Packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritzo, L.A.; Koski, J.A.; Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    The Container Analysis Fire Environment computer code (CAFE) is intended to provide Type B package designers with an enhanced engulfing fire boundary condition when combined with the PATRAN/P-Thermal commercial code. Historically an engulfing fire boundary condition has been modeled as σT 4 where σ is the Stefan-Boltzman constant, and T is the fire temperature. The CAFE code includes the necessary chemistry, thermal radiation, and fluid mechanics to model an engulfing fire. Effects included are the local cooling of gases that form a protective boundary layer that reduces the incoming radiant heat flux to values lower than expected from a simple σT 4 model. In addition, the effect of object shape on mixing that may increase the local fire temperature is included. Both high and low temperature regions that depend upon the local availability of oxygen are also calculated. Thus the competing effects that can both increase and decrease the local values of radiant heat flux are included in a reamer that is not predictable a-priori. The CAFE package consists of a group of computer subroutines that can be linked to workstation-based thermal analysis codes in order to predict package performance during regulatory and other accident fire scenarios

  5. High resolution fire risk mapping in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorucci, Paolo; Biondi, Guido; Campo, Lorenzo; D'Andrea, Mirko

    2014-05-01

    The high topographic and vegetation heterogeneity makes Italy vulnerable to forest fires both in the summer and in winter. In particular, northern regions are predominantly characterized by a winter fire regime, mainly due to frequent extremely dry winds from the north, while southern and central regions and the large islands are characterized by a severe summer fire regime, because of the higher temperatures and prolonged lack of precipitation. The threat of wildfires in Italy is not confined to wooded areas as they extend to agricultural areas and urban-forest interface areas. The agricultural and rural areas, in the last century, have been gradually abandoned, especially in areas with complex topography. Many of these areas were subject to reforestation, leading to the spread of pioneer species mainly represented by Mediterranean conifer, which are highly vulnerable to fire. Because of the frequent spread of fire, these areas are limited to the early successional stages, consisting mainly of shrub vegetation; its survival in the competition with the climax species being ensured by the spread of fire itself. Due to the frequency of fire ignition — almost entirely man caused — the time between fires on the same area is at least an order of magnitude less than the time that would allow the establishment of forest climax species far less vulnerable to fire. In view of the limited availability of fire risk management resources, most of which are used in the management of national and regional air services, it is necessary to precisely identify the areas most vulnerable to fire risk. The few resources available can thus be used on a yearly basis to mitigate problems in the areas at highest risk by defining a program of forest management interventions, which is expected to make a significant contribution to the problem in a few years' time. The goal of such detailed planning is to dramatically reduce the costs associated with water bombers fleet management and fire

  6. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  7. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  8. Loft fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.R.; Jensen, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Quantified criteria that was developed and applied to provide in-depth fire protection for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility are presented. The presentation describes the evolution process that elevated the facility's fire protection from minimal to that required for a highly protected risk or improved risk. Explored are some infrequently used fire protection measures that are poorly understood outside the fire protection profession

  9. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  10. Fourmile Canyon Fire Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Graham; Mark Finney; Chuck McHugh; Jack Cohen; Dave Calkin; Rick Stratton; Larry Bradshaw; Ned Nikolov

    2012-01-01

    The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned in the fall of 2010 in the Rocky Mountain Front Range adjacent to Boulder, Colorado. The fire occurred in steep, rugged terrain, primarily on privately owned mixed ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. The fire started on September 6 when the humidity of the air was very dry (¡Ö

  11. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  12. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  13. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  14. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  15. Cost of two fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the protection of nuclear sites in connection with the fires in summer of 2000 near two greatest nuclear sites: the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory located on the site of Hanford Nuclear Center, and Los Alamos National Laboratory is considered. Both fires occur beyond the Laboratories. Undertaken urgent procedures for fire fighting and recovery of the objects are characterized [ru

  16. The interaction of fire and mankind: Introduction†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloner, William G.

    2016-01-01

    Fire has been an important part of the Earth system for over 350 Myr. Humans evolved in this fiery world and are the only animals to have used and controlled fire. The interaction of mankind with fire is a complex one, with both positive and negative aspects. Humans have long used fire for heating, cooking, landscape management and agriculture, as well as for pyrotechnologies and in industrial processes over more recent centuries. Many landscapes need fire but population expansion into wildland areas creates a tension between different interest groups. Extinguishing wildfires may not always be the correct solution. A combination of factors, including the problem of invasive plants, landscape change, climate change, population growth, human health, economic, social and cultural attitudes that may be transnational make a re-evaluation of fire and mankind necessary. The Royal Society meeting on Fire and mankind was held to address these issues and the results of these deliberations are published in this volume. This article is part of the themed issue ‘The interaction of fire and mankind’. PMID:27216519

  17. The correspondence concerning fire protection regulation for operating reactors (separation flame test of unpurified cables)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Takayasu; Miyakoshi, Hirohisa; Goto, Masami

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are taking fire protection measures taking into account past findings about the effects of fire by the demonstration test in order to maintain the safety of nuclear power plant in the event of a fire. The objective of the demonstration test described in this paper is to obtain advanced knowledge about over current fire of unqualified cable to be applied to fire protection measures. (author)

  18. Fire barrier problems-part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verna, B.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article deals with problems associated with a thermal barrier material called Thermo-Lag 330. Typically in nuclear applications this material is used to provide either 1 hour (1/2 inch thick) or 3 hour (1 inch thick) barriers to prevent the spread of fires between redundant safety systems, and to protect cable trays and conduit. The article reviews concerns within the nuclear industry as to the proper handling of the material, how to interpret the data available on the material, the apparant conflicting assessments of the material when tested by different groups, etc. Research is ongoing on the suitability of the material, but the article points out that the manufacturer feels it should be installed by properly trained installers, the joints sealed with a grouting material, properly bundled to maintain its integrity, have a complete stress skin, and not be walked on after installation in order to function properly

  19. Investigation of Fire Safety Awareness and Management in Mall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of having sufficient fire safety system installed in buildings, the incidence of fire hazard becomes the furthermost and supreme threat to health and safety, as well as property to any community. In order to make sure that the safety of the building and its users, the fundamental features depends on the fire precaution system and equipment which should be according to the standard requirements. Nevertheless, the awareness on fire safety could necessarily alleviate the damages or rate of fatality during the event of fire. This paper presents the results on the investigation of fire safety awareness and management, concentrating on shopping mall. The endeavour of this study is to explore the level of fire safety knowledge of the users in the mall, and to study the effectiveness level of fire safety management in a mall. From the study, public awareness is highly related to understanding human behaviour and their personal background. The respondents’ levels of awareness are rather low, which reflects on their poor action when facing emergency situation during fire. The most effective methods identified to improve the awareness and effectiveness of fire safety level is through involvement in related fire safety programmes, distribution of pamphlets or brochures on fire safety and appointing specific personnel for Emergency Response Team in the mall.

  20. PREFER: a European service providing forest fire management support products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftychidis, George; Laneve, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Fabrizio; Sebastian Lopez, Ana; Lourenco, Louciano; Clandillon, Stephen; Tampellini, Lucia; Hirn, Barbara; Diagourtas, Dimitris; Leventakis, George

    2015-06-01

    PREFER is a Copernicus project of the EC-FP7 program which aims developing spatial information products that may support fire prevention and burned areas restoration decisions and establish a relevant web-based regional service for making these products available to fire management stakeholders. The service focuses to the Mediterranean region, where fire risk is high and damages from wildfires are quite important, and develop its products for pilot areas located in Spain, Portugal, Italy, France and Greece. PREFER aims to allow fire managers to have access to online resources, which shall facilitate fire prevention measures, fire hazard and risk assessment, estimation of fire impact and damages caused by wildfire as well as support monitoring of post-fire regeneration and vegetation recovery. It makes use of a variety of products delivered by space borne sensors and develop seasonal and daily products using multi-payload, multi-scale and multi-temporal analysis of EO data. The PREFER Service portfolio consists of two main suite of products. The first refers to mapping products for supporting decisions concerning the Preparedness/Prevention Phase (ISP Service). The service delivers Fuel, Hazard and Fire risk maps for this purpose. Furthermore the PREFER portfolio includes Post-fire vegetation recovery, burn scar maps, damage severity and 3D fire damage assessment products in order to support relative assessments required in context of the Recovery/Reconstruction Phase (ISR Service) of fire management.

  1. A furnace for firing carbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudavskii, A M

    1979-12-05

    A furnace for firing carbon products is patented that consists of several chambers with a perforated hearth, which are interconnected by a lower and an upper reservoir with a locking fixture, and a flue. In order to intensify the firing process by increasing the specific hearth productivity, the flue is connected to the upper reservoir. A block diagram of the patented furnace is given, together with a description of its operation.

  2. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Literature study regarding fire protection in nuclear power plants. Part I: Fire rated separations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaksson, S.

    1995-06-01

    This literature study has been made on behalf of the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. The aim is to describe different aspects of fire protection in nuclear power plants. Conventional building codes can not give guidance on where to make fire rated separations in order to separate redundant trains of safety systems. The separation must originate in functional demands from the authorities on what functions are essential during and after a fire, and under what circumstances these functions shall be retained, i.e. the number of independent faults and initiating events. As a basic demand it is suggested to rate the strength of separations according to conventional building code, based on fire load. The whole separating construction shall have the same fire rating, including the ventilation system. Deviations from the basic demand can de done in case it can be proven that it is possible to compensate some or all of the fire rating with other measures. There is a general lack of statistical information regarding the reliability of fire separating constructions such as walls, fire doors, penetration seals and fire dampers. The amount of cables penetrating a seal is in many cases much higher in real installations than what has been tested for type approval. It would therefore be valuable to perform a furnace test with a more representative amount of cables passing through a penetration seal. Tests have shown that the 20 foot horizontal separation distance stipulated by NRC is not a guarantee against fire damage. Spatial separations based on general requirements shall not be allowed, but considered from case to case based on actual circumstances. For fire protection by isolation or coatings, it is of great importance to choose the method of protection carefully, to be compatible with the material it shall be applied on, and the environment and types of fire that may occur. 48 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  4. Fire resistant aircraft seat materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabold, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The establishment of a technical data base for individual seat materials in order to facilitate materials selections is reviewed. The thermal response of multi-layer constructions representative of the basic functional layers of a typical future seat is examined. These functional layers include: (1) decorative fabric cover; (2) slip sheet (topper); (3) fire blocking layer; (4) cushion reinforcement; and (5) cushioning layer. The implications for material selection for full-scale seats are discussed.

  5. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  6. Fire regimes of quaking aspen in the Mountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Baker, William L.; Rogers, Paul C.; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    settings and correlated aspen functional types. We propose the following aspen fire regime types: (1) fire-independent, stable aspen; (2) fire-influenced, stable aspen; (3) fire-dependent, seral, conifer-aspen mix; (4) fire-dependent, seral, montane aspen-conifer; and (5) fire-dependent, seral, subalpine aspen-conifer. Closing research gaps and validating our proposed aspen fire regime classification will likely require additional site-specific research, enhanced dendrochronology techniques, charcoal and pollen record analysis, spatially-explicit modeling, and other techniques. We hope to encourage development of site-appropriate disturbance ecology characterizations, in order to aid efforts to manage and restore aspen communities and to diagnose key factors contributing to changes in aspen.

  7. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  8. Il sistema FIRE-SAT per il monitoraggio post-incendio: il caso-studio dell'incendio di Potenza del 21-23 luglio 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lanorte

    2017-12-01

    FIRE-SAT monitoring system was applied to a fire event which developed in a wildland-urban interface area of the Potenza town (Basilicata, Italy on July 2015, in order to assess the fire occurrence danger, to evaluate the fire effects and to simulate the fire propagation.

  9. Fire behaviour of cooling tower packing; Brandverhalten von Kuehlturmeinbauten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattausch, Tim [DMT GmbH und Co. KG, Dortmund (Germany). Fachstelle fuer Brandschutz

    2013-10-01

    The rapid burning down of the cooling tower of the shutdown power plant in Schwandorf revealed the potential of a total loss of a cooling tower in case of fire. VGB ordered a research project in order to obtain more knowledge about the fire risk of cooling tower packing currently applied. Depending on kind and age of the plastics used, the results of these tests manifest a big variation of the fire behaviour. For the applications of plastics, it is essential to determine and to adhere to organisational fire protection measures. (orig.)

  10. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  11. Prevention of cable fires in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murota, George; Yajima, Kazuo

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear power generation is indispensable to secure required electric power, therefore double or triple safety measures are necessary to prevent serious accidents absolutely. As for the countermeasures to cable fires, interest grew rapidly with the fire in Browns Ferry Power Station in USA in 1975 as the turning point, because multi-strand grouped cables caused to promote the spread of fire. In Japan, also the fire prevention measures for wires and cables were more strengthened, and the measures for preventing the spread of cable fires with the agent preventing the spread of fires have occupied the important position. When multi-strand cables are ignited by some cause, the fire spreads with very large combustion force along wirings to other rooms and installations, and electric systems are broken down. The harmful corrosive gas generated from the burning coating materials of cables diffuses very quickly. In nuclear power stations, the cables which are very hard to burn are adopted, fire prevention sections are established positively, the fire-resisting capability of fire prevention barriers is reviewed, and fire-resisting and smoke-preventing treatments are applied to the parts where cables penetrate walls, floors or ceilings. The paint and the sealing material which prevent the spread of fires are introduced. (Kako, I.)

  12. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  13. Estimation of fire frequency from PWR operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Barrachin, G.; Bonino, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of a fire probabilistic safety assessment (Fire PSA), the French Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for estimating the frequency of fire in a nuclear power plant room. This method is based on the analysis of French Pressurized Water Reactors operating experience. The method adopted consists is carrying out an in-depth analysis of fire-related incidents. A database has been created including 202 fire events reported in 900 MWe and 1300 MWe reactors from the start of their commercial operation up to the first of March 1994, which represents a cumulated service life of 508 reactor-years. For each reported fire, several data were recorded among which: The operating state of the reactor in the stage preceding the fire, the building in which the fire broke out, the piece of equipment or the human intervention which caused the fire. Operating experience shows that most fires are initiated by electrical problems (short-circuits, arcing, faulty contacts, etc.) and that human intervention also plays an important role (grinding, cutting, welding, cleaning, etc.). A list of equipment and of human interventions which proved to be possible fire sources was therefore drawn up. the items of this list were distributed in 19 reference groups defined by taking into account the nature of the potential ignition source (transformers, electrical cabinets, pumps, fans, etc.). The fire frequency assigned to each reference group was figured out using the operating experience information of the database. The fire frequency in a room is considered to be made out of two contributions: one due to equipment which is proportional to the number of pieces of equipment from each reference group contained in the room, and a second one which is due to human interventions and assumed to be uniform throughout the reactor. Formulas to assess the fire frequencies in a room, the reactor being in a shutdown state or at power, are then proposed

  14. Adinkras from ordered quartets of BC4 Coxeter group elements and regarding another Gadget’s 1,358,954,496 matrix elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, S. James; Kang, Lucas; Kessler, David S.; Korotkikh, Vadim

    2018-04-01

    A Gadget, more precisely a scalar Gadget, is defined as a mathematical calculation acting over a domain of one or more adinkra graphs and whose range is a real number. A 2010 work on the subject of automorphisms of adinkra graphs, implied the existence of multiple numbers of Gadgets depending on the number of colors under consideration. For four colors, this number is two. In this work, we verify the existence of a second such Gadget and calculate (both analytically and via explicit computer-enabled algorithms) its 1,358,954,496 matrix elements over 36,864 minimal valise adinkras related to the Coxeter Group BC4.

  15. Fire protection for telecommunications central offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, L.A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The provision of continuous, uninterrupted telecommunications service is vital to modern life. In order to provide uninterrupted service to customers, a service continuity program has been in place with AT and T for many years. This program integrates many different protection strategies and plans, each designed to mitigate one of the many threats to service continuity. The fire protection program implemented within AT and T is a part of this service continuity program. In the design of this program, a number of unusual problems had to be addressed due to the service continuity requirements. Typical solutions to fire protection problems (ignition prevention, detection, and suppression) which are embodied in building and fire prevention codes are inadequate to provide service continuity. This presentation outlines the basic arrangement of a telecommunications central office, the specific fire protection problems encountered, the fire protection philosophy developed through the use of a systems approach, and the implementation of the fire protection program. Special emphasis is placed on the strategies employed in lieu of more traditional fire protection schemes and the stimuli for selecting them

  16. Discovery Mondays - Men of fire: the fire brigade show their mettle

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Flashover and backdraught, these technical terms refer to two of the most dangerous phenomena associated with fires. In order to train in dealing with them, in the course of their fire fighting duties the CERN fire brigade use special simulation equipment. The demonstrations are rather spectacular... Thrills are therefore guaranteed at the next Discovery Monday on 2 February! In the course of the evening, you will see fire-fighters demonstrate climbing techniques including abseiling, a method they would have to use to access underground structures on the CERN site in the event of an accident. The accomplished climbers (the Hazardous Environments Response Team) will provide detailed explanations of the rescue techniques and procedures they use in tunnels and hazardous environments. CERN firemen simulate the backdraft phenomena for training. The demonstration, which you will have the opportunity to observe, on the next Discovery Monday, is spectacular. However, the remit of the CERN fire brigade goes well b...

  17. [Experiences of Life and Work of a Group of Epidemiologists in Training in Order to Address Mental Health Problems and Issues at Local and Departmental Level. Medellin, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, María Osley Garzón; Bernal, Diana Restrepo; Cardona, Doris Alejandra Segura; Vargas, Alejandra Valencia; Salas, Ivony Agudelo; Quintero, Lina Marcela Salazar

    2014-01-01

    To examine, from the point of view of a group of epidemiologists in training, their life experiences and work related to addressing mental health problems and mental health issues. An exploratory qualitative-descriptive study was conducted using ethnographic tools, non-participant observation, note-taking, and group interviews (FG). The participants mentioned that mental health and mental health issues are managed and poorly differentiated either by them and the community in general. They also said they were not ready to handle mental problems, or have the support of services for patient care, as mental health issues have not yet been clearly dimensioned by society. Epidemiology has its limitations, it focuses on knowledge of the physical-biological aspects and the use of quantitative approach with poor integration of the qualitative approach, thus hindering the understanding of a phenomenon that exceeds the limits of a research approach. This approach to issues of health and mental illness widens the view of knowledge from only a single focus. It includes an understanding of the qualitative approach as an option to advance the knowledge and recognition of a public health problem overshadowed by stigma and apathy of society. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  19. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green,T.

    2009-10-23

    This Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) updates the 2003 plan incorporating changes necessary to comply with DOE Order 450.1 and DOE P 450.4, Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes since the original draft of the FMP that result from new policies on the national level. This update also removes references and dependence on the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service and Department of the Interior, fully transitioning Wildland Fire Management responsibilities to BNL. The Department of Energy policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas, managed by the DOE and/or its various contractors, that can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wild fire, operational, and prescribed fires. Fire management plans provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled, 'prescribed' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. This FMP will be reviewed periodically to ensure the fire program advances and evolves with the missions of the DOE and BNL. This Fire Management Plan is presented in a format that coverers all aspects specified by DOE guidance documents which are based on the national template for fire management plans adopted under the National Fire Plan. The DOE is one of the signatory agencies on the National Fire Plan. This FMP is to be used and implemented for the

  20. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper Refs, figs, tabs

  1. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  2. Electrical Switchgear Building No. 5010-ESF Fire Hazards Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N.M. Ruonavaara

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Fire Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event; (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of the employees, the public, and the environment; (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related event

  3. Investigations concerning fire-induced accidents in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamuth, P.; Lernout, L.A.; Bonneval, F.; Cottaz, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the context of fire protection in technical buildings of French nuclear facilities, three principles have been adopted: prevention, detection and fire-fighting. Their implementation makes it possible on the one hand to limit the fire ignition and the fire growth, and on the other hand to prevent fire extent which would lead to unavailability of several safety related equipment. Although progress has been made in this direction, the fire risks have still not been eliminated. It is therefore essential to evaluate the fire effects and to assess their consequences. To this end, three main R and D programs have been conducted into fires. Part I sets out the fire PSA methodology used for a 900 MWe PWR. Part II gives an outline of two fire and ventilation computer codes useful for the fire PSA. Finally, part III gives an outline of the tests already performed and those currently under way in the two laboratories of the Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire (IPSN) in order to qualify the codes and provide useful information for the safety assessment. (author)

  4. Modelling the probability of building fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Barták

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic spatial risk analysis plays a crucial role in preventing emergencies.In the Czech Republic, risk mapping is currently based on the risk accumulationprinciple, area vulnerability, and preparedness levels of Integrated Rescue Systemcomponents. Expert estimates are used to determine risk levels for individualhazard types, while statistical modelling based on data from actual incidents andtheir possible causes is not used. Our model study, conducted in cooperation withthe Fire Rescue Service of the Czech Republic as a model within the Liberec andHradec Králové regions, presents an analytical procedure leading to the creation ofbuilding fire probability maps based on recent incidents in the studied areas andon building parameters. In order to estimate the probability of building fires, aprediction model based on logistic regression was used. Probability of fire calculatedby means of model parameters and attributes of specific buildings can subsequentlybe visualized in probability maps.

  5. Filtration of sodium-fire aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexas, A.; Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1979-01-01

    Different filter devices have been developed and tested with respect to their use in the off-gas system of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors to prevent the escape of sodium-fire aerosols that might be formed in case of an accident. The testing results have shown that the use of a multilayer sand bed filter is still the best method to filter limited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time. Efficiencies on the order of 99.98 and 98.8% were reached for loading capacities of 500 and 1000 g/m 2 , respectively. Unlimited amounts of sodium-fire aerosols can be filtered by wet scrubbers with an efficiency of 70% per scrubber stage. Fiberglas filters connot be used for the filtration of sodium-fire aerosols over a long operating time because the filter material can be destroyed after several days of operating

  6. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  7. Fire safety analysis: methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a review of the fires that have occurred in nuclear power plants and the results of fire risk studies that have been completed over the last 17 years, we can conclude that internal fires in nuclear power plants can be an important contributor to plant risk. Methods and data are available to quantify the fire risk. These methods and data have been subjected to a series of reviews and detailed scrutiny and have been applied to a large number of plants. There is no doubt that we do not know everything about fire and its impact on a nuclear power plants. However, this lack of knowledge or uncertainty can be quantified and can be used in the decision making process. In other words, the methods entail uncertainties and limitations that are not insurmountable and there is little or no basis for the results of a fire risk analysis fail to support a decision process

  8. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  9. Fire management in central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán

    1992-01-01

    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  10. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  11. Constitution of a group of Czech and French uranium miners in order to estimate lung cancer risk linked to low chronic exposure to radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Tomasek, L.

    1996-01-01

    West Bohemian and French uranium miners are characterized by a long duration of exposure to radon and its decay products, in comparison to most of the other groups of miners, studied in the recent international joint analysis by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. This analysis has confirmed the linearly increasing risk of lung cancer by cumulative radon exposure, describing the different factors that may influence this dose-response relationship. One of the main factors presently discussed is the influence of the exposure-rate effect: in other words, has the same cumulated exposure spread over 10 years the same risk of lung cancer as if it is cumulated in 2 years? The implication of an inverse exposure-rate effect for low chronic exposures as well as some methodological approaches will be discussed and tested by using the data of the Czech and French cohorts. These two cohorts present annual exposures varying by a factor of 5 to 10, French exposure rates being close or even less than 0.1 Working Level during the last 20 years. The project is integrated in a larger European project on uranium miners, co-ordinated by IPSN. (author)

  12. Designing fire safe interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  14. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  15. Fire safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The periodic occurrence of large-scale, potentially disastrous industrial accidents involving fire in hazardous environments such as oilwell blowouts, petrochemical explosions and nuclear installations highlights the need for an integrated approach to fire safety engineering. Risk reduction 'by design' and rapid response are of equal importance in the saving of life and property in such situations. This volume of papers covers the subject thoroughly, touching on such topics as hazard analysis, safety design and testing, fire detection and control, and includes studies of fire hazard in the context of environment protection. (author)

  16. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, P.; Siccama, A.; Visser, D.; Komen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  17. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  18. Temporal scaling behavior of forest and urban fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Song, W.; Zheng, H.; Telesca, L.

    2009-04-01

    It has been found that many natural systems are characterized by scaling behavior. In such systems natural factors dominate the event dynamics. Forest fires in different countries have been found to exhibit frequency-size power law over many orders of magnitude and with similar value of parameters. But in countries with high population density such as China and Japan, more than 95% of the forest fire disasters are caused by human activities. Furthermore, with the development of society, the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area is becoming more and more populated, and the forest fire is much connected with urban fire. Therefore exploring the scaling behavior of fires dominated by human-related factors is very challenging. The present paper explores the temporal scaling behavior of forest fires and urban fires in Japan with mathematical methods. Two factors, Allan factor (AF) and Fano factor (FF) are used to investigate time-scaling of fire systems. It is found that the FF for both forest fires and urban fires increases linearly in log-log scales, and this indicates that it behaves as a power-law for all the investigated timescales. From the AF plot a 7 days cycle is found, which indicates a weekly cycle. This may be caused by human activities which has a weekly periodicity because on weekends people usually have more outdoor activities, which may cause more hidden trouble of fire disasters. Our findings point out that although the human factors are the main cause, both the forest fires and urban fires exhibit time-scaling behavior. At the same time, the scaling exponents for urban fires are larger than forest fires, signifying a more intense clustering. The reason may be that fires are affected not only by weather condition, but also by human activities, which play a more important role for urban fires than forest fires and have a power law distribution and scaling behavior. Then some work is done to the relative humidity. Similar distribution law characterizes the

  19. Dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponi, F.R.; Wheless, E.; Frediani, D.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments require the development of maximum achievable control technology standards (MACT) for sources of hazardous air pollutants, including landfill gas-fired combustion sources. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) Federal Advisory Committee is a group of stakeholders from the public and private sector whose charge is to develop recommendations for a unified set of federal toxic air emissions regulations. Specifically, the group will establish MACT standards for industrial-commercial-institutional combustion sources. The ICCR proceedings have given rise to considerable interest in potential dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units. In order to establish the potential of dioxin and furan emissions from this group of combustion sources, a world-wide literature search was conducted. A total of 22 references were evaluated. The references covered a wide range of test programs, testing methodologies and combustion equipment type. The most abundant data were for landfill gas-fired flares (shrouded and afterburners) and I.C. engines. Because of limitations in obtaining actual test reports with complete lab data and QA/QC results, and a lack of knowledge as to the exact types of waste received at the European landfills, the test data from these sources, for the purposes of this paper, are considered qualitative. The conclusion reached from review of the test data is that there is a potential for dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units, but at very low levels for well operated systems

  20. Fire preparedness measures in buildings with hot laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlaender, B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Important hot laboratory safety issues are the general design/construction of the building with respect to fire, fire prevention, fire protection, administrative controls, and risk assessment. Within the network of the European Working Group Hot Laboratories and Remote Handling items concerning 'fire preparedness measures in hot laboratories' were screened and studied. Two questionnaires were sent to European hot laboratories; the first in November 2002 on 'fire preparedness measures, fire detection and fire suppression/extinguishing in lead shielded cells, concrete shielded cells' and the second in June 2003 on 'Fire preparedness measures in buildings with hot laboratories'. The questionnaires were filled in by a total of ten hot laboratories in seven European countries. On request of participants the answers were evaluated and 'anonymised' for presentation and discussion at the plenary meeting. The answers showed that many European hot laboratories are implementing improvements to their fire protection programmes to comply with more stringent requirements of the national authorities. The recommendations ('International guidelines for the fire protection of Nuclear Power Plants') given by the insurance pools are followed up with national variations. An ISO standard (ISO 17873) is in progress giving criteria for the design and the operation of ventilation systems as well as fire hazard management in nuclear installations others than reactors

  1. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  2. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Not reported 7% In transport 1% 195 incidents Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  3. The principles of protection against fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, Ph.; Gupta, O.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the presence of fissile or radioactive materials in nuclear facilities, their protection against fires is different from that of classical industrial installations. 3 priorities have been defined, in importance order: 1) maintaining nuclear safety in order to protect public and environment, 2) protection of workers, and 3) limiting the damages on the installation. The prevention of fires is based on 4 rules: 1) limiting as much as possible the quantity of inflammable materials and imposing a strict control of any use of igniting source, 2) assuring a permanent monitoring of the installation by means of reliable devices able to detect any fire starting, 3) designing the sectorization of the installation in order to keep fire in delimited zones and prevent its extension, and 4) enhancing the efficiency of the fire brigade intervention. (A.C.)

  4. Fire Behavior in Pelalawan Peatland, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAMBANG HERO SAHARJO

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During dry season it is easily recognized that smoke will emerge at certain place both in Sumatra and Kalimantan that is in peatland. The worst situation occurred when fire burnt buried log in the logged over area where the fire fighter did not have any experience and knowledge on how to work with fire in peatland. Finally it had been found that one of the reasons why firefighter failed to fight fire in peatland is because they do not have any knowledge and experience on it. In order to know the fire behavior characteristics in different level of peat decomposition for fire management and sustainable management of the land for the community, research done in Pelalawan area, Riau Province, Indonesia, during dry season 2001. Three level of peat decomposition named Sapric, Hemic, and Fibric used. To conduct the research, two 400 m2 of plot each was established in every level of the peat decomposition. Burning done three weeks following slashing, cutting and drying at different time using circle method. During burning, flame length, rate of the spread of fire, flame temperature and following burning fuel left and the depth of peat destruction were measured. Results of research shown that in sapric site where sapric 2 has fuel load 9 ton ha-1 less than sapric 1, fire behavior was significantly different while peat destructed was deepest in sapric 2 with 31.87 cm. In hemic site where hemic 2 has fuel load 12.3 ton ha-1 more than hemic 1, fire behavior was significantly different and peat destructed deeper than hemic 1 that was 12.6 cm. In fibric site where fibric 1 has fuel load 3.5 ton ha-1 more than fibric 1, fire behavior was significantly different that has no burnt peat found. This results found that the different fuel characteristics (potency, moisture, bed depth, and type at the same level of peat decomposition will have significantly different fire behavior as it happened also on the depth of peat destruction except fibric. The same condition

  5. Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher

  6. Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires. Executive summary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.; Bartelds, H.; Weger, D. de

    1992-01-01

    In order to obtain reliable data on the generation of toxic combustion products and to get more insight into the risks of fires in pesticide warehouses TNO performed the research project 'Toxic combustion products from pesticide fires'. The following research activities have been performed during

  7. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  8. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  9. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  10. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  11. Taxonomic and functional responses to fire and post-fire management of a Mediterranean hymenoptera community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  12. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  13. A ballistics module as a part of the fire control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka R. Luković

    2013-10-01

    fuse is activated. The initial elevation of the tools that is used for calculating the trajectory to the end point should also be determined. The calculation is repeated until the final point of the trajectory coincides with a specific point by a projectile. During the preparation phase of fire, after all input parameters have been defined, the calculation is activated by the appropriate command. As an output from the BM, the initial firing data for the battery are determined: - Type of projectile, type of fuse, angle, distance table, locating devices and timing device (or the flight time; - Information and data: ordinate trajectory, angle of fall, terminal velocity, probable error of range and probable error of deflection. The demands placed on the ballistic module: In order to perform the functions of fire, the BM should provide, in addition to determining the elements for target practice, the solution to the following tasks: - Check the possibility to fire; - Correction and transfer of fire; - Group shooting, and - Planned fire. Ballistic testing of module: All ballistic modules (ballistic model, ballistic data, ballistic module software and the hardware that they will be implemented on should meet the established requirements. The ballistic testing of the module is done in several stages, using a ballistic computer (BC simulation model, the entire artillery system simulation program and the computer embedded in the target system. The ballistic computer simulation model allows input of all projected input data and displaying all the results of calculations in a batch and interactive mode. The ballistic model and ballistic data are tested by comparing them with the verification data obtained from simulation programs or parts of programs used for creating firing tables. Conclusion: Modern combat conditions impose increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of artillery fire by increasing the speed of response and shooting accuracy. The approximate methods used in the

  14. Survival analysis and classification methods for forest fire size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Pier-Olivier; Duchesne, Thierry; Cumming, Steven G

    2018-01-01

    Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene) and the size at "being held" (a state when no further increase in size is expected). We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i.e., the size at "being held" exceeds the size at initial assessment). Logistic regression was preferred over two alternative classifiers, with covariates consistent with similar past analyses. We conducted survival analysis on the group of fires exhibiting a size increase. A screening process selected three covariates: an index of fire weather at the day the fire started, the fuel type burning at initial assessment, and a factor for the type and capabilities of the method of initial attack. The Cox proportional hazards model performed better than three accelerated failure time alternatives. Both fire weather and fuel type were highly significant, with effects consistent with known fire behaviour. The effects of initial attack method were not statistically significant, but did suggest a reverse causality that could arise if fire management agencies were to dispatch resources based on a-priori assessment of fire growth potentials. We discuss how a more sophisticated analysis of larger data sets could produce unbiased estimates of fire suppression effect under such circumstances.

  15. Survival analysis and classification methods for forest fire size

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Factors affecting wildland-fire size distribution include weather, fuels, and fire suppression activities. We present a novel application of survival analysis to quantify the effects of these factors on a sample of sizes of lightning-caused fires from Alberta, Canada. Two events were observed for each fire: the size at initial assessment (by the first fire fighters to arrive at the scene) and the size at “being held” (a state when no further increase in size is expected). We developed a statistical classifier to try to predict cases where there will be a growth in fire size (i.e., the size at “being held” exceeds the size at initial assessment). Logistic regression was preferred over two alternative classifiers, with covariates consistent with similar past analyses. We conducted survival analysis on the group of fires exhibiting a size increase. A screening process selected three covariates: an index of fire weather at the day the fire started, the fuel type burning at initial assessment, and a factor for the type and capabilities of the method of initial attack. The Cox proportional hazards model performed better than three accelerated failure time alternatives. Both fire weather and fuel type were highly significant, with effects consistent with known fire behaviour. The effects of initial attack method were not statistically significant, but did suggest a reverse causality that could arise if fire management agencies were to dispatch resources based on a-priori assessment of fire growth potentials. We discuss how a more sophisticated analysis of larger data sets could produce unbiased estimates of fire suppression effect under such circumstances. PMID:29320497

  16. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Finney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when separate fire events converge in one location. Interactions can be created intentionally during prescribed fires by using spatial ignition patterns. Mass fires are among the most extreme examples of interactive behavior. This paper presents a review of the detailed effects of fire-fire interaction in terms of merging or coalescence criteria, burning rates, flame dimensions, flame temperature, indraft velocity, pulsation, and convection column dynamics. Though relevant in many situations, these changes in fire behavior have yet to be included in any operational-fire models or decision support systems.

  17. What determines area burned in large landscapes? Insights from a decade of comparative landscape-fire modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey J. Cary; Robert E. Keane; Mike D. Flannigan; Ian D. Davies; Russ A. Parsons

    2015-01-01

    Understanding what determines area burned in large landscapes is critical for informing wildland fire management in fire-prone environments and for representing fire activity in Dynamic Global Vegetation Models. For the past ten years, a group of landscape-fire modellers have been exploring the relative influence of key determinants of area burned in temperate and...

  18. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  20. Surface Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report-Constructor Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flye, R.E.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Facility Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment; Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  1. Zirconia changes after grinding and regeneration firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Gabriel R; Polli, Gabriela S; Fais, Laiza M G; Reis, José Maurício Dos S N; Pinelli, Lígia A P

    2017-07-01

    Despite improvements in computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems, grinding during either laboratory procedures or clinical adjustments is often needed to modify the shape of 3 mol(%) yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) restorations. However, the best way to achieve adjustment is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microstructural and crystallographic phase changes, flexural strength, and Weibull modulus of a 3Y-TZP zirconia after grinding with or without water cooling and regeneration firing. Ninety-six bar-shaped specimens were obtained and divided as follows: as-sintered, control; as-sintered with regeneration firing; grinding without water cooling; grinding and regeneration firing with water cooling; and grinding and regeneration firing. Grinding (0.3 mm) was performed with a 150-μm diamond rotary instrument in a high-speed handpiece. For regeneration firing, the specimens were annealed at 1000°C for 30 minutes. The crystalline phases were evaluated by using x-ray powder diffraction. A 4-point bending test was conducted (10 kN; 0.5 mm/min). The Weibull modulus was used to analyze strength reliability. The microstructure was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Data from the flexural strength test were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α=.05). Tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation was identified in the ground specimens; R regeneration firing groups showed only the tetragonal phase. The median flexural strength of as-sintered specimens was 642.0; 699.3 MPa for as-sintered specimens with regeneration firing; 770.1 MPa for grinding and water-cooled specimens; 727.3 MPa for specimens produced using water-cooled grinding and regeneration firing; 859.9 MPa for those produced by grinding; and 764.6 for those produced by grinding and regeneration firing; with statistically higher values for the ground groups. The regenerative firing did not affect the flexural

  2. FIRE BEHAVIOR PREDICTING MODELS EFFICIENCY IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCIAL EUCALYPT PLANTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Leonardo Alves White

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how a wildfire will behave is extremely important in order to assist in fire suppression and prevention operations. Since the 1940’s mathematical models to estimate how the fire will behave have been developed worldwide, however, none of them, until now, had their efficiency tested in Brazilian commercial eucalypt plantations nor in other vegetation types in the country. This study aims to verify the accuracy of the Rothermel (1972 fire spread model, the Byram (1959 flame length model, and the fire spread and length equations derived from the McArthur (1962 control burn meters. To meet these objectives, 105 experimental laboratory fires were done and their results compared with the predicted values from the models tested. The Rothermel and Byram models predicted better than McArthur’s, nevertheless, all of them underestimated the fire behavior aspects evaluated and were statistically different from the experimental data.

  3. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous fire PSAs (probabilistic safety assessments) have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the results of these assessments, due to significant gaps in current abilities to perform realistic assessments. These gaps involve multiple aspects of fire PSA, including the estimation of the probability of important fire scenarios, the modeling of fire growth and suppression, the prediction of fire-induced damage to equipment (including the effects of smoke), and the treatment of plant and operator responses to the fire. In response to recommendations of /VIR 93/, CSNI/PWG5 established a Task Group to review the present status and maturity of current methods used in fire risk assessments for operating nuclear power plants. The Task Group issued a questionnaire in May 1997 to all nuclear power generating OECD countries. The prime focus of the questionnaire (see Appendix A) was on a number of important issues in fire PSA: Fire PSA methodology and applications; Fire simulation codes; Ignition and damageability data; Modeling of fire spread on cables or other equipment; Modeling of smoke production and spread; Impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation, electronics, or other electrical equipment; Impact of actual cable fires on safety systems. The questionnaire requested specific information on these topics (e.g., computer codes used in fire PSAs, the physical parameters used to model ignition). Responses to the questionnaire were provided by Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA. This report summarizes the questionnaire responses and thereby: a) provides a perspective on the current fire PSA state of the art (SOAR) with respect to the issues listed above, and b) provides numerous references for more detailed information regarding these issues. The main responsibility for writing different chapters of this report was divided between some

  4. Post-fire vegetation behaviour in large burnt scars from 2005 fire season in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; DaCamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires have a wide diversity of impacts on landscape which, in turn, depend on the interaction of fire regimes (e.g. intensity, extent, frequency) and the response of vegetation to them in short and long-terms. The increase in erosion rates and the loss of nutrients by runoff in the first months following the fire are among the major impacts of wildfires. A minimum of 30% of vegetation cover is enough to protect soils against erosion but vegetation may require a long period to reach this threshold after severe fires. Since erosion risk is strongly linked to vegetation recovery rates, post-fire vegetation monitoring becomes crucial in land management. Fire regimes in the Mediterranean have been changing in the past decades due to modifications in both socio-economic and climate patterns. Although many vegetation species in Mediterranean ecosystems are adapted to wildfires, changes in fire regime characteristics affect the ability of ecosystems to recover to their previous state. In Spain, fire is an important driver of changes in landscape composition, leading to dominance of shrubland following fire and to a major decrease of pine woodlands (Viedma et al., 2006). Remote sensing is a powerful tool in land management, allowing vegetation monitoring on large spatial scales for relatively long periods of time. In order to assess vegetation dynamics, monthly NDVI data from 1998-2009 from SPOT/VEGETATION at 1km spatial resolution over the Iberian Peninsula were used. This work focuses on 2005 fire season in Spain, which registered the highest amount of burnt area since 1994, with more than 188000 ha burnt. Burnt scars in this fire season were identified by cluster analysis. Post-fire vegetation recovery was assessed based on the monoparametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010) that was applied to four large scars located in different geographical settings with different land cover characteristics. While the two northern regions presented fast recovery, in the

  5. USFA NFIRS 2005 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2005 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  6. USFA NFIRS 2008 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2008 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  7. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  8. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  9. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  10. Fire protection for clean rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, D.

    1990-01-01

    The fire protection engineer often must decide what size fire can be tolerated before automatic fire suppression systems actuate. Is it a wastepaper basket fire, a bushel basket fire...? In the case of state-of-the-art clean rooms, the answer clearly is not even an incipient fire. Minor fires in clean rooms can cause major losses. This paper discusses what a clean room is and gives a brief overview of the unique fire protection challenges encountered. The two major causes of fire related to clean rooms in the semiconductor industry are flammable/pyrophoric gas fires in plastic ducts and polypropylene wet bench fires. This paper concentrates on plastic ductwork in clean rooms, sprinkler protection in ductwork, and protection for wet benches

  11. Focused sunlight factor of forest fire danger assessment using Web-GIS and RS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranovskiy, Nikolay V.; Sherstnyov, Vladislav S.; Yankovich, Elena P.; Engel, Marina V.; Belov, Vladimir V.

    2016-08-01

    Timiryazevskiy forestry of Tomsk region (Siberia, Russia) is a study area elaborated in current research. Forest fire danger assessment is based on unique technology using probabilistic criterion, statistical data on forest fires, meteorological conditions, forest sites classification and remote sensing data. MODIS products are used for estimating some meteorological conditions and current forest fire situation. Geonformation technologies are used for geospatial analysis of forest fire danger situation on controlled forested territories. GIS-engine provides opportunities to construct electronic maps with different levels of forest fire probability and support raster layer for satellite remote sensing data on current forest fires. Web-interface is used for data loading on specific web-site and for forest fire danger data representation via World Wide Web. Special web-forms provide interface for choosing of relevant input data in order to process the forest fire danger data and assess the forest fire probability.

  12. Fire monitoring capability of the joint Landsat and Sentinel 2 constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S.; Wright, R.

    2017-12-01

    Fires are a global hazard. Landsat and Sentinel 2 can monitor the Earth's surface every 2 - 4 days. This provides an important opportunity to complement the operational (lower resolution) fire monitoring systems. Landsat-class sensors can detect small fires that would be missed by MODIS-classed sensors. All large fires start out as small fires. We analyze fire patterns in California from 1984 to 2017 and compare the performance of Landsat-type and MODIS-type sensors. Had an operational Landsat-Sentinel 2 fire detection system been in place at the time of the Soberanes fire last year (i.e. August 2016), the cost of suppressing of this fire event (US $236 million) could potentially have been reduced by an order of magnitude.

  13. Forest Monitoring and Wildland Early Fire Detection by a Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Molina-Pico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A wildland fire is an uncontrolled fire that occurs mainly in forest areas, although it can also invade urban or agricultural areas. Among the main causes of wildfires, human factors, either intentional or accidental, are the most usual ones. The number and impact of forest fires are expected to grow as a consequence of the global warming. In order to fight against these disasters, it is necessary to adopt a comprehensive, multifaceted approach that enables a continuous situational awareness and instant responsiveness. This paper describes a hierarchical wireless sensor network aimed at early fire detection in risky areas, integrated with the fire fighting command centres, geographical information systems, and fire simulators. This configuration has been successfully tested in two fire simulations involving all the key players in fire fighting operations: fire brigades, communication systems, and aerial, coordination, and land means.

  14. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order

  15. Computer Self-Efficacy, Competitive Anxiety and Flow State: Escaping from Firing Online Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Pei-Yu, Chiu; Shih, Hsiao-Feng; Lin, Pei-Shin; Hong, Jon-Chao

    2012-01-01

    Flow state in game playing affected by computer self-efficacy and game competitive anxiety was studied. In order to examine the effect of those constructs with high competition, this study select "Escaping from firing online game" which require college students to escape from fire and rescue people and eliminate the fire damage along the way of…

  16. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  17. Changes in fire weather distributions: effects on predicted fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy A. Salazar; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1984-01-01

    Data that represent average worst fire weather for a particular area are used to index daily fire danger; however, they do not account for different locations or diurnal weather changes that significantly affect fire behavior potential. To study the effects that selected changes in weather databases have on computed fire behavior parameters, weather data for the...

  18. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  19. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  20. Fire test database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a project recently completed for EPRI by Impell. The purpose of the project was to develop a reference database of fire tests performed on non-typical fire rated assemblies. The database is designed for use by utility fire protection engineers to locate test reports for power plant fire rated assemblies. As utilities prepare to respond to Information Notice 88-04, the database will identify utilities, vendors or manufacturers who have specific fire test data. The database contains fire test report summaries for 729 tested configurations. For each summary, a contact is identified from whom a copy of the complete fire test report can be obtained. Five types of configurations are included: doors, dampers, seals, wraps and walls. The database is computerized. One version for IBM; one for Mac. Each database is accessed through user-friendly software which allows adding, deleting, browsing, etc. through the database. There are five major database files. One each for the five types of tested configurations. The contents of each provides significant information regarding the test method and the physical attributes of the tested configuration. 3 figs

  1. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  2. Tending for Cattle: Traditional Fire Management in Ethiopian Montane Heathlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria U. Johansson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Fire has long been a principal tool for manipulating ecosystems, notably for pastoralist cultures, but in modern times, fire use has often been a source of conflicts with state bureaucracies. Despite this, traditional fire management practices have rarely been examined from a perspective of fire behavior and fire effects, which hampers dialogue on management options. In order to analyze the rationale for fire use, its practical handling, and ecological effects in high-elevation ericaceous heathlands in Ethiopia, we used three different information sources: interviews with pastoralists, field observations of fires, and analysis of vegetation age structure at the landscape level. The interviews revealed three primary reasons for burning: increasing the grazing value, controlling a toxic caterpillar, and reducing predator attacks. Informants were well aware of critical factors governing fire behavior, such as slope, wind, vertical and horizontal fuel structure, and fuel moisture. Recent burns (1-4 years since fire were used as firebreaks to control the size of individual burns, which resulted in a mosaic of vegetation of different ages. The age structure indicated an average fire return interval of ~10 years. At these elevations (> 3500 m, the dry period is unreliable, with occasional rains. Of all observed fires, 83% were ignited during very high Fire Weather Index levels, reached during only 11% of all days of the year. Burning is illegal, but if this ban was respected, our data suggest that the Erica shrubs would grow out of reach of cattle within a few years only, creating a dense and continuous canopy. This would also create a risk of large high-intensity wildfires since the landscape is virtually devoid of natural fuel breaks. Under the present management regime, this heathland ecosystem should be quite resilient to degradation by fire due to a relatively slow fuel buildup (limiting fire intervals and an effective regrowth of Erica shoots

  3. IRSN global process for leading a comprehensive fire safety analysis for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormieres, Yannick; Lacoue, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    A fire safety analysis (FSA) is requested to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures set by the operator. A recent document written by IRSN outlines a global process for such a comprehensive fire safety analysis. Thanks to the French nuclear fire safety regulation evolutions, from prescriptive requirements to objective requirements, the proposed fire safety justification process focuses on compliance with performance criteria for fire protection measures. These performance criteria are related to the vulnerability of targets to effects of fire, and not only based upon radiological consequences out side the installation caused by a fire. In his FSA, the operator has to define the safety functions that should continue to ensure its mission even in the case of fire in order to be in compliance with nuclear safety objectives. Then, in order to maintain these safety functions, the operator has to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures, defined according to defence in depth principles. To reach the objective, the analysis process is based on the identification of targets to be protected in order to maintain safety functions, taken into account facility characteristics. These targets include structures, systems, components and personal important to safety. Facility characteristics include, for all operating conditions, potential ignition sources and fire protections systems. One of the key points of the fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. Given the large number of possible fire scenarios, it is then necessary to evaluate 'reference fires' which are the worst case scenarios of all possible fire scenarios and which are used by the operator for the design of fire protection measures. (authors)

  4. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An assessment of the impact of home safety assessments on fires and fire-related injuries: a case study of Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, B N; Thurston, M N

    2013-06-01

    Deaths and injuries related to fires are largely preventable events. In the UK, a plethora of community-based fire safety initiatives have been introduced over the last 25 years, often led by fire and rescue services, to address this issue. This paper focuses on one such initiative--home safety assessments (HSAs). Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service (in England) implemented a uniquely large-scale HSA intervention. This paper assesses its effectiveness. The impact of HSAs was assessed in relation to three outcomes: accidental dwelling fires (ADFs), ADFs contained and injuries arising from ADFs. A two-period comparison in fire-related rates of incidences in Cheshire between 2002 and 2011 was implemented, using Poisson regression and adjusting for the national temporal trend using a control group comprising the 37 other English non-metropolitan fire-services. Significant reductions were observed in rates of ADFs [incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.83, P fires contained to room of origin. There is strong evidence to suggest that the intervention was successful in reducing domestic fires and related injuries.

  6. Fire protection maintenance at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes two approaches to staffing and organizing a fire protection maintenance group. Both have been used at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant. One takes traditional craft functions and relocates them from the plant maintenance department to the fire protection section. The other expands the role to include response to fire, medical, and hazardous material emergencies. Both approaches remove the fire protection supervisor from a purely staff role, and involve him/her in direct-line management functions. This results in improved technical direction to the craftsmen, improved quality of the work performed, and improved craft morale. It also assures the fire protection supervisor of much more detailed knowledge of the overall status of the fire protection systems

  7. PERSPECTIVE: Fire on the fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Stephen J.

    2009-09-01

    upgraded by further research, could solve. The drivers behind sprawl were fundamentally irrational: they resided in such inchoate urgings as aesthetics, a desire to `live in nature', a longing for personal privacy and social isolation. Correction required the imposition of science-based reason onto the scene, which argued for research. What you propose as a solution depends on how you define the problem. Houses were burning and residents too often dying; this was clearly a threat to public safety, an incitement for political action, and an incentive for research. But what were the causes? Scholarly disciplines and national traditions defined it differently. Europeans thought the issue fundamentally social. The breakdown in the old landscape created a disorder of which free-burning fire was a manifestation. This was in keeping with a long heritage of European thinking that identified fire with unrest and that argued that fire control was primarily a matter of social control. People needed to reassert their presence on the land. Those countries with large public estates such as Australia and the US conceived the problem in a converse way. At issue was the unwise (and unwarranted) encroachment of people into the bush. An ideal response would be to banish people from the fringe regions. Fire is `natural' and belongs in wildlands: it is people who upset the order of things. While government has a duty to shield its citizens from harm, it should not allow such measures to destroy nature preserves or the capacity of fire to propagate through them. People have to learn to `live with' fire. In both cases the prevailing assumption is that science will identify solutions, which society will apply. Yet here we have a case of countries implicitly pointing their national sciences in different directions because of their distinctive histories. It would seem that history as a discipline might also have something to contribute to this discourse both in terms of tracking land use and of

  8. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  9. Chemistry fighting against fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffalsky, K.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed report is given on the general principle 'fire' and on fires as fast chemical reactions between consumable material and oxygen of the air (exothermal oxidation) as well as on the classes of fires A to D. Class D includes strongly incadescent burnable metals such as K, Na, Li, Cs, Rb, U, Pu, Ce, Zr, Be, Ca, Sr, Ba etc. The burning process, the extinguishing effects, the development of the extinguisher and its present state are individually dealt with. (HK/LH) [de

  10. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  11. Modeling urban fire growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, T.E.; Takata, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The IITRI Urban Fire Spread Model as well as others of similar vintage were constrained by computer size and running costs such that many approximations/generalizations were introduced to reduce program complexity and data storage requirements. Simplifications were introduced both in input data and in fire growth and spread calculations. Modern computational capabilities offer the means to introduce greater detail and to examine its practical significance on urban fire predictions. Selected portions of the model are described as presently configured, and potential modifications are discussed. A single tract model is hypothesized which permits the importance of various model details to be assessed, and, other model applications are identified

  12. What kind of cutting and thinning can prevent crown fires?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick Harrington

    2008-01-01

    Many land managers are attempting to lessen the probability of severe wildfire behavior and impacts, especially near communities, by manipulating canopy and surface fuel characteristics. Various interest groups have questioned the value of fuels treatments. In reality, apart from fire exposure when a real fire went through a treated stand, effectiveness of fuel...

  13. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  14. Fires in refugee and displaced persons settlements: The current situation and opportunities to improve fire prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazerooni, Yasaman; Gyedu, Adam; Burnham, Gilbert; Nwomeh, Benedict; Charles, Anthony; Mishra, Brijesh; Kuah, Solomon S; Kushner, Adam L; Stewart, Barclay T

    2016-08-01

    We aimed to describe the burden of fires in displaced persons settlements and identify interventions/innovations that might address gaps in current humanitarian guidelines. We performed a systematic review of: (i) academic and non-academic literature databases; and (ii) guidelines from leading humanitarian agencies/initiatives regarding fire prevention/control. Of the 1521 records retrieved, 131 reports described settlement fires in 31 hosting countries since 1990. These incidents resulted in 487 deaths, 790 burn injuries, displacement of 382,486 individuals and destruction of 50,509 shelters. There was a 25-fold increase in the rate of settlement fires from 1990 to 2015 (0.002-0.051 per 100,000 refugees, respectively). Only 4 of the 15 leading humanitarian agencies provided recommendations about fire prevention/control strategies. Potentially useful interventions/innovations included safer stoves (e.g. solar cookers) and fire retardant shelter materials. The large and increasing number of fires in displaced persons settlements highlights the need to redress gaps in humanitarian fire prevention/control guidelines. The way forward includes: (i) developing consensus among aid agencies regarding fire prevention/control strategies; (ii) evaluating the impact of interventions/innovations on the burden of fires; and (iii) engaging agencies in a broader discussion about protecting camp residents from armed groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Post-fire bedload sediment delivery across spatial scales in the interior western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2014-01-01

    Post-fire sediment yields can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than sediment yields in unburned forests. Much of the research on post-fire erosion rates has been at small scales (100m2 or less), and post-fire sediment delivery rates across spatial scales have not been quantified in detail. We developed relationships for post-fire bedload sediment delivery...

  16. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  17. Fire tests and their relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Background information is provided about the nature of fire tests in general, not specifically designed for testing nuclear flasks. Headings are: brief history (including various temperature/time fire curves); the current position; types of tests; validation of fire tests; fire safety system. (U.K.)

  18. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  19. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  20. Evaluating rehabilitation efforts following the Milford Flat Fire: successes, failures, and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duniway, Michael C.; Palmquist, Emily C.; Miller, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled wildfire in arid and semiarid ecosystems has become an increasing concern in recent decades. Active rehabilitation of fire-affected areas is often quickly initiated to minimize long-term ecosystem damage. However, the complex soil-geomorphic-vegetation patterns and low and variable moisture conditions in these regions makes restoration challenging. To further inform these post-fire management decisions, we present results from 5 years of vegetation and sediment flux monitoring following the Milford Flat Fire in west-central Utah, USA. Our sampling design includes monitoring plots in areas not burned, areas burned but where no rehabilitation was attempted, and burned areas where various rehabilitation approaches were implemented. At each of the 25 plots, vegetation cover and composition data were collected annually, and wind-driven sediment flux was measured using passive dust traps. To evaluate effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in establishing desired species and limiting dominance of undesired species, we analyzed the temporal response of individual species and functional groups as well as community-level multivariate responses. The warm and dry conditions that persisted for approximately 12 months post-treatment, coupled with the surface disturbing rehabilitation approaches used, resulted in near-surface dust fluxes several orders of magnitude higher in treated areas than in unburned or burned areas where no rehabilitation occurred. These dry conditions and high surface sediment flux limited the establishment of seeded species in rehabilitation areas for nearly 3 years. Post-fire rehabilitation did not limit dominance by invasive annual species of concern. Perennial species composition in the areas burned but not subject to post-fire rehabilitation was relatively similar to unburned throughout the study period. In contrast, the burned plots where rehabilitation was attempted were characterized by no (post-fire rehabilitation

  1. Calibration of the CAFE-3D fire code with controlled indoor fire data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, C.; Koski, J.A.; Khalil, I.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Container Analysis Fire Environment (CAFE) code contains a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based fire model that has been successfully coupled to standard finite element computer codes. This coupling of CFD and finite element codes allows for a more realistic modeling of the thermal performance of objects engulfed in fire, which aids in the design and risk analysis of radioactive material packages. The CAFE fire model is based on a three-dimensional finite volume formulation of basic fire chemistry and fluid dynamics. This fire model includes a variable-density primitive-variable formulation of mass, momentum, energy and species equations. Multiple chemical species and soot formation are included in the combustion model. Thermal radiation is modeled as diffusive radiation transport inside the flame zone and as view-factor radiation outside the flame zone. Turbulence is modeled with an eddy diffusivity model. The soot model is coupled to the diffusive radiation formulation using the Rosseland approximation and the optical properties of soot. In order to verify and improve the accuracy of computers codes, they should be benchmarked against test data. This paper describes a set of experiments that were performed at the Fire Laboratory for Accreditation of Modeling by Experiment (FLAME) fire facility of Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. The paper also describes how the data collected from the experiments was used to calibrate and benchmark the CAFE-3D fire code. Detailed description of the tests performed and comparisons between the calculated results and the collected data from the experiments are provided

  2. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  3. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  4. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  5. Fire in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J

    2009-04-24

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  6. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  7. Cable fire tests in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [de

  8. Mitigating operating room fires: development of a carbon dioxide fire prevention device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-04-01

    Operating room fires are sentinel events that present a real danger to surgical patients and occur at least as frequently as wrong-sided surgery. For fire to occur, the 3 points of the fire triad must be present: an oxidizer, an ignition source, and fuel source. The electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil triggers most operating room fires. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that prevents ignition and suppresses fire by displacing oxygen. We hypothesize that a device can be created to reduce operating room fires by generating a cone of CO2 around the ESU pencil tip. One such device was created by fabricating a divergent nozzle and connecting it to a CO2 source. This device was then placed over the ESU pencil, allowing the tip to be encased in a cone of CO2 gas. The device was then tested in 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen environments. The ESU was activated at 50 W cut mode while placing the ESU pencil tip on a laparotomy sponge resting on an aluminum test plate for up to 30 seconds or until the sponge ignited. High-speed videography was used to identify time of ignition. Each test was performed in each oxygen environment 5 times with the device activated (CO2 flow 8 L/min) and with the device deactivated (no CO2 flow-control). In addition, 3-dimensional spatial mapping of CO2 concentrations was performed with a CO2 sampling device. The median ± SD [range] ignition time of the control group in 21% oxygen was 2.9 s ± 0.44 [2.3-3.0], in 50% oxygen 0.58 s ± 0.12 [0.47-0.73], and in 100% oxygen 0.48 s ± 0.50 [0.03-1.27]. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15); no fires ignited when the device was used (0/15, P fire prevention device can be created by using a divergent nozzle design through which CO2 passes, creating a cone of fire suppressant. This device as demonstrated in a flammability model effectively reduced the risk of fire. CO2 3-dimensional spatial mapping suggests effective fire reduction at least 1 cm away from the tip of the ESU pencil at 8 L/min CO2 flow

  9. Utility of satellite fire product accuracy information — perspectives and recommendations from the Southern Africa fire network

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roy, DP

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available findings from a SAFNet focus group study that explored factors that promote and constrain the use of the MODIS fire products. In giving this perspective, the authors comment on the approach and findings of recent fire product validation articles, including...

  10. Evaluation of Imminent Fire Hazards of Inheritance Ancestral Temple and Mansion in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire hazards of the inheritance buildings are often been neglected, causing fire to take place. Most of the heritage buildings are of large scale, flammable priceless contents and large numbers of visitors, however, the existing structures are weak in fire resistance. There are a few factors that contribute to the fire in these unique yet vulnerable structures Therefore, fire risk assessment plays an important role as many historic buildings in Penang are significant in their architectural value and historically importantt and their destructions by fire are great irreplaceable losses. Thus, this study is intended to identify the current fire emergency plan of heritage temples and mansions in Penang which includes 4 buildings such as Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and Teochew Temple. The possible fire risks of these heritage buildings will be identified and evaluated comprehensively. The previous fire cases will be considered as well in order to discover the common factors contributing to the fire cases at heritage buildings. Time and again, people do not record their findings upon completing the fire risk assessment. Hence this particular research will prepare a complete record of the fire risk assessment. Having a fire risk assessment in the heritage building in Penang can be an interesting study to find out the current situation of heritage building fire protection awareness.

  11. A probabilistic method for optimization of fire safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Sprey, W.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive fire safety study for German Nuclear Power Plants a probabilistic method for the analysis and optimization of fire safety has been developed. It follows the general line of the American fire hazard analysis, with more or less important modifications in detail. At first, fire event trees in selected critical plant areas are established taking into account active and passive fire protection measures and safety systems endangered by the fire. Failure models for fire protection measures and safety systems are formulated depending on common parameters like time after ignition and fire effects. These dependences are properly taken into account in the analysis of the fire event trees with the help of first-order system reliability theory. In addition to frequencies of fire-induced safety system failures relative weights of event paths, fire protection measures within these paths and parameters of the failure models are calculated as functions of time. Based on these information optimization of fire safety is achieved by modifying primarily event paths, fire protection measures and parameters with the greatest relative weights. This procedure is illustrated using as an example a German 1300 MW PWR reference plant. It is shown that the recommended modifications also reduce the risk to plant personnel and fire damage

  12. Three-dimensional tracking for efficient fire fighting in complex situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, Moulay; Rossi, Lucile

    2009-05-01

    Each year, hundred millions hectares of forests burn causing human and economic losses. For efficient fire fighting, the personnel in the ground need tools permitting the prediction of fire front propagation. In this work, we present a new technique for automatically tracking fire spread in three-dimensional space. The proposed approach uses a stereo system to extract a 3D shape from fire images. A new segmentation technique is proposed and permits the extraction of fire regions in complex unstructured scenes. It works in the visible spectrum and combines information extracted from YUV and RGB color spaces. Unlike other techniques, our algorithm does not require previous knowledge about the scene. The resulting fire regions are classified into different homogenous zones using clustering techniques. Contours are then extracted and a feature detection algorithm is used to detect interest points like local maxima and corners. Extracted points from stereo images are then used to compute the 3D shape of the fire front. The resulting data permits to build the fire volume. The final model is used to compute important spatial and temporal fire characteristics like: spread dynamics, local orientation, heading direction, etc. Tests conducted on the ground show the efficiency of the proposed scheme. This scheme is being integrated with a fire spread mathematical model in order to predict and anticipate the fire behaviour during fire fighting. Also of interest to fire-fighters, is the proposed automatic segmentation technique that can be used in early detection of fire in complex scenes.

  13. Supporting FIRE-suppression strategies combining fire spread MODelling and SATellite data in an operational context in Portugal: the FIRE-MODSAT project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Ana C. L.; Benali, Akli; Pinto, Renata M. S.; Pereira, José M. C.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; DaCamara, Carlos C.

    2014-05-01

    Large wildfires are infrequent but account for the most severe environmental, ecological and socio-economic impacts. In recent years Portugal has suffered the impact of major heat waves that fuelled records of burnt area exceeding 400.000ha and 300.000ha in 2003 and 2005, respectively. According to the latest IPCC reports, the frequency and amplitude of summer heat waves over Iberia will very likely increase in the future. Therefore, most climate change studies point to an increase in the number and extent of wildfires. Thus, an increase in both wildfire impacts and fire suppression difficulties is expected. The spread of large wildfires results from a complex interaction between topography, meteorology and fuel properties. Wildfire spread models (e.g. FARSITE) are commonly used to simulate fire growth and behaviour and are an essential tool to understand their main drivers. Additionally, satellite active-fire data have been used to monitor the occurrence, extent, and spread of wildfires. Both satellite data and fire spread models provide different types of information about the spatial and temporal distribution of large wildfires and can potentially be used to support strategic decisions regarding fire suppression resource allocation. However, they have not been combined in a manner that fully exploits their potential and minimizes their limitations. A knowledge gap still exists in understanding how to minimize the impacts of large wildfires, leading to the following research question: What can we learn from past large wildfires in order to mitigate future fire impacts? FIRE-MODSAT is a one-year funded project by the Portuguese Foundation for the Science and Technology (FCT) that is founded on this research question, with the main goal of improving our understanding on the interactions between fire spread and its environmental drivers, to support fire management decisions in an operational context and generate valuable information to improve the efficiency of the

  14. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  15. Fire Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  16. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  17. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  18. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  19. RETRO_FIRES_WCS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  20. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  1. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  2. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  3. Fire Safety Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all fire safety deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection...

  4. Future Integrated Fire Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Bonnie W

    2005-01-01

    Future advances in fire control for air and missile defense depend largely on a network-enabled foundation that enables the collaborative use of distributed warfare assets for time-critical operations...

  5. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  6. 24 Command Fire Improvement Action Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRIFFIN, G.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fluor Hanford (FH) is responsible for providing support to the Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) in the implementation of the Hanford Emergency Preparedness (EP) program. During fiscal year 2000, a number of program improvements were identified from various sources including a major range fire (24 Command Fire). Evaluations of the emergency preparedness program have confirmed that it currently meets all requirements and that performance of personnel involved is good, however the desire to effect continuous improvement resulted in the development of this improvement program plan. This program plan defines the activities that will be performed in order to achieve the desired performance improvements

  7. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards

  8. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  9. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  10. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  12. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  13. Community participation in fire management planning: The Trinity county fire safe council's fire plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvonne Everett

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, Trinity County CA, initiated a participatory fire management planning effort. Since that time, the Trinity County Fire Safe Council has completed critical portions of a fire safe plan and has begun to implement projects defined in the plan. Completion of a GIS based, landscape scale fuels reduction element in the plan defined by volunteer fire fighters, agency...

  14. An electron diffraction and bond valence sum study of the space group symmetries and structures of the photocatalytic 1:1 ordered A2InNbO6 double perovskites (A=Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, V.; Liu, Y.; Withers, R.L.; Krausz, E.

    2004-01-01

    A careful investigation has been carried out into the space group symmetries, structures and crystal chemistries of the 1:1 B-site ordered double perovskites A 2 InNbO 6 (A=Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ ) using a combination of bond valence sum calculations, powder XRD and electron diffraction. A recent investigation of these compounds by Yin et al. reported a random distribution of In 3+ and Nb 5+ ions onto the perovskite B-site positions of these compounds and hence Pm3-barm (a=a p , subscript p for parent perovskite sub-structure) space group symmetry for the A=Ba and Sr compounds and Pnma (a=a p +b p , b=-a p +b p , c=2c p ) space group symmetry for the A=Ca compound. A careful electron diffraction study, however, shows that both the A=Ca and Sr compounds occur at room temperature in P12 1 /n1 (a=a p +b p , b=-a p +b p , c=2c p ) perovskite-related superstructure phases while the A=Ba compound occurs in the Fm3-barm, a=2a p , elpasolite structure type. Bond valence sum calculations are used to explain why this should be so as well as to provide a useful first-order approximation to the structures of each of the compounds

  15. A critique of the historical-fire-regime concept in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Johanna; Kobziar, Leda; Rose, Elizabeth White; Cropper, Wendell

    2017-10-01

    Prescribed fire is widely accepted as a conservation tool because fire is essential to the maintenance of native biodiversity in many terrestrial communities. Approaches to this land-management technique vary greatly among continents, and sharing knowledge internationally can inform application of prescribed fire worldwide. In North America, decisions about how and when to apply prescribed fire are typically based on the historical-fire-regime concept (HFRC), which holds that replicating the pattern of fires ignited by lightning or preindustrial humans best promotes native species in fire-prone regions. The HFRC rests on 3 assumptions: it is possible to infer historical fire regimes accurately; fire-suppressed communities are ecologically degraded; and reinstating historical fire regimes is the best course of action despite the global shift toward novel abiotic and biotic conditions. We examined the underpinnings of these assumptions by conducting a literature review on the use of historical fire regimes to inform the application of prescribed fire. We found that the practice of inferring historical fire regimes for entire regions or ecosystems often entails substantial uncertainty and can yield equivocal results; ecological outcomes of fire suppression are complex and may not equate to degradation, depending on the ecosystem and context; and habitat fragmentation, invasive species, and other modern factors can interact with fire to produce novel and in some cases negative ecological outcomes. It is therefore unlikely that all 3 assumptions will be fully upheld for any landscape in which prescribed fire is being applied. Although the HFRC is a valuable starting point, it should not be viewed as the sole basis for developing prescribed fire programs. Rather, fire prescriptions should also account for other specific, measurable ecological parameters on a case-by-case basis. To best achieve conservation goals, researchers should seek to understand contemporary fire

  16. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  17. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; hide

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  18. Fire Process Research Natural Areas: Managing research and restoration of dynamic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2001-01-01

    Since 1992 a collaborative group of fire scientists, forest conservationists, and Federal resource specialists have been developing proposals for a Research Natural Area (RNA) in the Warner Creek Fire area on the Willamette National Forest in Oregon. Inspired by these proposals, the Oregon Natural Heritage Plan created the new category of "Fire Process RNAs"...

  19. 36 CFR 261.50 - Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... organized rescue or fire fighting force in the performance of an official duty; and (5) Persons engaged in a... each Forest Supervisor may issue orders which close or restrict the use of any National Forest System... in the order. (f) Any person wishing to use a National Forest System road or trail or a portion of...

  20. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  1. Fire propagation equation for the explicit identification of fire scenarios in a fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    When performing fire PSA in a nuclear power plant, an event mapping method, using an internal event PSA model, is widely used to reduce the resources used by fire PSA model development. Feasible initiating events and component failure events due to fire are identified to transform the fault tree (FT) for an internal event PSA into one for a fire PSA using the event mapping method. A surrogate event or damage term method is used to condition the FT of the internal PSA. The surrogate event or the damage term plays the role of flagging whether the system/component in a fire compartment is damaged or not, depending on the fire being initiated from a specified compartment. These methods usually require explicit states of all compartments to be modeled in a fire area. Fire event scenarios, when using explicit identification, such as surrogate or damage terms, have two problems: there is no consideration of multiple fire propagation beyond a single propagation to an adjacent compartment, and there is no consideration of simultaneous fire propagations in which an initiating fire event is propagated to multiple paths simultaneously. The present paper suggests a fire propagation equation to identify all possible fire event scenarios for an explicitly treated fire event scenario in the fire PSA. Also, a method for separating fire events was developed to make all fire events a set of mutually exclusive events, which can facilitate arithmetic summation in fire risk quantification. A simple example is given to confirm the applicability of the present method for a 2x3 rectangular fire area. Also, a feasible asymptotic approach is discussed to reduce the computational burden for fire risk quantification

  2. Relationship between leaf traits and fire-response strategies in shrub species of a mountainous region of south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lyndsey M; Cary, Geoffrey J

    2012-01-01

    Resprouting and seed recruitment are important ways in which plants respond to fire. However, the investments a plant makes into ensuring the success of post-fire resprouting or seedling recruitment can result in trade-offs that are manifested in a range of co-occurring morphological, life history and physiological traits. Relationships between fire-response strategies and other traits have been widely examined in fire-prone Mediterranean-type climates. In this paper, we aim to determine whether shrubs growing in a non-Mediterranean climate region exhibit relationships between their fire-response strategy and leaf traits. Field surveys were used to classify species into fire-response types. We then compared specific leaf area, leaf dry-matter content, leaf width, leaf nitrogen and carbon to nitrogen ratios between (a) obligate seeders and all other resprouters, and (b) obligate seeders, facultative resprouters and obligate resprouters. Leaf traits only varied between fire-response types when we considered facultative resprouters as a separate group to obligate resprouters, as observed after a large landscape-scale fire. We found no differences between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters, nor between obligate seeders and resprouters considered as one group. The results suggest that facultative resprouters may require a strategy of rapid resource acquisition and fast growth in order to compete with species that either resprout, or recruit from seed. However, the overall lack of difference between obligate seeders and obligate resprouters suggests that environmental factors are exerting similar effects on species' ecological strategies, irrespective of the constraints and trade-offs that may be associated with obligate seeding and obligate resprouting. These results highlight the limits to trait co-occurrences across different ecosystems and the difficulty in identifying global-scale relationships amongst traits.

  3. Research field of fire technology in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loikkanen, P.; Holm, C.

    1987-02-01

    The goal of the study is to give an overview of the whole diversified research field of fire technology and its problems. For this reason the research subjects have been grouped so that the responsibilities of different authorities, the legislation and specifications, various fields of technology, areas of industry, and groups of products could all be found as clearly as possible. The field has been divided into nine sub-areas. They are: general grounds, fire physics and chemistry, structural fire prevention, textiles and furnishings, devices for heating and other use, detection, fire fighting and rescue, quality control, and special problems. The sub-areas have been divided into 34 main subjects and these, excluding those of special problems, further into as many as 117 subject groups. Characteristics and problems of the sub-areas and the main subjects have been described. The subject groups have been characterized by key words and concepts which outline the projects. No concrete research projects and programs have, however, been directly suggested because their extent and contents depend essentially on financing and other available resources.

  4. Remote Sensing of Chaparral Fire Potential: Case Study in Topanga Canyon, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing techniques, especially the use of color infrared aerial photography, provide a useful tool for fire hazard analysis, including interpetive information about fuel volumes, physiognomic plant groupings, the relationships of buildings to both natural and planted vegetation, and fire vulnerability of roofing materials. In addition, the behavior of the September, 1970 Wright Fire in the Topanga study area suggested the validity of the fire potential analysis which had been made prior to that conflagration.

  5. Identifying vulnerable populations to death and injuries from residential fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stanley W; Butry, David T

    2017-08-03

    This study proposes and evaluates the theory that people who are susceptible to injury in residential fires are not susceptible to death in residential fires and vice versa. It is proposed that the population vulnerable to death in residential fires can be proxied by 'frailty', which is measured as age-gender adjusted fatality rates due to natural causes. This study uses an ecological approach and controls for exposure to estimate the vulnerability of different population groups to death and injury in residential fires. It allows fatalities and injuries to be estimated by different models. Frailty explains fire-related death in adults while not explaining injuries, which is consistent with the idea that deaths and injuries affect disjoint populations. Deaths and injuries in fire are drawn from different populations. People who are susceptible to dying in fires are unlikely to be injured in fires, and the people who are susceptible to injury are unlikely to die in fires. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasa, J; Valasek, L; Weisenpacher, P; Halada, L

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  7. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, J.; Valasek, L.; Weisenpacher, P.; Halada, L.

    2013-02-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  8. Fire blight in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali L. Gaganidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  9. Training Hospital Managers as to Fire Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Khalili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire is one of the most dangerous phenomena in the world which yields main damages, healthy and economical, and is thus a major threat to hospitals. Since, most of the residents in hospitals are the individuals who cannot rescue themselves in such situations, fire in hospitals is more hazardous than any other public place; hence, it can endanger several sophisticated medical equipment. Therefore, security against fire plays a very vital role in hospitals and has to be taken into account by authorities. Among the personnel, hospital manager and the security guard supervisor are much more responsible. One of their responsibilities includes planning fire security scheme in hospitals to reduce the death rate caused by fire so that there is less threat to the building of hospital admits content. Due to the significance of this issue in hospitals, it seems necessary for the personnel to be aware of security measures against fire. Therefore, a study was carried out in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences teaching hospitals on all managers, their awareness about this issue was measured through a questionnaire. The results indicated that of a total of 60, the obtained average was (37.63+7.36 in the medium level. Also, most of the managers believed that proper and updated training by skillful trainers regarding hospital security measures and its application can be truly effective on their productivity. Thus, it is concluded that practical training the mentioned target group (hospital personnel especially clerks and the managers about the security plans can be effective in the control of fire and security measures, resulting in reduction of accidents and human and economic loss in the future.

  10. Forest fires are changing: let’s change the fire management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovio G

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in Italy are changing. More frequent heatwaves and drought increase the flammability of the vegetation; the abandonment of rural land produces 30.000 ha of newly afforested areas each year; and the wildland-urban interface is expanding with the sprawl of urbanized areas. However, forest fires are rarely understood and managed in their complexity. The public opinion is often misinformed on the causes and consequences of fires in the forest. Moreover, fire management relies almost exclusively on extinction and emergency response, resulting in high costs and limited efficacy versus extreme fire seasons. We advocate to increase the role and investments in wildfire prevention, which can be carried out by fuel-oriented silviculture, such as facilitating less flammable species or prescribed burning, in order to reduce the flammability of the vegetation and mitigate fire intensity in high-leverage areas. A centralized structure is necessary to implement such a strategy and coordinate the competences and actions of all local administrations and actors involved.

  11. Preliminary fire hazards analysis for W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckfeldt, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for Project W-211, Initial Tank Retrieval System (ITRS), at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The objectives of this FHA was to determine (1) the fire hazards that expose the Initial Tank Retrieval System or are inherent in the process, (2) the adequacy of the fire-safety features planned, and (3) the degree of compliance of the project with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders and related engineering codes and standards. The scope included the construction, the process hazards, building fire protection, and site wide fire protection. The results are presented in terms of the fire hazards present, the potential extent of fire damage, and the impact on employees and public safety. This study evaluated the ITRS with respect to its use at Tank 241-SY-101 only

  12. Birth order and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risal, Ajay; Tharoor, Hema

    2012-07-01

    Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10) generated. SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527) was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47) and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110). Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7%) among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  13. Birth Order and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Risal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ordinal position the child holds within the sibling ranking of a family is related to intellectual functioning, personality, behavior, and development of psychopathology. Aim: To study the association between birth order and development of psychopathology in patients attending psychiatry services in a teaching hospital. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Retrospective file review of three groups of patients was carried out. Patient-related variables like age of onset, birth order, family type, and family history of mental illness were compared with psychiatry diagnosis (ICD-10 generated. Statistical Analysis: SPSS 13; descriptive statistics and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: Mean age of onset of mental illness among the adult general psychiatry patients (group I, n = 527 was found to be 33.01 ± 15.073, while it was 11.68 ± 4.764 among the child cases (group II, n = 47 and 26.74 ± 7.529 among substance abuse cases (group III, n = 110. Among group I patients, commonest diagnosis was depression followed by anxiety and somatoform disorders irrespective of birth order. Dissociative disorders were most prevalent in the first born child (36.7% among group II patients. Among group III patients, alcohol dependence was maximum diagnosis in all birth orders. Conclusions: Depression and alcohol dependence was the commonest diagnosis in adult group irrespective of birth order.

  14. Focus on the studies in support of fire safety analysis. IRSN modelling approach for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espargilliere, Julien; Meyrand, Raphael; Vinot, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-12-15

    For a fire safety analysis, in order to comply with nuclear safety goals, a nuclear fuel facility operator has to define the elements important for safety to be maintained, even in the case of a fire. One of the key points of this fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. This paper presents the IRSN method applied to a case study to assess fire scenarios which have the most harmful effects on safety targets. The layout consists in a central room (fire cell) containing three glove boxes with radioactive material and three electrical cabinets. This room is linked to two connecting compartments (the fire cell and these two compartments define the containment cell) and then to two corridors. Each room is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, and a pressure cascade is established from the corridors to the central room. A fire scenario was studied with fire ignition occurring in an electrical cabinet. This scenario has a set of safety goals (prevention of fire cell and containment device failure, propagation of the fire). This case study was conducted with the IRSN code SYLVIA based on two zones modelling. Safety goals were associated with key parameters and performance criteria to be fulfilled. Modelling assumptions were defined in order to maximize physical effects of the fire. Sensitivity studies were also conducted on key parameters such as oxygen limitation, equivalent-fuel definition. Eventually, a critical analysis of the code models was carried out.

  15. Organization and conduct of IAEA fire safety reviews at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The importance of fire safety in the safe and productive operation of nuclear power plants is recognized worldwide. Lessons learned from experience in nuclear power plants indicate that fire poses a real threat to nuclear safety and that its significance extends far beyond the scope of a conventional fire hazard. With a growing understanding of the close correlation between the fire hazard in nuclear power plants and nuclear safety, backfitting for fire safety has become necessary for a number of operating plants. However, it has been recognized that the expertise necessary for a systematic independent assessment of fire safety of a NPP may not always be available to a number of Member States. In order to assist in enhancing fire safety, the IAEA has already started to offer various services to Member States in the area of fire safety. At the request of a Member State, the IAEA may provide a team of experts to conduct fire safety reviews of varying scope to evaluate the adequacy of fire safety at a specific nuclear power plant during various phases such as construction, operation and decommissioning. The IAEA nuclear safety publications related to fire protection and fire safety form a common basis for these reviews. This report provides guidance for the experts involved in the organization and conduct of fire safety review services to ensure consistency and comprehensiveness of the reviews

  16. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  17. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalika Biswas

    Full Text Available Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas and woody savannas (non-protected areas. The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  18. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  19. Methods for Prediction of Temperature Distribution in Flashover Caused by Backdraft Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately predicting temperature distribution in flashover fire is a key issue for evacuation and fire-fighting. Now many good flashover fire experiments have be conducted, but most of these experiments are proceeded in enclosure with fixed openings; researches on fire development and temperature distribution in flashover caused by backdraft fire did not receive enough attention. In order to study flashover phenomenon caused by backdraft fire, a full-scale fire experiment was conducted in one abandoned office building. Process of fire development and temperature distribution in room and corridor were separately recorded during the experiment. The experiment shows that fire development in enclosure is closely affected by the room ventilation. Unlike existing temperature curves which have only one temperature peak, temperature in flashover caused by backdraft may have more than one peak value and that there is a linear relationship between maximum peak temperature and distance away from fire compartment. Based on BFD curve and experimental data, mathematical models are proposed to predict temperature curve in flashover fire caused by backdraft at last. These conclusions and experiment data obtained in this paper could provide valuable reference to fire simulation, hazard assessment, and fire protection design.

  20. Global Competency Education Catches Fire at a Rural University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Patricia A.; Gustafson, Glenna; Mistele, Jean

    2017-01-01

    World-ready learners require world-ready educators. One group of inspiring teacher educators share how they ignited a fire of awareness around the importance of global competency education at a small, rural teacher college.

  1. Rocky Flats Plant Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolosi, S.L.; Rodriguez, M.A.

    1994-04-01

    The objective of the Live-Fire Range Risk Analysis Report (RAR) is to provide an authorization basis for operation as required by DOE 5480.16. The existing Live-Fire Range does not have a safety analysis-related authorization basis. EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. has worked with DOE and its representatives to develop a format and content description for development of an RAR for the Live-Fire Range. Development of the RAR is closely aligned with development of the design for a baffle system to control risks from errant projectiles. DOE 5480.16 requires either an RAR or a safety analysis report (SAR) for live-fire ranges. An RAR rather than a SAR was selected in order to gain flexibility to more closely address the safety analysis and conduct of operation needs for a live-fire range in a cost-effective manner.

  2. Modeling of air toxics from hydrocarbon pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, K.A.; Aydil, M.L.; Barone, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    While there is guidance for estimating the radiation hazards of fires (ARCHIE), there is little guidance on modeling the dispersion of hazardous materials from fires. The objective of this paper is to provide a review of the methodology used for modeling the impacts of liquid hydrocarbon pool fires. The required input variables for modeling of hydrocarbon pool fires include emission strength, emission duration, and dispersion characteristics. Methods for predicting the products of combustion including the use of literature values, test data, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations are discussed. The use of energy balances coupled to radiative heat transfer calculations are presented as a method for determining flame temperature. Fire modeling literature is reviewed in order to determine other source release variables such as mass burn rate and duration and flame geometry

  3. The importance of fire simulation in fire prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Radoje B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of fire in objects with lot of humans inside represents very possible real situation that could be very danger and could cause destructive consequences on human lives and material properties. Very important influence in fire prediction, fire protection, human and material properties safety could be a fire simulation in object. This simulation could give many useful information of possible fire propagation; possible and existed evacuation routes; possible and exited placing of fire, smoke, temperature conditions in object and many other information of crucial importance for human lives and material properties, such as the best places for sensors position, optimal number of sensors, projection of possible evacuation routes etc. There are many different programs for fire simulation. This paper presents complete fire simulation in Electrotechnical school Nikola Tesla in Niš in FDS.

  4. Aerosol generation from Kerosene fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1981-01-01

    The course of solvent surface fires is dependent on the surface area on fire; depth of pool and solvent composition do not influence the fire rate. But the fire rate increases rapidly with the burning area. The residual oxygen concentration after a fire in a closed container is dependent on the violence of the fire, i.e. on the burning surface. Moreover the ending of the fire is influenced by the TBP-concentration of the solvent. With sufficient supply of solvent the TBP-concentration changes only slightly during the fire, so that a fire at 14% O 2 -concentration is extinguished within the container. With the TBP-concentration changing considerably, i.e. little mass, a fire with a similar burning surface is already extinguished at an O 2 -content of 18%. The aerosol generation depends on the fire rate, and so it is higher in free atmosphere than in closed containers. The soot production in the mixture fire (kerosene /TBP 70/30) is higher by a factor 7 than in the pure kerosene fire. Primary soot-particles have a diameter of approximately 0,05 μm and agglomerate rapidly into aggregates of 0,2-0,4 μm. (orig.) [de

  5. Characterization and evaluation of controls on post-fire streamflow response across western US watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, Samuel; Hogue, Terri S.; Hay, Lauren

    2018-02-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified hydroclimatic regions in the western United States, and evaluating the impact of climate and geophysical variables on response. Eighty-two watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. Percent change in annual runoff ratio, low flows, high flows, peak flows, number of zero flow days, baseflow index, and Richards-Baker flashiness index were calculated for each watershed using pre- and post-fire periods. Independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, vegetation, climate, burn severity, percent area burned, and soils data. Results show that low flows, high flows, and peak flows increase in the first 2 years following a wildfire and decrease over time. Relative response was used to scale response variables with the respective percent area of watershed burned in order to compare regional differences in watershed response. To account for variability in precipitation events, runoff ratio was used to compare runoff directly to PRISM precipitation estimates. To account for regional differences in climate patterns, watersheds were divided into nine regions, or clusters, through k-means clustering using climate data, and regression models were produced for watersheds grouped by total area burned. Watersheds in Cluster 9 (eastern California, western Nevada, Oregon) demonstrate a small negative response to observed flow regimes after fire. Cluster 8 watersheds (coastal California) display the greatest flow responses, typically within the first year following wildfire. Most other watersheds show a positive mean relative response. In addition, simple regression models show low correlation between percent watershed burned and streamflow response, implying that other watershed factors

  6. Characterization and evaluation of controls on post-fire streamflow response across western US watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saxe

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified hydroclimatic regions in the western United States, and evaluating the impact of climate and geophysical variables on response. Eighty-two watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. Percent change in annual runoff ratio, low flows, high flows, peak flows, number of zero flow days, baseflow index, and Richards–Baker flashiness index were calculated for each watershed using pre- and post-fire periods. Independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, vegetation, climate, burn severity, percent area burned, and soils data. Results show that low flows, high flows, and peak flows increase in the first 2 years following a wildfire and decrease over time. Relative response was used to scale response variables with the respective percent area of watershed burned in order to compare regional differences in watershed response. To account for variability in precipitation events, runoff ratio was used to compare runoff directly to PRISM precipitation estimates. To account for regional differences in climate patterns, watersheds were divided into nine regions, or clusters, through k-means clustering using climate data, and regression models were produced for watersheds grouped by total area burned. Watersheds in Cluster 9 (eastern California, western Nevada, Oregon demonstrate a small negative response to observed flow regimes after fire. Cluster 8 watersheds (coastal California display the greatest flow responses, typically within the first year following wildfire. Most other watersheds show a positive mean relative response. In addition, simple regression models show low correlation between percent watershed burned and streamflow response, implying that

  7. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  8. Learning by Erring: fire!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjugn, Roger; Hansen, Jarle

    2013-08-01

    Biorepositories may be affected by a number of emergencies ranging from bad publicity to natural disasters, and biorepositories should have plans for handling such situations. The emergency management process includes all phases from mitigation to recovery. Fire is one disaster that may cause extensive damage to both physical structures and humans. In this article, we analyze events related to a fire in a storage facility for mechanical freezers. The analysis covers both the pre-crisis stage, the fire itself, and the post-crisis stage. Even the best intended planning cannot stop a crisis from happening. However, an open-minded analysis of the crisis with focus on learning and quality improvement can improve an organization's ability to handle the next emergency situation.

  9. ASSESSMENT OF THE UTILITY OF THE ADVANCED HIMAWARI IMAGER TO DETECT ACTIVE FIRE OVER AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Hally

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire detection and attribution is an issue of importance due to the socio-economic impact of fires in Australia. Early detection of fires allows emergency response agencies to make informed decisions in order to minimise loss of life and protect strategic resources in threatened areas. Until recently, the ability of land management authorities to accurately assess fire through satellite observations of Australia was limited to those made by polar orbiting satellites. The launch of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA Himawari-8 satellite, with the 16-band Advanced Himawari Imager (AHI-8 onboard, in October 2014 presents a significant opportunity to improve the timeliness of satellite fire detection across Australia. The near real-time availability of images, at a ten minute frequency, may also provide contextual information (background temperature leading to improvements in the assessment of fire characteristics. This paper investigates the application of the high frequency observation data supplied by this sensor for fire detection and attribution. As AHI-8 is a new sensor we have performed an analysis of the noise characteristics of the two spectral bands used for fire attribution across various land use types which occur in Australia. Using this information we have adapted existing algorithms, based upon least squares error minimisation and Kalman filtering, which utilise high frequency observations of surface temperature to detect and attribute fire. The fire detection and attribution information provided by these algorithms is then compared to existing satellite based fire products as well as in-situ information provided by land management agencies. These comparisons were made Australia-wide for an entire fire season - including many significant fire events (wildfires and prescribed burns. Preliminary detection results suggest that these methods for fire detection perform comparably to existing fire products and fire incident reporting

  10. Aperiodic order

    CERN Document Server

    Grimm, Uwe

    2017-01-01

    Quasicrystals are non-periodic solids that were discovered in 1982 by Dan Shechtman, Nobel Prize Laureate in Chemistry 2011. The mathematics that underlies this discovery or that proceeded from it, known as the theory of Aperiodic Order, is the subject of this comprehensive multi-volume series. This second volume begins to develop the theory in more depth. A collection of leading experts, among them Robert V. Moody, cover various aspects of crystallography, generalising appropriately from the classical case to the setting of aperiodically ordered structures. A strong focus is placed upon almost periodicity, a central concept of crystallography that captures the coherent repetition of local motifs or patterns, and its close links to Fourier analysis. The book opens with a foreword by Jeffrey C. Lagarias on the wider mathematical perspective and closes with an epilogue on the emergence of quasicrystals, written by Peter Kramer, one of the founders of the field.

  11. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  12. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 1: Fires affect animals mainly through effects on their habitat. Fires often cause short-term increases in wildlife foods that contribute to increases in populations of some animals. These increases are moderated by the animals' ability to thrive in the altered, often simplified, structure of the postfire environment. The extent of fire effects on animal...

  13. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available parameters such as flame length or rate of spread can be physically measured or modeled. Fire danger indices are not designed to describe the characteristics of a fire but rather the potential of a fire taking place in an area of interest [5]. Several...

  14. Rx fire laws: tools to protect fire: the `ecological imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Wade; Steven Miller; Johnny Stowe; James Brenner

    2006-01-01

    The South is the birthplace of statutes and ordinances that both advocate and protect the cultural heritage of woods burning, which has been practiced in this region uninterrupted for more than 10,000 years. We present a brief overview of fire use in the South and discuss why most southern states recognized early on that periodic fire was necessary to sustain fire...

  15. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    durable and launderable. A summary of contractor lead efforts to achieve these goals was presented. 3.19 US Naval Air Systems Command The NAVAIR fire... contractors spoke next concerning their companies’ technologies for fuel fire mitigation. Randy Fontinakes from Meggitt summarized his company’s products...decomprHalon FUS~ ht Surgeon’a Manual, USN: 0 Mdentlry, rapid d.eC)mpt"tMion • moct.rate .ctfvtty, rapkl decomprualon c: 0 Ill 5 1000 +- ph~lo4oglcal

  16. Adrenergic receptor-mediated modulation of striatal firing patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiroyuki; Kohno, Yu; Arake, Masashi; Tamura, Risa; Yukawa, Suguru; Sato, Yoshiaki; Morimoto, Yuji; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Yawo, Hiromu

    2016-11-01

    Although noradrenaline and adrenaline are some of the most important neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, the effects of noradrenergic/adrenergic modulation on the striatum have not been determined. In order to explore the effects of adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists on the striatal firing patterns, we used optogenetic methods which can induce continuous firings. We employed transgenic rats expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in neurons. The medium spiny neuron showed a slow rising depolarization during the 1-s long optogenetic striatal photostimulation and a residual potential with 8.6-s half-life decay after the photostimulation. As a result of the residual potential, five repetitive 1-sec long photostimulations with 20-s onset intervals cumulatively increased the number of spikes. This 'firing increment', possibly relating to the timing control function of the striatum, was used to evaluate the AR modulation. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol decreased the firing increment between the 1st and 5th stimulation cycles, while the α 1 -AR agonist phenylephrine enhanced the firing increment. Isoproterenol and adrenaline increased the early phase (0-0.5s of the photostimulation) firing response. This adrenergic modulation was inhibited by the β-antagonist propranolol. Conversely, phenylephrine and noradrenaline reduced the early phase response. β-ARs and α 1 -ARs work in opposition controlling the striatal firing initiation and the firing increment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  18. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... for more information. June 15, 2018 Nationally, wildland fire activity remains about average for this time of ...

  19. Wilderness fire management planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a procedure for fire management planning for parks; wilderness areas; and other wild, natural, or essentially undeveloped areas. Discusses background and philosophy of wilderness fire management, planning concepts, planning elements, and planning methods.

  20. Fire protection devices in the controlled region of GKN nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the GKN nuclear power station ('Neckar reactor'), an 805 MW PWR reactor whose start-up is scheduled for the near future, fire protection measures have been realized that go far beyond those realized in other German nuclear power stations until now. One of the main reasons is that the authorities have been sensibilized by a fire in the refuelling cavity during construction and by the Browns Ferry fire and are therefore extremely thorough in their examination. Further subsections have been added to the fire prevention sections in order to provide better quenching devices for potential fire sites. (orig./AK) [de

  1. Fire protection equipment in the area of control of the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Grauf, E.

    1976-01-01

    In the Neckar Community Nuclear Power Station - an 805 MW pressurised water reactor shortly to reach the stage of nuclear operation - fire protection measures have been realised to an extent hitherto uncommon in German nuclear power plants. The reason is to be sought from the authorities who have become more sensitive because of a fire in a reactor vessel during the construction stage and the fire at Browns Ferry and have consequently become extremely expert. Apart from the fire regulations hitherto normal further subregulations have been created in order to be able to make better provision of extinguishing devices against fire hazards. (orig.) [de

  2. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Review of fire behavior during passage of Sandy Lake Fire 13 (NWT) across a Northwest Territories Power Corporation transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, D.; Thomasson, J.

    2009-03-15

    The Sandy Lake Fire 13 of July 2008 was an intense forest fire that burned up to and across a power line right-of-way in the Northwest Territories, approximately 160 km northwest of Fort Smith. The terrain in the area is flat and vegetation is characterized by boreal pine and black spruce uplands with black spruce and tamarack in lower areas and adjacent to wetlands. This report documented post fire conditions at locations where the fire crossed the power line. The towers on this line were made from an aluminum alloy and may not have had the same resistance to heat damage as steel towers, more commonly used on major transmission lines. The transmission line was de-energized during the fire. Therefore, the effects of fire on power transmission were not documented. Although the intense wildfire crossed sections of the power line, it did not result in observable damage to the towers or lines. Fire intensity was likely greater than 40,000 kw/m along some sections of the right-of-way. Although the management of the right-of-way may have reduced heat exposure to the transmission towers, it did not stop the fire. Pine mixed with an aspen component greater than 50 per cent had a mitigating effect on fire behaviour. The fire did not result in any immediate damage to the power line infrastructure. It was concluded that the use of power lines for fire operations should consider right-of-way width in order to assess equipment maneuverability, especially around tower guy wires. 5 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  4. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified

  5. Automatic fire hydrant valve development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumheller, K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a remotely-controlled valve to operate a fire hydrant is described. Assembled from off-the-shelf components, the prototype illustrates that a valve light enough to be handled by one man is possible. However, it does not have the ruggedness or reliability needed for actual fire-fighting operations. Preliminary testing by City of Tacoma fire department personnel indicates that the valve may indeed contribute significantly to fire-fighting efficiency

  6. United States position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The first Specialists' Meeting on sodium fire technology sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was held in Richland, Washington in 1972. The group concluded that the state-of-technology at that time was inadequate to support the growing LMFBR industry. During the second IWGFR Specialists' Meeting on sodium fires, held in Cadarache, France in 1978, a large quantity of technical information was exchanged and areas were identified where additional work was needed. Advances in several important areas of sodium fire technology have been made in the United States since that time, including improved computer codes, design of a sodium fire protection system for the CRBRP, measurement of water release from heated concrete, and testing and modeling of the sodium-concrete reaction. Research in the U.S. related to sodium fire technology is performed chiefly at the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International (including Atomics International), the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The work at the first two laboratories is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, while that at the latter is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Various aspects of sodium fire related work is also performed at several other laboratories. The current status of sodium fire technology in the U.S. is summarized in this report

  7. A multimodal 3D framework for fire characteristics estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, T.; Rossi, L.; Akhloufi, M. A.; Pieri, A.; Maldague, X.

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade we have witnessed an increasing interest in using computer vision and image processing in forest fire research. Image processing techniques have been successfully used in different fire analysis areas such as early detection, monitoring, modeling and fire front characteristics estimation. While the majority of the work deals with the use of 2D visible spectrum images, recent work has introduced the use of 3D vision in this field. This work proposes a new multimodal vision framework permitting the extraction of the three-dimensional geometrical characteristics of fires captured by multiple 3D vision systems. The 3D system is a multispectral stereo system operating in both the visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectral bands. The framework supports the use of multiple stereo pairs positioned so as to capture complementary views of the fire front during its propagation. Multimodal registration is conducted using the captured views in order to build a complete 3D model of the fire front. The registration process is achieved using multisensory fusion based on visual data (2D and NIR images), GPS positions and IMU inertial data. Experiments were conducted outdoors in order to show the performance of the proposed framework. The obtained results are promising and show the potential of using the proposed framework in operational scenarios for wildland fire research and as a decision management system in fighting.

  8. 2013 Annual Report: Fire Modeling Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Innes; Faith Ann Heinsch; Kristine M. Lee

    2014-01-01

    The Fire Modeling Institute (FMI) of the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS), is a national and international resource for fire managers. Located within the Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (Fire Lab) in Montana, FMI helps managers utilize fire and fuel science and technology developed throughout the...

  9. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan

    2015-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  10. Testing hypotheses in order

    OpenAIRE

    Paul R. Rosenbaum

    2008-01-01

    In certain circumstances, one wishes to test one hypothesis only if certain other hypotheses have been rejected. This ordering of hypotheses simplifies the task of controlling the probability of rejecting any true hypothesis. In an example from an observational study, a treated group is shown to be further from both of two control groups than the two control groups are from each other. Copyright 2008, Oxford University Press.

  11. Fire in the Earth System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, D.M.J.S.; Balch, J.K.; Artaxo, P.; Bond, W.J.; Carlson, J.M.; Cochrane, M.A.; D'Antonio, C.M.; DeFries, R.S.; Doyle, J.C.; Harrison, S.P.; Johnston, F.H.; Keeley, J.E.; Krawchuk, M.A.; Kull, C.A.; Marston, J.B.; Moritz, M.A.; Prentice, I.C.; Roos, C.I.; Scott, A.C.; Swetnam, T.W.; van der Werf, G.R.; Pyne, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always

  12. Prescribed fire research in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Brose

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed fire in Pennsylvania is a relatively new forestry practice because of the State's adverse experience with highly destructive wildfires in the early 1900s. The recent introduction of prescribed fire raises a myriad of questions regarding its correct and safe use. This poster briefly describes the prescribed fire research projects of the Forestry Sciences...

  13. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  14. Estimates of wildland fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; John J. Qu; Wanting Wang; Xianjun Hao

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fire missions can significantly affect regional and global air quality, radiation, climate, and the carbon cycle. A fundamental and yet challenging prerequisite to understanding the environmental effects is to accurately estimate fire emissions. This chapter describes and analyzes fire emission calculations. Various techniques (field measurements, empirical...

  15. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Innes

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/) has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  16. Fire regimes, past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl N. Skinner; Chiru Chang

    1996-01-01

    Fire has been an important ecosystem process in the Sierra Nevada for thousands of years. Before the area was settled in the 1850s, fires were generally frequent throughout much of the range. The frequency and severity of these fires varied spatially and temporally depending upon climate, elevation, topography, vegetation, edaphic conditions, and human cultural...

  17. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  18. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)

  19. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur a...

  20. Measuring behaviours for escaping from house fires: use of latent variable models to summarise multiple behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploubidis, G B; Edwards, P; Kendrick, D

    2015-12-15

    This paper reports the development and testing of a construct measuring parental fire safety behaviours for planning escape from a house fire. Latent variable modelling of data on parental-reported fire safety behaviours and plans for escaping from a house fire and multivariable logistic regression to quantify the association between groups defined by the latent variable modelling and parental-report of having a plan for escaping from a house fire. Data comes from 1112 participants in a cluster randomised controlled trial set in children's centres in 4 study centres in the UK. A two class model provided the best fit to the data, combining responses to five fire safety planning behaviours. The first group ('more behaviours for escaping from a house fire') comprised 86% of participants who were most likely to have a torch, be aware of how their smoke alarm sounds, to have external door and window keys accessible, and exits clear. The second group ('fewer behaviours for escaping from a house fire') comprised 14% of participants who were less likely to report these five behaviours. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants allocated to the 'more behaviours for escaping from a house fire group were 2.5 times more likely to report having an escape plan (OR 2.48; 95% CI 1.59-3.86) than those in the "fewer behaviours for escaping from a house fire" group. Multiple fire safety behaviour questions can be combined into a single binary summary measure of fire safety behaviours for escaping from a house fire. Our findings will be useful to future studies wishing to use a single measure of fire safety planning behaviour as measures of outcome or exposure. NCT 01452191. Date of registration 13/10/2011.

  1. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs

  2. A New Supersensitive Flame Detector and its Use for Early Forest Fire Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new flame detector, three orders of magnitude more powerful than the existing ones, is presented. This detector needs to be mass-produced for its use in order to be incorporated in an early forest fire detection system. A project able to implement its use to overcome the forest fire emergency is described.

  3. Comments on Simplified Calculation Method for Fire Exposed Concrete Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1998-01-01

    The author has developed new simplified calculation methods for fire exposed columns. Methods, which are found In ENV 1992-1-2 chapter 4.3 and in proposal for Danish code of Practise DS411 chapter 9. In the present supporting document the methods are derived and 50 eccentrically loaded fire expos...... columns are calculated and compared to results of full-scale tests. Furthermore 500 columns are calculated in order to present each test result related to a variation of the calculation in time of fire resistance....

  4. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  5. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  6. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation pack ages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on the United States Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama. (authors)

  7. Nursing students practice primary fire prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehna, Carlee; Todd, Julie A; Keller, Rachel; Presley, Lynn; Jackson, Jessica; Davis, Stephanie; Hockman, Kristi; Phillips-Payne, Charles; Sauer, Sarah; Wessemeier, Sarah

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate a standardized, interactive, home fire safety program for elementary school students. Senior baccalaureate nursing students in their pediatric clinical rotation taught burn prevention techniques using Hazard House, a model house filled with common household fire hazards (Hazard House, 2006, Ref. 1). Elementary school students were encouraged to identify the hazards and discuss ways in which the house could be made safer. Local firemen then briefly presented what to do if a fire occurred, how firemen may look during a rescue, and the importance of working smoke alarms in the home. A pretest-posttest design was used to examine the effectiveness of an educational intervention. The three groups of participants included 128 kindergarten students, 311 students in grades 1-2, and 61 students in grades 3-4. The tests and interventions were tailored appropriately for each age group. There was no difference in pre- and post-test scores for the students in kindergarten and grades 3-4 (p>0.05). However, there was a significant difference for students in grades 1-2 (pimproving the understanding of fire safety for students in grades 1-2. Future studies may need to include a larger sample of students for the other grades. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Motorcoach Fire Safety Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to collect and analyze information from Government, industry, and media sources on the causes, frequency, and severity of motorcoach fires in the U.S., and to identify potential risk reduction measures. The Volpe Center...

  9. Hiring without Firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Araoz, Claudio

    1999-01-01

    Describes the problems related to the hiring of senior-level positions. Suggests that regardless of the hiring process used, between 30% and 50% of executive-level appointments end in firing or resignation. Discusses the most common mistakes used in hiring. (JOW)

  10. De fire dimensioner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mihail

    De fire dimensioner er en humanistisk håndbog beregnet især på studerende og vejledere inden for humaniora, men kan også læses af andre med interesse for, hvad humanistisk forskning er og kan. Den er blevet til over et langt livs engageret forskning, uddannelse og formidling på Roskilde Universitet...... og udgør på den måde også et bidrag til universitetets historie, som jeg var med til at grundlægge. De fire dimensioner sætter mennesket i centrum. Men det er et centrum, der peger ud over sig selv; et centrum, hvorfra verden anskues, erfares og forstås. Alle mennesker har en forhistorie og en...... fremtid, og udstrakt mellem disse punkter i tiden tænker og handler de i rummet. Den menneskelige tilværelse omfatter alle fire dimensioner. De fire dimensioner udgør derfor også et forsvar for en almen dannelse, der gennemtrænger og kommer kulturelt til udtryk i vores historie, viden, praksis og kunst....

  11. Indonesia's Fires and Haze

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    WWF Malaysia provided information and advice about fires and haze impacts to the government and ..... Forest management and land-use practices in Sumatra and Kalimantan have evolved very ..... In principle, the study should compare the situation with and without haze. ...... Profit before taxation is 5 per cent of turnover.

  12. Boerhaave on Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemente, Damon

    2000-01-01

    In 1741 an English translation of Herman Boerhaave's celebrated textbook Elementa Chemic was published under the title A New Method of Chemistry. True to its time, this book included elaborate discussions of the elements earth, water, air, and fire. This article offers to teachers for classroom use a selection of passages from Boerhaave's chapter on fire. Now, today's teacher of chemistry is apt to feel that little of significance to the modern classroom can be gleaned from a two-and-a-half-centuries-old text, and especially from a topic as old-fashioned as fire. But this view is decidedly shortsighted. Boerhaave offers demonstrations and experiments that can be instructively performed today, quantitative data that can be checked against modern equations, and much theory and hypothesis that can be assessed in light of modern chemical ideas. In the readings presented here I have found material for discussion in class, for investigation in the laboratory, and for a few homework assignments. Modern students are well able to comprehend and paraphrase Boerhaave, to check his results, appreciate his insights, and identify his shortfalls. From him they learn firsthand how painstaking and difficult it was to imagine and develop the concepts of thermochemistry. To read from his chapter on fire is to stand witness to the birth and infancy of thermodynamics as conceived in the mind of a great chemist from the age when coherent chemical theory was just beginning to emerge.

  13. Fire on Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Daly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The nineteenth century theatre was fire-prone, to say the least. Across the century there were more than 1,100 major conflagrations in the world’s theatres, and countless smaller fires. In Great Britain almost every theatre seems to have burned down at some point. And yet, despite, or perhaps in part because of, this appalling record, fires were a staple feature of stage spectacle. Some plays placed them at the very centre of the entertainment, and as the century went on stage fires became more and more elaborate. Actual or simulated conflagrations were conjured up using a diverse array of technologies, some of them very simple, some depending on the most recent scientific discoveries. Here, I give a short tour of these technologies and their use in the plays of the period, and suggest some of the pleasures that they offered. While onstage flames could draw people in, offering an experience of immersive suspense, for instance, they also interrupted the dramatic flow, reminding audiences that they were seeing a performance, getting something for their money. To this extent, we are reminded that nineteenth-century drama provided something of a mixed and spectacular ‘theatre of attractions’, closer at times to the circus than to the novel.

  14. New fire detection technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres Vinagre, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Fire detection methods and systems have advanced rapidly in recent years. In practice, there are two categories of fire detection system: conventional, collective identification, and addressable, individual identification. Hybrid systems are also used. Most Spanish nuclear power plants are equipped with the first type, as they were the only types available when the plants were built. Individual identification systems have been a radical change and have opened up new possibilities for nuclear power plants not available using conventional systems. Conventional systems provide no indication of the exact provenance of the fire-alarm signal, which could even come from different rooms. When a new generation detector initiates an alarm, it identifies itself, and the location of the fire, explicity. Faculty detectors can be located and counted, for fast, efficient replacement, or recording if replacement is not necessary immediately. In the past HALON was used in situations that required an extinguishing agent that was clean for people and equipment such as electrical panels, and in control rooms. Now that it is no longer available, faster detection techniques have had to be developed, to avoid the need for generalized extinction or inadequate extinguishing agents. This presentation analyses the new detection technology, and the ways it is being applied to typical cases in nuclear power plants. (Author)

  15. Origin of Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Intended for use with college students, this booklet contains a traditional Hupa story (in Hupa and English) followed by information to aid in a critical literary analysis of the story and topics for student discussion. The introduction explains that "Origin of Fire"--first written down by P.E. Goddard in 1902 and still told by…

  16. Fire Ant Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... venom in a fire ant sting will kill bacteria and some of your skin cells. This results in the formation of a blister that fills with a cloudy white material in about 24 hours. While this looks like a pus-filled lesion that should be drained, ...

  17. International collaborative fire modeling project (ICFMP). Summary of benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, Marina; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Dreisbach, Jason; McGrattan, Kevin; Miles, Stewart; Plys, Martin; Riese, Olaf

    2008-09-01

    developed by several national and international standards organizations, industry groups, and utilities. This document is intended to be a source and reference for technical information and insights gained through the exercises conducted, and provided by the experts participating in this project. This information may be beneficial to users of fire models and developers of guidance documents or standards for the use of fire models in nuclear power plant applications. (orig.)

  18. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  19. Enhanced Fire Events Database to Support Fire PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranowsky, Patrick; Canavan, Ken; St. Germain, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides a description of the updated and enhanced Fire Events Data Base (FEDB) developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) in cooperation with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The FEDB is the principal source of fire incident operational data for use in fire PRAs. It provides a comprehensive and consolidated source of fire incident information for nuclear power plants operating in the U.S. The database classification scheme identifies important attributes of fire incidents to characterize their nature, causal factors, and severity consistent with available data. The database provides sufficient detail to delineate important plant specific attributes of the incidents to the extent practical. A significant enhancement to the updated FEDB is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields and fire characterization details added to more rigorously capture the nature and magnitude of the fire and damage to the ignition source and nearby equipment and structures.

  20. Building Fire Behavior Analyst (FBAN) capability and capacity: Lessons learned From Victoria, Australia's Bushfire Behavior Predictive Services Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. E. Gibos; A. Slijepcevic; T. Wells; L. Fogarty

    2015-01-01

    Wildland fire managers must frequently make meaning from chaos in order to protect communities and infrastructure from the negative impacts of fire. Fire management personnel are increasingly turning to science to support their experience-based decision-making processes and to provide clear, confident leadership for communities frequently exposed to risk from wildfire...

  1. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M; Brooks, Matthew L; Matchett, John R; Shive, Kristen L; Povak, Nicholas A; Kane, Van R; Smith, Douglas F

    2017-10-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western United States. Given this increase, there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation, and water balance on fire-severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate-severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high-severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high-severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. The proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high-severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate-severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Characteristics, stratigraphic architecture, and time framework of multi-order mixed siliciclastic and carbonate depositional sequences, outcropping Cisco Group (Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian), Eastern Shelf, north-central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Kominz, Michelle A.

    2003-01-01

    The Cisco Group on the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin is composed of fluvial, deltaic, shelf, shelf-margin, and slope-to-basin carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic analyses of 181 meter-to-decimeter-scale depositional sequences exposed in the up-dip shelf indicated that the siliciclastic and carbonate parasequences in the transgressive systems tracts (TST) are thin and upward deepening, whereas those in highstand systems tracts (HST) are thick and upward shallowing. The sequences can be subdivided into five types on the basis of principal lithofacies, and exhibit variable magnitude of facies shift corresponding to variable extents of marine transgression and regression on the shelf. The sequence stacking patterns and their regional persistence suggest a three-level sequence hierarchy controlled by eustasy, whereas local and regional changes in lithology, thickness, and sequence type, magnitude, and absence were controlled by interplay of eustasy, differential shelf subsidence, depositional topography, and pattern of siliciclastic supply. The outcropping Cisco Group is highly incomplete with an estimated 6-11% stratigraphic completeness. The average duration of deposition of the major (third-order) sequences is estimated as 67-102 ka on the up-dip shelf and increases down dip, while the average duration of the major sequence boundaries (SB) is estimated as 831-1066 ka and decreases down dip. The nondepositional and erosional hiatus on the up-dip shelf was represented by lowstand deltaic systems in the basin and slope.

  3. A hierarchical fire frequency model to simulate temporal patterns of fire regimes in LANDIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian Yang; Hong S. He; Eric J. Gustafson

    2004-01-01

    Fire disturbance has important ecological effects in many forest landscapes. Existing statistically based approaches can be used to examine the effects of a fire regime on forest landscape dynamics. Most examples of statistically based fire models divide a fire occurrence into two stages--fire ignition and fire initiation. However, the exponential and Weibull fire-...

  4. Stochastic representation of fire behavior in a wildland fire protection planning model for California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Keith Gilless; Jeremy S. Fried

    1998-01-01

    A fire behavior module was developed for the California Fire Economics Simulator version 2 (CFES2), a stochastic simulation model of initial attack on wildland fire used by the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Fire rate of spread (ROS) and fire dispatch level (FDL) for simulated fires "occurring" on the same day are determined by making...

  5. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  6. Fires in rooms containing electrical components - incident planning, fire fighting tactics, risks; Braender i driftrum - Insatsplaner, slaeckteknik, risker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnusson, Tommy; Ottosson, Jan; Lindskog, BertiI; Soederquist Bende, Evy; Eriksson, Fredrik; Haffling, Stefan

    2006-12-15

    On July 1, 2005 a fire occurred within an electrical switch room at Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant. At the evaluation of the incident it was identified that the pre-fire plans did not give sufficient information in order to make the appropriate decisions. Questions raised based on the incident are how decisions are made and orders are delegated with respect to the incident command, which fire fighting tactic should be used, which types of extinguishing media should be used, what are the risks with respect to safety of staff and safety of the reactor. Lessons learned from the fire at Forsmark were that pre-incident planning was at hand but the information was not sufficient to make the correct initial decisions that might be critical for life and property. One of the most crucial ingredients in all safety related work is to utilize previous experience in order to maintain a high degree of safety. Lessons learnt are also the foundation on which the ability to construct or create strong barriers against a certain fault phenomena, fault mechanism or type of initial event. In the case of nuclear processes, fire is considered as an important and critical initial event which has to be recognized in a number of cases in order to maintain a safe process. The likelihood for a fire to represent an initial event should not be underestimated and can therefore not be neglected, probabilistically or deterministically, unless the inherent safety systems can not control the event in an acceptable manner. Regardless of safety measures and lessons learnt from previous experiences in the construction and the operation of the nuclear facility, fires can occur. Previous experiences point out that process system, e.g. systems that are part of the turbine, are more frequently subject to fire incidents compared to ordinary safety systems. Fires in electrical components, often electrical cabinets, can be difficult to handle and to extinguish quickly. This report presents the background work

  7. Fire analysis. Relevant aspects from Spanish nuclear power plants experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Pedro; Villar, Tomas [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Madrid (Spain). Nuclear Safety Dept.

    2015-12-15

    Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E. leads the development and updating of fire analysis for the Spanish NPP's. Some of them decided to voluntarily adopt standard NFPA-805 as an alternative to the current fire protection rules. Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methodologies have been continuously evolving during recent years. This paper will briefly present experience gained in relationship with some relevant aspects of fire risk analysis. Associated circuits need to be evaluated to determine if cable faults can prevent or cause the maloperation of redundant safety related systems. If a circuit is not properly protected by an isolation device, fire damage to a cable could propagate to other safe shutdown cables. In order to check that the coordination is adequate, existing electrical protections coordination studies have been analyzed and, for some plants, additional analyses have been performed for DC and AC for instrumentation an control (I and C) systems. Spurious actuations are also a basic part of the analysis of the consequence of a fire, which should consider any possible actuation that can prevent or affect the performance of a system or safety function. In this context, it was furthermore necessary to take into account the possibility of a combination of several spurious actuations that can result in a specific consequence, according to Appendix G of NEI 00-01 Rev. 2. These are the so-called Multiple Spurious Operations (MSOs). One key element in fire analysis is the availability of validated fire models used to estimate the spread of fire and the failure time of cable raceways. NFPA 805 states that fire models shall only be applied within the limitations of the given model. The applicability of the validation results is determined using normalized parameters traditionally used in fire modeling applications. Normalized parameters assessed in NUREG-1934 may be used to compare NPP fire scenarios with validation experiments. If some of the parameters do

  8. FireBird - a small satellite fire monitoring mission: Status and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Eckehard; Rücker, Gernot; Terzibaschian, Thomas; Klein, Doris; Tiemann, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The scientific mission FireBird is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and consists of two small satellites. The first satellite - TET-1 - was successfully launched from Baikonur, Russia in July 2012. Its first year in orbit was dedicated to a number of experiments within the framework of the DLR On Orbit Verification (OOV) program which is dedicated to technology testing in space. After successful completion of its OOV phase, TET-1 was handed over to the DLR FireBird mission and is now a dedicated Earth Observation mission. Its primary goal is sensing of hot phenomena such as wildfires, volcanoes, gas flares and industrial hotspots. The second satellite, BiROS is scheduled for launch in the second or third quarter of 2015. The satellite builds on the heritage of the DLR BIRD (BIspectral Infrared Detection) mission and delivers quantitative information (such as Fire Radiative Power, FRP) at a spatial resolution of 350 m, superior to any current fire enabled satellite system such as NPP VIIRS, MODIS or Meteosat SEVIRI. The satellite is undergoing a four month validation phase during which satellite operations are adapted to the new mission goals of FireBIRD and processing capacities are established to guarantee swift processing and delivery of high quality data. The validation phase started with an informal Operational Readiness Review and will be completed with a formal review, covering all aspects of the space and ground segments. The satellite is equipped with a camera with a 42 m ground pixel size in the red, green and near infrared spectral range, and a 370 m ground pixel size camera in the mid and thermal infrared with a swath of 185 km. The satellite can be pointed towards a target in order to enhance observation frequency. First results of the FireBird mission include a ground validation experiment and acquisitions over fires across the world. Once the validation phase is finished the data will be made available to a wide scientific community.

  9. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...

  10. Teach yourself visually Fire tablets

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Expert visual guidance to getting the most out of your Fire tablet Teach Yourself VISUALLY Fire Tablets is the comprehensive guide to getting the most out of your new Fire tablet. Learn to find and read new bestsellers through the Kindle app, browse the app store to find top games, surf the web, send e-mail, shop online, and much more! With expert guidance laid out in a highly visual style, this book is perfect for those new to the Fire tablet, providing all the information you need to get the most out of your device. Abundant screenshots of the Fire tablet graphically rich, touch-based Androi

  11. Fighting fires in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantom, L.F.; Weldon, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Since the Browns Ferry incident, the specter of fires at nuclear plants has been the focus of attention by NRC, the utilities, and the public. There are sophisticated hardware and software available - in the form of fire-protection systems and equipment and training and fire-protection programs. Potential fire losses at nuclear faclities can be staggering. Thus, it behooves all those involved to maximize fire-protection security while simultaneously minimizing the chance of human error, which cancels out the effectiveness of the most up-to-date protective systems and devices

  12. FIRE PERMIT NOW ON EDH!

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS General Safety Group or

    2001-01-01

    The electronic version of the Fire Permit form is now active. The aim of the Fire Permit procedure is to reduce the risk of fire or explosion. It is mandatory when performing 'hot work' (mainly activities which involve the use of naked flames or other heat sources - e.g. welding, brazing, cutting, grinding, etc.). Its use is explained in the CERN Fire Protection Code E. (Fire Protection) The new electronic form, which is substantially unchanged from the previous authorizing procedure, will be available on the Electronic Document Handling system (https://edh.cern.ch/) as of 1st September 2001. From this date use of the paper version should be discontinued.

  13. Fire detection in warehouse facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Dinaburg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Automatic sprinklers systems are the primary fire protection system in warehouse and storage facilities. The effectiveness of this strategy has come into question due to the challenges presented by modern warehouse facilities, including increased storage heights and areas, automated storage retrieval systems (ASRS), limitations on water supplies, and changes in firefighting strategies. The application of fire detection devices used to provide early warning and notification of incipient warehouse fire events is being considered as a component of modern warehouse fire protection.Fire Detection i

  14. Use of numerical modeling in design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2004-01-01

    modification to the motion and reaction due to their non-sphericity. The simulation results show a big difference between the two cases and indicate it is very significant to take into account the non-sphericity of biomass particles in order to model biomass combustion more accurately. Methods to improve...... of numerical modeling. The models currently used to predict solid fuel combustion rely on a spherical particle shape assumption, which may deviate a lot from reality for big biomass particles. A sphere gives a minimum in terms of the surface-area-to-volume ratio, which impacts significantly both motion...... and reaction of a particle. To better understand biomass combustion and thus improve the design for co-firing biomass in wall-fired burners, non-sphericity of biomass particles is considered. To ease comparison, two cases are numerically studied in a 10m long gas/biomass co-fired burner model. (1) The biomass...

  15. Consuming fire ants reduces northern bobwhite survival and weight gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, P.E.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.

    2014-01-01

    Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus (L.) (Galliformes: Odontophoridae), population declines are well documented, but pinpointing the reasons for these decreases has proven elusive. Bobwhite population declines are attributed primarily to loss of habitat and land use changes. This, however, does not entirely explain population declines in areas intensively managed for bobwhites. Although previous research demonstrates the negative impact of red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on northern bobwhites, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. To meet the protein demands of early growth and development, bobwhite chicks predominantly consume small insects, of which ants are a substantial proportion. Fire ants alter ant community dynamics by often reducing native ant diversity and abundance while concurrently increasing the abundance of individuals. Fire ants have negative effects on chicks, but they are also a large potential protein source, making it difficult to disentangle their net effect on bobwhite chicks. To help investigate these effects, we conducted a laboratory experiment to understand (1) whether or not bobwhites consume fire ants, and (2) how the benefits of this consumption compare to the deleterious impacts of bobwhite chick exposure to fire ants. Sixty bobwhite chicks were separated into two groups of 30; one group was provided with starter feed only and the second group was provided with feed and fire ants. Bobwhite chicks were observed feeding on fire ants. Chicks that fed on fire ants had reduced survival and weight gain. Our results show that, while fire ants increase potential food sources for northern bobwhite, their net effect on bobwhite chicks is deleterious. This information will help inform land managers and commercial bobwhite rearing operations.

  16. Fuel type characterization and potential fire behavior estimation in Sardinia and Corsica islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacciu, V.; Pellizzaro, G.; Santoni, P.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Salis, M.; Barboni, T.; Leroy, V.; Cancellieri, D.; Leoni, E.; Ferrat, L.; Perez, Y.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2012-04-01

    Wildland fires represent a serious threat to forests and wooded areas of the Mediterranean Basin. As recorded by the European Commission (2009), during the last decade Southern Countries have experienced an annual average of about 50,000 forest fires and about 470,000 burned hectares. The factor that can be directly manipulated in order to minimize fire intensity and reduce other fire impacts, such as three mortality, smoke emission, and soil erosion, is wildland fuel. Fuel characteristics, such as vegetation cover, type, humidity status, and biomass and necromass loading are critical variables in affecting wildland fire occurrence, contributing to the spread, intensity, and severity of fires. Therefore, the availability of accurate fuel data at different spatial and temporal scales is needed for fire management applications, including fire behavior and danger prediction, fire fighting, fire effects simulation, and ecosystem simulation modeling. In this context, the main aims of our work are to describe the vegetation parameters involved in combustion processes and develop fire behavior fuel maps. The overall work plan is based firstly on the identification and description of the different fuel types mainly affected by fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) and Corsica (France) Islands, and secondly on the clusterization of the selected fuel types in relation to their potential fire behavior. In the first part of the work, the available time series of fire event perimeters and the land use map data were analyzed with the purpose of identifying the main land use types affected by fires. Thus, field sampling sites were randomly identified on the selected vegetation types and several fuel variables were collected (live and dead fuel load partitioned following Deeming et al., (1977), depth of fuel layer, plant cover, surface area-to-volume ratio, heat content). In the second part of the work, the potential fire behavior for every experimental site was simulated using

  17. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  18. [Effects of repeated firing on microleakage of selective laser melting ceramic crowns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qun; Peng, Yan; Wu, Xue-Ying; Weng, Jia-Wei

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of repeated firing on microleakage of selective laser melting ceramic crowns. Fifty molars were randomly divided into 2 groups (25 teeth in each group). Teeth in group A received a chamfer finish line preparation, whereas teeth in group B received a shoulder finish line. After SLM metal crowns were fabricated, all the crowns received initial oxidation step, opaque firing, dentin firing and glaze firing, then crowns in each group were randomly divided into 5 sub-groups according to different time of clinical firings. Glass ionomer was applied for bonding. After 5000 thermocycles ranging from 5degrees centigrade to 55degrees centigrade, all the specimens was evaluated by dye penetration and then microleakage was examined under light microscopy. The data were analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software package. Microleakage between all specimens of group A were not statistically significant (P>0.05) whereas that of group B were statistically significant (P<0.05); After the fifth time of clinical firing, microleakage of specimens in group B(B5) were significantly higher than that of group A(A5). Repeated firings had no significant influence on marginal microleakage of SLM ceramic crowns whereas the crowns of chamfer finish lines result in better clinical performance after repeated firings.

  19. Resolving vorticity-driven lateral fire spread using the WRF-Fire coupled atmosphere–fire numerical model

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, C. C.; Sharples, J. J.; Evans, J. P.

    2014-01-01

    Fire channelling is a form of dynamic fire behaviour, during which a wildland fire spreads rapidly across a steep lee-facing slope in a direction transverse to the background winds, and is often accompanied by a downwind extension of the active flaming region and extreme pyro-convection. Recent work using the WRF-Fire coupled atmosphere-fire model has demonstrated that fire channelling can be characterised as vorticity-driven lateral fire spread (VDLS). In t...

  20. Development of fire PRA methodologies for the analysis of typical Italian NPP designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, E.; Dore, B.; Ferro, G.; Apostolakis, G.

    1987-01-01

    To compute fire induced Core Melt probability, the results of hazard and propagation analyses were combined with the Core Melt frequency computed for the initiating event and the support state as determined by the fire considered. From the PRA for internal event, the average value of this frequency was found 2.5x10 -3 event/year. Using the average fire frequency the resulting fire induced Core Melt frequency is 1.4x10 -8 event/year. Although high separation of safety systems is required in Italian PWR plants, the frequency of fire induced Core Melt can reach values not negligible with respect to Italian safety standards. For this reason, fire PRA studies for the entire plant are considered necessary and should be performed with appropriate modifications of the methods used for the American plants in order to be able to estimate lower fire induced Core Melt frequencies. (orig./HP)