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Sample records for group-housed gestating sows

  1. Gestation group housing of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of gestating sows is currently replacing individual housing systems around the world. Modern group housing systems allow performance in groups to be equal to that in individual housing systems. A crucial element in the success of a housing system is the way in which it deals with

  2. Temporal stability of personality traits in group-housed gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horback, K M; Parsons, T D

    2016-08-01

    The movement of sows (Sus scrofa domesticus) out of individual gestation stalls and into group housing can introduce new sources of stress due to the enhanced environmental and social complexity. Some sows may have the behavioral capacity to adapt to these changes better than others. However, little is known about individual differences in behavioral responses, or personality traits, in gestating sows and how they impact the animal's ability to cope with group housing. The temporal consistency in the assessment of an animal's behavior is a prerequisite to the establishment of personality traits and was addressed at an interval of approximately five months during two consecutive gestation periods in the present study. Forty-six group-housed sows from a commercially available genetic line were assessed for aggressive and social behaviors at mixing into a group, reaction to human approach, ease of handling, exploration of an open field, and reaction to a novel object. Principal component analysis revealed the presence of three traits accounting for over 60% of the variance in behaviors: aggressive/dominant, avoidant of humans and active/exploratory. Individual component scores were significantly correlated between pregnancies demonstrating temporal stability of trait assessment. Significant relationships were found between aggressive/dominant component scores and individual feed rank at electronic sow feeding stations and skin lesion scores, as well as between avoidant of humans component scores and average number of stillbirths per litter. These findings provide evidence for the temporal stability of distinct behaviors contributing to personality traits within a group of genetically similar sows and demonstrate how these traits may be useful in identifying individuals likely to succeed in group housing.

  3. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q; Sun, Q; Wang, G; Zhou, B; Lu, M; Marchant-Forde, J N; Yang, X; Zhao, R

    2014-07-01

    To compare the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of their offspring in stall and group-housing systems, 28 sows were randomly distributed into two systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into three groups with four sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls and groups was 1.2 and 2.5 m2, respectively. Back fat depth of the sow was measured. Salivary cortisol concentration of the sows, colostrum composition and piglets' serum biochemical indicators were evaluated. The behaviour of the sows, including agonistic behaviour, non-agonistic social behaviour, stereotypical behaviour and other behaviours at weeks 2, 9 and 14 of pregnancy were analysed. The results showed no differences in the back fat depth of sows. Colostrum protein, triglyceride, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and prolactin concentrations in the whey also demonstrated no significant differences between the two housing systems. Salivary cortisol concentration was significantly higher in the sows housed in groups than the sows in stalls. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were significantly higher in the offspring of sows housed in groups (P=0.006 and 0.005, respectively). The GLM procedure for repeated measures analysis showed the frequency of drinking, and non-agonistic social behaviour was significantly higher in the sows housed in groups than the sows in stalls; yet the frequency of agonistic and sham chewing demonstrated the opposite direction. The duration of standing was significantly longer in the sows housed in groups, but the sitting and stereotypical behaviour duration were significantly shorter compared with the sows in stalls. These results indicated that group housing has no obvious influence on the colostrum composition of sows; however, it was better for sows to express their non-agonistic social behaviour and reduce the frequency of agonistic behaviour and stereotypical behaviour. Meanwhile, group

  4. Group housing during gestation affects the behaviour of sows and the physiological indices of offspring piglets at weaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to compare the behaviour of sows in stalls and group housing systems, and the physiological indices of their offspring, 28 sows were randomly distributed into 2 systems with 16 sows in stalls, and the other 12 sows were divided into 3 groups with 4 sows per pen. The area per sow in stalls a...

  5. Performance and individual feed intake characteristics of group-housed sows fed a nonstarch polysaccharides diet ad libitum during gestation over three parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Plagge, J.G.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding group-housed gestating sows a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; approximately 45% sugar beet pulp as fed) ad libitum on the development in individual feed intake characteristics and reproductive

  6. Risk factors for development of lameness in gestating sows within the first days after moving to group housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluym, Liesbet M; Maes, Dominiek; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Van Nuffel, Annelies

    2017-02-01

    Lameness in sows is an important welfare issue that is affected by housing conditions and is thought to be influenced by hierarchical fights within the first days after mixing sows in groups. A longitudinal study in 15 randomly selected herds was performed to investigate the incidence of sow lameness and possible risk factors within the first days of group housing. Each herd was visited just before and again 3-5 days after the sows were moved to group housing. The floor characteristics and dimensions of the group housing facilities were assessed. Locomotion ability, body condition, skin lesions and degree of faecal soiling were recorded for all sows. Additional information on housing and management was obtained using a questionnaire. Amongst the 810 sows included in the study, the mean lameness incidence was 13.1% (95% confidence interval 10.9-15.6%). Following binomial logistic regression analysis, sows with >10% of the body covered with faeces had an increased risk for development of lameness (odds ratio, OR = 2.33, P = 0.001). An increase in space allowance from 1.7 m(2) to 3.0 m(2) (OR = 0.40, P = 0.03) and of herd size from 144 to 750 sows per herd (OR = 0.71, P = 0.02) decreased the risk of development of lameness. Neither the degree of aggression, indicated by skin lesions, nor the floor characteristics influenced the development of lameness. These results indicate that sows can benefit from a larger floor area. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Bijma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower–finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refu

  8. Parity Influences the Demeanor of Sows in Group Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Taya; Pluske, John R; Miller, David W; Collins, Teresa; Fleming, Patricia A

    2017-08-28

    Across the globe, producers are moving from individual housing to group housing for sows during gestation. Producers typically group sows of a range of parities together, although the impacts are largely unknown. This study examined the behavioral expression at mixing for young, midparity, and older sows. Ten mixed-parity groups were filmed at mixing on a commercial piggery. One-minute clips were edited from continuous footage where focal sows of known parity could be identified, and scored for qualitative behavioral expression. Parity 2 and 6 sows were more calm/tired than Parity 4 sows, who were more active/energetic. Parity 2 sows were more curious/inquisitive than Parity 4 and 6 sows, who were more anxious/frustrated. Correlations between qualitative behavioral expression and activity indicated sows scored as more calm/tired spent a greater proportion of time standing, while sows scored as more active/energetic spent more time performing avoidance behavior. Different body language is likely to reflect physical or affective differences in how sows cope with mixing.

  9. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; van der Waaij, E H; Bijma, P

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower-finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower-finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [-9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [-0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total variance in grower-finishing pigs. Gestation features did explain phenotypic variance due to permanent sow and part of phenotypic variance due to common litter effects for FI but not for GR.

  10. Effects of group housing on sow welfare: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, M; Hansen, C F; Rault, J-L; Jongman, E; Hansen, L U; Plush, K; Hemsworth, P H

    2015-05-01

    Factors that have been shown to impact the welfare of group-housed sows are discussed in this review. Floor space allowance markedly affects sow welfare. In addition to quantity of floor space, the quality of space is important: spatial separation between sows can be provided with visual or physical barriers and stalls. Whereas 1.4 m/sow is insufficient, further research is required to examine space effects in the range of 1.8 to 2.4 m/sow in more detail. The period immediately after mixing has the most pronounced effects on aggression and stress, and therefore, well-designed mixing pens offer the opportunity to reduce aggression, injury, and stress while allowing the social hierarchy to quickly form. Because hunger is likely to lead to competition for feed or access to feeding areas, strategies to reduce hunger between meals through higher feeding levels, dietary fiber, or foraging substrate should be examined. However, feeding systems, such as full-body feeding stalls, can also affect aggression and stress by providing protection at feeding, but deriving conclusions on this topic is difficult because research directly comparing floor feeding, feeding stalls, and electronic sow feeder systems has not been conducted. Familiar sows engage in less aggression, so mixing sows that have been housed together in the previous gestation may reduce aggression. Although there is evidence in other species that early experience may affect social skills later in life, there are few studies on the effects of early "socialization" on aggressive behavior of adult sows. Genetic selection has the potential to reduce aggression, and therefore, continued research on the opportunity to genetically select against aggressiveness and its broader implications is required. Most research to date has examined mixing sows after insemination and knowledge on grouping after weaning is limited.

  11. Social genetic effects influence reproductive performance of group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunter, K L; Lewis, C R G; Newman, S

    2015-08-01

    Group housing of gestating sows has implications for reproductive performance due to detrimental interactions between sows within groups. Reproductive records ( = 10,748) were obtained for 8,444 pedigreed nucleus sows housed in a single facility, formed into 1,827 static groups during gestation. Only data from complete groups were used to estimate genetic parameters for total born (TB), number born alive (NBA), and gestation length (GL) and to compare models extended to account for group effects. Censored data for sows which did not farrow (0.8% of records) were augmented with biologically meaningful values. Group sizes ranged from 2 to 10, in pens designed to hold 4, 8, or 10 sows per pen. Sows were grouped by parity, line, and mating date after d 35 of pregnancy. Heritability estimates were generally constant across all model alternatives at 0.11 ± 0.02 for TB and NBA and 0.32 ± 0.03 for GL. However, models for all traits were significantly ( < 0.05) improved through inclusion of terms for nongenetic group and social genetic effects (SGE). Group effects were no longer significant in models containing both terms. The proportional contributions of SGE () to phenotypic variances were very low (≤0.002 across traits), but their contributions to calculated total genetic variance (T) were significant. The differences between h and T ranged between 3 and 5% under simple models, increasing to 8 to 14% in models accounting for both covariances between additive direct (A) and SGE and the effects of varying group size on the magnitude of estimates for SGE. Estimates of covariance between A and SGE were sensitive to the modeling of dilution factors for group size. The models of best fit for litter size traits used a customized dilution based on sows/pen relative to the maximum sows/pen. The best model supported a reduction in SGE with increased space per sow, independent of maximum group size, and no significant correlation between A and SGE. The latter is expected if A

  12. Effect of rubber flooring on group-housed sows' gait and claw and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E-J; van Riet, M M J; Maes, D; Millet, S; Ampe, B; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare in terms of lameness, claw lesions, and skin lesions. In a 2 × 3 factorial design, we have investigated the effect of rubber coverings on concrete floors and the effect of 3 levels of dietary zinc supplementation on locomotion and claw and skin lesions in group-housed sows. Six groups of 21 ± 4 hybrid sows were monitored during 3 successive reproductive cycles. The sows were group housed from d 28 after insemination (d 0) until 1 wk before expected farrowing date (d 108) in pens with either exposed concrete floors or concrete floors covered with rubber in part of the lying area and the fully slatted area. During each reproductive cycle, locomotion and skin lesions were assessed 4 times (d 28, 50, 108, and 140) and claw lesions were assessed twice (d 50 and 140). Results are given as least squares means ± SE. Locomotion and claw scores were given in millimeters, on analog scales of 150 and 160 mm, respectively. Here, we report on the effect of floor type, which did not interact with dietary zinc concentration ( > 0.10 for all variables). At move to group (d 28) and mid gestation (d 50), no differences between floor treatments were seen in locomotion ( > 0.10). At the end of gestation (d 108), sows housed on rubber flooring scored 9.9 ± 4.1 mm better on gait ( sows on rubber flooring at mid gestation (d 50). However, sows on rubber flooring scored worse for "vertical cracks in the wall horn" (difference of 3.4 ± 1.7 mm; = 0.04). At the end of lactation (d 140), both "white line" (difference of 2.9 ± 1 mm; = 0.02) and "claw length" (difference of 4.7 ± 1.4 mm; sows. The documented increase in vertical cracks in the wall horn at d 50 requires further investigation.

  13. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows-reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Stig; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Hultén, Fredrik; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Dalin, Anne-Marie; Lundeheim, Nils; Magnusson, Ulf

    2014-06-09

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  14. Aggression and cortisol levels in three different group housing routines for lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, Ola; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Lundeheim, Nils; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-18

    Lactating sows in Swedish organic piglet production are commonly group-housed with piglets in a multi-suckling pen within 14 days after farrowing. Nursing behaviour may be disturbed when lactating sows are moved to a new environment and mixed with other sows, as they spend more time fighting with other sows and exploring the new surroundings. This can disrupt the inhibitory effect of suckling on ovarian activity and increase the risk of lactational oestrus, making efficient reproductive management difficult. Therefore this study evaluated aggression and levels of the stress hormone cortisol in lactating sows group-housed together with their piglets at one (W1), two (W2) or three (W3) weeks post farrowing. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the three management routines (W1, W2, W3) regarding number of attacks initiated or received in the mixed group. After mixing, W2 sows had a lower number of shoulder scratches (P sows. Among the W3 sows, there was a lower (P sows were group housed compared to when they were individually housed. The cortisol response, measured as variation in cortisol concentration in saliva, was also lower (P sows compared with W1 sows. For all management routines, sows already living in the new environment (resident sows) initiated more attacks (P sows entering the new environment (intruder sows). Overall, multiparous sows initiated more attacks and received fewer attacks than primiparous sows (P sows at three weeks post farrowing is less stressful than mixing and group housing sows at one week post farrowing. The results also indicate that parity and whether a sow is a resident or intruder in the group housing environment may have an effect on aggression levels when sows are group-housed.

  15. Effects of varying floor space on aggressive behavior and cortisol concentrations in group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, P H; Morrison, R S; Tilbrook, A J; Butler, K L; Rice, M; Moeller, S J

    2016-11-01

    Floor space is an important determinant of aggression and stress in group-housed sows, and the aim of the present experiment was to comprehensively examine the effects of floor space in the range of 1.45 to 2.90 m/sow from mixing until 27 d after insemination on aggression, stress, and reproduction of group-housed sows. A previous experiment on the effects of floor space indicated spatial variability across and along the research facility in both sow aggression and stress. To minimize this spatial variability within the research facility, similar-sized pens but with varying groups sizes (10-20) in 4 separate blocks of 3 contiguous pens within each of 9 time replicates (180 sows/replicate) were used to examine 6 space allowances (1.45-2.9 m/sow). Space treatments were appropriately randomized to pens. Although it may be argued that space allowance is confounded with group size in this design, there was no evidence in our previous experiment of group size effects, for pens of 10 to 80 sows, or appreciable interactions between space and group size on aggression, stress, and reproduction. In the present experiment, sows were introduced to treatments within 4 d of insemination and were floor fed 4 times per day (2.5 kg/sow per d). On both Days 2 and 26 after mixing, aggressive behavior (bites and knocks) at feeding and plasma cortisol concentrations were measured. Restricted maximum likelihood mixed model analyses were used to examine the treatment effect after accounting for replicate and random spatial location effects within replicate. There was a consistent linear effect of floor space allowance on aggression at feeding at Day 2 ( space. However, there were no effects of space allowance on aggression and stress at Day 26 ( = 0.14 and = 0.79, respectively). These results show that increased floor space in the immediate post-mixing period reduces aggression and stress and that sows may adapt to reduced floor space over time. A strategy of staged-gestation penning

  16. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on behavior and heat production in group-housed sows

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dietary nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) on behavior and heat production in group-housed sows were studied. Twelve groups of six nonpregnant sows were fed one of four experimental diets that were similar in composition except for starch and NSP contents. Exchanging sugar. beet pulp silage (SBPS) for tapioca created the difference in dietary starch and NSP ratio. On a dry matter (DM) basis, diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS. Sows were group-housed. Intake of fermentable NSP ...

  17. Effects of Gestational Housing on Reproductive Performance and Behavior of Sows with Different Backfat Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K H; Hosseindoust, A; Ingale, S L; Lee, S H; Noh, H S; Choi, Y H; Jeon, S M; Kim, Y H; Chae, B J

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of back-fat thickness at d 107 of gestation and housing types during gestation on reproductive performance and behavior of sows. A total of 64 crossbred sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) in their 3 to 4 parities were allotted to one of four treatments (n = 16) over two consecutive parities. During each parity, sows were assigned to two gestational housing types (stall or group housing) and two level of back-fat thickness (sows were transferred from gestational crates to stalls or pens (group housing) 5 weeks before farrowing. All sows were moved to farrowing crates on d 109 of gestation. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (psows having back-fat thickness sows with ≥20 mm back-fat thickness at 107 d of gestation. Group housed sows had greater (psows in stalls. At weaning, back-fat thickness changes were lesser (psows than that of sows in stalls. The number of piglets at weaning, growth rate and average daily gain were greater (psows than that of sows in stalls. During gestation, walking duration was more (psows. Group housed sows had lesser (psows in stalls. Result obtained in present study indicated that sows with ≥20 mm back-fat thickness at 107 days had better reproductive performance. Additionally, group housing of sows during last five week of gestation improved the performance and behavior and reproductive efficiency of sows.

  18. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on behavior and heat production in group-housed sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Haaksma, J.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dietary nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) on behavior and heat production in group-housed sows were studied. Twelve groups of six nonpregnant sows were fed one of four experimental diets that were similar in composition except for starch and NSP contents. Exchanging sugar. beet pulp sil

  19. Management factors affecting aggression in dynamic group housing systems with electronic sow feeding - a field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H

    1999-01-01

    material and starting the feeding cycle in the evening for overnight feeding may improve behaviour in dynamic group housing systems with ESF. However, the benefits of starting the feeding cycle in the evening may depend on low disturbance in daytime from other management procedures......A series of 24-h video studies on four commercial Danish pig herds investigated the behaviour of pregnant sows kept in dynamic groups (72 to 200 sows) with electronic sow feeding (ESF). The herds mainly differed with respect to provision of a layer of unchopped straw as bedding material...

  20. Potential ammonia emissions from straw, slurry pit and concrete floor in a group housing system for sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Hartog, den L.A.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the contribution of straw bedding, concrete floors, slats, and slurry in the pits to ammonia emission in a straw-bedded group-housing system for sows, the ammonia volatilisation response of urination on the potential emitting surfaces from a sow house was studied under laboratory condition

  1. Effects of dietary calcium and phosphorus on reproductive performance and markers of bone turnover in stall- or group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, F P Y; Kontulainen, S A; Beaulieu, A D

    2016-10-01

    Increasing productivity and new housing standards necessitate a reevaluation of nutrient requirements for sows, including minerals. The objective of this study was to determine if the recommended levels of dietary Ca and P are adequate for sows housed in groups and that, therefore, have the potential for increased mobility. A total of 180 multiparous sows and gilts were assigned to 1 of 6 treatments. Treatments, arranged as a 3 × 2 factorial, included the main effects of dietary Ca:P-0.70:0.55% Ca:P (as-fed basis; control), 0.60:0.47% Ca:P (as-fed basis; Low CaP), and 0.81:0.63% Ca:P (as-fed basis; High CaP)-and housing-stalls or groups. The trial was initiated when sows were moved from the breeding stalls to the gestation room at wk 4 or 5 after breeding. Sows were initially fed 2.3 kg/d. This allotment was increased to 3.0 kg/d 2 wk prior to farrowing. Group-housed sows, fed in individual stalls, were allowed access to a loafing area after feeding. Serum samples were collected at the start of the trial and on d 100 of gestation, and both serum and milk samples were collected at mid lactation and prior to weaning. Neither diet nor housing had an effect on the total number of piglets born, ADG from birth to weaning, or weaning weight ( > 0.10). The number of live-born piglets and birth weight were unaffected by diet ( > 0.10) but were improved by group housing relative to stalls ( sows fed the Low CaP diet had reduced serum Ca (diet × housing interaction, = 0.02), and the greatest reduction (between d 28 and 100 of gestation) in serum P level was observed in group-housed sows fed the Low CaP diet (diet × housing interaction, = 0.04). Osteocalcin and pyridinoline, markers of bone formation and resorption, respectively, were unaffected by diet or housing ( > 0.10). Results from these studies imply that the level of dietary Ca and P recommended by the NRC is adequate for sows of modern genetics, whether housed in stalls or groups.

  2. Effects of dietary fermentable carbohydrates on behavior and heat production in group-housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Haaksma, J; Schrama, J W

    2003-01-01

    The effects of dietary nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) on behavior and heat production in group-housed sows were studied. Twelve groups of six nonpregnant sows were fed one of four experimental diets that were similar in composition except for starch and NSP contents. Exchanging sugar beet pulp silage (SBPS) for tapioca created the difference in dietary starch and NSP ratio. On a dry matter (DM) basis, diets contained 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS. Sows were group-housed. Intake of fermentable NSP (fNSP) for diets containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS averaged 7.06, 9.18, 11.61, and 13.73 g x kg(-0.75) d(-1), respectively. Sows were fed, once a day at 0800. Dry matter intake for diets containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% SBPS, averaged 38.05, 38.38, 38.53, and 38.35 g x kg(-075) x d(-1), respectively, and ME intake averaged 523, 518, 514, and 493 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1), respectively. On average, sows spent 177 min/d on physical activity, of which 8.8% was spent on eating. Time spent in physical activity was affected by diet (P = 0.005). Sows fed 0 or 10% SBPS spent more time on physical activity than sows fed 20 or 30% SBPS (P = 0.002). Energy cost of physical activity averaged 464 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) (standard estimated mean of 31) and was similar for diets (P = 0.679). Total heat production (HP) and activity-related heat production (AHP) were affected by diet (P AHP was not constant during the day. During the night period, fNSP intake did not affect HP and AHP (P > 0.10). During the day period, increased fNSP intake decreased HP (P = 0.006) and tended to decrease AHP (P = 0.062). During eating, increased fNSP intake increased HP (P = 0.012) and tended to increase AHP (P = 0.074). Despite similar DMI, sows fed 0 or 10% SBPS spent less time eating than sows fed 20 or 30% SBPS (P = 0.009). Feed consumption rate was higher (P = 0.003) in groups fed 0 or 10% SBPS than in groups fed 20 or 30% SBPS. Feed consumption rate decreased by 0.19 g DM x kg(-0.75). min(-1) (P = 0.003) for each

  3. Effect of urinations on the ammonia emission from group-housing systems for sows with straw bedding: Model assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.; Monteny, G.J.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    A model was developed as a tool for designing straw-bedded sow group-housing systems with low ammonia emission. Using mechanistic and empirical relationships it calculates the total ammonia emission by integrating ammonia volatilisations from all the urine pools in the house. The reference data were

  4. Consequences for Piglet Performance of Group Housing Lactating Sows at One, Two, or Three Weeks Post-Farrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, Ola; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Magnusson, Ulf; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Wallenbeck, Anna; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi

    2016-01-01

    Housing lactating sows with piglets in a multi-suckling pen from around 14 days post-farrowing is common practice in Swedish organic piglet production. However, nursing-suckling interaction is less frequent in multi-suckling pens than in individual farrowing pens, thus affecting piglet performance, e.g., piglet growth. Moreover, piglet mortality is higher in systems using multi-suckling pens. Three management routines whereby lactating sows with piglets were moved from individual farrowing pens to multi-suckling pens at one, two, or three weeks post-farrowing were compared in terms of nursing-suckling interaction and piglet performance. Correlations between nursing-suckling interaction, piglet performance, and piglet mortality were also examined. In total, 43 Yorkshire sows with piglets were included in the study. Nursing-suckling interaction and all piglet performance parameters except piglet mortality did not differ between management routines. Piglet mortality in the individual farrowing pens did not differ between management routines, but piglet mortality in the multi-suckling pen was lower (Ppiglets were group housed at three weeks compared with one week post-farrowing. Overall piglet mortality was positively correlated with mortality in the multi-suckling pen for piglets group housed at one week (r = 0.61: Ppiglets group housed at three weeks post-farrowing. In conclusion, overall piglet mortality could be reduced if sows and piglets are group housed at three weeks post-farrowing and piglet survival the first week post-farrowing is improved.

  5. The interrelationships between clinical signs and their effect on involuntary culling among pregnant sows in group-housing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tina Birk; Bonde, Marianne; Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2010-01-01

    Sows suffering from clinical signs of disease (e.g. lameness, wounds and shoulder ulcers) are often involuntarily culled, affecting the farmer's economy and the welfare of the animals. In order to investigate the interrelationships between clinical signs of individual pregnant group-housed sows, we...... the explanatory factor analysis, we identified three factors describing the underlying structure of the 16 clinical variables. We interpreted the factors as ‘pressure marks', ‘wounds' and ‘lameness' Logistic analyses were performed to investigate the effect of the three factors and the parity number of each sow...... of disease (P = 0.026). Lameness is generally considered to be an important welfare problem in sows, which could explain the increased risk seen in this study. By contrast, ‘pressure marks' and ‘wounds' did not have any significant effect on the four outcomes (P > 0.05). Udgivelsesdato: June 2010...

  6. Effects of food motivation on stereotypies and aggression in group-housed sows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Changing legislation and consumer attitudes towards the welfare of farm animals means that individual housing of dry sows will soon be illegal in the United Kingdom. Other European countries, and in particular those for whom the UK is an important export market (such as The Netherlands), are under p

  7. Effects of food motivation on stereotypies and aggression in group housed sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Changing legislation and consumer attitudes towards the welfare of farm animals means that individual housing of dry sows will soon be illegal in the United Kingdom. Other European countries, and in particular those for whom the UK is an important export market (such as The Netherlands),

  8. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... the individual variation in feed intake and the level of stress and fear under commercial conditions is severe enough to impair the reproduction performance is not known. In a detailed farm study including 14 herds with different layouts the relations between various indicators of feed intake, stress and fear...... and reproduction performance were studied based on 553 focal sows. Twelve percent of all mated sows were re-mated and average litter size was 14.8 born piglets per litter. Chance of pregnancy and sitter size correlated positive with back fat fain from weaning to 3 weeks after mating. Sows eating in less than 20...

  9. Locomotion Disorders and Skin and Claw Lesions in Gestating Sows Housed in Dynamic versus Static Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Emilie-Julie; Maes, Dominiek; van Riet, Miriam M. J.; Millet, Sam; Ampe, Bart; Janssens, Geert P. J.; Tuyttens, Frank A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Lameness and lesions to the skin and claws of sows in group housing are commonly occurring indicators of reduced welfare. Typically, these problems are more common in group housing than in individual housing systems. Group management type (dynamic versus static) and stage of gestation influence the behavior of the animals, which in turn influences the occurrence of these problems. The present study compared prevalence, incidence and mean scores of lameness and skin and claw lesions in static versus dynamic group housed sows at different stages of gestation during three consecutive reproductive cycles. A total of 10 Belgian sow herds were monitored; 5 in which dynamic groups and 5 in which static groups were utilized. All sows were visually assessed for lameness and skin lesions three times per cycle and the claws of the hind limbs were assessed once per cycle. Lameness and claw lesions were assessed using visual analogue scales. Static groups, in comparison with dynamic groups, demonstrated lower lameness scores (Psows demonstrating claw lesions regardless of group management. Prevalences of lameness (22.4 vs. 8.9%, P<0.05) and skin lesions (46.6 vs. 4.4%, P<0.05) were highest during the group-housed phase compared to the individually housed phases. Although the prevalence of lameness and skin lesions did not differ three days after grouping versus at the end of the group-housing phase, their incidence peaked during the first three days after moving from the insemination stalls to the group. In conclusion, the first three days after grouping was the most risky period for lameness incidence, but there was no significant difference between static or dynamic group management. PMID:27680675

  10. Management factors affecting aggression in dynamic group housing systems with electronic sow feeding - a field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H

    1999-01-01

    , the frequency of introduction/removal of animals, space allowance in the lying area, group size and number of feeding stations, and starting times for the feeding cycle. All herds had one feeding cycle per 24 h. Six 24-h video recordings in the most settled period with respect to rank relationships (2 to 12...... it was increased in herd 2 (characterized by straw in lying area, low stocking density, low frequency of regrouping). Number of regroupings and space allowance apparently had no obvious effects on the average frequency of aggression or the aggression per sow at risk in periods between introduction of new animals......, but space allowance may have improved social function by weakening the association between activity and aggression. Due to the small number of herds included the present results were descriptive rather than conclusive. However, the study supports the suggestions that provision of unchopped straw as bedding...

  11. Assessing long-term behavioural effects of feeding motivation in group-housed pregnant sows; what, when and how to observe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zonderland, J.J.; Leeuw, de J.A.; Nolten, C.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Main aim of this study was to elucidate behavioural elements that can be used as a tool to measure satiety in group-housed pregnant sows. In addition, the best time (time of day and time on treatment) and observation method were addressed. In two batches, eight groups of five artificially inseminate

  12. Adaptation to the digestion of nutrients of a starch diet or a non-starch polysaccharide diet in group-housed pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Hartog, den L.A.; Schrama, J.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2002-01-01

    A trial was conducted with twenty group-housed pregnant sows to study the adaptation in nutrient digestibility to a starch-rich diet or a diet with a high level of fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) during a time period of 6 weeks. The starch-rich diet was primarily composed of wheat, peas

  13. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The swine industry is under a great deal of pressure to return sows to group housing. However, aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrate. ...

  14. Groepshuisvesting van zeugen tijdens de vroege dracht = Group housing of sows during early gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Hoofs, A.I.J.; Soede, N.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Vereijken, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    In dit onderzoek is nagegaan wat de succesfactoren en risicofactoren zijn voor groepshuisvesting van zeugen binnen 4 dagen na inseminatie. We kunnen concluderen dat met elk systeem van groepshuisvesting goede reproductieresultaten en een goed welzijn van de zeugen behaald kunnen worden bij introduct

  15. Longitudinal study of the effect of rubber slat mats on locomotory ability, body, limb and claw lesions, and dirtiness of group housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Fahey, A G; Kilbride, A L; Green, L E; Boyle, L A

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of floor type on sow welfare with particular focus on lameness, claw lesions (CL), and injuries. The study used 164 gilts housed in groups of 8 from AI to 110 d of pregnancy in pens with concrete (n = 84) slatted floor left uncovered or covered by 10-mm rubber slat mats (n = 80) through 2 parities. Lameness (0 = normal to 5 = severe), limb (0 = normal to 6 = severe) and body (0 = normal to 5 = severe) lesions, and manure on the body (MOB; score 0 to 2) were recorded at AI, 24 to 72 h postmixing, between 50 and 70 d of pregnancy, and 2 wk before farrowing. Claw lesions (score 0 = normal to 3 = severe) were recorded at AI and between 50 and 70 d of pregnancy. The dirtiness and wetness of the floors was scored weekly (score 0 = clean to 4 = >75% of the pen soiled/wet). Data from the first and second parities were analyzed separately. Sows were categorized as nonlame (score ≤ 1) or lame (score ≥ 2). Median (M(e)) scores were calculated for CL and body and limb lesions and were classified as less than or equal to the median or greater than the median lesion scores. Sows on rubber slat mats had a reduced risk of lameness during both parities (P concrete. They also had an increased risk of scores greater than the median for toe overgrowth (M(e) = 2 and M(e) = 3 in the first and second parity, respectively) and heel sole crack (HSC; M(e) = 3) during both parities (P flooring type. There was also no association between body lesion score and flooring type. In this study, CL were not associated with an increased risk of lameness. Therefore, even though rubber slat mats were associated with an increased risk of CL, they improved the welfare of group housed sows by reducing the risk of lameness and limb lesions.

  16. Influence of gestation energy level on the production of Large White x Landrace sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, M K; Libal, G W; Wahlstrom, R C

    1990-08-01

    Sixty-four Large White x Landrace primiparous sows were utilized to evaluate the influence of feeding 6 vs 9 Mcal ME/d during gestation on reproductive performance. The sows remained on their respective gestation diets for four parities if they successfully farrowed, rebred and conceived. Sows fed 9 Mcal ME/d gained more weight (P less than .05) through the gestation period during parities 1 and 2 and were heavier (P less than .01) on d 110 of gestation for combined parities. Lactation weight loss was greater (P less than .05) for the sows fed 9 Mcal ME/d, resulting in similar weights at weaning. Ultrasonic backfat measurements were greater (P less than .01) on d 110 of gestation for sows fed 9 Mcal ME/d during parity 1 and remained higher (P less than .01) through the fourth-parity gestation. Although sow weaning weights were similar, sows receiving 6 Mcal ME/d scanned less backfat thickness. Gestation treatment significantly affected consumption of a common lactation diet provided ad libitum. Sows fed 6 Mcal ME/d during gestation consumed an average of 22 kg more feed (P less than .01) during lactation than those sows receiving 9 Mcal ME/d. Litter performance as measured by number and weights of pigs born alive and weaned was not altered (P greater than .10) by gestation energy intake. Days to return to estrus and the number of sows remaining in the study for four parities were similar (P greater than .10) between the two treatment groups. The number of farrowings for the four parities totaled 164, with 83 and 81 farrowings for the sows fed 6 and 9 Mcal ME/d, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Effects of supplementing sow diets with Saccharomyces cerevisiae refermented sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles from late gestation to weaning on the performance of sows and progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D; Li, X; Cheng, Y; Wu, G; Xiao, X; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Lu, Z

    2017-05-01

    We performed 2 experiments to study the effects of supplementing sow diets with refermented sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles (SSDDGS) from late gestation to weaning on the performance of sows and their progeny. In Exp. 1, 24 sows at 85 d of gestation were allocated to the following 3 dietary treatments: 1) sows fed a basal diet from late gestation to weaning ( = 8), 2) sows fed a diet with 2% SSDDGS ( = 8), and 3) sows fed a diet with 4% SSDDGS ( = 8). The 4% SSDDGS treatment significantly improved the sows' ADFI, the litter weaning alive rate, and the individual piglet weaning weights and significantly reduced the litter stillbirth rate and the levels of urea N and somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk. However, the 2% SSDDGS treatment did not alter the performance of the sows or progeny. Therefore, we considered the volume of 4% SSDDGS to be more efficient than 2% SSDDGS. To verify the results of Exp. 1, we performed Exp. 2, in which 60 sows at 85 d of gestation were allocated into the following 2 dietary treatments: 1) sows fed a basal gestation diet from 85 d of gestation to weaning ( = 30) and 2) sows fed a basal diet with 4% SSDDGS from 85 d of gestation to weaning ( = 30). The 4% SSDDGS supplementation tended to increase the sows' ADFI, litter weaning size, litter weight gain during lactation, and individual piglet weaning weight and weight gain during lactation, and it also increased the milk yield and the fat and DM contents of the milk. This treatment also decreased the levels of urea N and SCC in the milk. Therefore, the present study indicates that supplementing sow diets with 4% SSDDGS from late gestation to weaning has the potential to 1) increase sow ADFI, 2) promote progeny growth performance, 3) increase sow milk production and quality, and 4) improve the maternal health status as indicated by improved protein utilization and reduced potential inflammatory response.

  18. Efficacy of microbial phytase on mineral digestibility in diets for gestating and lactating sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Kemme, P.A.; Broz, J.

    2004-01-01

    Phosphorus in most diets for breeding sows is digested from 20% to 40%, thus leading to a relatively high amount of P in the manure. To enhance the P digestibility in diets for both lactating and gestating sows, two separate experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of phytase derived from

  19. Fasenvoedering bij drachtige zeugen: effect op reproductie en mineralenuitscheiding = Phasefeeding for gestating sows: effects on performance and mineral excretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Smolders, M.M.A.H.H.; Binnendijk, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Phasefeeding during gestation increases the percentage of sows that returns to estrus in parity 1 and 2 sows but not in older sows. Other reproductive traits are not affected by phasefeeding. Phasefeeding reduces the nitrogen and phosphorus excretion with 4.5% per sow per year.

  20. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    OpenAIRE

    TELEA ADA; IVAN ALEXANDRA; PANDUR IOANA; UNTARU RAMONA; N. PĂCALĂ

    2013-01-01

    Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most ...

  1. Wider stall space affects behavior, lesion scores, and productivity of gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, J L; DeDecker, A E; Levitin, H A; McGarry, B M

    2015-10-01

    Limited space allowance within the standard gestation stall is an important welfare concern because it restricts the ability of the sow to make postural adjustments and hinders her ability to perform natural behaviors. Therefore, we evaluated the impacts of increasing stall space and/or providing sows the freedom to access a small pen area on sow well-being using multiple welfare metrics. A total of 96 primi- and multiparous crossbred sows were randomly assigned in groups of 4 sows/treatment across 8 replicates to 1 of 3 stall treatments (TRT): standard stall (CTL; dimensions: 61 by 216 cm), width-adjustable stall (flex stall [FLX]; dimensions: adjustable width of 56 to 79 cm by 216 cm), or an individual walk-in/lock-in stall with access to a small communal open-pen area at the rear of the stall (free-access stall [FAS]; dimensions: 69 by 226 cm). Lesion scores, behavior, and immune and productivity traits were measured at various gestational days throughout the study. Total lesion scores were greatest for sows in FAS and least for sows in FLX ( sows in FAS had the most severe lesion scores (TRT × parity, sows in FLX had the least severe scores ( sows in CTL ( Sow BW and backfat (BF) were greater for sows in FLX and FAS ( sows in FAS than the same parity sows in CTL (TRT × parity, sows as assessed by changes in postural behaviors, lesion severity scores, and other sow traits. Moreover, compromised welfare measures found among sows in various stall environments may be partly attributed to the specific constraints of each stall system such as restricted stall space in CTL, insufficient floor space in the open-pen area of the FAS system, and gate design of the FLX (e.g., direction of bars and feeder space). These results also indicate that parity and gestational day are additional factors that may exacerbate the effects of restricted stall space or insufficient pen space, further compromising sow well-being.

  2. The influence of distillers dried grains with solubles during gestation on sow productivity and milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS during gestation on sow productivity, litter performance and milk composition. Thirty-six second- and third-parity (2.27 parity sows (Yorkshire were bred with semen from a pool of Landrace boars. The sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 groups and fed diets containing 0 (control, 12.5 or 25% DDGS during gestation. The sows were divided into 12 blocks of three animals. Piglets were cross-fostered, within dietary treatment groups 48 h after birth to standardise litter size to a range of 9 to13 piglets. The 25% DDGS supplementation resulted in a greater (P=0.03 average daily feed intake (ADFI during lactation compared with control sows. The weaning-to-oestrus interval was shorter in sows receiving 25% DDGS diets compared to the control (P=0.01. The number of piglets born was similar among treatments. The addition of 12.5 and 25% DDGS to the gestation diet increased the average daily gain (ADG of the piglets during lactation (P=0.04. The results demonstrated that feeding 25% DDGS does not have negative effects on sow or litter performance and increases the sow ADFI and the piglet ADG during lactation.

  3. A 25 years experience of group-housed sows–reproduction in animal welfare-friendly systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Since January 1 2013, group housing of sows has been compulsory within the European Union (EU) in all pig holdings with more than ten sows. Sows and gilts need to be kept in groups from 4 weeks after service to 1 week before the expected time of farrowing (Article 3(4) of Directive 2008/120/EC on the protection of pigs). The legislation regarding group housing was adopted already in 2001 and a long transitional period was allowed to give member states and producers enough time for adaptation. Even so, group housing of sows still seems to be uncommon in the EU, and is also uncommon in commercial pig farming systems in the rest of the world. In this review we share our experience of the Swedish 25 years of animal welfare legislation stipulating that sows must be loose-housed which de facto means group housed. The two most important concerns related to reproductive function among group-housed sows are the occurrence of lactational oestrus when sows are group-housed during lactation, and the stress that is associated with group housing during mating and gestation. Field and clinical observations in non-lactating, group-housed sows in Sweden suggest that by making basic facts known about the pig reproductive physiology related to mating, we might achieve application of efficient batch-wise breeding without pharmacological interventions. Group housing of lactating sows has some production disadvantages and somewhat lower productivity would likely have to be expected. Recordings of behavioural indicators in different housing systems suggest a lower welfare level in stalled animals compared with group-housed ones. However, there are no consistent effects on the reproductive performance associated with different housing systems. Experimental studies suggest that the most sensitive period, regarding disturbance of reproductive functions by external stressors, is the time around oestrus. We conclude that by keeping sows according to the pig welfare-friendly Directive 2008

  4. Performance of sows fed high levels of nonstarch polysaccharides during gestation and lactation over three parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of feeding sows a starch diet or a diet with a high level of nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) during gestation, lactation, or both gestation and lactation during the first three parities on reproductive performance, body weight, and backfat was studied. Four-hundred and forty-four postpube

  5. Environmental temperature influence on behaviors of outdoor gestating sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of seasonal air temperatures on behavior of outdoor pregnant sows was evaluated and modeled using 91 sows during 24-h observations in winter, spring, and summer seasons. Minimum and maximum temperatures ranged between –10.7 to 39.2 degree C, respectively, during data collection. Each...

  6. Effect of increasing lysine supply during last third of gestation on reproductive performance of Iberian sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gómez-Carballar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ninety purebred Iberian (IB sows in second or third parity were used to determine the effects of dietary lysine (Lys concentration during last third of pregnancy on sow and litter performance. The sows were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments: 5.5 (LLys, Control, 7.4 (MLys and 8.7 (HLys g Lys kg-1 diet. Feed allowance was 2.30-2.33 kg d-1. Close to farrowing a conventional lactation diet was used. Dietary Lys did not affect body-weight (BW gain in late gestation of second-parity sows. However, in third-parity sows, a strong tendency was observed for BW gain to increase during late pregnancy with dietary Lys levels higher than 5.5 g kg-1 (p=0.061. Body-weight losses during lactation were never influenced by Lys supply. A strong tendency (p=0.064 for a lower ratio between piglets born alive and total piglets born was observed in second-parity sows fed the Control gestation diet. Litters and piglets from sows on this diet had the lowest weight at birth (p0.05. In conclusion, under moderate energy supply, adequate reserves for subsequent lactation can be achieved in second- and third-parity IB sows with a daily provision of at least 17.2 g lysine over the last third of pregnancy, what implies a substantial increase in protein supply respect to traditional practices.

  7. Dynamics of nitrogen retention at two feeding levels in gestating parity 2 and 3 sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, E G; Levesque, C L; Trottier, N L; de Lange, C F M

    2017-06-01

    Parity-2 ( = 39) and -3 ( = 28; same sows from parity-2 sows) Yorkshire sows were used to measure whole body protein deposition (Pd) during gestation (maternal and pregnancy-associated) at 2 feeding levels to test the hypothesis that the pattern of whole body and maternal Pd during gestation does not differ when feeding either 15% above or 15% below estimated ME requirements, both exceeding AA requirements. Initial BW and backfat (BF) at d 26 ± 0.3 of gestation were 195.4 ± 5.2 kg and 15.1 ± 0.5 mm, and 223.1 ± 5.3 kg and 16.0 ± 0.6 mm for parity-2 and -3, respectively. Sows were assigned to 1 of 2 feeding levels (high and low; 15% above and 15% below estimated ME requirements, respectively) of the same diet (3.30 Mcal ME/kg, 17.8% CP, 0.82% SID Lys) from d 31 to 110 of each gestation cycle. Five N balances were conducted throughout each gestation starting at d 36, 51, 65, 85, and 106 ± 0.5 during 4-d periods. Pregnancy-associated Pd was model-derived for each sow and N balance period using the gestating sow model, based on actual litter size (including stillborn) and mean piglet birth weight. Maternal Pd was calculated as the difference between whole body and pregnancy-associated Pd. Whole body Pd and maternal Pd were greater ( 0.002) for sows on the high feeding level. Whole body Pd increased ( 0.001) with day of gestation and maternal Pd did not differ with day of gestation. Whole body and maternal Pd were greater ( ≤ 0.004) for parity-3 sows from d 51 to 54 and 85 to 88 of gestation only. Estimated efficiency of Lys retention for whole body Pd was not different between the 2 feeding levels, greater ( 0.016) for parity-3 sows, and increased quadratically ( 0.027) with day of gestation. During lactation (21.3 ± 0.3 d), there was no effect on sow ADFI and minimal effect on litter performance due to gestation feeding level or parity. Sows on the high feeding level had greater ( 0.009) BW and BF loss during lactation and these parameters were not affected

  8. Distribution of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) in different stages of gestation sows: HP-PRRSV distribution in gestation sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Qiu, Hongkai; Zhang, Minxia; Cai, Xinna; Qu, Yajin; Hu, Dongfang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Zhou, Enmin; Liu, Sidang; Xiao, Yihong

    2015-08-15

    Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) emerged in China in 2006 and caused severe reproductive losses, particularly in late-term sows. To determine whether these reproductive failures were related to the susceptibility of late-term sows to HP-PRRV, 60- and 90-days of gestation sows were infected with HP-PRRSV isolate TA-12 (GenBank accession HQ417620). A monoclonal antibody specific to the C-terminal of the nucleocapsid protein was used to evaluate viral distribution by IHC. This showed that HP-PRRSV had a similar distribution in both sets of sows. However, HP-PRRSV infection led to dramatically decreased serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and 17-β-estradiol (E2) in late-term sows, while only E2 was decreased in the 60-day sows. These results indicate that HP-PRRSV-induced reproductive failure is more likely due to reproductive hormone level imbalances rather than tissue tropism differences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Colostrum production in sows fed different sources of fiber and fat during late gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bruun, Thomas S; Amdi, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study yield and composition of colostrum and transient milk from 36 second-parity sows fed a standard lactation diet (CON) low in fiber or one of two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF), combined with one of three fat sources, palm fatty acid.......05), indicating altered intermediary metabolism. Colostrum yield, predicted from piglet birth weight, suckling duration and weight gain, was unaffected by dietary treatments (P>0.10). Colostral (24 h) and transient milk dry matter contents were greater in SOYO compared with PFAD and C8TG sows (P... (12 and 24 h) and transient milk lactose contents were greatest in CON-fed sows compared with sows fed ALF or SBP diets (Plate gestation affected the intermediary metabolism and colostrum composition, but did not affect colostrum yield of sows....

  10. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (Pdiet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (Pdiet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  11. A meta-analysis to identify animal and management factors influencing gestating sow efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, S L; Szyszka, O; Stoddart, K; Edwards, S A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-12-01

    A meta-analysis on the effects of management and animal-based factors on the reproductive efficiency of gestating sows can provide information on single-factor and interaction effects that may not have been detected in individual studies. This study analyzed the effects of such factors on the number of piglets born alive per litter (BA), piglet birth weight (BiW) and weaning weight (WW), and number of piglets born alive per kilogram of sow feed intake during gestation (BA/FI). A total of 51 papers and 7 data sources were identified for the meta-analysis, out of which 23 papers and 5 sets of production data were useable (a total of 121 treatments). The information gathered included the dependent variables as well as information regarding animal, management, and feed characteristics. While a number of factors were individually significant, the multivariate models identified significant effects only of 1) floor type (P=0.003), sow BW at the end of gestation (P=0.002), and housing (stalls vs. loose; P=0.004) on BA; as floor type and housing were confounded, they were included in 2 separate models. The BA was higher on solid (12.1) in comparison to partly slatted (11.4) and fully slatted floors (10.2); 2) sow gestation environment (P=0.017) and gestation feed allowance (P=0.046) on BiW, with BiW of pigs higher for sows kept outdoors rather than indoors (1.75 versus 1.49 kg); 3) parity number (P=0.003) and feed intake during gestation (P=0.017) on WW; in addition there was an interaction between parity number×feed ME and parity number×feed CP content of feed during gestation on WW, with the positive effects of feed ME and CP contents seen during early rather than later parities; and 4) floor type (P=0.019) and feed crude fiber (P=0.003) for BA/FI with a greater number for those kept on solid floors (5.11) versus partially and fully slatted floors (4.07 and 4.05). The meta-analysis confirmed the significant effect of several well-known factors on the efficiency of

  12. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    % of all observations at feeding had significant higher risk of returning to oestrus sompared to sows eating more frequently. Number of skin lesions correlated positively with interval from weaning to first mating. No relations between reproduction performance and lying behaviour, aggressions after mixing...

  13. Effect of Rapeseed Meal Supplementation to Gestation Diet on Reproductive Rerformance, Blood Profiles and Milk Composition of Sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunbong; Jin, Song Shan; Jung, Sung Woong; Jang, Jae Cheol; Hong, Jin Su; Jeong, Jae Hark; Kim, Y Y

    2017-07-17

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation levels of rapeseed meal (RSM) in gestation diets on reproductive performance, blood profiles and milk composition of sows and performance of their progeny. A total of 55 mixed-parity sows (Yorkshire × Landrace; average parity = 3.82) with an initial body weight (BW) of 193.0 kg were used in this experiment. Sows were allotted to one of 5 treatments at breeding based on BW and backfat thickness in a completely randomized design. Treatments were divided by dietary RSM supplementation levels (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, and 12%) in gestation diets. During lactation all sows were fed a common lactation diet with no RSM supplementation. Body weight, backfat thickness, litter size, lactation feed intake, and milk composition of sows, and growth of their progeny were not different among dietary treatments. In blood profiles, a quadratic increase (psows were observed at d 110 of gestation as dietary RSM supplementation level in gestation diets increased. However, serum T3 and T4 concentrations in lactating sows and their piglets were not affected by RSM supplementation to gestation diets. Concentrations of serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in sows were not influenced by dietary treatments whereas serum glucose level in sows decreased linearly at d 110 of gestation (psows in late gestation.

  14. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA UNTARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail we tested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement. The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day were the proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and the gestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sows were in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detection after weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens (differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rate at 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for the large pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. The overpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in those pens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  15. Mammary nutrient uptake in multiparous sows fed supplementary arginine during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, U; Oksbjerg, N; Storm, A C; Feyera, T; Theil, P K

    2017-06-01

    Arginine is the precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide and may increase mammary plasma flow (MPF), which may in turn increase mammary nutrient uptake. Quantifying mammary nutrient uptake improves our understanding of mammary nutrient metabolism and may potentially allow identification of limiting nutrients for colostrum and milk production. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to study the impact of 25 g/d of crystalline Arg (ARG) on MPF and uptake of nutrients by the mammary glands compared with an isonitrogenous supply of Ala (51 g/d; control [CON]) fed to a total of 8 sows from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation and 2) to quantify mammary nutrient uptake in late gestation and in early and at peak lactation. Sows were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. -amino hippuric acid (AH) was infused (3.0 mmol/h) in the infusion catheter inserted in the mammary vein, initiated 1 h before the first blood sample at -10, -3, 3, and 17 d in milk (DIM). Blood samples were simultaneously drawn from catheters inserted in the femoral artery and the mammary vein, and the samples were collected in hourly intervals from 0.5 h before to 6.5 h after feeding. Sow milk production was assessed at 3 and 17 DIM. Arterial plasma concentrations of Arg and Ala were increased in ARG and CON sows, respectively ( sows ( = 0.30). Arterial-venous differences ( = 0.03) and net mammary flux ( = 0.01) of Ala were increased in CON sows, while the net flux of most other metabolites ( > 0.05) was unaffected by treatment. The mammary extraction of all essential AA was below 13% in late gestation. The average mammary extraction of essential AA at peak lactation was greatest for Leu (51%), while the preprandial extraction was greatest for Lys (57%). The mammary carbon balance (input-output) was negative (-39 ± 12 mol C/d) in early lactation but almost balanced at peak lactation (-13 ± 14 mol C/d), suggesting that mammary fat depots

  16. Backfat thickness during gestation and lactation period in respect to reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of backfat thickness measured during gestation and after lactation of primiparous and multiparous sows on the value of reproductive traits. Backfat thickness was determined at mating, at 105 day of gestation and after weaning and were correlated with selected reproductive indicators including placenta weight. The study was carried out 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous sows of Polish Landrace breed. The nutrition and housing conditions were the same for all pigs. Backfat and loin depth (P2, P4 , P4 M were measured using PIGLOG 105 device. The evaluation of reproductive performance included the weight of placenta at parturition, the number of born piglets, litter weight, piglet body weight at birth, at 21 and at weaning (28 days. Multiparous sows were characterized by greater fatness than primiparous sows in all periods of use. In all examined sows the backfat depth during gestation increased and decreased after lactation. Those changes were more pronounced in multiparous sows than in primiparous sows (P ≤ 0.01. Multiparous sows born and reared more piglets to 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. There have not been dead piglets in primiparous litters. Litters weight from multiparous sows were higher than from primiparous sows only at birth (P ≤ 0.01 and similar in rest periods of rearing. Individual body weight of piglets from primiparous was higher than that from multiparous sows at 21 and 28 days of life (P ≤ 0.01. Fatness changes during lactation, particularly in multiparous sows, were positively correlated with litter weight at birth and negatively correlated with piglet’s weight at 21 and 28 days of life and their daily gains (P ≤ 0.05. Correlations between placenta weight and backfat thickness during lactation were positive in both groups of sows (P ≤ 0.01.

  17. Endogenous phosphorus losses in growing-finishing pigs and gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Gerrits, W J J; Sips, V; Walvoort, C; van Laar, H

    2017-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of diet composition, feeding level (FL), and BW on endogenous phosphorous losses (EPL) using growing-finishing (GF) pigs and sows. After an adaptation period, 48 GF pigs (initial BW 90.5 kg) and 48 just-weaned sows (initial BW 195 kg), both individually housed, were allotted to 12 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were animal type (GF pigs or sows), diet composition (a semipurified starch (STA), inulin (INU), or lignocellulose (CEL) based low-P diet), and FL (2.0 or 3.0 kg/d). Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, crude fat, and carbohydrates (COH), and fecal P excretion (in g/d, mg/kg DMI, and g/(kg BW·d)) were determined using TiO as indigestible marker. Digestibility of OM and COH differed among diets ( sows and GF pigs that were fed the STA diet and the CEL diet, on the INU diet, sows had, compared with GF pigs, a greater digestibility of OM (92.2 vs. 87.2%) and COH (92.5 vs. 88.4%), respectively. Both BW and FL increased fecal P excretion (g/d). When expressed in mg/kg DMI, P excretion was higher in sows than in GF pigs on the STA diet (498 versus 236 mg/kg DMI), the INU diet (526 vs. 316 mg/kg DMI), and the CEL diet (928 vs. 342 mg/kg DMI). When expressed in mg/(kg BW·d), however, P excretion was similar in GF pigs and sows that were fed the STA diet and in those that were fed the INU diet, whereas it was greater in sows than in GF pigs that were fed the CEL diet (11.6 vs. 7.3 mg/(kg BW·d)). The results of this study indicate that EPL (mg/kg DMI) in pigs substantially increase with increasing BW. Application of EPL (mg/kg DMI) determined in GF pigs may underestimate EPL and therefore P requirements in gestating sows. Moreover, EPL is diet dependent and increases with an increasing content of dietary nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP). The degree of this increase may differ between sows and GF pigs and seems to depend on properties of dietary fiber.

  18. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MAIN REPRODUCTION INDICATORS DETERMINATED IN SOWS, STAND GESTATION PEN TIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TELEA ADA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Current researches were carried out with the goal to quantisize the lost from the weaning to early gestation at the sows housed in open pen gestation. In this trail wetested two pen types, different not only by size, but also by feeders’ emplacement.The main reproduction indicators that we calculated until the 28 gestation day werethe proportion of sows in heat after weaning, the weaning to estrus interval and thegestation rates. The weaning to estrus interval was about 4 to 7 days, most sowswere in heat in the day 5 and 6 days after weaning. The percent of heat detectionafter weaning was 71.42% for the small pens and 70.71% for the big pens(differences statistically non significant, chi test value was 0.983. The gestation rateat 28 days after insemination was 91.62% for the small pens and 94.72% for thelarge pens (chi test value 0,959, statistically non significant differences. Theoverpopulation for heat induction and after that chipping animals together in thosepens, show that the lost are up to 40.47%, between weaning – day 28 of gestation.

  19. Effects of a high-fibre diet on ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from gestating sows and fattening pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, François-Xavier; Laitat, Martine; Wavreille, José; Nicks, Baudouin; Cabaraux, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to measure under barn conditions the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4 and CO2 associated with gestating sows (trial 1) and fattening pigs (trial 2) fed either a control diet (CTD) based on cereals or a high-fibre diet (HFD) based on sugar beet pulp (SBP). Three successive batches of 10 Belgian Landrace gestating sows were used for trial 1. Two successive batches of 24 Piétrain × Belgian Landrace fattening pigs were used for trial 2. Animals were kept on slatted floor. The gas emissions were measured by infrared photoacoustic detection and expressed per day and per livestock unit, equals to 500 kg body weight. Similar trends were observed for both animal types. With HFD, the NH3 emissions were reduced (27.2 vs. 36.5 g for the gestating sows, P sows, P sows and 2.1 g for fattening pigs, P > 0.05), and on CO2 emissions (around 6.0 kg for gestating sows and 9.1 kg for fattening pigs, P > 0.05). Most of manure parameters did not statistically differ regarding the treatment. Reproductive performance and body condition of the sows were not affected by the diet. However, growth performance and carcass traits of the HFD-fed fattening pigs were deteriorated compared to CTD.

  20. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)2 equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1...... the colostrum period (0.0 vs. 4.8%, P composition (P > 0.10). Supplementation with HMB increased milk content of fat (7.40 vs. 6.47 ± 0.30%; P ....05) and reduced the sow backfat at weaning (11.4 vs. 14.5 ± 1.0 mm; P Plasma acetate was higher in HMB sows [202 (175; 233) vs. 158 (141; 179) μM; P

  1. Effect of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation of sows in late gestation and lactation on sow production of colostrum and milk and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flummer, C; Theil, P K

    2012-12-01

    This trial was conducted to investigate whether β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation during late gestation and throughout lactation would influence colostrum and milk production of sows and neonatal piglet survival (0 to 24 h). Control sows (CON; n = 8) were fed a standard lactation diet from day 108 of gestation and until 28 d after parturition (weaning). Sows fed HMB (n = 8) were fed the CON diet topdressed with 2.5 g Ca(HMB)(2) equally divided at each 2 daily meals throughout the experiment. Litters were standardized to 12 piglets per sow within experimental group on day 1, and both groups weaned on average 11.3 piglets per sow. Blood samples were taken from the sows by jugular vein puncture on days -3, 1, 10, 17, and 28 relative to parturition. Piglets were weighed at birth, after 24 h, and repeatedly throughout lactation to estimate the colostrum and milk yield of the sows. Samples of colostrum and milk were collected and analyzed. Sows fed HMB had a higher colostrum yield (512 vs. 434 ± 30 g/piglet; P = 0.05) estimated based on the piglet weight gain during the colostrum period (132 vs. 76 ± 21 g/piglet; P = 0.05) and the mortality rate of HMB piglets were lower during the colostrum period (0.0 vs. 4.8%, P 0.10). Supplementation with HMB increased milk content of fat (7.40 vs. 6.47 ± 0.30%; P piglets weighed less at weaning than the control piglets (7.48 vs. 8.30 ± 0.20 kg; P piglet growth at peak lactation.

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Magnesium Sulfate during Late Gestation and Lactation Affects the Milk Composition and Immunoglobulin Levels in Sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, W X; Cheng, S Y; Liu, S T; Shi, B M; Shan, A S

    2014-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) during late gestation and lactation on sow and litter performance, fecal moisture, blood biochemistry parameters, immunoglobulin levels and milk composition in sows. Forty-eight sows (Yorkshire×Landrace, 4th to 5th parity) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments supplemented with 0, 200, 400, or 600 mg/kg MgSO4 (n = 12). The experiment started on day 90 of gestation and continued through day 21 of lactation. Blood samples were collected on day 107 of gestation, day 0 (farrowing) and 21 (weaning) of lactation for the analyses of the blood biochemistry parameters and immunoglobulin levels. The colostrum and milk samples were obtained on day 0 and 14 of lactation, respectively. Fecal samples were collected from the sows on day 107 of gestation as well as day 7 and 20 of lactation to determine fecal moisture content. The results showed that the survival percentage of piglets and the litter weight at weaning were decreased linearly (p0.05) by MgSO4 supplementation. The fecal moisture content of the sows were increased (pplasma magnesium (Mg) level linearly (p0.05 and pplasma on day of farrowing and immunoglobulin A (IgA) level in colostrum (quadratic, p<0.05) and milk (linear, p<0.05) of the sows. These results indicated that supplementation with MgSO4 during late gestation and lactation may have the potential to prevent sow constipation, but may also result in some negative effects.

  3. Growth and intestinal morphology of pigs from sows fed two zinc sources during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, R L; Bidner, T D; Fakler, T M; Southern, L L

    2006-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of organic (Zn AA complex, ZnAA) and inorganic Zn (ZnSO4) sources on sows and their progeny during gestation and lactation and on the pigs during the nursery period. The dietary treatments were 1) a corn-soybean meal diet with 100 ppm Zn from ZnSO4 (control); 2) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnSO4; and 3) diet 1 + 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnAA. Dietary additions were on an as-fed basis. Thirty-one primaparous and multiparous sows were allotted to the treatment diet beginning on d 15 of gestation and continuing through lactation. At weaning (d 17 of age), 202 pigs (63, 55, and 84 pigs for treatments 1 to 3, respectively) were allotted to the same dietary treatment as their dam. The pigs were fed a 3-phase diet regimen during the nursery period: d 0 to 7 (phase I); d 7 to 21 (phase II); and d 21 to 28 (phase III). At weaning and at the end of phase III, 1 gilt per replicate was killed, and the left front foot, liver, pancreas, and entire small intestine were removed. Diet had no effect (P > 0.10) on any response during gestation. During lactation, there was an increase (P pigs (P pigs (P pigs from sows fed ZnSO4 was increased (P 0.10) by diet. Pigs fed ZnSO4 had greater duodenal villus width (P pigs fed ZnSO4 or the control diet had greater ileal villus width (P Pigs fed ZnSO4 or ZnAA had more (P pigs fed ZnSO4, followed by those fed ZnAA, and then by those fed the control diet (P pigs fed ZnSO4 compared with those fed the control diet. These results suggest that 100 ppm Zn in trace mineral premixes provides adequate Zn for optimal growth performance of nursery pigs, but that 100 ppm additional Zn from ZnAA in sow diets may increase pigs born and weaned per litter.

  4. Development of stereotypic behaviour in sows fed a starch diet or a non-starch polysaccharide diet during gestation and lactation over two parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of feeding sows a starch diet or a diet with a high level of fermentable non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) during gestation, lactation or both gestation and lactation over the first two parities on the development of stereotypic behaviour was studied in sows housed in groups during gestati

  5. Failure of vitamin A to increase litter size in sows receiving injections at various stages of gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusateri, A E; Diekman, M A; Singleton, W L

    1999-06-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a single injection of vitamin A to increase litter size, 1,375 sows were assigned randomly to 11 treatment groups (125 sows per treatment). Treatments included injection of 1 x 10(6) IU of vitamin A dissolved in corn oil at weaning or on d 0, 2, 6, 10, 13, 19, 30, 70, or 110 after breeding. Sows in the control group were injected with corn oil on corresponding days. A total of 396 sows were removed from the study following treatment or treatment assignment. Therefore, farrowing data were collected for 979 sows. Injection of vitamin A did not influence (P > . 10) total litter size, live litter size, litter weight, pig weight, number of runts, or number of mummies. Mean live litter size was 10.1 +/- .1 for all sows that farrowed in the experiment. Parity group affected total litter size, live litter size, live litter weight, and number stillborn (P pig weight, number of runts, number of mummies, or gestation length (P > . 10). In this study, a single injection of vitamin A at any time from weaning to farrowing did not increase litter size in sows.

  6. Body composition of piglets from sows fed the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate in late gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2012-01-01

    Supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) to sows during late gestation or lactation has been shown to improve piglet health, survival, and growth. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of HMB supplementation to late-gestating sows on body characteris......Supplementation of the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) to sows during late gestation or lactation has been shown to improve piglet health, survival, and growth. This study aimed to investigate long-term effects of HMB supplementation to late-gestating sows on body...... piglets were weighed at day 28 and water content was assessed by deuterium oxide dilution. Piglets were euthanized, organ weights and lengths were recorded, the empty carcass was analyzed for dry matter, ash, and crude protein content, and body fat content was calculated. Two litters were treated...... for diarrhea, which was included in the statistical model. Weight at birth and at day 28 was not affected by maternal HMB supplementation. The total weight of the small intestine in HMB piglets was 15% lighter (P

  7. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows t

  8. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, G.; Hopster, H.; Fillerup, M.; Ekkel, E.D.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Wiegant, V.M.; Taverne, M.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows

  9. Lower birth weight and attenuated adrenocortical response to ACTH in offspring from sows that orally received cortisol during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, Godelieve; Hopster, Hans; Fillerup, Maaike; Ekkel, E Dinand; Mulder, Eduard J H; Wiegant, Victor M; Taverne, Marcel A M

    2006-03-01

    Prenatal stress is known to affect several offspring characteristics, but its effects depend among other factors on the period of gestation in which it is applied. In the present study, oral administration of hydrocortisone-acetate (HCA) was used to elevate cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows to levels also observed after psychological stress. HCA was administered during three different periods of gestation (115 days in pigs): period 1: 21-50 (P1, n = 10), period 2: 51-80 (P2, n = 10) and period 3: 81-110 (P3, n = 10) days after insemination. Control sows (n = 11) received vehicle from 21-110 days after insemination. When P1-, P2- and P3-sows did not receive HCA, they also received vehicle. During gestation, weekly saliva samples were taken from the sows to determine salivary cortisol concentrations. Treatment effects on sow, litter and piglet characteristics were determined. In addition, two female piglets per litter were subjected to an ACTH-challenge test at 6 weeks of age to determine the adrenocortical response to ACTH. Pigs were slaughtered at 6 months of age and slaughter weight, back fat thickness and percentage of lean meat were analysed. During the period of treatment with HCA, salivary cortisol concentrations were increased in P1-, P2- and P3-sows compared to control sows (P 0.30), but pooled HCA-litters had a higher percentage of live born piglets (P Gestation length did not differ among treatment groups (P = 0.21), but did affect treatment effects on birth weight. Overall, HCA-piglets weighed less at birth, and remained lighter until weaning (P < 0.05). The salivary cortisol concentrations after i.m. injection of ACTH (2.5 IU/kg) were lower in P1- and P3-piglets compared to control piglets. At slaughter, HCA-treatment indirectly decreased lean meat percentage and increased back fat thickness. In conclusion, elevated peripheral cortisol concentrations in pregnant sows affect both litter characteristics and piglet physiology, the latter depending on

  10. Effects of additional starch or fat in late-gestating high nonstarch polysaccharide diets on litter performance and glucose tolerance in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Hartog, den L.A.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of feeding additional starch or fat from d 85 of gestation until parturition on litter performance and on glucose tolerance in sows that were fed a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) were studied. The day after breeding, 141 multiparous sows were assign

  11. Effect of soluble and insoluble fiber on energy digestibility, nitrogen retention, and fiber digestibility of diets fed to gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renteria-Flores, J A; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C; Gallaher, D D

    2008-10-01

    Twenty-four sows (12 nulliparous, 12 multiparous) were used to determine soluble fiber (SF) and insoluble fiber (ISF) effects on energy digestibility, N balance, and SF and ISF digestibility. Experimental diets included a corn-soybean meal control (C; 1.20% SF, 9.78% ISF), a 34% oat bran diet high in SF (HS; 3.02% SF, 10.11% ISF), a 12% wheat straw diet high in ISF (HIS; 1.11% SF, 17.86% ISF), and a 16% sugar beet pulp diet (HS + HIS; 2.32% SF, 16.08% ISF). Sows were assigned randomly to diets within parity group and individually fed to meet their energy requirements according to the NRC model assuming 10 pigs per litter and 40 kg of gestation gain. Total feces and urine were collected in 5-d periods at wk 5, 10, and 14 of gestation. There were no interactions between dietary treatments and parity group for any of the response criteria evaluated. Dietary energy digestibility was greatest (P fiber digestibility was different (P fiber digestibility improved when SF intake increased, suggesting that knowledge of specific dietary fiber components is necessary to accurately predict effects of dietary fiber on digestibility. Multiparous sows demonstrated a greater ability to digest fibrous diets than nulliparous sows.

  12. Effects of dietary star anise (Illicium verum Hook f) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the performance of lactating multiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gong Ying; Yang, ChongWu; Yang, Zaibin; Yang, Weiren; Jiang, Shuzhen; Zhang, Guiguo; Guo, Yixuan; Wei, Maolian

    2015-04-01

    Thirty-two sows were allocated to four treatments to evaluate the effect of dietary star anise (SA) supplementation during gestation and lactation on the lactational performance of sows. At 85 days of gestation, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. After farrowing, sows were further allotted to one of two lactation diets supplemented with 0.5% SA or basal diet. On a weekly basis, body weight (BW) of sows and piglets was measured. Blood and milk samples were obtained from the sows and piglets. Number of days from weaning to estrus, milk yield and feed intake were also recorded. Weight gain of piglets from sows fed the SA-supplemented diet during lactation was greater between days 7 and 14, days 14 and 21 and the overall experimental period compared with control groups. Supplementation of SA during lactation improved weaning weight of piglets, milk yield and average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows. The SA diet increased concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in ordinary milk and prolactin (PRL) in serum of sows. In conclusion, this study has indicated the beneficial effects of dietary SA addition in improving the lactation performance of sows. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Including dietary fiber and resistant starch to increase satiety and reduce aggression in gestating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, A; Marchant-Forde, J N; Richert, B T; Lay, D C

    2016-05-01

    Aggression during mixing of pregnant sows impacts sow welfare and productivity. The aim of this study was to increase satiety and reduce aggression by including dietary fiber and fermentable carbohydrates. Sows were housed in individual stalls 7 to 14 d after breeding (moving day was considered d 0 of treatment) and were fed (at 0700 h) with a CONTROL (corn-soybean meal based with no additional fiber sources), RSTARCH (10.8% resistant starch), BEETPULP (27.2% sugar beet pulp), SOYHULLS (19.1% soybean hulls), or INCSOY (14.05% soybean hulls) for 21 d (5 sows/diet × 5 diets × 8 replications = 200 sows). The CONTROL diet was targeted to contain 185 g(d∙sow) NDF and the other diets were targeted to contain 350 g(d∙sow) NDF. The INCSOY diet was fed at 2.2 kg/(d∙sow) and the other diets were fed at 2 kg(d∙sow). On d 22, sows were mixed in groups of 5 (at 1200 h). Behaviors in stalls (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21) and after mixing (d 22 and 23), heart rate (on d 1, 7, 14, and 21), blood metabolites (on d 2, 8, 15, 22, and 25), and the effects of diets on production were collected and analyzed. Sows stood more ( 0.05). Average birth weight was lowest in the INCSOY diet ( = 0.02). This study demonstrates that RSTARCH and SOYHULLS can improve the welfare of sows by reducing aggression and increasing satiety in limit-fed pregnant sows without affecting production.

  14. Effect of different feeding levels during three short periods of gestation on sow and litter performance over two reproductive cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, P; Yang, X J; Kim, J S; Menon, D; Baidoo, S K

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of different feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation on sow and litter performance and its impact on subsequent reproductive performance. A total of 160 multiparous sows were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments using a randomized complete block design with initial body weight (BW) and backfat (BF) as the blocking criteria. All sows were fed one common corn-soybean meal-based diet with the amount of 1.0×maintenance energy intake (100×BW(0.75)kcalME/d) throughout gestation except 3 periods of 7 d when dietary treatments were imposed on d 27, d 55 and d 83 of gestation. During the 3 short periods, sows were fed 1 of 4 different feeding levels: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0×maintenance energy level (0.5M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M, respectively). Results showed that both BW gain (16.12, 24.74, 30.62 and 36.71kg, respectively) and BF change (-0.27, 0.99, 1.49 and 2.45mm, respectively) from d 27 to 109 of gestation increased linearly (Pfeeding levels. In contrast, with the rise of gestation feeding levels, lactation BW gain (14.31, 9.84, 7.09 and 3.50kg, respectively) decreased linearly (Pfeed intake during lactation (7.05, 7.00, 6.91 and 6.52kg, respectively) tended to decrease linearly (P=0.09) in response to the increase of gestation feeding levels. Furthermore, piglet birth weights increased linearly (Pfeeding levels, while piglet weaning weights were similar (P>0.10) among treatments. Subsequent reproductive performance was not affected (P>0.10) by feeding levels during the previous reproductive cycle. In conclusion, increasing feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation increased BW and BF gains during gestation and caused less BW gain and more BF loss during lactation due to the reduction of lactation feed intake in response to increasing gestation feeding levels. Increasing feeding levels during 3 short periods of gestation increased piglet birth weight, but did not affect piglet weaning weight. The feeding

  15. Effects of Feeding Bt Maize to Sows during Gestation and Lactation on Maternal and Offspring Immunity and Fate of Transgenic Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; O'Donovan, Orla; Gelencsér, Eva; Ujhelyi, Gabriella; Szabó, Erika; Nagy, Andras; Ross, R. Paul; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2012-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. Methodology/Principal Findings On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 12/treatment); 1) non-Bt control maize diet or 2) Bt-MON810 maize diet, which were fed for ∼143 days throughout gestation and lactation. Immune function was assessed by leukocyte phenotyping, haematology and Cry1Ab-specific antibody presence in blood on days 0, 28 and 110 of gestation and at the end of lactation. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cytokine production was investigated on days 28 and 110 of gestation. Haematological analysis was performed on offspring at birth (n = 12/treatment). Presence of the cry1Ab transgene was assessed in sows' blood and faeces on day 110 of gestation and in blood and tissues of offspring at birth. Cry1Ab protein presence was assessed in sows' blood during gestation and lactation and in tissues of offspring at birth. Blood monocyte count and percentage were higher (Psows on day 110 of gestation. Leukocyte count and granulocyte count and percentage were lower (Psows. Bt maize-fed sows had a lower percentage of monocytes on day 28 of lactation and of CD4+CD8+ lymphocytes on day 110 of gestation, day 28 of lactation and overall (Psows or offspring. Conclusions/Significance Treatment differences observed following feeding of Bt maize to sows did not indicate inflammation or allergy and are unlikely to be of major importance. These results provide additional data for Bt maize safety assessment. PMID:23091650

  16. Effects of concentrations of cyanocobalamin in the gestation diet on some criteria of vitamin B12 metabolism in first-parity sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, F; Guay, F; Girard, C L; Giguère, A; Laforest, J-P; Matte, J J

    2007-12-01

    In swine nutrition, little is known about the role of vitamin B(12) in the reproductive processes. The current study was undertaken to obtain information on the dose-response pattern of different metabolic criteria related to the homeostasis of vitamin B(12) and homocysteine in gestating sows receiving various concentrations of dietary vitamin B(12) (cyanocobalamin). Homocysteine is a detrimental intermediate metabolite of the vitamin B(12)-dependent remethylation pathway of Met. Forty nulliparous (Large White x Landrace) sows were randomly assigned during gestation to dietary treatments containing 5 concentrations of cyanocobalamin (0, 20, 100, 200, or 400 microg/kg). During lactation, a diet containing 25 microg of cyanocobalamin/kg (as-fed) was given to all sows. During gestation, plasma vitamin B(12) increased as concentrations of dietary cyanocobalamin increased (linear and quadratic, P cyanocobalamin provided to sows during gestation (linear, quadratic, and cubic, P cyanocobalamin increased (linear and quadratic, P cyanocobalamin (P = 0.04) was observed 1 d later. Plasma homocysteine in piglets during lactation decreased with increasing concentrations of cyanocobalamin given to sows in gestation (linear and quadratic, P cyanocobalamin that maximized plasma vitamin B(12) and minimized plasma homocysteine of sows during gestation were estimated to be 164 and 93 microg/kg, respectively. The maximal residual responses in sows and piglets during lactation were observed with treatments of 100 or 200 microg of cyanocobalamin/kg. The dietary cyanocobalamin concentration necessary to optimize the response of these metabolic criteria remains to be refined within lower and narrower ranges of cyanocobalamin concentrations (i.e., cyanocobalamin needs to be validated with performance criteria by using greater numbers of animals during several parities.

  17. Gestating sows have greater digestibility of energy in full fat rice bran and defatted rice bran than growing gilts regardless of level of feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, G A; Stein, H H

    2017-07-01

    The first objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE and nutrients in full fat rice bran (FFRB) and defatted rice bran (DFRB) determined in gestating sows is greater if feed is provided at 1.5 × the ME required for maintenance than at 3.5 × the ME requirement. The second objective was to test the hypothesis that the ATTD of GE and nutrients and the concentrations of DE and ME in FFRB and DFRB is not different between growing gilts and gestating sows if both groups of animals are fed 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. Forty eight gestating sows (parity 2 to 6) were allotted to 3 diets and 2 levels of feed intake (i.e., 1.5 or 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME) in a randomized complete block design, with 4 blocks of 12 sows and 2 replicate sows per block for a total of 8 replicate sows per diet. Twenty four growing gilts (51.53 ± 3.1 kg BW) were randomly allotted to the same 3 diets, but all gilts were fed at 3.5 × the maintenance requirement for ME. A basal diet containing corn and soybean meal and 2 diets that consisted of 60% basal diet and 40% FFRB or DFRB were used. Results of the experiment indicated that there were no effects of level of feed intake of sows on ATTD of GE, DM, OM, or NDF, or on concentrations of DE and ME. However, concentrations of DE and ME were greater ( sows than in growing gilts. Concentrations of DE and ME in the diets were also greater ( sows than in growing gilts. The ATTD of GE and the concentrations of DE and ME of FFRB were greater ( sows than in growing gilts. In conclusion, the level of feed intake by gestating sows did not affect the digestibility of GE and nutrients or the concentrations of DE and ME in diets or in FFRB or DFRB, but the ATTD of GE and the concentration of DE and ME in diets and in FFRB and DFRB were greater in gestating sows than in growing gilts.

  18. Effects of feeding Bt maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and fate of transgenic material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan G Buzoianu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of feeding transgenic maize to sows during gestation and lactation on maternal and offspring immunity and to assess the fate of transgenic material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On the day of insemination, sows were assigned to one of two treatments (n = 12/treatment; 1 non-Bt control maize diet or 2 Bt-MON810 maize diet, which were fed for ~143 days throughout gestation and lactation. Immune function was assessed by leukocyte phenotyping, haematology and Cry1Ab-specific antibody presence in blood on days 0, 28 and 110 of gestation and at the end of lactation. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell cytokine production was investigated on days 28 and 110 of gestation. Haematological analysis was performed on offspring at birth (n = 12/treatment. Presence of the cry1Ab transgene was assessed in sows' blood and faeces on day 110 of gestation and in blood and tissues of offspring at birth. Cry1Ab protein presence was assessed in sows' blood during gestation and lactation and in tissues of offspring at birth. Blood monocyte count and percentage were higher (P<0.05, while granulocyte percentage was lower (P<0.05 in Bt maize-fed sows on day 110 of gestation. Leukocyte count and granulocyte count and percentage were lower (P<0.05, while lymphocyte percentage was higher (P<0.05 in offspring of Bt maize-fed sows. Bt maize-fed sows had a lower percentage of monocytes on day 28 of lactation and of CD4(+CD8(+ lymphocytes on day 110 of gestation, day 28 of lactation and overall (P<0.05. Cytokine production was similar between treatments. Transgenic material or Cry1Ab-specific antibodies were not detected in sows or offspring. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment differences observed following feeding of Bt maize to sows did not indicate inflammation or allergy and are unlikely to be of major importance. These results provide additional data for Bt maize safety assessment.

  19. High concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation affects the immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Xu, Xiaodong; Su, Ge; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a high concentration of vitamin E supplementation in sow diet during the last week of gestation and lactation on the performance, milk composition, and vital immunological variables and antioxidative parameters in sows and piglets. The experiment started on day 107 of gestation and lasted until the piglets were weaned on day 21 of lactation. 48 sows were divided into two groups and fed either a basal diet with 44 IU/kg of vitamin E or a basal diet supplemented with additional vitamin E, total content of 250 IU/kg. Sow milk and blood samples were obtained on day 0 (farrowing) and on day 21 of lactation. One 21-day-old piglet per litter was selected to collect plasma. Results showed that supplementation of the maternal diet with 250 IU/kg vitamin E improved the average daily gain (ADG) and weaning weight of piglets (P E (P E than in those from the control group. The high concentration of vitamin E supplementation to the sows enhanced the concentrations of α-tocopherol in the sow milk and plasma as well as piglet plasma (P E at high concentration improved the weight of piglets at weaning, and enhanced humoral immune function and antioxidant activity in sows and piglets.

  20. Effects of different n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Lee, Kwang Yong; Kim, Jong Keun; Kim, In Ho

    2017-06-08

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on reproductive performance, fecal microbiota and nutrient digestibility of gestation-lactating sows and suckling piglets. Fifteen primiparous sows (Landrace × Yorkshire) were randomly allotted into three treatments. Fed diets contained different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA, including 20:1, 15:1 and 10:1. No differences were detected among the treatments for average daily feed intake (ADFI) of sows and the back fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Body weight (BW) loss of sows after farrowing to weanling was greater in the 10:1 treatment compared with 15:1 or 20:1 (P sows (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for fecal microbiota was in the 10:1 treatment compared with 20:1 and 15:1 treatments (P sow diet had no difference on nutrient digestibility in gestation-lactating sows, but it can partially improve reproductive performance. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Effects of different amounts of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Tan, C Q; Wei, H K; Zou, Y; Long, G; Ao, J T; Xue, H X; Jiang, S W; Peng, J

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different amounts of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in the gestation diet on the physio-chemical properties of diets, postprandial satiety in pregnant sows, lactation feed intake of sows and piglet performance during two successive reproductive cycles. Multiparous Landrace sows (n=140) were assigned randomly to one of four experimental diets, and four gestation diets were formulated to contain varying amounts of KF at 0%, 0.6%, 1.2% or 2.2%, respectively. The water binding capacity (WBC) (Ppiglets weaned (linearly, Ppiglet weights and litter weights on day 21 of lactation (linearly, Ppiglets weaned per litter through greater pre-weaning survival.

  2. Colostrum and milk production in multiparous sows fed supplementary arginine during gestation and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Purup, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Arginine can be converted into the vasoactive metabolite nitric oxide and may, consequently, increase mammary blood flow, and arginine was, therefore, hypothesized to increase the output of nutrients in mammary secreta. Sows were supplemented with an additional 25 g arginine/d (ARG; n = 11......, 12, 24, and 36 h after parturition and milk from sows on d 3, 10, 17, and 24 of lactation were analyzed for macrochemical composition. Also, the content of IGF-I was determined in colostrum. Arginine supplementation decreased lactose and increased DM content of colostrum (P

  3. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Flummer, Christine; Hurley, W L

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how...... were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n = 10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n = 8 per diet......) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil + 4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations...

  4. Dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate in sows during gestation affects the muscle fibre characteristics but not the performance of their progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Song, Wentao; Sun, Yuecheng; Wang, Liansheng; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Bi, Zhongpeng

    2017-05-19

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate (CrP) in sows during gestation on muscle fibre characteristics, performance and carcass characteristics of their progeny. Sixty healthy sows were randomly divided into four groups as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment design: one group received the control diet, another received the control diet + 10 g kg(-1) l-arginine, the third group received the control diet + 400 ppb CrP, and the fourth group received the control diet + 10 g kg(-1) l-arginine and 400 ppb CrP. The results showed that sows fed the diet supplemented with CrP produced progeny with higher muscle fibre numbers at birth, weaning and slaughter compared to sows fed the control diet. For mean fibre areas, the same result was found at weaning. For progeny of sows fed diets supplemented with l-arginine, only higher muscle fibre numbers at slaughter was observed. Almost no differences were observed regarding average daily gains, average daily feed intake, gain-to-feed ratios, carcass and meat traits. The results of the present study indicate that dietary supplementation of l-arginine and particularly CrP in sows during gestation alters muscle fibre numbers in their offspring, although not their performance or carcass characteristics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Inclusion of Konjac Flour in the Gestation Diet Changes the Gut Microbiota, Alleviates Oxidative Stress, and Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Wei, Hongkui; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Peng, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Although dietary fibers contribute to health and physiology primarily via the fermentative actions of the gut microbiota of the hosts, few studies have focused on how these interactions influence the metabolic status of sows. Here, the effects of inclusion of konjac flour (KF) in a gestation diet on oxidative stress status, insulin sensitivity, and gut microbiota were investigated to elucidate the correlation between the microbiota and metabolic changes in sows. Sows were assigned to either control or 2.2% KF dietary treatment during gestation. The gut microbiota population in sows during gestation and lactation was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The oxidative stress parameters, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values, and fatty acids in the blood of sows were also assessed. Compared to the control diet group, KF significantly reduced the serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) but increased the serum concentrations of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in sows on day 1 in lactation. Additionally, sows in the KF group had a lower HOMA insulin resistance value but a higher HOMA insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS) value. KF induced changes in the gut microbial composition at the phylum and genus levels. The increased relative abundances of Akkermansia and Roseburia in the KF group were positively correlated with the HOMA-IS. Overall, dietary KF alleviated oxidative stress and improved insulin sensitivity of sows, and the changes in the gut microbiota in response to KF may have been correlated with the host metabolism response. To date, the effect of dietary fiber on metabolism responses and gut microbiota in sows has not been investigated. Here, KF supplementation of a gestation diet in sows was found to alleviate oxidative stress and to improve insulin sensitivity. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that KF treatment induces changes in the gut microbiota composition at the phylum and genus levels. Moreover, the changes of

  6. Effects of amino acids and energy intake during late gestation of high-performing gilts and sows on litter and reproductive performance under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, M A D; Gourley, K M; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Bello, N M; DeRouchey, J M; Woodworth, J C; Goodband, R D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of AA and energy intake during late gestation on piglet birth weight and reproductive performance of high-performing (14.5 total born) gilts and sows housed under commercial conditions. At d 90 of gestation, a total of 1,102 females (PIC 1050) were housed in pens by parity group (gilts or sows) with approximately 63 gilts and 80 sows in each pen, blocked by BW within each pen, and each female was randomly assigned to dietary treatments within BW block. Dietary treatments consisted of combinations of 2 standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA intakes (10.7 or 20.0 g/d SID Lys and other AA met or exceeded the NRC [2012] recommendations) and 2 energy intakes (4.50 or 6.75 Mcal/d intake of NE) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models specified to recognize pen as the experimental unit for parity and the individual female as the experimental unit for dietary treatments. Results indicate an overall positive effect of high energy intake on BW gain during late gestation, although this effect was more manifest under conditions of high, as opposed to low, AA intake (interaction, sows compared with gilts. Sows fed high energy intake had a reduced probability of piglets born alive ( sows fed high energy intake vs. sows fed low energy intake. There were no evidences for differences among dietary treatments in litter birth weight and individual piglet birth weight of total piglets born. However, individual born alive birth weight was approximately 30 ± 8.2 g heavier ( = 0.011) for females fed high, as opposed to low, energy intake. Furthermore, piglets born alive were approximately 97 ± 9.5 g heavier ( sows than for gilts. Preweaning mortality was decreased ( = 0.034) for females fed high AA intake compared with females fed low AA intake regardless of energy level. In conclusion, 1) BW gain of gilts and sows depended not only on energy but also on AA intake, 2) sows fed

  7. Empirical Bayes factor analyses of quantitative trait loci for gestation length in Iberian × Meishan F2 sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casellas, J; Varona, L; Muñoz, G; Ramírez, O; Barragán, C; Tomás, A; Martínez-Giner, M; Ovilo, C; Sánchez, A; Noguera, J L; Rodríguez, M C

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate chromosomal regions affecting gestation length in sows. An experimental F2 cross between Iberian and Meishan pig breeds was used for this purpose and we genotyped 119 markers covering the 18 porcine autosomal chromosomes. Within this context, we have developed a new empirical Bayes factor (BF) approach to compare between nested models, with and without the quantitative trait loci (QTL) effect, and after including the location of the QTL as an unknown parameter in the model. This empirical BF can be easily calculated from the output of a Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling by averaging conditional densities at the null QTL effects. Linkage analyses were performed in each chromosome using an animal model to account for infinitesimal genetic effects. Initially, three QTL were detected at chromosomes 6, 8 and 11 although, after correcting for multiple testing, only the additive QTL located in cM 110 of chromosome 8 remained. For this QTL, the allelic effect of substitution of the Iberian allele increased gestation length in 0.521 days, with a highest posterior density region at 95% ranged between 0.121 and 0.972 days. Although future studies are necessary to confirm if detected QTL is relevant and segregating in commercial pig populations, a hot-spot on the genetic regulation of gestation length in pigs seems to be located in chromosome 8.

  8. Social rank of pregnant sows affects their body weight gain and behavior and performance of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranendonk, G; Van der Mheen, H; Fillerup, M; Hopster, H

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies on group housing of pregnant sows have mainly focused on reproduction, but we hypothesized that the social rank of pregnant sows housed in groups could also affect birth weight, growth, and behavior of their offspring. Therefore, in the present study, pregnant gilts and sows were housed in 15 different groups (n = 7 to 14 animals per group) from 4 d after AI until 1 wk before the expected farrowing date. All groups were fed by an electronically controlled sow feeding system that registered, on a 24-h basis, the time of first visit, number of feeding and non-feeding visits, and number of times succeeding another sow within 2 s. Only in the first 6 groups (n = 57 animals), agonistic interactions were observed continuously. The percentage of agonistic interactions won was highly correlated (r(s) = 0.90, P 50% (n = 62) and low-social ranking (LSR) sows a DS gestation length, litter size, or percentage of live born piglets. During a novel object (NO) test at 3 wk of age, HSR offspring moved and vocalized more than LSR offspring (P Pig breeders that apply group housing for pregnant sows should pay attention to reducing competition around the feeding area, which may reduce aggression among the sows and minimize differences between HSR and LSR sows.

  9. Effects of dietary energy intake during gestation and lactation on milk yield and composition of first, second and fourth parity sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Manfred; Jentsch, Werner; Kuhla, Siegfried; Wittenburg, Hildegard; Kreienbring, Fred; Scholze, Helmut; Rudolph, Paul E; Metges, Cornelia C

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine the effects of a varied level of dietary energy intake during pregnancy and lactation on milk yield and composition, first, second and fourth parity sows (Large White x German Landrace) were provided with energy at a level of either: (i) 100% of ME requirement (MEreq) during pregnancy and lactation, (ii) 120% MEreq during pregnancy and 80% during lactation, and (iii) 80% MEreq during pregnancy and 120% during lactation. In spite of equal target levels feed analysis revealed that gestating first parity sows with 120/80 treatment combination and lactating sows of 80/120 treatment combination received 25, and 11-17% more digestible N than in the respective 100/100 treatment combination. Irrespective of this 120/80 sows responded with the highest milk DM, fat, and energy contents, and the lowest lactose concentrations whereas protein levels where not affected, irrespective of parity (p changes ceased at day 7 of lactation with a reduction of milk GE and protein, and an increase of lactose content. Concentrations of threonine, arginine, valine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, cystine, and tryptophan, as well as stearic, oleic, and linoleic acid were higher in colostrum than in milk at later lactation stages. In contrast, laurine, myristic, palmitic, and palmitoleic acids were lower concentrated in colostrum. In conclusion, these results illustrate the importance of body reserve mobilization for milk production in sows and indicate that low energy supply during gestation cannot be compensated by higher energy supply during lactation.

  10. Pressure load on specific body areas of gestating sows lying on rubber mats with different softness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubbert, A; Hartung, E; Schrader, L

    2014-08-01

    Rubber mats offer a possibility to increase lying comfort for sows with positive effects on sow lying behavior and health. However, until now, no information has been reported about the relationship between the softness of rubber mats and the pressure load on certain body areas of sows. We used a total of 68 (40 multiparous, 28 primiparous) German Landrace × German Landrace sows with a BW within the range of 90 to 330 kg (divided in 3 weight classes) to measure peak force and distribution of pressure during lying in the sternal and half recumbent position. Measures were done in an experimental pen that was equipped with a pressure sensor map system (5400 NTL; Tekscan Inc., Boston, MA). Three rubber mats differing in softness (penetration depth: hard mat, 4.0 mm [HM]; soft mat, 14.6 mm [SM]; very soft mat, 43.0 mm [VSM]) were tested and compared to concrete floor (CF) as a reference. Pressure load was analyzed in the sternal position for the sternum, belly, and ham body regions and also in the half recumbent position for the shoulder. For each lying position we determined the body region with the highest pressure load and analyzed the peak force (PF) and the contact area (CA) using a mixed model ANOVA (MIXED procedure of SAS Enterprise, version 4.3., SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) with floor type, weight class of sows, and their interaction as fixed factors. Overall, the highest values for PF in the sternal position were found on the sternum (median: 1.62 N/cm(2)) and in the half recumbent position on the shoulder (median: 2.72 N/cm(2)). In the sternal position PF on the sternum was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.001). In the half-recumbent position PF on the shoulder was lower on VSM compared to CF (P = 0.013) and compared to HM (P = 0.011). The weight of the sows affected PF on the sternum in the sternal position, with lower values in weight class 1 compared to weight class 2 (P = 0.001) and weight class 3 (P = 0.002). Contact area under the sternum was larger on

  11. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (Pcolostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (Pcolostrum composition.

  12. Effect of locomotion score on sows' performances in a feed reward collection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, E-J; Nalon, E; Maes, D; Ampe, B; Buijs, S; van Riet, M M J; Millet, S; Janssens, G P J; Tuyttens, F A M

    2015-10-01

    Sows housed in groups have to move through their pen to fulfil their behavioural and physiological needs such as feeding and resting. In addition to causing pain and discomfort, lameness may restrict the ability of sows to fulfil such needs. The aim of our study was to investigate the extent to which the mobility of sows is affected by different degrees of lameness. Mobility was measured as the sow's willingness or capability to cover distances. Feed-restricted hybrid sows with different gait scores were subjected to a feed reward collection test in which they had to walk distances to obtain subsequent rewards. In all, 29 group-housed sows at similar gestation stage (day 96.6 ± 7 s.d.) were visually recorded for gait and classified as non-lame, mildly lame, moderately lame or severely lame. All sows received 2.6 kg of standard commercial gestation feed per day. The test arena consisted of two feeding locations separated from each other by a Y-shaped middle barrier. Feed rewards were presented at the two feeders in turn, using both light and sound cues to signal the availability of a new feed reward. Sows were individually trained during 5 non-consecutive days for 10 min/day with increasing barrier length (range: 0 to 3.5 m) each day. After training, sows were individually tested once per day on 3 non-consecutive days with the maximum barrier length such that they had to cover 9.3 m to walk from one feeder to the other. The outcome variable was the number of rewards collected in a 15-min time span. Non-lame and mildly lame sows obtained more rewards than moderately lame and severely lame sows (Psows (P=0.69), nor between moderately lame and severely lame sows (P=1.00). This feed reward collection test indicates that both moderately lame and severely lame sows are limited in their combined ability and willingness to walk, but did not reveal an effect of mild lameness on mobility. These findings suggest that moderately and more severely lame sows, but not mildly lame

  13. A whole genome scan to detect quantitative trait loci for gestation length and sow maternal ability related traits in a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Guo, Y M; Zhang, Z Y; Ren, J; Huang, L S

    2010-06-01

    Gestation length and maternal ability are important to improve the sow reproduction efficiency and their offspring survival. To map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for gestation length and maternal ability related traits including piglet survival rate and average body weight of piglets at weaning, more than 200 F2 sows from a White Duroc × Erhualian resource population were phenotyped. A genome-wide scan was performed with 194 microsatellite markers covering the whole pig genome. QTL analysis was carried out using a composite regression interval mapping method via QTL express. The results showed that total number of born piglets was significantly correlated with gestation length (r = -0.13, P gestation length. The QTL on SSC2 achieved the 5% genome-wide significant level and the QTL on SSC8 was consistent with previous reports. Four suggestive QTL were identified for maternal ability related traits including 1 QTL for survival rate of piglets at weaning on SSC8, 3 QTL for average body weight of piglet at weaning on SSC3, 11 and 13.

  14. Alimentação de porcas gestantes e lactantes com dietas contendo saponinas Feeding sows in gestation and lactation with diets containing saponins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Hauptli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento para avaliar o desempenho de porcas e suas leitegadas alimentadas com dietas que continham saponinas. Trinta porcas geneticamente homogêneas foram distribuídas em dois tratamentos, dieta testemunha e dieta testemunha com adição de 160ppm de fontes de saponinas. O delineamento utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, tendo como fator de bloqueamento a ordem de parto. Nas porcas, foram avaliados: o consumo de ração, características das fezes (cor e textura e escore corporal. Nos leitões, foram avaliados: número de nascidos vivos, nascidos mortos, mumificados; pesos ao nascer e ao desmame e mortalidade na lactação. Não foram encontradas diferenças na cor das fezes das fêmeas. Na textura, as fezes das fêmeas que receberam a dieta com a adição de saponinas foram cerca de 11% mais duras (P0,05 nos leitões em relação as variáveis nascidos vivos, nascidos mortos e mumificados. Os leitões das fêmeas que receberam dietas contendo saponinas foram mais pesados (PAn experiment was carried out to study the effect of saponins on sows and their piglets performances. Thirty genetically homogeneous sows were distributed in two treatments: one control diet (CD and a CD plus 160ppm of saponins. The experimental design was a completely randomized block. The studied variables in sows were feed supply, fecal characteristics (color and texture and corporal score. In the piglets the studied variables were mummified fetuses, stillborn, born alive and total born, birth and weaning weights. Were not found differences in color in sows feces. The fecal texture for sows that received diets with saponins was about 11% more solid (P<0.05. In the end of nursing the sows fed with saponins presented a corporal score 12% higher (P<0.05, compared to the control females. The piglets of sows that received diets with saponins presented higher weights on birth (1.2 x 1.4kg and at weaning (5.5 x 5.9kg weights, both at P<0.05. Sows fed in the

  15. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  16. Group and individual sow behavior is altered in early gestation by space allowance in the days immediately following grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, E C; Plush, K J; van Wettere, W H E J; Hughes, P E

    2016-01-01

    Aggression between domestic sows is greatest when sows are first introduced to each other and hierarchies form. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a spacious "mixing pen" on sow aggression and stress. Sows were mixed into groups of 6 and allowed 2 (LOW; 8 groups and 48 sows), 4 (MED; 7 groups and 42 sows), or 6 m/sow (HIGH; 7 groups and 42 sows) for 4 d after mixing, at which point all pens were equalized to 2 m/sow. Salivary cortisol concentration and injury counts were measured on d -1, 0, 1, 3, and 4 relative to mixing, and behavior was also recorded on each of these days following mixing. Reproductive performance was assessed at farrowing. A linear mixed model was applied to the data. Data are presented as least squares means and standard error of the mean. Where transformations occurred, nontransformed adjusted means are presented in parentheses following the presentation of transformed data. In the primary analyses where measures were considered at the pen level, there were no effect of space allowance on fight number per sow, duration of fights, percentage of total time spent fighting, displacements, bites, knocks, and lunges ( > 0.05). These measures were higher on d 0 (i.e., fight number 1.0 ± 0.1 [13.8]) compared with d 1 (0.4 ± 0.1 [4.2]), 3 (0.7 ± 0.1 [5.3]), and 4 (0.7 ± 0.1 [5.5]; 0.05). There was increased percentage of time spent active (1.5 ± 0.02 [33.7] for LOW, 1.5 ± 0.02 [36.5] for MED, and 1.6 ± 0.02 [43.4] for HIGH) and time spent exploring (1.8 ± 0.1 [3.5] for LOW, 2.0 ± 0.1 [4.0] for MED, and 2.3 ± 0.1 [5.7] for HIGH) and number of nonaggressive sow-sow contacts (0.3 ± 0.09 [2.2] for LOW, 0.4 ± 0.07 [3.2] for MED, and 0.5 ± 0.07 [4.5] for HIGH) in HIGH compared with LOW ( 0.05). A secondary analysis was conducted that examined individual sow behavior within each pen, and this identified increased injury number in the lowest ranked sows (involved in no fights on d 0 and no displacements on d0 to d4) in LOW (9

  17. Human chorionic gonadotrophin in early gestation induces growth of estrogenic ovarian follicles and improves primiparous sow fertility during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfang, Jemma; Langendijk, P; Chen, T Y; Bouwman, E; Kirkwood, R N

    2016-09-01

    Reduced summer farrowing rates may be due to inadequate corpora luteal (CL) support. Porcine CL become dependent on LH from 12 d of pregnancy and the embryonic estrogen signal for maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) is initiated at about 11-12 d after insemination. We hypothesised that injection of the LH analogue human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) would induce growth of estrogenic follicles and, by mimicking the signal for MRP and stimulating progesterone secretion, increase primiparous sow fertility. In Experiment 1, during a 28 d lactation 53 mixed parity sows were full-fed either throughout lactation (n=16) or until 18 d and then feed restricted during the last 10 d of lactation (n=36). At 12 d after mating restrict-fed sows were injected with 1000IU hCG (n=17) or were not injected (n=19); the full-fed sows acted as non-treated positive controls. Transrectal ovarian ultrasound exams were performed on days 12, 16, 20, 24, and 28; blood samples were obtained on days 12, 14, and 15 for estradiol and progesterone assay. For Experiment 2, during the summer months primiparous sows received 1000IU hCG 12 d after mating (n=28) or were non-injected controls (n=27). Pregnancy status was determined at 28 d and sows allowed to go to term to determine farrowing rates and litter sizes. In Experiment 1, injection of hCG increased (Pfeeding level on wean-estrus interval, farrowing rate or subsequent litter size. In Experiment 2, hCG injection was associated with a higher pregnancy rate (Psow fertility during the summer months.

  18. Vaccination of sows against type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) before artificial insemination protects against type 2 PRRSV challenge but does not protect against type 1 PRRSV challenge in late gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the commercially available type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)-based modified live vaccine against type 1 and type 2 PRRSV challenge in pregnant sows. Half of the sows in the study were vaccinated with a type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine 4 weeks prior to artificial insemination while the other half remained non-vaccinated. Sows were then challenged intranasally with type 1 or type 2 PRRSV at 93 days of gestation. The sows which received the type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine followed by type 2 PRRSV challenge had significantly higher neutralizing antibody titers against type 2 PRRSV than they did against type 1 PRRSV. These same sows had higher frequencies of IFN-γ-secreting cells when stimulated with type 2 PRRSV compared to those stimulated with type 1 PRRSV. Subsequent virological evaluation demonstrated that the type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine reduced the type 2 PRRSV load but not the type 1 PRRSV load present in the blood of the sows. Additionally, vaccination of pregnant sows with the type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine effectively reduced the level of type 2 PRRSV nucleic acids observed in fetal tissues from type 2 PRRSV-challenged sows but did not reduce the level of type 1 PRRSV nucleic acid observed in fetal tissues from type 1 PRRSV-challenged sows. This study demonstrates that the vaccination of pregnant sows with the type 2 PRRSV-based vaccine protects against type 2 PRRSV challenge but does not protect against type 1 PRRSV challenge. PMID:24484238

  19. Individual variation in sow aggressive behavior and its relationship with sow welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, M; Morrison, R S; Rice, M; Hemsworth, P H

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between individual sow aggressive behavior and sow welfare, based on aggression, skin injuries, and stress, in a total of 275 pregnant domestic sows. Over 4 time replicates, sows were randomly mixed into groups of 10 (floor space of 1.8 m/sow) within 7 d of insemination in both their first and second gestations (200 sows per gestation with 126 sows observed in both gestations). Measurements were taken on aggression (both delivered and received) at feeding, skin injuries, and plasma cortisol concentrations at d 2, 9, and 51 after mixing. Live weight gain, nonreproductive removals, litter size (born alive, total born, and stillborn piglets), and farrowing rate were also recorded. In both the first and the second gestations, sows were classified at d 2 after mixing as "submissive" (delivered little or no aggression at feeding relative to aggression received), "subdominant" (received more aggression at feeding than delivered), and "dominant" (delivered more aggression at feeding than received). In both gestations, sows classified as dominant at d 2 subsequently delivered more (gestation 1, sows had the least skin injuries throughout gestation 1 ( = 0.04), and although submissive sows sustained the most skin injuries at d 9 and 51 of gestation 2, at d 2 the classifications did not differ in skin injuries ( sows had the highest cortisol concentrations at d 2 of gestation 2, but there were no differences between classifications at d 9 and 51 in either gestation (gestation 1, > 0.05; gestation 2, = 0.02). There were no significant relationships between aggression classification and reproduction and nonreproductive removals ( > 0.05). In conclusion, sows classified as dominant at feeding at d 2 subsequently received less aggression at feeding, sustained fewer skin injuries, and had higher live weight gain. Submissive and subdominant sows in groups are likely to benefit from the provision of increased resources such as space and access

  20. Mink's adaptation to group housing in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steffen W; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2012-01-01

    marks than mink that did not haev bite wounds. Thus, based upon bite mark results, we cannot confirm the hypothesis that mink populations adapted to group housing have been developed. The number of mink that had died or had been removede during the test period, or that had bite wounds at the time...... of observation was low on farm A, B, and C, and significantly lower than on farm D. This partly supports the hypothesis about having developed mink populations and or management adapted to group housing. The investigation has confirmed that the level of bite marks is a useful, objective measuring parameter......In this project, we test the hypothesis whether mink populations with a higher social tolerance have been developed in practice and thus are better adapted to housing in stacked cages. The hypothesis has been tested by comparing the level of bite damages and bit marks in mink kept in pairs...

  1. Effects of supplementing Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-two sows were used to determine the effects of adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary treatments representing: (1) sows fed a diet with 12.0 g fermen...

  2. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.; Soede, N.M.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Graat, E.A.M.; Feitsma, H.; Kemp, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to d 32 after first insemination, sows were fed either 2

  3. Prevalence of lameness and claw lesions during different stages in the reproductive cycle of sows and the impact on reproduction results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluym, L M; Van Nuffel, A; Van Weyenberg, S; Maes, D

    2013-07-01

    Lameness in sows is an emerging disease condition with major effects on animal welfare and economics. Yet the direct impact on reproduction results remains unclear. The present field study investigated the impact of lameness and claw lesions throughout the reproductive cycle on (re)production results of sows. In five farms, a total of 491 group-housed sows were followed up for a period of one reproductive cycle. Sows were assessed for lameness every time they were moved to another area in the farm. Claw lesions were scored at the beginning and at the end of the cycle. Reproduction results included the number of live-born piglets, stillborn piglets, mummified fetuses and crushed piglets, weaning-to-oestrus interval and the presence of sows not showing oestrus post weaning, returning to service and aborting. Sows that left the group were recorded and the reason was noted. A mean prevalence of lameness of 5.9% was found, although it depended on the time in the productive cycle. The highest percentage of lame sows (8.1%) was found when sows were moved from the post-weaning to the gestation stable. No significant associations were found between lameness and reproduction parameters with the exception of the effect on mummified foetuses. Wall cracks, white line lesions, heel lesions and skin lesions did have an effect on farrowing performance. Of all sows, 22% left the group throughout the study, and almost half of these sows were removed from the farm. Lameness was the second most important reason for culling. Sows culled because of lameness were significantly younger compared with sows culled for other reasons (parity: 2.6 ± 1.3 v. 4.0 ± 1.8). In conclusion, the present results indicate that lameness mainly affects farm productivity indirectly through its effect on sow longevity, whereas claw lesions directly affect some reproductive parameters. The high percentage of lame sows in the insemination stable indicate that risk factor studies should not only focus on the

  4. Improving efficiency of sow productivity: nutrition and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This reviews research focused to understand the nutrient requirement and balance to meet the needs of fetal growth, mammary growth, and milk production. This summary will handle how feeding strategies can be adjusted according to the nutrient needs for a sow to enhance productivity and health. Most research data used in this summary are based on the studies conducted by the authors between 1996 and 2013. Nutrient requirements of sows are affected by stage of gestation and parity of sows. Dietary antioxidant concentrations need to be re-evaluated for its sufficiency in sow diets especially to prevent excessive oxidative stress during late gestation and lactation. When feeding sows, consideration of phase feeding of gestating sows and parity feeding of lactating sows could enhances production longevity and health of sows. Use of selected nutrients and additives seems to help productivity and health of sows. PMID:23885840

  5. Humoral defence improvement and haematopoiesis stimulation in sows and offspring by oral supply of shark-liver oil to mothers during gestation and lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitre, Romain; Etienne, Michel; Martinais, Sophie; Salmon, Henri; Allaume, Patrick; Legrand, Philippe; Legrand, Alain B

    2005-11-01

    Shark-liver oil (SLO) contains two bioactive lipids: alkylglycerols and n-3 PUFA. Alkylglycerols have immunostimulating and haematopoietic properties, while n-3 PUFA are essential for optimal neonatal development. We investigated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with 32 g SLO/d to twelve pregnant and then lactating sows (from day 80 of pregnancy to weaning) on the growth and immune status of their offspring, compared with a control group. Sows were vaccinated against Aujeszky's disease 21 d before term. Blood samples were collected from sows before treatment, on delivery and 14 d later, and from five piglets per litter on days 2, 21 and 36 after birth; colostrum and milk samples were collected 12 h, 14 and 28 d postpartum. Compared with controls, supplemented sows had higher levels of both erythrocytes and Hb in their blood, and higher concentrations of IgG, alkylglycerols and n-3 PUFA in their mammary secretions. In piglets from supplemented sows, leucocytes and IgG were higher. Supplementation with SLO resulted in an increase in Aujeszky antibodies in both blood and colostrum of sows after vaccination, together with an increase in Aujeszky antibodies in piglet blood. Our findings demonstrate that improvement of both passive and active immune status in piglets is related to the consumption of alkylglycerols associated with n-3 PUFA in the sow diet. The overall improvement in offspring health status by SLO supplementation to the mother could be of interest for optimisation of the lipid diet during and after pregnancy.

  6. Effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bingdong; Nie, Shaoping; Meng, Qingwei; Qu, Zhe; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring. The experiment was designed as a 2×2 factorial with two dietary treatments (soyabean meal v. DDGS) and two l-carnitine levels (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Sows (Landrace×Large White) with an average parity of 4·2 with similar body weight were randomly assigned to four groups of thirty each. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the total superoxide dismutase activity but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde of the jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets and weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets and decreased the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and l-carnitine on the bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in weaning piglets on day 21 were significantly increased by l-carnitine only in soyabean meal diet, but there was no significant effect of l-carnitine in DDGS-based diet. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the bacterial numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria spp. in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine in sows affected the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin 1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in the jejunal mucosa of their offspring by increasing the expression of ZO-1 mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets, and by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. In conclusion, dietary

  7. 妊娠母猪自动饲喂机电控制系统设计与试验%Design and experiment of electromechanical control system of automatic feeder for gestation sow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨亮; 熊本海; 曹沛; 王海峰

    2013-01-01

    Precise feeding technology not only provides adequate nutrients for gestating sows, but also saves manpower and reduces feed wastage for breeding farms. In China, due to the expensive imported feeding equipment, most of the small and medium-scale farms with breeding swine rely on a manual feeding mode which makes it difficult to achieve precise feeding of sows. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to develop an electronic sow automatic feeding (ESAF) system, ultimately achieving independent feeding and residual feed control for individual pregnant sows. In the system of ESAF, individual pregnant sows were identified and the information of the pregnant sows was exchanged automatically by the technologies of low frequency (134.2 KHz) RFID and a wireless local network. Since the electric door could easily result in an error due to power failure, the system of ESAF used a whole mechanical passageway to control the entry and exit of the individual pregnant sow. The whole mechanical passageway and the mechanical automatic interlock was composed of the device of a pre-passageway for the opening , the door of the passageway, the device of a pullback spring, the driving device of the pre-passageway, the fixed hurdle of the pre-passageway, the feeding controller, the device of the post-passageway for exiting, and the interlock trolley line. For example, when a pregnant sow entered into the mechanical passageway, the first nut on the top of the access door was fixed. This pregnant sow couldn't go back, and other sows could not enter. When this sow left, the first nut on the top of the front doors was lifted, and automatically shut down after another pregnant sow entered. The whole mechanical passageway and the mechanical automatic interlock were to strictly ensure that only an individual sow entered into the automatic feeder, achieving accurate identification and feeding. The feeding controller was composed of accept and transmit antenna, a display LED screen, the main

  8. Effects of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation to sows in late gestation on absorption and hepatic metabolism of glucose and amino acids during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Lyby, H; Storli, K S

    2012-01-01

    indwelling catheters in an artery and in the portal, hepatic, and mesenteric veins. Eight hourly sets of blood samples were taken starting 30 min before the morning meal on day –3 and day 3 relative to parturition. Four control (CON) sows were fed a standard lactation diet from day –15 and throughout......, except for Gly and Tyr, were affected the Trt × time interaction (P blood. Absorption rates appeared to be more stable for HMB than for CON sows. Net hepatic flux of glucose was not affected by Trt...... flux of glucose and AA during 8 h of blood sampling and suggest that the improved sow productivity observed by others may be due to a more uniform nutrient absorption pattern into portal blood....

  9. Effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product in sow diets on performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-two sows (Camborough-22, PIC) were used to determine the effects of supplementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP; Diamond V Original XPC) in gestation and lactation diets on performance of sows and their progeny. On 5 d before breeding, sows were allotted to 2 dietary tr...

  10. Sunflower cake to sows feeding on gestation and lactation phases / Torta de girassol na alimentação de matrizes suínas em gestação e lactação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maurício Gonçalves dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of sunflower cake in the rations to gestating and lactating sows. Forty eight sows, 24 gestating and 24 lactating, with the same genetic background were used. The treatments were represented by the levels of sunflower cake included in the rations of gestating and lactating sows, been: 0.0; 5.0; 10.0; 15.0%. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized block, with four treatments and six repetitions, been the block represented by the reproductive order. Each sow represented one repetition. The characteristics evaluated were back fat thickness, feed consumption, interval weaning to estrus, placenta’s weight and reproductive parameters. No significant effects were observed on reproductive performance, except the feed consumption during the lactation that was observed a negative linear effect. The sunflower cake can be included until the level of 20% in feeding programs to sows after 80-days of gestation and to the lactation phase.Foram realizados dois experimentos visando avaliar a utilização da torta de girassol nas rações de matrizes suínas em final de gestação (80 a 110 dias de prenhez e em matrizes em lactação (a partir do parto até o desmame aos 21 dias. Foram utilizadas 48 matrizes, 24 gestantes e 24 lactantes de mesma genética comercial. Os tratamentos consistiram na inclusão de 4 níveis de torta de girassol nas rações de gestação e lactação, sendo: 0,0; 5,0; 10,0 e 15,0% . O delineamento nos experimentos foi em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o bloco representado pela ordem do parto. Cada matriz representou uma repetição. Foram avaliados a espessura de toucinho, o consumo diário de ração, o peso das placentas, o intervalo desmame-cio e parâmetros reprodutivos. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 sobre nenhum dos parâmetros estudados, exceto para o consumo de ração na fase de lacta

  11. Measurements of body composition during late gestation and lactation in first and second parity sows and its relationship to piglet production and post-weaning reproductive performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to characterize variation of multiple body condition traits in a white crossbred composite population of first- and second-parity sows and determine if these traits relate to litter production and reproductive parameters. As expected, parity 2 dams were heavier (P < 0...

  12. Effects of dietary L-arginine or N-carbamylglutamate supplementation during late gestation of sows on the miR-15b/16, miR-221/222, VEGFA and eNOS expression in umbilical vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X D; Wu, X; Yin, Y L; Liu, Y Q; Geng, M M; Yang, H S; Blachier, Francois; Wu, G Y

    2012-06-01

    Placental vascular formation and blood flow are crucial for fetal survival, growth and development, and arginine regulates vascular development and function. This study determined the effects of dietary arginine or N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) supplementation during late gestation of sows on the microRNAs, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in umbilical vein. Twenty-seven landrace×large white sows at day (d) 90 of gestation were assigned randomly to three groups and fed the following diets: a control diet and the control diet supplemented with 1.0% L-arginine or 0.10% NCG. Umbilical vein of fetuses with body weight around 2.0 kg (oversized), 1.5 kg (normal) and 0.6 kg (intrauterine growth restriction, IUGR) were obtained immediately after farrowing for miR-15b, miR-16, miR-221, miR-222, VEGFA and eNOS real-time PCR analysis. Compared with the control diets, dietary Arg or NCG supplementation enhanced the reproductive performance of sows, significantly increased (P<0.05) plasma arginine and decreased plasma VEGF and eNOS (P<0.05). The miR-15b expression in the umbilical vein was higher (P<0.05) in the NCG-supplemented group than in the control group. There was a trend in that the miR-222 expression in the umbilical vein of the oversized fetuses was higher (0.05

  13. Maternal low-dose porcine somatotropin treatment in late gestation increases progeny weight at birth and weaning in sows but not in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatford, K L; Smits, R J; Collins, C L; De Blasio, M J; Roberts, C T; Nottle, M B; van Wettere, W H E J; Kind, K L; Owens, J A

    2012-05-01

    Birth weight positively predicts postnatal growth and performance in pigs and can be increased by sustained maternal porcine ST (pST) treatment from d 25 to 100 of pregnancy (term ∼115 d). The objective of this study was to test whether a shorter period of maternal pST treatment in late pregnancy (d 75 to 100) could also increase birth and weaning weights of progeny under commercial conditions. Gilts (parity 0) and sows (parities 2 and 3) were not injected (controls) or injected daily with pST (gilts: 2.5 mg•d(-1), sows: 4.0 mg•d(-1), both ∼13 to 14 μg•kg(-1)•d(-1)) from d 75 to 100 of pregnancy. Litter size and BW were recorded at birth and weaning, and dams were followed through the subsequent mating and pregnancy. Maternal pST injections from d 75 to 100 increased litter average progeny weight at birth (+96 g, P = 0.034) and weaning (+430 g, P = 0.038) in sows, but had no effect on progeny weight in gilts (each P > 0.5). Maternal pST treatment did not affect numbers of live-born piglets and increased numbers of stillborn piglets in sows only (+0.4 pigs/litter, P = 0.034). Maternal pST treatment did not affect subsequent reproduction of dams. Together with our previous data, these results suggest that sustained increases in maternal pST are required to increase fetal and postnatal growth in gilt progeny, but that increasing maternal pST in late pregnancy may only be an effective strategy to increase fetal and possibly postnatal growth in sow progeny.

  14. Heat stress in pregnant sows: Thermal responses and subsequent performance of sows and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, Matthew C; Safranski, Timothy J

    2017-07-11

    Seasonal infertility is a significant problem in the swine industry, and may be influenced by photoperiod and heat stress. Heat stress during gestation in particular affects pregnancy, resulting in long-term developmental damage to the offspring. This review summarizes what is known about how heat stress on the pregnant sow affects lactation and her offspring. Sows responded to heat stress during gestation with increased rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, and tended to reduce their activity-which may have changed their body composition, increasing the adipose-to-muscle ratio. Heat stress during gestation caused temporary insulin resistance during lactation, but this metabolic state did not seem to affect health, lactation, or rebreeding performance of the sow. Heat-stressed sows also presented with a shorter gestation period and reduced litter birth weight, although weaning weights are not affected when these sows are moved to thermoneutral conditions for lactation. The offspring of gestational heat-stressed sows, however, possessed unique phenotypes, including elevated body temperature, greater fat deposition, and impaired gonad development. Thus, gestational heat stress may significantly impact a herd through its effects on sows and their offspring. Further work is necessary to determine the magnitude of the effects across fa cilities and breeds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Robotic Sow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    In swine farming 15 to 25 percent of piglets die before weaning, and that poses a serious economic problem for hog producers. Sometimes a sow will accidentally crush her piglets or she will reject or abuse a piglet. Frequently a litter is oversized and the sow cannot accommodate all her piglets for nursing or is just unable to lactate due to physical disorders. Farmatic Inc.'s mechanical mother pig comes in two models, one with eight artificial nipples and another with 16. Shortly before feeding time the automated sow releases a prescribed amount of formula from a refrigerated compartment into a warming chamber, where milk is heated to the desired temperature. At feeding time a heat lamp simulating a sow's body warmth is automatically turned on and the machine emits rhythmic grunts like a mother pig summoning her piglets. As piglets scamper to their mechanical mother, a panel across the front opens to expose the row of nipples.

  16. Níveis de proteína bruta na ração para porcas pluríparas em gestação Crude protein levels in the gestation diet for pluriparous sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloízio Soares Ferreira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 40 porcas mestiças (¹/2Landrace, ¹/4Large White, ¹/4Pietran, com 188,2 ± 18,81 kg, no quarto e/ou quinto ciclos reprodutivos, perfazendo um total de 75 partos, para se avaliar diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (PB na ração de gestação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (10,0; 11,5; 13,0; 14,5 e 16,0% de PB, quinze repetições, sendo cada parto uma unidade experimental. O ganho de peso da porca durante a gestação não foi influenciado pelos níveis de PB na ração de gestação. O peso e o número de leitões nascidos, o peso da leitegada ao nascer e a mortalidade não foram influenciados pelos tratamentos. Os níveis de PB não influenciaram o ganho de peso da porca na lactação. O número, o ganho de peso e o peso médio dos leitões ao desmame não foram influenciados pelos níveis de PB durante a gestação. Concluiu-se, com base na eficiência energética, que a exigência de PB para porcas pluríparas, de 4º e 5º parto, na fase de gestação, é de 11,5%, correspondendo a um consumo diário de 207 g de proteína e 10,5 g de lisina.Forty crossbreed sows (¹/2Landrace, ¹/4Large White, ¹/4Pietran with average weight of 188,2 ± 18,81 kg at fourth and/or fifth reproductive cycles, in a total of 75 childbirths, were used to evaluate different crude protein (CP levels in the gestation diet. It was used a completely randomized design, with five treatments (rations with 10,0; 11,5; 13,0; 14,5 e 16,0% of CP, fifteen replicates and being each childbirth an experimental unit. Sow gain was not affected by the CP levels in gestation diet. The pig weight and number of pigs born alive, the litter born weight and mortality were not affected by the treatments. The levels of CP in gestation diet did not influence the weight gain of the sow at lactation. The number of weaned pigs, pig average weight at weaning and pig weight gain were not affected by the CP levels in the

  17. Environmental aspects of improving sow welfare with group housing and straw bedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestein, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    After intensifying pig husbandry in the second half of the 20 th century to improve economical development, public concern brought about legislation to secure animal welfare and ecological values.The development of welfare-friendl

  18. Sowing Terror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Xinjiang riot could set a dangerous precedent for future attacks by separatist groups, experts say Instigating panic-sowing riots has become another tool used by terrorist organizations to augment their traditional attacks, said Li Wei, Director of the Center for Counter-terrorism Studies at the China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations.

  19. Herd- and sow-related risk factors for lameness in organic and conventional sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine;

    2014-01-01

    Lameness in sows is an animal welfare problem which also presents an economic challenge to pig producers. Information about the prevalence of herd lameness in organic sows is relatively scarce. The first objective of this study was to establish the prevalence of lameness and to identify risk...... and fifty four gestation sows from 44 indoor conventional and nine organic sow herds were included in this study. The nine organic herds were visited twice: once in summer/autumn 2011, and once in winter/spring 2012. In winter/spring 2011, a total of 44 indoor conventional herds were visited. Risk factors...... assigned scores for lameness, body condition and bursitis. A multivariable analysis was carried out by logistic regression with the herd and observer as random effects. The average herd lameness prevalence in gestation and lactation sows in organic herds was 11% in summer/autumn and 4.6% in winter...

  20. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    -dimensional axes, plus the length of the acceleration vector) are selected for each activity. Each time series is modeled using a Dynamic Linear Model with cyclic components. The classification method, based on a Multi-Process Kalman Filter (MPKF), is applied to a total of 15 times series of 120 observations......An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen....... This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three...

  1. Indirect Genetic Effects for group-housed animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku

    This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount of herit......This thesis investigated social interactions in group-housed animals. The main findings of this thesis: 1) Statistical methods to estimate indirect genetic effects when interactions differ between kin vs. non-kin were developed. 2) Indirect genetic effects contribute a substantial amount...

  2. Altering prolactin concentrations in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C

    2016-07-01

    Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published

  3. Governing farm animal welfare, governing stockmanship: a sociological analysis of the formulation and on-farm implementation of the EU group sow housing legislation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    EU pig welfare legislation required European pig farmers to shift from individual to group housing of pregnant sows by 1 January 2013. This requirement was principally designed to meet the sows’ needs for locomotion and interaction with conspecifics. This paper explored how the legislation affected everyday sow-farmer interaction, which influences farm animal welfare to an important degree. We started by analysing conceptualisations of sow welfare and sow-farmer relations as implicated in the...

  4. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common

  5. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common

  6. Effects of Inulin Supplementation in Low- or High-Fat Diets on Reproductive Performance of Sows and Antioxidant Defence Capacity in Sows and Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Zhou, P; Liu, H; Li, S; Zhao, Y; Deng, K; Cao, D D; Che, L Q; Fang, Z F; Xu, S Y; Lin, Y; Feng, B; Li, J; Wu, D

    2016-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inulin supplementation in low- or high-fat diets on both the reproductive performance of sow and the antioxidant defence capacity in sows and offspring. Sixty Landrace × Yorkshire sows were randomly allocated to four treatments with low-fat diet (L), low-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (LI), high-fat diet (H) and high-fat diet containing 1.5% inulin (HI). Inulin-rich diets lowered the within-litter birth weight coefficient of variation (CV, p = 0.05) of piglets, increased the proportion of piglets weighing 1.0-1.5 kg at farrowing (p sow constipation (p Sows fed fat-rich diets gained more BW during gestation (p sows fed low-fat diets. However, it is worth noting that the H diet significantly decreased the serum activities of superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and increased the serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in sows and piglets (p sows and piglets. In summary, the fat-rich diets fed to sows during gestation had beneficial effects on reproductive performance, but aggravated the oxidative stress in sow and piglets. Inulin-rich diets fed to sow during gestation had beneficial effects on within-litter uniformity of piglet birthweight and enhanced the antioxidant defence capacity of sows and piglets. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Herd- and sow-related risk factors for lameness in organic and conventional sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    included in the study were clinical parameters and factors related to the production system. Sows were examined visually by one of four trained observers. The organic sows were assigned scores for lameness, body condition, hoof length, bursitis, abscesses and leg wounds, while the conventional sows were...... assigned scores for lameness, body condition and bursitis. A multivariable analysis was carried out by logistic regression with the herd and observer as random effects. The average herd lameness prevalence in gestation and lactation sows in organic herds was 11% in summer/autumn and 4.6% in winter....../spring. ‘Wounds, bursitis and abscess’ on legs (OR=4.7, P3 (OR=1.79, P=0.008) were associated with increased risk of lameness in Danish organic sow herds. Season (winter/spring v. summer/autumn) lowered the risk of lameness (OR=0.37, P

  8. Effects of magnesium on the performance of sows and their piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Jianjun; Chen, Jingshu; Tian, Ji; Wang, Aina; Liu, Hong; Hu, Shengdi; Che, Xiangrong; Ma, Yongxi; Wang, Junjun; Wang, Chunlin; Du, Guanghua; Ma, Xi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplemental magnesium (Mg) on the performance of gilts and parity 3 sows and their piglets. Fifty-six gilts (Trial 1) and 56 sows (Trial 2) were assigned to one of 4 treatments according to their mating weight, respectively. The treatments comprised corn-soybean meal based gestation and lactation diets (0.21% magnesium) supplemented with 0, 0.015, 0.03, or 0.045% Mg from mating until weaning. The results showed that magnesium supplementation significantly (P sows. There were significant effects (P sows. In late gestation and lactation, the digestibility of crude fiber (quadratic effects, P sows, respectively. There were differences among the 4 groups in terms of the apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude fiber in sows (P sows in late gestation (P sows as the Mg supplementation increased (P sows at farrowing and serum urea nitrogen of sows at weaning was significantly influenced by Mg supplementation (P sow colostrum and the serum of their piglets were increased by supplemental magnesium (P sows. Our data demonstrated that supplemental magnesium has the potential to improve the reproduction performance of sows, and the suitable supplemental dose ranged from 0.015% to 0.03%.

  9. Incidence and prevention of early parturition in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaeghe, C; Dewulf, J; Jourquin, J; De Kruif, A; Maes, D

    2011-06-01

    A retrospective study, based on 60,990 farrowing records from 35 commercial herds, was performed to determine the incidence of early parturition (gestation length was 115.4 ± 1.62 d, and early parturition occurred in 10% of all farrowing records. Sows with early parturition had significantly more stillborn piglets and a larger litter size compared to sows with a normal gestation length (114-117 d). Sows with a gestation length gestation length of sows of the altrenogest group (T112 + T113) (115.3 ± 1.23 d) was significantly longer compared to gestation length of the non-treated sows (114.7 ± 1.69d) (p<0.01). Altrenogest treatment had no negative effect on the reproductive performances of the sows. In conclusion, the administration of altrenogest in late gestation is an effective and safe method to prevent early parturition and can counteract the reproductive losses because of premature farrowing, which may occur in a substantial part of the farrowing events.

  10. On the agalactia post partum in the sow. A clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansson, I; Einarsson, S; Larsson, K; Bäckström, L

    1978-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the clinical symptoms of agalactic sows post partum in randomly selected swine herds. The study comprised 71 sows affected with agalactia post partum and 71 healthy sows from the same herds used as controls. Average morbidity of the disease in these 50 herds, consisting of an average of 25 sows, was 12.8%. Sixty-three per cent of the agalactic sows were affected within one day after farrowing. There was no difference in gestation length between healthy sows and agalactic sows. The body temperature was significantly higher for affected than for healthy sows. Mastitis was diagnosed in 35 out of 71 agalactic sows. The criteria for mastitis were swelling and herdening of one or several udder glands. Vaginal discharge was recorded for affected sows (55/57) as well as for healthy sows (51/58) and is therefore not significantly associated with agalactia. The temperament of the agalactic sows was moderately or severely affected in 62 out of 71 agalactic sows. Constipation was recorded for 13/59 agalactic sows and for 3/57 normal sows. The agalactic sows had significantly higher number of piglets per litter at birth while the litter size was higher for healthy sows at weaning. Numerically, more sows were culled among agalactic sows (16/48) than among normal sows (6/42). Moreover, sows affected with agalactia at the previous parturition were more inclined to meet with the disease at the next parturition. Further studies comprising large groups of animals are, however, necessary for evaluation of this question.

  11. MRO SOW Daily Script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Forest E.; Khanampornpan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy E.

    2008-01-01

    The MRO SOW daily script (wherein "MRO" signifies "Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter" and "SOW" signifies "sequence systems engineer of the week") is a computer program that automates portions of the MRO daily SOW procedure, which includes checking file-system sizes and automated sequence processor (ASP) log files. The MRO SOW daily script effects clear reporting of (1) the status of, and requirements imposed on, the file system and (2) the ASP log files.

  12. Effects of ergocryptine on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone in the periparturient sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, M D; Threlfall, W R

    1981-09-01

    Effects of ergocryptine (ERG) on the periparturient sow were assessed by measuring changes in prolactin, luteinizing hormone, and progesterone in plasma. Hormones in plasma were determined on samples collected daily from 21 days before parturition until postpartum day (PPD) 21. Administration of ERG completely blocked the initiation of lactation and prevented the surge in prolactin that occurred just before parturition, as compared with effects in control sows. The gestation period was shorter (P less than 0.01) in ERG-treated sows compared with the gestation period in controls. Although the number of pigs farrowed was not different between treated and control sows, the ERG-treated sows did not raise any pigs to PPD 21. Luteinizing hormone concentrations were higher (P less than 0.01) from 10 days before parturition until PPD 21, but plasma progesterone concentrations were not different in treated sows when compared with concentrations in control sows.

  13. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including stereoty

  14. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chengquan; Sun, Haiqing; Ao, Jiangtao; Long, Guang; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO) to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n = 28) or without (Control; n = 26) supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (P sows' serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P sows' counts of faecal lactobacillus (P sow's feed intake (P = 0.07), which resulted in higher average daily gain (P sows. The OEO supplementation to sows' diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress. PMID:26539506

  15. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish st...

  16. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, L L; Soede, N M; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Graat, E A M; Feitsma, H; Kemp, B

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to 32 after the first insemination, sows were fed either 2.5 kg/d of a standard gestation diet (control, n = 49), 3.25 kg/d (+30%) of a standard gestation diet (plus feed, n = 47), or 2.5 kg/d of a gestation diet with 30% greater ileal digestible AA (plus protein, n = 49). Feed intake during the experimental period was 29% greater for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (93 vs. 72 kg, P Sows in the plus feed group gained 10 kg more BW during the experimental period compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (24.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.5 ± 1.2 and 16.9 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, P sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (76.6% vs. 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively, P = 0.16). Litter size, however, was larger for sows in the plus feed group (15.2 ± 0.5 total born) compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (13.2 ± 0.4 and 13.6 ± 0.4 total born, respectively, P = 0.006). Piglet birth weight was not different among treatments (P = 0.65). For both first- and second-parity sows, the plus feed treatment showed similar effects on BW gain, farrowing rate, and litter size. In conclusion, an increased feed intake (+30%) during the first month of gestation improved sow BW recovery and increased litter size, but did not significantly affect farrowing rate in the subsequent parity. Feeding a 30% greater level of ileal digestible AA during the same period did not improve sow recovery or reproductive performance in the subsequent parity.

  17. Understanding farmers' decisions with regard to animal welfare: The case of changing to group housing for pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Riet, van 't J.P.; Hoop, de J.G.; Pierick, ten E.

    2012-01-01

    Improving animal welfare in livestock farming requires changing the behaviour of many stakeholders. Farmers have to take proper actions on their farm to improve animal welfare, retailers have to market animal-friendly products and consumers have to purchase these products. The theory of planned

  18. Comparative digestibility of energy and nutrients in diets fed to sows and growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Jessica E; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare values for digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients in 11 diets fed to both growing pigs and gestating sows. Three diets were based on corn, wheat or sorghum and eight diets were based on a combination of corn and soybean meal, canola meal, conventional distillers' dried grains with solubles, low-fat distillers' dried grains with solubles, corn germ meal, corn bran, wheat middlings or soybean hulls. A total of 88 gestating sows (252 ± 24.2 kg BW; parity two to six) and 88 growing barrows (40 ± 4.7 kg BW) were used and randomly allotted to the 11 diets with eight replicate sows or pigs per diet. Faecal and urine samples were collected for 4 d following a 19 d adaptation period. The DE, ME and ATTD of gross energy (GE), acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) in the 11 diets were calculated. Gestating sows had greater (p sows also had greater (p sows and growing pigs for any of the diets, except that gestating sows had greater (p sows may be predicted by using equations generated from the values of ATTD of GE and CP and DE values obtained in growing pigs. Results of this research indicate that ATTD values of CP and GE obtained in gestating sows are greater than the values obtained in growing pigs, but values for ATTD of ADF obtained in growing pigs are not different from values in gestating sows.

  19. Providing the plant extract silymarin to lactating sows: effects on litter performance and oxidative stress in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Lapointe, J; Cormier, I

    2017-03-01

    Silymarin is an extract from the plant milk thistle that was shown to have antioxidant and hyperprolactinemic properties. Taking into account the essential role of prolactin for lactating sows and the systemic oxidative stress occurring during lactation, it is of interest to investigate the potential beneficial effects of silymarin on lactating sows. A study was therefore carried out to determine the effects of providing either 1 or 8 g/day of the plant extract silymarin to lactating sows. Sows in first, second or third parity were fed conventional diets during gestation and, at farrowing, were assigned as controls (CTL, n=33), or were fed 1 g/day (SYL1, n=33) or 8 g/day (SYL8, n=33) of silymarin. The silymarin was provided in two equal amounts per day, and was fed throughout a 20-day lactation. The performance of sows and their litters was assessed and circulating concentrations of prolactin (days 7 and 18), urea (days 7 and 18) and oxidative status, via protein carbonyls and superoxide dismutase activity (day 18), were measured in sows. Milk samples were obtained on day 18 to measure standard composition. There was no effect of silymarin (P>0.10) on circulating prolactin or urea, or on oxidative damage to proteins or antioxidant potential in sows. Lactation feed intake, backfat and BW of sows were unaffected by treatment (P>0.10) as was the case for milk composition and piglet growth (P>0.10). Results demonstrate that providing up to 8 g/day of the plant extract silymarin to lactating sows had no beneficial effects in terms of circulating prolactin concentrations or oxidative status of sows, or in terms of performances of sows and their litters.

  20. Safety of classical swine fever virus vaccine strain LOM in pregnant sows and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-In; Song, Jae-Young; Kim, Jaejo; Hyun, Bang-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Cho, In-Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Woo, Gye-Hyeong; Lee, Jung-Bok; An, Dong-Jun

    2016-04-12

    The present study aimed to evaluate the safety of the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccine strain LOM in pregnant sows. Pregnant sows with free CSFV antibody were inoculated with a commercial LOM vaccine during early pregnancy (day 38; n=3) or mid-pregnancy (days 49-59; n=11). In pregnant sows vaccinated during the early stages of gestation, abortion (day 109) was observed in one case, with two stillbirths and seven mummified fetuses. The viability of live-born piglets was 34.9% in sows vaccinated during mid-pregnancy compared with 81.8% in the control group. Post-mortem examination of the organs of the sows and piglets did not reveal any pathological lesions caused by CSFV; however, CSFV RNA was detected in the organs of several vaccinated sows and their litters. The LOM strain was transmitted from sows with free CSFV antibody to their fetus, but did not appear to induce immune tolerance in the offspring from vaccinated pregnant sows. Side effects were not observed in pregnant sows with antibody to the LOM strain: transmission from sow to their litters and stillbirth or mummified fetuses. The LOM strain may induce sterile immunity and provide rapid, long-lasting, and complete protection against CSFV; however, it should be contraindicated in pregnant sows due to potential adverse effects in pregnant sows with free CSFV antibody. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Response to LPS in female offspring from sows treated with cortisol during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.; Kranendonk, G.; Fillerup, M.; Hopster, H.; Boersma, W.; Hodgson, D.; Reenen, van K.; Taverne, M.

    2007-01-01

    Prenatal stress has been shown to program responsiveness of the hypothalamus¿pituitary¿adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and behavior in offspring. In pig husbandry, sows are exposed to stressful conditions during gestation. Previously, cortisol treatment of pregnant sows has been shown to alter stress respon

  2. Acidogenic mineral additions increased Ca mobilization in prepartum sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriet, C; Axe, D E; Crenshaw, T D

    2017-01-01

    Increased sow milk production is associated with an increase in unexplained sow mortality during prepartum and early postpartum periods. This association has led to purported claims of hypocalcemic disorders. Assuming similar responses as dairy cows, feeding anionic mineral salts in late gestation and early lactation may reduce potential hypocalcemia related disorders in sows. Two experiments using CAD-MATE (Granco Minerals, Petersburg, VA), an acidogenic mineral supplement (AMS), were designed to determine the amount required to increase urinary Ca excretion and to identify renal compensatory responses to acid loads in sows. In Exp. 1, 30 multiparous gestating sows (Landrace × Large White) were fed 1 of 6 diets with either 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5% AMS additions for 14 d. Diets provided a range (33 to -216 mEq/kg) of cation-anion balance, calculated as Na + K - Cl - S. Two 24-h urine samples were collected via bladder catheters for mineral analysis. One venous blood sample was drawn from 2 sows per diet on d 14. In Exp. 2, twelve sows were fed 1 of 3 diets to provide either 0, 1.5, or 2.5% AMS. Three 24-h composites of urine and fecal excreta were collected and analyses were used to calculate apparent mineral retention. Venous blood pH (range 7.41 to 7.33) and base excess (range 5.4 to 0.5 mmol/L) decreased (linear, sows fed diets with 2.5% AMS. Fecal K, Na, and Cl excretion did not differ among treatments. Apparent Ca retention decreased ( sows.

  3. Social status and housing factors affect reproductive performance of pregnant sows in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, Janeen L

    2017-08-01

    Group-housing systems for pregnant sows are considered a welfare-promoting alternative to the individual stall. A major concern associated with pregnant sows housed in group pens is increased aggression at mixing and at feeding, which may cause chronic stress among some of the sows in the group due to low feed intake and social stress. Prolonged activation of the stress axis, based on elevated cortisol levels, may inhibit or impair reproductive success via disruption of the reproductive axis. Mixing sows into groups shortly after insemination evokes a stress response, which may affect fertilization and implantation due to sustained, elevated cortisol levels that disrupt reproductive processes. Yet, most studies reported minimal effects of group housing sows during pregnancy on reproduction or cortisol-related stress response. Differences between housing systems-in terms of group size, floor-space allowance, feeding system, and genetics-could account for these unexpected results. Indeed, interrupted feed intake, especially in early pregnancy, and sustained aggression in late pregnancy are two unfavorable social stresses that deserve special attention in order to achieve good reproductive performance. Unfortunately, most studies do not consider other factors, such as social rank and parity, which may interactively affect reproductive success and aggressive behavior of sows, especially in group-pen systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Control of individual daily growth in group housed pigs using feeding stations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, P.J.L.

    1996-01-01

    In this thesis, it was examined whether it is possible to control individual daily growth and carcass composition in group-housed pigs using feeding stations. A forelegs weighing system to estimate the daily individual body weight (BW) of group-housed pigs was developed and validated. In two experim

  5. Effect of hiding places, straw and territory on agression in group-housed rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; Gunnink, H.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    Group-housing of rabbit does may be preferred from welfare point of view. However, group-housing causes agonistic behaviour which may cause severe injuries. Severe injuries may be prevented by offering hiding places for attacked does. Providing enrichment (straw) may reduce agonistic behaviour by at

  6. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  7. High environmental temperature around farrowing induced heat stress in crated sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muns, R; Malmkvist, J; Larsen, M L V; Sørensen, D; Pedersen, L J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the impact of high ambient temperature (25°C) around farrowing on crated sows unable to perform thermoregulatory behavior. Twenty sows were housed in 2 farrowing rooms in conventional farrowing crates. In 1 room (CONTROL) temperature was kept at 20°C. In the other room (HEAT) temperature was initially kept at 20°C and gradually raised until it reached 25°C from d 112 to 115 of gestation. Then the temperature was gradually lowered to 20°C. Sows were continuously video recorded for behavior recording. Sows' respiration rates were recorded from d 3 before farrowing to d 5 after farrowing. Sows' rectal temperatures were recorded from d 1 before farrowing to d 8 after farrowing, and sows' udder surface temperatures were recorded from the day of farrowing to d 3 after farrowing. All measures were recorded daily. Sows' BW were recorded at d 108 of gestation and at weaning. Sows' back fat was recorded on farrowing day, when room temperature was set again at 20°C, and at weaning. Piglets were weighed at d 1, 14, and 21. The HEAT sows spent a higher proportion of time lying in the lateral position than CONTROL sows, both during the 16 h before farrowing and the 24 h after the start of farrowing ( 0.10). The HEAT sows had higher rectal temperature on d 1 after farrowing ( sows during the recording period ( sows also tended to have longer farrowing duration ( sows on d 1 before farrowing and on the day of farrowing. On d 7, 8, and 9, CONTROL sows had higher feed intake ( sows were heavier at d 21 after farrowing ( sows' postural behavior. Sows reacted to the thermal challenge with higher respiration rate around farrowing, but both their rectal and udder temperatures were elevated, indicating that they were not able to compensate for the higher ambient temperature. High ambient temperature negatively influenced sows' feed intake, with negative impact on piglets' weaning weight. High temperatures around farrowing (25°C) compromise

  8. Metanálise da relação entre espessura de toicinho e variáveis nutricionais de porcas gestantes e lactantes Meta-analysis of relation among backfat thickness and nutritional variables of gestating and lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Rigon Rossi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Uma metanálise foi realizada para avaliar a relação entre a espessura de toicinho e as variáveis nutricionais de porcas gestantes e lactantes. A base de dados contemplou 14 artigos publicados de 2000 a 2006 em revistas indexadas. A metanálise foi realizada através de análises gráfica, de correlação e de variância. A correlação entre espessura de toicinho na gestação (ETg com consumo de alimento na gestação (CAl G foi de -0,09 (P=0,04, com CAl na lactação (CAl L baseado na tabela NRC (1998 foi de -0,09 (P=0,06, com CAl na lactação baseado na tabela Rostagno (2000 foi de -0,08 (P=0,06 e com consumo de proteína bruta na lactação (CAl L PB foi de -0,08 (P=0,06. A correlação entre espessura de toicinho na lactação (ETl com CAl na gestação foi de 0,29 (PA meta-analysis was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between backfat thickness and nutritional variables of sows during gestation and lactation. The database was developed from 14 studies published between 2000 and 2006. The meta-analysis was carried out trough by graphical analysis, correlation and variance. The correlation between backfat thickness at gestation (BTg and feed intake (FI at this phase was -0.09 (P=0.04. The correlation between backfat thickness at gestation (BTg and lactation FI NRC (1998 was -0.09 (P=0.06; BTg and FI at lactation Rostagno (2000 presented a correlation of-0.08 (P=0.06. In the same way the correlation between BTg and crude protein (CP intake at lactation was -0.08 (P=0.06. The correlation between backfat thickness at lactation (BTl and FI at gestation was 0.29 (P<0.01. BTl and FI at gestation NRC (1998 presented a correlation of 0.20 (P<0.01. For BTl and gestation feed intake Rostagno (2000 a correlation of 0.20 (P<0.01 was reported. The correlation between BTl and lactation FI was -0.21 (P<0.01, the correlations between BTl and lactation FI NRC (1998 were -0.24 (P<0.01 and lactation FI Rostagno (2000 0.24 (P<0.01. Correlations of 0

  9. Study on the immunosuppressants in the peripartum stages in sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dynamic level of immunosuppressants such as alpha-fetoprotein(α-FP), gestation associated protein, progesterone, estradiol, chorionic gonadotropin, etc. of peripheral sera and the regulatory mechanism of cellular immunity in the peripartum stages in sows were determined by advanced radioimmunoassay (RIA) and immunochemistry methods in this study. The effects on lymphocyte cultivated in vitro by the immunosuppressants mentioned above were tested by cell culture technology, respectively. The results were as follows: (1) α-FP: The level of α-FP of peripheral sera in the stage of ante-parturition was slightly higher than that of post-parturition in sows, but it didn't show statistical difference. The concentration of α-FP of peripheral sera in conceptus sows had no obvious effect on lymphocyte cultivated in vitro, and it indicated that α-FP was not the major immunosuppressant in the pregnancy of sows. However, the α-FP, whose concentration was equal to that of amniotic fluid, had obvious inhibition on lymphocyte cultivated in vitro. (2) Gestation associated protein: The level of gestation associated protein was maintained highly (100-162 mg/L) in peripheral sera and amniotic fluid in the stage of ante-parturition in sows, then descended gradually after parturition and disappeared step by step 5-10 d after parturition. The gestation associated protein, whose concentration were equal to that of peripheral sera and amniotic fluid, were added to lymphocyte culture in vitro, and the effect on lymphocyte activity was not observed yet. This showed that gestation associated protein was not the major immunosuppressant in the peripartum stage in sows. (3) Estradiol and progesterone: Estradiol or progesterone at the level of sera in pregnant sows, could lower the rate of lymphocyte transformation and the level of cellular immunity. (4) Chorionic gonadotropin: The level of chorionic gonadotropin of peripheral sera in the stage of ante-parturition was slightly higher than

  10. Offspring subcutaneous adipose markers are sensitive to the timing of maternal gestational weight gain

    OpenAIRE

    Giblin, Linda; Darimont, Christian; Leone, Patricia; McNamara, Louise B; Blancher, Florence; Berry, Donagh; Castañeda-Gutiérrez, Eurídice; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy impacts on offspring health. This study focused on the timing of maternal gestational weight gain, using a porcine model with mothers of normal pre-pregnancy weight. Methods Trial design ensured the trajectory of maternal gestational weight gain differed across treatments in early, mid and late gestation. Diet composition did not differ. On day 25 gestation, sows were assigned to one of five treatments: Control sows received a standar...

  11. Metanálise da relação entre espessura de toicinho e variáveis corporais e reprodutivas de porcas gestantes e lactantes Meta-analysis of relation among backfat thickness, body and reproductive variables of gestating and lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Rigon Rossi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo de metanálise avaliou a relação entre a espessura de toicinho e as variáveis de condição corporal de porcas gestantes e lactantes. A base de dados contemplou 14 artigos publicados de 2000 a 2006 em revistas indexadas. A metanálise foi realizada através de análises gráfica, de correlação e de variância. A correlação da espessura de toicinho (ET com o peso vivo foi de 0,16 (PA meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the association between backfat thickness and sow body condition in gestation and lactation. The database assembled 14 publications from 2000 to 2006. The meta-analysis was accomplished by graphical analysis, correlation, and analysis of variance. The correlation between backfat thickness (BT and body weight was 0.16 (P<0.01, with protein mass was 0.48 (P<0.01 and leptin concentration was 0.88 (P<0.01. The correlation between the backfat variation during and in lactation (VBTl and body weight was -0.21 (P<0.01, with body weight variation in lactation was 0.34 (P<0.01 and with fat mass variation in lactation was 0.70 (P<0.01. The correlation between BT and born alive litter size was 0.46 (P<0.01, between VBTl and piglets body weight at seven days of age was 0.95 (P<0.01. In the gestation, the BD was influenced by the body weight and protein mass. However, in lactation the VBTl was influenced by the body weight variation and fat mass. The leptin concentration at farrowing was positively correlated with backfat depth. The BT was influenced by born alive litter size and piglets birth weight. The VBTl was influenced by piglets weight at seven days old and litter weight gain. In conclusion, there is a significant relation between backfat thickness and body variables of the sows in gestation and lactation.

  12. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emma K Wallace; Drew Altschul; Karoline Körfer; Benjamin Benti; Amanda Kaeser; Susan Lambeth; Bridget M Waller; Katie E Slocombe

    2017-01-01

    ...) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare...

  13. Prevalence of constipation and its influence on post-parturient disorders in tropical sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearodwong, Pachara; Muns, Ramon; Tummaruk, Padet

    2016-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of constipation and its influence on farrowing duration and the evidence of post-parturient disorders in tropical sows and to evaluate the efficacy of a laxative supplementation during gestation and around farrowing on the incidence of constipation. Two experiments were performed in a commercial swine herd in Thailand. In experiment 1, the prevalence of constipation was determined in 96 gestating sows. Subsequently, 62 of them (64.6 %), with a severe to moderate degree of constipation, received 20 ml of a laxative for 3 days during gestation. In experiment 2, constipation score was determined in sows before, during, and after farrowing. A total of 98 sows were randomly allocated to one of two groups: the treatment group (n = 48) received 20 ml of a laxative for 3 days before farrowing, and the control group (n = 50) did not receive any laxative. Rectal temperature, appetite score, incidence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS), and vaginal discharge score was determined for 4 days. In experiment 1, supplementation of laxative reduced the proportion of sows with moderate to severe constipation (P sows with moderate to very severe constipation had a 28-min longer duration of farrowing than sows with normal faeces. Constipation in sows on the day of farrowing resulted in reduced appetite on day 1 postpartum (P = 0.008). The incidence of sows with fever on day 1 postpartum was two times higher in sows with constipation than in sows with normal faeces (36.2 and 16.7 %, respectively; P = 0.041).

  14. Effect of individual and group housing of mice on the level of radioresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorozhkina O.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to examine the effect of individual and group housing of mice on radioresistance. Material and methods. Effects of individual and group housing of mice on immunity and blood systems were studied on ICR (CD-1 and C57BI6 male mice before and after proton irradiation. Results. Group housing of intact animals resulted in a decline in the number of nucleated cells in the femur bone marrow and thymus mass. The irradiation with proton with energy of 171 MeV at a dose of 1 Gy causes a statistically significant greater reduction of the number of nucleated cells in the femur bone marrow in group-housed mice. A trend toward greater safety of the number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood and higher proliferative activity of bone marrow cells, as well as lower level of aberrant mitoses have been noted in individually-housed mice. Reduction processes in the recovery period of radiation sickness take place at a greater rate in group-housed mice. Conclusion. Group housing of male mice causes increased sensitivity of the blood and immunity systems to the effects of radiation and at the same time accelerates processes of radiation recovery.

  15. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish stage. Data from 17,743 grow-finish pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were recorded between May 2001 and February 2010 at the experimental farm of the Institute for Pig Genetics (Beilen, the Netherlands). The grow-finish stage was divided into 2 phases (phase 1: 26 to 75 kg; phase 2: 75 to 115 kg). The sow history features were birth litter size, birth year and season, birth farm, weaning age, age of transfer to the experimental farm, and age at first insemination. The sow features were added to the basic model one at a time to study their effect on the grow-finish traits of the pigs. Subsequently, significant sow features (P finish pigs by 0.1 g/d. The heritability estimates for GR and FI (only in phase 2 of the grow-finish stage) decreased after adding the sow features to the model. No differences were found in estimates of the common litter effects between the basic model and the model with all significant sow features. The estimates of the permanent sow effect changed for FI from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.00 (model with sow features), and for FI in phase 1, the permanent sow effect decreased from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.01 (model with sow features). In conclusion, selected sow features do affect the grow-finish traits of the pigs, but their estimates are small and explain only a small proportion of the differences in the GR and FI of grow-finish pigs. The sow features partially explained the permanent sow effect of FI-related traits and did not explain the

  16. Effects of dietary arginine supplementation on the performance of lactating primiparous sows and nursing piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized block design was utilized to determine the effects of dietary arginine supplementation during gestation and/or lactation on the lactation performance of 38 first-parity sows. At 30 d of gestation, pregnant gilts were allotted based on BW to...

  17. Senecavirus A infection in market weight gilts, sows and neonates with subsequent protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize SVA infection in market weight pigs, late-gestation sows, and neonates and 2) examine protective immunity in late-gestation gilts Materials and Methods: For Part 1 of the study 15 gilts were inoculated with SVA, bled regularly for 2 we...

  18. Senecavirus A infection in sows, neonates, and market weight gilts with subsequent protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to 1) characterize SVA infection late-gestation sows, neonates, and market weight gilts and 2) examine protective immunity in late-gestation gilts Methods: For Part 1, 15 market weight gilts were inoculated with SVA, bled regularly, and clinical observat...

  19. Efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase on mineral digestibility in diets for breeding sows: effect during pregnancy an lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Bikker, P.; Vereecken, M.; Bierman, K.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus in most diets for breeding sows is digested for 20 to 40%, thus leading to a relatively high amount of P in the manure. To enhance the P digestibility in diets for both lactating and gestating sows, two separate experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase

  20. Efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase on mineral digestibility in diets for breeding sows: effect during pregnancy an lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Bikker, P.; Vereecken, M.; Bierman, K.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus in most diets for breeding sows is digested for 20 to 40%, thus leading to a relatively high amount of P in the manure. To enhance the P digestibility in diets for both lactating and gestating sows, two separate experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of OptiphosTM phytase deri

  1. Restricted feed intake in lactating primiparous sows. I. Effects on sow metabolic state and subsequent reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J L; Smit, M N; Novak, S; Wellen, A P; Foxcroft, G R

    2011-01-01

    The effects of feed restriction (60% of anticipated feed intake; Restrict; n=60) during the last week of a 21-day lactation in primiparous sows compared with feeding at 90% of anticipated feed intake (Control; n=60) on sow metabolic state, litter growth and sow reproductive performance after weaning were compared. Metabolisable energy (ME) derived from feed was lower, ME derived from body tissues was higher and litter growth rate was reduced (all Psows during the last week of lactation. Treatment did not affect weaning-to-oestrus interval, pregnancy rate, ovulation rate, embryonic survival or the number of live embryos (P>0.05) at Day 30 of gestation: However, embryo weight was greater (Psows (1.55±0.04vs 1.44±0.04g, respectively). These data suggest the biology of the commercial sow has changed and reproductive performance of contemporary primiparous sows is increasingly resistant to the negative effects of lactational catabolism. Overall, catabolism negatively affected litter weaning weight and embryonic development of the next litter, but the extent to which individual sows used tissue mobilisation to support these litter outcomes was highly variable.

  2. A Preliminary Trial on the Use of Barium Chloride for Pregnancy Diagnosis in Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndu, A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Urine was collected twice daily (once in the morning and once in the afternoon for 5 days from 80 Yorkshire x Landrace crossbred gilts/sows made up of 40 non-pregnant and 40 pregnant pigs in an investigation to determine the possibility of using 1 % barium chloride solution for pregnancy diagnosis in pigs based on a previous report that addition of a few drops of 1 % barium chloride solution to bovine urine caused a white precipitate with non-pregnant but not with pregnant cows. The pregnant pigs were in various stages of gestation. Urine reaction to 1 % barium chloride was highly (P <0.01 dependent on the pregnancy status of the sows, the test being 100 % and 81 % effective in identifying non-pregnant and pregnant sows respectively. The sensitivity of the test in the gravid sows was significantly (P <0.05 influenced by and tended to increa-se with the stage of gestation, with 59 % of the sows in their first stage of gestation (<38 days post-coitum being correctly diagnosed as pregnant, and 95-100 % of those in their latter stages of gestation being so correctly diagnosed. Parity and time of day of performance of the test had no effect on urine reaction. It was concluded that the test was at least 95 % accurate when used as from about 39 days after breeding for pregnancy diagnosis in sows.

  3. Group space allowance has little effect on sow health, productivity, or welfare in a free-access stall system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free-access stalls allow sows to choose the protection of a stall or use of a shared group space. This study investigated the effect of group space width: 0.91 (SS), 2.13 (IS), and 3.05 (LS) m on the health, production, behavior, and welfare of gestating sows. At gestational day (GD) 35.4 ± 2.3, 21 ...

  4. Castration promotes welfare in group-housed male Swiss outbred mice maintained in educational institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Lewis M; Dawson, Jane S; Porter, Paula R; Whittaker, Alexandra L

    2014-01-01

    Educational institutions maintain group-housed mice of both sexes for training veterinarians and technicians in husbandry, medication, and sampling procedures. Mice kept in all-male groups may experience poor welfare due to fighting. Castrated mice may be used to replace gonadally intact males for such training programs. In this prospective cohort study, 80 castrated and 80 control (intact) male mice were studied over 3 mo to monitor aggression frequency and injury levels. Behavioral observations were performed twice weekly by using an all-occurrences sampling method to quantify behavioral events and the number and severity of bite wounds. Under these housing conditions, group-housed male mice castrated postpubertally exhibited significantly less aggression than did intact male mice. Castration therefore improves welfare in group-housed male mice and thus provides a husbandry alternative to individually housing animals in nonstudy situations.

  5. The feeding of dried distillers' grains with solubles to lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, L; Neill, C; Allee, G L; Wang, X; Connor, J; Touchette, K; Usry, J L

    2015-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in sow lactation diets. In Exp. 1, 168 multiparous sows (PIC, Camborough 22) were fed a 10% DDGS diet throughout gestation. Sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 corn-soybean meal lactation diets formulated to contain different levels of DDGS (0, 10, 20, and 30%, respectively). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric (3.46 Mcal ME/kg) and all other nutrients exceeded NRC (1998) nutrient recommendations. Sow ADFI was not different ( > 0.10) as DDGS level increased. Increasing DDGS resulted in a linear ( sow weight gain (7.5, 11.3, 20.3, and 17.2 kg, respectively) and a reduction in wean-to-first-service interval (7.1, 5.2, 5.0, and 4.9 d, respectively). Increasing DDGS did not affect subsequent total born per litter (13.7, 12.8, 13.3, and 12.3, respectively; > 0.10). In Exp. 2 and 3, lactation diets consisted of corn and 20, 30, 40, or 50% DDGS. Diets were formulated at 3.25 Mcal ME/kg, 1.05% standardized ileal digestible lysine, and all other nutrients to exceed NRC (1998) nutrient recommendations. In both experiments, sows (PIC, Camborough) were fed 40% DDGS in gestation and allocated to a randomized complete block based on the parity of the sow at the time of entry into the farrowing house. In Exp. 2, 256 gilts and multiparous sows were fed the randomly assigned diets. As DDGS inclusion increased, sow feed intake (6.2, 6.2, 6.0, and 5.9 kg/d, respectively) and sow weight gain (10.5, 10.3, 8.2, and 6.2 kg, respectively) tended to linearly decrease ( Sow wean to estrus differed between 20 and 30% DDGS inclusion (4.9 vs. 6.9 d; 0.10) as DDGS inclusion increased. In Exp. 3, 98 multiparous sows were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 experimental diets during the summer months. Sow feed intake, sow weight gain, and litter gain were not different ( > 0.10) between treatments. The data suggest that feeding high levels of DDGS of 40 to 50% may reduce sow feed intake

  6. Effect of the needle-free "intra dermal application of liquids" vaccination on the welfare of pregnant sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Déborah; Escribano, Damián; Jiménez, Marta; Mainau, Eva; Cerón, José J; Manteca, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    In commercial pig production, sows are often vaccinated several times per gestation period, resulting in reduced welfare. This preliminary experiment investigated whether the needle-free IDAL vaccinator improves welfare through reduction of stress markers, improvement of behavioural and health parameters compared to traditional needle-syringe method. Two treatments (IDAL and NEEDLE) in 6 replicate pens of gestating sows (15 sows per pen) were evaluated using Porcilis® PRRS. The frequency of sows exhibiting an acute fear (or pain) response at the time of injection was significantly lower in the IDAL sows for the four indicators studied (high pitch vocalizations, IDAL = 15.4% vs. NEEDLE = 95.6%, χ2 = 56, P Sows in the NEEDLE vaccination group had a decreased (P = 0.03) activity the day after vaccination compared to IDAL sows. No significant difference was observed for the other active behaviours and resting postures. Fearful reaction towards the assessor significantly (χ2 = 12, P = 0.001) increased in NEEDLE sows compared to IDAL sows the day after vaccination. At 48 h post-vaccination, IDAL sows tended to have lower blood C-reactive protein levels (IDAL = 21.3 μg/mL vs. NEEDLE = 35.8 μg/mL, P = 0.06) compared to NEEDLE sows. Blood Haptoglobin levels did not differ significantly between treatments 48 h post-vaccination. Chromogranin A tended to show a lower increase after the IDAL treatment, whereas salivary alpha-amylase and salivary cortisol did not differ between treatments when measured 25 min post-vaccination. These preliminary results support that needle-free intradermal vaccination is a promising strategy to reduce fear and pain reaction of gestating sows during vaccination.

  7. Effects of confinement on physiological and psychological responses and expression of interleukin 6 and brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in primiparous and multiparous weaning sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study aimed to investigate whether the long-lasting, recurrent restricting of sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort. Methods Sows (Large White that had experienced restricting for about 0.5 or 3 years and age-matched sows kept in a group housing system (loose sows were compared. Pupillary light reflex parameters were measured at the weaning stage. Immediately after slaughter, blood samples were taken to measure serum cortisol levels, and the brain was dissected, gene expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus was analyzed. Results The serum cortisol levels were higher in the confined sows than in the loose sows. The full maturity, but not the young adolescent, confined sows had longer latency time in the onset of pupil constriction than their loose counterparts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed an increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in the hippocampus and decreased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in hippocampus and hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the frontal cortex of the full maturity confined sows, compared with the full maturity loose sows. Conclusion Taken together, these data indicated that recurrent restricting stress in full maturity sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort.

  8. Effects of confinement on physiological and psychological responses and expression of interleukin 6 and brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in primiparous and multiparous weaning sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyue; Li, Xiang; Li, Jianhong; Sun, Hanqing; Zhang, Xiaohui; Bao, Jun

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether the long-lasting, recurrent restricting of sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort. Sows (Large White) that had experienced restricting for about 0.5 or 3 years and age-matched sows kept in a group housing system (loose sows) were compared. Pupillary light reflex parameters were measured at the weaning stage. Immediately after slaughter, blood samples were taken to measure serum cortisol levels, and the brain was dissected, gene expression in the hippocampus, frontal cortex and hypothalamus was analyzed. The serum cortisol levels were higher in the confined sows than in the loose sows. The full maturity, but not the young adolescent, confined sows had longer latency time in the onset of pupil constriction than their loose counterparts. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed an increased expression of interleukin 6 mRNA in the hippocampus and decreased expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in hippocampus and hypothalamus and to a lesser extent in the frontal cortex of the full maturity confined sows, compared with the full maturity loose sows. Taken together, these data indicated that recurrent restricting stress in full maturity sows leads to the physiological and psychological reaction of discomfort.

  9. Altrenogest treatment during late pregnancy did not reduce colostrum yield in primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foisnet, A; Farmer, C; David, C; Quesnel, H

    2010-05-01

    The decrease in circulating concentrations of progesterone is the lactogenic trigger in many species. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an orally active progestogen, altrenogest, administered in late gestation, on lactogenesis in sows. Gilts were treated with altrenogest (20 mg/d) from d 109 to 112 of gestation (ALT112, n = 6) or d 113 (ALT113, n = 8) or were not treated (control, n = 9). Colostrum production, estimated from the BW gains of the piglets, was measured during 24 h starting at the onset of parturition. Colostrum samples were collected at the onset of parturition until 48 h later. Jugular blood samples were taken from d -8 prepartum until d 3 postpartum. Altrenogest treatment extended the gestation length of ALT113 sows in comparison with control sows (116.3 vs. 114.7 d; P birth did not differ between groups (P > 0.1). Estimated colostrum yield was not reduced in altrenogest-treated sows compared with control sows (4.20 kg) and tended to be greater in ALT112 (4.73 kg) than in ALT113 sows (3.74 kg; P = 0.09). Altrenogest reduced endogenous progesterone concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 relative to control sows (P < 0.05), likely because luteolysis occurred earlier in relation to parturition in ALT113 sows. Altrenogest reduced estradiol-17beta concentrations during the 2 d prepartum in ALT113 (P < 0.05) and ALT112 (P < 0.1) sows. Altrenogest treatment did not influence the timing of the prepartum peak of prolactin in relation to parturition. The ALT113 sows had lesser (P < 0.05) concentrations of lactose in plasma and a lesser Na:K ratio in colostrum after parturition than Control and ALT112 sows, indicating that the junctions between their mammary epithelial cells were tighter. Concentrations of colostral IgG in sows that received altrenogest tended to be less than in control sows (P = 0.08). In conclusion, altrenogest administered from d 109 to 112 or 113 of pregnancy did not affect lactogenesis in sows

  10. Epidemiologic survey in Swiss group-housed breeding rabbits: extent of lesions and potential risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrist, Claude A; van den Borne, Bart H P; Bigler, Lotti M; Buchwalder, Theres; Roth, Beatrice A

    2013-02-01

    In Switzerland, group-housing for breeding rabbit does is not explicitly required by law, but label programmes, as well as the general public and animal welfare groups, are advocating it. Although group-housing is of great benefit to the gregariously living rabbits, the establishment of a social hierarchy within the group might lead to stress and lesions. In the present epidemiological study, lesions were scored twice on 30% of the breeding does on all 28 commercial Swiss farms with group-housed breeding does. Additionally, a detailed questionnaire was filled out with all producers to determine risk factors potentially associated with lesions. Data were analysed using hierarchical proportional odds models. About 33% of the does examined had lesions, including wounds that were almost healed and small scratches. Severe lesions were counted on 9% of the animals. Differences between seasons in lesions score were identified, with the extent of lesions being higher in summer than in spring. Fewer lesions occurred on farms on which mastitis was more common. More lesions were found on farms where the does were isolated between littering and artificial insemination than on farms without isolation. According to the producers, most of the aggression occurred directly after the isolation phase when the does were regrouped again. We conclude that lesions in group-housed breeding does might be reduced by appropriate reproductive management.

  11. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg sw

  12. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg

  13. Dietary medium- or long-chain triglycerides improve body condition of lean-genotype sows and increase suckling pig growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, L Averette; Odle, J; Soede, J; Hansent, J A

    2002-01-01

    In a field trial conducted on a commercial swine farm, lean-genotype sows (n = 485) were fed diets containing 0 or 10% supplemental fat as either medium-chain triglyceride or choice white grease from d 90 of gestation until weaning (15.5 d). Effects on standard sow and litter production traits were examined together with assessment of sow body condition using live ultrasound. Daily feed intake during lactation was 10% higher in sows consuming diets without added fat (7.2 vs 6.5 kg; P 0.10). Sows supplemented with fat were 4 kg heavier on d 109 of gestation (220 vs 224 kg; P or = 0.10). Longissimus muscle area at weaning was slightly greater (44.96 vs 46.2 cm2) in sows consuming fat than in control sows (P or = 0.10). Gestation length, pigs born alive, average birth weight, survival (d 3 to weaning), and days to estrus were not affected by diet (P > 0.10). However, supplemental fat increased pig ADG (192 vs 203 g/d; P pig weaning weight (4.3 vs 4.5 kg) at 15.5 d (P pig performance without affecting energy intake during lactation, implying improved efficiency of sow energy utilization.

  14. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate on Sow Performance and mRNA Expression of Myogenic Markers in Skeletal Muscle of Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H F; Zhu, J T; Shen, Y; Xiang, X; Yin, H J; Fang, Z F; Che, L Q; Lin, Y; Xu, S Y; Feng, B; Wu, D

    2016-02-01

    The effects of dietary β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation during gestation on reproductive performance of sows and the mRNA expression of myogenic markers in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs were determined. At day 35 of gestation, a total of 20 sows (Landrace × Yorkshire, at third parity) were randomly assigned to two groups, with each group receiving either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 4 g/day β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate calcium (HMB-Ca) until parturition. At parturition, the total and live litter size were not markedly different between treatments, however, the sows fed HMB diet had a decreased rate of stillborn piglets compared with the sows fed the control (CON) diets (p sows fed HMB diet tended to have an increased birth weight (p = 0.08), and a reduced rate of low birth weight piglets (p = 0.05) compared with piglets from the CON sows. Nevertheless, lower feed intake during lactation was observed in the sows fed the HMB diet compared with those on the CON diet (p sows. Furthermore, maternal HMB treatment increased the mRNA levels of the myogenic genes, including muscle regulatory factor-4 (MRF4, p sows at 4 g/day from day 35 of gestation to term significantly improves pregnancy outcomes and increases the expression of myogenic genes in skeletal muscle of neonatal piglets, but reduces feed intake of sows during lactation.

  15. Temporary confinement of loose-housed hyperprolific sows reduces piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J; Moustsen, V A; Nielsen, M B F; Hansen, C F

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate piglet mortality in a commercial setting where sows were accommodated in a loose-housed system with an option to confine the sow for a few days around farrowing and during early lactation. The study was conducted in a Danish piggery where records were obtained from 2,139 farrowings. Sows were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments: loose-loose (LL), loose-confined (LC), and confined-confined (CC). In LL, sows were loose housed from the time they entered the farrowing pens to weaning. In LC, sows were loose housed until farrowing was finished and then confined to d 4 after farrowing. In CC, sows were confined at d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing. All sows were loose housed from d 5 to weaning. Total piglet mortality was analyzed at batch level to include piglets fostered by nurse sows and at sow level to analyze the effects of confinement during different time periods. Total piglet mortality was greater in LL (26.0%) and LC (25.4%) compared with CC (22.1%; sows in CC were classified as "low mortality" compared with LL and LC both before ( < 0.001) and after ( = 0.002) litter equalization. The results in this study emphasize that the period of time from the birth of the first piglet to litter equalization is important in relation to piglet mortality. The results also suggest that confinement for 4 d after farrowing can reduce mortality in this specific period, but only confinement from d 114 of gestation to d 4 after farrowing reduced total piglet mortality.

  16. Dietary inulin affects the intestinal microbiota in sows and their suckling piglets

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have focused on the effects of dietary inulin on the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets. In the present study, inulin was added to a diet for gestating and lactating sows, expecting not only effects on the faecal microbiota of sows, but also on the bacterial cell numbers in the gastrointestinal tract of their piglets during the suckling period. Sows were fed a diet without (n = 11) or with (n = 10) 3% inulin, and selected bacterial groups were determined in the...

  17. Effect of increasing dietary canola meal inclusion on lactation performance, milk composition, and nutrient digestibility of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayudhan, D E; Nyachoti, C M

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of increasing dietary canola meal in substitution for soybean meal in lactation sow diets. Forty-five sows with an average parity of 1.8 (SD = 0.83) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments ( = 15) consisting of a corn-based control diet and 2 diets with 15% and 30% canola meal formulated by replacing soybean meal with canola meal. Diets were formulated to be similar in standardized ileal digestible AA content and NE value and to meet or exceed nutrient recommendations for lactating sows. Sows were moved to farrowing on d 111 of gestation and fed the experimental diets until weaning on d 21. Sows were fed 3.0 kg/d from d 111 of gestation until parturition. After farrowing, feed was gradually increased through d 6 after which the diets were offered on an ad libitum basis until weaning. Sows were weighed and backfat thickness measured on d 111 of gestation and also on d 0, 7, and 21 postfarrowing. Litters were weighed on d 0, 7, and 21. Weaning to estrus interval in sows was also recorded. Blood and milk samples were collected 2 h postfeeding from sows on d 0, 7, and 21 and analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) and milk composition. Fecal samples were collected on d 10, 11, and 12 postfarrowing to determine energy and nutrient digestibility. There were no dietary effects on lactation feed intake, sow BW and backfat change, weaning to estrus interval, and milk fat, protein, lactose, and urea composition. Also, there were no dietary effects on piglet ADG ( 0.10). Sows fed diets containing 15% and 30% canola meal had lower (linear, sow and suckling piglet performance.

  18. Characterization of the adaptive immune response following immunization in pregnant sows (Sus scrofa) kept in two different housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, V; Schmucker, S; Schalk, C; Flauger, B; Stefanski, V

    2014-08-01

    Housing conditions might differentially affect the adaptive immune responses to a neoantigen in pregnant sows with possible consequences for the success of vaccinations. Therefore, this study aimed at characterizing antigen-specific T cell and B cell responses of pregnant sows (German Landrace) either housed in a social group (GP; n = 22) or confined in individual gestation crates (CR; n = 11). All sows were immunized with the neoantigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) 7 and 5 wk prepartum. Blood samples were taken 7, 6, 4, and 2 wk prepartum, thus before and after the first as well as second immunization. This study aimed at identifying both the resulting cellular as well as humoral KLH-specific immune response in the pregnant sows. We therefore analyzed total IgG and anti-KLH IgG concentrations and the KLH-specific lymphocyte proliferation as well as the KLH-specific production of the T helper cell type 1 (TH1)-related cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interferon (IFN) γ in main T cell subsets before and after the immunization. Anti-KLH IgG titers significantly increased during the experimental procedure (P sows showed greater anti-KLH IgG concentrations compared to GP-housed sows (P sows not before the second immunization (both P sows (CTL: P sows than in CR-housed sows (both P sows. Whereas GP housing of pregnant sows induced a rather TH1-mediated cellular response, individual housing in CR resulted in a T helper cell type 2 (TH2)-pronounced humoral response to KLH. The greater anti-KLH IgG concentration and the delayed activation and differentiation of KLH-specific TH1 cells in CR-housed sows support the hypothesis of a shifted TH1:TH2 ratio in individually housed sows of this study. We presume differences in the stressfulness of the housing system to be mainly responsible for the occurring effects.

  19. Prolonged duration of farrowing is associated with subsequent decreased fertility in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Claudio; Kothe, Stefan; Heinonen, Mari; Valros, Anna; Peltoniemi, Olli

    2013-04-15

    In modern swine production failure of sows to become pregnant within the expected time after weaning results in major economic loss and culling of sows. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of duration of farrowing on subsequent repeat breeding rate. The study was performed in a commercial sow-pool piggery system in Finland comprising 148 sows (Yorkshire × Landrace). A multivariate analysis was undertaken on data for parity, weaning to estrus interval, boar, number of inseminations, season, sow back-fat thickness, gestation length, duration of farrowing, number of live-born piglets, number of stillborn piglets, lactation length, and number of piglets weaned. Furthermore, two farrowing systems (crate vs. pen) were investigated. A binary logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of these factors on the repeat breeding rate (pregnant vs. not pregnant at first insemination after weaning). The total duration of previous farrowing was longer in rebred sows (357 ± 207 minutes, average ± SD) than in pregnant sows (255 ± 126 minutes; P < 0.01). The other parameters were not statistically significant to the outcome of first insemination after weaning. In conclusion, we established that sows with long duration of farrowing have higher repeat breeding rate at the first insemination after weaning and could be used as an indicator for subsequent fertility.

  20. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Emma K.; Altschul, Drew; Körfer, Karoline; Benti, Benjamin; Kaeser, Amanda; Lambeth, Susan; Waller, Bridget M.; Katie. E. Slocombe

    2017-01-01

    Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the beh...

  1. Performance and behaviour of rabbit does in a group-housing system with natural mating or artificial insemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.; Boiti, C.; Jong, de I.C.; Brecchia, G.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared reproductive performance and behaviour of does raised in a group-housing system and in a regular cage system. The group-housing pen was divided into different functional areas for suckling, resting, and eating and special hiding areas for kits when they had left the nest-boxes

  2. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC.

  3. High dietary fiber during late gestation reduces the rate of stillborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyera, Takele; Højgaard, Camilla Kaae; Vinther, Jens

    2017-01-01

    to investigate the impact of increasing dietary fiber supply during the last 2 weeks of gestation on rate of stillborn and survival of live born piglets during lactation. From continuous weekly batch inseminated sows in a commercial herd, sows with odd ear number (n=298) and even ear number (n=322) were randomly...

  4. Impact of parity on bone metabolism throughout the reproductive cycle in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riet, M M J; Millet, S; Liesegang, A; Nalon, E; Ampe, B; Tuyttens, F A M; Maes, D; Janssens, G P J

    2016-04-05

    Bone metabolism fluctuates throughout the reproductive cycle of sows to enable foetal growth and milk production. Although increased bone mineralisation is conceivable in sows during reproduction, a study of mineralisation in function of parity has not been performed. This study evaluated the fluctuations of markers for bone metabolism in primiparous and multiparous sows throughout a reproductive cycle. The experiment included ten multiparous and five primiparous commercial hybrid sows from one herd. The sows were monitored for one reproductive cycle and fed according to commercial dietary standards. Blood samples were taken in the morning before feeding at fixed time intervals before (day -5) and during gestation (insemination (day 0), 21, 42, 63, 84), around parturition (day 108, 112, parturition (115), 118), and during lactation (day 122, 129, 143). Serum osteocalcin (OC) concentration increased in early and mid-gestation (P=0.002) and decreased at the end of gestation (P=0.001), whereas crosslaps (CTX) concentration decreased during early and mid-gestation (P=0.002) and increased towards the end of gestation (P=0.001). Towards the end of lactation serum levels of both markers increased (P=0.007 and 0.013, respectively). For hydroxyproline (HYP) no significant fluctuation in function of the reproductive cycle was detected. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) concentration increased towards parturition for both primiparous and multiparous sows (P=0.001), whereas during lactation no significant fluctuations in function of the reproductive cycle were found. A parity effect was found for OC and CTX (Psows, although in both groups a similar fluctuation throughout the reproductive cycle was observed.

  5. Effects of Palm Kernel Expellers on Productive Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and White Blood Cells of Lactating Sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Seo, J; Kim, W; Yun, H M; Kim, S C; Jang, Y; Jang, K; Kim, K; Kim, B; Park, S; Park, I; Kim, M K; Seo, K S; Kim, H B; Kim, I H; Seo, S; Song, M

    2015-08-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of palm kernel expellers on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and changes in white blood cells (WBC) of lactating sows. A total of 14 sows (200±12 kg of average body weight [BW]; 2.5 of average parity) were used and moved from gestation room to farrowing room on d 109 of gestation. Sows were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The treatments were a diet based on corn and soybean meal (CON) and CON added with 20% of palm kernel expellers (PKE). Sows were fed the treatments for 28 days (weaning) after farrowing. Blood was collected from each sow and 4 randomly selected piglets from each sow before farrowing or on d 3, 7, or 14 of lactation. Sows were fed respective treatments containing 0.2% chromic oxide from d 15 to 21 of lactation. Fecal samples were collected daily for the last 3 days after the 4-d adjustment period. Measurements were performances and WBC changes of sows and litter, nutrient digestibility of sows, and daily diarrhea of litter. Sows fed PKE had greater average daily feed intake (7.38 vs 7.10 kg/d; psows fed either CON or PKE. Piglets from sows fed PKE gained more BW (203 vs 181 g/d; p = 0.08) and had less frequency of diarrhea (6.80 vs 8.56%; p = 0.07) than those from sows fed CON. On the other hand, no difference was found on preweaning mortality of piglets from sows fed either CON or PKE. Sows fed PKE had lower number of WBC (9.57 vs 11.82 ×10(3)/μL; p = 0.09) before farrowing than those fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. Similarly, piglets from sows fed PKE had also lower number of WBC (7.86 vs 9.80 ×10(3)/μL; psows fed CON, but no difference on d 3 and 7. In conclusion, addition of 20% palm kernel expellers to lactation diet based on corn and soybean meal had no negative effects on productive performance, nutrient digestibility, and WBC changes of lactating sows.

  6. Embryonic survival at day 9, 21 and 35 of pregnancy in intact and unilaterally oviduct ligated multiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk, P; Chen, T Y; Athorn, R Z; Bouwman, E G

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of uterine space on timing of embryonic mortality, multiparous sows were left intact (CTR; n=42) or subjected to unilateral oviduct ligation (LIG; n=23), after their first post wean oestrus. Intact sows were killed at day 9 (n=10), day 21 (n=15), or day 35 (n=17), and LIG sows were killed at day 21 (n=11) or day 35 (n=12) of gestation. At day 9, 92% of ovulations were represented by an embryo. At day 21, embryonic mortality was 24% and was not altered by increasing uterine space. At day 35, space per embryo was twice as large in LIG sows (30±3 v. 16±0.8 cm), and implantation length tended to be larger (19.0±1.2 v. 15.5±1.3 cm). Between day 21 and day 35, CTR sows lost another 8% to 14% of their embryos, whereas LIG sows lost none. Embryos tended to be heavier (4.9±0.2 v. 4.3±0.3 g) in LIG sows. In conclusion, embryonic loss in multiparous sows is 24% by day 21 and is not related to space, whereas after day 21 limited space causes additional 8% to 14% embryonic mortality in intact sows only.

  7. Housing Systems Influence Gut Microbiota Composition of Sows but Not of Their Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasova, Tereza; Davidova-Gerzova, Lenka; Merlot, Elodie; Medvecky, Matej; Polansky, Ondrej; Gardan-Salmon, Delphine; Quesnel, Helene; Rychlik, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Different housing systems can be used in pig production and little is known about their effect on gut microbiota composition. In this study we characterized fecal microbiota by sequencing the rRNA genes in sows kept during gestation in conventional pens with a slatted floor and in enriched pens with a floor covered with deep straw. After farrowing, microbiota of 1- and 4-day-old piglets were also monitored. Microbiota of sows from the enriched system contained significantly more Prevotella, Parabacteroides, CF231, Phascolarctobacterium, Fibrobacter, Anaerovibrio and YRC22 and significantly less Lactobacillus, Bulleidia, Lachnospira, Dorea, Ruminococcus and Oscillospira than microbiota of sows from the conventional system. The Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was 0.96 in the microbiota of sows kept in the enriched pens and this increased to 1.66 in the microbiota of sows kept in the conventional system. The production system therefore influenced microbiota composition, most likely due the ingestion of the straw. The microbiota of 1- and 4-day-old piglets differed from the microbiota of sows and sows therefore did not represent the most important source for their colonization in early days of life.

  8. Fish Oil and Olive Oil Supplementation in Late Pregnancy and Lactation Differentially Affect Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Sows and Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yong; Wan, Haifeng; Zhu, Jiatao; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Xu, Shengyu; Lin, Yan; Li, Jian; Wu, De

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of fish oil and olive oil supplementation in late pregnancy and during lactation on oxidative stress and inflammation in sows and their piglets. A total of 24 sows were fed a basal diet supplemented with additional corn starch (CON), fish oil (FO) or olive oil (OO). Sows fed an OO diet during late gestation had a higher piglet birth weight compared with CON-fed and FO-fed sows (P sows from the OO group had a higher milk fat content than sows from CON and FO groups, and a lower pre-weaning mortality of piglets was observed in the OO group (P sow plasma, colostrum, milk and piglet plasma than in CON and OO groups (P Sows fed an OO diet had significantly decreased interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations in milk compared with CON and FO fed sows (P sows. However, FO increases the susceptibility to oxidative stress in sows and piglets.

  9. The second parity sow : causes and consequences of variation in reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    Many sows show reduced litter sizes in their second parity compared with their first parity. The aim of the current thesis was to describe causes and consequences of variation on second parity reproductive performance and to evaluate if feeding strategies during early gestation affect reproductive p

  10. Long-term performance and behavior of sows fed high levels of non-starch polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to investigate the long-term effects of feeding sows high levels of dietary fermentable non-starch polysaccharides CNSP) (i.e., NSP from sugar beet pulp) restrictedly or ad libitum during gestation or ad libitum during lactation on behavior, reproductive perform

  11. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  12. Addition of crude glycerin to pig diets: sow and litter performance, and metabolic and feed intake regulating hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; Orengo, J; Villodre, C; Martínez, S; López, M J; Madrid, J

    2016-06-01

    The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (���20.6 v. ���8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (���55 and +68%, respectively; Pglycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between glycerin inclusion levels in the diet and the serum concentrations of hormones related to feed intake and energy balance control.

  13. Influence of dietary -arginine supplementation of sows during late pregnancy on piglet birth weight and sow and litter performance during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, B E; Bradley, C L; Johnson, Z B; Zier-Rush, C E; Boyd, R D; Usry, J L; Maxwell, C V; Frank, J W

    2017-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding supplemental -Arg during late pregnancy on piglet birth weight and preweaning performance. In Exp. 1, 97 gilts and sows were allotted (gestation d 93) to receive a control diet (CON; 19.8 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] Arg/d) or the CON + 1.0% -Arg (ARG; 46.6 g SID Arg/d). Gilts and sows were weighed on gestation d 93 and 110, 48 h after farrowing, and at weaning. Data, including number born alive, number weaned, individual birth and weaning weight, and placenta weight, were recorded. Blood samples were collected on d 93 and 110 and analyzed for plasma IGF-1, insulin, and blood urea nitrogen concentration. In a second experiment, 383 sows in a commercial research farm were allotted to receive CON or ARG. An -Arg premix was provided daily by top dress beginning at gestation d 81 (±0.1 d) and fed for an average of 35 d (±0.2 d). Sows received 2.73 kg feed/d with CON sows provided 17 g SID Arg/d and ARG sows receiving a total of 44 g SID Arg/d. Litter birth weight was recorded and average birth weight was computed. In a subset of 82 sows, individual birth weights were recorded. In Exp. 1, there was a tendency for greater late pregnancy maternal BW gain ( = 0.06) in ARG compared with CON. A tendency for a parity × treatment interaction was observed for late pregnancy BW gain, with first litter sows fed ARG gaining the most, gilts fed ARG intermediate, and all other treatments gaining the least ( = 0.10). No differences between treatment groups were observed for maternal plasma IGF-1, insulin, and urea nitrogen and in progeny performance to weaning ( > 0.28). In Exp. 2, piglet birth weight was more effectively tested because of the large number of multiparous sows involved. There was a tendency for individual birth weight to decline in ARG compared with CON ( 2.8 kg was similar. No other differences were observed ( > 0.18). In conclusion, late pregnancy supplementation with -Arg had no effect on

  14. Assessment of implantable infusion pumps for continuous infusion of human insulin in rats: potential for group housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Molck, Anne-Marie; Martensson, Martin

    2017-01-01

    compound in these studies, and a comparator model of persistent exposure by HI infusion from external pumps has recently been developed to support toxicological evaluation of long-acting insulin analogues. However, this model requires single housing of the animals. Developing an insulin-infusion model......Group housing is considered to be important for rats, which are highly sociable animals. Single housing may impact behaviour and levels of circulating stress hormones. Rats are typically used in the toxicological evaluation of insulin analogues. Human insulin (HI) is frequently used as a reference...... which allows group housing would therefore greatly improve animal welfare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of implantable infusion pumps for HI infusion in group-housed rats. Group housing of rats implanted with a battery-driven pump proved to be possible. Intravenous...

  15. Parturition control in sows with a prostaglandin analogue (alfaprostol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M J; Meisinger, T C; Flowers, W L; Cantley, T C; Day, B N

    1985-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose of alfaprostol (18, 19, 20-trinor-17-cyclohexyl-13, 14 didehydro-PGF(2)alpha-methylester) and the day of administration most effective in inducing sows to farrow during normal working hours (0700 to 1700). One-hundred forty multiparous crossbred sows, taken from a herd whose mean gestation length was 114.3 days, were assigned to one of five treatment groups: 1) control vehicle-propylene glycol, 2) 0.5 mg alfaprostol (AP). 3) 1 mg AP, 4) 2 mg AP and 5) 3 mg AP. Sows received an intramuscular injection of AP between 0800 and 0830 on either day 111, 112 or 113 of gestation. Parameters studied included interval from injection to birth of first pig, farrowing interval, total number of pigs born, number born alive, average birth weight, percent stillborn, interval from weaning to next estrus and number born alive next litter. The mean intervals from injection to the birth of the first pig were 55.2 +/- 7.1; 41.1 +/- 5.1; 29.6 +/- 4.0; 24.3 +/- 1.1; 24.8 +/- 0.9 h for groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively (Ppigs born and number born alive were also statistically significant (P0.05) among treatment groups. These results indicate that a single injection of 1, 2 or 3 mg of alfaprostol will successfully induce parturition the following day in a majority of the treated sows.

  16. Longitudinal study of the effect of rubber slat mats on locomotory ability, body, limb and claw lesions, and dirtiness of group housed sows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Fahey, A G; Kilbride, A L; Green, L E; Boyle, L A

    2013-01-01

    ...) slatted floor left uncovered or covered by 10-mm rubber slat mats (n = 80) through 2 parities. Lameness (0 = normal to 5 = severe), limb (0 = normal to 6 = severe) and body (0 = normal to 5 = severe) lesions, and manure on the body...

  17. Longitudinal study of respiratory infection patterns of breeding sows in five farrow-to-finish herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, C; Marois, C; Kuntz-Simon, G; Rose, N; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Jolly, J P; Le Devendec, L; Tocqueville, V; Quéguiner, S; Gorin, S; Kobisch, M; Madec, F

    2011-01-27

    A longitudinal study was carried out in five French farrow-to-finish herds differently affected by respiratory diseases to describe the carrying and infection patterns of batches of sows to various respiratory pathogens during gestation and lactation. An entire batch of sows was followed during two successive reproduction cycles. Nasal, tonsillar and oro-pharyngeal swabs and blood samples were taken from each sow 9 and 4 weeks before farrowing and 1 and 4 weeks after farrowing. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, Haemophilus parasuis and Streptococcus suis were detected from swab samples using PCR assays. Blood samples were tested for antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae, A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 1-9-11 and 2, Porcine Circovirus type-2 (PCV-2) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) by ELISA tests. Antibodies against H(1)N(1), H(1)N(2) and H(3)N(2) Swine Influenza Viruses (SIV) of European lineages were tested by hemagglutination inhibition assay. The results indicated that S. suis is widespread among sows (67.1% of PCR-positive sows). A. pleuropneumoniae, P. multocida, and H. parasuis were detected by PCR in 30.9%, 24.6% and 23.4% of the sows, respectively. Antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae were recovered from more than 55% of the sows in all herds whereas the micro-organism was detected in 2.4% of the sows. Although PCV-2 and SIV infections were highly prevalent, the PRRSV infection patterns ranged from no infection in farms mildly affected by respiratory diseases to active circulation in more severely affected herds. The sow population thus constitutes a reservoir for a continuous circulation of respiratory pathogens and needs to be properly considered in control strategies.

  18. Domesticated horses differ in their behavioural and physiological responses to isolated and group housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, Kelly; Hall, Carol; Royle, Chris; Walker, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The predominant housing system used for domestic horses is individual stabling; however, housing that limits social interaction and requires the horse to live in semi-isolation has been reported to be a concern for equine welfare. The aim of the current study was to compare behavioural and physiological responses of domestic horses in different types of housing design that provided varying levels of social contact. Horses (n = 16) were divided equally into four groups and exposed to each of four housing treatments for a period of five days per treatment in a randomized block design. The four housing treatments used were single housed no physical contact (SHNC), single housed semi-contact (SHSC), paired housed full contact (PHFC) and group housed full contact (GHFC). During each housing treatment, adrenal activity was recorded using non-invasive faecal corticosterone metabolite analysis (fGC). Thermal images of the eye were captured and eye temperature was assessed as a non-invasive measure of the stress response. Behavioural analysis of time budget was carried out and an ease of handling score was assigned to each horse in each treatment using video footage. SHNC horses had significantly higher (p = 0.01) concentrations of fGC and were significantly (p = 0.003) more difficult to handle compared to the other housing types. GHFC horses, although not significantly different, had numerically lower concentrations of fGC and were more compliant to handling when compared to all other housing treatments. Eye temperature was significantly (p = 0.0001) lower in the group housed treatment when compared to all other treatments. These results indicate that based on physiological and behavioural measures incorporating social contact into the housing design of domestic horses could improve the standard of domestic equine welfare.

  19. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Emma K.; Altschul, Drew; Körfer, Karoline; Benti, Benjamin; Kaeser, Amanda; Lambeth, Susan; Waller, Bridget M.; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2017-01-01

    Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the behaviour and use of space of 18 animals when silence, classical or pop/rock music was played into one of several indoor areas. Overall, chimpanzees did not actively avoid the area when music was playing but were more likely to exit the area when songs with higher beats per minute were broadcast. Chimpanzees showed significantly fewer active social behaviours when music, rather than silence, was playing. They also tended to be more active and engage in less abnormal behaviour during the music but there was no change to either self-grooming or aggression between music and silent conditions. The genre of music had no differential effects on the chimpanzees’ use of space and behaviour. In the second study, continuous focal observations were carried out on three individuals with relatively high levels of abnormal behaviour. No differences in behaviour between music and silence periods were found in any of the individuals. The final two studies used devices that allowed chimpanzees to choose if they wanted to listen to music of various types or silence. Both studies showed that there were no persistent preferences for any type of music or silence. When taken together, our results do not suggest music is enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees, but they also do not suggest that music has a negative effect on welfare. PMID:28355212

  20. Manipulating the affiliative interactions of group-housed rhesus macaques using positive reinforcement training techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, S J; Perlman, J E; Boudreau, B A

    2001-11-01

    Social housing, whether continuous, intermittent, or partial contact, typically provides many captive primates with opportunities to express affiliative behaviors, important components of the species-typical behavioral repertoire. Positive reinforcement training techniques have been successfully employed to shape many behaviors important for achieving primate husbandry goals. The present study was conducted to determine whether positive reinforcement training techniques could also be employed to alter levels of affiliative interactions among group-housed rhesus macaques. Twenty-eight female rhesus were divided into high (n = 14) and low (n = 14) affiliators based on a median split of the amount of time they spent affiliating during the baseline phase of the study. During the subsequent training phase, half of the low affiliators (n = 7) were trained to increase their time spent affiliating, and half of the high affiliators (n = 7) were trained to decrease their time spent affiliating. Trained subjects were observed both during and outside of training sessions. Low affiliators significantly increased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during nontraining sessions. High affiliators on the other hand, significantly decreased the amount of time they spent affiliating, but only during training sessions. These data suggest that positive reinforcement techniques can be used to alter the affiliative behavior patterns of group-housed, female rhesus monkeys, although the two subgroups of subjects responded differently to the training process. Low affiliators changed their overall behavioral repertoire, while high affiliators responded to the reinforcement contingencies of training, altering their proximity patterns but not their overall behavior patterns. Thus, positive reinforcement training can be used not only as a means to promote species-typical or beneficial behavior patterns, but also as an important experimental manipulation to facilitate systematic

  1. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Emma K; Altschul, Drew; Körfer, Karoline; Benti, Benjamin; Kaeser, Amanda; Lambeth, Susan; Waller, Bridget M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2017-01-01

    Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the behaviour and use of space of 18 animals when silence, classical or pop/rock music was played into one of several indoor areas. Overall, chimpanzees did not actively avoid the area when music was playing but were more likely to exit the area when songs with higher beats per minute were broadcast. Chimpanzees showed significantly fewer active social behaviours when music, rather than silence, was playing. They also tended to be more active and engage in less abnormal behaviour during the music but there was no change to either self-grooming or aggression between music and silent conditions. The genre of music had no differential effects on the chimpanzees' use of space and behaviour. In the second study, continuous focal observations were carried out on three individuals with relatively high levels of abnormal behaviour. No differences in behaviour between music and silence periods were found in any of the individuals. The final two studies used devices that allowed chimpanzees to choose if they wanted to listen to music of various types or silence. Both studies showed that there were no persistent preferences for any type of music or silence. When taken together, our results do not suggest music is enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees, but they also do not suggest that music has a negative effect on welfare.

  2. Gestational diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first few days of life. Mothers with gestational diabetes have an increased risk for high blood pressure during pregnancy . After delivery: Your high blood sugar (glucose) level often goes back to normal. You should be ...

  3. Gestational diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    metabolism. In normal pregnancy fasting glucose declines to ... changes in lifestyle. The cause .... disease phenotype and requires interaction of environmental factors for ... lifestyle.'8. Gestational diabetes is a clinical event with conseque~ces.

  4. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  5. Behavioral and neurochemical effects of anpirtoline and citalopram in isolated and group housed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, O; Will, K; Jähkel, M; Oehler, J

    2001-07-01

    Acute effects of serotonergic drugs acting via different mechanisms were investigated by a social interaction test and subsequent determination of serotonin and dopamine metabolisms in mice housed in groups or isolated for 6 weeks. A resident/intruder test was performed with anpirtoline (5-HT1B receptor agonist in rodents; 1 mg/kg), citalopram (SSRI; 0.5 mg/kg) and saline treatment before animals were decapitated and different brain regions were frozen for subsequent HPLC-analyses. Behavioral investigations indicated a strong increase of aggressive behavior after 6 weeks of isolation housing. Acute citalopram treatment did not influence behavioral parameters of isolated and group housed mice. In contrast, anpirtoline antagonized isolation induced aggressive behavioral components in a specific manner. Analysis of dopamine and serotonin metabolism revealed that citalopram treatment did not affect dopamine metabolism, but reduced serotonin metabolism in the striatum, hippocampus, cortex and midbrain independent of housing conditions. In contrast, anpirtoline treatment increased dopamine metabolism in cortex, striatum and midbrain as well as influenced serotonin metabolism in a structure- and state-specific manner. Whereas anpirtoline decreased serotonin metabolism in the cortex, the midbrain and the hippocampus independent of housing conditions, in the striatum anpirtoline abolished the isolation induced decrease of serotonin metabolism. These results indicate that anpirtoline might induce antiaggressive effects via postsynaptic receptor- and structure-specific activation of serotonergic but also dopaminergic processes, whereas structure independent increase of synaptic serotonin via citalopram was ineffective to reverse aggressivity in isolated mice.

  6. Effects of dietary seaweed extract supplementation in sows and post-weaned pigs on performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora and immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, S G; Sweeney, T; Bahar, B; Lynch, B P; O'Doherty, J V

    2011-09-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of a seaweed extract (SWE) to sows and weaned pigs on post-weaning growth performance, intestinal morphology, intestinal microflora, volatile fatty acid concentrations and immune status of pigs at days 11 and 117 post-weaning. Gestating sows (n 20) were supplemented with a SWE (0 v. 10·0 g/d) from day 107 of gestation until weaning (day 26). At weaning, pigs (four pigs per sow) were divided into two groups based on sow diet during lactation and supplemented with a SWE (0 v. 2·8 g/kg diet), resulting in four treatment groups: (1) BB (basal sows-basal pigs); (2) BS (basal sows-treated pigs); (3) SB (treated sows-basal pigs); (4) SS (treated sows-treated pigs). Pigs weaned from SWE-supplemented sows had a higher average daily gain (ADG) between days 0 and 21 (P pigs weaned from non-SWE-supplemented sows. Pigs offered post-weaning diets (PW) containing SWE had decreased colonic Escherichia coli populations on day 11 (P Pigs offered PW containing SWE had a greater mRNA abundance of MUC2 in the colon at day 11 post-weaning (P pigs offered unsupplemented diets. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that SWE supplementation post-weaning provides a dietary means to improve gut health and to enhance growth performance in starter pigs. Dietary SWE supplementation increased ADG during the grower-finisher (GF) phases. However, there was no growth response to SWE inclusion in GF diets when pigs were weaned from SWE-supplemented sows.

  7. A novel vaccine combined with an alum adjuvant for porcine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV)-induced reproductive failure in pregnant sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoung, Hye-Young; Shin, Bo-Hye; Jeong, WooSeog; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Won-Ha; An, Dong-Jun

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate a novel vaccine for porcine encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), which causes reproductive failure in pregnant sows, virus like particles (VLPs) were generated and immunized twice in 2 week intervals before sow mating. Sows were divided into 4 groups (n=4, per group). Group 1 was immunized with the alum adjuvant alone, Group 2 with VLPs alone, Group 3 with VLPs mixed alum adjuvant, and Group 4 with a commercial killed vaccine. In Group 2, seroconversion was observed at very low levels, while in Group 3, neutralizing antibodies were maintained at a high level until 30 days after farrowing. Similar levels neutralizing antibodies were observed in Group 4. The gestation period of the pregnant sows was on average 115 days, and no injection site reaction or side effects were observed. The mean temperature of the sows after immunization increased temporarily to 38.7-39.1 °C for 1 day. The numbers and weights of surviving piglets were similar among the groups. These data describe a novel EMCV vaccine composed of VLPs mixed with an alum adjuvant that is safe to use during sow gestation and induces and maintains high levels of seroconversion. This vaccine could thus be a candidate for protecting against EMCV induced reproductive failure in pig farms.

  8. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Oregano Essential Oil to Sows on Oxidative Stress Status, Lactation Feed Intake of Sows, and Piglet Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengquan Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four multiparous large white sows were used to determine the effects of supplementing oregano essential oil (OEO to the gestation and lactation diets on oxidative stress status, lactation feed intake, and their piglet performance. Two groups were fed diets with (OEO; n=28 or without (Control; n=26 supplemental 15 mg/kg OEO during gestation and lactation. The serum levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS (P<0.05, 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG (P<0.05, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS (P<0.05 were higher during gestation (days 90 and 109 and lactation (days 1 and 3 than in early gestation (day 10. Compared with the control group, the OEO diet significantly reduced sows’ serum concentrations of 8-OHdG (P<0.05 and TBARS (P<0.01 on day 1 of lactation. The OEO diet increased the sows’ counts of faecal lactobacillus (P<0.001 while reducing Escherichia coli (P<0.001 and Enterococcus (P<0.001. In the third week of lactation the treatment tended to increase sow’s feed intake (P=0.07, which resulted in higher average daily gain (P<0.01 of piglets. Our results demonstrated that there is an increased systemic oxidative stress during late gestation and early lactation of sows. The OEO supplementation to sows’ diet improved performance of their piglets, which may be attributed to the reduced oxidative stress.

  9. Influence of Different Housing Systems on Distribution, Function and Mitogen-Response of Leukocytes in Pregnant Sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Verena; Schmucker, Sonja; Schalk, Christiane; Flauger, Birgit; Weiler, Ulrike; Stefanski, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The European Union imposes housing of pregnant sows in social groups since 2013 for animal welfare reasons. Nevertheless, the consequences of different housing conditions for the immune system of pregnant sows remain poorly investigated. We therefore analyzed important aspects of blood cellular immunity and cortisol concentrations of sows either housed in individual crates or in a group during gestation. The results show that individually housed sows had lower T cell numbers, but higher cortisol concentrations. Obviously, common housing conditions can differentially affect key elements of the adaptive immune system and hormonal indicators of stress in pregnant sows. Abstract In pig production, pregnant sows are either housed in individual crates or in groups, the latter being mandatory in the EU since 2013. The consequences of different housing conditions on the immune system are however poorly investigated, although immunological alterations may have severe consequences for the animal’s health, performance, and welfare. This study assessed measures of blood celluar immunity with special emphasis on T cells in pregnant German Landrace sows either housed in individual crates or in a social group. Blood samples were taken at four samplings pre partum to evaluate numbers of lymphocyte subpopulations, mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine-producing T cells. Plasma cortisol concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of stress. We found lower blood lymphocyte numbers (p sows, an effect due to lower numbers of cytotoxic T cells, naive TH cells, and CD8+ γδ-T cells. Individually housed sows showed higher cortisol concentrations (p sows of both housing systems. Possible implications and underlying mechanisms for the endocrine and immunological differences are discussed. We favor the hypothesis that differences in the stressfulness of the environment contributed to the effects, with crate-housing being a more stressful environment

  10. Energy and lysine requirements and balances of sows during transition and lactation: A factorial approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyera, Takele; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify daily requirements for metabolizable energy (ME) and standard ileal digestible (SID) lysine in late gestating and lactating sows using a factorial approach. Metabolizable energy and SID lysine required for fetal and mammary growth, colostrum and milk production, uterine...... lysine and 14 MJ ME into the endogenous plasma pool during lactation. It was concluded that dramatic changes in energy and lysine requirements and balances occur during transition and lactation; that sows with high milk yield and /or low live weight require high SID lysine: ME ratio and that it would...... be beneficial to feed sows with two components at each meal to match the daily requirements for maintenance and production....

  11. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  12. A Model of Alcohol Drinking under an Intermittent Access Schedule Using Group-Housed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutek, Magdalena; Turbasa, Mateusz; Sikora, Magdalena; Piechota, Marcin; Zajdel, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Parkitna, Jan Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    Here, we describe a new model of voluntary alcohol drinking by group-housed mice. The model employs sensor-equipped cages that track the behaviors of the individual animals via implanted radio chips. After the animals were allowed intermittent access to alcohol (three 24 h intervals every week) for 4 weeks, the proportions of licks directed toward bottles containing alcohol were 50.9% and 39.6% for the male and female mice, respectively. We used three approaches (i.e., quinine adulteration, a progressive ratio schedule and a schedule involving a risk of punishment) to test for symptoms of compulsive alcohol drinking. The addition of 0.01% quinine to the alcohol solution did not significantly affect intake, but 0.03% quinine induced a greater than 5-fold reduction in the number of licks on the alcohol bottles. When the animals were required to perform increasing numbers of instrumental responses to obtain access to the bottle with alcohol (i.e., a progressive ratio schedule), they frequently reached a maximum of 21 responses irrespective of the available reward. Although the mice rarely achieved higher response criteria, the number of attempts was ∼10 times greater in case of alcohol than water. We have developed an approach for mapping social interactions among animals that is based on analysis of the sequences of entries into the cage corners. This approach allowed us to identify the mice that followed other animals in non-random fashions. Approximately half of the mice displayed at least one interaction of this type. We have not yet found a clear correlation between imitative behavior and relative alcohol preference. In conclusion, the model we describe avoids the limitations associated with testing isolated animals and reliably leads to stable alcohol drinking. Therefore, this model may be well suited to screening for the effects of genetic mutations or pharmacological treatments on alcohol-induced behaviors. PMID:24804807

  13. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  14. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  15. Changes in energy metabolism in relation to physical activity due to fermentable carbohydrates in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.; Bakker, G.C.M.

    1999-01-01

    Fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber) affect energy retention in group-housed growing pigs by reducing physical activity. This study assessed the effects of fermentation and bulkiness of dietary carbohydrates on physical activity in relation to energy metabolism. Eight clusters of 14

  16. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows was a...

  17. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  18. Effect of peripartal feeding strategy on colostrum yield and composition in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaluwé, R; Maes, D; Cools, A; Wuyts, B; De Smet, S; Marescau, B; De Deyn, P P; Janssens, G P J

    2014-08-01

    Research showed a positive association between back fat (BF) change the week before farrowing and colostrum yield (CY). This study tested the causality of this association, hence to optimize CY by altering the sows' peripartal feeding strategy. Sows were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups at d 108 of gestation. The first group (L, n = 28) received 1.5 kg feed·d(-1), the second group (H, n = 22) received 3 times 1.5 kg feed·d(-1) until farrowing. Daily feed intake and CY were measured. Colostrum was analyzed for nutrient composition, AA and fatty acids, IgG and IgA. Sow serum was obtained at d 108 of gestation and d 1 of lactation after overnight fasting and analyzed for NEFA, (iso)butyrylcarnitine (C4), creatinine, urea, 3-OH-butyrylcarnitine (3-OH-C4), IgG, and IgA. Based on BF at d 108, sows were divided into body condition (BC) groups: skinny (23 mm, n = 14). We performed ANOVA with treatment and BC as fixed factors and Scheffé post-hoc test. The week before farrowing, the L group had the lowest daily feed intake (DFI; 1.5 kg), and within the H group, fat sows (3.8 kg) had a lower DFI than skinny sows (4.3 kg; p = 0.006). The H group tended to have a greater total CY (P = 0.074) and had a greater CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.018) than the L group. Compared with sows in moderate BC, fat sows had a lower total CY (P = 0.044) and a lower CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.005). The H group had a greater concentration of lactose (p = 0.009) and n-3 PUFA (p colostrum than the L group. The concentration of IgG and IgA did not differ between treatment and BC groups. Serum parameters at d 108 were similar between the treatment groups and BC groups. At d 1, the H group mobilized less body fat (NEFA: p = 0.002) and protein (creatinine: p colostrum composition were obtained when sows entered the farrowing unit in a moderate BC and were provided a high peripartal feeding strategy.

  19. Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity: effects of weaning-to-pregnancy interval and body condition changes in sows of different parities and crossbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, J G M; Soede, N M; Knol, E F; van den Brand, H; Kemp, B

    2013-05-01

    Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity were studied in sows of different parities and crossbred lines in relation to: 1) weaning-to-pregnancy interval (WPI) and 2) sow body condition changes (in BW and backfat thickness) during lactation and gestation in sows with a short WPI (≤7d). At the Institute for Pig Genetics (IPG) research farm, individual piglet birth weights and sow body condition (BW and backfat thickness at farrowing and weaning) were measured for 949 TOPIGS20 and 889 TOPIGS40 sows with >4 total born piglets, inseminated between 2003 and 2011. In all analyses, mean piglet birth weight and birth weight SD and CV were corrected for total number born. Total number born was greater in sows with a WPI of 8 to 21 d (+1.2 piglets; n = 72) and >21 d (+0.7 piglets; n = 182), compared with sows with a WPI ≤7 d (P piglet birth weight was not affected by WPI. Birth weight SD (-23 g) and CV (-1.7%) were lower in sows with a WPI >21 d, compared with sows with a WPI ≤7 d (P piglet birth weight. Only in TOPIGS20 sows, more BW loss during lactation was related with greater subsequent birth weight SD (β = 0.83 g/kg, P piglet/kg BW increase for parity 2 (P piglet/kg BW increase (P piglet birth weight. To conclude, this study shows that litter uniformity is compromised by severe sow body condition loss during lactation and improved in sows with a prolonged WPI. These effects are likely related with (insufficient) restoration of follicle development.

  20. Space Allowance of the Littered Area Affects Lying Behavior in Group-Housed Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burla, Joan-Bryce; Rufener, Christina; Bachmann, Iris; Gygax, Lorenz; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2017-01-01

    Horses can sleep while standing; however, recumbency is required for rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and therefore essential. Previous research indicated a minimal duration of recumbency of 30 min per 24 h to perform a minimal duration of REM sleep. For group-housed horses, suitable lying area represents a potentially limited resource. In Switzerland, minimal dimensions for the space allowance of the littered area are therefore legally required. To assess the effect of different space allowances of the littered area on lying behavior, 38 horses in 8 groups were exposed to 4 treatments for 11 days each; T0: no litter provided, T0.5: 0.5× minimal dimensions, T1: minimal dimensions, and T1.5: 1.5× minimal dimensions. Non-littered areas were covered with hard rubber mats. Lying behavior was observed during the last 72 h of each treatment. The total number of lying bouts per 24 h was similar in treatments providing litter, whereas in treatment T0, recumbency occurred only rarely (F1,93 = 14.74, p = 0.0002) with the majority of horses lying down for less than 30 min per 24 h (χ12=11.82, p = 0.0006). Overall, the total duration of recumbency per 24 h increased with increasing dimensions of the littered area, whereby the effect attenuated between treatment T1 and T1.5 in high-ranking horses but continued in low-ranking horses (F1,91 = 3.22, p = 0.076). Furthermore, low-ranking horses showed considerably more forcedly terminated lying bouts in treatments T0.5 and T1, but were similar to high-ranking horses in T1.5 (F1,76 = 8.43, p = 0.005). Nonetheless, a number of individuals showed durations of recumbency of less than 30 min per 24 h even in treatment T1.5. The lying behavior was dependent on the availability of a soft and deformable surface for recumbency. A beneficial effect of enlarged dimensions of the littered area was shown by increased durations of recumbency and decreased proportion of forcedly terminated lying

  1. Biosecurity in 121 Danish sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.

    2003-01-01

    questions. The 121 units were situated in three areas with different swine densities. Sow units were described by their sizes (units with >110 sows were regarded as large herds) and health status (SPF herds or conventional herds). Of the 121 sow herds, 63 (52%) sold weaners. Most sow units (71%) used...... to be cleaned (16%) or cleaned and disinfected (48%) before the transport; large sites and SPF sites more often required stricter biosecurity measures, for example a quarantine period before the transport of weaners....

  2. Effects of ractopamine and arginine dietary supplementation for sows on growth performance and carcass quality of their progenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbossa, C A P; Carvalho Júnior, F M; Silveira, H; Faria, P B; Schinckel, A P; Abreu, M L T; Cantarelli, V S

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ractopamine (Rac) and Arg fed to pregnant sows from d 25 to 53 of gestation on fetal muscle development as well as the performance and carcass characteristics of the progeny. One hundred sows were divided into 4 treatments including a control diet, the control plus 1% Arg, the control plus 20 mg/kg Rac, and the control diet supplemented with both additives at the same levels as those used separately. During the farrowing process the data evaluated were the weight of placenta to calculate the placental efficiency and the number of piglets born alive, stillborn, and mummified. To evaluate the fiber number and area, 12 male piglets from each treatment were euthanized to harvest semitendinosus muscle. During the lactation, the preweaning mortality, weaned weights, and number of piglets weaned per litter were evaluated. After weaning, the pig performance was evaluated until the slaughter following the sow treatment. At end of finishing phase, 1 male pig of each treatment replicate was selected to evaluation the carcass and pork quality. All variables measured were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS and least squares means were compared using the Tukey test with P sows fed Rac were 11% greater (P = 0.031) than those of piglets of the control treatment. The semitendinosus muscle fiber diameters of piglets at birth from sows that received Arg, Rac, and Arg+Rac were greater (P sows fed Arg and Rac individually were greater (P = 0.010) than those of progeny of the control group. At 110 d of age, in the beginning of the finisher 1 phase, pigs from Arg-fed sows were 1.9 kg heavier (P = 0.010) than pigs from the Arg+Rac-fed sows. The HCW were 2.97 and 1.64 kg heavier (P sows, respectively, compared with those of progeny of the control. In conclusion, the trial showed that the use of Rac for gestating sows increased the piglets' weight at birth. The size of muscular fiber was increased in the semitendinosus muscle

  3. Measuring cutaneous thermal nociception in group-housed pigs using laser technique - effects of laser power output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Ladevig, Jan; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2009-01-01

    of the metatarsus were examined using 15 gilts kept in one group and tested in individual feeding stalls after feeding. Increasing the power output led to gradually decreasing latency to respond (P ... are available, especially methodology which is applicable for pigs kept in group-housing without disturbing the daily routines of the animals. To validate a laser-based method to measure thermal nociception in group-housed pigs, we performed two experiments observing the behavioural responses toward cutaneous...... nociceptive stimulation from a computer-controlled CO2-laser beam applied to either the caudal part of the metatarsus on the hind legs or the shoulder region of gilts. In Exp. 1, effects of laser power output (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 W) on nociceptive responses toward stimulation on the caudal aspects...

  4. A Dynamic Knowledge Model for Design of Suitable Sowing Date and Sowing Rate in Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; CAO Wei-xing; JIANG Dong; DAI Ting-bo

    2002-01-01

    Based on research concerning dynamic relationships of winter wheat growth to environments and production conditions, a winter wheat model for selecting suitable sowing date, population density and sowing rate under different varieties, spatial and temporal environments was developed. Case studies on sowing date with the data sets of five different eco-sites, three climatic years and soil fertility levels, and on population density and sowing rate with the data sets of two different variety types, three different soil types, soil fertility levels, sowing dates and grain yield levels indicate a good model performance for decision-making.

  5. Effects of various procedures for synchronisation of parturition in sows. Assessment of sows with a complication-free birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaremba, W; Udluft, T; Bostedt, H

    2015-01-01

    The effects of various parturition controlling measures in sows on the relevant parameters for parturition were investigated. A total of 1975 study animals were divided into five groups: control group: A (n = 710); trial groups: B (n = 719), C (n = 180), D (n = 175), E (n = 191). The control group (A) included sows that spontaneously farrowed until day 114 of gestation. The remaining sows were administered a PGF2α-analogue (175 µg cloprostenol) on day 114. All sows that farrowed within 24 hours after prostaglandin-medication were summarised in trial group B. Dams that did not farrow until day 115 were either administered oxytocin (20 IU i. m., group C) or carbetocin in two different doses (70 µg, group D or 35 µg, group E). The sows were monitored during the peripartal period over 24 hours. 83.8% of the farrowings were without any complications. The percentage of dystocia varied between the individual groups. Given a complication-free farrowing the expulsion stage began 13.0 hours (group B), 2.4 hours (group C), 1.6 hours (group D) and 1.4 hours (group E) after medication. The expulsion interval of the farrowing of two piglets decreased from 21.1 minutes with spontaneous farrowings (group A) to 18.6 minutes (group E) as a result of the administration of 35 µg carbetocin. The rate of stillborn piglets as well as the incidence of puerperal disorders and the losses of the suckling piglets also gradually, partly even significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased from group A to E. The results of this study show that the use of the long-acting oxytocin carbetocin has advantages compared to oxytocin (e.   g. shortened duration of birth, reduction of stillbirths). The tested dosages of carbetocin (35 µg or 70 µg) proved to be equally effective. Administration of the lower dose is recommended, since this reduces use of the active ingredient.

  6. The supplementation of low-P diets with microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae improves P digestibility in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrallardona, D; Llauradó, L; Broz, J

    2012-12-01

    Two trials were conducted to evaluate a novel microbial 6-phytase expressed in Aspergillus oryzae (Ronozyme HiPhos; DSM Nutritional Products, Basel, Switzerland) in gestating and lactating sows. In the first trial, 24 sows (Duroc × Landrace; 223 kg BW) were offered, at 16 d of gestation, a low-P control diet (formulated to provide 4.0 g total P/kg; 1.5 g digestible P/kg) supplemented with 0, 500, or 1000 phytase activity (FYT)/kg of phytase. Two weeks later, fresh feces were sampled from all sows and the apparent total tract digestibility of P was measured using TiO(2) as indigestible marker. Phytase supplementation did not (P > 0.10) affect the total tract digestibility of P but reduced (P phytase. After 2 wk, fresh feces were sampled from all sows and the apparent total tract digestibility of P was measured using TiO(2) as indigestible marker. Phytase supplementation improved (P phytase tested increased the apparent total tract digestibility of P in sows and reduced P excretion in feces.

  7. Effects of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation in maternal diets on milk quality and serum bone status markers of sows and bone quality of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Chen, Yuling; Zhuo, Yong; Lv, Gang; Lin, Yan; Feng, Bin; Fang, Zhengfeng; Che, Lianqiang; Li, Jian; Xu, Shengyu; Wu, De

    2017-03-01

    Twenty primiparous sows were allocated to two treatments to evaluate the effects of maternal 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3 ) supplementation during gestation and lactation on milk quality and serum bone status markers of sows and bone quality of piglets. Immediately after mating, sows were randomly allotted to one of two diets supplemented with 50 µg/kg 25OHD3 or basal diets without 25OHD3 . Blood and milk samples were obtained. At birth and weaning, 10 piglets from each treatment were killed for bone quality analysis. 25OHD3 -fed sows provided one more piglet at farrowing and 1.17 more piglets at weaning than sows fed basal diets. The contents of solids not-fat, protein, fat or lactose were increased in milk from days 7 and 14 of lactation in 25OHD3 -supplemented sows and 25OHD3 concentrations in milk were increased by dietary 25OHD3 supplementation. Dietary 25OHD3 supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase activity but had no effect on serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity of sows. Maternal 25OHD3 supplementation improved bone strength, density and ash content of newborn piglets rather than those of weaning piglets. In conclusion, 25OHD3 supplementation in maternal diets improved reproductive performance, milk quality and bone status of sows as well as bone quality of newborn piglets. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Biosecurity in 121 Danish sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.

    2003-01-01

    Herds are under constant risk of introducing new pathogens from different sources. In this article we describe biosecurity practices in Danish sow herds. Between December 1, 1999 and February 29, 2000, 121 sow units were interviewed regarding biosecurity on the site. The questionnaire contained 6...

  9. EFFECT OF PHYTOADDITIVES ON SOW REPRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rolinec

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phytoadditives are characterized as herbal products to use in nutrition to increase the productivity of animals. At present, the really assumed potential of fecundity is 15.0 piglets born alive, 2.4 litters/year, 10% losses and 32.5 piglets per sow/year. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of phytogenic additive in sows feed rations on reproductive efficiency. In control group were 12 sows Large white (between2nd and 5th farrows and in experimental group were the same sows as in control group, but they were on the next farrowing (between 3rd and 6th farrows. Sows in experimental group were fed with the same feed ratio, but with phytogenic additive supplementation.We studied in both groups number of all born, live born and weaned piglets in litter. We found out that reproductive efficiency of sows in control group was: 10.17 all born piglets, 8.67 live born piglets, 8.17 weaned piglets. Reproductive efficiency of sows fed with phytogenic additive was: 13.00 all born piglets,10.67 live born piglets, 10.17 weaned piglets. However we did not find statistically significant effect of the addition of phytogenic additive to the feed onreproductive efficiency of sows between control and experimental group.

  10. Translational genomics for improving sow reproductive longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sow reproductive longevity is a composite trait that is expressed throughout life that depends on the potential of females to resume ovarian cyclicity, re-breed, and farrow multiple parities. Approximately 50% of sows are culled annually with more than one third due to poor fertility. Age at puberty...

  11. Can a super sow be a robust sow? Consequences of litter investment in purebred and crossbred sows of different parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, M; Andersen-Ranberg, I; Edwards, S A; Fredriksen, B; Framstad, T; Andersen, I L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this project was to study the consequences of litter investment on physical characteristics in primiparous and multiparous sows in 3 Norwegian breeds (Norsvin Duroc [ = 12], Norsvin Landrace [ = 12], and crossbreeds [Norsvin Landrace and Swedish Yorkshire { = 15}]). We predicted that the maternal sow line (Norsvin Landrace) would invest more in their litter in term of higher weight at birth, resulting in a higher litter weight of weaned piglets but with the consequence of greater loss in body condition and a higher prevalence of shoulder lesions. It was predicted that this should be more pronounced in primiparous sows than in multiparous sows. As predicted, the maternal pure line (Norsvin Landrace) had higher litter investment in terms of litter weight at birth ( = 0.003) and litter weight at weaning ( = 0.050) as well as higher total litter investment (litter weight at weaning plus weight of dead piglets [stillborn and mummified piglets and weight of piglets that died after farrowing but before weaning]; = 0.050) and suffered larger losses of body condition ( = 0.016) and had a higher prevalence of shoulder lesions ( = 0.008) during lactation than other breeds. Moreover, only in Norsvin Landrace was development of shoulder lesions related to inadequate feed consumption ( = 0.006). This has become a major welfare concern of modern pig breeding. Although primiparous and multiparous sows had similar litter sizes, primiparous sows had lower litter investment in terms of litter weight at birth ( = 0.032) and litter weight at weaning ( = 0.007) as well as total litter investment ( = 0.008). Primiparous sows suffered greater losses in body condition ( = 0.012) and developed more shoulder lesions ( = 0.026) due to lower total feed consumption ( sows. Especially in the highly productive maternal line (Norsvin Landrace), development of shoulder lesions during the lactation period was more pronounced in primiparous sows than in multiparous sows ( sows still need

  12. Toxicity of zearalenone on the intestines of pregnant sows and their offspring and alleviation with modified halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhu, Dandan; Guo, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2017-07-03

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of maternal exposure to zearalenone (ZEN) on the intestines of pregnant sows and offspring on postnatal days (PD) 1, 21 and 188. Eighteen pregnant sows (six per treatment) were fed a control diet (ZEN, 0.03 mg kg(-1) ), ZEN diet (ZEN, 2.77 mg kg(-1) ) and ZEN + 1% modified halloysite nanotube (MHNT) diet (ZEN, 2.76 mg kg(-1) ) respectively from gestation days (GD) 35 to 70. At the end of the experiment, three sows of each group on GD70 and the offspring on PD1, PD21 and PD188 were killed to analyze the changes of intestines. The results showed that ZEN caused oxidative stress, an inflammatory response, changes in the structure of jejunum and alterations of the bacterial numbers in cecal digesta in pregnant sows and PD1 and PD21 piglets. On PD188, bacterial numbers were also altered. MHNTs supplementation reduced the amount of ZEN in the intestine and reversed to a large extent the effects induced by ZEN on the intestines of pregnant sows and offspring. The results obtained from this study indicated that MHNTs treatment was beneficial for the adsorption of ZEN in the intestine of sows. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The effect of supplementing sow and piglet diets with different forms of iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliny Kétilim Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of chelated iron supplementation on gestating and lactating sows and on their suckling and weaned piglets. Reproductive traits, piglet performance, hematological parameters, and the iron concentrations in colostrum, milk, and stillborn livers were measured. Ninety-six sows were subjected to one of three treatment groups. Group T1 comprised pregnant and lactating sows treated with diets supplemented with inorganic iron (551 mg Fe/kg and suckling piglets administered 200 mg of injectable iron dextran. Group T2 was the same as T1, except that sows after 84 days of gestation, lactating sows, and suckling piglets were fed a diet supplemented with 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron, and suckling piglets were administered injectable iron dextran. Group T3 was the same as T2 but without injectable iron dextran for suckling piglets. During the nursery phase, all of the weaned piglets were penned with their original groups or treatments and received isonutritive and isocaloric feeds. Piglets from the T2 and T3 groups also received an additional 150 mg Fe/kg of chelated iron via their feed. There were no differences among the treatments for reproductive traits or the iron concentrations in the colostrum, milk, or liver. The piglets that did not receive the injectable iron dextran showed the poorest performance during the pre-and post-weaning phases and showed the poorest hematological parameters of the suckling piglets. The chelated iron supplementation is insufficient to meet piglet demand. The iron dextran supply is necessary for suckling and weaned piglets.

  14. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. S.; Jung, S. W.; Jang, J. C.; Chung, W. L.; Jeong, J. H.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (psows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. Consequently, an adequate energy requirement of gestating gilts is 6,400 kcal of ME/d. PMID:27282975

  15. Uso da lógica fuzzy na caracterização do ambiente produtivo para matrizes gestantes The use of fuzzy logic for the productive environment characterization for pregnant sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héliton Pandorfi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa consistiu na avaliação do ambiente de alojamento, estimando as condições favoráveis ao melhor desempenho de matrizes gestantes. O experimento foi realizado no período compreendido entre 4-1 e 11-3-2005, em propriedade de produção industrial de suínos, localizada no município de Elias Fausto - SP. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no setor de gestação, com 24 matrizes primíparas, 12 fêmeas alojadas em baias individuais (T1 e 12 em baias coletivas (T2. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas, em função da forma de avaliação dos dados: análise bioclimática e da qualidade do ar, e estimativa dos padrões de conforto térmico ambiental. As variáveis bioclimáticas T (ºC, UR (%, Tgn (ºC e fisiológicas, taxa respiratória (mov min-1 e temperatura retal (ºC apontam o sistema de confinamento em baias coletivas como o que possibilitou melhor condicionamento térmico natural às matrizes em gestação. O uso da teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy permitiu que se fizesse inferência entre os dados resultantes do trabalho experimental com os estabelecidos pela literatura, por intermédio de base de regras, para a determinação do conforto ambiental aplicado a matrizes na fase de gestação.The objective of this research was to estimate the environment of housing systems for pregnant sows, as well as variables that have effect on production system. The trial was conducted out from January 4th to March 11th 2005 in a specialized farm in industrial production of pork, located in Elias Fausto City, São Paulo State. In gestation facility 24 gilts were allocated: 12 in individual stalls (T1 and 12 in group housing (T2. Basically, this study was divided in two steps in function of the way chosen for data analysis: bioclimatic and air quality analysis; and prediction for environmental thermal comfort patterns. The environmental variables (T, ºC; UR, %; Tgn, ºC and physiological (respiratory rate, mov min-1; rectal temperature

  16. Colostrum and milk production of sows is affected by dietary conjugated linoleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Uffe; Flummer, Christine; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2012-01-01

    (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12) from day 108 of gestation until weaning (4 wk after parturition) to evaluate whether dietary CLA affects the yield and composition of colostrum, time for initiation of milk production, and sow milk yield. Sows fed CLA tended to produce more colostral fat (6.3 vs...... was more than double in the CLA group (17.6 vs. 7.8%, respectively; P = 0.04). Copious milk production was initiated 33 h (CLA) and 34 h (CON) after parturition and was not affected by dietary treatments (P = 0.41). Sow milk yield was improved by the CLA treatment from days 7 to 14 of lactation (P = 0.......03). Weight at birth (1.40 kg for both groups; P = 0.98) and at weaning [8.2 kg (CLA) and 8.0 kg (CON); P = 0.52] was not statistically different. In conclusion, colostrum yield was inhibited but milk yield was stimulated by dietary inclusion of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA and indicates that sow...

  17. Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Rabin; Minor, Radiah C; Donovan, Barry; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (i) investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii) evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows' gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source) on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5) and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%). All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7.Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding systems could have the potential to improve the intestinal health of piglets by increasing the population of bifidobacteria.

  18. Energy and nutrient deposition and excretion in the reproducing sow: model development and evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2014-01-01

    Air and nutrient emissions from swine operations raise environmental concerns. During the reproduction phase, sows consume and excrete large quantities of nutrients. The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to describe energy and nutrient partitioning and predict manure...... excretion and composition and methane emissions on a daily basis. The model was structured to contain gestation and lactation modules, which can be run separately or sequentially, with outputs from the gestation module used as inputs to the lactation module. In the gestating module, energy and protein...... production, and maternal growth with body tissue losses constrained within biological limits. Global sensitivity analysis showed that nonlinearity in the parameters was small. The model outputs considered were the total protein and fat deposition, average urinary and fecal N excretion, average methane...

  19. Effects of fluoroquinolone treatment and group housing of pigs on the selection and spread of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Masaru; Sakemi, Yoko; Uchida, Ikuo; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-06-04

    There are concerns that the use of fluoroquinolones (FQs) and group housing of food animals may contribute to the development of bacterial FQ resistance. Here, we studied the effects of administering FQ to pigs on the selection of FQ-resistant Campylobacter. Fifteen pigs were randomly allocated to either a group treated with FQs (enrofloxacin or norfloxacin), or an untreated control group. The number of FQ-resistant Campylobacter in feces was determined using appropriate selective agar containing enrofloxacin. FQ-resistant Campylobacter from samples of both groups were observed on days 3 and 4. These bacteria persisted for up to 21 days after treatment was discontinued. To evaluate the effect of group housing on the transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter, five pigs infected with FQ-sensitive Campylobacter pigs and one pig infected with FQ-resistant Campylobacter were housed together. On day 3, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from all six pigs. Moreover, FQ-resistant Campylobacter were isolated from environmental samples from the pen. These results indicate that the treatment of pigs with FQs selects for and spreads FQ-resistant Campylobacter among the pen. Therefore, responsible and prudent use of FQs at pig farms is required to prevent the emergence and transmission of FQ-resistant Campylobacter.

  20. Hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in group-housed C57BL/6 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yasuyuki; Nagasawa, Tatsuhiro; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Aki; Tanave, Akira; Matsumoto, Yuki; Nagayama, Hiromichi; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Yasuda, Michiko T; Shimoi, Kayoko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Group-housed male mice exhibit aggressive behaviour towards their cage mates and form a social hierarchy. Here, we describe how social hierarchy in standard group-housed conditions affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice. Four male C57BL/6 mice were kept in each cage used in the study, and the social hierarchy was determined from observation of video recordings of aggressive behaviour. After formation of a social hierarchy, the behaviour and hippocampal gene expression were analysed in the mice. Higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviours and elevated gene expression of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and hippocampal serotonin receptor subtypes were observed in subordinate mice compared with those of dominant mice. These differences were alleviated by orally administering fluoxetine, which is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. We concluded that hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice, resulting in anxiety- and depression-like behaviours being regulated differently in dominant and subordinate mice.

  1. Effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, N W; Dritz, S S; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M; Yang, H; Hill, D A; Holzgraefe, D; Hall, D H; Mahan, D C

    2014-10-01

    A total of 126 gilts and sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow plasma, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol. Additionally, we estimated the bioavailability of D-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-TAc) relative to DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (DL-α-TAc) when fed in diets containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The 6 dietary treatments included DL-α-TAc at 44 and 66 mg/kg and D-α-TAc at 11, 22, 33, and 44 mg/kg. From breeding to d 69 of gestation, sows were fed 2.0 kg/d of a diet containing 40% DDGS, 0.30 mg/kg added Se, and no added vitamin E. Vitamin E treatments were fed from d 70 of gestation through weaning. Plasma was collected from sows on d 69 and 100 of gestation, at farrowing, and at weaning. Colostrum and milk samples were also collected. Plasma from 3 pigs per litter and heart and liver samples from 1 pig per litter were collected at weaning. Plasma, milk, and tissues from 6 litters per treatment were analyzed for α-tocopherol. Although tissue, plasma, and milk concentrations of α-tocopherol were the primary response criteria of interest, sow and litter performance were measured. As expected, treatment effects were not observed for lactation feed intake, sow BW, or backfat measurements. A trend (P = 0.085) for a treatment effect on average pig BW at weaning was detected, with pigs nursing sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc weighing less because of a younger weaning age. No other differences in litter performance were observed. As D-α-TAc increased in the diet, sow plasma, colostrum, and milk, pig plasma, and pig heart concentrations of α-tocopherol increased (linear, P Sows fed diets with 44 mg/kg D-α-TAc had increased (P sows fed 44 mg/kg of DL-α-TAc. Sows fed 66 mg/kg DL-α-TAc also had greater (P = 0.022) plasma α-tocopherol at weaning than sows fed 44 mg/kg DL-α-TAc. Bioavailability coefficients for D-α-TAc relative to DL-α-TAc ranged from 1.9 to 4

  2. Effect of daily fluctuations in ambient temperature on reproductive failure traits of Landrace and Yorkshire sows under Thai tropical environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaichansukkit, Teerapong; Suwanasopee, Thanathip; Koonawootrittriron, Skorn; Tummaruk, Padet; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of daily ranges and maximum ambient temperatures, and other risk factors on reproductive failure of Landrace (L) and Yorkshire (Y) sows under an open-house system in Thailand. Daily ambient temperatures were added to information on 35,579 litters from 5929 L sows and 1057 Y sows from three commercial herds. The average daily temperature ranges (ADT) and the average daily maximum temperatures (PEAK) in three gestation periods from the 35th day of gestation to parturition were classified. The considered reproductive failure traits were the occurrences of mummified fetuses (MM), stillborn piglets (STB), and piglet death losses (PDL) and an indicator trait for number of piglets born alive below the population mean (LBA). A multiple logistic regression model included farrowing herd-year-season (HYS), breed group of sow (BG), parity group (PAR), number of total piglets born (NTB), ADT1, ADT2, ADT3, PEAK1, PEAK2, and PEAK3 as fixed effects, while random effects were animal, repeated observations, and residual. Yorkshire sows had a higher occurrence of LBA than L sows (P = 0.01). The second to fifth parities sows had lower reproductive failures than other parities. The NTB regression coefficients of log-odds were positive (P < 0.01) for all traits. Narrower ranges of ADT3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, and PDL (P < 0.01), while higher PEAK3 increased the occurrence of MM, STB, PDL, and LBA (P < 0.001). To reduce the risk of reproductive failures, particularly late in gestation, producers would need to closely monitor their temperature management strategies.

  3. Genetics of sow performance in piglet production

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to provide knowledge about the genetic relationships concerning sow performance in piglet production. During the last decades, selection in dam lines has focused on increasing litter size and piglet growth. Consequently, the demand on the sow to provide her piglets with enough milk increases. At the same time, breeding for animals with less fat limits the sow’s possibility to store body reserves to be used during lactation. Poor body condition is related to rep...

  4. Effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) supplementation to lactating sows on growth and indicators of stress in post-weaned pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary n-3 PUFA are precursors for lipid metabolites that reduce inflammation. Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that enriching the sow diet in n-3 PUFA during late gestation and throughout lactation reduces stress and inflammation, and promotes growth in weaned pigs. A protecte...

  5. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Rousing, Tine; Kudahl, Anne Braad;

    2016-01-01

    Increasing litter size has led to introduction of so-called nurse sows in several EU countries. A nurse sow is a sow receiving piglets after having weaned her own piglets and thereby experiencing an extended lactation. In order to analyse whether nurse sows have more welfare problems than non-nurse...... sows a cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 sow herds in Denmark. Clinical observations were made on nurse and non-nurse sows and their litters. The clinical observations were dichotomized and the effect of being a nurse sow was analysed based on eight parameters: thin (body condition score....5), swollen bursae on legs, dew claw wounds, vulva lesions, poor hygiene, poor skin condition, shoulder lesions and cuts and wounds on the udder. Explanatory variables included in the eight models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order...

  6. Evaluating group housing strategies for the ex-situ conservation of harlequin frogs (Atelopus spp. using behavioral and physiological indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna J Cikanek

    Full Text Available We have established ex situ assurance colonies of two endangered Panamanian harlequin frogs, Atelopus certus and Atelopus glyphus, but observed that males fought with each other when housed as a group. Housing frogs individually eliminated this problem, but created space constraints. To evaluate the potential stress effects from aggressive interactions when grouping frogs, we housed male frogs in replicated groups of one, two, and eight. We measured aggressive behavioral interactions and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (GC concentrations as indicators of stress in each tank. In both small and large groups, frogs initially interacted aggressively, but aggressive interactions and fecal GCs declined significantly after the first 2 weeks of being housed together, reaching the lowest levels by week 4. We conclude that aggressive interactions in same-sex groups of captive Atelopus may initially cause stress, but the frogs become habituated within a few weeks and they can safely be housed in same-sex groups for longer periods of time.

  7. Effect of altrenogest and Lutalyse on parturition control, plasma progesterone, unconjugated estrogen and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F2 alpha in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, H D; Meckley, P E; Young, E P; Hartsock, T G

    1987-07-01

    To investigate control of parturition time, 154 sows farrowing 220 litters at three locations were treated with altrenogest and Lutalyse (PG). The four treatment groups were: 1) no treatment (control group); 2) an im injection of 15 mg of PG at 1000 on d 111, 112 or 113 of gestation (d 0 = first day of estrus and gestation); 3) altrenogest (20 mg X sow-1 X d-1) fed twice daily for 4 d starting on d 109, 110 or 111; and 4) altrenogest and an injection of PG at 1000 on the day after the last feeding of altrenogest. Control sows at the University of Delaware (UD), University of Maryland (UM) and USDA, Beltsville Agricultural Research Center (BARC) had mean gestation lengths of 113.5, 114.2 and 115.7 d and live pigs/litter were 10.5, 11.0 and 7.4, respectively. Altrenogest started by d 110 prevented unscheduled early farrowing and increased (P less than .01) gestation length by 1.7 and 1.1 d, respectively, at UD and UM, but had not effect at BARC. The time from PG to parturition was 24.3, 22.6 and 34.4 h, respectively, at UD, UM and BARC. More sows at UD and UM farrowed between 0700 and 1700 on the expected day of parturition after injection of PG (59.3%) than with no PG (20.7%; P less than .05). The high incidence of small litters (less than six pigs) from sows inseminated with frozen semen at BARC resulted in negative correlations of live pigs/litter with gestation length (r = -.533, P = .0001) and with time from PG injection to birth of first pig (r = -.425, P = .017); these correlations were not significant at UD and UM where only natural service was used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Alternatives to sowing vegetable type soybeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edcarlos Mannfredini

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, soybean crops of the Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar are sown in beds prior to transplantation to the field. This planting system has caused crop failure due to damage to the root system. An experiment to test different sowing alternatives to obtain plantlets for cropping of food type big seeded soybean was set up with the following treatments: sowing in beds; sowing in 130 cm³ newspaper cups; sowing in test tubes of volumes of 30 cm³, 60 cm³ and 70 cm³; sowing in 70 cm³ disposable plastic cups; sowing on 90 cm³ styrofoam trays. A randomized complete block design was used, and the following traits were assessed: germination percentage; number of days to flowering; plant height at flowering; number of days to maturity; plant height at maturity; number of seeds per plant; individual plant yield; weight of a hundred seeds. Results should that three methods could be used to set up Tamba Kurodaisu cultivar crops: sowing in disposable plastic cups, sowing in beds with later transplant, or direct sowing in the field.Atualmente, as lavouras com o cultivar Tamba Kurodaisu são semeadas em canteiros, para posterior transplante no campo. Este sistema tem causado falhas na lavoura, por ocorrer danificação no sistema radicular. Com o objetivo de testar diferentes alternativas de semeadura para obtenção de mudas visando a implantação de lavouras de soja tipo alimento, com sementes graúdas, instalou-se um experimento com os seguintes tratamentos: Semeadura em canteiros; Semeadura em copos de jornal, com volume (V igual a 130 cm³; Semeadura em tubetes, com V = 30 cm³; V = 60 cm³; V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em copos plásticos descartáveis, com V = 70 cm³; Semeadura em bandejas de isopor, com V = 90cm³. O delineamento utilizado foi blocos casualizados, tendo sido avaliados os seguintes caracteres: Porcentagem de germinação; Número de plantas por parcela; Número de dias para o florescimento; Altura da planta no florescimento; Número de dias

  9. Reproductive performance of "nurse sows" in Danish piggeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, T S; Amdi, C; Vinther, J; Schop, M; Strathe, A B; Hansen, C F

    2016-09-01

    The use of nurse sows in Danish piggeries is common practice because of large litter sizes; however, the effect of being selected as a nurse sow on subsequent reproductive performance is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify a nurse sow's reproductive performance in the subsequent litter. Nurse sows were defined as sows weaning their own litter at least 18 days postpartum and thereafter nursing another litter (nurse litter) before service. Data (2012-2013) from 20 piggeries with more than 14.5 live born piglets per litter and a stable distribution of sows among parities over time were selected. Records from 79,864 litters were obtained and analyzed using mixed linear and logistic regression models. The average lactation lengths were 40.3 days for nurse sows and 27.8 days for non-nurse (normal) sows. Nurse sows weaned on average 12.4 piglets and subsequently 11.5 nurse piglets, whereas non-nurse weaned 11.7 piglets in their single weaning. There was no difference in re-service rate between nurse and non-nurse sows in the subsequent reproductive cycle. Subsequent litter size in the next reproductive cycle was higher for nurse sows than that for non-nurse sows (18.69 vs. 18.11 total born piglets; P sows were of a slightly lower parity than non-nurse sows (3.12 vs. 3.27, P sows had an increased weaning to estrus interval compared to non-nurse sows (4.23 vs. 4.19 days, P sows were selected among sows nursing large litters and could therefore suggest that these sows represent the best percentile of sows in a given piggery. In conclusion, this survey indicated no negative effects of being selected as a nurse sow on the subsequent reproductive performance. On the contrary, nurse sows gave birth to more piglets compared to non-nurse sows in their subsequent litter. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  11. Stimulation of behavioural and nutritional satiety in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: sows; nutrition; welfare; stereotyped behaviour; foraging behaviour; feeding motivation; satiety; dietary fibre; non-starch polysaccharides; blood glucose; fermentation; volatile fatty acidsNon-lactating sows often show abnormal stereotyped behaviour, which indicates

  12. Stimulation of behavioural and nutritional satiety in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: sows; nutrition; welfare; stereotyped behaviour; foraging behaviour; feeding motivation; satiety; dietary fibre; non-starch polysaccharides; blood glucose; fermentation; volatile fatty acidsNon-lactating sows often show abnormal stereotyped behaviour, which indicates impa

  13. Sow-activity classification from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escalante, Hugo Jair; Rodriguez, Sara V.; Cordero, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a supervised learning approach to sow-activity classification from accelerometer measurements. In the proposed methodology, pairs of accelerometer measurements and activity types are considered as labeled instances of a usual supervised classification task. Under this scenario...... sow-activity classification can be approached with standard machine learning methods for pattern classification. Individual predictions for elements of times series of arbitrary length are combined to classify it as a whole. An extensive comparison of representative learning algorithms, including...... neural networks, support vector machines, and ensemble methods, is presented. Experimental results are reported using a data set for sow-activity classification collected in a real production herd. The data set, which has been widely used in related works, includes measurements from active (Feeding...

  14. 9 CFR 78.33 - Sows and boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sows and boars. 78.33 Section 78.33... Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.33 Sows and boars. (a) Sows and boars may be moved... operating under the Packers and Stockyards Act, as amended (7 U.S.C. 181 et seq.). (b) Sows and boars may be...

  15. Ammonia volatilization from sows on grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, S. G.; Søgaard, H. T.; Møller, H. B.; Morsing, S.

    According to regulations, sows with piglets on organic farms must graze on pastures. Volatilization of ammonia (NH 3) from urine patches may represent a significant source of nitrogen (N) loss from these farms. Inputs of N are low on organic farms and losses may reduce crop production. This study examined spatial variations in NH 3 volatilization using a movable dynamic chamber, and the pH and total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in the topsoil of pastures with grazing sows was measured during five periods between June 1998 and May 1999. Gross NH 3 volatilization from the pastures was also measured with an atmospheric mass balance technique during seven periods from September 1997 until June 1999. The dynamic chamber study showed a high variation in NH 3 volatilization because of the distribution of urine; losses were between 0 and 2.8 g NH 3-N m -2 day -1. Volatilization was highest near the feeding area and the huts, where the sows tended to urinate. Ammonia volatilization rate was linearly related to the product of NH 3 concentration in the boundary layer and wind speed. The NH 3 in the boundary layer was in equilibrium with NH 3 in soil solution. Gross NH 3 volatilization was in the range 0.07-2.1 kg NH 3-N ha -1 day -1 from a pasture with 24 sows ha -1. Ammonia volatilization was related to the amount of feed given to the sows, incident solar radiation and air temperature during measuring periods, and also to temperature, incident solar radiation and rain 1-2 days before measurements. Annual ammonia loss was 4.8 kg NH 3-N sow -1.

  16. Gestational diabetes - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnancy - gestational diabetes; Prenatal care - gestational diabetes ... Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar (glucose) that happens during pregnancy. There are no symptoms in most cases. But ...

  17. Conforto térmico para matrizes suínas em fase de gestação, alojadas em baias individuais e coletivas Thermal comfort for pregnant sows housed in individual and group stalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héliton Pandorfi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado no período compreendido entre 04/01 e 11/03/2005, em uma propriedade de produção industrial de suínos, localizada no município de Elias Fausto, estado de São Paulo. O objetivo da pesquisa consistiu na avaliação de diferentes sistemas de alojamento para matrizes gestantes, verificando-se as influências dos elementos meteorológicos e os aspectos relacionados à qualidade química do ar e seus reflexos no conforto animal na fase de gestação, determinando-se as condições favoráveis ao melhor desempenho animal, com base nas respostas ao ambiente de criação. O estudo foi desenvolvido no setor de gestação, com 24 matrizes primíparas, 12 fêmeas alojadas em baias individuais (T1 e 12 animais em baias coletivas (T2. O trabalho foi dividido em duas etapas: análise bioclimática e análise da qualidade química do ar. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dois tratamentos e 67 blocos, e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. As variáveis meteorológicas (T, °C e h, kJ kg-1 apontam o sistema de alojamento em baias coletivas como aquele que permitiu melhor condicionamento térmico natural às matrizes em gestação apresentando valores da ordem de 25,03 °C e 62,02 kJ kg-1. As concentrações dos teores de gases não superaram as concentrações consideradas críticas para as matrizes.The experiment was carried out from January 4 to March 11, 2005 in a farm specialized in industrial production of pork, located in Elias Fausto, São Paulo State. This study evaluated different housing systems for pregnant sows looking at meteorological element influences and aspects of air chemical quality on the animal thermal comfort. The optimal conditions for animal performance improvement were determined by analyzing behavioral data taken in the breeding environment. In the gestation facility 24 gilts were allocated: 12 in individual stalls (T1 and 12 in group housings (T2. This study was

  18. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, C N; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, C F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... yield (MY; 36–60 h postpartum), and the mean MY in wk 1 to 4 of lactation. Therefore, the study investigated how factors related with sow nutrition, litter characteristics, farrowing characteristics, and composition of mammary secreta affected sow productivity. Data obtained from 5 previous sow...... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  19. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijnen, M M J A; Verstegen, M W A; Heetkamp, M J W; Schrama, J W

    2003-05-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five diets contained solvent-extracted coconut meal (SECM) and five diets contained soybean hulls (SBH) as the main fDF source. On an as-fed basis, pigs received 3.5, 13.2, 23.0, 32.7, or 42.4 g x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) of SECM or SBH. A total of 280 crossbred growing pigs were used, divided into clusters of 14 pigs each. Pigs were group-housed and fed at 2.5 times the assumed maintenance energy requirements. All clusters were fed similar amounts of NE, ileal-digestible protein and amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Consequently, DMI differed among diets because NE content decreased with increasing DF content. After a 32-d preliminary period, HP was measured per cluster during a 7-d experimental period in environmentally controlled respiration chambers. Behavior of the pigs was recorded using time-lapse video recordings during two different days within the experimental period. Intake of digestible starch and fDF was different (P average, pigs spent 153 min standing, 42 min sitting, 202 min lying on their chest, and 1,043 min lying on their flanks each day. Pigs fed SECM diets spent, on average, less time (P time spent on physical activity (i.e., standing plus sitting, 195 min/d) was not affected by diet. Total HP and resting HP were affected by diet and were on average lower (P averaged 65 kJ x kg(-0.75) x d(-1) and was not affected by diet. There was a linear relationship (P < 0.001) between fDF intake and HP, but there was no relationship between fDF intake and AHP. During different parts of the day, fDF intake also affected HP. The saving effect of physical activity on the NE values of fDF from SECM and SBH were 0.56 and 0.84 kJ/g of fDF intake, respectively. Neither of

  20. Effect of lysophospholipids in diets differing in fat contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, milk composition and litter performance of lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P Y; Zhang, Z F; Lan, R X; Liu, W C; Kim, I H

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that energy plays an important role in sow growth and development. Increasing the utilization of lipids will be beneficial to sows. Emulsifiers are substances which stabilize mixtures and prevent oil and water from separating, thereby enhancing the digestion of lipids. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary emulsifier (lysophospholipids (LPL)) supplementation in diets differing in fat contents on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and milk composition in lactating sows, as well as performance and fecal score in piglets. A total of 32 multiparous sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) were used in a 21-day experiment. On day 110 of gestation, sows were weighed and moved into the farrowing facility, randomly assigned in a 2×2 factorial arrangement according to their BW with two levels of LPL (0 and 30 mg/kg) and two levels of fat (4.75% and 2.38% fat; 13.66 and 13.24 MJ/kg). BW loss and backfat thickness loss were decreased (Psows fed LPL supplementation diets. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen, gross energy and crude fat in sows fed LPL diets was increased (PSows fed the high-fat diets had higher (Psows.

  1. Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Arrives Trouble Getting Pregnant Avoiding Pregnancy Articles Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) ... diabetes must also take insulin. Problems of Gestational Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  2. Effects of Dietary Energy Levels on the Physiological Parameters and Reproductive Performance of Gestating Gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Jang, J C; Chung, W L; Jeong, J H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-07-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating first parity sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allocated to 4 dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. Each treatment contained diets with 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg, and the daily energy intake of the gestating gilts in each treatment were 6,200, 6,400, 6,600, and 6,800 kcal of ME, respectively. During gestation, the body weight (p = 0.04) and weight gain (p = 0.01) of gilts linearly increased with increasing dietary energy levels. Backfat thickness was not affected at d110 of gestation by dietary treatments, but increased linearly (p = 0.05) from breeding to d 110 of gestation. There were no significant differences on the litter size or litter birth weight. During lactation, the voluntary feed intake of sows tended to decrease when the dietary energy levels increased (p = 0.08). No difference was observed in backfat thickness of the sows within treatments; increasing energy levels linearly decreased the body weight of sows (penergy diets influenced the bodyweight and backfat thickness of sows during gestation and lactation. NRC (2012) suggested that the energy requirement of the gestation gilt should be between 6,678 and 7,932 kcal of ME/d. Similarly, our results suggested that 3,100 kcal of ME/kg is not enough to maintain the reproductive performance for gilts during gestation with 2 kg feed daily. Gilts in the treatment 3,400 kcal of ME/kg have a higher weaning number of piglets, but bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. But bodyweight and backfat loss were higher than other treatments during lactation. Consequently, an adequate energy requirement of gestating gilts is 6,400 kcal of ME/d.

  3. Cortisol profiles in sows submitted to an intermittent suckling regime compared with that of abruptly weaned sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluivers-Poodt, M.; Gerritsen, R.; Nes, van A.; Langendijk, P.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor changes in cortisol levels in sows around the time of separation from their piglets, in two different intermittent suckling regimes, compared with that in conventionally weaned sows. Sows were either weaned at 21 days of lactation (CONT) or subjected to an interm

  4. Factors influencing behavior of group-housed male rats in the social interaction test: focus on cohort removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kask, A; Nguyen, H P; Pabst, R; von Hörsten, S

    2001-10-01

    The rat social interaction (SI) test is used widely to measure anxiety-like behavior, yet the influence of various factors such as testing time, pre-experimental manipulations (transport stress), and testing of animals from the same cage (cohort removal, CR) on SI has not been systematically studied. We measured SI behavior of male triad-housed Wistar rats in a novel dimly lit arena (low light unfamiliar, LU) and found that SI time is higher in the beginning of the activity (dark) phase when compared with SI time in first half of the light phase. Furthermore, SI time is significantly increased by habituation of animals to the testing room during light phase, but this intervention has no effect in early dark phase when SI behavior is already maximal. Sequential removal of rats from the home cage led to the stress-like behavioral and physiological consequences. Rats removed in the last position had shorter SI time and higher body temperature. These data demonstrate that SI is higher during early dark vs. early light phase and confirm that CR has anxiogenic-like effects in rats. We conclude that the usage of sequentially removed group-housed rats in behavioral tests can be a source for considerable variation due to anxiety that develops in animals remaining in the cage. On the other hand, CR may be a useful method to study behavioral/neurochemical mechanisms of psychogenic stress in rats.

  5. Effect of different contents of extruded linseed in the sow diet on piglet fatty acid composition and hepatic desaturase expression during the post-natal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quelen, F; Boudry, G; Mourot, J

    2013-10-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) contribute to the normal growth and development of numerous organs in the piglet. The fatty acid composition of piglet tissues is linked to the fatty acid composition of sow milk and, consequently, to the composition of sow diet during the gestation and lactation period. In this study, we investigated the impact of different contents of extruded linseed in the sow diet on the fatty acid composition and desaturase gene expression of piglets. Sows received a diet containing either sunflower oil (low 18:3n-3 with 18:3n-3 representing 3% of total fatty acids) or a mixture of extruded linseed and sunflower oil (medium 18:3n-3 with 9% of 18:3n-3) or extruded linseed (high 18:3n-3 with 27% of 18:3n-3) during gestation and lactation. Fatty acid composition was evaluated on sow milk and on different piglet tissues at days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The postnatal evolution of delta5 (D5D) and delta6 (D6D) desaturase mRNA expression was also measured in the liver of low 18:3n-3 and high 18:3n-3 piglets. The milk of high 18:3n-3 sows had higher proportions of n-3PUFA than that of low 18:3n-3 and medium 18:3n-3 sows. Piglets suckling the high 18:3n-3 sows had greater proportions of 18:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the liver, and of 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in the brain than low 18:3n-3 and medium 18:3n-3 piglets. D5D and D6D mRNA expressions in piglet liver were not affected by the maternal diet at any age. In conclusion, extruded linseed in the sow diet modifies the n-3PUFA status of piglets during the postnatal period. However, a minimal content of 18:3n-3 in the sow diet is necessary to increase the n-3PUFA level in piglet liver and brain. Moreover, modifications in the n-3PUFA fatty acid composition of piglet tissue seem linked to the availability of 18:3n-3 in maternal milk and not to desaturase enzyme expression.

  6. Genetic, phenotypic and environmental relationships between sow body weight and sow productivity traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, P W; Harvey, W R; Irvin, K M

    1985-02-01

    Yorkshire and Duroc litter records were used to estimate genetic, phenotypic and environmental relationships between sow body weight and sow productivity traits. Two data sets with two subsets each were used to complete this study; 663 and 460 records included litter traits only, while 522 and 359 records also contained sow body weight for Yorkshires and Durocs, respectively. Heritability estimates for number born (NB), number born alive (NBA), total birth weight of live pigs (BWLIT), litter weight at 3 wk (WT3WK), sow weight at parturition (WTDAMPAR) and sow weight at weaning (WTDAMWN) were .24 +/- .14, .21 +/- .14, .42 +/- .16, .19 +/- .14, .72 +/- .21 and .42 +/- .18, respectively, for Yorkshires and .05 +/- .10, .04 +/- .10, .21 +/- .14, .25 +/- .15, .85 +/- .25 and .87 +/- .26, respectively, for the Durocs. Repeatability estimates for NB, NBA, BWLIT, WT3WK, WTDAMPAR and WTDAMWN were .13 +/- .06, .17 +/- .06, .27 +/- .06, .13 +/- .06, .64 +/- .05 and .54 +/- .05, respectively, for Yorkshires and .17 +/- .06, .21 +/- .06, .14 +/- .06, .17 +/- .06, .28 +/- .07 and .39 +/- .07, respectively, for Durocs. Genetic correlations among litter traits were high and positive in the Yorkshire data. Genetic correlations between NBA and WTDAMPAR, NBA and WTDAMWN, WT3WK and WTDAMPAR, and WT3WK and WTDAMWN were .37 +/- .25, .18 +/- .34, .60 +/- .29 and .29 +/- .45, respectively, in the Yorkshire data. Genetic correlations among litter traits in the Duroc analysis had large standard errors but were generally similar to the estimates obtained from the Yorkshire data. The genetic correlation between WTDAMPAR and WTDAMWN was .93 +/- .09 for Yorkshire sows. The primary conclusion from this study is that as selection increases sow productivity traits, there will be a positive correlated response in sow body weight.

  7. Ideal Sowing Depth for Sweetgum Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. T. Bonner

    1967-01-01

    This paper reports the sowing depths from which sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings can emerge under near ideal conditions. Little is known about the seedbed conditions required for successful direct seeding of sweetgum, and the information presented here will be useful in planning field trials.

  8. Segmentation of sows in farrowing pens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, Gang Jun; Karstoft, Henrik; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    The correct segmentation of a foreground object in video recordings is an important task for many surveillance systems. The development of an effective and practical algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings captured under commercial production conditions is described. The segmentat......The correct segmentation of a foreground object in video recordings is an important task for many surveillance systems. The development of an effective and practical algorithm to segment sows in grayscale video recordings captured under commercial production conditions is described....... The segmentation algorithm combines a modified adaptive Gaussian mixture model for background subtraction with the boundaries of foreground objects, which is obtained by using dyadic wavelet transform. This algorithm can accurately extract the shapes of a sow under complex environments, such as dynamic background...... and illumination changes as well as motionless foreground objects. About 97% of the segmented binary images in the validation data sets can be used to track sow behaviours, such as position, orientation and movement. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is able to provide a basis...

  9. Evaporative cooling for lactating sows under high ambient temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the evaporative cooling of the air at farrowing on the performance of lactating sows under high environmental temperature conditions in the Central West region of Brazil. One hundred and forty-four lactating sows - 46 of first and second farrowing (experiment I and 98 from the third to eighth farrowing (experiment II - were used. Sows were distributed in experimental design of randomized blocks consisting of two rooms (with air cooling and control, with the sow as the experimental unit. The average duration of lactation was 21 days. Sows were fed ad libitum with the same lactation diet. In experiment I, the air cooling increased the daily feed intake, reduced the total and percent weight loss, increased the weight of the piglets and litters at weaning and improved the daily milk production of sows. However, the air cooling did not affect the weight of the sows or the number of piglets at weaning. In experiment II the air cooling increased the daily feed intake of the sows, reduced the total and percent weight loss, increased the weight and the weight gain of the piglets and litters and improved the daily milk production of the sows. Air cooling enables the increase of the daily feed intake and, therefore, of nutrients by the sows, with consequent reduction of mobilization of body reserves and the increase in the milk production and in the weight of piglets and litters at weaning, regardless the farrowing order of the sow.

  10. ESTABLISHMENT OF Pinus elliottii Engelm STANDS WITH DIRECT FIELD SOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto Guimarães Finger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was undertaken to test the possibility of use of direct field sowing as a method of  forest formation. The soil preparation consisted of mechanic mowing followed by cleaning of small circles of 40 cm of diameter, where four seeds of Pinus elliottii Engelm were sowed, previously stratified, and protected by a bottomless plastic glass fastened to the sowing point. The treatments tested were direct sowing, sowing of seeds involved by paper envelop and seedling plantation as testify treatment. The results were not satisfactory, however, being observed at the most 38.46% of the sowing places with seedlings after 84 days of sowing. The main factor that contribuited to the failure of the method was seedling mortality caused by water deficit and high temperatures.

  11. Impact of sow and litter characteristics on colostrum yield, time for onset of lactation, and milk yield of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadmand, Camilla Nielsen; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Hansen, Christian Fink;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the concurrent impact of sow and litter characteristics on sow productivity. Sow productivity was defined as colostrum yield (CY), onset of lactation (the time point when milk secretion increased steeply, approximately 31 h postpartum), transition milk...... time for onset of lactation was positively correlated with transition MY (P ... litter equlization, none of the observed independent variables were related with time for onset of lactation. In conclusion, when maximizing sow productivity in the future, it may be rewarding to pay attention to sow productivity in the colostrum period and around time for onset of lactation, and special...

  12. Inclusion of Oat in Feeding Can Increase the Potential Probiotic Bifidobacteria in Sow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabin Gyawali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to (i investigate the impact of feeding oat on the population of bifidobacteria and (ii evaluate their probiotic potential. In this study, we investigated the effects of supplementing sows’ gestation and lactation feed with 15% oat (prebiotic source on the levels of probiotic population in milk. We found that dietary inclusion of oat during lactation and gestation resulted in increased levels of bifidobacteria compared to lactobacilli in sow milk. Furthermore bifidobacteria within the sow milk samples were further evaluated for probiotic potential based on aggregating properties, and acid- and bile-tolerance after exposure to hydrochloric acid (pH 2.5 and bile salts (0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1.0% and 2.0%. All isolates survived under the condition of low pH and bile 2.0%. Autoaggregation ability ranged from 17.5% to 73%. These isolates also showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7.Together our results suggest that inclusion of oat in feeding systems could have the potential to improve the intestinal health of piglets by increasing the population of bifidobacteria.

  13. Factors affecting the gestation period of pigs in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, A O

    1981-05-01

    Gestation periods taken from 432 records on purebred Large White, Duroc, Hampshire and their crossbred sows at Fashola Stock Farm in the Oyo State of Nigeria were analysed to determine the effects of some factors on the trait. For Large White, Duroc, Hampshire and the crossbred sows the mean gestation periods were 113.2, 115.1, 114.5 and 112.8 days respectively. Overall least squares mean was 11.2 days with a standard deviation of 9.06 days. Litter size at birth, year of birth and breed x season interaction had very highly significant effects of length of pregnancy. Breed differences were significant (P less than 0.05) whereas parity and season per se did not seem to influence this trait. Effects of boars accounted for some 11.8% of the trait was estimated as 0.47 r - 0.20 while the repeatability coefficient was 0.13. The data indicated a slight negative association between gestation period and litter size at birth.

  14. Perinatal Dietary Choline Deficiency in Sows Influences Concentrations of Choline Metabolites, Fatty Acids, and Amino Acids in Milk throughout Lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudd, Austin T; Alexander, Lindsey S; Johnson, Stacey K; Getty, Caitlyn M; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Dilger, Ryan N

    2016-11-01

    Choline is essential for synthesis of phospholipids, neurodevelopment, and DNA methylation. It is unknown whether dietary perinatal choline deficiency affects maternal milk composition. We examined whether perinatal maternal dietary choline deficiency influences porcine-milk composition. Yorkshire sows were fed choline-deficient (CD) or choline-sufficient (CS) gestation diets [544 or 1887 mg choline/kg dry matter (DM), respectively] from 65 d before to 48 h after parturition and then fed lactation diets (517 or 1591 mg choline/kg DM, respectively) through day 19 of lactation. Milk was collected from 7 sows fed each diet at days 0 (colostrum), 7-9 (mature milk), and 17-19 (preweaning) of lactation. Sow plasma was collected 65 d before and 19 d after parturition. Milk was analyzed for choline metabolite, fatty acid (FA), and amino acid composition. All outcomes were analyzed to assess main and interactive effects of choline intake and time. Plasma choline metabolites did not differ before treatment, but free choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine concentrations were lower in CD-fed than in CS-fed sows at day 19 of lactation (interaction; P deficiency induces alterations in plasma choline metabolites that are evident at the end of lactation. Betaine and select FAs in milk are sensitive to maternal dietary choline deficiency and day of lactation. Alterations in concentrations of these nutrients may affect early-life neonatal development. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Does sow reproduction and piglet performance benefit from the addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids to the maternal diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, Sofie; De Smet, Stefaan

    2013-09-01

    Good sow reproductive performance and piglet survival are essential for the profitability of the pig industry. Based on basic research of fatty acid and endocrine metabolism, it has been suggested that dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) could enhance reproductive outcome. However, proper requirements for these nutrients in sow diets have not been established. This review examines the literature on the effect of n-3 PUFA in the maternal diet on sow reproduction and piglet performance. Few reported studies have included biochemical analyses, e.g. eicosanoid concentrations or gene expression data, which could help elucidate any link between dietary n-3 PUFA supplementation and reproduction. Additionally, most studies used relatively low numbers of pigs, limiting the validity of the conclusions which can be drawn. In pregnant pigs, supplementing with n-3 PUFA has not been shown to increase significantly the number of embryos (in gilts) or (in most studies) the total number of piglets born (live and/or stillborn), but may prolong gestation, although the literature is not consistent. Most studies found no effect of n-3 PUFA on piglet birth weight, although positive effects on piglet vitality and pre- and post-weaning growth have been reported. In contrast to the impact during pregnancy, low amounts of n-3 PUFA in the lactation diet may increase litter size in the subsequent gestation.

  16. Echium oil and linseed oil as alternatives for fish oil in the maternal diet: Blood fatty acid profiles and oxidative status of sows and piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanghe, S; Millet, S; De Smet, S

    2013-07-01

    Echium oil (source of stearidonic acid) and linseed oil (source of α-linolenic acid) were evaluated as alternatives for fish oil in the diet of sows to increase the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status of the offspring. The hypothesis was that echium oil would be more efficient than linseed oil to increase the DHA concentration, as it bypasses the enzyme Δ6-desaturase. In addition, it was determined whether adding PUFA to the diet affected the plasma oxidative status. Sows were fed either a palm oil diet or a diet containing 1% linseed oil, echium oil, or fish oil from d 73 of gestation and during lactation (n = 16 per dietary treatment). Total oil concentrations in the diets were similar among dietary treatments. Blood samples were taken for fatty acid analysis and oxidative status of sows on d 73 and 93 of gestation and at parturition and the lightest and heaviest piglet per litter at birth and weaning. Colostrum was also sampled. No effect of diet was observed on total number of piglets born (13.7 ± 0.4), number of weaned piglets (10.8 ± 0.4), and gestation length (114.8 ± 0.2 d). Piglets from sows fed fish oil had lighter birth weights (1.41 ± 0.03 kg) than piglets from the linseed oil diet (1.54 ± 0.03 kg; P = 0.006), with no difference between the palm oil (1.45 ± 0.03 kg) and echium oil diet (1.49 ± 0.03 kg). Daily BW gain until weaning was less for piglets from sows fed the fish oil diet (214 ± 5 g) compared with piglets from sows fed the echium oil (240 ± 5 g; P oil diet (234 ± 5 g; P = 0.02). Compared with the palm oil diet, echium and linseed oil in the maternal diet increased the DHA concentration in the colostrum and the sow and piglet plasma to the same extent (1.1 to 1.4-fold; P oil diet, 20.7-fold, 10-fold, and 2.4-fold increases in DHA in colostrum, sow, and piglet plasma, respectively, were observed (P oil had, thus, no benefit over linseed oil and resulted in a twofold less DHA concentration in the plasma of piglets compared with fish

  17. The effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio on sow metabolism, milk production, and litter growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A V; Bruun, T S; Zerrahn, J-E; Tauson, A-H; Hansen, C F

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of increasing the dietary valine-to-lysine ratio (Val:Lys) for lactating sows weaning more than 12 piglets. Five hundred fifty-eight sows (parity 1 to 4) were allotted to 6 dietary treatments from 2 d postpartum, when litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Diets were analyzed to have a total dietary Val:Lys of 0.84, 0.86, 0.88, 0.90, 0.95, or 0.99:1. On all 558 sows, BW, back fat thickness (BF), and litter weight were registered at d 108 of gestation and d 2 and 25 (weaning) postpartum. On a subsample of 72 sows, additional measurements were made: sow BW and BF were measured on d 17 and litter weight was measured on d 10 and 17, and blood and urine samples were collected weekly. The litter size at weaning was not affected by the dietary Val:Lys ( = 0.23) and, on average, the sows weaned 13.0 ± 1.1 piglets. Average daily gain of the litter (2.93 ± 0.53 kg/d; = 0.84), litter weight at weaning ( = 0.67), the average milk yield (11.3 ± 1.4 kg/d; = 0.49), and milk contents of fat ( = 0.57), protein ( = 0.18), and lactose ( = 0.20) were not affected by the dietary Val:Lys. Increasing the dietary Val:Lys increased the milk concentration of Val ( 0.05). During lactation, sows, on average, had a BW and back fat loss of 22.1 ± 12.7 kg and 2.9 ± 1.7 mm, respectively. Plasma concentrations of glucose ( = 0.26), lactate ( = 0.95), urea N ( = 0.84), NEFA ( = 0.24), and creatinine ( = 0.42); urine concentration of creatinine ( = 0.57); and concentrations of AA in whole blood ( > 0.05) were not affected by the dietary Val:Lys. In conclusion, there was no effect of increasing the total dietary Val:Lys above 0.84:1 on sow metabolism and litter performance during lactation.

  18. Effects of dietary tryptophan:lysine ratio on the reproductive performance of primiparous and multiparous lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Z Y; Yang, X J; Kim, J; Menon, D; Baidoo, S K

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) to lysine (Lys) ratio on the performance of lactating sows. Thirty primiparous and 195 multiparous lactating sows (Landrace×Yorkshire) were allocated on the basis of parity, body weight, and backfat to 5 dietary treatments according to a randomized complete block design with 5 blocks of farrowing date. The 5 experimental diets contained 0.16%, 0.19%, 0.23%, 0.26%, or 0.29% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Trp and SID Lys level was identical (0.87%) for all diets, with the Trp:Lys ratio being 0.18, 0.22, 0.26, 0.30, and 0.33, respectively. Sows received their assigned lactation diets from day 109 of gestation to weaning. Litter size was standardized to 10-12 piglets within 2 days after farrowing. The average lactation length was 19 days and no creep feed was provided. Changes of sow body weight and backfat during lactation, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and weight, litter weight gain, preweaning piglet mortality, and performance of subsequent parity (total born alive, stillborns, and mummies) were recorded. A quadratic pattern of body weight loss (P=0.046), backfat loss (P=0.067), and average daily feed intake (P=0.096) with increasing Trp level was observed for the primiparous sows during lactation, and the losses were minimized with the SID Trp:Lys ratio of 0.25 (0.22% SID Trp) and average feed intake was maximized with the SID Trp:Lys ratio of 0.22 (0.19% SID Trp) according to a segmented regression analysis model. Nevertheless, preweaning piglet mortality of the primiparous sows increased linearly and quadratically (Psows decreased linearly (P=0.031) with increasing dietary Trp and the mortality was noticeably reduced when the SID Trp:Lys ratio reached 0.26 (0.23% SID Trp). Furthermore, stillborn piglet numbers of multiparous sows in the subsequent parity decreased linearly (P=0.035) with increasing level of Trp. Other parameters were not significantly (P>0

  19. Effects of different iron supply to pregnant sows (Sus scrofa domestica L.) on reproductive performance as well as iron status of new-born piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffler, Marzell; Becker, Christiane; Windisch, Wilhelm M

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of different iron (Fe) supply to sows during gestation on their reproductive performance and placental Fe load. Additionally, the Fe status of the corresponding offspring was assessed. Twenty multiparous sows were fed from insemination to farrowing with isoenergetic and isonitrogenic balanced diets differing in Fe content. The diet low in Fe (Group -Fe) was mainly composed of soybean meal and maize meal and had a Fe content of 114 mg/kg DM. For the diet high in Fe (Group +Fe), the diet was supplemented with Fe(II)SO4 · 7H2O to a total Fe content of 256 mg/kg. Blood characteristics (haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular haem concentration, total Fe-binding capacity, transferrin saturation) of all sows were measured at the beginning and at the end of gestation. Daily Fe retention was calculated at the day of farrowing. After birth, reproductive performance (litter size, piglet weight, litter weight), placental Fe content and Fe blood characteristics of the piglets were determined. Apparent daily Fe retention tended to be greater in Group +Fe (p sows did not show any variations between feeding groups, neither at the beginning nor at the end of pregnancy, whereas placental Fe content was lower in Group -Fe (p sows were supplied according to the current Fe recommendations, a significant decline in reproductive performance of Group -Fe was recognised. Therefore, it was concluded that the re-evaluation of the gross Fe requirements of pregnant sows is inevitable to accommodate the current feeding recommendations.

  20. Lysine supplementation in late gestation of gilts: effects on piglet birth weight, and gestational and lactational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Magnabosco

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lysine requirements for gain in maternal body reserves and piglet birth weight, during pregnancy, in contemporary prolific genotypes, are not well established. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary lysine in late pregnancy on piglet birth weight, and on the gestational and lactational performance of gilts. Pregnant gilts were uniformly distributed into two groups and received, from 85 to 110 days of gestation, either of two lysine levels in their diet: Control group - 28g lysine/day (n=136, and Lysine group - 35g lysine/day (n=141. There were no effects (P>0.10 of supplemental lysine on body weight and backfat (BF gain of females or on piglet birth weight. Gilts supplemented with lysine tended to have a lower percentage of stillbirths (P=0.077, reduced within-litter birth weight variation (P=0.094 and a lower percentage of piglets weighing less than 1100g (P=0.082 than in the Control group. During lactation, the performance of sows and litters was also evaluated in a subgroup of sows (n=26/group. There were no differences between the Control and Lysine groups (P>0.10 in voluntary feed intake, body reserve losses (weight and BF, weaning-to-estrus interval of the sows, and litter weaning weight. In conclusion, an increase in lysine (from 28 to 35g/day in late gestation of gilts (85 to 110 days tends to reduce the rate of stillbirths and to improve the uniformity of litter weight at birth, but does not affect the performance of females until farrowing or during subsequent lactation.

  1. High and low protein∶ carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation alter maternal-fetal cortisol regulation in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Kanitz

    Full Text Available Imbalanced maternal nutrition during gestation can cause alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA system in offspring. The present study investigated the effects of maternal low- and high-protein diets during gestation in pigs on the maternal-fetal HPA regulation and expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 and c-fos mRNAs in the placenta and fetal brain. Twenty-seven German Landrace sows were fed diets with high (HP, 30%, low (LP, 6.5% or adequate (AP, 12.1% protein levels made isoenergetic by varying the carbohydrate levels. On gestational day 94, fetuses were recovered under general anesthesia for the collection of blood, brain and placenta samples. The LP diet in sows increased salivary cortisol levels during gestation compared to the HP and AP sows and caused an increase of placental GR and c-fos mRNA expression. However, the diurnal rhythm of plasma cortisol was disturbed in both LP and HP sows. Total plasma cortisol concentrations in the umbilical cord vessels were elevated in fetuses from HP sows, whereas corticosteroid-binding globulin levels were decreased in LP fetuses. In the hypothalamus, LP fetuses displayed an enhanced mRNA expression of 11β-HSD1 and a reduced expression of c-fos. Additionally, the 11β-HSD2 mRNA expression was decreased in both LP and HP fetuses. The present results suggest that both low and high protein∶carbohydrate dietary ratios during gestation may alter the expression of genes encoding key determinants of glucocorticoid hormone action in the fetus with potential long-lasting consequences for stress adaptation and health.

  2. Delivery in Twin Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T. Peters

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether prophylactic treatment with oral broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy improves pregnancy outcomes in twin gestations.

  3. Do nurse sows and foster litters have impaired animal welfare? Results from a cross-sectional study in sow herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J T; Rousing, T; Kudahl, A B; Hansted, H J; Pedersen, L J

    2016-04-01

    Increasing litter size has led to introduction of so-called nurse sows in several EU countries. A nurse sow is a sow receiving piglets after having weaned her own piglets and thereby experiencing an extended lactation. In order to analyse whether nurse sows have more welfare problems than non-nurse sows a cross-sectional study was conducted in 57 sow herds in Denmark. Clinical observations were made on nurse and non-nurse sows and their litters. The clinical observations were dichotomized and the effect of being a nurse sow was analysed based on eight parameters: thin (body condition scoresow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. The effect of using nurse sows on piglet welfare was analysed with five models. The outcomes were: huddling, poor hygiene, lameness, snout cuts and carpal abrasions. The explanatory variables included in the five models were: nurse sow (yes=1/no=0), age of piglets (weeks old, 1 to 7), parity (1 to 8+) and all first order interactions between these three variables. Herd identity was included as a random factor in all models. The nurse sows had a significantly higher risk of swollen bursae on legs (P=0.038) and udder wounds (P=0.001). No differences in risk of being thin or having shoulder lesions were found. Foster litters had significantly higher risk of being dirty (P=0.026) and getting carpal abrasions (P=0.024) than non-foster litters. There was a tendency for higher lameness in foster litters than in non-foster litters (P=0.052). The results show that nurse sows and their piglets to some extent experience more welfare problems than non-nurse sows with piglets at a similar age.

  4. Composition of sow milk during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobasa, F; Werhahn, E; Butler, J E

    1987-05-01

    The composition of sow colostrum and milk was quantitated in 25 sows at 14 time points throughout lactation. All animals belonged to the same experimental herd of German Landrace, farrowed within 4 d, and were of various lactation numbers and various litter sizes. In the first 6 h of lactation colostrum total solids (TS) and protein contents were higher, while fat and lactose contents were lower than in mature milk. Decreased total protein and whey protein contents and concomitantly increased fat and lactose content, with nearly unchanged TS levels, indicate transition from colostrum to mature milk. The high protein content of colostrum was largely due to immunoglobulin (Ig). During the first 6 h, IgG accounts for nearly all the protein in colostrum but plays a decreasing role in sow milk as lactation proceeds. After 2 wk, IgA levels begin to increase and at the end of lactation, IgA constitutes 40% of the total whey protein. No influences of lactation number and litter size on milk composition could be ascertained in this study.

  5. Effect of season on fertility of sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Blagoje L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced fertility of sows during the warmer period of the year is a well-known occurrence in practical production. Namely, during summer months gilts become sexually mature later, the interval from weaning to estrus is prolonged, there is a greater number of postlactation silent estruses anestrias and ovarian cysts, the value of conception is lower, there are more irregular failed fertilizations, there is a higher degree of embryo mortality, and the litter size is smaller. This is why this occurrence presents an important zootechnological, veterinary-medical and economic problem. Most scientific research shows that this phenomenon is a consequence of the effects of an extended daily photoperiod and a higher ambient temperature. However, the degree of the individual effect of these factors has not been determined clearly, or the physiological and endocrinological mechanisms of their action. It is probably not possible completely to avoid the negative influence of seasonal factors on reduced fertility in sows during the summer period. However, it can be significantly alleviated with a regular maintenance technology, diet, hygiene and medical protection of sows. This paper presents knowledge acquired so far on the manifestation of this phenomenon, its physiological and endocrine bases, as well as possibilities for its practical resolving.

  6. Technical note: Measurement of mammary plasma flow in sows by downstream dilution of mammary vein infused para-aminohippuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Storm, Adam Christian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to design a method to estimate mammary plasma flow (MPF) in lactating sows using downstream dilution of para-aminohippuric acid (pAH) and to compare these estimates with MPF estimates based on specific AA as internal markers (MPF-AA). A permanent indwelling...... catheter was surgically implanted in the femoral artery, and another 2 were inserted in the right cranial mammary vein of 8 second- and third-parity sows on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. On the 3rd and 17th days in milk, arterial and venous blood samples were drawn in hourly intervals from 0.5 h before until...

  7. Congenital ataxia and tremor with cerebellar hypoplasia in piglets borne by sows treated with Neguvon vet. (metrifonate, trichlorfon) during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, B; Askaa, J; Basse, A; Bitsch, V; Eskildsen, M; Mandrup, M; Ottosen, H E; Overby, E; Pedersen, K B; Rasmussen, F

    1978-12-01

    In 1976--77 The State Veterinary Serum Laboratory received new-born pigs which had shown nervous disorders immediately after birth. In all the cases the sows had been treated with Nevugon vet. (metrifonate, trichlorfon) during pregnancy. In the majority of the affected litters the morbidity and lethality were 100 per cent. Analysis of the breeding data from some of the herds suggested that the period during which the fetuses are sensitive is rather narrow, i.e., approximately from day 45 to day 63. The disease was reproduced experimentally and it was concluded that oral treatment of pregnant sows with Neguvon vet. about the middle of the gestation period can result in severe nervous disorders in the piglets. Clinically the disease is characterized by ataxia and tremor, and corresponding to that there is a pronounced hypoplasia of the cerebellum and also a reduction in the size of the spinal cord.

  8. Sow-level risk factors for stillbirth of piglets in organic sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangstrup-Christensen, Lena; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2017-01-01

    In Danish organic pig production, one-third of total born piglets die before weaning, and stillbirth has previously crudely been estimated to account for 27% of the total preweaning mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate season, litter size, parity and body condition of the sow...... as risk factors for stillbirth in nine commercial Danish organic pig herds. The study was conducted over a 1-year period, and the data included registrations on 5170 farrowings with 82 906 total born piglets. The average number of total born piglets per litter was 16.0, and the number of stillborn piglets...... born during the summer months of May to August were found to be risk factors for stillbirth. Furthermore, an interaction between body condition and parity showed that thin sows with parity above 4 had a substantially increased risk of stillbirth compared with normal and fat sows with parity above 4...

  9. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawlor Peadar G

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter.

  10. A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many factors influence litter size. These include genetics, gilt management, lactation length, parity distribution, disease, stress and boar fertility. In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by only one pig. Born alive figures now average at 11.2 pigs per litter. In this regard, Ireland is falling behind our European competitors who have made significant advances over this time. Denmark, for example, has an average figure of 12.7 pigs born alive per litter and France an average of 12.5. The single area that could be improved immediately is sow feeding. It is important that sows are fed correctly throughout pregnancy. If over-fed during pregnancy, sows will have depressed appetite during lactation. If underfed in pregnancy, sows will be too thin at farrowing. The correct way to feed a pregnant sow is to match her feed allocation to her requirement for maintenance, body growth and growth of her developing foetuses. During lactation, sows should be given as much feed as they can eat to prevent excessive loss of body condition. Liquid-feed curves should be such that lactating sows are provided with a minimum mean daily feed supply of 6.2 kg. A small proportion of sows will eat more and this could be given as supplementary dry feed. Where dry feeding is practised in the farrowing house, it is difficult to hand-feed sows to match their appetite. Ideally ad libitum wet/dry feeders should be used. From weaning to service, sows should once again be fed ad libitum. If liquid feeding, this means giving at least 60 MJ DE (digestible energy) per day during this period. If dry feeding, at least 4 kg of lactation diet should be fed daily. The effort spent perfecting sow feeding management on units should yield high dividends in the form of increased pigs born alive per litter. PMID:21851695

  11. Effects of dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immunoglobulins, cytokines, fatty acid composition, and performance of lactating sows and suckling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei; Li, Jie; Wang, Jun Jun; Zhou, Weiliang; Wang, Qingbo; Zhu, Rongchang; Wang, Fenglai; Thacker, Phil

    2012-12-27

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ratios of n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the performance of lactating sows and their piglets. Thirty pregnant Landrace sows were assigned to one of three treatments from d 108 of gestation until weaning (26-29 d) and were fed diets containing different ratios of n-6:n-3 PUFA including 3:1, 9:1 and 13:1. The effects on sow and litter production traits were examined together with an assessment of sow body condition. No differences were detected among the treatments for the daily feed intake of sows or changes in sow weight and back-fat levels during lactation (P > 0.05). Litter size at d 14 and d 21 were tended to increase in 3:1 treatment compared with 9:1 and 13:1 treatments (P plasma (P plasma immunoglobulin concentrations are studied. No difference was observed among treatments in the concentrations of IgM, and IgA in colostrum (P > 0.05). A great significant difference for IgG concentration was observed among 3 group in colostrum. A great significant difference for IgA, and IgM (P plasma at d14 and a significant difference for IgG(P plasma IgG and IgA concentration were greater in 3:1 compared with 13:1 group (P < 0.01).In summary, the current study demonstrated that altering the ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA in lactating sow diet had an effect on the immune component including immunoglobulin and cytokines, and it tended to increase the litter average daily gain and improve the immune status of piglets when dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA was 9:1.

  12. 母猪赖氨酸需要量的研究进展%Research Progress on Lysine Requirement for Sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋亚东; 王瑞生; 刘作华; 杨飞云; 兰云贤; 黄金秀

    2015-01-01

    Lysine as the first limiting amino acids in sows feeds, and plays an important role in the reproduc-tive performance and the milking potential of sows. This review focused on the features of amino acids research on sow, assessment methods and indicators of lysine requirement, as well as summary of studies on lysine re-quirement of sows in the gestation and lactation period inside and outside China. This paper would provide some useful references for formulating a sow diet and feeding guide in swine production. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2015, 27(9):2654-2666].%赖氨酸作为母猪第一限制性氨基酸,对母猪繁殖性能和泌乳潜力的充分发挥具有重要的作用. 本文主要从母猪氨基酸研究特点、研究现状,赖氨酸需要量的测定方法、测定指标以及母猪在妊娠期和哺乳期对赖氨酸的需要量进行综述,为养猪生产实践中母猪饲粮的合理配制与科学饲养提供参考.

  13. Impact of fat source and dietary fibers on feed intake, plasma metabolites, litter gain and the yield and composition of milk in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, U; Bruun, T S; Poulsen, J; Theil, P K

    2017-06-01

    Sow lactation diets often include fat sources without considering the impact on digestion, metabolism and performance. Fiber ingredients may reduce feed intake and are often completely excluded from lactation diets, although locally available ingredients may be cost-efficient alternatives to partly replace cereals in lactation diets. Thus, a standard lactation diet low in dietary fiber, and two high-fiber diets based on sugar beet pulp (SBP) or alfalfa meal (ALF) were formulated. The SBP diet was high in soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), whereas ALF being high in insoluble NSP. Each diet was divided in three portions and combined with 3% soybean oil (SOYO), palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), or glycerol trioctanoate (C8TG) as the dietary fat source. Equal amounts of metabolizable energy were fed to 36 second parity sows from day 105 of gestation and throughout lactation to study the impact on feed intake, plasma metabolites, milk production and litter performance. Backfat thickness and BW of sows were recorded on days 3, 17 and 28 of lactation; blood was sampled on days 3 and 17; milk samples were obtained on days 3, 10, 17 and 24 of lactation; and piglets were weighed on days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 of lactation. Litter gain and milk yield during late lactation were greater in sows fed C8TG or SOYO than in sows fed PFAD (P=0.05), whereas loss of BW (P=0.60) and backfat (P=0.70) was unaffected by fat source. Milk protein on days 3 and 10 of lactation were lower in C8TG and SOYO sows, than in PFAD sows (Psows. Milk yield was unaffected by fiber treatment (P=0.43), whereas milk protein concentration was lowest in ALF sows (Psows. In conclusion, performance was enhanced in SOYO and C8TG compared with PFAD sows, possibly associated with reduced energy intake in PFAD-fed sows. Furthermore, the SBP diet seemed to impair feed intake and litter gain at peak lactation, suggesting that effects of the dietary fiber fraction on energy intake determines the potential

  14. Vitamin E Supplementation to Sows and Effects on Fertility Rate and Subsequent Body Development of their Weanling Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Umesiobi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E to sows on sow fertility and serum α-tocopherol, growth and physiological state of their weanling pigs. A total of 60 Large White gilts were randomly allotted to three groups (20 gilts per group from coitus to lactation phases over a two-parity period to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E on fecundity rates and litter size of sows. Each of the three dietary vitamin E treatment combinations involved 0, 40 or 70 IU/kg of dl- α-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, and parity 1 and 2. Sow serum α-tocopherol and Selenium (Se were collected at 30 day post coitum, 99 day of gestation and 21 day lactation. Serum α-tocopherol and Se were collected from piglets at 1 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning age. Data relating to sow fecundity and litter size were also recorded. Results indicate that body weights and body weight gains of sows and their litters increased significantly (P < 0.01 by parity, increasing more from parities 1 to 2, mostly when dietary vitamin E was increased from 40 to 70 IU/kg diet. The highest number of total piglets and number of piglets born alive (12 ± 8.9 vs. 11 ± 0.1 were obtained at parity 2 when dietary vitamin E was increased to 70 IU/kg diet. There was an increase in weights of the piglets when dietary vitamin E was increased in sow’s diet. There was a dramatic increase in serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations following 40 and 70 IU/kg of vitamin E supplementation during the 30 and 99 day gestation and 21 day lactation periods as parity increased. Se concentrations were about 3 fold higher in the 70 IU/kg vitamin E supplemented group in parity 2 compared to the other groups. In both parities, female piglets had higher serum α-tocopherol and Se concentrations at both 2 day post natum and on day 21 (weaning compared to the male piglets. Results from this study suggest that supplementing 70 IU/kg α-tocopheryl acetate in

  15. The effect of litter size, parity and farrowing duration on placenta expulsion and retention in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, S; Oliviero, C; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Soede, N M; Peltoniemi, O A T

    2017-04-01

    The hypothesis was that a prolonged parturition impairs placenta expulsion and can lead to retained placentas in sows. Furthermore, we hypothesized that application of oxytocin around the time of expulsion of the first placental part improves placenta expulsion. We recorded 142 parturitions of 101 Yorkshire x Large White sows. We determined parity, gestation length, number of liveborn and stillborn piglets, farrowing duration (time between first and last piglet) and the outcome variables: number of expelled placental parts, placenta expulsion duration (time between first and last placental part), first placental part expulsion (time between last piglet and first placental part) and last placental part expulsion (time between last piglet and last placental part). The relationship between farrowing duration and each of the outcome variables was investigated using four distinct multivariable models. Use of oxytocin (used in 44 out of 142 parturitions) increased number of expelled placental parts (3.8 ± 0.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.3; P = 0.035), decreased the placenta expulsion duration (172 ± 44 vs. 328 ± 26 min; P = 0.011) and time of last placental part expulsion (148 ± 48 vs. 300 ± 24 min; P = 0.025). If oxytocin was not used, farrowing duration obeyed a quadratic relationship with the number of expelled placental parts (P = 0.001), placenta expulsion duration (P = 0.002) and time of last placental part expulsion (P = 0.024). If oxytocin was used, number of expelled placental parts was positively associated with number of liveborn piglets (β = 0.2 ± 0.1; P = 0.002) and affected by parity. 5th parity sows expelled more placental parts (4.3 ± 0.4) than 4th (3.2 ± 0.3; P = 0.024) and 3rd parity sows (2.7 ± 0.4; P = 0.008). Furthermore, placenta expulsion duration was positively associated with number of liveborn piglets (β = 18 ± 8 min; P = 0.025). First placental part expulsion was negatively correlated with farrowing

  16. Recent advances in sow nutrition Recentes avanços na nutrição de porcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Woo Kim

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sows produce a larger number of fetuses than before and these fetuses possess genetic potentials to grow faster than before. Recent comparison shows that a porcine fetus is 40% heavier than 40 years ago. Thus the nutritional management of sows has been updated to reflect these genetic changes. Our recent study quantified nutritional needs for sows to support the growth of fetuses and mammary glands during gestation. Amino acid needs for fetal growth and mammary growth during late gestation (d 70 to farrowing significantly greater than those needs during early gestation (until d 70. Considering these increases, daily requirement of true ileal digestible Lys for a primiparous sows increases from 7 g (until d 70 to 15 g (d 70 to farrowing. Required qualities of proteins (i.e., amino acid ratios also change with an advance of pregnancy as maternal, fetal, and mammary tissues have their unique amino acid compositions. Thus, if the feed does not provide sufficient amounts and qualities of proteins, sows can be under a severe catabolic status during late gestation, especially during late gestation. Sows under a conventional feeding program had increased litter weight variations at farrowing (19% compared with early gestation (3.0%. Our recent study also shows that sows under a conventional feeding program have a dramatic increase in a systemic oxidative stress during late gestation compared with early gestation when measured by plasma α-tocopherol (56% decrease, plasma retinol (57% decrease, and DNA damage in white blood cells (125% increase which were sustained until the early lactation period. Increased oxidative damages in sows negatively affect the growth and health of fetuses as well as postpartum growth. Sow feeding during late gestation should reflect the changed needs for amino acids and antioxidants. Phase feeding or top dressing could be a practical solution to provide sufficient nutrients during late gestation.Matrizes produzem maior n

  17. How to Treat Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Listen En Español How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Be sure to see the latest Diabetes Forecast ... and a healthy start for your baby. Gestational Diabetes – Looking Ahead Gestational diabetes usually goes away after ...

  18. The Effects of Sowing Date and Sowing Density on Birds Damage in the Cultivars of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Onemli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A research in Barbaros city belong to Tekirdag centre county as farmer condition was carried outdetermination of bird damage ratio on the sown fields. The demonstration used three sunflower varieties(Super 25, Pioneer 6482, Sunbred 281, two sowing dates (16.04.1997 and 14.05.1997 and four sowing densities(20, 30, 40 and 50x70cm was established according to split-split plot design. The determination characters areseed yield per decare unless bird damage, bird damage ratio, plant height, stem diameter, circumference, plantseed yield, 1000 seed weight, protein ratio and oil ratio. Variety, sowing date, sowing density and theirinteractions effected significantly, on the bird damage ratio. Early sowing in Sunbred 281 on 20 x 70 cmincreased the seed yield per decare as 59.91 % according to later sowing. This variety in early sowing on 50 x70 cm and 20 x 70 cm sowing density exposed to bird damage with 37.79 and 34.80 % respectively. Earlysowing together with all varieties and sowing densities increased yield as 31.72 % according to later sowingdate. It was exposed to 18.27 % bird damage while later s owing had 2.49 % damage ratio. In addition, it isdetermined that varieties which have upright sunflower tray and early maturing were exposed to more birddamage according to the variety Pioneer with downright sunflower tray and later maturing 20 x 70 cm sowingdensity exposing upright tray had the most bird damage.

  19. Individual variation in eating speed of dry sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, K E; Cronin, G M

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the variation in eating speed by individual pregnant sows and the influence of feeding dry compared to wet feed. A total of 39 Norwegian Landrace × Yorkshire dry sows, 13 primiparous and 26 multiparous, were included in the experiment. In experimental period 1, each sow was offered 2.2 kg of a standard concentrate feed without added water. In experimental period 2, the sows were offered the same weight of concentrate feed but after mixing with water at a ratio of 1:4, based on weight. The sows were kept in groups of 4 or 5 in pens with individual feeding stalls. The weighed allocations of feed were poured into the troughs before the sows were given access to the food. On d 1, the sows were allowed to eat for 15 min, on d 2 for 10 min, on d 3 for 5 min, on d 4 for 2 min 30 s, and on d 5 for 1 min 15 s. At the designated time, feed troughs were covered, blocking sow access, and residual feed was carefully removed and weighed. Mean consumption rate of dry feed was 183.2 g/min for the first 5 min and 169.7 g/min for the first 10 min. For wet feed, the mean consumption rate was 1,859.8 g/min for the first 5 min and 1,060.7 g/min for the first 10 min. After 5 min, the sows had consumed 41.6% of the dry feed (range 19.5 to 79.1%, CV = 31.0%) and 84.5% of the wet feed (range 54.3 to 99.1%, CV = 14.9%). After 10 min, the sows had consumed 77.1% of the dry feed (range 33.9 to 100.0%, CV = 24.9%) and 5 of the 39 sows had completely ingested their allotted feed. When feed was wet, sows finished 96.4% of the ration (range 72.7 to 99.1%, CV = 6.4%) after 10 min. The speed of eating dry feed was positively correlated with sow weight, both at 5 (R = 0.72, P 0.10). We conclude that dry feed resulted in larger individual variation in feed consumption rate than wet feed. Furthermore, whereas feed consumption rate was correlated with liveweight of the sow when eating dry feed, the relationship was not significant when sows ate wet feed.

  20. Effect of floor cooling on farrowing sow and litter performance: Field experiment under Dutch conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Wagenberg, van, A.V.; Peet-Schwering, van der, C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Claessen, P.J.P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Lactating sows generally have problems dissipating their body heat to the environment. Cooling the floor under the sow¿s shoulder, called the cool-sow system, is a method to increase body heat removal by conduction, thereby contributing to the thermal comfort of the sow. In this study, the effect of the cool-sow system on the performance of the sow and her piglets in the farrowing room and on the position of the sow in the farrowing crate was determined. In total, 60 sows (parity between 2 an...

  1. Calculating Optimum sowing factor: A tool to evaluate sowing strategies and minimize seedling production cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric van Steenis

    2013-01-01

    This paper illustrates how to use an excel spreadsheet as a decision-making tool to determine optimum sowing factor to minimize seedling production cost. Factors incorporated into the spreadsheet calculations include germination percentage, seeder accuracy, cost per seed, cavities per block, costs of handling, thinning, and transplanting labor, and more. In addition to...

  2. Effect of diet supplementation with chelated zinc, copper and manganese on hoof lesions of loose housed sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisgara, Μarina; Skampardonis, Vassilis; Leontides, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    Hoof lesions are very common among sows and have been associated with lameness, early removal and compromised welfare and productivity. Although housing conditions and management can have an external effect on hoof health status, the role of trace mineral intake is vital in developing hoof structure and integrity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a diet supplemented with organic complexes of trace minerals (Zn, Cu, Mn), partly substituting their inorganic form, on hoof lesions of sows in three Greek swine herds. A total of 518 sows were initially examined for hoof lesions and their respective severity was scored. For each hoof, the length of toes and dew claws were evaluated and five anatomical hoof sites, the heel, the sole, the white line, the wall and the coronary band, were examined for lesions. Subsequently, the same sows were re-scored after one or two gestations on diets supplemented with organic trace minerals, partly substituting their inorganic salt form (organic form of Zn 45 ppm, Cu 14 ppm and Mn 25 ppm of the total 125 ppm of Zn, 15 ppm of Cu and 40 ppm of Mn, respectively). The odds of the higher versus the lower lesion scores were significantly lower after than before the inclusion of the organic minerals in sows' diet, for each of the considered foot sites with the exception of the coronary band, with a distinct effect according to foot location. Specifically, on rear feet the improvement of hoof lesions was either smaller (for heel, sole and wall) than on front feet or not significant (for white line, toe and dew claw length). Additionally, for each foot site and herd examined, after the inclusion of the organic minerals, there were more sows with either the same or lower lesion score, with the exception of the toe and the dew claw length in one of the herds. Within the specific conditions in the three studied herds, our findings highlight the role of chelated trace minerals in sows' hoof health

  3. Effects of nutrient supply, plasma metabolites, and nutritional status of sows during transition on performance in the next lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Lauridsen, C; Sørensen, M T;

    2012-01-01

    in the periods 0 to 24 h, 7 to 10 d, 14 to 17 d, and 17 to 28 d relative to parturition as indirect measures of colostrum yield (0 to 24 h), milk yield in early lactation (d 7 to 10), and at peak lactation (d 14 to 17 and d 17 to 28). Effects of gestation and lactation diets on studied sow traits were tested...... on selected days during the transition period and the next lactation, and tested statistically on separate days. The LWG in the colostral period was positively correlated with mean piglet birth weight (P

  4. Impact of pre-sowing treatment and sowing season on Douglas fir emergence rate in a specific seed lot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonín Martiník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Not only in the Czech Republic there is a problem with low yield of Douglas fir seedlings in forest tree nurseries. It can be caused mainly by two factors: the type of pre-sowing treatment and the temperature at the time of sowing. The aim of this study is to find out their influence on the emergence rate of Douglas fir. We have tested one specific seed lot originated from the Czech Republic subject to the following variants of pre-sowing treatment: soaking for 48 hours, stratification without a medium for 21 days and for 30 days after 48 hours of soaking and stratification for 30 days with a medium. The treated seeds were sown in a phytotron at temperatures of 13/8 °C – 10/14 hours (day/night (simulation of early sowing season in February or March and at temperatures of 17/13 °C – 14/10 hours (simulation of late sowing season in May. In case of the early sowing season, approximately half of the germinable seeds emerged in all treatment variants including the control variant (seeds without stratification. The late sowing season resulted in different emergence rate of the seeds that were subject to different variants of pre-sowing treatment (24–51 %. Then, 21day and 30day stratification were not sufficient for the tested conditions of the early and late sowing season. None of the combinations of pre-sowing treatment and sowing time resulted in full use of the seed potential of the tested seed lot.

  5. Infrared thermography to evaluate lameness in pregnant sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Rocio; Walsh, Shannon; Luimes, Paul H.; Friendship, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of lameness in sows is important to reduce losses and improve animal welfare. Mild-to-moderate lameness is difficult to diagnose in sows. Infrared thermography (IRT) was evaluated as a method of detecting signs of inflammation in the lower limbs as an aid in lameness detection. PMID:24587511

  6. Designated rooting areas to reduce pasture damage by pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mheen, van der H.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    To assess whether rooting damage by pregnant sows can be reduced by offering a designated area for wallowing and foraging, four groups of four sows each were subjected to four treatments, during eight periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square designed experiment. During each period, each group was given acces

  7. Early Embryo Survival and Development in Sows with Lactational Ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    During lactation, daily separation of sow and piglets, intermittent suckling (IS), can induce lactational oestrus and ovulation. This study examined effects of IS on subsequent early embryo survival and development. Multiparous Topigs40 sows were separated from their piglets for either 12 consecutiv

  8. Why farmers’ sowing dates hardly change when temperature rises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.; Timmermans, B.G.H.; Swaaij, van A.C.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that temperature rise leads to an earlier onset of spring in wild plant species and that farmers are not keeping track of climate change. Crop growth models and experiments show yield gains to be obtained from earlier sowing. Why do farmers not sow earlier? We propose

  9. Estimation of genetic and phenotypic parameters for sow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beke

    The analyses were done on 29 719 records for 7 983 sows from 29 herds, which farrowed between 1990 ... Reproduction is the source of all market and breeding animals. Thus sow ..... Multivariate analysis of litter size for multiple parities with ...

  10. Dietary fat and reproduction in the post partum sow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    Lactating sows are not able to ingest sufficient energy to produce the large amount of milk they are presently capable of. Therefore, sows use a considerable amount of body reserves to maintain their milk production. The high amount of body weight loss is negatively associated with subsequent reprod

  11. Research in gilt development to improve lifetime productivity of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper development and selection of gilts is essential to the productivity and longevity of the sow herd. A gilt must remain in the sow herd for 2 to 3 parities before she produces enough piglets to pay for the cost of her development. Average age at culling in U.S. swine herds is approximately 3....

  12. Risk factors of lameness in sows in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willgert, Katriina J E; Brewster, Veronica; Wright, Angela J; Nevel, Amanda

    2014-02-01

    Lameness in pigs is a major welfare concern and one of the most commonly reported reasons for premature culling of breeding sows. In this study, the prevalence of lameness in sows was estimated using data from 76 pig breeding units in England and risk factors associated with the occurrence of lameness were examined. The prevalence of lameness in sows was 4.5% (farm median 5.0%, range 0-40%), with at least one lame sow being observed at 54% of the 76 farms. Relative risk (RR) of lameness was determined by multivariable Poisson regression analysis. Farms with high producing sows had a lower rate of lame sows than farms with a medium level of production (P=0.01). However, medium levels of production on a farm were associated with higher levels of lameness than farms having the lowest level of production (P=0.02). Farms where the stockman had responsibility for more sows resulted in an increased risk of lameness (P=0.0062). When indoor units were considered, the area of the pen and younger sows (two parities or less) had higher risk of lameness (P=0.001 and P=0.026 respectively). An increased awareness of the risk factors behind lameness is essential in farm management and can be useful when designing housing areas as well as developing future prevention plans for lameness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. THE REQUIREMENTS OF CRUDE PROTEIN BY LARGE WHITE BREEDING SOWS AND PIGLETS IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.W.A. RHULE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Large White gilts at an average initial live weight of 100.39kg were distributed by completely randomized block design over three treatments. There were three cereals-based diets with three different calculated levels of crude protein (CP namely control breeder diet, Diet 1 (13.16% CP, Diet 2 (12.56% CP and Diet 3 (12.01% CP with corresponding lactation diets namely control lactation Diet 1 (LD1 (16.00% CP, Diet 2 (LD2 (14.50%CP and Diet 3 (LD3 (13.20%CP. Additionally there were three creep diets comprising control Diet 1 (CD1 with 23.01%CP, Diet 2 (CD2 with 21.46% CP and Diet 3 (CD3 with 20.00% CP. The average live litter size of sows were 8.50, 8.40 and 6.67 on Diets 1, 2, and 3 respectively (P>0.05. The number of piglets weaned decreased with decreasing CP in the diet being 7.83. 7.80 and 5.33 on Diets 1, 2 and 3 respectively but were not found to be significantly (P>0.05 different. The average birth weights of the piglets were similar at 1.45, 1.34 and 1.40 kg on Diets 1, 2 and 3 respectively (P>0.05. The milk yield by the sows at 28 days of lactation were found to be 3.06, 3.03 and 5.44kg/day on LD1, 2 and 3 and significantly (P<0.05 different being higher on the lowest CP diet. There was inconsistency with the milk yield at 42 days of lactation with significantly (P<0.05 different values of 4.87, 8.33 and 3.60kg/day on lactation with lactation diet 1, 2, and 3 respectively. It was observed that live weight gains by the sows during gestation significantly (P<0.05 increased with decreasing CP levels in the diets and were 30.3, 36.3 and 34.0 kg on Diets 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The ADGs of the piglets on the creep diets were 0.22, 0.17 and 0.19 kg/day on CD1, CD2 and CD3 respectively, and found to be significantly (P<0.05 different. The study indicated that decreasing levels of CP in the diet at gestation could affect the reproductive performance of the Sow. Decreasing CP in the lactation diet significantly affected sow performance

  14. TREE SPECIES DIRECT SOWING FOR FOREST RESTORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The direct sowing to tropical forest restoration can be viable when the ecological and silvicultural aspects of species areknown. This work evaluated the effect of breaking seed dormancy and a physical protector on the initial growth of riparian treespecies. The experiment was carried out in a randomized blocks design, in a factorial (2x2, with four blocks and four plots for eachtreatment. The treatment to break seed dormancy used were: immersion in sulphuric acid for 20 minutes and washing in water for 1hour plus soaking for 24 hours for Trema micrantha; immersion in boiling water (100oC with following soaking until refreshing for24 hours to Senna multijuga and Senna macranthera and pre-soaking in water for 2 hours for Solanum granuloso-leprosum. Thephysical protector used was a transparent plastic cup (500mL. The breaking seed dormancy used was efficient in laboratory, exceptfor S. macranthera. In field conditions, it was efficient only for S. multijuga and S. macranthera. The physical protector did notpresented any benefit for the studied tree species regarding seedlings emergence and survival, but it provided significant differencesin height and base diameter for S. multijuga and in height for S. macranthera after three months. After 24 months, T. micranthapresented the highest values for height and basal diameter. S. macranthera presented the height relative growth and T. micrantha thehighest basal diameter. The studied species can be recommended for ecological forest restoration, using direct sowing.

  15. Direct ELISA for estrone measurement in the faeces of sows: prospects for rapid, sow-side pregnancy diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Both free and conjugated fecal estrogens were surveyed in sows by means of RIA's after extraction and column chromatography. Six different RIA's were performed using the same fecal suspension. Based on differences in concentration in feces from 6 pregnant and 4 nonpregnant sows, estrone (E1) was sel

  16. Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) increases milk yield without losing body weight in lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Hoon; Joo, Young-Kuk; Lee, Jin-Woo; Ha, Young-Joo; Yeo, Joon-Mo; Kim, Wan-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the performance of lactating sows and piglets as well as the immunity of piglets suckling from sows fed CLA. Eighteen multiparous Duroc sows with an average body weight (BW) of 232.0 ± 6.38 kg were randomly selected and assigned to two dietary treatments (n = 9 for each treatment), control (no CLA addition) and 1% CLA supplementation. For the control diet, CLA was replaced with soybean oil. Experimental diets were fed to sows during a 28-day lactation period. Litter size for each sow was standardized to nine piglets by cross-fostering within 24 hours after birth. Sow milk and blood samples were taken from sows and piglets after 21 and 27 days of lactation, respectively. Loss of BW was significantly (p sows fed control diet compared to sows fed CLA diet. Piglet weights at weaning and weight gain during suckling were significantly (p sows fed CLA compared to sows fed control diet. Serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) and urea nitrogen concentrations were significantly (p sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. IgG concentrations of the groups supplemented with CLA increased by 49% in sow serum (p Sows fed CLA showed an increase of 10% in milk yield compared with sows fed soybean oil (p sows fed CLA than in sows fed soybean oil. Solid-not-fat yield was significantly (p sows supplemented with CLA than in sows fed control diet and also protein-to-fat ratio in milk was significantly (p sows fed CLA compared with the control group. The results show that CLA supplementation to sows increased milk yield without losing BW during lactation, whereas soybean oil supplementation resulted in severe BW loss.

  17. Reproductive performance and bone status markers of gilts and lactating sows supplemented with two different forms of vitamin D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Halekoh, U; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    In swine nutrition, little is known about the requirements of vitamin D in reproductive processes and bone health. Vitamin D recommendation of sows during gestation and lactation is not consequently based on scientific reports. The current study was undertaken to obtain information on the dose...... experiment, lactation day (P vitamin D influenced the concentration of osteocalcin and calcium, and the activities of total alkaline phosphatase, and bone alkaline phosphatase in plasma. Age of the suckling piglets affected their plasma bone health markers. In conclusion, above......-response pattern of two vitamin D sources, the commonly used cholecalciferol, called vitamin D3, and a newly developed Hy•D product (25-hydroxycholecalciferol). In experiment 1, 160 gilts were randomly assigned from the first estrus until d 28 of gestation to dietary treatments containing 4 concentrations of one...

  18. The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, C.I.M.; Silva, P.I.M.; Costas, B.

    2013-01-01

    Tryptophan (TRP) supplemented diets have been shown to have therapeutic effects in farmed animals including fish by modulating the activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). The effects reported in fish have been obtained using individually-housed fish and include......-term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n. =. 108, 490.6. ±. 4.0. g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments...

  19. Variation among sows in response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rashidi, H.; Mulder, H.A.; Mathur, P.K.; Knol, E.F.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease with negative impacts on reproduction of sows. Genetic selection to improve the response of sows to PRRS could be an approach to control the disease. Determining sow response to PRRS requires knowing pathogen burden and sow

  20. Hogthrob: Towards a Sensor Network Infrastructure for Sow Monitoring (wireless sensor network special day)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe; Leopold, Martin; Madsen, K

    2006-01-01

    We aim at developing a next-generation system for sow monitoring. Today, farmers use RFID based solutions with an ear tag on the sows and a reader located inside the feeding station. This does not allow the farmers to locate a sow in a large pen, or to monitor the life cycle of the sow (detect heat...

  1. Causes and consequences of variation in weaning to oestrus interval in the sow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vesseur, P.C.

    1997-01-01

    First parity sows often have a prolonged weaning to oestrus interval (WOI), are treated with oestrus inducing hormones or are not showing oestrus at all. Many young sows are culled because of fertility problems. Of the annual culling of sows, 25 to 30% is because the sow is not showing oestrus or no

  2. Effect of floor cooling on farrowing sow and litter performance: Field experiment under Dutch conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenberg, van A.V.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Claessen, P.J.P.W.

    2006-01-01

    Lactating sows generally have problems dissipating their body heat to the environment. Cooling the floor under the sow¿s shoulder, called the cool-sow system, is a method to increase body heat removal by conduction, thereby contributing to the thermal comfort of the sow. In this study, the effect of

  3. Changing the omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acid ratio in sow diets alters serum, colostrum, and milk fatty acid profiles, but has minimal impact on reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, L; Leterme, P; Beaulieu, A D

    2014-12-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that reducing the omega-6 (n-6) to omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) ratio in sow diets will improve performance, characterized by increased litter size, decreased preweaning mortality, and improved growth performance. Second, we determined if the FA profile in sow and piglet blood, colostrum, and milk are altered when sows are fed diets with varied n-6:n-3 ratios and if the dietary FA ratio impacts circulating concentrations of IgG, IgA, eicosapentaenoic (EPA), or docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid. Sows (n=150) were assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (each divided into gestation and lactation diets) on d 80 of gestation. Period 1 (P1) is defined as d 80 of gestation to weaning and Period 2 (P2) refers to the subsequent breeding to weaning. Diets were wheat and barley based (5% crude fat) and treatments consisted of a control (tallow), 3 diets with plant oil-based n-6:n-3 ratios (9:1P, 5:1P, and 1:1P), and a 5:1 fish oil diet (5:1F). Litter size was unaffected by treatment during P1 and P2 (P>0.10). In P1, birth weight was unaffected by diet (P>0.10); however, weaning weight (P=0.019) and ADG from birth to weaning (P=0.011) were greatest for piglets born to 9:1P and 5:1P sows. During P2, 5:1F sows consumed 10% less feed during lactation (P=0.036), tended to have reduced piglet birth weights (P=0.052), and piglet weaning weight was reduced by 0.8 kg (P=0.040) relative to the other diets. Colostrum and piglet serum IgA and IgG concentrations were unaffected by diet (P>0.10). Serum n-3 FA were greatest in sows (Pdiets and in their offspring (P=0.014). Serum α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greatest in 1:1P sows and EPA and DHA were greatest in 5:1F sows (P0.10). Relative to piglets of sows consuming the control diet, EPA was 2.5-fold greater in the 1:1P group and 4-fold greater in 5:1F group (Pdiets with plant-based n-6:n-3 ratios of 5:1 or 1:1 did not impact performance relative to a control group but improved the conversion of ALA into EPA and

  4. Effect of sow parity on vaginal electrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezác, P; Kukla, R; Pöschl, M

    2002-08-15

    The influence of sow parity on the changes of vaginal impedance after weaning was examined. Sows were monitored twice a day for oestrus via exposure to a sexually mature boar. The criterion for confirmation of ovulation was an increase in plasma progesterone levels above 12.5 nmol l(-1) 8 and 12 days after oestrus onset. The impedance measurements were carried out by a four-terminal method. In sows of all parities, the vaginal impedance decreased gradually after weaning (P four-terminal method.

  5. Maternal Betaine Supplementation during Gestation Enhances Expression of mtDNA-Encoded Genes through D-Loop DNA Hypomethylation in the Skeletal Muscle of Newborn Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yimin; Song, Haogang; Gao, Guichao; Cai, Demin; Yang, Xiaojing; Zhao, Ruqian

    2015-11-25

    Betaine has been widely used in animal and human nutrition to promote muscle growth and performance, yet it remains unknown whether maternal betaine supplementation during gestation affects the metabolic characteristics of neonatal skeletal muscles. In the present study, feeding sows with betaine-supplemented diets throughout gestation significantly upregulated the expression of mtDNA-encoded OXPHOS genes (p betaine supplementation increased the plasma betaine concentration and muscle expression of methyl transfer enzymes (p betaine supplementation during gestation enhances expression of mtDNA-encoded genes through D-loop DNA hypomethylation in the skeletal muscle of newborn piglets.

  6. effect of sowing media and gibberellic acid on the seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    Keywords: Gibberellic Acid, Sowing Media, Bougainvillea glabra, Ixora coccinea, Rosa chinensis ... growth and development and hence concentration and ..... Horticulture. 1st Indian Edition. Biotech Books. Tri -Nagar, New Delhi,. India.

  7. Helcococcus kunzii Isolated from a Sow with Purulent Urocystitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattarola, Carla; Bellino, Claudio; Tursi, Massimiliano; Maggi, Elisa; D'Angelo, Antonio; Gianella, Paola; Dondo, Alessandro; Cagnasso, Aurelio

    2010-01-01

    Helcococcus kunzii has never been reported in veterinary medicine. The isolation of H. kunzii from a sow with purulent urocystitis is described, suggesting this organism's potential pathogenic role in swine. PMID:20534802

  8. Helcococcus kunzii Isolated from a Sow with Purulent Urocystitis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Grattarola, Carla; Bellino, Claudio; Tursi, Massimiliano; Maggi, Elisa; D?Angelo, Antonio; Gianella, Paola; Dondo, Alessandro; Cagnasso, Aurelio

    2010-01-01

    Helcococcus kunzii has never been reported in veterinary medicine. The isolation of H. kunzii from a sow with purulent urocystitis is described, suggesting this organism's potential pathogenic role in swine.

  9. Drinking behaviour in sows kept outdoors during the winter months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2014-01-01

    of water intake in sows kept outdoors with free access to water. Thestudy was performed on an organic pig herd with outdoor sows. Twenty-four Danish Lan-drace × Yorkshire sows of different parity (mean: 4.5 ± 2.8) housed in individual farrowingpaddocks with free access to water provided by a frost......-proof drinking bowl were used. Theindividual sow’s water intake from the drinking bowl was measured continuously fromsix days before farrowing until weaning at seven weeks after farrowing. Temperature ofsupplied water to each drinking bowl, air temperature and rainfall was measured contin-uously. Numbers of born...... alive, stillborn and weaned piglets were recorded. The recordingperiod was divided into two temperature categories; control days (CD) with daily averageair temperature at or above 0◦C and frosty days (FD) with daily average air temperaturebelow 0◦C. The FD included data from 22 days representing 11 sows...

  10. Weaning strategies to improve the performance of sows and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Makerere University, P.O. ... Keywords: Sow, pigs, reproduction, suckling, wean, oestrus, small-scale farmer ..... This publication is an output of a research project funded by Sida/SAREC ...

  11. Variability and repeatability in gestation length related to litter performance in female pigs on commercial farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y; Koketsu, Y

    2007-07-15

    Forecasting gestation length (GL) in sows enables producers to be prepared to provide assistance at farrowing, or for timely treatment to induce parturition. The objectives of the present study were to determine GL across parities, the repeatability and correlation of the GL, and associations of GL with the three litter size variables (total pigs born, pigs born alive, and dead piglets) and longevity. This study was conducted on 94 farms and encompassed 66,254 farrowing records of 13,715 sows born during 1999. Variance components and correlation analyses were used to determine the repeatability and the correlations of GL. Mixed-effects models were used to analyze associations of GL with litter size variables and longevity. The mean of GL across parities was from 115.2 to 115.4 d. The proportions of GL 114, 115, and 116 d for all farrowing events were 19.2, 30.8, and 22.2%, respectively. The GL between parities were correlated (0.40/=117 d (P<0.01). Sows with GLsows.

  12. An analysis of survey data by size of the breeding herd for the reproductive management practices of North American sow farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R V; Rodriguez Zas, S L; Sloter, N L; McNamara, K A; Gall, T J; Levis, D G; Safranski, T J; Singleton, W L

    2013-01-01

    A survey was performed to assess whether reproductive management differed among small-sized (Sm, farms (n=113). Farms with 501 to 4000 sows/barn were most frequent with sows kept in stalls on 90% of farms. More Lg farms (Pfarms weaned at >21 d, whereas M farms were more likely to wean at 18 to 21 d (Pfarms had farrowing rates above 89% than Sm and M farms (Pfarms than on S. On M and Lg farms, sows were bred in larger batches, using lower person to sow ratios, and with more people required than on Sm farms (Pfarms spent time moving sows and on records, but hours devoted to estrous detection, breeding, and other tasks did not differ among farms (P>0.10). More M and Lg farms used more boars for estrus detection, rotated boars, and controlled boar movement than Sm farms (PFarm size also influenced semen sourcing, number of doses received, and frequency of semen delivery (Pfarms performed AI in the presence of a boar, left the AI rod in after AI, checked for returns, and diagnosed pregnancy than Sm farms (Pfarms within 2 d, occurring most often in the AM, but with exposure times varying from 1 to 5 min/sow. Semen was thermally protected for 50% of farms receiving shipments, and semen storage was consistent among farms. For AI, service occurred within minutes to hours after detection of estrus on 61% of farms. During AI, procedures such as back-pressure were required, whereas techniques such as hands-free AI were prohibited on most farms. Sow movement was allowed only once at 4 wk after breeding on 50% of farms, and pregnancy diagnosis occurred at 3 to 5 wk on 78% of farms. Most sows were allowed ≥1 chance for breeding after conception failure before culling. Incidence of fail to farrow was 82% of farms. Summer infertility was observed on 69% of farms with estrus and pregnancy failures the leading causes. Over 70% of farms reported a technician effect on fertility. These results suggest that reproductive management of farms in key areas related to weaning, breeding

  13. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiwani, Aliya; Marseille, Elliot; Lohse, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), perinatal complications and long-term morbidity is gaining increased attention. However, the global burden of GDM and the existing responses are not fully understood. We aimed to assess country prevalence and to summarize...

  14. Performance of lactating sows according to parturition order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Maria Lima Garcia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of parturition order on the productive performance of lactating sows. In a completely randomized design, 200 lactating cows were allocated to four treatments: 1st and 2nd, 3rd to 5th, 6th and 7th and 8th to 11th parturition order, with 40, 81, 32 and 47 repetitions, respectively. The parturition order did not influence (P>0.05 the number of weaned piglets, weight of piglets and litter at weaning, weight gain of piglets and litter, or mortality. A higher (P<0.05 total and percent occurrence of diarrhea was observed in piglets of third to fifth parturition sows. The worst fecal score was found in piglets born to first and second parturition sows. The parturition order also influenced (P<0.05 the mean daily incidence of diarrhea in piglets, with a higher incidence in piglets of first and second parturition sows. In conclusion, parturition order did not influence the productive performance of lactating sows, although piglets born to first and second parturition sows exhibited a higher daily incidence of diarrhea and more severe symptoms.

  15. Effect of dietary supplementation of different oils during the first or second half of pregnancy on the glucose tolerance of the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Litten, J C; Dodds, P F; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-07-01

    Poor glucose tolerance may be an under-researched contributory factor in the high (10% to 20%) pre-weaning mortality rate observed in pigs. Insulin resistance commences at around week 12 of gestation in the sow, although there are conflicting reports in the literature about the extent to which insulin resistance is modulated by maternal diet. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of supplementing the maternal diet with different dietary oils during either the first half or the second half of gestation on the glucose tolerance of the sow. Sows were offered the control (C: n = 5) diet as pellets or the C diet plus 10% extra energy (n = 16 per group) derived from either: (i) extra pellets; (ii) palm oil; (iii) olive oil; (iv) sunflower oil; or (v) fish oil. Experimental diets were fed during either the first (G1) or second (G2) half of gestation. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted on day 108 of gestation by administering 0.5 g/kg glucose i.v. Blood samples were taken every 5 to 10 min for 90 min post administration. The change in body weight and backfat thickness during gestation was similar but both type and timing of dietary supplementation influenced litter size and weight. With the exception of the sunflower oil group, supplementing the maternal diet in G1 resulted in larger and heavier litters, particularly in mothers offered palm oil. Basal blood glucose concentrations tended to be more elevated in G1 than G2 groups, whilst plasma insulin concentrations were similar. Following a GTT, the adjusted area under the curve was greater in G1 compared to G2 sows, despite no differences in glucose clearance. Maternal diet appeared to influence the relationship between glucose curve characteristics following a GTT and litter outcome. In conclusion, the degree of insulin sensitivity can be altered by both the period during which maternal nutritional supplementation is offered and the fatty acid profile of the diet.

  16. Estimation of indirect genetic effects in group-housed mink (Neovison vison) should account for systematic interactions either due to kin or sex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alemu, Setegn Worku; Berg, Peer; Janss, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Social interactions among individuals are abundant, both in wild and in domestic populations. With social interactions, the genes of an individual may affect the trait values of other individuals, a phenomenon known as indirect genetic effects (IGEs). IGEs can be estimated using linear mixed models....... Most IGE models assume that individuals interact equally to all group mates irrespective of relatedness. Kin selection theory, however, predicts that an individual will interact differently with family members versus non-family members. Here, we investigate kin- and sex-specific non-genetic social...... interactions in group-housed mink. Furthermore, we investigated whether systematic non-genetic interactions between kin or individuals of the same sex influence the estimates of genetic parameters. As a second objective, we clarify the relationship between estimates of the traditional IGE model and a family...

  17. Using simulation models to investigate the cumulative effects of sowing rate, sowing date and cultivar choice on weed competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Izzadora K S; Storkey, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing pressure on crop production from the evolution of herbicide resistance, farmers are increasingly adopting Integrated Weed Management (IWM) strategies to augment their weed control. These include measures to increase the competitiveness of the crop canopy such as increased sowing rate and the use of more competitive cultivars. While there are data on the relative impact of these non-chemical weed control methods assessed in isolation, there is uncertainty about their combined contribution, which may be hindering their adoption. In this article, the INTERCOM simulation model of crop/weed competition was used to examine the combined impact of crop density, sowing date and cultivar choice on the outcomes of competition between wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Alopecurus myosuroides. Alopecurus myosuroides is a problematic weed of cereal crops in North-Western Europe and the primary target for IWM in the UK because it has evolved resistance to a range of herbicides. The model was parameterised for two cultivars with contrasting competitive ability, and simulations run across 10 years at different crop densities and two sowing dates. The results suggest that sowing date, sowing density and cultivar choice largely work in a complementary fashion, allowing enhanced competitive ability against weeds when used in combination. However, the relative benefit of choosing a more competitive cultivar decreases at later sowing dates and higher crop densities. Modeling approaches could be further employed to examine the effectiveness of IWM, reducing the need for more expensive and cumbersome long-term in situ experimentation.

  18. Gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most common medical complication of pregnancy. It is associated with maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes. Maintaining adequate blood glucose levels in GDM reduces morbidity for both mother and baby. There is a lack of uniform strategies for screening and diagnosing GDM globally. This review covers the latest update in the diagnosis and management of GDM. The initial treatment of GDM consists of diet and exercise. If these measures fail to achieve ...

  19. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  20. Influence of mating frequency on sow reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, J; Dial, G D; Trigg, T; Davies, P; King, V L

    1998-12-01

    Gilts and sows were bred one, two, or three times during a single estrous period in a commercial herd for evaluating the effect of mating frequency on reproductive performance. Estrus detection started at approximately 0630 daily by applying back pressure to females with the presence of a mature boar. Natural mating was used. Gilts detected in estrus were mated in the morning of d 1 (AM), the morning of d 1 and 2 (AM-AM), and the morning and afternoon of d 1 and morning of d 2 (AM-PM-AM) for mating frequencies 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Sows were bred in the AM, AM-AM, AM-PM-AM (1), and morning of d 1 and morning and afternoon of d 2 [AM-AM-PM (2)] for mating frequency 1, 2, 3 (1), and 3 (2), respectively. Breeding events in the morning and afternoon started at approximately 0730 and 1530. Females were randomly assigned to a mating frequency. Boars were randomly assigned to each breeding event. In total, 256 gilts and 766 sows were involved in the study. Gilts with a single mating (76.5%, P = .06) and triple matings (80.4%, P .1) in the farrowing rates of sows were observed between mating frequencies 1, 2, 3 (1), and 3 (2). Double-mated gilts had more (P .3) in total born and pigs born alive in sows between mating frequencies. We concluded that triple-mating gilts and sows did not improve farrowing rate and litter size compared with single and double matings. There were no differences in farrowing rate and litter size between double- and single-mated sows. Gilts with double matings had a larger litter size than those with a single mating.

  1. The effect of a non-starch polysaccharide-hydrolysing enzyme (Rovabio® Excel) on feed intake and body condition of sows during lactation and on progeny growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M C; Geraert, P A; Maillard, R; Kluess, J; Lawlor, P G

    2012-10-01

    A total of 200 (Large White × Landrace) sows were used in a 39-day study to evaluate the effects of feeding a non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-hydrolysing enzyme multicomplex (Rovabio(®) Excel) in conjunction with a high- or reduced nutrient-density diet during lactation on sow body condition, feed intake and progeny performance. Eight sows were selected each week for 25 weeks, blocked by parity and BW into groups of four, and within the block randomly assigned to one of the four treatments (n = 50/treatment). Treatments were: (1) LND: low energy (13.14 MJ of DE/kg), low CP (15%) diet; (2) LND + RE: LND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme; (3) HND: high energy (14.5 MJ of DE/kg), high CP (16.5%) diet; and (4) HND + RE: HND with 50 mg/kg NSP-hydrolysing enzyme. Sows were fed treatment diets from day 109 of gestation until the day of subsequent service. Between weaning and re-service, Rovabio(®) Excel addition to LND diets resulted in an increase in energy intake; however, a reduction was observed when supplemented to the HND diet (P Excel increased feed and energy intake during week 3 (days 15 to 21) of lactation (P Excel had greater back-fat depth at weaning and service (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in back-fat depth during lactation and from farrowing to service was not different between treatments. Feeding the HND diet increased energy intake before farrowing, throughout lactation and during the weaning to service interval (P < 0.01); however, overall, average daily feed intake tended to be reduced (P < 0.10). At service, sows fed the HND diet were heavier than sows fed the LND diet (P < 0.05); however, the magnitude of change in BW between treatments was not different. Feeding the HND diet to sows resulted in a tendency for heavier piglets at birth (P = 0.10) that tended to grow at a faster rate and be heavier at weaning than piglets from sows fed the LND diet (P = 0.06). These results indicate that NSP-degrading enzymes offer minimal benefit

  2. Gestational mutations in radiation carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, R.; Luebeck, G.; Moolgavkar, S.

    Mutations in critical genes during gestation could increase substantially the risk of cancer. We examine the consequences of such mutations using the Luebeck-Moolgavkar model for colorectal cancer and the Lea-Coulson modification of the Luria-Delbruck model for the accumulation of mutations during gestation. When gestational mutation rates are high, such mutations make a significant contribution to cancer risk even for adult tumors. Furthermore, gestational mutations ocurring at distinct times during emryonic developmemt lead to substantially different numbers of mutated cells at birth, with early mutations leading to a large number (jackpots) of mutated cells at birth and mutation occurring late leading to only a few mutated cells. Thus gestational mutations could confer considerable heterogeneity of the risk of cancer. If the fetus is exposed to an environmental mutagen, such as ionizing radiation, the gestational mutation rate would be expected to increase. We examine the consequences of such exposures during gestation on the subsequent development of cancer.

  3. Field evaluation of a bioregulator containing live Bacillus cereus spores on health status and performance of sows and their litters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulos, C; Karagiannidis, A; Kritas, S K; Boscos, C; Georgoulakis, I E; Kyriakis, S C

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of Paciflor, a bioregulator containing live Bacillus cereus CIP 5832 spores, was assessed in sows during late pregnancy and lactation, as well as in their piglets up to the growing phase. Two groups each of 30 pregnant gilts and sows received normal feed (T1 group), or feed with 85 g Paciflor per ton feed (T2 group), from 15 days prior to farrowing up to the end of the lactation period. Furthermore, 15 litters of the T1 group and 15 litters of the T2 group, were offered normal feed from the 5th to the 70th days of life (T1.1 and T2.1 groups, respectively), while the remaining 15 litters each of the T1 and T2 groups received the same feed but including Paciflor at a dose of 100 g/ton (from day 5 to day 49) and 50 g/ton (from day 50 to day 70). These pig litters were T1.2 and T2.2, respectively. No differences were seen between the T1 and T2 groups with respect to the clinical observations (loss of appetite, fever, mastitis, metritis and returns to oestrus, treatments applied, deaths, or removals to the slaughterhouse), gestation length, bodyweight of sows at farrowing or litter-size at birth. However, during lactation, the fat content of the dam's milk was increased (0.46% more fat), the body weight loss of sows was reduced and the number of weaned pigs per sow was increased (0.6 more pigs per litter) after administration of Paciflor (P pigs originating from Paciflor-treated dams (T2.2 group) (P < 0.05). Despite the fact that no difference was seen between groups with regard to the amount of feed consumed, the feed conversion ratio of Paciflor-treated piglets (T2.2 and T1.2) was significantly improved compared to that of the untreated piglets (T2.1 and T1.1) (P < 0.05). With respect to weight gain, for the Paciflor-treated piglets, those born to Paciflor-treated mothers (T2.2) were 0.56 kg heavier than those born to untreated dams (T1.2) (P < 0.05). It is concluded that administration of Paciflor in dams during the end of pregnancy and during lactation

  4. Sterility in breeding sows as a consequence of reproductive tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the effects of certain pathological conditions on the sterility of breeding sows. Pathomorphological investigations were performed on 185 reproductive organs. We analyzed the reasons for elimination from local records. The biggest number of sows with pathological changes on reproductive organs were in the group of barren sows, 48.68% followed by anestric sows, 30.26%, and the smallest number in sows with failed fertilizations, 21.05%. Cysts in ovaries, ovarian tubes, oviducts and  the mesosalpinx were found in 23.77% of the examined sows. Lutein cysts were found in a significantly higher percentage in sows which fail to be fertilized than in barren or anestric animals. Small granular degeneration of the ovaries was determined in barren sows and those which cannot be fertilized, while it was not determined in anestric sows. Cysts on uterus ligaments and ovaries and on ovarian tubes and oviducts were found in significantly higher numbers in sows which fail be fertilized than in barren or anestric sows. Their presence can be connected to obstructions in the transport process of spermatozoa, eggs, and the fertilization process in sows which fail to be fertilized, especially in cases of cysts located on the very serosa of ovarian tubes which we found in these sows. We determined small granular degeneration of the ovaries in barren sows and those which fail to fertilized, but not in anestric sows. Ovarian insufficiency was mostly connected to anestric sows. Vaginitis, endometritis, periometritis and oocytis present an important factor in the occurrence of sterility primarily in sows which are barren or which fail to be fertilized.

  5. The effect of caffeine on mammary gland development and milk yield in primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Hacker, R R

    1995-02-01

    Pregnant Yorkshire gilts (n = 42) were fed caffeine (6 g/d) or served as controls from d 60 of pregnancy until d 4 postpartum to test the effect of caffeine on mammary gland development, milk yield, and feed consumption. Caffeine reduced voluntary feed intake (P = .001) and body weight gain (P = .001) of gilts from d 60 to 109 of gestation. Pig birth weight in the treated group was less than (P = .01) that in the control group. However, pig viability score at birth was not affected by maternal caffeine ingestion. For assessing mammary gland DNA, RNA, dry fat-free tissue (DFFT), fat, and protein content, four sows from the caffeine group and three controls were slaughtered on the 1st d of lactation. Immediately after slaughter, mammary systems were removed, separated by gland, and dissected free of skin, muscle, and fatty pad, which had not been invaded by glandular tissue. The DNA and RNA content were evaluated in DFFT. Caffeine increased mammary RNA content (P = .023) and milk yield (P = .001) on d 1 of lactation. However, DNA, DFFT, fat, and protein were not significantly increased, although values were somewhat greater in the treatment group (approximately 82%). On d 21 of lactation, milk yield of treated sows did not differ from that of controls. The increased milk yield on d 1 of lactation was due to increased mammary epithelial cell activity and cell numbers. These results indicate that caffeine feeding can have a positive effect on porcine mammary gland development as well as milk yield.

  6. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations of litter uniformity and litter size in Large White sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian; ZHAO Ke-bin; WANG Li-xian; WANG Li-gang; SHI Hui-bi; YAN Hua; ZHANG Long-chao; LIU Xin; PU Lei; LIANG Jing; ZHANG Yue-bo

    2016-01-01

    Litter uniformity, which is usualy represented by within-litter weight coefifcient of variation at birth (CVB), could inlfuence litter performance of sows and the proiftability of pig enterprises. The objective of this study was to characterize CVB and its effect on other reproductive traits in Large White sows. Genetic parameters and genetic correlation of the reproductive traits, including CVB, within-litter weight coefifcient of variation at three weeks (CVT), total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), number born dead (NBD), gestation length (GL), piglet mortality at birth (M0), piglet mortality at three weeks (M3), total litter weight at birth (TLW0), and total litter weight at three weeks (TLW3) were estimated for 2032 Large White litters. The effects of parity and classiifed litter size on CVB, CVT, TNB, NBA, NBD, GL, M0, M3, TLW0, and TLW3 were also estimated. The heritabilities of these reproductive traits ranged from 0.06 to 0.17, with the lowest heritability for CVB and the highest heritability for TLW0. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between these reproductive traits were low to highly positive and negative (ranging from −0.03 to 0.93, and −0.53 to 0.93, respectively). The genetic correlations between TNB and CVB, and between M0 and CVB were 0.32 and 0.29, respectively. In addition, CVB was signiifcantly inlfuenced by parity and litter size class (P<0.05). Al the results suggest that piglet uniformity should be maintained in pig production practices and pig breeding programs.

  7. Effect of feeding peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles to sows and progeny on growth performance and metabolic oxidative status of nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A R; Wang, L; Johnston, L J; Baidoo, S K; Torrison, J L; Chen, C; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of including peroxidized corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for sows and nursery pigs on growth performance, vitamin E (VE), and Se status, and the incidence of mulberry heart disease (MHD) of nursery pigs. Sows (n = 12) were fed corn-soybean meal diets (C-SBM) or C-SBM diets with DDGS (40% and 20% in gestation and lactation, respectively) for 3 parities. In the third parity, 108 weaned pigs (BW = 6.6 ± 0.36 kg) were blocked by BW within litter, assigned to pens (2 pigs/pen; 5 and 4 pens per litter for groups 1 and 2, respectively), and pens were assigned 1 of 3 nursery diets: 1) corn-soybean meal (CON), 2) 30% peroxidized DDGS (Ox-D), and 3) 30% Ox-D with 5 × NRC (1998) level of VE (Ox-D+5VE) for 7 wk, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of sow and nursery diets (n = 9 pens/treatment). The peroxidized DDGS source in nursery diets contained concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values that were 25 and 27 times greater than a reference corn sample. Sow colostrum, milk, and serum, as well as pig serum and liver samples, were analyzed for α-tocopherol and Se concentrations. Pig serum was analyzed for glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), TBARS, and sulfur-containing AA (SAA). Pig hearts were evaluated for gross and histopathological lesions indicative of MHD, but none were detected. Pigs from sows fed DDGS tended to have reduced (P = 0.07) VE in serum during lactation and reduced VE at weaning (P pigs from sows fed C-SBM. Inclusion of DDGS in sow diets reduced the VE status of pigs during lactation, but not in the nursery when MHD can be a concern. Pigs fed Ox-D+5VE (P = 0.08) tended to have, and those fed Ox-D (P = 0.04) had greater ADFI than pigs fed CON, but ADG was not affected (P > 0.1) by nursery diet. Feeding Ox-D or Ox-D+5VE increased (P pigs fed Ox-D or Ox-D+5VE compared with those fed C-SBM, which was likely due to greater (P pigs fed Ox-D. The

  8. [Gestational Diabetes Mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejčí, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The present generation of women of childbearing age more frequently suffer from overweight, obesity, initial as well as fully established metabolic syndrome, which together with postponing motherhood until the third decade in life plays an important role in the increasing incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) that currently affects about 1/5 of pregnant women. However the causal link between diabetes during pregnancy and metabolic diseases in the whole population is mutual. By way of epigenetic changes, maternal diabetes unfavourably programmes metabolism of the offspring, who tend to transfer the disorder to the next generations. Gestational diabetes is therefore an important link fitting into the accumulation curve of the incidence of overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome and consequently also T2DM among the whole population. Genetic as well as epigenetic factors play a great role in the GDM pathogenesis, which is shown by the fact that this complication also affects women with normal BMI. When it comes to diagnosing GDM, we will need to manage also in future with establishing fasting glycemia and glycemia following glucose challenge (OGTT) that may include a considerable degree of measurement inaccuracy. It is therefore necessary to observe pre-analytical and analytical conditions of measurements in order to obtain a reliable result. It is a positive sign that the Czech professional associations have adopted new international criteria for diagnosing GDM which, as opposed to those valid earlier, better reflect the risk of pregnancy-related and perinatal complications.The care for gestational patients with diabetes at a low risk (due to satisfactory glycemic control through a diet or small pharmacotherapeutic doses, with an eutrophic fetus and without associated complications) is provided by an outpatient gynecologist and a diabetes specialist, they can give birth in standard maternity hospitals. The care for gestational patients with diabetes at a higher risk

  9. Late gestational nutrient restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tygesen, Malin Plumhoff; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Nørgaard, Peder;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of 50% nutrient restriction during the last 6 weeks of gestation on twin-pregnant ewes' plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid, ß-hydroxybutyrate, insulin, IGF-1 and leptin concentrations and the effects on lamb birth weight and ewes' lactation performance. Plasma...... metabolite and hormone concentrations in restricted ewes suggest that maternal tissues were being mobilised. Despite the ewes' adaptations their lambs weighed significantly less at birth. Furthermore, colostrum and milk yields were markedly reduced up until the latest measurement at 3 weeks post partum...

  10. Study on Relationship Between Halothane Gene and Behavioral Stereotypies in Pregnant Sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei-guo; LI Jian-hong; BAO Jun

    2003-01-01

    A simple preparation using the ear tissue for PCR amplification was established for diagnosis of genotypes for halothane in 181 sows.3 halothane heterozygous pigs were detected.The behaviors of the sows that have different genotypes were observed.The heterozygous sows expressed seem more behavioral stereotypies than halothane resistant.But there is no difference in two genotypes.The behaviour directed trough in heterozygous sows is higher than halothane resistant.

  11. Energy partitioning and reproduction in primiparous sows : effects of dietary energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionAs a result of extensive changes in pig husbandry in the last 50 years, nutritional requirements of especially lactating sows nowadays differ strongly from those of sows in the past. Although diets are optimized to meet the requirements, sows still loose body reserves du

  12. The development and significance of abnormal stereotyped behaviours in tethered sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cronin, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The development and performance of abnormal stereotyped behaviours (stereotypies) by tethered sows were studied in order to investigate the consequences of the behaviours for animal welfare and sow productivity.

    In Chapter 2, the behaviour of 36 tethered sows in a commercial herd

  13. Sow behaviour during parturition in relation to the observed and the genetic merit for weaning survival .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uitdehaag, K.A.; Ekkel, E.D.; Kanis, E.; Knol, E.F.

    2008-01-01

    The sow's breeding value for mothering ability (EBVma) can be estimated as the genetic effect of the foster sow on piglet survival at weaning. Sows with a high EBVma have litters with a short average interval from birth until first colostrum intake. In the present study, it was investigated whether

  14. Housing of sows during farrowing: a review on pen design, welfare and productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Juul; Malmkvist, Jens; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis

    2013-01-01

    Housing of sows during farrowing occurs mainly in farrowing crates where the sows are confined between bars without the possibility to turn around. The existing farrowing crates are associated with a number of negative welfare consequences for sows. Furthermore, breeding more piglets in the litte...

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, B.A.G.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; Riezebos, T.G.M.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the 16-item Subjective Opiate Withdrawal Scale (SOWS). The SOWS measures withdrawal symptoms at the time of assessment. METHODS: The Dutch SOWS was repeatedly administered to a sample of 272 opioid-dependent inpatients of four addi

  16. 7 CFR 59.203 - Mandatory daily reporting for sows and boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory daily reporting for sows and boars. 59.203... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Swine Reporting § 59.203 Mandatory daily reporting for sows and... packer of sows and boars shall report to the Secretary for each business day of the packer not later than...

  17. Initial evaluation of floor cooling on lactating sows under severe acute heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to evaluate an acute heat stress protocol for lactating sows and evaluate preliminary estimates of water flow rates required to cool sows. Twelve multiparous sows were provided with a cooling pad built with an aluminum plate surface, high-density polyethylene base and copper pipe...

  18. Gestational surrogacy: Psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in assisted reproductive technologies together with increased infertility and new family structures are increasing the use of gestational surrogacy as a means to have children. Before, during and after the process, it is necessary to study the psychosocial characteristics of triad members: the gestational surrogate, intended parents, and offspring. Research has indicated positive adaptation to the process and benefits for all members of the triad. Altruism is the main motivation of surrogates. Notably, psychological well-being has been found to be higher in individuals who have become parents through surrogacy than in those who have used egg donation or have followed a natural process of conception. Moreover, no differences in psychosocial characteristics have been observed in the offspring, compared with children born through natural conception or egg donation. Results highlight the positive aspects of surrogacy. Future research should investigate psychosocial factors that modulate the process, acting as risk and protective factors for well-being of the triad members, and identify the optimal profiles of surrogates for the process to be a success.

  19. Sow and litter response to supplemental dietary fat in lactation diets during high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, D S; van Heugten, E; Odle, J; Cabrera, R; Arellano, C; Boyd, R D

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the impact of supplemental dietary fat on total lactation energy intake and sow and litter performance during high ambient temperatures (27 ± 3°C). Data were collected from 337 mixed-parity sows from July to September in a 2,600-sow commercial unit in Oklahoma. Diets were corn-soybean meal-based with 7.5% corn distillers dried grains with solubles and 6.0% wheat middlings and contained 3.24 g of standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal of ME. Animal-vegetable fat blend (A-V) was supplemented at 0, 2, 4, or 6%. Sows were balanced by parity, with 113, 109, and 115 sows representing parity 1, 2, and 3 to 7 (P3+), respectively. Feed disappearance (subset of 190 sows; 4.08, 4.18, 4.44, and 4.34 kg/d, for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively; P feed (sow and litter BW gain relative to feed intake) was not affected (P = 0.56), but gain:Mcal ME declined linearly with the addition of A-V (0.16, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.14 for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively; P sows (3.95 kg/d) had less (P feed disappearance than P2 (4.48 kg/d) and P3+ (4.34 kg/d) sows. Body weight change in P1 sows was greater (P sows (-0.32 vs. -0.07 and 0.12 kg/d), whereas backfat loss was less (P sows compared with P1 and P2 sows. Dietary A-V improved litter ADG (P sows. Sows bred within 8 d after weaning (58.3, 72.0, 70.2, and 74.7% for 0, 2, 4, and 6%, respectively); conception rate (78.5, 89.5, 89.2, and 85.7%) and farrowing rate (71.4, 81.4, 85.5, and 78.6%) were improved (P sows were greater (P sows had lower (P sows, and respiration rate was reduced (P sows compared with P2 and P3+ sows. In conclusion, A-V improved feed disappearance and caloric intake, resulting in improved litter weight gain and subsequent reproductive performance of sows; however, feed and caloric efficiency were negatively affected.

  20. Sequence-Based Analysis of the Intestinal Microbiota of Sows and Their Offspring Fed Genetically Modified Maize Expressing a Truncated Form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab Protein (Bt Maize)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Walsh, Maria C.; Rea, Mary C.; Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to investigate transgenerational effects of feeding genetically modified (GM) maize expressing a truncated form of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protein (Bt maize) to sows and their offspring on maternal and offspring intestinal microbiota. Sows were assigned to either non-GM or GM maize dietary treatments during gestation and lactation. At weaning, offspring were assigned within sow treatment to non-GM or GM maize diets for 115 days, as follows: (i) non-GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/non-GM), (ii) non-GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (non-GM/GM), (iii) GM maize-fed sow/non-GM maize-fed offspring (GM/non-GM), and (iv) GM maize-fed sow/GM maize-fed offspring (GM/GM). Offspring of GM maize-fed sows had higher counts of fecal total anaerobes and Enterobacteriaceae at days 70 and 100 postweaning, respectively. At day 115 postweaning, GM/non-GM offspring had lower ileal Enterobacteriaceae counts than non-GM/non-GM or GM/GM offspring and lower ileal total anaerobes than pigs on the other treatments. GM maize-fed offspring also had higher ileal total anaerobe counts than non-GM maize-fed offspring, and cecal total anaerobes were lower in non-GM/GM and GM/non-GM offspring than in those from the non-GM/non-GM treatment. The only differences observed for major bacterial phyla using 16S rRNA gene sequencing were that fecal Proteobacteria were less abundant in GM maize-fed sows prior to farrowing and in offspring at weaning, with fecal Firmicutes more abundant in offspring. While other differences occurred, they were not observed consistently in offspring, were mostly encountered for low-abundance, low-frequency bacterial taxa, and were not associated with pathology. Therefore, their biological relevance is questionable. This confirms the lack of adverse effects of GM maize on the intestinal microbiota of pigs, even following transgenerational consumption. PMID:24096421

  1. The Effects of Sowing Date and Sowing Density on Birds Damage in the Cultivars of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    F. Onemli; A. C. Saglam

    2005-01-01

    A research in Barbaros city belong to Tekirdag centre county as farmer condition was carried outdetermination of bird damage ratio on the sown fields. The demonstration used three sunflower varieties(Super 25, Pioneer 6482, Sunbred 281), two sowing dates (16.04.1997 and 14.05.1997) and four sowing densities(20, 30, 40 and 50x70cm) was established according to split-split plot design. The determination characters areseed yield per decare unless bird damage, bird damage ratio, plant height, ste...

  2. Gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Mark B; Gabbe, Steven G

    2011-12-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) represents a heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders, which result in varying degrees of maternal hyperglycemia and pregnancy-associated risk. The frequency of GDM is rising globally and may also increase further as less-stringent criteria for the diagnosis are potentially adopted. The additional burden placed on the health care system by increasing cases of GDM requires consideration of diagnostic approaches and currently used treatment strategies. Debate continues to surround both the diagnosis and treatment of GDM despite several recent large-scale studies addressing these controversial issues. As many now have come to reassess their approach to the management of GDM, we provide information in this review to help guide this process. The goal for each health care practitioner should continue to be to provide optimum care for women discovered to have carbohydrate intolerance during pregnancy.

  3. EFFECT OF PMSG FOLLOWED BY HCG ON ESTRUS SYNCHRONIZATION IN WEANED SOWS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Naskar; Kadirvel, G; M.H. Khan; A. Lamare

    2012-01-01

    A total of 60 crossbred sows (Hampshire X Khasi Local) were selected a week after weaning and divided into two groups (30 in each). The sows in group-I were injected with 800 IU of PMSG followed by 400 IU of HCG 56 hours after PMSG. In Group-II served as untreated / control. Natural service was given to all estrus sows after 96 hours of hormonal treatment. It was noticed that 90 % of sow exhibited all the sign of estrus after 96 hours and 75 % of sows were sexually receptive to boar. The aver...

  4. Moral Values and Attitudes Toward Dutch Sow Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, T.J.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes toward sow husbandry differ between citizens and conventional pig farmers. Research showed that moral values could only predict the judgment of people in case of culling healthy animals in the course of a disease epidemic to a certain extent. Therefore, we hypothesized that attitudes of ci

  5. Factors of importance when selecting sows as embryo donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohalez, A; Martinez, C A; Reixach, J; Diaz, M; Vila, J; Colina, I; Parrilla, I; Vazquez, J L; Roca, J; Gil, M A; Rodriguez-Martinez, H; Martinez, E A; Cuello, C

    2017-08-01

    The improvement in porcine embryo preservation and non-surgical embryo transfer (ET) procedures achieved in recent years represents essential progress for the practical use of ET in the pig industry. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of parity, weaning-to-estrus interval (WEI) and season on reproductive and embryonic parameters at day 6 after insemination of donor sows superovulated after weaning. The selection of donor sows was based on their reproductive history, body condition and parity. The effects of parity at weaning (2 to 3, 4 to 5 or 6 to 7 litters), season (fall, winter and spring), and WEI (estrus within 3 to 4 days), and their interactions on the number of corpus luteum, cysts in sows with cysts, number and quality of viable and transferable embryos, embryo developmental stage and recovery and fertilization rates were evaluated using linear mixed effects models. The analyses showed a lack of significant effects of parity, season, WEI or their interactions on any of the reproductive and embryonic parameters examined. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that fertilization rates and numbers of viable and transferable embryos collected at day 6 of the cycle from superovulated donor sows are not affected by their parity, regardless of the time of the year (from fall to spring) and WEI (3 or 4 days).

  6. Automatic recognition of lactating sow behaviors through depth image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manual observation and classification of animal behaviors is laborious, time-consuming, and of limited ability to process large amount of data. A computer vision-based system was developed that automatically recognizes sow behaviors (lying, sitting, standing, kneeling, feeding, drinking, and shiftin...

  7. Predicting milk yield and composition in lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A V; Strathe, A B; Kebreab, E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a framework describing the milk production curve in sows as affected by parity, method of milk yield (MY) determination, litter size (LS), and litter gain (LG). A database containing data on LS, LG, dietary protein and fat content, MY, and composition...

  8. Metabolomic profiles of colostrum and milk from lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curtasu, Mihai Victor; Theil, Peter Kappel; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2016-01-01

    molecular weight metabolitesis presently lacking. Samples of colostrum at 0, 12,24, and 36 h and milk samples on Day 3, 10, 17,and 24 relative to farrowing were collected from 4s parity sows fed a standard lactation diet. Sampleswere analyzed using a nontargeted metabolomicsapproach. Sample preparation...

  9. Sow lying behaviors before, during and after farrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piglet pre-weaning mortality remains a considerable challenge for the swine industry, representing one of the key areas where animal well-being and economical interest coincide. Sows and piglets carry out a complex series of behaviors during the farrowing/lactation period. These behaviors during the...

  10. Moral Values and Attitudes Toward Dutch Sow Husbandry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, T.J.; Gremmen, H.G.J.; Stassen, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes toward sow husbandry differ between citizens and conventional pig farmers. Research showed that moral values could only predict the judgment of people in case of culling healthy animals in the course of a disease epidemic to a certain extent. Therefore, we hypothesized that attitudes of ci

  11. Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risk of complications for mother and child. Along with the growing epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes, the prevalence of gestational diabetes is expected to rise. With adequate and timely treatment, the risk of complications is reduced.

  12. Appropriate for gestational age (AGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age; Gestation; Development - AGA; Growth - AGA; Neonatal care - AGA; Newborn care - AGA ... can range from 38 to 42 weeks. Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to measure the size ...

  13. Gestational diabetes: A clinical update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Ulla; Madsen, Lene Ring; Skajaa, Gitte Oeskov

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in prevalence in tandem with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Much controversy surrounds the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes, emphasizing the importance and relevance ...

  14. Supplying dextrose before insemination and L-arginine during the last third of pregnancy in sow diets: effects on within-litter variation of piglet birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, H; Quiniou, N; Roy, H; Lottin, A; Boulot, S; Gondret, F

    2014-04-01

    Preweaning piglet mortality is largely attributed to the incidence of low birth weight and birth weight variation within the litter. Therefore, developing strategies to increase within-litter uniformity of piglet birth weight is important. This study investigated the effects of different feeding strategies based on specific nutrient supplies in sow diet on the within-litter variation of piglet birth weight (BW0). Four batches of highly prolific crossbred Landrace × Large White sows were used. Three dietary treatments were compared: supplies of dextrose during the week before insemination (190 g/d) and of L-arginine (25.5 g/d) from d 77 of pregnancy until term (DEXA, n = 26); a dietary supplementation of L-arginine only (25.5 g/d), from d 77 of pregnancy until term (ARGI, n = 24); and no supplementation to a standard gestation diet (CTL; n = 23). Total born piglets (TB), i.e., piglets born alive (BA) and stillborn piglets, were numbered and weighed at birth and at weaning. Data were analyzed by ANOVA using the MIXED procedure in a model that included dietary treatment (ARGI, DEXA, and CTL), initial parity (1, 2 and 3, 4, and more), and backfat thickness (below or above the average value at the onset of the experiment: 15.7 mm) as the main effects and batch as random effect. The treatment did not influence (P > 0.10) the number of piglets at birth (on average 15.6 ± 3.8 and 14.2 ± 3.6 for TB and BA, respectively) or piglet BW0 (on average 1.48 ± 0.26 and 1.50 ± 0.26 kg for TB and BA, respectively). The coefficient of variation of piglet BW0 (CV(BW0)) was less in litters from ARGI sows than in litters from CTL sows and intermediate in litters from DEXA sows (for TB: 21.4, 23.4, and 25.7%, P = 0.08; for BA: 20.6, 22.5, and 25.4%, P = 0.03, in the ARGI, DEXA, and CTL groups, respectively). Irrespective of diet, CV(BW0) was less (P piglets or less than in the largest litters (20.9 vs. 26.5%). Litter growth rate during lactation and litter size at weaning were not

  15. Gestation length in farmed reindeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipka, M P; Rowell, J E

    2010-01-01

    Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarundus) are the only cervids indigenous to the arctic environment. In Alaska, reindeer are a recognized agricultural species and an economic mainstay for many native populations. Traditionally raised in extensive free-ranging systems, a recent trend toward intensive farming requires a more in-depth knowledge of reproductive management. Reported gestation length in reindeer varies, ranging from 198 to 229 d in studies performed at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. A switchback study that manipulated only breeding date demonstrated a mean increase in gestation length of 8.5 d among females bred early in the season. The negative correlation between conception date and gestation length is consistent with reindeer research at other locations and reports of variable gestation length in a growing number of domestic and non-domestic species. This paper reviews the phenomenon in reindeer and discusses some of the factors known to affect gestation length as well as possible areas for future research.

  16. Does the presence of shoulder ulcers affect the behaviour of sows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Thea; Kaiser, Marianne; Herskin, Mette S

    2015-02-01

    Shoulder ulcers are common in lactating sows. This case-control study compared behaviour of sows with shoulder ulcers (U-sows; N = 19) versus controls (C-sows; N = 19) and involved multiparous LxY sows, 14.7 ± 0.3 days post partum, kept in farrowing crates in a Danish herd. U-sows had at least one shoulder ulcer. Behavioural data were based on video recordings during a 24h period. U-sows spent less time lying (P = 0.04), tended to perform more postural changes (P = 0.096), spent more time standing still (P = 0.02), showed increased shoulder rubbing (P = 0.03) and reduced nursing frequency (P = 0.03) compared to the controls. These results show that the behaviour of sows with shoulder ulcers differ from healthy sows, suggesting that U-sows experienced discomfort or pain, and indicating that maternal behaviour can be sensitive to the presence of shoulder ulcers. Further studies - focussing on temporal development of shoulder ulcers combined with behaviour of sows and piglets - are needed to clarify animal welfare impact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 中草药饲料添加剂对母猪和仔猪生产性能的影响%Effect of dietary Chinese herb on the performance of sows and nursing piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白秀梅; 解林奇; 许可; 马青山

    2013-01-01

      试验主要研究中草药饲料添加剂对母猪繁殖性能、粪便及其哺乳仔猪生长性能的影响.试验选用60头经产母猪(2~5胎次),根据胎次和背膘厚随机分为2组,每组30头母猪,每个母猪为一个重复,试验从母猪配种到21 d断奶结束.对照组母猪饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,试验组母猪饲喂添加有1%中草药添加剂的基础饲粮.试验期间每天观察母猪粪便形态,称量仔猪初生重和21 d断奶体重,并测定母猪哺乳期的采食量.结果表明,与对照组相比,试验组有提高仔猪初生个体重的趋势(P0.05).在母猪饲粮中添加中草药有提高母猪哺乳期采食量和哺乳仔猪日增重的趋势(P<0.10),并且显著提高了断奶仔猪个体重(P<0.05).在母猪妊娠前期和中期,试验组有降低母猪粪便分值的趋势(P<0.10),在妊娠后期和分娩后两周,与对照组相比,试验组显著降低了母猪的粪便分值(P<0.05),试验组的粪便分值接近正常粪便.由此可见,这种中草药添加剂可以提高母猪采食量,促进其哺乳仔猪生长,缓解母猪便秘.%The study was carried out to determine the effects of maternal Chinese herb supple⁃mentation during gestation and lactation on performance of sows and their nursing piglets. A to⁃tal of 60 multiparous sows were randomly allocated to two treatments with 30 replicates per treat⁃ment according to parity number and backfat thickness. Sows were fed 1 of 2 diets from gesta⁃tion to 21 d of lactation. Diets were:control without Chinese herb and with 1%Chinese herb sup⁃plementation. Piglet bodyweight was measured at birth and 21 d. Average daily feed intake (AD⁃FI) of the sows during lactation was recorded. Fecal score was obtained from the gestation and lactation sows. The total number of piglets born, piglets born alive and piglets born dead per lit⁃ter did not differ among groups. Chinese herb supplementation increased the

  18. Lactational oestrus in sows : follicle growth, hormone profiles and early pregnancy in sows subjected to Intermittent Suckling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, R.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: sow; Intermittent Suckling; oestrus; lactation; oestradiol; LH; progesterone, embryo survival, embryo development, cystic ovaries. Weaning of piglets at a relatively young age (3 to 4 weeks) can compromise health and welfare. A possible way to increase piglet welfare is to extend lacta

  19. Confinement of lactating sows in crates for 4 days after farrowing reduces piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustsen, V A; Hales, J; Lahrmann, H P; Weber, P M; Hansen, C F

    2013-04-01

    To reduce mortality among suckling piglets, lactating sows are traditionally housed in farrowing crates. Alternatively, lactating sows can be housed in farrowing pens where the sow is loose to ensure more behavioural freedom and consequently a better welfare for the sow, although under commercial conditions, farrowing pens have been associated with increased piglet mortality. Most suckling piglets that die do so within the first week of life, so potentially lactating sows do not have to be restrained during the entire lactation period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate whether confinement of the sow for a limited number of days after farrowing would affect piglet mortality. A total of 210 sows (Danish Landrace × Danish Yorkshire) were farrowed in specially designed swing-aside combination farrowing pens measuring 2.6 m × 1.8 m (combi-pen), where the sows could be kept loose or in a crate. The sows were either: (a) loose during the entire experimental period, (b) crated from days 0 to 4 postpartum, (c) crated from days 0 to 7 postpartum or (d) crated from introduction to the farrowing pen to day 7 postpartum. The sows and their subsequent litters were studied from introduction to the combi-pen ∼1 week before expected farrowing and until 10 days postpartum. Confinement period of the sow failed to affect the number of stillborn piglets; however, sows that were crated after farrowing had fewer live-born mortality deaths (P piglet mortality among the loose sows was because of higher mortality in the first 4 days after farrowing. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that crating the sow for 4 days postpartum was sufficient to reduce piglet mortality.

  20. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Rovabio® Excel (endo-1,3(4-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase as a feed additive for lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rovabio® Excel is a preparation of endo-1,3(4-beta-glucanase and endo-1,4-beta-xylanase that is intended to be used as a feed additive for lactating sows, at a dose of 1 500 glucanase U and 1 100 xylanase U/kg feed, in order to minimise the mobilisation of body reserves of sows during lactation. The European Food Safety Authority issued an opinion on the safety and efficacy of Rovabio® Excel as a feed additive for chickens and turkeys for fattening, laying hens, piglets (weaned and pigs for fattening, ducks, guinea fowl, quails, geese, pheasants and pigeons. The full description of the formulations, manufacturing processes, purity, stability and homogeneity of the product is given in that assessment. The FEEDAP Panel considers that the safety aspects, other than for the new target species, are covered in the previous assessment and would not be affected by the extension of use requested. The results of a tolerance study showed that 200-fold the recommended dose was tolerated well by the sows when offered for a period of seven weeks, including gestation and lactation. Therefore, the Panel concludes that the recommended dose is safe in lactating sows. The Panel cannot conclude on the efficacy of Rovabio® Excel from the available efficacy data.

  1. Housing of Cull Sows in the Hours before Transport to the Abattoir—An Initial Description of Sow Behaviour While Waiting in a Transfer Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Erichsen, Ditte;

    2017-01-01

    In modern pig production, sows are transported by road to abattoirs. For reasons of biosecurity, commercial trucks may have limited access to farms. According to Danish regulations, sows can be kept in stationary transfer vehicles away from the farm for up to two hours before being loaded onto...

  2. Housing of Cull Sows in the Hours before Transport to the Abattoir-An Initial Description of Sow Behaviour While Waiting in a Transfer Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S; Fogsgaard, Katrine K; Erichsen, Ditte; Bonnichsen, Mia; Gaillard, Charlotte; Thodberg, Karen

    2016-12-22

    In modern pig production, sows are transported by road to abattoirs. For reasons of biosecurity, commercial trucks may have limited access to farms. According to Danish regulations, sows can be kept in stationary transfer vehicles away from the farm for up to two hours before being loaded onto the commercial truck. We aimed to describe the behaviour of sows in transfer vehicles. This preliminary, exploratory study included data from 11 loads from a total of six Danish sow herds. Selection of animals to be slaughtered was done by the farmers. Clinical registrations were made before collection of the sows, after which they (in groups of 7-13) were mixed and moved to the transfer vehicle (median stocking density: 1.2 sow/m²), and driven a short distance to a public road. The duration of the stays in the transfer vehicles before being loaded onto the commercial trucks ranged from 6-59 min. During this period, the median frequency of aggressive interactions per load was 18 (range: 4-65), whereas the median frequency of lying per load was 1 (range: 0-23). The duration of the stay correlated positively with the frequency of aggressive interactions (rs = 0.89; n = 11; p sows during waiting in transfer vehicles, and may suggest that this period can be challenging for sow welfare, especially for longer stays and during hot days.

  3. Gestational diabetes: A clinical update

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing inprevalence in tandem with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in womenof childbearing age. Much controversy surrounds thediagnosis and management of gestational diabetes,emphasizing the importance and relevance of clarityand consensus. If newly proposed criteria are adopteduniversally a significantly growing number of women willbe diagnosed as having GDM, implying new therapeuticchallenges to avoid foetal and maternal complicationsrelated to the hyperglycemia of gestational diabetes.This review provides an overview of clinical issuesrelated to GDM, including the challenges of screeningand diagnosis, the pathophysiology behind GDM, thetreatment and prevention of GDM and the long andshort term consequences of gestational diabetes forboth mother and offspring.

  4. Gestational diabetes: A clinical update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, Ulla; Madsen, Lene Ring; Skajaa, Gitte Oeskov; Iversen, Ditte Smed; Moeller, Niels; Ovesen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing in prevalence in tandem with the dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Much controversy surrounds the diagnosis and management of gestational diabetes, emphasizing the importance and relevance of clarity and consensus. If newly proposed criteria are adopted universally a significantly growing number of women will be diagnosed as having GDM, implying new therapeutic challenges to avoid foetal and maternal complications related to the hyperglycemia of gestational diabetes. This review provides an overview of clinical issues related to GDM, including the challenges of screening and diagnosis, the pathophysiology behind GDM, the treatment and prevention of GDM and the long and short term consequences of gestational diabetes for both mother and offspring. PMID:26240703

  5. Housing of Cull Sows in the Hours before Transport to the Abattoir—An Initial Description of Sow Behaviour While Waiting in a Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Fogsgaard, Katrine K.; Erichsen, Ditte; Bonnichsen, Mia; Gaillard, Charlotte; Thodberg, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary In modern pig production, sows are transported by road to abattoirs. However, for reasons of biosecurity, commercial trucks may have limited access to farms. This study described behaviour of sows while waiting for a commercial truck in transfer vehicles near a public road, as is common practice in Denmark. The study involved 106 sows from 11 loads. The sows stayed in the transfer vehicles for 6–59 min. In this period, the behaviour of the sows was characterised by aggression and only very limited resting. These preliminary results suggest that a pre-transport stay in a transfer vehicle can be challenging for sow welfare, especially for longer stays and during hot days. Abstract In modern pig production, sows are transported by road to abattoirs. For reasons of biosecurity, commercial trucks may have limited access to farms. According to Danish regulations, sows can be kept in stationary transfer vehicles away from the farm for up to two hours before being loaded onto the commercial truck. We aimed to describe the behaviour of sows in transfer vehicles. This preliminary, exploratory study included data from 11 loads from a total of six Danish sow herds. Selection of animals to be slaughtered was done by the farmers. Clinical registrations were made before collection of the sows, after which they (in groups of 7–13) were mixed and moved to the transfer vehicle (median stocking density: 1.2 sow/m2), and driven a short distance to a public road. The duration of the stays in the transfer vehicles before being loaded onto the commercial trucks ranged from 6–59 min. During this period, the median frequency of aggressive interactions per load was 18 (range: 4–65), whereas the median frequency of lying per load was 1 (range: 0–23). The duration of the stay correlated positively with the frequency of aggressive interactions (rs = 0.89; n = 11; p sows during waiting in transfer vehicles, and may suggest that this period can be challenging for sow

  6. The Protein Component of Sow Colostrum and Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Hurley, W L

    2016-01-01

    secretions include those associated with the milk fat membranes, caseins, mammary-derived whey proteins, immunoglobulins, hormones and growth factors, enzymes, and a wide range of other proteins. Concentrations of most milk-specific proteins typically are lower in colostrum than in milk, while concentrations......The production of colostrum and milk by the sow are primary limiting factors affecting survival, growth and development of the piglets. The proteins of colostrum and milk provide not only a supply of amino acids to the neonate but also a wide range of bioactive factors. Proteins in sow mammary...... of immunoglobulins and other bioactive proteins often are enriched in colostrum compared with mature milk. Dietary protein is utilized for milk protein production with approximately 50% efficiency. During both the colostrum period and at peak lactation as much as 700–800 g of protein is secreted daily by today...

  7. The management of gestational diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wah Cheung

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available N Wah CheungCentre for Diabetes and Endocrinology Research, Westmead Hospital, and University of Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes is increasing. As gestational diabetes is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and has long-term implications for both mother and child, it is important that it is recognized and appropriately managed. This review will examine the pharmacological options for the management of gestational diabetes, as well as the evidence for blood glucose monitoring, dietary and exercise therapy. The medical management of gestational diabetes is still evolving, and recent randomized controlled trials have added considerably to our knowledge in this area. As insulin therapy is effective and safe, it is considered the gold standard of pharmacotherapy for gestational diabetes, against which other treatments have been compared. The current experience is that the short acting insulin analogs lispro and aspart are safe, but there are only limited data to support the use of long acting insulin analogs. There are randomized controlled trials which have demonstrated efficacy of the oral agents glyburide and metformin. Whilst short-term data have not demonstrated adverse effects of glyburide and metformin on the fetus, and they are increasingly being used in pregnancy, there remain long-term concerns regarding their potential for harm.Keywords: gestational diabetes, insulin, oral antidiabetic agents, pregnancy, type 2 diabetes

  8. Secondary Broccoli Production Depending On Sowing And Planting Dates

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Desislava

    2014-01-01

    The investigation was carried out during the period of 2009-2011 at the Institute of Agriculture – Kyustendil, located in the Southwest Bulgaria. Four broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica Plenck) hybrids were grown by the technology of late field production with different sowing and planting dates. The aim of the research was to establish a relationship between planting time and secondary yield of broccoli. Some morphological characteristics and production traits of an additional yield of...

  9. Late gestational hyperprolactinemia accelerates mammary epithelial cell differentiation that leads to increased milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanklompenberg, M K; Manjarin, R; Trott, J F; McMicking, H F; Hovey, R C

    2013-03-01

    The growth rate of piglets is limited by sow milk yield, which reflects the extent of epithelial growth and differentiation in the mammary glands (MG) during pregnancy. Prolactin (PRL) promotes both the growth and differentiation of the mammary epithelium, where the lactational success of pigs is absolutely dependent on PRL exposure during late gestation. We hypothesized that inducing hyperprolactinemia in primiparous gilts during late gestation by administering the dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) would increase MG epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, subsequent milk yield, and piglet growth. A total of 19 Yorkshire-Hampshire gilts were assigned to receive either no treatment (CON, n = 9) or DOM (n = 10) twice daily from gestation d 90 to 110. Serial blood sampling during the treatment period and subsequent lactation confirmed that plasma PRL concentrations were increased in DOM gilts on gestation d 91 and 96 (P milk production by these same gilts on d 14 (24%, P = 0.02) and 21 (32%, P Milk composition did not differ between the 2 groups on d 1 or 20 of lactation. Alveolar volume within the MG of DOM-treated gilts was increased during the treatment period (P hyperprolactinemia enhances lactogenesis within the porcine MG and increases milk production in the subsequent lactation.

  10. [Fetal responses to different methods of electrocution of pregnant sows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisker, Nina; Preissel, Anne-Kathrin; Ritzmann, Mathias; Schuster, Tibor; Thomes, Rainer; Henke, Julia

    2008-01-01

    The fetal stress responses in sows euthanized by electrical current during their second and last trimester of pregnancy (G1 and G2) were evaluated. Three methods of euthanasia of pregnant sows generally applicable to cases of epizootic or emergency slaughter were investigated: 1. conventional application of electrical current to the head and heart (HH); 2. application of electrical current to the head, heart and the uterus (HHU); 3. application of electrical current to the head, heart and from the upper body to the vagina (HHV). Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section at intervals of 3 to 4 minutes and remained attached to the sow by the umbilical cord. Fetal vitality, reflexes, heart rate, blood pressure, rectal body temperature, intracardial arteriovenous pCO2, pH and lactic acid were monitored for a period of 30 minutes. No method was found to kill the fetal pigs immediately. In fetuses at G1 there were no significant differences between the HH and HHU and HHV methods. Fetuses at G2 showed a significantly faster decrease in heart rate and blood pressure as well as a shorter period of time for the absence of fetal body movements and reflexes for the HHT method, compared to the other methods. Since it is not yet known to what extent the fetal pig experiences pain and suffering, the prolonged process of dying for the in utero fetus due to hypoxia which includes struggling and gasps is inconsistent with criteria for humane euthanasia and animal welfare.

  11. Nutritional, hormonal, and environmental effects on colostrum in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Quesnel, H

    2009-04-01

    It is widely recognized that an early and high intake of colostrum is a major determinant of piglet survival during the early suckling period. The production of colostrum, however, is very variable among sows and the factors affecting this variability are not well known. Factors such as number of parity and genotype do seem to influence colostrum yield and composition. The endocrine status of the sow also affects the process of colostrogenesis and changes in the sow endocrine status can have an impact on quantity and quality of colostrum produced. Indeed, induction of parturition seems to play a role. Nutrition is undoubtedly a major factor that could be used as a tool to alter colostrum composition, with fat content being the most affected. Feed ingredients, such as yeast extracts and fermented liquid feed, were recently shown to alter colostrum composition, yet more research is needed to substantiate these effects. Very few data are available on the influence of environment on colostrum production; results suggest that heat stress has negative effects on colostrum composition. Considering the importance of colostrum for the survival, growth, and immune resistance of piglets, it is obvious that research on the development of new management systems is necessary to improve yield and composition of colostrum.

  12. Biochemical composition of the fluid of ovarian cysts and pre-ovulatory follicles compared to the serum in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, T

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the biochemical composition of follicular cysts, pre-ovulatory follicles and serum in sows. The research involved multiparous sows (cysts-bearing sows, n = 21; non-cysts-bearing sows, n = 22). Concentration of glucose, protein, cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in the samples was determined. Glucose concentration in serum was higher than in cysts and follicles (p sows (p sows and non-cysts-bearing sows was higher than the one in cysts and follicles (p sows was higher than the one in non-cysts-bearing sows (p sows was also higher than the one in cysts and follicles (p sows had a higher concentration of HDL in the serum than non-cysts-bearing sows. Differences were also observed between the concentration of HDL in cysts and the one in follicles (p sows was higher than the one in the serum of non-cysts-bearing sows (p < 0.05). Differences were also detected between the TAG concentrations in cysts and in follicles (p < 0.01). The differences in the biochemical composition of the fluid in follicular cysts and pre-ovulatory follicles point to the variable intensification of the course of metabolic processes in pathological and physiological ovarian structures.

  13. Relationships between piglet growth rate and mammary gland size of the sow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.L.; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Sørensen, Martin Tang

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study whether piglet growth rate is related to mammary gland size. It involved three primiparous sows and four multiparous sows that were fed ad libitum during the lactation period. The piglets received no creep feed. The weight and teat order of the piglets were...... recorded. The sows were slaughtered after approximately 4 weeks of lactation (25–28 days). The amounts of mammary tissue and mammary DNA were larger in multiparous than in primiparous sows, and the concentrations and amounts of mammary RNA as well as mammary RNA/DNA ratios were highest in the front glands......, intermediate in the middle and lowest in the rear glands. Average daily gain of the piglets was of the same magnitude regardless of gland position in the primiparous sows. In the multiparous sows, the piglets suckling the front teats had the highest gain while those suckling the middle teats had intermediate...

  14. Investigation of Lifetime Performance in Dutch Large White × Dutch Landrace Crossbred Sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Soltesz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to show the main production parameters of sows based on 4359 crossbred Dutch Large White and Dutch Landrace pigs. The data were collected from 2004 to 2010 from Hungarian nucleus farms to analyze the lifetime performance of removed sows. The paper has studied the frequency of different culling reasons, the average lifespan of removed sows and the number of piglets born alive according to the parity. The result showed that the most frequent reasons for sow removal were the different fertility problems (29.5% and productivity problems (26.8%. In additional, it was detectable that the 35% of culling occured after the first farrowing or before this and there were removed 95% of the examined sows after the 8th parity. The highest litter size was observed at the 6th parity when the mean of lifespan of sows was 1210 days.

  15. Oxytocin injections in the postpartal period affect mammary tight junctions in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Lessard, M; Knight, C H; Quesnel, H

    2017-08-01

    The potential impacts of injecting oxytocin (OXY) to sows in the early postpartum period on the quality of mammary tight junctions, milk composition, and immune status of sows and piglets were studied. Postparturient sows received i.m. injections of either saline (control [CTL]; = 10) or 75 IU of OXY ( = 10). Injections were given twice daily (0800 and 1630 h) starting on d 2 of lactation (i.e., between 12 and 20 h after birth of the last piglet), totaling 4 injections. Milk samples were obtained before the first injection (d 2 morning [AM]), before the second injection (d 2 afternoon [PM]), and on d 4 PM and d 5 PM. Blood samples were obtained from sows before milking on d 2 AM, d 2 PM, and d 5 PM. On d 5 of lactation, a blood sample was obtained from 3 piglets per litter. Circulating concentrations of prolactin, IGF-I, lactose, and IgA in sows did not differ between treatments at any time ( > 0.10), but OXY sows had less IgG than CTL sows ( sows having more IGF-I ( sows. These differences were not seen in the next 2 milk samples, except for protein and IgA that still tended ( sows on d 4 PM (for protein) and on d 5 PM (for IgA) after the last injection. Milk lactose content was lower in OXY vs. CTL sows on d 5 PM ( 0.10). Injecting OXY to sows in the early postpartum period increased leakiness of the mammary tight junctions, improved composition of early milk, and may potentially affect immune status of neonatal piglets.

  16. Prevalences of welfare-related lesions at post-mortem meat-inspection in Danish sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland-Nielsen, A; Christensen, G; Ersbøll, A K

    2004-07-16

    We investigated the prevalences and intercorrelations of all daily meat-inspection recordings at four Danish sow abattoirs in the year 2000 from 23,794 sows coming from 207 sow or farrow-to-finisher herds. The meat-inspection data were obtained from databases at the Danish Bacon and Meat Council (DBMC). Prevalences generally were low--but large herd-to-herd variations were seen. Despite low prevalences, many slaughtered sows had recordings which raise welfare concerns. Intercorrelations between the meat-inspection recordings were evaluated using exploratory factor analysis describing underlying latent factors related to health and welfare problems within herds.

  17. IMPROVING REPRODUCTIVE QUALITIES OF SOWS IN INDUSTRIAL PIG-BREEDING FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perevozchikov A. L.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of the experiment to study the influence of vitamins and minerals preparation with folic acid Vitoligo M at the reproductive functions of sows. It is established that prilificacy of sows was more at 12,5-39,3%. The piglets of the experimental groups had the best quality of growth and livability. Blood chemistry parameters were better in sows experimental groups. The experiment with lots of animals confirmed the results of scientific experience. The sows of the experimental groups had better breeding efficiency

  18. Glyphosate application and direct sowing of winter wheat considering soil cultivation history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmeyer, Henning

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a two year field trial (2013/2014 and 2014/2015 the possible impact of glyphosate application on winter wheat after direct sowing was investigated. Glyphosate was applied with single and double application rates seven days before sowing and until five days after sowing. For comparison a mechanical treatment with flat cultivator and rotary harrow was created. The trials were carried out on an agricultural field with plots of three different soil cultivation history (conventional = plough, reduced = mulch sowing, direct sowing = direct sowing with glyphosate application. Plant emergence and yield of winter wheat was investigated. Conventional soil cultivation history showed highest plant emergence and highest yields in both years. Lowest plant emergence was estimated in trials with flat cultivator and reduced or direct sowing soil history. Treatments with glyphosate application before and after sowing showed no significant yield differences. At a double glyphosate application rate, plant emergence was lower in comparison to the single application rate in most cases in 2013/2014. This was also estimated for glyphosate application after sowing in 2014/2015.

  19. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A V; Bruun, T S; Hansen, C F

    2017-02-15

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Weight and back fat thickness of sows were measured at day 7 prepartum, day 2 postpartum and at weaning. Litters were weighed at day 2 and at weaning. Pearson correlation coefficients between variables were calculated and regression models were developed. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the sows was 6.1±1.1 kg/day, average daily gain (ADG) of the litter was 2.92±0.53 kg/day and sows weaned 13.0±1.1 piglets. First parity sows generally had a lower ADFI and milk production and a decrease in total born piglets in next litter compared with parity 2 to 4 sows, which could be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter with 220 to 440 g/day in parity 1 to 4, respectively. Increasing the ADFI by 1 kg/day reduced the BW loss with 6.6 to 13.9 kg of parity 1 to 4 sows, respectively, during lactation, whereas increasing the average milk yield with 1 kg/day raised the BW loss with 4.3 to 21.0 kg of the four parities during lactation. The number of total born piglets in the next litter was positively related to the number of piglets born in the previous litter. In conclusion, both a high feed

  20. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Csörnyei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA and gestation length (GL were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets, were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14 for HLA and 0.08 (0.17 for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27 for HLA and 0.26 (0.35 for HLW. Estimated genetic correlations between NBA and GL were low, -0.08 for HLA and -0.05 for HLW.

  1. Bayesian inference of genetic parameters on litter size and gestation length in Hungarian Landrace and Hungarian Large White pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Csörnyei; László Csató; János Farkas; Ino Curik; István Nagy

    2010-01-01

    Genetic parameters of number of piglets born alive (NBA) and gestation length (GL) were analyzed for 39798 Hungarian Landrace (HLA, 141397 records) and 70356 Hungarian Large White (HLW, 246961 records) sows. Bivariate repeatability animal models were used, applying a Bayesian statistics. Estimated and heritabilitie repeatabilities (within brackets), were low for NBA, 0.07 (0.14) for HLA and 0.08 (0.17) for HLW, but somewhat higher for GL, 0.18 (0.27) for HLA and 0.26 (0.35) for HLW. Estimated...

  2. Confinement of sows for different periods during lactation: effects on behaviour and lesions of sows and performance of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertz, C; Petig, M; Elkmann, A; Gauly, M

    2015-08-01

    Alternatives to farrowing crates with continuous confinement of the sow are urgently needed because the animal welfare is negatively impacted. Given the increase of herd sizes, practical experience with loose-housing is needed to force the implementation of these systems in the field. Next to aspects of labour efficiency, detrimental piglet mortality rates that may occur during the first days postpartum (pp) is a major criticism. Therefore, loose-housing after a crating period limited to the first days pp might be a feasible alternative to improve welfare under intensive production conditions. The aim was to investigate the effect of crating sows during lactation for different periods on their behaviour and integument alterations and on piglets' performance. Gilts from a commercial herd were observed from 5 to 26 days pp and housed in farrowing crates (1.85×2.50 m) that could be altered between confinement crates and loose-housing pens. Animals were divided into three groups, that were either crated continuously from birth until weaning (Group A, n=55), until 14 days pp (Group B; n=54) or 7 days pp (Group C, n=59). The behaviour of six randomly selected gilts per group was video recorded from 5 to 26 days pp and analysed by time sampling technique. Lesions on the legs, shoulder and lumbar vertebra were scored on days 7, 14 and 25 pp. Piglets were weighed weekly, causes of losses recorded and weight losses of gilts measured. Not different between groups (P>0.05), animals spent 72 to 76% lying laterally, 14 to 17% lying in abdominal or semi-abdominal position, 9 to 10% standing and 1 to 3% sitting. B-sows were lying longer in week 3 and 4 of lactation compared to A- and C-sows (P0.05), whereas almost 90% of the losses occurred in the first week pp. In conclusion, loose-housing of lactating gilts after a reduced postnatal crating period of 7 days affected neither the activity level of the gilts and lesions on the integument nor pre-weaning mortality. Therefore, it is

  3. The effect of farrowing environment and previous experience on the maternal behaviour of sows in indoor pens and outdoor huts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wülbers-Mindermann, M; Berg, C; Illmann, G; Baulain, U; Algers, B

    2015-04-01

    Outdoor farrowing huts facilitate a less restricted maternal behaviour in sows compared with sows kept indoors in farrowing pens. The aim of our study was to investigate whether there are behavioural differences between primiparous sows kept outdoors in farrowing huts and indoors in pens, and whether the maternal behaviour during the second parity, when all sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts, would differ between sows that have experienced the indoor or the outdoor environment, respectively, during their first parturition. A total of 26 Yorkshire×Swedish Landrace sows were studied. Of these, 11 sows were housed outdoors in farrowing huts during both parturitions (group=OUTOUT). The other 15 sows were kept indoors in a barn with single farrowing pens during their first parturition. During their second parturition, sows were kept outdoors in farrowing huts (group=INOUT). The behaviour was video recorded from 2 h prepartum to 48 h postpartum. The sows' responsiveness to playbacks of a piglet's screams was tested on days 2 to 3 postpartum. Parity 1: during the last 2 h prepartum, OUTOUT sows had a higher proportion of observations in the sternal lying position (Pbehavioural differences between INOUT and OUTOUT sows. In conclusion, it is not problematic for a second parity sow with initial maternal experience from an indoor farrowing pen to be kept outdoors in farrowing huts during its following farrowing.

  4. Gestational Diabetes Screening During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Cetin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that is diagnosed during pregnancy in patients who do not have pregestational diabetes. Unless diagnosed and treated on time, it may cause various maternal, fetal and neonatal complications like macrosomia, polyhydramniosis, preterm labor, in utero ex fetus, infections, neonatal metabolic complications. The diagnosis of gestational diabetes stands on single-step or two-step screening/diagnosis strategies. These screening and diagnosis tests should be well known by physicians who are taking care of pregnants. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 348-354

  5. Comparison of faecal microbial community of lantang, bama, erhualian, meishan, xiaomeishan, duroc, landrace, and yorkshire sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lina; Bian, Gaorui; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate differences in the faecal microbial composition among Lantang, Bama, Erhualian, Meishan, Xiaomeishan, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows and to explore the possible link of the pig breed with the gut microbial community. Among the sows, the Meishan, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire sows were from the same breeding farm with the same feed. Fresh faeces were collected from three sows of each purebred breed for microbiota analysis and volatile fatty acid (VFA) determination. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis revealed that samples from Bama, Erhualian, and Xiaomeishan sows, which from different farms, were generally grouped in one cluster, with similarity higher than 67.2%, and those from Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire sows were grouped in another cluster. Principal component analysis of the DGGE profile showed that samples from the foreign breeds and the samples from the Chinese indigenous breeds were scattered in two different groups, irrespective of the farm origin. Faecal VFA concentrations were significantly affected by the pig breed. The proportion of acetate was higher in the Bama sows than in the other breeds. The real-time PCR analysis showed that 16S rRNA gene copies of total bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were significantly higher in the Bama sows compared to Xiaomeishan and Duroc sows. Both Meishan and Erhualian sows had higher numbers of total bacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and sulphate-reducing bacteria as compared to Duroc sows. The results suggest that the pig breed affects the composition of gut microbiota. The microbial composition is different with different breeds, especially between overseas breeds (lean type) and Chinese breeds (relatively obese type).

  6. "COMPARISON OF MATERNAL AND FETAL/NEONATAL COMPLICATIONS IN GESTATIONAL AND PRE-GESTATIONAL DIABETES MELLITUS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akhlaghi A. B. Hamedi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Presence of maternal diabetes mellitus (DM during pregnancy has important consequences for both mother and child. To determine maternal and fetal/neonatal complications of gestational DM and compare them with pre-gestational DM, a prospective study was performed in 100 diabetic women delivered in our hospital from January 2001 to April 2002. Pregnancy outcome in 27 women with gestational DM and 73 women with pre-gestational DM and their offspring were studied and analyzed. The mean age of women was 28 years, women with gestational DM being slightly older than women with pre-gestational DM. Mothers with gestational DM were at increased risk of presenting with pre-eclampsia and preterm labor compared to pre-gestational DM. Frequency of Cesarean section was higher in mothers with pre-gestational DM. Frequencies of abortion and hypoglycemic episodes were similar in gestational DM and pre-gestational DM. Infants born to mothers with pre-gestational DM were at increased risk of suffering from respiratory distress syndrome and congenital malformations but rates of unexplained intrauterine fetal death and large for gestational age were higher in infant of mothers with gestational DM. Gestational and pre-gestational DM are associated with increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity. Pregnant women with gestational and pre-gestational DM and their offsprings should be monitored and managed carefully.

  7. Delayed muscle development in small pig fetuses around birth cannot be rectified by maternal early feed restriction and subsequent overfeeding during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruchot, M H; Lefaucheur, L; Louveau, I; Mobuchon, L; Palin, M F; Farmer, C; Gondret, F

    2015-12-01

    Intrauterine variations in nutrient allowance can alter body composition and tissue features of the porcine offspring around birth. This study aimed to determine the effects of fetal weight variations between littermates and of maternal dietary regimen during gestation on fetal muscle traits just before birth. Fourteen pregnant gilts were reared under a conventional (control, CTL; n=7) or an experimental (treatment, TRT; n=7) dietary regimen during gestation. The dietary treatment provided 70% of the protein and digestible energy contents of the CTL diet during the first 70 days of gestation and then, 115% of the protein and digestible energy contents up to farrowing. At 110 days of gestation, sows were sacrificed and one fetus having a low (824±140 g) and one having a normal (1218±192 g) BW per litter were sampled. Irrespective of maternal dietary regimen, the longissimus muscle of the small fetuses exhibited higher expression levels of DLK1/Pref1 and NCAM1/CD56, two genes known to be downregulated during normal skeletal muscle development. Expression levels of the embryonic isoform of the myosin heavy chain (MyHC), both at the mRNA and at the protein levels, were also higher in small fetuses. In addition, the ratios of perinatal to embryonic and of adult fast to developmental MyHC isoforms were generally lower in light fetuses compared with their medium-weight littermates. These modifications suggest a delayed myofiber development in spontaneous growth-retarded fetuses. Finally, GLUT1 was expressed to a lesser extent in the muscle of small v. normal fetuses, suggesting decreased ability for glucose uptake in muscle. Initial feed restriction and subsequent overfeeding of sows during gestation led to a lower expression of the myogenic factor MYOD1, a prerequisite for myogenic initiation in skeletal muscle. This maternal strategy was also associated with a lower expression level of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGFR) but an upregulation of IGF2. This

  8. Evaluation of external biosecurity practices on southern Ontario sow farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoms, Kate; Poljak, Zvonimir; Dewey, Cate; Deardon, Rob; Holtkamp, Derald; Friendship, Robert

    2013-04-01

    External biosecurity protocols, aimed at preventing the introduction of new pathogens to the farm environment, are becoming increasingly important in the swine industry. Although assessments at the individual farm level occur regularly, efforts to cluster swine herds into meaningful biosecurity groups and to summarize this information at the regional level are relatively infrequent. The objectives of this study were: (i) to summarize external biosecurity practices on sow farms in southern Ontario; (ii) to cluster these farms into discrete biosecurity groups and to describe their characteristics, the variables of importance in differentiating between these groups, and their geographic distribution; and (iii) to identify significant predictors of biosecurity group membership. Data were collected using the Production Animal Disease Risk Assessment Program's Survey for the Breeding Herd. A subset of variables pertaining to external biosecurity practices was selected for two-step cluster analysis, which resulted in 3 discrete biosecurity groups. These groups were named by the authors as: (i) high biosecurity herds that were open with respect to replacement animals, (ii) high biosecurity herds that were closed with respect to replacement animals, and (iii) low biosecurity herds. Variables pertaining to trucking practices and the source of replacement animals were the most important in differentiating between these groups. Multinomial logistic regression provided insight into which demographic and neighborhood variables serve as significant predictors of biosecurity group membership (pbiosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, increased 1.001 times for each additional sow (p=0.001). The odds of belonging to the high biosecurity group that was open with respect to replacement animals, relative to the low biosecurity group, were 6.5 times greater for farms that produced genetic animals than for farms that

  9. Gestational diabetes insipidus. Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejmocka-Ambroziak, Anna; Grzechocińska, Barbara; Jastrzebska, Helena; Kochman, Magdalena; Cyganek, Anna; Wielgoś, Mirosław; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus is a very rare complication. However, undiagnosed and untreated may lead to serious complications in both mother and fetus. In this study, a case of 34-year-old female patient with diabetes insipidus associated with pregnancy was reported. We discussed process of diagnosis and treatment with particular emphasis on the monitoring of water-electrolyte imbalance during labor.

  10. Genetic influence on prolonged gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Maja; Bille, Camilla; Olesen, Annette Wind

    2004-01-01

    , and the Danish Medical Birth Register. A total of 2588 same-sex twin pairs of whom both cotwins became parents during 1978 to 1996 were identified. RESULTS: The concordance rate for female twin pairs for a gestation of > or =41 weeks and > or =42 weeks was higher for monozygotic twin pairs than for dizygotic...

  11. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, M. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. Objective. The aim of this study...

  12. Gestational diabetes mellitus in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Lynge; Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the last 20 years, the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has been reported to be increasing worldwide in correlation with ethnic and geographic variations. The actual prevalence of GDM throughout all of Greenland remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study...

  13. Carbon balances for in vitro digestion an fermentation of potential roughages for pregnant sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, P.M.; Gelder, van A.H.; Wikselaar, van P.G.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Cone, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Ad libitum feeding of pregnant sows requires satiating, intake-restricting feed components to prevent sows from getting excessively fat. Because hindgut fermentation starts only after and proceeds much slower than enzymatic digestion in the small intestine, fermentation products might, as nutrients,

  14. The effect of fermented liquid feeding on the faecal microbiology and colostrum quality of farrowing sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demecková, V; Kelly, D; Coutts, A G P; Brooks, P H; Campbell, A

    2002-11-15

    This study investigated the effects of fermented liquid feed (FLF) on the lactic acid bacteria (LAB):Coliform (L:C) ratio in the faeces of farrowing sows and the quality of sow colostrum. Eighteen multiparous sows were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments for approximately 2 weeks prior to farrowing and for 3 weeks after parturition. The three dietary treatments were dry pelleted feed (DPF), nonfermented liquid feed (NFLF), and fermented liquid feed (FLF). A rifampicin-resistant mutant of Lactobacillus plantarum was used to ferment liquid feed. Coliforms and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the faeces of farrowing sows and piglets were estimated by standard microbiological techniques. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and blood lymphocytes were used to evaluate the mitogenic activity of colostral samples taken at parturition. Results demonstrated that while the LAB population was not significantly affected by dietary treatment, significant differences in coliform population were observed in the sow faecal samples taken 7 days after parturition. Faeces excreted from sows fed FLF had significantly (P feed fed sows (53433 +/- 1568 and 1231 +/- 61.4 CPM, respectively). The combined effects of enhanced maternal/passive immunity and the reduction in the level of environmental contamination with faecal pathogens, achieved by FLF, may be important in achieving improved health status for both sows and piglets.

  15. Effect of dietary lysine supplement on the performance of Mong Cai sows and their piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, K.T.; Duc, le N.; Hendriks, W.H.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine optimal lysine requirement of lactating Mong Cai sows and their piglets. An experiment was conducted using 30 Mong Cai sows in a factorial randomized design with 5 dietary total lysine levels (0.60, 0.70, 0.85, 1.0 and 1.15%) for one-week pre-partum and 5

  16. Effects of postweaning dietary energy source on reproductive traits in primiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, van den H.; Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of major dietary energy source fed from weaning to ovulation or from ovulation to d 35 of pregnancy on reproductive traits in primiparous sows. Dietary energy sources were used to manipulate the plasma insulin concentration. One hundred thirteen sows

  17. Follicle size and reproductive hormone profiles during a post-weaning altrenogest treatment in primiparous sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van J.J.J.; Martens, M.R.T.M.; Jourquin, J.; Draincourt, M.A.; Wagner, A.; Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the endocrine background of follicle size changes during post-weaning altrenogest treatment. altrenogest-treated sows received a 20-mg dosage daily at 8.00 a.m. from Day –1 to Day 14 after weaning. On Day –1, only 3/13 altrenogest-treated sows showed LH pulses compared with 8

  18. Impact of feeding reduced crude protein diets to lactating sows on nitrogen utilizatilon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, L; de Lange, C F M; Larsen, Uffe Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Forty lactating multiparous Yorkshire sows were used to test the hypothesis that reducing dietary CP and supplementing with crystalline amino acids (CAA) increases dietary N utilization for milk production during early and peak lactation. Sows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets: 1) 16.0% CP (as-fed; a...

  19. [Effects of coat and sowing depth on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xing-Fui; Qiu, Zhi-Hu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Kao-Wen; Zhou, Yun-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Under shade environment in glasshouse, the effects of seed coat and sowing depth (0, 2, 5, 10 or 15 cm) on seed germination and early seedling growth of Quercus wutaishanica were studied. Seed coat had obvious inhibiting effects on the germination of Q. wutaishanica seeds. The germination percentage of uncoated seeds increased significantly, averagely by 19.4% at different sowing depths. The germination index and vigor index were increased significantly and the germination was speeded in the peeling treatment. The germination percentages of uncoated and coated seeds were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm with 78.9% and 62.2%, respectively. The germination index and vigor index were the highest at the sowing depth of 2 cm, while the coefficient of rate of germination were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm. Leaf area per seedling and dry mass of seedlings increased significantly in the peeling treatment compared with those in the unpeeling treatment, but specific root length decreased significantly. The shoot height in the peeling and unpeeling treatments were the highest at the sowing depth of 5 cm with 13.8 and 14.2 cm, respectively. With the increasing of sowing depth, the basal stem diameter of seedlings increased, but tap-root length, number of lateral root and maximum of lateral root all decreased. Sowing depth had little influence on dry mass of seedlings.

  20. Exploring breeding opportunities for reduced thermal sensitivity of feed intake in the lactating sow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.; Hermesch, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate the effects of climatic variables on daily feed intake of lactating sows and, second, to establish whether the response of sows to variation in temperature on feed intake during lactation was heritable. A total of 82,614 records for daily feed intake d

  1. IMMUNOGLOBULINS IN COLOSTRUM OF SOWS WITH PORCINE REPRODUCTIVE AND RESPIRATORY SYNDROME - PRRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal ROLINEC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PRRS occurrence on sow colostrum immunological quality. We realised the experiment on 20 sows (breed: Large white. From farm without presences of PRRS were 10 sows and other 10 sows were from farm with presence of PRRS. We took the samples of sows colostrums during sucking. We detected concentration of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM in sows colostrum in time of 0 hours to 12 hours after beginning of farrowing with pig Ig ELISA quantitation kits. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgG at the beginning of farrowing, 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgA at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. We determined statistically significant (P<0.01 higher concentration of IgM at 6 and 12 hours from beginning of farrowing in favour of farm without presence of PRRS. Lower concentrations of colostral immunoglobulins in group with PRRS can be caused of presence of PRRS. Virus PRRS can evocate synthesis of cytokine IL-10, which inhibited the function of macrophages and lymphocytes and so PRRS decrease the production of immunoglobulins and their concentration in blood of sows and consequently also concentration of immunoglobulins in sows colostrum.

  2. The effects of non-uniform environmental conditions on piglet crushing and maternal behavior of sows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crushing is one of the main causes of piglet death in swine farrowing systems. Studies have shown a wide variability of piglet mortality rate among distinct litters, which has been associated with maternal ability of sows. In an effort to understand factors that affect sow maternal ability, this stu...

  3. Depletion of penicillin G residues in heavy sows after intramuscular injection. Part I: Tissue residue depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy sows (n=126) were treated with penicillin G procaine at a 5x label dose (33,000 IU/kg) for 3 consecutive days by intramuscular (IM) injection using 3 separate patterns (treatments) of drug administration (42 sows per treatment). Treatments differed by pattern and maximum injection volume per s...

  4. Field study of hind limb claw lesions and claw measures in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yosuke; Ushijima, Ruri; Sueyoshi, Masuo

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the associations of hind limb claw lesions with claw measures and reproductive performance of sows on a commercial breeding farm. We used a five-point scale (score of 0-4) for each hind limb claw region to generate a claw lesion score (CLS). Of 110 sows, 1.8% had no hind claw lesions, and the remaining 98.2% had at least one. The proportions of sows with a CLS of 2 and 3 were 49.1% and 3.6%, respectively. The junction region had the highest frequency of a CLS of ≥ 2 (P Sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 in the lateral claw had longer sole dimensions than did sows with the highest CLS of ≤ 1 (P sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 and ≤ 1. There was also no difference in reproductive performance between sows with the highest CLS of ≥ 2 and ≤ 1. In conclusion, most sows had hind claw lesions. The association between CLS and claw measures indicates that the sole length can be used as an indicator of claw lesions. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Interactive Effects of Sowing Date and Planting Density on Dry Matter Accumulation and Partitioning of Chicory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid MADANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chicory is considered one of the alternatives crops that can be used in crop rotation and contains many phytochemicals that can be used in medicine. In addition, lengthening the growing season by early sowing may increase root chicory yield potential, and thus increase its competitiveness with traditional crops. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether early sowing date risks can be decreased by higher sowing density and also to study the effect of sowing date and sowing density on dry matter accumulation and partitioning of chicory. Growing season did not affect any of the characteristics that were studied. Also plant density affected the flowers biomass, root biomass per plant and the respective yield together with the plant height and essence yield and total yield. The sowing date affected the leaf, flower and stem biomass on a plant basis. However, the interaction between plant density and sowing date affected the total biomass per plant, the flower biomass per plant, the root biomass per plant, the flower yield, the root yield and the essence yield. These results indicate that for higher production it is important to determine the right plant density and sowing date which can affect growth, dry matter accumulation and essence yield.

  6. Sow preferences for farrowing under a cover with and without access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Birgitte Iversen; Heiskanen, Teresia; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    In semi-natural environments sows often select a protected nest site at farrowing. Investigations of nest site selection under indoor conditions are scarce but suggest that sows prefer to nest and farrow under a covered area. Since feed-back from a functional nest may improve maternal behaviour a...

  7. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  8. Too Much Iron Linked to Gestational Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161946.html Too Much Iron Linked to Gestational Diabetes Supplements should only be given to pregnant women ... an increased risk of developing diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes), begging the question whether routine recommendations of iron ...

  9. Should Weaning be the Start of the Reproductive Cycle in Hyper-prolific Sows? A Physiological View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Normally, sows are in anoestrus during lactation and start their new cycle at the day of weaning. Modern hybrid primiparous sows that suckle large numbers of piglets may lose substantial amounts of body reserves during lactation. This compromises follicle development during lactation. As modern sows

  10. Field experiences with early pregnancy diagnosis by progesterone-based ELISA in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In four Kenyan pig breeding units the pregnancy diagnosis of sows has been carried out in two groups: Group 1 (n = 1911: the sows were transrectaly pregnancy tested between Days 17–22 post-mating by ultrasound. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG (equine chorion gonadotropin, eCG and 200 IU human chorion gonadotropin (hCG. On showing signs of oestrous, the animals were subsequently artificially inseminated (AI. Group 2 (n = 1923: sows were pregnancy tested by serum progesterone (P4-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA on Day 17 post-breeding. P4 concentrations were categorized as positive (> 5 ng/ml or negative (< 5 ng/ml. Sows testing non-pregnant immediately received one dose of 400 IU PMSG and 200 IU hCG by injection, and were subsequently artificially inseminated. The following parameters were evaluated: sows diagnosed non-pregnant, days from first post-weaning insemination until the sows were inseminated at their first return to oestrus; farrowing rate and total piglets born and number of live-born piglets in litters.The percentage of sows diagnosed non-pregnant in the two groups, as well as the totals of born piglets and of live-born piglets in litters did not differ significantly between the two groups. The number of days from the first post-weaning mating until the sows were artificially inseminated at their first return to oestrus and the administration of eCG and hCG was shorter (P < 0.01 and farrowing rate was higher (P < 0.01 in the ELISA-tested sows.

  11. The behaviour and welfare of sows and piglets in farrowing crates or lactation pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C; Verdon, M; Cronin, G M; Hemsworth, P H

    2017-07-01

    Temporary confinement during parturition and early postpartum may provide an intermediary step preceding loose housing that offers improvement in sow and piglet welfare. Three experiments were conducted to investigate the implications of replacing farrowing crates (FCs) with an alternative housing system from 3 days postpartum until weaning. In each experiment sows farrowed in FCs and were randomly allocated at day 3 of lactation to either a FC or a pen with increased floor space (lactation pen (LP)) until weaning. In experiment 1, piglet growth and sow and piglet skin injuries were recorded for 32 sows and 128 focal piglets in these litters. Behaviour around nursing and piglet behavioural time budgets were also recorded for 24 of these litters (96 focal piglets for time budgets). In experiment 2, measures of skin injury and behavioural time budgets were conducted on 28 sows and 112 focal piglets. The behavioural response of sows to piglet vocalisation (maternal responsiveness test (MRT)) was also assessed. In experiment 3, piglet mortality from day 3 of lactation until weaning was recorded in 672 litters over 12 months. While housing did not affect piglet weight gain in experiment 1, or piglet skin injuries in experiments 1 or 2, sows in both experiments sustained more injuries in LP than FC (experiment 1, 2.9 v. 1.4; experiment 2, 2.5 v. 0.8 lesions/sow; P0.05). Thus, housing sows and litters in LP from day 3 of lactation minimises piglet mortality while improving maternal behaviour in sows and social behaviour in piglets.

  12. Effects of confinement duration and parity on stereotypic behavioral and physiological responses of pregnant sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Yue; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Liu, Hong-Gui; Li, Jian-Hong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of space restriction stress on the stereotypic behavioral and physiological responses of different parity sows, and it is necessary to understand such effects due to space restriction to improve the welfare of the sows in confined conditions. We selected fifty pregnant sows (Large White) at primiparity and first to fifth parity in a confined farm with the same body condition and due date (3±1.5days). Behavioral observations and physiological analysis were carried out during spatial confinement throughout pregnancy. The results showed that there were no significant changes in vacuum-chewing, bar-biting, trough-biting and the concentrations of serum IL-6 in primiparous sows during the initial confinement (0-8days). With the increase of the confinement duration, the serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and the vacuum-chewing frequency of sows in all groups increased significantly, and the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and Pig-MAP increased significantly except for the sows in the first and second parity groups. The serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and the vacuum-chewing frequency of older sows were significantly higher than those of the young sows throughout the entire restricted feeding period, but the serum C-reactive protein concentrations of primiparous gilts was significantly higher than those of the other groups. The serum cortisol, IgA, IL-6 concentrations and bar-biting and trough-biting frequencies of all parity sows decreased significantly after entering the delivery bed. In conclusion, long-lasting and recurrent environmental constraints can significantly increase the frequency of stereotypical behavior and serious psychological and physical stress, seriously damaging sow welfare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neonatal piglet survival: impact of sow nutrition around parturition on fetal glycogen deposition and production and composition of colostrum and transient milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Quesnel, H

    2014-01-01

    Piglet survival is a major problem, especially during the first 3 days after birth. Piglets are born deficient of energy, but at the same time they have a very high energy requirement because of high physical activity, high need for thermoregulation (because of their lean body with low insulation...... is born. Selection for large litters during the last two decades has challenged piglets even further during the critical neonatal phase because the selection programs indirectly decreased birth weight of piglets and because increased litter size has increased the competition between littermates. Different...... attempts have been made to increase the short-term survival of piglets, that is, survival until day 3 of lactation, by focusing on improving transfer of vital maternal energy to the offspring, either in utero or via mammary secretions. Thus, the present review addresses how sow nutrition in late gestation...

  14. Intrauterine Growth Retarded Progeny of Pregnant Sows Fed High Protein:Low Carbohydrate Diet Is Related to Metabolic Energy Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metges, Cornelia C.; Lang, Iris S.; Hennig, Ulf; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter; Kanitz, Ellen; Tuchscherer, Margret; Schneider, Falk; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Steinhoff-Ooster, Anika; Sauerwein, Helga; Bellmann, Olaf; Nürnberg, Gerd; Rehfeldt, Charlotte; Otten, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    High and low protein diets fed to pregnant adolescent sows led to intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). To explore underlying mechanisms, sow plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations were analyzed during different pregnancy stages and correlated with litter weight (LW) at birth, sow body weight and back fat thickness. Sows were fed diets with low (6.5%, LP), adequate (12.1%, AP), and high (30%, HP) protein levels, made isoenergetic by adjusted carbohydrate content. At −5, 24, 66, and 108 days post coitum (dpc) fasted blood was collected. At 92 dpc, diurnal metabolic profiles were determined. Fasted serum urea and plasma glucagon were higher due to the HP diet. High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), %HDLC and cortisol were reduced in HP compared with AP sows. Lowest concentrations were observed for serum urea and protein, plasma insulin-like growth factor-I, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and progesterone in LP compared with AP and HP sows. Fasted plasma glucose, insulin and leptin concentrations were unchanged. Diurnal metabolic profiles showed lower glucose in HP sows whereas non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations were higher in HP compared with AP and LP sows. In HP and LP sows, urea concentrations were 300% and 60% of AP sows, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol was higher in LP than in AP and HP sows. In AP sows, LW correlated positively with insulin and insulin/glucose and negatively with glucagon/insulin at 66 dpc, whereas in HP sows LW associated positively with NEFA. In conclusion, IUGR in sows fed high protein∶low carbohydrate diet was probably due to glucose and energy deficit whereas in sows with low protein∶high carbohydrate diet it was possibly a response to a deficit of indispensable amino acids which impaired lipoprotein metabolism and favored maternal lipid disposal. PMID:22328932

  15. Diabetes and Pregnancy: Gestational Diabetes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-14

    Gestational diabetes happens in a woman who develops diabetes during pregnancy. This podcast discusses its potential effects and action steps to avoid complications.  Created: 11/14/2007 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT) and National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD), Prevention Research Branch.   Date Released: 11/27/2007.

  16. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Annunziata Lapolla, Maria Grazia Dalfrà, Domenico FedeleDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Padova University, ItalyAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is on the increase and, if not diagnosed, managed and treated adequately, can have unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Several studies have shown that glycemic values considered as adequate in the past when monitoring GDM failed to contain these adverse outcomes and randomized trials are need...

  17. Physiological and productive responses of environmental control on housed sows Respostas fisiológicas e produtivas do controle ambiental em fêmeas suínas alojadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Bites Romanini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine housing must promote an adjusted environment for thermal comfort and high animal productivity without negatively affecting the sow performance and reproductive response. This study evaluated the use of distinct environmental cooling equipments on sow performance, both on the gestation and on nursing in open sided housing. Two treatments were tested in the gestation building: natural ventilation and mechanical ventilation associated to fogging; while in the nursing rooms three treatments were tested: natural ventilation; mechanical ventilation; and evaporative cooling with forced ventilation. Sows were randomly chosen from the same genetic lot form six combined treatments. The evaporative cooling system in the farrowing room differed for piglet performances, at birth (4% higher and on daily weight gain (15% higher, and also for sow physiological response improving the respiratory rate (8% and back fat thickness (3%, without influencing skin temperature. The use of evaporative cooling directed to the sow head during nursing improved the physiological and productive results.As instalações suínicolas devem promover um ambiente adequado para o conforto térmico, sem afetar negativamente o desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo das porcas. O presente trabalho avaliou a influência do uso de diferentes equipamentos de climatização, em ambas as instalações abertas de gestação e maternidade, no desempenho das matrizes suínas. Na instalação de gestação foram testados dois tratamentos: ventilação natural e resfriamento; enquanto nas salas de maternidade foram aplicados três tratamentos: ventilação natural, ventilação mecânica e resfriamento adiabático com ventilação forçada. Matrizes escolhidas aleatoriamente, com a mesma genética, foram expostas a seis tratamentos combinados. O sistema de resfriamento adiabático na maternidade foi diferencial para o desempenho dos leitões ao nascer (4% superior e no ganho de peso diário (15

  18. Lactational oestrus and reproductive performance following a delayed limited nursing schedule in primiparous sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T Y; Turpin, D L; Knight, A L; Bouwman, E G; Soede, N M; Kirkwood, R N; Langendijk, P

    2017-07-01

    With conventional lactation management, sows only conceive after weaning. However, intermittent suckling (IS) enables follicle growth and ovulation during lactation by reducing the suckling-induced inhibition of gonadotrophins. The current study evaluated IS regimes initiated at Day 21 or Day 28 post farrowing compared to conventional weaning on Day 28, in primiparous sows. Sows (Large White and Large White x Landrace) were randomly allocated to Control (C28; n = 44), IS21 (n = 29) and IS28 (n = 34) treatments at Day 20. Sows in IS21 and IS28 were subjected to intermittent suckling from Day 21 or Day 28 post farrowing. During IS, sows were separated from their piglets for 8 h daily, then weaned 7 d later at Day 28 and Day 35 respectively, whereas piglets in the C28 treatment had continuous access to sows until weaning at Day 28. Percentage of IS sows that showed oestrus during lactation was 59% (16/27) in IS21 and 72% (21/29) in IS28 (P > 0.05). Cumulatively over the lactation and 7 d post-weaning period, 93% of IS21, 85% of IS28 and 93% (31/33) of C28 sows showed oestrus (P > 0.05). Pregnancy rate at Day 30 post mating, for sows that were mated during lactation was 93% (15/16) in IS21 and 95% (20/21) in IS28, whereas C28 sows had a 96% (30/31) pregnancy rate (P > 0.05). No difference was found in the time of oestrus relative to weaning (C28) or onset of IS (IS21 and IS28) (P > 0.05). The IS sows that did not ovulate before weaning all showed oestrus within 7 days from weaning, and the weaning to oestrus interval was similar to control sows (P > 0.05). However, for all IS sows (across IS treatments) that showed lactational ovulation, LH secretion pattern at onset of IS was different (P sows that did not ovulate in lactation. Plasma progesterone concentration tended to be lower in the IS21 treatment (P sows at 4 d after ovulation. The subsequent litter size was not affected by treatments although numerically lower for IS21 (P > 0.05). The

  19. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  20. Yield and quality of sugar snap pea in the Ebro Valley: sowing date and seed density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miren Azpilicueta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugar snap pea (Pisum sativum L. var. macrocarpon Ser. is an edible-podded sweet pea that is being considered as a new totally mechanized crop to supply raw material to the agri-food industry of the Ebro Valley (Northern Spain. It is of great interest from an agronomic and commercial standpoint but neither its agronomic behaviour nor its adaptation to the area are known. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sowing date and seed density on the growth and yield of the sugar snap pea at industrial scale. Six randomized blocks experiments with four replicates were conducted on irrigated land in Villafranca (Navarra, Spain in 1998, 1999, and 2000. Three experiments for testing sowing dates (Mar., Apr., and May and another three for seed densities (from 75 to 150 plants m-2 were performed. Phenological development, thermal integral and qualitative and quantitative yield controls were performed. Sugar snap pea required 960 ºC d-1 (Tb = 3 ºC from sowing to harvest. The early sowings gave more biomass, but yield was similar. However, Harvest Index and crop morphology varied. The sowing densities had similar yields sowing that sugar snap pea has a bigger adaptation availability. Sugar snap peas can be satisfactorily cultivated at industrial scale in the zone with sowings between Mar. and May and with seeding densities between 75 and 150 plants m-2.

  1. Effect of sowing date on biometrical features of Hamburg parsley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gruszecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sowing date and the biometrics features of the roots and leaves of parsley. Seeds of parsley cultivars ‘Berlińska PNE’ and ‘Cukrowa’ were sown in 5 times in 2004 year: 5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September, 17 November and 12 April 2005. Plants were harvested then the average root diameter was greater than 20 mm. Due to harvest time dependence of the size of the root, was no effect of sowing date on the diameter and the weight of gained parsley roots. Shorter roots and the lower coefficient of shape produced plants that sprouted before winter (5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September. The highest number of leaves produced by plants sowing on 5 July and 17 November, and the lowest – by plants sowing on 25 August and 12 April. The lowest length of leaves were found in plants obtained from sowing on 5 July (20.8 cm, it was more than twice shorter than in plants from different dates of sowing. The largest weight of leaves had the plants from sowing on 5 and 15 September or 17 November. Those plants are also characterized by a smaller root/shoot weight ratio. Tested cultivars differ in the length and coefficient of shape of the root and root/shoot weight ratio.

  2. The local immune response in the mammary gland of the sow following infusion of a protein antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, M A; Watson, D L

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the local immune response in the udder of the sow following infusion of a soluble antigen. Four mammary glands of each of four pregnant sows were infused with ferritin prepartum. Samples of blood, colostrum, and milk were collected during the following lactation; animals were slaughtered and mammary tissue removed for immunohistology. Blood, colostrum, milk, and mammary tissues were similarly collected from nonimmunized (control) sows. Colostral and milk whey from immunized sows contained higher levels of immunoglobulins than whey from control sows. There was an increase in numbers of IgA-containing plasma cells and total lymphoid cells in mammary tissue of immunized sows compared with controls. The results suggested that the local immune response was at least as great in non-infused glands as infused glands of immunized sows.

  3. Structure Design of Large-scale Sow House with Fermentation Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LlU; Zhaolong Ll; Jianglin LAN; Qinlou HUANG; Jianyang TANG; Wenquan YU; Huai SHl

    2014-01-01

    ln this research, the whole contact-type large-scale sow house with fer-mentation bed was designed. The planning area of the entire piggery was 5 700 m2 with workplace and green belts. The sow house was 93 m long and 33 m wide, a total of 3 069 m2, including office area of 60 m2 and aisle area of 107 m2. The fer-mentation bed had an area of 2 902 m2 with length of 88.7 m and width of 27.7 m. lts area accounted for 95% of the total area of sow house. The fermentation mattress had a depth of 80 cm, and had a volume of 2 321 m3, equivalent to 733 t of coconut chaff and rice chaff. On a large fermentation bed, the areas for boars, replacement gilts, pregnant sows, obstetric tables, nursery pigs, etc. were designed. The large-scale sow house with fermentation bed was equipped with the automatic feeding system, automatic sprinkler system, automatic positioning column for preg-nant sows, sows’ obstetric table system, fanning wet curtain cooling system, video monitoring system, environmental monitoring (light, temperature, water, humidity, CO2, NH3) and automatic control system. Every farming area was equipped with feeding trough and water trough. The water though was fixed with overflow pipe for removing the extra water. The house could hold 500-head sows. Each sow occu-pied 4.9 m2 of the fermentation bed in average. The designed sow house had a maximum annual output of 10 000 piglets.

  4. Transport Fitness of Cull Sows and Boars: A Comparison of Different Guidelines on Fitness for Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, Temple

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Breeding sows and boars that are shipped to slaughter, auctions, or buying stations have a greater risk for welfare problems because they are older animals. Sows are sold when they fail to rebreed, are too thin or have difficulty walking. The transport guidelines of four organizations were compared. Most guidelines typically do not allow transport of non-ambulatory, severely injured animals or sows likely to give birth. The guidelines were less likely to agree on transport of extremely thin sows. Abstract Sows and boars that have reached the end of their productive lives have a greater risk for welfare problems. This paper reviews literature on culling reasons that may affect the animals’ fitness for transport. The top two reasons identified for culling boars were: obesity and reproductive problems. Sows are most often culled due to lameness, low body condition, or failure to rebreed. The OIE (World Organization for Animal Health) fitness for transport guidelines that would apply to sows and boars were compared with documents from the Canadian Code of Practice, Northern American Meat Institute (NAMI), EU-UK-DEFRA (European Union-United Kingdom, Dept. Environment, Food and Rural Affairs), U.S. National Pork Board, European Practical Guidelines to Assess Fitness for Transport of Pigs, and U.S. Pork Trucker Quality Assurance. The guidelines had the greatest agreement on the following fitness for transport issues: non-ambulatory, severely injured animals, sows in the last ten percent of pregnancy and sows with uterine prolapses were not fit for transport. There was less agreement on low body condition. One of the reasons for the lack of agreement is that there were stakeholders who specialized in transporting and processing extremely thin animals. A standard that would severely restrict the transport and slaughter of these animals could hinder the business practices of these stakeholders. Many welfare specialists would agree that some of these animals

  5. Grading of shoulder ulcerations in sows by biopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Dahl-Pedersen, Kirstin; Barington, Krisitane

    2014-01-01

    legislation, stating that sows with shoulder ulcers grade 3 or 4 must be kept loose and have access to soft bedding. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate if biopsies from the center of a shoulder ulcer can be used to point out animals for which an intervention must be initiated. Postmortem......, a punch biopsy was sampled from the center of the ulceration or from the tissue overlaying the tuber spina scapula. Afterward, the shoulders were cross-sectioned and evaluated grossly and histologically (“gold standard”). In total, 121 shoulders were included in the study, and the diagnostic value...... of a punch biopsy in grading shoulder ulcerations was evaluated. The results showed a sensitivity of 0.78, a specificity of 0.98, a positive likelihood ratio of 38.36, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.22. The agreement between the cross-section evaluation and the punch biopsy was found to be 0...

  6. [Asepsis sowing and tissue culture of Bletilla striata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Songjun; Huang, Xiangli; Chen, Zhilin; Chen, Jiantong; Duan, Jun

    2004-09-01

    The asepsis sowing and tissue culture of Bletilla striata were studied. The results indicated that the embyro culture had highest sprouting percent and plantlets percent when their embryos were mature. The optimal medium for the embryo culture was 1/2 MS. Adding 10% coconut juice can promote embyros sprouting and plantlets formation, 1% active carbon can improve plantlets growing. The best medium for the top of plantlet on culture and multiplication was 1/2 MS + 6-BA 0.5 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L. The best medium of rooting was 1/2 MS + NAA 0.5 mg/L, and 10% banana juice can improve rooting of plantlets.

  7. Postparturient disorders and backfat loss in tropical sows associated with parity, farrowing duration and type of antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Pearodwong, Pachara

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated the incidence of postparturient disorders and backfat loss in primiparous and multiparous sows under tropical climates in relation to duration of farrowing and type of antibiotic used postpartum. In total, 81 sows (42 primiparous and 39 multiparous sows) were included. The sows were categorised according to the duration of farrowing into three groups: 4 h (n = 4). According to the antibiotic used postpartum, the sows were divided into two groups: group I (enrofloxacin type 1, n = 36) and group II (enrofloxacin type 2, n = 45). Rectal temperature, the presence of abnormal vaginal discharge, the occurrence of postpartum dysgalactia syndrome (PDS) and the sows' appetite were determined at days 0, 1, 2 and 3 postpartum. Backfat thickness was measured before farrowing and at 21 days postpartum. The mean duration of farrowing was 114.5 ± 60.2 min. Stillborn piglets in the sows with a long duration of farrowing (>4 h, mean 287.9 min) was higher than in sows with a short duration (sows lost more backfat during lactation than multiparous sows (15.7 and 4.8 %, P = 0.004). The incidence of abnormal vaginal discharge (P = 0.046) and PDS (P = 0.057) was less frequent in group II than in group I sows. In conclusion, primiparous sows and sows with a long duration of farrowing had a high risk of postparturient disorders. The type of antibiotic had an effect on the incidence of abnormal vaginal discharge and PDS in sows.

  8. [Effect of energy intake on production and reproduction characteristics in (breeding) sows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartog, L A

    1985-04-01

    A total number of 113 first-litter sows and 680 gilts of the Dutch Landrace were used in order to study the effect of energy intake on productive and reproductive characteristics. A high feeding level in normal sows after weaning is essential, not to increase the ovulation rate but rather to improve the condition of the sow and advance oestrus. The experiment with the gilts showed that from the point of view of the cost of the feed consumed and reproductive performance, an energy intake during rearing of more than 2.1 times maintenance will have an adverse effect when adequate protein is given.

  9. Nutritional value of biofuel residues from beet evaluated in sows and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J.V.; Hvelplund, T.; Fernandez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    An alternative substrate in the biogas or bioethanol production may be the sugar containing juice obtained after fractionation of beets into a juice used for fermentation and into a pulp used for feeding. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the fresh pulp of top and root from...... of sows and wethers were higher for root pulp than for top pulp, whereas there were no differences between the two beet varieties. The fresh root pulp may be considered a good energy source for both sows and ruminants, whereas the fresh top pulp may serve as a satiety-enhancing feedstuff for sows...

  10. Mycobacterium bovis infection in a wild sow (Sus scrofa): first case in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bok Kyung; Jeon, Bo-Young; Kim, Jae Myung; Jang, Young-Boo; Jang, Yunho; Yu, So Yoon; Kim, Jiro; Moon, Oun Kyung; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Min Kwon; Jeong, Tae Nam

    2016-09-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) bovis causes tuberculosis and has a broad host range, including humans, livestock, and wild animals. M. bovis infection of wild boar has been reported in several European countries. We report here the first case of M. bovis infection in a domesticated wild sow in Korea. Granulomatous and necrotizing lesions with small numbers of acid-fast bacilli were observed in nodules of the lung of wild sow. Furthermore, the M. bovis isolate from the wild sow had spoligotype SB0140 and a novel MIRU-VNTR allelic profile, which is not found in cattle and deer in Korea.

  11. Sow body condition at weaning and reproduction performance in organic piglet production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete; Hermansen, John Erik

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to investigate the variation in backfat at weaning and its relations to reproduction results in organic sow herds in Denmark. The study included eight herds and 573 sows. The average backfat at weaning (mean = 13 mm; SD = 4.2 mm) ranging from 10.5 to 17.3 mm among herds shows...... that it is possible to avoid poor body condition at weaning even with a lactation length of seven weeks or more. No main effect of backfat at weaning on reproduction performance was found, but the probability of a successful reproduction after weaning tended to decrease with decreasing backfat for first parity sows...

  12. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... becomes catabolic due to the high priority of milk production and to current feeding practices. Indeed, feed is changed from a gestation to a lactation diet for most sows and the feed supply typically goes from a restricted supply to an ad libitum allowance. In addition, transition sows are often exposed...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  13. Effects of sowing site, sowing time and some pretreatments on germination of oriental hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis Paal. Ex. M. Bieb seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aşkın Göktürk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of sowing site, sowing time, chemical scarification and floating on water solution of ash pretreatments on germination percentage of hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis paal. Ex. M. Bieb seeds. Seeds were pretreated with sulphuric acid (H2SO4, nitric acid (HNO3, citric acid (C6H8O7 and water solution of ash within two different or separated groups to determine most appropriate methods for removing seed dormancy of oriental hawthorn. Sowings were carried out in green house and open field conditions in September to determine field effects. Sowings were also carried out to determine effects of sowing time in August and September at open field conditions with three replications of randomized block design. As a results of this study it was determined that pretreatments of sulphuric acid, nitric acid and citric acid were not effective on overcoming of seed dormancy of C. orientalis seeds. Best germination percentage were achieved from seeds sown in August after pretreated with soaking water solution of ash for 6 days as 74 %.

  14. 母猪妊娠期采食水平对其背膘厚和泌乳期采食量的影响%The Effect of Pregnancy Sow's Feed Intake on Backfat Thickness and Feed Intake of Lactating Sow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼红梅; 王诚; 张印; 王彦平; 郭建凤; 武英

    2014-01-01

    为研究母猪妊娠期采食水平对其背膘厚和哺乳期采食量的影响,选择58头大约克母猪,配种后随机分为3组,起始饲喂水平分别按1.8、1.4和0.8倍维持需要供给饲粮(分别为采食高、中、低水平),随着妊娠期延长各组采食水平递增,测定母猪不同阶段的背膘厚,统计母猪妊娠和哺乳期采食量。结果表明,母猪妊娠期高水平的饲喂量可显著增加其配种后30 d、分娩和断奶时的背膘厚,增加1.29%~40.26%,高水平饲喂量使母猪分娩时的背膘厚达到21.74 mm,而妊娠期中、低水平饲喂母猪分娩时的背膘厚为16.87~16.97 mm,极显著低于妊娠期高水平饲喂母猪分娩时的背膘厚。妊娠期的采食量与泌乳期采食量呈极显著负相关,妊娠期中、低水平饲喂的母猪,其分娩后的采食量增加较快,且保持在较高水平,分娩至断奶日采食量达到3.66~4.30 kg。由此可见,母猪妊娠期间饲喂水平自1.4倍维持需要增加至2.6倍最为适宜,不仅有利于母猪分娩后采食量的快速增加,而且有利于母猪妊娠期和哺乳期的背膘厚保持在适宜水平,使母猪哺乳期的体脂损耗减少。%In order to study effects of sow feed intake in gestation on its backfat thickness and feed intake dur-ing lactation period, 58 Yorkshire sows were selected as the study objects, after breeding were randomly divided into three groups. At beginning, three groups of sows were fed at 1.8, 1.4 and 0.8 times of maintaining require-ment respectively (high, median and low feed intake level respectively). With the extension of pregnancy, feed intake of every group increases, the backfat thicknesses of sow in different stages were measured and the feed intake amount of sow in gestation and lactation were accounted. As results showed, the high level feed intake in gestation could increase significantly its back fat thickness by 1.29%~40.26% in stages of 30 d

  15. Trimester-Specific Gestational Weight Gain and Infant Size for Gestational Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Xu, Fei; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    Gestational weight gain is known to influence fetal growth. However, it is unclear whether the associations between gestational weight gain and fetal growth vary by trimester. In a diverse cohort of 8,977 women who delivered a singleton between 2011 and 2013, we evaluated the associations between trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant size for gestational age. Gestational weight gain was categorized per the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations; meeting the recommendations was the referent. Large for gestational age and small for gestational age were defined as birthweight > 90th percentile or <10th percentile, respectively, based on a national reference standard birthweight distribution. Logistic regression models estimated the odds of having a large or small for gestational age versus an appropriate for gestational age infant. Only gestational weight gain exceeding the IOM recommendations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters independently increased the odds of delivering a large for gestational age infant (Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval): 1st: 1.17 [0.94, 1.44], 2nd: 1.47 [1.13, 1.92], 3rd: 1.70 [1.30, 2.22]). Gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester only (1.76 [1.23, 2.52]). There was effect modification, and gestational weight gain below the IOM recommendations increased the likelihood of having a small for gestational age infant in the 2nd trimester and only among women with a pre-pregnancy body mass index from 18.5–24.9 kg/m2 (2.06 [1.35, 3.15]). These findings indicate that gestational weight gain during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters is more strongly associated with infant growth. Interventions to achieve appropriate gestational weight gain may optimize infant size at birth. PMID:27442137

  16. Legume seeds and rapeseed press cake as substitutes for soybean meal in sow and piglet feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Hanczakowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of replacing soybean meal with mixtures of rapeseed press cake (RPC and legume seeds in sow and piglet diets was evaluated in an experiment on 30 sows and their progeny. Group I (control received standard feed mixture containing soybean meal as the main protein source, group II – RPC mixed with fodder pea, group III – field bean, group IV – blue lupine, group V – yellow lupine. Weaned piglets received mixtures containing RPC and legume mixtures. Considerable differences were found in amino acid composition of proteins. Differences in the apparent digestibility of essential nutrients were statistically insignificant. Sows fed with field bean and yellow lupine gave birth to heaviest piglets. After weaning piglets receiving field bean were characterized by the best weight gains. It is concluded that mixing rapeseed cake with legume seeds allows for the complete replacement of soybean meal in sow diets and for partial replacement in piglet diets.

  17. Decubital shoulder ulcers in sows - a review of classification, pain and welfare consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Bonde, Marianne; Jørgensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Decubital shoulder ulcers are lesions on the shoulders of sows kept in production systems, reported to have a relatively high prevalence, and to some extent be comparable with human pressure ulcers. In sows, the ulcers are caused by pressure inflicted by the flooring, leading to oxygen deficiency...... in the skin and the underlying tissue. This paper reviews existing knowledge about decubital shoulder ulcers in sows, focusing on the pathogenesis, classification and consequences in terms of pain and animal welfare. On the basis of available human as well as animal literature, we describe the primary causal...... factors, underlying mechanisms, suggested direction of progression as well as temporal development. We review suggested scales for the classification of decubital shoulder ulcers, and argue that none of these are useful for the classification of decubital shoulder ulcers in live sows. The knowledge...

  18. effect of sowing media and gibberellic acid on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ... for better root establishment, growth. and development in relation to the three ... Keywords: Gibbrellic Acid, Sowing Media, Bougainvillea glabra, Ixora coccinea, ..... India. 2nd Edition Indian Council of Agricultural. Research, New Delhi, India.

  19. Investigation of candidate regions influencing litter size in Danish Landrace sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Ditte; Mark, Thomas; Sørensen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Selection for increased litter size has been one of the main objectives in Danish pig breeding since 1992. This selection has led to an average increase of 0.30 piglets/litter per year for Landrace and Yorkshire sows, resulting in an average litter size of 15.3 piglets born alive in 2007......, with an SD of 3.5 piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in identity by state relationships and allele effects associated with litter size across 17 selected microsatellite marker positions on chromosomes 11, 13, and 15. For this purpose, 357 Danish Landrace sows with high...... and low EBV for litter size were genotyped. An assignment test showed that 91 and 90% of the sows could be assigned correctly to the group of sows representing high and low EBV, respectively, based on genotype information. Allele effects were estimated separately for each marker by using deregressed EBV...

  20. Study on Large Power Tractor Driver's Heart Rate and Fatigue in Sowing Work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Degang; ZHAO Yongchao; ZHU Zhenying; ZHANG Shuai; ZHU Lei

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the driving fatigue in sowing work, this paper based on heart rate (HR) as the main indicator to survey, tested and analyzed the fatigue condition of the drivers of three imported tractors and one domestic tractor in sowing work. The results showed that when driving the imported tractors in sowing work, the HR increasing rate was 10.4%-14.3%, labor intensity belonged to the light level;when driving domestic tractor in sowing work, the HR increasing rate was 23.4%-33.0%, it was remarkably bigger than that of driving imported tractors (P<0.05), labor intensity belonged to the middle level. The main effects on driving fatigue included the control methods, tractors' cab environment, processing time, operating content, and so on. Finally, we proposed the concrete measures and suggestions to reduce driving fatigue and improve drivers' work condition.

  1. Uterine activity, sperm transport, and the role of boar stimuli around insemination in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes changes in spontaneous myometrial activity around estrus, factors that affect myometrial activity, and the possible role of uterine contractions in the process of (artificial) insemination, sperm transport and fertilization. Myometrial activity in the sow increases during estrus

  2. Hunger in pregnant sows: Effects of a fibrous diet and free access to straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    of metabolites and hormones in pregnant sows. Ten groups of three pregnant sows were housed in pens with concrete floor where a limited amount of chopped straw (approx. 330 g/sow) was provided daily. In 5 of the 10 groups sows had free access to uncut straw in racks in addition to the chopped straw (Ad libitum...... periods. Furthermore, the sows’ feeding motivation was assessed during behavioural tests, and blood samples were draw via a jugular vein catheter, at 0700, 0900, 1200 and 1900 h in a balanced design. Feeding motivation was not affected by diet or straw. However, feeding motivation was highest 1 h before...... morning feeding indicated by a higher number of rewards earned during the entire test (P floor less frequently (P

  3. Study on Possible Associations Between SLA-types and Reproductive Hormone Levels in Sows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Hai-feng; LIU Yan; GAO Hui; MO Yu-zhong; ZHANG Chun-ying

    2001-01-01

    The levels of plasma luteinizing hormone(LHt)、 estrogen(E2) and progesterone(P4) were determined in one hundred and ninety-eight SLA-typed sows of Chinese lean-type dam-line(DVI). During the lactation, the levels of LH、E2 and P4 were Iow, which had no significant differences in different SLA-typed sows.E2 reached its peak at breeding day. LHt and P4 reached their peaks at 15th day of pregnancy. Compared with other SLA-typed sows, type-D had higher levels of E2 and P4 at breeding day, higher levels of P4 during early pregnancy, which favored the oestrus, breeding and pregnancy of sows.

  4. Reducing sow confinement during farrowing and in early lactation increases piglet mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condous, P C; Plush, K J; Tilbrook, A J; van Wettere, W H E J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sow confinement and nonconfinement during parturition and early lactation on the performance of sows and piglets prior to weaning. Sows and their litters were housed in either a conventional farrowing crate (control; 1.7 × 2.4 m) or a swing-sided pen (2.8 × 2.15 m). Sows housed in the swing-sided pen had the crate open (open) or closed (closed) during farrowing and opened on d 3 (LAC3) or 7 (LAC7) of lactation. Data are means ± SEM. The numbers of total and live-born piglets were not different between treatments and averaged 13.1 ± 0.4 and 12.3 ± 0.2 piglets/litter, respectively. Sows housed in a farrowing crate had a greater ( = 0.03) number of stillborn piglets compared with open sows from pens (1.1 ± 0.2 vs. 0.6 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Live-born piglet mortality before litter equalization on d 1 was greater ( piglets/litter, respectively) and was largely explained by an increase in the incidence of piglets overlain ( piglets/litter, respectively). Overlay mortality between d 3 and 7 of lactation was greater ( = 0.03) in LAC3 sows compared to LAC7 and control sows (0.4 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 piglets/litter, respectively). Treatment did not affect either the incidence or cause of piglet mortality after d 7 of lactation ( > 0.05). Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning for the control, closedLAC7, closedLAC3, openLAC7, and openLAC3 was 1.86 ± 0.19, 1.95 ± 0.23, 2.10 ± 0.39, 2.45 ± 0.27, and 3.74 ± 0.48, piglets/litter, respectively. Total live-born piglet mortality from birth until weaning was greater in the openLAC3 and openLAC7 treatments compared to control ( piglet mortality compared to a farrowing crate, and removing confinement on d 3 of lactation further increased total piglet mortality compared to removing sow confinement on d 7 of lactation in sows that farrowed open. Sows that were confined during farrowing and until d 3 or 7 of lactation in a

  5. Application of decision-tree technique to assess herd specific risk factors for coliform mastitis in sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Gerjets

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with coliform mastitis in sows, determined at herd level, by applying the decision-tree technique. Coliform mastitis represents an economically important disease in sows after farrowing that also affects the health, welfare and performance of the piglets. The decision-tree technique, a data mining method, may be an effective tool for making large datasets accessible and different sow herd information comparable. It is based on the C4.5-algorithm which generates trees in a top-down recursive strategy. The technique can be used to detect weak points in farm management. Two datasets of two farms in Germany, consisting of sow-related parameters, were analysed and compared by decision-tree algorithms. Data were collected over the period of April 2007 to August 2010 from 987 sows (499 CM-positive sows and 488 CM-negative sows and 596 sows (322 CM-positive sows and 274 CM-negative sows, respectively. Depending on the dataset, different graphical trees were built showing relevant factors at the herd level which may lead to coliform mastitis. To our understanding, this is the first time decision-tree modeling was used to assess risk factors for coliform mastitis. Herd specific risk factors for the disease were illustrated what could prove beneficial in disease and herd management.

  6. Individual responses of mother sows to a probiotic Enterococcus faecium strain lead to different microbiota composition in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, I C; Pieper, R; Neumann, K; Zentek, J; Vahjen, W

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant gilts were fed the probiotic Enterococcus faecium NCIMB10415 (SF68) one month before birth of piglets. DNA extracts of sow faeces taken in weekly intervals as well as extracts from the intestine of their offspring during the suckling period at 12 and 26 days of life were analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR. DGGE profiles of faecal bacterial communities from three out of six probiotic-fed sows were distinctly different from the control and other probiotic-fed sows at all time points after probiotic supplementation. The probiotic-fed sows and their offspring were therefore divided into non-responder (n=3) and responder (n=3) groups. The probiotic strain significantly increased faecal lactobacilli cell numbers in mother sows, which could be assigned to a significant increase of Lactobacillus amylovorus and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Responding sows showed a more pronounced increase than non-responding sows. Similarly, suckling piglets from non-responding and responding sows showed numeric and significant differences for different bacterial groups and species. DGGE profiles of suckling piglets from responding sows also grouped more closely than profiles from control animals. Non-metric multiscaling of suckling piglets showed the same tendency for suckling piglets, but not for post-weaning piglets. This study showed that the probiotic E. faecium strain modified the faecal microbiota of sows. This modification is carried over to their offspring, but leads to changes that do not mirror the quantitative composition in the mother sow. Individual variations in the bacterial composition of mother sows before probiotic feed intake may influence the impact of a probiotic in sows and their offspring.

  7. Evaporative snout cooling system on the performance of lactating sows and their litters in a subtropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Perin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different temperature control systems on the voluntary feed intake (VFI, percentage of weight loss (PWL and performance of lactating sows as well as on the weight of their piglets. Two systems were used: traditional temperature control system (TTCS with curtain management and an evaporative snout cooling system (ESCS. The study was performed during the summer of 2011. After farrowing and at the weaning, 241 sows were weighed to evaluate the PWL during lactation. TTCS sows lost more weight (5.3±0.9%; P<0.05 than ESCS sows (2.2±0.9%. VFI was measured at intervals of four days in 32 primiparous and 39 multiparous sows. ESCS sows had higher VFI (5.8±0.2kg day-1; P<0.05 than TTCS sows (4.8±0.2kg day-1. Primiparous sows (4.4±0.2kg day-1 had a lower VFI than multiparous sows (6.3±0.2kg day-1, P<0.05 regardless of the temperature control system. Primiparous sows in the TTCS (10.9±1.3 days had a longer weaning-to-oestrus interval than primiparous sows in the ESCS (7.0±1.2 days, P<0.05. Subsequent litter size tended to be higher (P=0.095 in ESCS than in TTCS (12.0±0.5 and 10.9±0.6 piglets born, respectively. Litters housed in ESCS were heavier (65.3±1.4kg; P<0.05 at weaning than litters in TTCS (60.7±1.4kg. The results suggest that in general sows and piglets housed in the ESCS have better performance than sows and piglets housed in TTCS.

  8. Impact of spring warming on sowing times of cereal, potato and sugar beet in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. KAUKORANTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical data were used to determine if the warm springs experienced in recent decades have influenced time of sowing of spring cereals (barley, wheat and oats, potato and sugar beet in Finland. The start of the thermal growing season was used to represent all climatic factors affecting sowing time. Regional anomalies in sowing and start of growing season were computed for the years 1965–2007. The start of the growing season was 2–2.8 days earlier per decade, with a steeper increase since 1980. Sugar beet sowing advanced 2.5 (since 1980 5.2 and potato planting 3.4 (since 1980 4.5 days per decade, more than expected solely due to earlier starts to the growing season. Sowing of spring cereals advanced 0.6, 0.7 and 1.7 days per decade in the east, north and west respectively (since 1980 1.0, 1.9 and 3.1, with statistically significant trend (p < 0.01 in the west. Earlier sowings can be largely explained by warmer springs, but the trend was not as steep as that for the growing season. This has however not led to increased temperatures during early vegetative phases and thus faster development and increased drought or pest risk, which would have reduced the positive effects of earlier sowing on yield potential. Earlier sowing detected in the west can be explained by changes in spring temperatures, but may also result from economic and technological development. Farmers seem to have adequately adjusted their field activities to the changes in spring temperatures.;

  9. Sow rearing in north Italy: I. analysis of technical and productive characteristics of different herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of information about reference values for the main productive and reproductive indexes for the sow herds in North Italy. This investigation was aimed to collect data from different kind of sow herds placed in the Veneto Region, in order to achieve representative values, in terms of mean and variability, for the main indexes of productivity: herd composition, feed consumption and feed composition.

  10. Sow rearing in north Italy: I. analysis of technical and productive characteristics of different herds

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, S.; F. Tagliapietra; C. Ceolin

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of information about reference values for the main productive and reproductive indexes for the sow herds in North Italy. This investigation was aimed to collect data from different kind of sow herds placed in the Veneto Region, in order to achieve representative values, in terms of mean and variability, for the main indexes of productivity: herd composition, feed consumption and feed composition.

  11. Effect of sowing date on water use efficiency of sunflower crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Perniola

    Full Text Available Results of a trial carried out on sunflower in order to evaluate the most appropriate sowing date and irrigation regime for a more efficient water use are reported. Sunflower was sown in 1995-1996 at the usual date (end of April and in advance (end of March. It was subjected to three irrigation regimes: full restoration of consumptive water use, supplementary irrigation at the bud stage and flowering and unirrigated control. During the growing cycle, the following parameters were measured: water use, the main climatic data that can affect growth and evapotranspiration, yield and its components. Despite the lower vapor pressure deficit of the air during the cropping cycle of the first sowing date caused a reduction in the average daily evapotranspiration, the colder temperature regime of this period, by making longer the growing cycle, caused almost the same total water use respect to the usual sowing dates. However, with early sowing, the crop could benefit from the spring rainfall at the initial stages of its cycle that reduced the seasonal irrigation volume, in the case of full irrigation and made available a greater amount of water in the case of unirrigated treatment or with supplementary irrigation. The greater water availability in the stressed treatments also produced higher grain yield in early sowing, so that an interesting interaction between the sowing date and the irrigation regime in terms of water use efficiency was observed. In fact, a significant higher irrigation yield water use efficiency and an interesting yield response was measured in the treatment with supplementary irrigation of the first sowing date. No effect of sowing date, both in terms of yield that of water use efficiency was measured in the treatment irrigated with the full restoration of evapotranspiration.

  12. Analysis of the effect of dietary protected organic acid blend on lactating sows and their piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Mohana Devi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of blends of dietary protected organic acid supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood profiles, faecal microflora, and gas emission on sows and piglets with emphasis on their modes of action to improve pig performance. A total of 12 sows with an average initial body weight (BW of 252.40±11.7 kg were used in this trial. Growth performance, blood profiles, and nutrient digestibility of sows and piglets fed protected organic acid were evaluated. The dietary treatments included a basal diet (CON; CON + 0.1% protected organic acid; and CON + 0.2% protected organic acid. The BW and back fat of sows was checked four days prior to farrowing and at the weaning day to calculate BW loss and back fat loss during that period. Inclusion of 0.2% protected organic acid provided a greater digestibility than CON diets throughout the experimental period in lactating sows. Dietary supplementation with 0.2% protected organic acid led to a higher white blood cell and lymphocyte concentration than CON treatment in sucking piglets. Immunoglobulin G concentration observed was greater in protected organic acid groups in lactating sow and sucking piglets. Increased faecal Lactobacillus counts with decreased E. coli concentrations were observed with the diets of protected organic acid fed to lactating sows. The E. coli counts were decreased in weaning piglets. The faecal H2S contents were decreased in 0.2% protected organic acid diets during farrowing on day 1. Dietary supplementation with protected organic acid blends beneficially affects the nutrient digestibility, ileal noxious gas (NH3 and H2S emission, as well as intestinal microbial balance in lactating sows.

  13. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata Lapolla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Annunziata Lapolla, Maria Grazia Dalfrà, Domenico FedeleDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Padova University, ItalyAbstract: The incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is on the increase and, if not diagnosed, managed and treated adequately, can have unfavorable maternal and fetal outcomes. Several studies have shown that glycemic values considered as adequate in the past when monitoring GDM failed to contain these adverse outcomes and randomized trials are needed to ascertain whether these targets should be lowered. Dietary restrictions remain the mainstay of GDM management and suitable physical exercise can help too. The use of rapid-acting insulin analogues (lispro and aspart are novel treatments for improving metabolic control by reducing postprandial glycemia, while long-acting insulin analogues need to be evaluated by further studies for safety in clinical use before they can be prescribed. Numerous studies have found glyburide and metformin safe in women with GDM but more randomized controlled trials are needed, with a long-term follow-up of mother and child, to confirm these results.Keywords: gestational diabetes, glucose management, obstetric management, maternal complications, fetal complications

  14. Mouse gestation length is genetically determined.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Murray

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is an enormous public health problem, affecting over 12% of live births and costing over $26 billion in the United States alone. The causes are complex, but twin studies support the role of genetics in determining gestation length. Despite widespread use of the mouse in studies of the genetics of preterm birth, there have been few studies that actually address the precise natural gestation length of the mouse, and to what degree the timing of labor and birth is genetically determined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further develop the mouse as a genetic model of preterm birth, we developed a high-throughput monitoring system and measured the gestation length in 15 inbred strains. Our results show an unexpectedly wide variation in overall gestation length between strains that approaches two full days, while intra-strain variation is quite low. Although litter size shows a strong inverse correlation with gestation length, genetic difference alone accounts for a significant portion of the variation. In addition, ovarian transplant experiments support a primary role of maternal genetics in the determination of gestation length. Preliminary analysis of gestation length in the C57BL/6J-Chr#(A/J/NaJ chromosome substitution strain (B.A CSS panel suggests complex genetic control of gestation length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these data support the role of genetics in regulating gestation length and present the mouse as an important tool for the discovery of genes governing preterm birth.

  15. Relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate concentrations and gestational age at delivery in twin gestation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Caritis, Steve N

    2012-11-01

    We sought to evaluate in women with twin gestation the relationship between 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHPC) concentration and gestational age at delivery and select biomarkers of potential pathways of drug action.

  16. Effect of sowing dates and vernalization on Beta vulgaris L. cv. Univers C-leaf structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakr, Mohammed M; Almaghrabi, Omar A

    2011-07-01

    This research was conducted to study the effect of three different sowing dates (15th October, 15th November and 15th December) and two vernalization treatments (5 °C and -20 °C) on leaf structure of Beta vulgaris L. cv. Univers. The obtained data are summarized as follows: The maximum values of the most studied parameters; lower epidermis + spongy tissue thickness, midrib, mesophyll tissue, vascular bundle, collenchymatous tissue and number of xylem vessels per arm were found as a result of 15th October sowing date treatment compared with the two other sowing dates. Furthermore, effect of the cooling treatments varied according to the recorded character, sowing date and cooling degree. Most of the vernalization treatments at early sowing dates increased the mesophyll tissue, midrib, number of vascular bundles per transverse section, vascular bundle thickness and number of xylem arms per transverse section. The two studied cooling treatments at 15th October sowing date increased both stomatal index and average number of stomata: average number of epidermis cells compared with the control. Furthermore, 15th October under -20 °C treatment led to small epidermal cells and stomata formation, straight epidermal cell walls and closed stomata in comparison to the control.

  17. Effects of Low Temperature on Freezing Injury of Various Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Sowing Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Freezing injury is one of the major disasters for the production of winter wheat in the North China Plain, which leads to a significant decrease of wheat yield. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of subfreezing temperature on freezing injury of various winter wheat cultivars at different sowing time. Three wheat cultivars, including Zhengmai 9023, Wanmai 48 and Wanmai 50, were sowed on 25 September and 5 October, respectively. Plant anatomy was applied to investi- gate the impact of subfreezing temperature on cells of three wheat cultivars, results showed that severe plasmolysis occurred in wheat sowed earlier suddenly encoun- tered subfreezing temperature without cold acclimation, compared with wheat sowed at proper sowing time. The degree of plasmolysis of different cultivars and tissues of wheat had significant differences and showed positive correlation with subfreezing temperature. Wanmai 50 had the highest cold resistance compared with Zhengmai 9023 and Wanmai 48, and there was no significant difference between Zhengmai 9023 and Wanmai 48. This study concluded that wheat cold resistance may be im- proved by adopting proper cultivars and sowing dates.

  18. Heritability of shoulder ulcers and genetic correlations with mean piglet weight and sow body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, H; Zumbach, B; Lundeheim, N; Grandinson, K; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to estimate the heritability for shoulder ulcers and the genetic correlations between shoulder ulcers, mean piglet weight and sow body condition. The analyses were based on information on 5549 Norwegian Landrace sows and their 7614 purebred litters. The genetic analysis was performed using the Gibbs sampling method. Shoulder ulcers were analyzed as a threshold trait. Sow body condition and mean piglet weight were analyzed as linear traits. The heritability of shoulder ulcers was estimated at 0.25 (s.d. = 0.03). The heritability for sow body condition was estimated at 0.14 (s.d. = 0.02) and that for mean piglet weight at 0.23 (s.d. = 0.02). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and sow body condition was negative (-0.59, s.d. = 0.09). The genetic correlation between shoulder ulcers and mean piglet weight was positive (0.23, s.d. = 0.10) and the genetic correlation between sow body condition and mean piglet weight was negative (-0.24, s.d. = 0.10).

  19. Analysis of Reproductive Parameters in Sows with Regard to Their Health Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevrkla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate selected reproductive parameters in sows. Observed parameters were analysed in two herds with different health status. The experiment involved 160 hybrid sows from the 1st to the 5th litter (80 sows with health status A and 80 sows with health status B. Highly statistically significant differences (P ≤ 0.001 and significant differences (P ≤ 0.05 were found between the two groups in length of gravidity, total numbers of piglets, numbers of live-born piglets, numbers of stillborn piglets, numbers of reared piglets and losses of piglets per litter in favor of group B with declared health status. Evaluation of phenotypic correlation between the total number of piglets and the live-born piglets in the sows without declared health status revealed high positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01. Strong positive dependence was found also between the live-born and the reared piglets in this group. In the sows with declared health status, high positive correlation (P ≤ 0.01 was found also between the total number of piglets and the number of live-born piglets and between the number of live-born and reared piglets.

  20. Sowing time affects the abundance of pests and weeds in winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUUSELA-VEISTOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate sowing time for some winter rye (Secale cereale cultivars could reduce the need for crop protection measures. In this study the occurrence and status of pests and weeds in relation to sowing time and growth habit of winter rye was studied in southern Finland. This was done using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye was severely affected by pests (Oscinella frit, Mayetiola destructor and weeds, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time in late August resulted in considerably less damage and the optimal establishment of crop stands. The German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit produced more tillers m-2 in autumn than the Finnish varieties Anna and Bor 7068. However, the number of pests and weeds did not differ among rye varieties. Late sowing of rye should be considered to minimize the need for plant protection. If rye is sown at the recommended time it may still require insecticide treatments promptly in the autumn whereas herbicide treatment need not be determined until spring, after recording the winter mortality of weeds.;

  1. Influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladojević Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of housing conditions, number of farrowing and number of pigs in litter on weight loss in sows during lactation. The experiment included 60 sows, half breed developed by cross breeding of Big Yorkshire and Swedish Landrace in lactation. Body weight of the sows (kg was determined 2nd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after farrowing. On the basis of the obtained values, there was calculated the difference in body weight between two consecutive investigation periods. The sows were divided into two groups and held in different housing conditions: 30 of them were held in extensive, and other 30 sows in intensive way of farming. In regard to number of farrowing, the sows were divided into three groups: sows with one or two farrowing (group P1, n=20, with three or four farrowing (group P2, n=20, and sows that farrowed five or more times (P3,n=20. In regard to number of pigs in litter, the sows were divided into two groups: the first (Group I, n=30 with sows that had up to eight pigs, and the second (Group II, n=30 with sows that had nine or more pigs in litter. The obtained results showed that in all perids of the investigation during lactation, body weight in sows held in extensive farming conditions was statistically significantly higher compared to those from intensive farming conditions. On the other hand, the loss of body weight during lactation was significantly higher in sows from extensive in regard to intensive farming conditions in the first two weeks of lactation. The sows with bigger number of farrowing had greater body weight, compared to those with smaller number of farrowing. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight loss during lactation, between sows with different number of farrowing, but considering that the sows with less farrowings had significantly lower body weight, they consequently lost more weight in percentage. The sows with greater number of pigs

  2. Partial substitution, with their chelated complexes, of the inorganic zinc, copper and manganese in sow diets reduced the laminitic lesions in the claws and improved the morphometric characteristics of the hoof horn of sows from three Greek herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varagka, Nikoleta; Lisgara, Marina; Skampardonis, Vassilis; Psychas, Vassilis; Leontides, Leonidas

    2016-01-01

    Hoof lesions in sows have been associated with lameness and poor hoof horn quality. The mechanical strength and quality of hoof horn is determined by the density and diameter of horn tubules, which were recently associated with the severity of lesions on the hoof wall of sows. Histologic changes that have previously been described in cases of bovine laminitis, have also been observed in the dermis and epidermis of the sows' claws. Trace elements, particularly zinc, copper and manganese, occupy important roles as enzyme catalysts in the process of keratin synthesis which determines the quality and the integrity of the hoof epidermis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with chelated zinc, copper and manganese, partially substituting their inorganic form, on sow claw health and hoof horn quality assessed by macroscopic, histologic and morphometric examination. Clinically, the total claw lesion score was significantly lower in claws of sows which received the "organic" diet compared to those of sows on the "inorganic" diet. Histologically, lamellar hyperplasia was the most frequently recorded change in the epidermis of the sows' claws regardless of the diet's mineral source. The claws of the sows which received the organic diet were more likely to have none or less histologic changes than at least one or more, respectively, compared to those of the sows on the "inorganic" diet. Morphometrically, the density and vertical and horizontal diameters of the horn tubules was significantly higher and smaller, respectively, in the hoof horn of sows which received the "organic" compared to those which received the "inorganic" source diet. Partial substitution of the inorganic zinc, copper and manganese in sows' diet with their chelated complexes, provided a comparative advantage against a conventional, inorganic mineral source diet, at least under the conditions examined in the current study, in terms of macroscopic

  3. Effect of farrowing duration, parity number and the type of anti-inflammatory drug on postparturient disorders in sows: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummaruk, Padet; Sang-Gassanee, Kridtasak

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of farrowing duration, parity number, and type of anti-inflammatory drug used postpartum on the incidence of postparturient disorders in sows. The duration of farrowing and postparturient disorders were examined in 64 sows at Days 0, 1, 2, and 3 after farrowing. The sows were classified according to parity number (1, 2-4, and 5-7), duration of farrowing (primiparous sows had fever, while 52.6 and 47.6 % of sows parity 2-4 and 5-7 had a fever (P<0.05). The presence of vaginal discharge on Day 1 of the postpartum was higher in sows of parity 5-7 than sows of parity 2-4 (85.7 and 52.6 %, P=0.029). The use of flunixin méglumine after parturition in sows reduced the percentage of sows with a fever from 61.3 to 22.6 % within 2 days (P=0.002), while, the percentage of sows with a fever was not decreased in sows treated with dipyrone. It can be concluded that the incidence of postparturient disorders in sows was affected by sow parity, farrowing duration and the type of anti-inflammatory drug used. Sows with a farrowing duration of ≥ 4 h were at a high risk of having fever at Day 1 after parturition.

  4. A note on the relationship between the behavioural response of lactating sows to humans and the survival of their piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemsworth, P.H.; Pedersen, V.; Cox, M.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationships, based on unit averages, between the behavioural responses of lactating sows to humans and the performance of sows in 25 farrowing units at a large commercial farm. The behavioural responses of 25 sows in each farrowing unit were observed...... at 2-4 and 16-18 days of lactation and a correlation analysis, using unit averages, was used to examine the behaviour-productivity relationships. Moderate and significant between-unit correlations were found between the behavioural response of lactating sows at days 16-18 to an approaching experimenter...... for about 18% of the variance in percentage of stillborn piglets. While this study was a preliminary one examining the potential for the human-animal relationship to affect the performance of sows in the farrowing shed, the results indicate that high levels of fear of humans by sows may affect the survival...

  5. Variation among sows in response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, H; Mulder, H A; Mathur, P; van Arendonk, J A M; Knol, E F

    2014-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a viral disease with negative impacts on reproduction of sows. Genetic selection to improve the response of sows to PRRS could be an approach to control the disease. Determining sow response to PRRS requires knowing pathogen burden and sow performance. In practice, though, records of pathogen burden are unavailable. We develop a statistical method to distinguish healthy and disease phases and to develop a method to quantify sows' responses to PRRS without having individual pathogen burden. We analyzed 10,910 sows with 57,135 repeated records of reproduction performance. Disease phases were recognized as strong deviation of herd-year-week estimates for reproduction traits using two methods: Method 1 used raw weekly averages of the herd; Method 2 used a linear model with fixed effects for seasonality, parity, and year, and random effects for herd-year-week and sow. The variation of sows in response to PRRS was quantified using 2 models on the traits number of piglets born alive (NBA) and number of piglets born dead (LOSS): 1) bivariate model considering the trait in healthy and disease phases as different traits, and 2) reaction norm model modeling the response of sows as a linear regression of the trait on herd-year-week estimates of NBA. The linear model for NBA had the highest sensitivity (78%) for disease phases. Residual variances of both were more than doubled in the disease phase compared with the healthy phase. Trait correlations between healthy and disease phases deviated from unity (0.57 ± 0.13 - 0.87 ± 0.18). In the bivariate model, repeatabilities were lower in disease phase compared with healthy phase (0.07 ± 0.027 and 0.16 ± 0.005 for NBA; 0.07 ± 0.027 and 0.09 ± 0.004 for LOSS). The reaction norm model fitted the data better than the bivariate model based on Akaike's information criterion, and had also higher predictive ability in disease phase based on cross validation. Our results show

  6. Treatment of shoulder ulcers in sows – rubber mats and zinc ointment compared to chlortetracycline spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Shoulder ulcers can have a significant impact on the welfare of sows. In Denmark, rubber mats are used for treatment of shoulder ulcers. The objective of the study was to compare a treatment consisting of a combination of rubber mats and zinc ointment with the effect of local antibiotic spray (chlortetracycline) on shoulder ulcers. Methods A total of 304 sows with shoulder ulcers were observed shortly after farrowing (day 1) and on days 14 and 21 after the first observation. The sows were paired according to the grade of the shoulder ulcer using the official Danish scoring system. From each pair of sows, one sow was allocated to mat group (M) and the other to an antibiotic group (A) in a random way. In the M group, rubber mats were placed on the floor, and the ulcers were treated with zinc ointment once a day. In the A group, sows were treated with antibiotic spray daily. The size of the shoulder ulcer was measured manually on a continuous scale on days 1, 14 and 21. The data were analysed by use of two multivariable models where the response was the area of the shoulder ulcer on day 14 and day 21, respectively. Explanatory variables were treatment, herd, parity, body condition and size of ulcer on day 1. If a sow had an ulcer on both shoulders, the shoulder with the largest ulcer was selected. Results The treatment consisting of mats and zinc ointment had a statistical significant effect on the size of the shoulder ulcer on day 14 and day 21 compared to daily treatment with antibiotic spray. For lean sows that were kept on rubber mats and zinc ointment, the average shoulder ulcer was significantly smaller on day 14 (3.8 cm2 versus 9.5 cm2 when antibiotic spray was used) and day 21 (3.4 cm2 versus 6.6 cm2) compared to lean sows that were only treated with antibiotic spray. For fat sows this was also the case when using the lesion on day 21 as the response (2.0 cm2 versus 5.7 cm2) but not on day 14. Moreover, the size of the lesion on day 1 was

  7. Selection for residual feed intake in growing pigs: effects on sow performance in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J L; Fleury, J; Ferchaud, S; Billon, Y; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of a divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during growth in a temperate environment (TEMP) on sow performance in a tropical environment (TROP). Sows came from a selection experiment conducted at INRA in which 2 lines were selected for larger (RFI(+)) or smaller (RFI(─)) feed intake than predicted from performance. In the first analysis, a subsample of data obtained in TROP conditions (49 lactations) was compared to those obtained in TEMP on their sibs mated with the same boars (54 lactations). In the second analysis, data obtained in the TROP environment (82 lactations) were analyzed for testing the effect of season (warm vs. hot) and line on sow performance. Except for the lactation length, the interaction between line and climatic environment was not significant for the others traits (P > 0.05). The ADFI expressed per kilogram of litter BW gain tended to be higher in the RFI(+) line bred in the TROP environment (P = 0.080), together with piglet BW at weaning, which tended to be lower (P = 0.080). The ADFI was lower in TROP than in TEMP (4.56 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.003), with negative consequence on litter BW gain and maternal BW loss. The RFI(-) sows tended to eat less feed than RFI(+) sows during lactation (4.55 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.099). Litter BW at weaning was higher in the RFI(─) line. The RFI(─) sows ate significantly less feed to produce 1 kg of litter than the RFI(+) sows and tended to lose a larger amount of BW during lactation than the RFI(+) sows (2.40 vs. 3.02 kg/kg and -0.66 vs. -0.39 kg/d, respectively, P feed required to produce 1 kg of litter was not influenced by the line in the warm season (2.53 kg/kg on average; P = 0.99), but it tended to be lower in the RFI(─) line when compared to the RFI(+) line in the hot season (2.06 vs. 3.45 kg/kg; P = 0.050). This higher apparent efficiency in RFI(─) sows was mainly related to greater maternal body reserve mobilization (i.e., BW

  8. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Torloni, Maria R

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Vitamin D status (which is involved in glucose homeostasis) is related to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). GDM is characterized by increased resistance to and impaired secretion of insulin and results in higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes including operative delivery......, macrosomia, shoulder dystocia and neonatal hypoglycemia. Women with GDM and their babies are at increased risk for developing type II diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: International definitions of vitamin D deficiency and normality are inconsistent. Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women particularly...... those with poor diets and who have dark skins living in temperate climes with lack of exposure to sunlight. SUMMARY: Few interventional studies indicate that supplementation optimizes maternal vitamin D status or improves maternal glucose metabolism. Observational studies about maternal vitamin D status...

  9. Radiology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.D. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Lim, A.K. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Seckl, M.J. [Department of Medical Oncology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Blunt, D.M. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mitchell, A.W. [Department of Radiology, Charing Cross Hospital, Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: amitchell@hhnt.org

    2006-04-15

    Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) encompasses a broad spectrum of placental lesions from the pre-malignant hydatidiform mole (complete and partial) through to the malignant invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and rare placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT). Ultrasound remains the radiological investigation of choice for initial diagnosis, and it can also predict invasive and recurrent disease. Magnetic resonance imaging is of invaluable use in assessing extra-uterine tumour spread, tumour vascularity, and overall staging. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography undoubtedly have a role in recurrent and metastatic disease, while angiography has a place in disease and complication management. This review will describe the relevant pathophysiology and natural history of GTN, and the use of imaging techniques in the diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  10. Variation Characteristics of Low Temperature and Rainy Weather in Guangxi during Spring Sowing Period of Recent 50 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the variation characteristics of low temperature and rainy weather in Guangxi during spring sowing period of recent 50 years.[Method] Based on the daily average temperature data from 1961 to 2010 at 88 meteorological stations in Guangxi,yearly days and end date of low temperature and rainy weather during spring sowing period were carried out statistics.The variation characteristics of low temperature and rainy weather in Guangxi during spring sowing period of recent 5...

  11. Presence of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial use in sows are risk factors for antimicrobial resistance in their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Bénédicte; Faes, Christel; Maes, Dominiek; Catry, Boudewijn; Boyen, Filip; Francoys, Delphine; de Jong, Ellen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Dewulf, Jeroen

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated whether antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in apparently healthy sows and antimicrobial administration to sows and piglets influenced antimicrobial resistance in fecal commensal E. coli from piglets. Sixty sows from three herds and three of their piglets were sampled at several time points. Antimicrobial usage data during parturition and farrowing were collected. Clinical resistance was determined for two isolates per sampling time point for sows and piglets using disk diffusion. Only 27.4% of E. coli isolates from newborn piglets showed no resistance. Resistance to one or two antimicrobial classes equaled 41.2% and 46.8% in isolates from sows and piglets, respectively, for the overall farrowing period. Multiresistance to at least four classes was found as frequently in sows (15.6%) as in piglets (15.2%). Antimicrobial resistance in piglets was influenced by antimicrobial use in sows and piglets and by the sow resistance level (p≤0.05). Using aminopenicillins and third-generation cephalosporins in piglets affected resistance levels in piglets (odds ratios [OR] >1; p≤0.05). Using enrofloxacin in piglets increased the odds for enrofloxacin resistance in piglets (OR=26.78; p≤0.0001) and sows at weaning (OR=4.04; p≤0.05). For sows, antimicrobial exposure to lincomycin-spectinomycin around parturition increased the resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulfadiazine in sows (OR=21.33, OR=142.74, OR=18.03; p≤0.05) and additionally to enrofloxacin in piglets (OR=7.50; p≤0.05). This study demonstrates that antimicrobial use in sows and piglets is a risk factor for antimicrobial resistance in the respective animals. Moreover, resistance determinants in E. coli from piglets are selected by using antimicrobials in their dam around parturition.

  12. Reproductive performance of sows was improved by administration of a sporing bacillary probiotic (Bacillus subtilis C-3102).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritas, S K; Marubashi, T; Filioussis, G; Petridou, E; Christodoulopoulos, G; Burriel, A R; Tzivara, A; Theodoridis, A; Pískoriková, M

    2015-01-01

    This field study assessed the efficacy of a probiotic based on viable spores of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin; Calpis Co. Ltd., Japan) on the health status and productivity of sows and their litters through 2 full, sequential reproductive cycles from service of the first cycle to weaning of the second cycle. Fifty-six sows were allocated to 2 experimental groups, an untreated control (T1) group and a probiotic-treated (T2) group that received the same basal feed as the T1 group plus the probiotic at an approximate allowance of 30 g/t of feed (3 × 10(5) cfu/g). The offspring of T1 and T2 sows were offered basal and T2 creep feed (3 × 10(5) cfu/g), respectively. Health and zootechnical parameters of sows and piglets were recorded. Feeding the probiotic to sows and piglets resulted in significant benefits, observed in both cycles: 1) improved sow body condition during pregnancy (P sow feed consumption, 3) reduced sow weight loss during lactation (P sow weaning-estrus interval (P sows, while a significant improvement of mean daily gain of piglets from birth to weaning was observed in the first cycle of T2 sows. Microbiological examination of fecal samples showed that probiotic treatment significantly reduced both Escherichia coli and Clostridium spp. in piglet feces, particularly during the second cycle. The data suggested that continuous feed supplementation with the probiotic is beneficial for both sows and piglets, since zootechnical benefits were observed in both cycles.

  13. Children's Brain Development Benefits from Longer Gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elysia Poggi; Buss, Claudia; Muftuler, L Tugan; Head, Kevin; Hasso, Anton; Wing, Deborah A; Hobel, Calvin; Sandman, Curt A

    2011-01-01

    Disruptions to brain development associated with shortened gestation place individuals at risk for the development of behavioral and psychological dysfunction throughout the lifespan. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the benefit for brain development conferred by increased gestational length exists on a continuum across the gestational age spectrum among healthy children with a stable neonatal course. Neurodevelopment was evaluated with structural magnetic resonance imaging in 100 healthy right-handed 6- to 10-year-old children born between 28 and 41 gestational weeks with a stable neonatal course. Data indicate that a longer gestational period confers an advantage for neurodevelopment. Longer duration of gestation was associated with region-specific increases in gray matter density. Further, the benefit of longer gestation for brain development was present even when only children born full term were considered. These findings demonstrate that even modest decreases in the duration of gestation can exert profound and lasting effects on neurodevelopment for both term and preterm infants and may contribute to long-term risk for health and disease.

  14. The Cortisol to Cortisone Ratio during Cardiac Catheterisation in Sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlandtová, Hana; Bičíková, Marie; Neužil, Petr; Mlček, Mikuláš; Hrachovina, Vladimír; Svoboda, Tomáš; Medová, Eva; Kudlička, Jaroslav; Dohnalová, Alena; Havránek, Štěpán; Kazihnítková, Hana; Máčová, Ludmila; Vařejková, Eva; Kittnar, Otomar

    2015-01-01

    A possible effect of mini-invasive heart intervention on a response of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal stress axis and conversion of cortisone to cortisol were studied. We have analysed two stress markers levels (cortisol, cortisone) and cortisol/cortisone ratio in 25 sows using minimally invasive heart catheterisation as the stress factor. The values of studied parameters were assessed in four periods of the experiment: (1) the baseline level on the day before intervention, (2) after the introduction of anaesthesia, (3) after conducting tissue stimulation or ablation, and (4) after the end of the catheterisation. For statistical analyses we used the non-parametric Friedman test for four dependent samples (including all four stages of the operation) or three dependent samples (influence of operation only, baseline level was excluded). Statistically significant differences in both Friedman tests were found for cortisol and for cortisone. We have found the highest level of cortisol/cortisone ratio in unstressed conditions, then it decreased to the minimal level at the end of the intervention. We have concluded that cortisol levels are blunted by the influence of anaesthesia after its administration, and therefore decrease back to the baseline at the end of the operation.

  15. [Multiresistant Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in a Dutch sow herd].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duinhof, T F; Dierikx, C M; Koene, M G J; van Bergen, M A P; Mevius, D J; Veldman, K T; van Beers-Schreurs, H M G; de Winne, R T J A

    This case study describes the isolation ofa multiresistant strain ofBrachyspira hyodysenteriae in April 2007 in a Dutch sow herd with recurrent diarrhoea. Examination of faecal samples taken from 7-month-old breeding gilts with diarrhoea revealed the presence of resistance against tiamulin, lincomycin, tylosin, doxycycline, and tylvalosin (the active substance in Aivlosin) in four of five samples. Tiamulin resistance has not been reported in The Netherlands before. The repeated use of tiamulin on the affected farm was assumed to be the main cause of the development of resistance to the drug. The farmer was advised to adopt a medication strategy and to implement management practices that would prevent an ongoing cycle of infection on the farm. It is important that the Dutch swine industry appreciates that tiamulin-resistant strains of B. hyodysenteriae may be found on other farms as well. The appropriate and prudent use of antibiotics is essential in order to prevent the development of resistance against the last option left to cure B. hyodysenteriae infections: valnemulin.

  16. WHEAT CULTIVARS: RESPONSE TO IRRIGATION AND SOWING DATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klar A.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in an Alfisol-Oxisol transition sandy-clay texture, using six wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum, L.: two tall and tolerant to soil aluminium toxicity (BH-1146, and IAC-18, and four semi-dwarf cultivars - Anahuac, IAC-162, IAC-24, and IAC-60 - of which only the first two are sensitive to soil aluminium toxicity. Two minimum soil water potentials (ys levels were used: 1. watered, when Ys reached about -0.05 MPa; 2. dry, when the water potential reached around -1.5 MPa. Two sowing dates, 05/22/92 and 06/11/92, were used. The results showed that Anahuac and IAC-60 are the most indicated cultivars for the studied region; when irrigated all cultivars presented similar yield level under no irrigation conditions; the irrigation was not sufficient to avoid yield differences between the two growing seasons; differences in rainfall were important for the crop in the dry treatment for both seasons.

  17. Biological treatment to bean seeds before sowing them.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Edel Castro Mayo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Even in some bibliography about the bean cultivation is recommended the use of Rhizobium which association with the cultivation is very advantageous for the fixation of the atmospheric nitrogen, as well as the employment of the antagonistic mushroom Trichoderma spp., for the control of fungous illnesses of the floor and knowing that the cultivation has its fertilization demands and of the plagues control and illnesses that are in definitive the causes that limit the yields of the cultivation, these practices are not used. We proceeded to the disinfection of bean seeds with the resulting solution of the laundry of 1Kg of Trichoderma harzianum of the stock A-34 with 2 liters of water and the mixture of this fluid with 1 Kg of Rhizobium, more a package (134 grams of Gaucho PS 70 for 45.35 kg (100 pounds of t seed. The disinfection of the seed was made by hand, 12 hour before sowing them and the results were very encouraging, so much in the delay of days in appearing the illnesses and the plagues and its low attack intensity as the increase of the yields with relationship to the not treated seed.

  18. Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a modern U.S. swine breeding-gestation-farrowing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinn, John P.; Xin, Hongwei; Shepherd, Timothy A.; Li, Hong; Burns, Robert T.

    2014-12-01

    Aerial emissions from livestock production continue to be an area of attention and concern for both the potential health and environmental impacts. However, information of gaseous, especially greenhouse gas (GHG), emissions for swine breeding/gestation and farrowing production systems is limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify ammonia (NH3), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) concentrations and emissions from a modern breeding-gestation-farrowing system located in central Iowa, USA. A 4300-sow farm was selected for the extensive field monitoring which employed a Mobile Air Emission Monitoring Unit equipped with state-of-the-art gas analyzers and a data acquisition system. The monitored portion of the farm facility consisted of a deep-pit breeding/early gestation (B/EG) barn (1800 head), a deep-pit late gestation (LG) barn (1800 head), and two shallow-pit (pull-plug) farrowing rooms (40 head per room). A dynamic flux chamber was used to monitor gaseous emissions from the external manure storage for the farrowing rooms. Data were collected for 29 consecutive months (January 2011 through June 2013). Daily indoor NH3, CO2, N2O, and CH4 concentrations (ppm, mean ± SD) were 12.0 (±7.6), 1594 (±797), 0.31 (±0.11), and 28.5 (±9.8), respectively, in the breeding/gestation barns; and 9.7 (±4.1), 1536 (±701), 0.30 (±0.10), and 78.3 (±37), respectively, in the farrowing rooms. Daily emissions per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live weight) were 35.1 g NH3, 7.46 kg CO2, 0.17 g N2O, and 263.4 g CH4 for sows in the B/EG barn; and 28.2 g NH3, 6.50 kg CO2, 0.12 g N2O, and 201.3 g CH4 for sows in the LG barn. The average daily emissions per AU (sow and piglets) of the farrowing rooms during the lactation period (birth to weaning) were: 59.7 g NH3, 16.4 kg CO2, 0.73 g N2O, and 107 g CH4. For the monitored period, the external manure storage had the following average daily emission per m2 surface area: 1.26 g NH3, 137 g CO2, and 94.8 g CH4, which

  19. Botanical and