WorldWideScience

Sample records for group-employed low-wage workers-that

  1. Tax reform for low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, M M

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the recent implementation of work-oriented antipoverty programs, more welfare recipients can be expected to be working in low-wage jobs. With these jobs there is little hope that these workers' incomes will rise above the poverty level. One way to help support these low-wage workers is through tax reform. Although low-wage workers pay little or no federal tax, they still pay high payroll and local taxes. To help such workers keep more of their earnings, refundable taxes like earned income tax credit and child refund taxes should be expanded, and sales taxes on food should be eliminated.

  2. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...... of collective bargaining help regulate working conditions in the absence of strong government regulation. Denmark's rate of low-wage work-8.5 percent-is the lowest of the five countries under analysis. In Low-Wage Work in Denmark, a team of Danish researchers combines comprehensive national registry data...... with detailed case studies of five industries to explore why low-end jobs are so different in Denmark. Some jobs that are low-paying in the United States, including hotel maids and meat processors, though still demanding, are much more highly compensated in Denmark. And Danes, unlike American workers, do...

  3. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.

    2008-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and unemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity…

  4. Intra-European labour migration and low-wage competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke; Thörnquist, Annette

    2016-01-01

    The article compares how low-wage competition and labour migration from EU11 Member States affect industrial relations and working conditions for natives and migrants in three sectors (transport, cleaning and agriculture) in Denmark and Sweden. The analysis shows how already vulnerable sectors...

  5. Low Wage Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette

    In this working paper, mobility out of low wage employment in Denmark, Germany, and the United States is studied. Data used for the analysis are the Danish Longitudinal Database – a representative sample of the Danish population, and the PSID-GSOEP Equivalent File Data. Mobility is analysed...... in the United States is more sensitive to the time period. At the micro level, effects of the explanatory variables are similar across the three countries, especially for the one-year period....

  6. A Different Class of Care: the Benefits Crisis and Low-Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trina

    When compared to other developed nations, the United States fares poorly with regard to benefits for workers. While the situation is grim for most U.S. workers, it is worse for low-wage workers. Data show a significant benefits gap between low-wage and high-wage in terms of flexible work arrangements (FWAs), paid leave, pensions, and employer-sponsored health-care insurance, among other things. This gap exists notwithstanding the fact that FWAs and employment benefits produce positive returns for employees, employers, and society in general. Despite these returns, this Article contends that employers will be loath to extend FWAs and greater employment benefits to low-wage workers due to (1) concerns about costs, (2) a surplus of low-wage workers in the labor market, (3) negative perceptions of the skill of low-wage workers and the value of low-wage work, (4) other class-based stereotypes and biases, and (5) structural impediments in some low-wage jobs. Given the decline of unions and limited legislative action to date, the Article maintains that low-wage workers are in a "different class of care" with little hope for meaningful change on the horizon.

  7. The 'ugly twins': failed low-wage-country sourcing projects and their expensive replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, P.; Schiele, H.; Werner, W.

    2012-01-01

    International sourcing and sourcing from low-wage countries remain topics of high priority for firms in industrialized countries. Lower factor costs, particularly in low-wage countries, have led to high expectations of savings from both managers and academics. All too often, scientific and particula

  8. The 'ugly twins': failed low-wage-country sourcing projects and their expensive replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, Philipp; Schiele, Holger; Werner, W.

    2012-01-01

    International sourcing and sourcing from low-wage countries remain topics of high priority for firms in industrialized countries. Lower factor costs, particularly in low-wage countries, have led to high expectations of savings from both managers and academics. All too often, scientific and

  9. Statistical Analysis and History of Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...... of collective bargaining help regulate working conditions in the absence of strong government regulation. Denmark's rate of low-wage work-8.5 percent-is the lowest of the five countries under analysis. In Low-Wage Work in Denmark, a team of Danish researchers combines comprehensive national registry data...... with detailed case studies of five industries to explore why low-end jobs are so different in Denmark. Some jobs that are low-paying in the United States, including hotel maids and meat processors, though still demanding, are much more highly compensated in Denmark. And Danes, unlike American workers, do...

  10. Minimum wage hikes and the wage growth of low-wage workers

    OpenAIRE

    Swaffield, Joanna K

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of the British minimum wage on the wage growth of low-wage employees. Estimates of the probability of low-wage employees receiving positive wage growth have been significantly increased by the minimum wage upratings or hikes. However, whether the actual wage growth of these workers has been significantly raised or not depends crucially on the magnitude of the minimum wage hike considered. Findings are consistent with employ...

  11. Low wage after unemployment - the effect of changes in the UI system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Iben

    UI system will increase reservation wages and thereby increase the effective minimum wage. This will exclude the least productive individuals from employment and thereby increase the lowest skill level among employed individuals. Hence, the Danish low-wage earners will tend to be better qualified......Low-wage jobs in Denmark are characterized by short durations and a relatively high mobility to higher wage positions, but also to unemployment. This fact might to some extent be attributed to the generous Danish UI system. The theoretical prediction for this relation is twofold. First, a generous...... and their duration as low-wage earners will therefore tend to be shorter. Second, the generous benefit system will allow the unemployed person to wait for better jobs, and likewise, force the employing firms to provide jobs with better prospects. By exploiting several tightening of the Danish UI system during...

  12. Labour Market Developments, Non-standard Employment and Low Wages in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    2014-01-01

    In terms of basic labour market developments and outcomes Germany is faring comparatively well. Indeed, against the European trend, Germany saw employment rates increasing and unemployment decreasing during the economic crisis. But since the deregulatory Hartz reforms of the early and mid-2000s......, the last decade saw non-standard forms of employment increasing substantially and the low wage sector surging. One of the aims of the Hartz reforms was to increase employment opportunities, among other in the low wage sector, especially in services. Non-standard workers and among them fixed-term, temporary...

  13. Momentum Trumps Intention: Failed Intentions toward Higher Education of Low-Wage Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Francine M.; Ta, Phuong H.

    2015-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined the effects of explicit intention, as described in Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, on preschool teachers' success in enrolling in college. In the first study, 88 low-wage female teachers and teachers' aides who represented 85 child care centers were surveyed about their intentions to pursue college…

  14. Momentum Trumps Intention: Failed Intentions toward Higher Education of Low-Wage Working Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Francine M.; Ta, Phuong H.

    2015-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined the effects of explicit intention, as described in Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, on preschool teachers' success in enrolling in college. In the first study, 88 low-wage female teachers and teachers' aides who represented 85 child care centers were surveyed about their intentions to pursue college…

  15. Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-Wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Janette S.; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Marshall, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that…

  16. LONG TERM UNEMPLOYMENT AND LOW WAGE WORK IMPLICATIONS ON SECURITY AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria CONSTANTINESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The very intense turmoil close to Romania’s border generates a very complex process to take adequate decisions in all aspects of our society. If these decisions are not taken properly, many problems may arise. An important aspect is represented by the economic field where all goods and services are marketed based on supply and demand laws. If the market is not stable, a lot of other domains are influenced, such as the social one. The link between the economic and social domains is represented in this respect by unemployment and low wage work. Even in developed countries these two phenomena create big tensions which are exported to the entire world. This paper intends to emphasize the link among unemployment, low wage work and national security taking into consideration the challenges of economic globalization, deregulation and technological change.

  17. The New Face of Unequal Exchange: Low-Wage Manufacturing, Commodity Chains, and Global Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    James Heintz

    2003-01-01

    The institutional structure of global commodity chains and cross-border production networks has a profound impact on how the benefits of globalized production are distributed. This paper engages with this issue by developing a model that combines the insights of earlier unequal exchange theorists and new work on global commodity chains to clarify the distributive dynamics of the expansion of low-wage manufacturing in the developing world. In this framework, the ability of productivity-led dev...

  18. Low wages and high unemployment rates : The role of social interactions in hiring discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Jean-François; Walkowiak, Emmanuelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain why low-wage workers with identical qualifications to higher-wage workers are more exposed to unemployment. Each worker is considered to belong to a social group (defined according to his/her gender, age, and nationality). We assume that workers experience both productive interdependencies and social interactions within the firm. Also inter- and intra-group interactions determine worker productivity, and frictions on the labor market limit the hiring of...

  19. Low-wage countries' competition, reallocation across firms and the quality content of exports

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    What is the impact of low-wage countries' competition on the quality of high-wage countries' exports? To answer this question, we develop a new method that uses firm-level data to measure quality changes in sectoral exports. Over 1995-2005, we measure a 11% increase in the mean quality of France's aggregate exports, driven by a reallocation of demand in favor of higher quality producers. The phenomenon is significantly more pronounced in markets where the penetration of developing countries h...

  20. The Earned Income Tax Credit and the U.S. Low-Wage Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    John Karl Scholz

    2010-01-01

    The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is the largest cash or near-cash U.S. antipoverty program. Taxpayers gain access to the EITC by having incomes below certain thresholds and by filing a tax return. For a taxpayer to receive a larger EITC available to families with children, the EITC-qualifying child must live with the taxpayer more than half the year. In this paper I will discuss the EITC and low-wage labor markets in the United States. Section 1 provides an overview of public assistance pr...

  1. The widening health care gap between high- and low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry; Mahato, Bisundev

    2008-05-01

    Rising health care costs affect everyone, but pose a particular problem for low-wage workers and their families. Few of these workers are eligible for public insurance programs or can afford to purchase private insurance, and they are less likely than high-wage workers to work for companies offering health coverage. Using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, this report finds that, between 1996 and 2003, low-wage workers were more likely than high-wage workers to be uninsured and to spend a proportionally higher share of family income on out-of-pocket health costs. They were less likely to have a usual source of care, less likely to have received preventive services, used fewer health care services overall, and were less likely to use the latest generation of medical technologies (e.g., prescription drugs approved within the prior 20 years). They were also more likely to report worse general and mental health than high-wage workers.

  2. Perspectives on Workplace Health Promotion Among Employees in Low-Wage Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerback, Kristen; Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Clegg-Thorp, Catherine; Kohn, Marlana; Parrish, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Study goals were to (1) understand the attitudes of employees in low-wage industries toward workplace health promotion, including views on appropriateness of employer involvement in employee health and level of interest in workplace health promotion overall and in specific programs, and (2) determine the potential for extending workplace health promotion to spouses and partners of these employees. The study used 42 interviews of 60 to 90 minutes. Interviews were conducted with couples (married or living together) in the Seattle/King County metropolitan area of Washington State. Study participants were forty-two couples with one or more members working in one of five low-wage industries: accommodation/food services, education, health care/social assistance, manufacturing, and retail trade. The study employed qualitative analysis of interview transcripts using grounded theory to identify themes. Employees consider workplace health promotion both appropriate and desirable and believe it benefits employers through increased productivity and morale. Most have little personal experience with it and doubt their employers would prioritize employee health. Employees are most interested in efforts focused on nutrition and physical activity. Both employees and their partners support extending workplace health promotion to include partners. Employees and their partners are interested in workplace health promotion if it addresses behaviors they care about. Concern over employer involvement in their personal health decisions is minimal; instead, employees view employer interest in their health as a sign that they are valued.

  3. A New Approach to Low-Wage Workers and Employers. Launching the Work Advancement and Support Center Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jacquelyn; Kato, Linda Yuriko; Riccio, James A.; Blank, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Since 1998, federally funded One-Stop Service Centers around the country have focused primarily on assisting the unemployed into work. WASC tests a strategy that expands that mission by targeting people who are already working, but at low wages. Through career coaching, skills training, and better connections with employers - and led by a newly…

  4. Job satisfaction in a low-wage, low-status industry: The case of Danish food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    This paper explains why job satisfaction is high among employees in Danish food retailing - a low-wage, low-status industry. We distinguish between three employee types (transitional workers, core employees and career-seekers) and identify factors such as divergent interests and ambitions to help...

  5. Effect of Fresh Fruit Availability at Worksites on the Fruit and Vegetable Consumption of Low-Wage Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…

  6. Job satisfaction in a low-wage, low-status industry: The case of Danish food retailing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka

    This paper explains why job satisfaction is high among employees in Danish food retailing - a low-wage, low-status industry. We distinguish between three employee types (transitional workers, core employees and career-seekers) and identify factors such as divergent interests and ambitions to help...

  7. The US Labor Standards Enforcement System and Low-Wage Immigrants: Recommendations for Legislative and Administrative Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Kerwin

    2013-01-01

    Low-wage immigrants in the United States, particularly the 8 million unauthorized workers, suffer from widespread labor standards violations.  Their protection represents a singular challenge for modestly-resourced federal and state regulators, particularly in an era of record immigration enforcement. Many employers hire the unauthorized, knowingly or unknowingly, because they cannot attract sufficient numbers of authorized workers. An enduring minority, however, prefer to employ unauthorized...

  8. Characterizing the low wage immigrant workforce: a comparative analysis of the health disparities among selected occupations in Somerville, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A; Brugge, Doug; Hyatt, Raymond; Gute, David M

    2014-05-01

    This study estimates job-related risks among common low wage occupations (cleaning, construction, food service, cashier/baggers, and factory workers) held by predominantly Haitian, El Salvadorian, and Brazilian immigrants living or working in Somerville, Massachusetts. A community-based cross-sectional survey on immigrant occupational health was conducted between 2006 and 2009 and logistic regression was used to assess the job-related risks among the most common low wage occupations. Construction workers reported significantly higher health risks, and lower access to occupational health services than the other occupations. Compared to cashier/baggers, the reference population in this study, cleaners reported significantly lower access to health and safety and work training and no knowledge of workers' compensation. Factory workers reported significantly lower work training compared to cashier/baggers. Food service workers reported the least access to doctors compared to the other occupations. We found significant variability in risks among different low wage immigrant occupations. The type of occupation independently contributed to varying levels of risks among these jobs. We believe our findings to be conservative and recommend additional inquiry aimed at assuring the representativeness of our findings. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Measuring the Impact of Living Wage Laws: A Critical Appraisal of David Neumark's How Living Wage Laws Affect Low-Wage Workers and Low-Income Families

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Pollin; Jeannette Wicks-Lim; Mark D. Brenner

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), David Neumark (2002) finds that living wage laws have brought substantial wage increases for a high proportion of workers in cities that have passed these laws. He also finds that living wage laws significantly reduce employment opportunities for low-wage workers. We argue, first, that by truncating his sample to concentrate his analysis on low-wage workers, Neumark’s analysis is vulnerable to sample selection bias, and that his result...

  10. The US Labor Standards Enforcement System and Low-Wage Immigrants: Recommendations for Legislative and Administrative Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Low-wage immigrants in the United States, particularly the 8 million unauthorized workers, suffer from widespread labor standards violations.  Their protection represents a singular challenge for modestly-resourced federal and state regulators, particularly in an era of record immigration enforcement. Many employers hire the unauthorized, knowingly or unknowingly, because they cannot attract sufficient numbers of authorized workers. An enduring minority, however, prefer to employ unauthorized workers in order to suppress wages and working conditions and to gain an advantage over their competitors. Their business model depends on the exploitation of workers who are less likely to complain, organize or pursue other remedies for mistreatment. Exacerbating matters, the unauthorized work disproportionately in jobs to which certain labor standards do not apply, and they belong to labor unions at lower rates than the US workforce as a whole (Schmitt 2010. Employers, in turn, face intense competition and pressure to cut costs.  In addition, intensive immigration enforcement can make employees more vulnerable to retaliation for exercising their rights and less likely to challenge abuses (Cho and Smith 2013.   This paper analyzes labor standards enforcement in light of the challenges posed by bad-faith employers, the historically high population of low-wage immigrant laborers (particularly the unauthorized, and record spending on immigration enforcement. It draws from a comprehensive report titled Labor Standards Enforcement and Low-Wage Immigrants: Creating an Effective Enforcement System (Kerwin and McCabe 2011. The paper identifies gaps in protection in the legal and regulatory labor standards framework, with a particular focus on the US Department of Labor’s (DOL’s Wage and Hour Division (WHD which enforces the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA.[1] It argues that labor standards should be strengthened and enforcement resources bolstered. However

  11. "They See Us As Machines:" The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkar, Bindu; Brugge, Doug; Gute, David M; Hyatt, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the organization of work and occupational health risk as elicited from recently immigrated women (n = 8) who have been in the US for less than three years and employed in informal work sectors such as cleaning and factory work in the greater Boston area in Massachusetts. Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women. These results were also compared with our immigrant occupational health survey, a large project that spawned this study. Responses from the study participants suggest health outcomes consistent with being a day-laborer scholarship, new immigrant women are especially at higher risk within these low wage informal work sectors. A difference in health experiences based on ethnicity and occupation was also observed. Low skilled temporary jobs are fashioned around meeting the job performance expectations of the employer; the worker's needs are hardly addressed, resulting in low work standards, little worker protection and poor health outcomes. The rising prevalence of non-standard employment or informal labor sector requires that policies or labor market legislation be revised to meet the needs presented by these marginalized workers.

  12. The end of decent social protection for the poor? The dynamics of low wages, minimum income packages and median household incomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bea Cantillon; Diego Collado; Natascha Van Mechelen

    2015-01-01

    Why is it that, in almost three decades and despite growth of income, employment and high levels of social spending, even the most developed welfare states in the world failed to improve minimum income protection for families with children? To what extent the erosion of minimum income protection for the working age population compared to median household incomes has been occasioned by exogenous changes either in median household incomes or in gross low wages? Or, has the erosion been associat...

  13. A Narrative Review of the Confluence of Breast Cancer and Low-wage Employment and Its Impact on Receipt of Guideline-recommended Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Chambers, Mara D.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer among women in the United States, costing the healthcare system, employers, and society billions of dollars each year. Despite improvements in screening and treatment, significant breast cancer treatment and survivorship disparities exist among various groups of women. One variable that has not been explored extensively as a possible contributor to breast cancer treatment disparities is employment. This is concerning, given the changing economic and employment trends in the United States favoring low-wage employment. Currently, one-quarter to one-third of all US workers are considered to be working poor, and women are disproportionally represented in this group. Characteristics of low-wage work—limited paid time off, minimal health benefits, schedule inflexibility, and economic insecurity—may become even more significant in the event of a breast cancer diagnosis. To date, there has been limited research into how job conditions inherent to low-wage work may influence working poor survivors' receipt of guideline-recommended breast cancer treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review was to critically examine the current literature to further our understanding of how employment context may impact treatment decisions and adherence—and therefore receipt of guideline-recommended care—among newly diagnosed, working poor breast cancer survivors. After undertaking a comprehensive review, we failed to identify any published literature that explicitly addressed low-wage employment and receipt of guideline-recommended breast cancer treatment. Four articles reported circumstances where women delayed, missed, or quit treatments due to work interference, or alternatively, developed strategies that allowed them to continue to work and obtain their breast cancer treatment concurrent with medical and economic challenges. An additional five articles, while focused on other cancer and employment outcomes, described the

  14. Enhancing workplace wellness efforts to reduce obesity: a qualitative study of low-wage workers in St Louis, Missouri, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Jaime R; Eyler, Amy A; Purnell, Jason Q; Kinghorn, Anna M; Herrick, Cynthia; Evanoff, Bradley A

    2015-05-07

    The objective of this study was to examine workplace determinants of obesity and participation in employer-sponsored wellness programs among low-wage workers. We conducted key informant interviews and focus groups with 2 partner organizations: a health care employer and a union representing retail workers. Interviews and focus groups discussed worksite factors that support or constrain healthy eating and physical activity and barriers that reduce participation in workplace wellness programs. Focus group discussions were transcribed and coded to identify main themes related to healthy eating, physical activity, and workplace factors that affect health. Although the union informants recognized the need for workplace wellness programs, very few programs were offered because informants did not know how to reach their widespread and diverse membership. Informants from the health care organization described various programs available to employees but noted several barriers to effective implementation. Workers discussed how their job characteristics contributed to their weight; irregular schedules, shift work, short breaks, physical job demands, and food options at work were among the most commonly discussed contributors to poor eating and exercise behaviors. Workers also described several general factors such as motivation, time, money, and conflicting responsibilities. The workplace offers unique opportunities for obesity interventions that go beyond traditional approaches. Our results suggest that modifying the physical and social work environment by using participatory or integrated health and safety approaches may improve eating and physical activity behaviors. However, more research is needed about the methods best suited to the needs of low-wage workers.

  15. Introduction of a National Minimum Wage Reduced Depressive Symptoms in Low-Wage Workers: A Quasi-Natural Experiment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Mackenbach, Johan; Whitehead, Margaret; Stuckler, David

    2017-05-01

    Does increasing incomes improve health? In 1999, the UK government implemented minimum wage legislation, increasing hourly wages to at least £3.60. This policy experiment created intervention and control groups that can be used to assess the effects of increasing wages on health. Longitudinal data were taken from the British Household Panel Survey. We compared the health effects of higher wages on recipients of the minimum wage with otherwise similar persons who were likely unaffected because (1) their wages were between 100 and 110% of the eligibility threshold or (2) their firms did not increase wages to meet the threshold. We assessed the probability of mental ill health using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We also assessed changes in smoking, blood pressure, as well as hearing ability (control condition). The intervention group, whose wages rose above the minimum wage, experienced lower probability of mental ill health compared with both control group 1 and control group 2. This improvement represents 0.37 of a standard deviation, comparable with the effect of antidepressants (0.39 of a standard deviation) on depressive symptoms. The intervention group experienced no change in blood pressure, hearing ability, or smoking. Increasing wages significantly improves mental health by reducing financial strain in low-wage workers. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Investigating the effect of the London living wage on the psychological wellbeing of low-wage service sector employees: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Ellen; Cummins, Steven; Wills, Jane

    2014-06-01

    Working poverty has become a major public health concern in recent times, and low-paid, insecure employment has been widely linked to poor psychological wellbeing. The London Living Wage (LLW) campaign aims to ensure employees receive adequate pay. The objective of this study is to investigate whether working for a LLW employer predicted higher levels of psychological wellbeing among low-wage service sector employees. Workplace interviews were conducted with 300 service sector employees in London; 173 of whom were in LLW workplaces. Positive psychological wellbeing was measured using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess whether working for a LLW employer was associated with greater psychological wellbeing, adjusting for hypothesised confounding and mediating factors. After adjustment, respondents working for LLW employers had wellbeing scores 3.9 units higher on average than those who did not (95% CI: 1.8, 6.0). These empirical results are complemented by methodological findings regarding the difficulties associated with accessing the study group. Those who worked for a LLW employer had significantly higher psychological wellbeing on average than those who did not. This was shown to be irrespective of any differences in the socioeconomic or demographic composition of these two groups. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailey N Scofield

    Full Text Available The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera. Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults. Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus

  18. Honey bee workers that are pollen stressed as larvae become poor foragers and waggle dancers as adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Hailey N; Mattila, Heather R

    2015-01-01

    The negative effects on adult behavior of juvenile undernourishment are well documented in vertebrates, but relatively poorly understood in invertebrates. We examined the effects of larval nutritional stress on the foraging and recruitment behavior of an economically important model invertebrate, the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Pollen, which supplies essential nutrients to developing workers, can become limited in colonies because of seasonal dearths, loss of foraging habitat, or intensive management. However, the functional consequences of being reared by pollen-stressed nestmates remain unclear, despite growing concern that poor nutrition interacts with other stressors to exacerbate colony decline. We manipulated nurse bees' access to pollen and then assessed differences in weight, longevity, foraging activity, and waggle-dance behavior of the workers that they reared (who were co-fostered as adults). Pollen stress during larval development had far-reaching physical and behavioral effects on adult workers. Workers reared in pollen-stressed colonies were lighter and shorter lived than nestmates reared with adequate access to pollen. Proportionally fewer stressed workers were observed foraging and those who did forage started foraging sooner, foraged for fewer days, and were more likely to die after only a single day of foraging. Pollen-stressed workers were also less likely to waggle dance than their unstressed counterparts and, if they danced, the information they conveyed about the location of food was less precise. These performance deficits may escalate if long-term pollen limitation prevents stressed foragers from providing sufficiently for developing workers. Furthermore, the effects of brief pollen shortages reported here mirror the effects of other environmental stressors that limit worker access to nutrients, suggesting the likelihood of their synergistic interaction. Honey bees often experience the level of stress that we created, thus our findings

  19. Frequency of satisfaction and dissatisfaction with practice among rural-based, group-employed physicians and non-physician practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddimba, Anthony C; Scribani, Melissa; Krupa, Nicole; May, John J; Jenkins, Paul

    2016-10-22

    being in the lowest quintile of dissatisfaction; heavier workload and greater intolerance of uncertainty reduced that likelihood. Practitioner demographics and most practice unit characteristics did not manifest any independent effect. Mutable factors, such as workload, work meaningfulness, relational needs, uncertainty/ambiguity tolerance, and risk-taking attitudes displayed the strongest association with practitioner satisfaction/dissatisfaction, independent of demographics and practice unit characteristics. Organizational efforts should be dedicated to a redesign of group-employment models, including more equitable division of clinical labor, building supportive peer networks, and uncertainty/risk tolerance coaching, to improve the quality of work life among rural practitioners.

  20. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    The Danish economy offers a dose of American labor market flexibility inside a European welfare state. The Danish government allows employers a relatively high level of freedom to dismiss workers, but also provides generous unemployment insurance. Widespread union coverage and an active system of...

  1. A Study of Youth Groups Employment Pressure Problem of Inner Mongolia%内蒙古自治区青年群体就业压力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛红升

    2012-01-01

    At present, youth's employment problem has become a focus and problem of Chinese labor force market. This paper analyzes the reasons for present excessive employment pressure, finds out various factors that affected employment after a study of the present situation of Inner Mongolia youth group employment, sets up an index system that affects employment, carries out an empirical analysis of the main affected factors collected from stepwise regression. In addition, starting from the influence of three industries on employment, this paper attempts to search for solution and puts forward suggestion on how to solve this problem.%当前,青年就业问题已成为我国劳动力市场的重点和难点问题,本文分析了当前就业压力过大的成因,在研究内蒙古自治区青年群体就业的现状后,找出了影响就业的各种因素,建立了影响就业的指标体系,并运用逐步回归法从中提取主要的影响因素进行实证分析。另外从三大产业对就业的影响入手,从而寻求解决问题的突破口,提出相关的解决内蒙古青年就业的一些建议。

  2. Low wages in the retail industry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.

    2010-01-01

    This Working Paper is basically a "source book", accounting the results of over five years of research into the retail industry and the sources used for that research. It originates from the Future of Work in Europe research project of the New York-based Russell Sage Foundation (RSF), in which the A

  3. Low wages in the retail industry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.

    2010-01-01

    This Working Paper is basically a "source book", accounting the results of over five years of research into the retail industry and the sources used for that research. It originates from the Future of Work in Europe research project of the New York-based Russell Sage Foundation (RSF), in which the

  4. Low wages in the retail industry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.

    2010-01-01

    This Working Paper is basically a "source book", accounting the results of over five years of research into the retail industry and the sources used for that research. It originates from the Future of Work in Europe research project of the New York-based Russell Sage Foundation (RSF), in which the A

  5. Low-wage maternal employment and outcomes for children: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, K A; Driscoll, A K

    1997-01-01

    Despite the importance of anticipating how children may be affected by policies that move mothers off welfare and into employment, as the article by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue points out, few research studies have addressed this critical policy question. To help fill that gap, this article presents the results of a new study using national survey data to examine child outcomes among families that had previously received welfare. About half the families studied had mothers who remained at home, the others were working at varying wage levels. The findings reported here echo themes discussed in the two preceding articles. Maternal employment does not appear to undermine children's social or cognitive development from ages 5 to 14, and it may yield advantages. Children whose mothers earned more than $5.00 per hour, particularly, had somewhat better outcomes than others. The authors emphasize, however, that background characteristics specific to the mothers who chose employment contributed to these positive outcomes. The authors add that it would be risky to apply these generalizations based on these findings to families forced into employment by welfare reform.

  6. Finding dignity in dirty work: the constraints and rewards of low-wage home care labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Clare L

    2005-09-01

    The ageing of the population in the US and elsewhere raises important questions about who will provide long-term care for elderly and disabled people. Current projections indicate that home care workers--most of whom are unskilled, untrained and underpaid--will increasingly absorb responsibility for care. While research to date confirms the demanding aspects of the work and the need for improved working conditions, little is known about how home care workers themselves experience and negotiate their labour on a daily basis. This paper attempts to address this gap by examining how home care workers assign meaning to their 'dirty work'. Qualitative interviews suggest that home care workers have a conflicted, often contradictory, relationship to their labour. Workers identify constraints that compromise their ability to do a good job or to experience their work as meaningful, but they also report several rewards that come from caring for dependent adults. I suggest workers draw dignity from these rewards, especially workers who enter home care after fleeing an alienating service job, within or outside the healthcare industry.

  7. Reasons for Low Part-Time Employment in Eastern Europe – Any Role for Low Wages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerly Krillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Eastern European countries are characterized by high wage inequalities and a relatively low proportion of labour force being employed on a part-time basis, yet there seem not be so far made any studies on the part time pay penalty. In this article we analyse whether there are any differences in the average wages of part-time and full-time employed in Estonia, a small Eastern European catching up economy. We use Estonian Labour Force Survey data from years 1997-2007; the part time wage gap is estimated by using Oaxaca-Blinder wage decompositions and propensity score matching. The results are quite different for males and females. For females the raw wage gap is in favour of part-timers. After taking into account various worker characteristics, the wage gap becomes even larger. For males the full-time raw premium exists, but it is to a large extent explained by the different labour market characteristics.

  8. Statistical Analysis and History of Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    The Danish economy offers a dose of American labor market flexibility inside a European welfare state. The Danish government allows employers a relatively high level of freedom to dismiss workers, but also provides generous unemployment insurance. Widespread union coverage and an active system of...

  9. Living wages: Protection for or protection from low-wage workers?

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Living wage laws, which were introduced in the mid-1990s and have expanded rapidly since then, are typically touted as anti-poverty measures. Yet they frequently restrict coverage to employers with city contracts, and in such cases apply to a small fraction of workers. This apparent contradiction leads to the question of whether there are alternative motivations for various economic and political actors to seek passage of living wage laws. This paper considers the hypothesis that unions repre...

  10. Where the minimum wage bites hard: the introduction of the UK national minimum wage to a low wage sector

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Machin; Alan Manning; Lupin Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Between 1993 and April 1999 there was no minimum wage in the United Kingdom (except in agriculture). In this paper we study the effects of the introduction of a National Minimum Wage (NMW) in April 1999 on one heavily affected sector, the residential care homes industry. This sector contains a large number of low paid workers and as such can be viewed as being very vulnerable to minimum wage legislation. We look at the impact on both wages and employment. Our results suggest that the minimum ...

  11. Down With Income Taxes China increases its income tax exemption threshold to reduce tax burdens on low-wage earners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG JUN

    2011-01-01

    As a company clerk,32-year-old Ren Jun doesn't make a lot of money.Of his meager paycheck,he needs to pay about 250 yuan ($39) in taxes each month.From September.Ren will catch a break-his taxes will bc significantly reduced to about 30 yuan (54.69).As of September 1,amendments to China's individual income tax law,highlighted by an increased monthly tax exemption threshold,vill be implemented.

  12. "They See Us As Machines:" The Experience of Recent Immigrant Women in the Low Wage Informal Labor Sector: e0142686

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bindu Panikkar; Doug Brugge; David M Gute; Raymond R Hyatt

    2015-01-01

    .... Additional interviews (n = 8) with Community Key Informants with knowledge of this sector and representatives of temporary employment agencies in the area provides further context to the interviews conducted with recent immigrant women...

  13. Earnings Mobility and Low-Wage Employment in Spain: The Role of Job Mobility and Contractual Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blázquez Cuesta, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper can be summarized as follows. First, I analyze the dynamic nature of the relationship between earnings mobility, job mobility and changes in the contractual arrangements.Second I focus on the evolution of earnings mobility over time. And finally, I concentrate on lowwage employ

  14. Perception of hearing protectors by workers that participate in hearing preservation programs: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lüders, Débora; Guirado, Débora Simões; Albizu, Evelyn Joice; Marques, Jair Mendes

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the workers' perception of comfort and use aspects regarding two types of hearing protectors (shell and earplug), in three units from a lumbering company, with different implantation times for Hearing Preservation Programs. This is a cross-sectional study comparing 440 workers' perception of hearing protectors, from three companies in Paraná State (Brazil), with different times for Hearing Preservation Programs. Two closed questionnaires were applied (9 and 10 questions, respectively), with a scale of answers varying from 1 to 5 (Likert's scale) regarding the perception of the comfort of hearing protectors. Then, audiometry results were analyzed. About 17.5% presented audiogram examinations with alterations. With regard to the questionnaire about the comfort perception, the importance of noise attenuation (mean of 4.25) was the most relevant aspect, followed by communication possibility (mean of 4.15). In the protector assessment, Unit A with more Hearing Preservation Program time presented better scores for both the worker's perception of important aspects regarding hearing protector and for the assessment of the used hearing protector. There was a significant difference on communication difficulty with the use of a hearing protector among workers with normal and altered audiograms (p=0.0371). With regard to the global comfort in the comparison of workers using the shell-type hearing protector with those using insert-type hearing protectors, there was no difference (p=0.2264), irrespective of the type of the unit. In general, the unit workers presented a good perception of the important aspects about the hearing protection use of both types of hearing protectors.

  15. NURSE WORKER AND MUSCULOSKELETAL DISEASES WORK RELATED (MSD – DIALOGING ABOUT HEALTH WORKER THAT BE UNDERPAID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Silva de Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Descrever os problemas de saúde relacionados ao sistema osteomuscular encontrados nos trabalhadores de enfermagem e discutir estratégias de redução de riscos ergonômicos através de mudança na postura durante a prestação de cuidados. Métodos: Trata-se de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, do tipo descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, realizada na Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS, nas seguintes bases de dados: SCIELO e BDENF. Foram selecionadas 18 bibliografias potenciais. Realizou-se a leitura interpretativa e a análise temática. Resultados: Diante disso, emergiram as seguintes categorias: principais DORT dos trabalhadores da saúde e condições de trabalho, estratégias de redução de riscos ergonômicos e o papel do enfermeiro e prevenção da precarização. Conclusão: Concluímos que não se pode deixar de frisar que a atividade ocupacional do enfermeiro pode realmente produzir lesões e acreditamos que é urgente a necessidade de estudos ergonômicos envolvendo as tarefas e as posturas adotadas pelo pessoal de enfermagem durante o trabalho. Descritores: Doenças Osteomusculares Relacionadas ao Trabalho (DORT, Ergonomia, Enfermagem.

  16. Classification of Scientific Documents by Means of Self-Generated Groups Employing Free Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, R. D.; Kwok, K. L.

    1973-01-01

    A study was undertaken to classify mechanically a document collection using the free-language words in titles and abstracts of physics research papers. Using a clustering algorithm, results were obtained which closely duplicated clusters obtained by previous experiments with citations. A brief comparison is made with a traditional manual…

  17. Helping Low-Wage Workers Persist in Education Programs: Lessons from Research on Welfare Training Programs and Two Promising Community College Strategies. MDRC Working Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn

    2008-01-01

    Employment has long been held to be an important deterrent against poverty, and work is a core component of a range of federal efforts to improve the economic well-being of low-income families. However, recent trends in earnings and research both confirm that work alone is not sufficient to prevent poverty. While there is compelling evidence that…

  18. The effects of living wage laws on low-wage workers and low-income families: What do we know now?

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David; Thompson, Matthew; Koyle, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    We provide updated evidence on the effects of living wage laws in U.S. cities, relative to the earlier research covering only the first six or seven years of existence of these laws. There are some challenges to updating the evidence, as the CPS data on which it relies changed geographic coding systems in the mid-2000s. The updated evidence is broadly consistent with the conclusions reached by prior research, including Holzer's (2008) review of that earlier evidence. Living wage laws reduce e...

  19. Issues of low wages for construction market migrant workers%建筑市场农民工工资水平低下问题的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾新堂

    2009-01-01

    近年来随着我国市场经济的发展,大量农民涌入城市务工,他们为城市发展付出了自己辛勤劳动,然而,他们所得工资水平却很低.在建筑企业中,这个问题就更加突出,前不久还由此出现了民工荒.文章分析了建筑市场农民工工资水平低下的原因以及所产生的不利的影响,并且提出了相应的解决措施.

  20. The effects of living wage laws on low-wage workers and low-income families: What do we know now?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We provide updated evidence on the effects of living wage laws in U.S. cities, relative to the earlier research covering only the first six or seven years of existence of these laws. There are some challenges to updating the evidence, as the CPS data on which it relies changed geographic coding systems in the mid-2000s. The updated evidence is broadly consistent with the conclusions reached by prior research, including Holzer's (2008) review of that earlier evidence. Living wage laws reduce e...

  1. 大学生就业困难群体帮扶工作的实践与思考%Students Work in Helping Disadvantaged Groups Employment Practice and Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群如

    2011-01-01

    To improve college students' employment difficult groups supporting work quality and efficiency,is the current college one of the solved urgently difficult problem.This paper wield "Green corridor" employment of constructing exploration and practice,Basing on the multiple platforms,Solving the employment difficulty pertinently of the students' individual,have obtained better supporting effect.%提高大学生就业困难群体帮扶工作的质量和效率,是当前高校急需解决的难点问题之一。本文通过"就业绿色走廊"构建的探索与实践,在多个平台基础上,针对性地解决就业困难学生的个性化问题,取得了较好的帮扶效果。

  2. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment in Canada: A Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Terence

    2003-01-01

    Canadian panel data 1988-90 were used to compare estimates of minimum-wage effects based on a low-wage/high-worker sample and a low-wage-only sample. Minimum-wage effect for the latter is nearly zero. Different results for low-wage subgroups suggest a significant effect for those with longer low-wage histories. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  3. How the Food Processing Industry Is Diversifying Rural Minnesota. JSRI Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, Katherine; Leitner, Helga

    The diversification of rural Minnesota is largely the result of the restructuring of the food processing industry and its recruitment of low-wage laborers. The relocation and expansion of food processing plants into rural areas of Minnesota creates a demand for low-wage labor that can not be met locally. Food processing businesses attract…

  4. 75 FR 53129 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Inflation Adjustment of Acquisition-Related Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... Compensation for Professional Employees. The respondent stated that when contractors pay very low wages and...) remain at $25,000 because of trade agreements. Commercial items test program ceiling (FAR 13.500) is...

  5. 76 FR 81541 - Request for Comments Under E.O. 12898

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... in low- wage jobs or out of the labor market find a path into middle-class jobs; and helping middle-class families remain in the middle class. The Department's draft Environmental Justice Strategy focuses...

  6. In-Work Transfers in Good Times and Bad: Simulations for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Bargain, Olivier; DOORLEY Karina

    2009-01-01

    In-work transfers are often seen as a good trade-off between redistribution and efficiency, as they alleviate poverty among low-wage households while increasing financial incentives to work. The present study explores the consequences of ex- tending these transfers in Ireland, where support for low-wage households has been of limited scope. The employment and poverty effects of alternative policies are an- alyzed thanks to counterfactual simulations built using a micro-simulation model, the L...

  7. The impact on advanced economies of north-south trade in manufacturing and services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rowthorn

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Many types of production are being transferred from the rich economies of the North to the poorer economies of the South. Such changes began in manufacturing but are now spreading to services. This paper provides estimates of their past and future impact on employment in the North. About 5 million manufacturing jobs have been lost over the past decade because of trade with low-wage economies. A similar number of service jobs may be lost to low-wage economies over the next decade. Although small compared to total employment, such losses may seriously harm certain localities or types of worker.

  8. Marginal Returns: Re-Thinking Mobility and Educational Benefit in Contexts of Chronic Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    As a result of chronic poverty many people in South Asia experience poor quality schooling, interrupted schooling, or no schooling at all. People affected by poverty face multiple constraints on wellbeing, which typically include informal employment, low wages and poor health. In such contexts the benefits and, more specifically, the…

  9. Listening to "The Thick Bunch": (Mis)Understanding and (Mis)Representation of Young People in Jobs without Training in the South West of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawy, Robert; Quinn, Jocey; Diment, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Young people in jobs without training are ubiquitous but invisible, working in shops, cafes, and other low-waged, low-status occupations. Commonly elided with young people who are not in education, employment or training, they are positioned as the "thick bunch" with empty and meaningless working lives. The main purpose of the research was to…

  10. Migrant Farm Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  11. The Impact of Differential Payroll Tax Subsidies on Minimum Wage Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P Kramarz (Piotr); Th. Philippon

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we study the impact of changes of total labor costs on employment of low-wage workers in France in a period, 1990 to 1998, that saw sudden and large changes in these costs. We use longitudinal data from the French Labor Force survey (? enqu?te emploi ?) in order to underst

  12. The Children of Immigrants and Host-Society Educational Systems: Mexicans in the United States and North Africans in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Richard; Silberman, Roxane

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: The educational fate of the children of low-wage immigrants is a salient issue in all the economically developed societies that have received major immigration flows since the 1950s. The article considers the way in which educational systems in the two countries structure the educational experiences and shape the opportunities…

  13. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  14. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  15. Black Women in the Emerging Services Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Bette

    1989-01-01

    Examines the impact of a services economy on the work and income of Black women in relation to current labor theory, employment patterns of Black and White women, and future policy implications. Discusses the growing feminization of poverty as the product of a growing subculture of low-wage work. (JS)

  16. Job Training + Education: A Pocket Guide for Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Millions of Americans work hard every day but struggle to support their families on low wages. Millions more have recently moved from welfare to work, but have been unable to escape poverty. Altogether, according to the U.S. Labor Department, more than six million Americans are counted among the working poor. Meanwhile, critical industries like…

  17. Social Welfare in Rural Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shucksmith, Mark; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Literature review on social exclusion and disadvantage in rural Europe suggests that rural poverty arises from unemployment, low wages, and, most significantly, inadequate income in old age. Discusses difficulties in identifying rural incidence of exclusion and disadvantage, as well as the need for such research in light of major ongoing social…

  18. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  19. Gaining Through Training: Pilot Proficiency in Modern Combat Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    part of the European conflict. The military budget was small and aviation received a relatively small 25 percentage. Airmen received low wages ...re-installed, only pilots with two years of experience or more would fly, and pilots would fly only routes with a forecasted minimum ceiling of

  20. Income Distribution and Inequality in Lesotho: The Case of Lorenz ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With particular reference to Lesotho, the gap between the rich and the poor has ... of positions (low demand) will result in a low wage for that job since .... a general increase in income inequality for the African race group (Fedderke et al,. 2000).

  1. Note from the editor 3-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In several issues of CLR-News attention was paid to pay and working conditions in construction. Moreover, in other subject articles the emphasis was not only on the material side, but also the quality of the jobs, the development of the incidence of low-wage work, plus the market and institutional s

  2. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Arce, Francisco; Constant, Louay; Loughran, David S.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research show that high school dropouts are more likely than graduates to commit crimes, abuse drugs and alcohol, have children out of wedlock, earn low wages, be unemployed, and suffer from poor health. The ChalleNGe program, currently operating in 27 states, is a residential program coupled with post-residential mentoring that seeks…

  3. Traditional Technology and Cost-reduction As a Major Driver in Business: Can Outsourcing Relations be Redirected by Smart Manufacturing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Enserink, B.; Van Geenhuizen, M.S.; Berben, W.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional technologies can have an extended lifetime if companies use various cost-reducing strategies. One of these strategies employed in Western European countries in the past decades has been low-cost outsourcing in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), mainly derived from low wages. Specifically,

  4. Flexible Labour Markets and the Adult Learner: Are We Knocking on a Locked Door?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden, Tony

    1995-01-01

    The "other" flexible work force includes the unemployed and low-wage, part-time, temporary, and seasonal workers who are flexible but not by choice. The new labor market may be limited in terms of demand for high skills but may have great need for unskilled, disposable workers. (SK)

  5. Down With Income Taxes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China increases its income tax exemption threshold to reduce tax burdens on low-wage earners As a company clerk, 32-year-old Ren Jun doesn’t make a lot of money.Of his meager paycheck, he needs to pay about 250 yuan ($39) in taxes each month. From September,

  6. Measuring Precarious Employment: a Proposal for Two Indicators of Precarious Employment Based on Set-Theory and Tested with Dutch Labour Market-Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsthoorn, M.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars claim that precarious employment is rising. The precariously employed earn low wages, have little job- and income security and occupy jobs that can generally be deemed low quality. These employees are at a disproportionally high risk of poverty and are at risk of detrimental psychological e

  7. In the Strawberry Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Eric

    1995-01-01

    California's strawberry industry offers a case study of both California agriculture's dependence on the exploitation of an imported peasantry, and the destructive consequences of the "free market" and a deliberate low-wage economy. Describes a new form of sharecropping, tantamount to debt peonage; lax federal enforcement of existing…

  8. Post-accession migration in construction and trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldring, Line; Fitzgerald, Ian; Arnholtz, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The article compares trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK to the arrival of construction workers from the new EU member states. Organizing has been seen as a crucial means to avoid low-wage competition and social dumping. We analyse how the unions developed strategies for recruiting...... migrants, the novelty of their approaches and the results in terms of membership....

  9. The Children of Immigrants and Host-Society Educational Systems: Mexicans in the United States and North Africans in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Richard; Silberman, Roxane

    2009-01-01

    Background/Context: The educational fate of the children of low-wage immigrants is a salient issue in all the economically developed societies that have received major immigration flows since the 1950s. The article considers the way in which educational systems in the two countries structure the educational experiences and shape the opportunities…

  10. Caring for Caregivers: Addressing the Employment Needs of Long Term Care Workers. A Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Laura E.

    Research confirms anecdotal impressions of the following causes of high turnover among both home health and nursing home aides: low wages; inadequate benefits; excessive workloads; poor training, supervision, and working conditions; and job-related stress. Public policy initiatives can dramatically alleviate or exacerbate the crisis among…

  11. Addressing Inequality and Economic Marginalisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    need to effect change in patterns of distribution, beyond change in the racial .... ways that – initially at least – subsidised low wages on the mines and in ..... the gap and provide market insights and access to external markets of these kinds.

  12. Global Neo-Liberalism, Global Ecological Modernization, and a Swine CAFO in Rural Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenna, Leland L.; Mitev, Georgi V.

    2009-01-01

    Rural and development sociology studies have tended to credit globalization with low-wage, extractive, environmentally destructive outcomes. Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been treated as a local manifestation of the destructive tendencies of globalization. However, recent scholarship on globalization suggests that…

  13. Providing Transition Services for Students with Disabilities from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoke, Selete Kofi; Simon-Burroughs, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Youth with disabilities from culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) backgrounds are at high risk for a number of negative postschool outcomes including high unemployment, low wages, and limited access to postsecondary education and training. Cultural and linguistic differences may negatively impact transition planning for these youth as they…

  14. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adewunmi

    exacerbated by inequality in incomes, in assets (education and health status), in control ..... knowledge and capital (Rural Sociological Society 1990). ... stop of technologies, and low wages and competitive pricing dominate production. ... departing people were the community's best role models and were often civic leaders.

  15. Quality Control in construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    l . . . .. . .. . . . . . .6 0 minimun of time and money and in determining whether there is an observable relationship between variables...competition, they fully believe that foreign competition is a threat only because of i& L price advantages through low wages and unfair pricing. American

  16. Declining Wages of Young Workers in Rural America. Staff Working Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, William P.; Pauti, Anne

    In the 1980s, the falling incomes and climbing poverty rates characterizing young workers in rural America were closely linked to rapidly changing national and international economic systems. Findings of a recent Senate Budget Committee study indicate that between 1979 and 1987 the share of young workers (ages 16-34) with low-wage jobs increased…

  17. Changing Public Perception in Wisconsin: Manufacturing a "Good Life"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Haley

    2006-01-01

    Careers in manufacturing are high-wage and high-tech. Yet, a future workforce shortage may be on the horizon. It appears a negative public perception--one that brings to mind low wages, assembly-line work and lay-offs--is thwarting young adults from pursuing manufacturing careers across the country. This article describes how the Wisconsin…

  18. An Examination of Childcare Teachers in For-Profit and Non-Profit Childcare Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.; Shriner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of childcare teachers in for-profit and non-profit centers were examined. Previous research indicates that childcare teachers earn consistently low wages, have little employee benefits and are dissatisfied with their work environments. This study further explores the employment issues and work environments that childcare teachers…

  19. Working Across Borders: Multinational Enterprises and the Internationalization of Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van den Berghe (Douglas)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractMultinational enterprises (MNEs) are often held responsible for the ‘relocation of production’ and ‘exporting jobs’ to, often low-wage, countries at the expense of domestic jobs. Additionally, host country governments – in particular in developing countries - often perceive international

  20. Healthcare. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Gulish, Artem; Beach, Bennett H.

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary highlights several findings about healthcare. These are: (1) Healthcare is 18 percent of the U.S. economy, twice as high as in other countries; (2) There are two labor markets in healthcare: high-skill, high-wage professional and technical jobs and low-skill, low-wage support jobs; (3) Demand for postsecondary education in…

  1. Unravelling the Complex Motivations behind China’s FDI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yi, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    We empirically investigate the factors that drive China's outward FDI using dynamic panel methods for 27 countries from 1995 to 2002. Based on the literature review we test three hypotheses: comparative advantages in low wage countries, vertical integration towards resource and human capital abundan

  2. The Origins of Forced Labor in the Witwatersrand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Moitsadi

    1986-01-01

    Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)

  3. Wages and Unequal Access to Organizational Power: An Empirical Test of Gender Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultin, Mia; Szulkin, Ryszard

    1999-01-01

    A study of Swedish workers investigated whether earnings are affected by the gender composition of firms' managerial staff. Gender-differentiated access to organizational power structures proved essential to explaining women's relatively low wages. Women working in male-dominated establishments had lower wages than firms with more women managers.…

  4. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of the National Guard Youth ChalleNGe Program. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Arce, Francisco; Constant, Louay; Loughran, David S.; Karoly, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Decades of research show that high school dropouts are more likely than graduates to commit crimes, abuse drugs and alcohol, have children out of wedlock, earn low wages, be unemployed, and suffer from poor health. The ChalleNGe program, currently operating in 27 states, is a residential program coupled with post-residential mentoring that seeks…

  5. International trade and employment: trade partner country effects on jobs and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortanier, F.N.; Jaarsma, M.; Korvorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent academic research has consistently identified trading firms - both exporters and importers - to be larger, and to pay higher wages than their non-trading counterparts. However, not all trade is equal: imports from low-wage countries may destroy employment, particularly among low-skilled worke

  6. Traditional Technology and Cost-reduction As a Major Driver in Business: Can Outsourcing Relations be Redirected by Smart Manufacturing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filippov, S.; Enserink, B.; Van Geenhuizen, M.S.; Berben, W.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional technologies can have an extended lifetime if companies use various cost-reducing strategies. One of these strategies employed in Western European countries in the past decades has been low-cost outsourcing in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), mainly derived from low wages. Specifically,

  7. Single Mothers' Self-Efficacy, Parenting in the Home Environment, and Children's Development in a Two-Wave Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Scheines, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 178 single black mothers and their young children who were ages three to five at time 1 and ages five to eight at time 2, this study examined the links between and among low-wage employment, mothers' self-efficacy beliefs, depressive symptoms, and a constellation of parenting behaviors in the preschool years to…

  8. What's Your Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Brighton Unemployed Centre Families Project, a community centre run by the unemployed for the unemployed, unwaged and low-waged, has run periodic creative writing classes for 15 years. The centre's creative writing scheme, Salt and Vinegar, gives centre users an opportunity to write about their lives and to develop their writing skills. The…

  9. Maquiladoras, Women's Work, and Unemployment in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Uses Marxist/feminist concepts to explain employment patterns among female workers in multinational maquiladoras (assembly plants) in northern Mexico. Concludes that maquiladoras have not alleviated regional unemployment for either sex, but have created a docile low-wage work force that includes a pool of surplus labor. Contains 48 references. (SV)

  10. Balancing Environmental Performance with Sales Functionalities in Packaging for Consumer Electronic Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2006-01-01

    Two major changes are currently taking place in the world of Consumer Electronics. They are, first, the relocation of production to low-wage countries, in particularly China. This results in longer distribution distances, which lead to a higher relative importance of this phase in the entire life cy

  11. More than training: Community-based participatory research to reduce injuries among hispanic construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forst, Linda; Ahonen, Emily; Zanoni, Joseph; Holloway-Beth, Alfreda; Oschner, Michele; Kimmel, Louis; Martino, Carmen; Rodriguez, Eric; Kader, Adam; Ringholm, Elisa; Sokas, Rosemary

    2013-08-01

    Workplace mortality and severe injury are disproportionately distributed among foreign born and Hispanic construction workers. Worker Centers (WCs) provide services and advocacy for low-wage workers and a way for investigators to reach them. The goal of this project is to prevent occupational injuries by increasing awareness of hazards and self-efficacy among foreign born, Hispanic construction workers and by expanding the agenda of WCs to include occupational health and safety (H&S). Investigators partnered with eight WCs in seven cities to train worker leaders to deliver a modified OSHA 10-hr curriculum to their peers. Thirty-two worker leaders trained 446 workers over 3 years. There was a demonstrated improvement in knowledge, hazard identification, self-efficacy, and sustainable H&S activities. This study provides evidence for successful implementation of a training intervention for low wage, low literacy Hispanic construction workers using a community-based participatory research approach. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Danish fabricated metal industry:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge on innovation processes in low- and medium-low-tech industries. Today, industries characterised as high-tech are perceived to be central to economic development, as the research intensity shields them from competition from low-wage countries. This is......This paper aims to contribute to the knowledge on innovation processes in low- and medium-low-tech industries. Today, industries characterised as high-tech are perceived to be central to economic development, as the research intensity shields them from competition from low-wage countries....... This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms...

  13. Building a peer mentor home health aide program: implications for home health aide retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiser, Athena Lu; Adamski, Tom; Gallagher, Bridget

    2010-09-01

    The Home Health Aide (HHA) industry is challenged with low wages, little possibility of career advancement, and high turnover rates. Jewish Home Lifecare, Home Assistance Personnel Inc. (HAPI) is a home care aide agency that has developed a Peer Mentor HHA program. Peer Mentor HHAs mentor newly hired/trained HHAs within our agency. This career path leads to higher paying work that allows for growth of our workforce for the identified growing care need and positively impacts HHA retention.

  14. Anita Chan (ed.), Chinese Workers in Comparative Perspective,

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Ming-sho

    2015-01-01

    China watchers generally agree that successful economic development through low-wage export has shown signs of exhaustion. Since the Labour Contract Law came into effect in 2008, labour costs have risen considerably, squeezing the profit margins of export-oriented manufacturers. Migrant workers’ rights consciousness has surged, as witnessed by the Honda strike and the much publicised wave of suicides at Foxconn (a Taiwanese electronics maker) in 2010, and the strike at Yue Yuen (a Taiwanese f...

  15. The Role Of The Military In Myanmars Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Whenever relevant, the thesis employs economic data—such as gross domestic product (GDP), exports and imports, interest rates, and wages —generated by...private, the government set the ceiling on interest rates for loans and deposits.290 Despite this limitation, the banking industry grew. Entering 2001...politicization, absurdly low wages , and unchecked corruption.”411 As military officers were appointed to senior bureaucrats and ministerial posts (some

  16. Glass Ceiling Effect in Urban China: Wage Inequality of Rural-Urban Migrants during 2002-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Zhaopeng Frank; Zhao, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    The paper studies the levels and changes in wage inequality among Chinese rural-urban migrants during 2002-2007. Using data from two waves of national household surveys, we find that wage inequality among migrants decreased significantly between 2002 and 2007. Our analysis on the wage distribution further shows that the high-wage migrants experienced slower wage growth than middle-and low-wage migrants – a primary cause of declining inequality of migrants. By using distributional decompositio...

  17. Do Employment Subsidies Work? Evidence from Regionally Targeted Subsidies in Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daysal, N. Meltem; Betcherman, Gordon; Pages, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the effects on registered employment and number of registered establishments of two employment subsidy schemes in Turkey. We implement a difference-in-differences methodology to construct appropriate counterfactuals for the covered provinces. Our findings suggest that both subs...... than boosting total employment and economic activity. This supports the theory that in countries with weak enforcement institutions, high labor taxes on low-wage workers may lead to substantial incentives for firms and workers to operate informally....

  18. Debt bondage and the tricks of capital

    OpenAIRE

    Guérin, Isabelle; Venkatasubramanian, G.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Migrant labourers, free from rural bondage, are now bonded to other sources of debt, contracted from the agro-industry or construction sectors. The flows of migration in the brick-making and sugar cane sectors in Tamil Nadu, where bondage coexists with many public welfare schemes, illustrate the persistence and renewal of this phenomenon. The welfare schemes play the role of a safety net, but also contribute to low wages, and impunity on the part of employers. Alliances between capital and th...

  19. Options for enforcing labor standards: Lessons from Bangladesh and Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Berik, Günseli; van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana

    2008-01-01

    This study examines labor standards enforcement and compliance in two Asian economies (Bangladesh and Cambodia) that have amongst the lowest labor costs in the world but are experiencing strong pressures to improve the price competitiveness of their textile and garment exports. Analysis of survey, focus group, and inspection data indicate differing trajectories in compliance with basic labor standards. While extremely low wages and poor working conditions have persisted in Bangladesh, complia...

  20. County and organizational predictors of depression symptoms among low-income nursing assistants in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; Chung, Haejoo; O'Campo, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    Low-wage workers represent an ever-increasing proportion of the US workforce. A wide spectrum of firms demand low-wage workers, yet just 10 industries account for 70% of all low-paying jobs. The bulk of these jobs are in the services and retail sales industries. In health services, 60% of all workers are low-paid, with nursing aides, orderlies, personal attendants, and home care aides earning an average hourly wage of just 7.97 US dollars--a wage that keeps many of these workers hovering near or below the poverty line. Nursing assistants also tend to work in hazardous and grueling conditions. Work conditions are an important determinant of psychological well-being and mental disorders, particularly depression, in the workplace have important consequences for quality of life, worker productivity, and the utilization and cost of health care. In empirical studies of low-wage workers, county-level variables are of theoretical significance. Multilevel studies have recently provided evidence of a link between county-level variables and poor mental health among low-wage workers. To date, however, no studies have simultaneously considered the effect of county-and workplace-level variables. This study uses a repeated measures design and multilevel modeling to simultaneously test the effect of county-, organizational-, workplace-, and individual-level variables on depression symptoms among low-income nursing assistants employed in US nursing homes. We find that age and emotional strain have a statistically significant association with depression symptoms in this population, yet when controlling for county-level variables of poverty, the organizational-level variables used were no longer statistically significant predictors of depression symptoms. This study also contributes to current research methodology in the field of occupational health by using a cross-classified multilevel model to explicitly account for all variations in this three-level data structure, modeling and

  1. Investigation and Improvement of Grass-roots Agricultural Extension System in Yichang City

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Jiping; Xu, Yan; Hu, Duan'e; Xiang, Changwen

    2013-01-01

    Through a questionnaire survey, the working status, payment and ideological conditions of 166 grassroots agro-technicians were studied and analyzed. As is indicated by the results, the technicians are generally paid with low wages, and lack enthusiasm and initiative in jobs, and most of them take a second job. After an expose of the existing problems in the grassroots agricultural extension system in Yichang, some suggestions were proposed for improving the agricultural extension system in th...

  2. Investigation and Improvement of Grass-roots Agricultural Extension System in Yichang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiping; YI; Yan; XU; Duan’e; HU; Changwen; XIANG

    2013-01-01

    Through a questionnaire survey, the working status, payment and ideological conditions of 166 grassroots agro-technicians were studied and analyzed. As is indicated by the results, the technicians are generally paid with low wages, and lack enthusiasm and initiative in jobs, and most of them take a second job. After an exposure of the existing problems in the grassroots agricultural extension system in Yichang, some suggestions were proposed for improving the agricultural extension system in the new era.

  3. Training in basic Internet skills for special target groups in non-formal educational settings – conclusions from three pilot projects

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Andrea; Croll, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    With the progress of Digital Inclusion, it becomes important to address marginalised groups that face specific barriers in being part of the information society. From 2009 to 2011 within the framework of the nation-wide Initiative Internet erfahren, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, Stiftung Digitale Chancen has accompanied three pilot projects and researched the hindrances and motivations of specific target groups including young migrants from Russia, women in the low-wage ...

  4. Profile Of The Women Entrepreneur In Turkey: Chatacteristics Theory

    OpenAIRE

    GÜROL, Yonca; YILDIRIM, Aslı Tunç

    2007-01-01

    With today's developing technology and industrialization, each day there is an increase in the number of women participating in business life, and the number of women who start their own business gradually rises in Turkey. As such, women both contribute to social economy and become role-models to other women with their achievements. Among the reasons why women prefer entrepreneurship are the difficulties they face in the work environment, glass ceiling issues, low wage, the desire to work par...

  5. An equilibrium search model of the informal sector

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We use an equilibrium search framework to model a formal- informal sector labour market where the informal sector arises endogenously. In our model large firms will be in the formal sector and pay a wage premium, while small firms are characterised by low wages and tend to be in the informal sector. Using data from the South African labour force survey we illustrate that the data is consistent with these predictions.

  6. Permitting Precariousness: Addressing Employment Standards Challenges for Temporary Foreign Workers in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Angela Neelam

    2016-01-01

    Since 2002, there has been an increase in the number of low-skill and low-wage temporary foreign workers in Canada. This study examines the employment standards challenges that these workers may encounter while in the Temporary Foreign Worker Program. Employment standards legislation provides the minimum requirements for workplace procedures, conditions, and transactions, such as overtime pay and hours of work. Given that the regulation of labour and employment fall under provincial jurisdict...

  7. Inequality and schooling responses to globalization forces: lessons from history

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    2006-01-01

    In the first global century before 1914, trade and especially migration had profound effects on both low-wage, labour abundant Europe and the high-wage, labour scarce New World. Those global forces contributed to a reduction in unskilled labour scarcity in the New World and to a rise in unskilled labour scarcity in Europe. Thus, it contributed to rising inequality in overseas countries, like the United States, and falling inequality in most of Europe. Falling unskilled labour scarcity and ris...

  8. Universities are becoming major players in the national system of innovation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Walwyn, D

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) identified two looming crises: the engineering gap (deficit between supply of engineering and management skills or capabilities), and the limited supply of university graduates capable... levels’.36 Seekings and Nattrass38 highlight the deficiencies in the South African labour market as the key factor in the dual issues of employment and inequality. The market is characterised by a shrinking of low-wage formal employment opportunities...

  9. Velfærdsstatens patologi

    OpenAIRE

    Arndal, Martin Fog; Kjær, Frode; Elling, Eskil Juul; Brandt, Kasper Milius; Juncker-Løndal, Tue

    2015-01-01

    This project assesses the present condition of the Danish welfare state using the conceptual apparatus of Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition. On this basis, it derives a moral ideal from the frustrated expectations of recognition of recipients of social security and people employed in low wage jobs. In a second turn it seeks to validate this ideal on the basis of a sociological diagnosis of society. Firstly, the ideal implicit in modern society stems from what is termed the constitutive ten...

  10. Improving Teaching and Learning through Effective Incentives : What Can We Learn from Education Reforms in Latin America?

    OpenAIRE

    Vegas, Emiliana; Umansky, Ilana

    2005-01-01

    While many Latin American countries have succeeded in providing access to basic education for the great majority of children, educational quality in the region remains very low. In an increasingly global world where workers' skills and knowledge play an ever-important role, countries with predominantly low-skilled workers are doomed to stay behind, their citizens earning low wages, and continuing to miss opportunities to escape poverty and enjoy a better life. From the viewpoint of using scar...

  11. The Effects of Living Wage Laws: Evidence from Failed and Derailed Living Wage Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Scott; Neumark, David

    2005-01-01

    Living wage campaigns have succeeded in about 100 jurisdictions in the United States but have also been unsuccessful in numerous cities. These unsuccessful campaigns provide a better control group or counterfactual for estimating the effects of living wage laws than the broader set of all cities without a law, and also permit the separate estimation of the effects of living wage laws and living wage campaigns. We find that living wage laws raise wages of low-wage workers but reduce employment...

  12. New industrial configuration and local participation in development strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Ramalho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses patterns of institutional and political participation based on new economic development experiences in situations created by the dynamics of the Brazilian automobile industry in the 1990s. Taking an empirical study of a region as an example, the study argues that even in a context where large companies have opportunistic motivations (tax exemptions, low wages, etc., initiatives can emerge for society's mobilization and intervention to foster collaborative activities aimed at regional development.

  13. Wal-Mart and Rural Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Goetz, Stephan J.; Swaminathan, Hema

    2004-01-01

    Wal-Mart® has created tremendous economic benefits for consumers by providing more choices at lower prices. The benefits are felt especially in communities that had only local retail monopolies prior to the arrival of the store. Yet no mretailer evokes stronger negative emotions than this chain. Recent media attention has focused on questionable labor practices and low wages combined with lack of benefits paid by the corporation, while academic studies have examined effects of the stores on r...

  14. A produção de etanol de cana no Estado da Paraíba: alternativas de sustentabilidade

    OpenAIRE

    Márcia Batista da Fonseca; Márcia Cristina Silva Paixão

    2011-01-01

    Brazil’s abundance regarding natural resources, low-waged manual labor and high productivity in the last decades generated advantages in producing ethanol cane. However, exports face trade barriers and allegations of environmental damage since pre-harvest burning causes GHG emissions. Cane burning is a worldwide common practice but this scenario has changed in Brazil through an initiative of the São Paulo State government in cooperation with the industry’s leaders: as an alternative to burnin...

  15. Trade as an engine of creative destruction: Mexican experience with Chinese competition .

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Iacovone; Winters, L.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper exploits the surge in Chinese exports from 1994 to 2004 as a natural experiment toevaluate the effects of a unilateral low wage trade and competition shock to producers in Mexico. Wefind that this shock causes selection at both firm and product levels as its impact is highlyheterogeneous both on the intensive and extensive margins. Sales of smaller plants and more marginalproducts are compressed and are more likely to cease, while larger plants and products exhibit anopposite respo...

  16. How to Avoid Middle Income Traps : Evidence from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Flaaen, Aaron; Ghani, Ejaz; Mishra, Saurabh

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia's structural transformation from low to middle income is a success story, making it one of the most prominent manufacturing exporters'in the world. However, like many other middle income economies, it is squeezed by the competition from low-wage economies on the one hand, and more innovative advanced economies on the other. What can Malaysia do? Does Malaysia need a new growth strategy? This paper emphasizes the need for broad structural transformation; that is, moving to higher prod...

  17. L'emploi des jeunes : vecteur de recomposition des économies salariales de services : étude sur la précarisation et la segmentation des relations salariales en Rhône-Alpes

    OpenAIRE

    Zubiri-Rey, Jon Bernat

    2016-01-01

    The Rhône-Alpes economy is increasingly specializing in diverse service activities, such as consulting and assistance services, health and social action, commerce sector, hotels and restaurants, and operational services, along with the building sector. Employment precarization – defined as the persistent combination of low wages and job insecurity– especially affects young employees, both in Rhône-Alpes and France. Far from being limited to a transition period, this precarization persists thr...

  18. A Feasibility Study of Group Parent Training for the Prevention of Obesity (GPT-O) in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-07

    preschoolers ’ social competence and behavior problems in the classroom. Infant and Child Development 14: 133-54 13. Ardelt M, Eccles JS. 2001. Effects of...process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development 65:541-61 61. Conger RD, Wallace LE, Sun Y, Simons RL, McLoyd VC, Brod G, H...low-wage jobs: Financial strain, parenting, and preschoolers ’ outcomes. Child Development 71: 1409-23 167. James J, Thomas P, Cavan D, Kerr D. 2004

  19. Urbanization and apartheid in South Africa: influx controls and their abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, M

    1996-12-01

    "This study will take up the particular aspects and characteristics of urbanization [in South Africa] from the standpoint of the effects exerted by the apartheid system. It will then examine the trends which have taken place since abolition of the pass laws and restrictions on the influx of blacks into urban areas....[The author considers] the relationship between restrictions on the movement of blacks into urban areas on the one hand and the maintenance of low-wage migrant labor and retention of farmland in home districts on the other."

  20. Older women caring for older women: the rewards and challenges of the home care aide job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S; Wardamasky, Sara; Brennan-Ing, Mark

    2012-01-01

    As our population ages, the need for personal assistance services increases. Paid personal care is predominantly provided by women, often older women, and has been considered low-status, low-wage work. This article reports on a mixed-method, longitudinal study of 261 home care aides; study participants were 46 years old, on average. Predictors of termination included younger age and lack of health insurance. Study participants reported more rewarding than challenging aspects to the job, though low and inconsistent compensation often forced them to leave the work they loved. Implications of the study with regard to older women caring for older women are explored.

  1. The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Using data from a longitudinal survey of fast food restaurants in Texas, the authors examine the impact of recent changes in the federal minimum wage on a low-wage labor market The authors draw four main conclusions. First, the survey results indicate that less than 5 percent of fast food restaurants use the new youth subminimum wage even though the vast majority paid a starting wage below the new hourly minimum wage immediately before the new minimum went into effect. Second, although some r...

  2. The home health workforce: a distinction between worker categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Robyn; Sutton, Janet P; Bryant, Natasha; Adams, Annelise; Squillace, Marie

    2013-01-01

    The demand for home health aides is expected to rise, despite concerns about the sustainability of this workforce. Home health workers receive low wages and little training and have high turnover. It is difficult to recruit and retain workers to improve clinical outcomes. This study presents national estimates to examine how home health workers and the subgroup of workers differ in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, compensation, benefits, satisfaction, and retention. Hospice aides fare better than other categories of workers and are less likely to leave their job. Policymakers should consider strategies to increase the quality and stability of this workforce.

  3. Telecommuters: the stay-at-home work force of the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, P.F.

    1983-06-01

    The spread of teleworkers who commute via telecommunications from their home offices will depend, despite the energy-saving and tax advantages of self-employment, on how fast the social climate accepts teleworking, whether software can be made friendlier, and whether legal issues of database networks are resolved. The societal changes associated with home offices can be either a positive reemphasis on the home or a negative electronic sweatshop and a way to export office work to low-wage areas. The author, who sees a gradual adoption of teleworking while these technological, societal, and marketing barriers are dealt with, develops a scenario for an information society of the future. (DCK)

  4. The impact of minimum wage on female employment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI, Daiji; Yamada, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The statutory minimum wage in Japan is revised every year and increases by almost the same amount across prefectures, regardless of the disparity in the wage distribution across prefectures. Due to this feature of minimum wagesetting, the minimum wage cuts into the wage distribution deeply in rural Japan. We examine the impact of the minimum wage on employment, focus-ing on middle-aged women, who are known to be typical, low-wage workers in Japan. The results, based on a panel estimation, sug...

  5. Community campaigns, supply chains, and protecting the health and well-being of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Michael; Sokas, Rosemary K

    2009-11-01

    The growth of contingent work (also known as precarious employment), the informal sector, and business practices that diffuse employer responsibility for worker health and safety (such as outsourcing and the development of extended national and international contracting networks [supply chains]) pose a serious threat to occupational health and safety that disproportionately affects low-wage, ethnic minority, and immigrant workers. Drawing on cases from the United States and Australia, we examine the role that community-based campaigns can play in meeting these challenges, including several successful campaigns that incorporate supply chain regulation.

  6. Unemployment Policy: Unemployment, Underemployment and Labour Market Insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Bell; John Quiggin

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we argue that Australia’s labour market features too much unemployment, underemployment or associated forms of labour market insecurity. The later term implies a weak or tenuous connection to the labour force through underemployment or involuntary casual or part-time work and/or low wages or other manifestations of weakness visà- vis employers. The direct and indirect costs of such malfunctions in the labour market are reflected in a range of economic, social, health and other...

  7. Living Wage Effects: New and Improved Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Adams; David Neumark

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of living wages on low-wage workers and low-income families. First, we update our earlier analyses, using data for 1996-2002, and address a number of criticisms of those analyses. We confirm our earlier findings that business assistance living wage laws boost wages of the lowest-wage workers, at the cost of some disemployment, but on net reduce urban poverty. Second, we expand the analysis of distributional effects beyond looking just at the poverty threshold. ...

  8. Postdoctoral Studies in Ethics and Health Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice IOAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis provided by the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation 2007 – 2013 indicated serious weaknesses in the Romanian research, development and innovation system, and it emphasized the gap compared to the global trends in science and technology due to the chronic underfunding and to the domain restructuring; the analysis also emphasized the reduction in the number of performant researchers and the increase of average age because of the low attractiveness of the field , derived from the low-wages, low quality infrastructure, lack of an evaluation system meant to encourage and reward real performance and excellence and lack of clear and transparent criteria for career advancement.

  9. Is there a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    Outsourcing of jobs to low-wage countries has increased the focus onthe accumulation of skills - such as Math skills - in high-wage countries.In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causaleffect of advanced high school Math on labor market outcomes. The pilotscheme...... reduced the costs of choosing advanced Math because it allowedfor at more flexible combination of Math with other courses. We findclear evidence of a causal relationship between Math and earnings for thestudents who are induced to choose Math after being exposed to the pilotscheme. The effect partly stems...

  10. From living wage to living hours – the Nordic version of the working poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    in Europe, it is increasingly addressed and debated. Employees find it hard to make a living from their job and to work the working hours requested, whereas employers find it hard to attract and retain employees. This article introduces the concept of ‘living hours’ to capture the segmentation processes......, the article demonstrates how the increasing use of part-time and Sunday work since the crisis interacts with the increasing shares of young workers and migrant workers. The analysis focuses on retail and hotels/restaurants, which employ the majority of low-wage service workers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden....

  11. The Relationship between Education and Foreign Direct Investment: Testing the Inverse U Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Seref Akin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Zhang-Markusen (ZM theory hypothesizes an inverse U-shaped relationship between human capital and foreign direct investment (FDI. Therefore, low wage countries with low human capital cannot attract FDI. To test this hypothesis, we regress FDI on educational levels across countries while grouping them in different income cohorts. Our findings partly support ZM. Rich countries with high human capital and poor countries with low human capital demonstrate an inverse correlation between FDI and human capital proxies. However, for middle-income and upper middle-income countries, human capital (especially tertiary education has a positive relationship with FDI.

  12. The Relationship between Education and Foreign Direct Investment: Testing the Inverse U Shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Seref Akin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Zhang-Markusen (ZM theory hypothesizes an inverse U-shaped relationship between human capital and foreign direct investment (FDI. Therefore, low wage countries with low human capital cannot attract FDI. To test this hypothesis, we regress FDI on educational levels across countries while grouping them in different income cohorts. Our findings partly support ZM. Rich countries with high human capital and poor countries with low human capital demonstrate an inverse correlation between FDI and human capital proxies. However, for middle-income and upper middle-income countries, human capital (especially tertiary education has a positive relationship with FDI.

  13. Trade Liberalisation and Vertical Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    -good producers face decisions on exporting, vertical integration of intermediate-input production, and whether the intermediate-input production should be offshored to a low-wage country. We find that the fractions of final-good producers that pursue either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting are all...... increasing when intermediate-input or final-goods trade is liberalised and when the fixed cost of vertical integration is reduced. At the same time, one observes firms that shift away from either vertical integration, offshoring, or exporting. Further, we provide guidance for testing the open...

  14. Is there a Causal Effect of High School Math on Labor Market Outcomes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Juanna Schrøter; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    Outsourcing of jobs to low-wage countries has increased the focus onthe accumulation of skills - such as Math skills - in high-wage countries.In this paper, we exploit a high school pilot scheme to identify the causaleffect of advanced high school Math on labor market outcomes. The pilotscheme...... reduced the costs of choosing advanced Math because it allowedfor at more flexible combination of Math with other courses. We findclear evidence of a causal relationship between Math and earnings for thestudents who are induced to choose Math after being exposed to the pilotscheme. The effect partly stems...

  15. Blending local scale information for developing agricultural resilience in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory; Mahiny, A.S; Gary Eilerts,; Rowland, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief article looks at the intersection of climate, land cover/land use, and population trends in the world's most food insecure country, Ethiopia. As a result of warming in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans, Ethiopia has experienced substantial drying over the past 20 years. We intersect the spatial pattern of this drying with high resolution climatologies, maps of agricultural expansion, population data, and socioeconomic livelihoods information to suggest that the coincidence of drying and agricultural expansion in south-central Ethiopia is likely adversely affecting a densely populated region with high levels of poverty and low wage levels.

  16. Germany's socio-economic model and the Euro crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dauderstädt

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Germany's socio-economic model, the "social market economy", was established in West Germany after World War II and extended to the unified Germany in 1990. During a prolonged recession after the adoption of the Euro in 1998, major reforms (Agenda 2010 were introduced which many consider as the key of Germany's recent success. The reforms had mixed results: employment increased but has consisted to a large extent of precarious low-wage jobs. Growth depended on export surpluses based on an internal real devaluation (low unit labour costs which make Germany vulnerable to global recessions as in 2009. Overall inequality increased substantially.

  17. Housing: rural roots to urban problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, S

    1979-09-01

    An analysis of housing and urban underdevelopment in Colombia shows the connection between urban problems and the countryside. In the 20th century, industrialization slowed down the modernization of agriculture and placed it in a secondary position. Small farmers were forced to migrate to the city in search of work. The cities could not absorb the large supply of unskilled labor. The low wage situation was exacerbated by industry's adoption of capital-intensive, labor saving techniques that limited job opportunities. High rents and costly land prices produce progressive crowding and a housing shortage. The construction industry further aggravates the problem. With the modern technology came monopolistic prices that are beyond the means of most low wage earners. Limited capital and credit are available. The Integral Project for the Urban Development of the Eastern Sector of Bogota had to be abandoned because of the serious consequences it would have in uprooting thousands of low income families. New development and transportation projects are being implemented just when workers need housing. It is estimated that the housing shortage affects as much as 75% of the economically active population in the main cities of Colombia, and 66% in Bogota.

  18. The Nordic version of working poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    identified new segments of workers in private services at the bottom of the labour market like the ‘emergent service workers’ or the ‘precariat’ in the UK or the ‘working poor’ in the US and Germany (Klein & Rones 1989; Palier & Thelen 2010; Savage et al. 2013; Standing 2011). Although the incidence of low......-wage service work is somewhat lower in the Nordic countries than in the rest of Europe (Bosch & Lehndorff 2005), it is increasingly addressed and debated (Tryggstad et al. 2011; Andersen & Felbo-Kolding 2013; Nergaard 2013; Ilsøe & Felbo-Kolding 2014). Employees find it hard to make a living from their wages....../restaurants, as the majority of low-wage private service workers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden work in these sectors (Bosch & Lehndorff 2005). We compare developments in the three countries to identify similar and different segments that have emerged over the past 15 years. Finally, the paper discusses findings in relation...

  19. Decision-Making Procedure and Decision Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Brant R.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Strongly confirmed the hypothesis that groups employing an interacting decision procedure would produce better decisions than groups employing procedures that are either nominal (Delphi) or "staticized" (individual judgments statistically pooled). Provides clear and consistent support for the value of social interaction in small group decision…

  20. Evolution of thorax architecture in ant castes highlights trade-off between flight and ground behaviors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keller, Roberto A; Peeters, Christian; Beldade, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    .... We uncovered unique skeletomuscular modifications in workers that presumably increase power and flexibility of head-thorax articulation, emphasizing that workers are not simply wingless versions of queens...

  1. The impacts of the expansion of fruit farming businesses In the Commune of Llay Llay, Aconcagua Valley, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez Cid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The commune of Llay Llay is characterized by the existence of a regional economy structured around fruit farming businesses. The operations of these enterprises have not had a beneficial impact on the area. Rather has been confronted by a dual predicament: temporary work and low wages. As well, the environment is threatened as the agricultural frontier extends into the foothills of the nearby mountain ranges. In addition, there is evidence of increased land concentration and control of water on the part of the agribusinesses, to the detriment of the livelihoods of small producers.  The loss of land and water is the other face of a peasant proletarization process that is ultimately functional to the agribusinesses needs for financial and human resources

  2. Determinants of longer job tenure among home care aides: what makes some stay on the job while others leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Wardamasky, Sara; Ashley, Alison

    2014-03-01

    An inadequate supply of direct care workers and a high turnover rate in the workforce has resulted in a "care gap" in our long-term care system. As people are increasingly choosing community-based care, retention of home care workers is particularly important. The mixed-method study described herein explored determinants of longer job tenure for home care aides (n = 261). Study participants were followed for 18 months, completing two mail surveys and one telephone interview each. Predictors of longer job tenure included older age, living rurally, lower physical function, higher wages, a greater sense of autonomy on the job, and less frequent feelings of personal accomplishment. Thematic analysis of telephone interviews revealed long-term stayers to be less concerned about low wages and inconsistent hours than those who left their jobs within a year; both groups of workers reported high levels of job satisfaction. Policy implications of study findings are discussed.

  3. The Mandate System for the Belgian Public Prosecution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno BROUCKER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The law of 22 December 1998 introduced the mandate system for the heads of the Public Prosecution offices, which were appointed permanent before that. Theoretically, such a system needs to enhance, within the organization, effectiveness, efficiency, responsabilisation, and goal-orientation. However, the mandate system within the Belgian Public Prosecution was introduced prematurely, for dubious reasons and in a precipitate manner. In the current situation, the position of the mandate holder is uncertain, with a bounded autonomy and a low wage increase. Moreover, it remains impossible to intervene in the policy of appointed heads of office (during their mandate, the efficiency and effectiveness is only increased in some prosecution offices and a contract containing actual management responsibilities is absent. In sum: there is a large gap between the theoretical principles of mandate systems and the way it is introduced in the Belgian Public Prosecution.

  4. No soy welferero: undocumented Latino laborers in the crosshairs of legitimation maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, James

    2011-07-01

    California urban and agricultural centers rely heavily on Latino migrant laborers, regardless of their legal documented status. In the delivery of social services, and in the mass media, popular consciousness, and formal legal understandings and arrangements, Latino laborers are viewed as either legitimate voluntary low-wage workers or illegitimate undocumented workers not entitled to the same civil rights as US citizens. Their de facto second-class status becomes a central component of their social identity, with the structural conditions of their lives internalized, resulting in limited agency and poor social and health outcomes. The lived experience of structural vulnerability prefigures the actions and efforts of undocumented Latino contingent workers. In this article, the capacity for Latino laborers to maneuver and negotiate the travails of everyday life is explored.

  5. Agricultural trade and employment in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandrey, Ron; Plunt, Cecilia; Jensen, Hans Grinsted;

    This report provides an overview of policy changes in South African agriculture over the past three decades, and of some of the associated impacts on output, trade patterns and employment. In agriculture, the story is one of widespread substitution of labour for capital. While the sector has shed...... more than a million jobs over the past four decades, the paper highlights its continuing role as an employment creator in rural areas, albeit mainly in low-wage occupations. As for its principal analytical contribution, this paper considers future trade liberalisation in the agricultural sector. Using...... two different economic models, we find a remarkably consistent pattern whereby agricultural trade liberalisation in the region is predicted to increase agricultural employment....

  6. Health promotion in smaller workplaces in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Hannon, Peggy A; Beresford, Shirley A A; Linnan, Laura A; McLellan, Deborah L

    2014-01-01

    Most American workplaces are smaller, with fewer than 1,000 employees. Many of these employees are low-wage earners and at increased risk for chronic diseases. Owing to the challenges smaller workplaces face to offering health-promotion programs, their employees often lack access to health-promotion opportunities available at larger workplaces. Many smaller employers do not offer health insurance, which is currently the major funding vehicle for health-promotion services. They also have few health-promotion vendors to serve them and low internal capacity for, and commitment to, delivery of on-site programs. The programs they offer, whether aimed at health promotion alone or integrated with health protection, are rarely comprehensive and are understudied. Research priorities for health promotion in smaller workplaces include developing programs feasible for the smallest workplaces with fewer than 20 employees. Policy priorities include incentives for smaller workplaces to implement comprehensive programs and an ongoing system for monitoring and evaluation.

  7. Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy

    Despite the existence of minimum wage legislation in most Latin American countries, there is little empirical evidence demonstrating its impact on the distribution of wages. In this study, cross-country data for 19 Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries is analyzed to gain an understanding...... of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...... of the minimum. The minimum does not uniformly benefit low-wage workers: in countries where the minimum wage is relatively low compared to mean wages, the minimum wage affects the more disadvantaged segments of the labor force, namely informal sector workers, women, young and older workers, and the low skilled...

  8. A dynamic model of education level choice: application to Brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo L. Maldonado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the education level/wage distribution curve of the Brazilian States we define a dynamic programming problem to determine the optimal choice of education level of the parents in their descendants favor. As a proxy for the opportunity cost of education we use the public expenditure in education. The results show that low level educated workers will use public schools to provide education to their offspring. For high educated workers (which receive higher wages we find the existence of several steady states, some of them stable and others unstable. The findings point out the concentration of education in some specific levels and the existence of a poverty trap, where low educated workers chose low level of education for their descendants perpetuating low wages for the familiar unit. The performed exercise may be used as subside to the definition of public educational policies.

  9. Network effects across the earnings distribution: payoffs to visible and invisible job finding assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This study makes three critical contributions to the "Do Contacts Matter?" debate. First, the widely reported null relationship between informal job searching and wages is shown to be mostly the artifact of a coding error and sample selection restrictions. Second, previous analyses examined only active informal job searching without fully considering the benefits derived from unsolicited network assistance (the "invisible hand of social capital") - thereby underestimating the network effect. Third, wage returns to networks are examined across the earnings distribution. Longitudinal data from the NLSY reveal significant wage returns for network-based job finding over formal job searching, especially for individuals who were informally recruited into their jobs (non-searchers). Fixed effects quantile regression analyses show that contacts generate wage premiums among middle and high wage jobs, but not low wage jobs. These findings challenge conventional wisdom on contact effects and advance understanding of how social networks affect wage attainment and inequality.

  10. Spin masters how the media ignored the real news and helped reelect Barack Obama

    CERN Document Server

    Freddoso, David

    2013-01-01

    The biggest story of the election was how the media ignored the biggest story of the election.Amid all the breathless coverage of a non-existent War on Women, there was little or no coverage of Obama's war on the economy?how, for instance, part-time work is replacing full-time work; how low-wage jobs are replacing high-wage ones; how for Americans between the ages of 25 and 54 there are fewer jobs today than there were when the recession officially ended in 2009, and fewer, in fact, than at any time since mid-1997.The downsizing of the American economy wasn't the only stor

  11. Den fejlslagne kampagne for økonomisk demokrati som faktor i Arbejderbevægelsens politiske udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Gielfeldt, Jonas Kylov

    2013-01-01

    . The campaign was relative successful in targeting the wage earners by framing ED as both a realisation of these two major goals of the labour movement as well as being a practical and efficient answer to unemployment, low wages, lack of influence on workplace policies etc. Despite the relative success......THE FAILED CAMPAIGN FOR ECONOMIC DEMOCRACY AS A FACTOR IN THE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE LABOUR MOVEMENT The campaign for Economic Democracy (ED) running from 1973 to 1986 was the Danish labour movement’s most extensive campaign after World War II. It was also relatively radical as it called....... In this perspective, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that as a consequence of the failure of the ED program the ideas of democracy and socialism suffered a defeat as well: on the one hand a loss of centrality in the ideology of the labour movement, and on the other hand a loss of credibility in the general public...

  12. Small firms' demand for health insurance: the decision to offer insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jack; Reschovsky, James D

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the decisions by small business establishments (offer health insurance. We estimate a theoretically derived model of establishments' demand for insurance using nationally representative data from the 1997 Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Employer Health Insurance Survey and other sources. Findings show that offer decisions reflect worker demand, labor market conditions, and establishments' costs of providing coverage. Premiums have a moderate effect on offer decisions (elasticity = -.54), though very small establishments and those employing low-wage workers are more responsive. This suggests that premium subsidies to employers would be an inefficient means of increasing insurance coverage. Greater availability of public insurance and safety net care has a small negative effect on offer decisions.

  13. Collectors of survival: the “living material” in the scene of garbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio de Souza Moraes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to discuss the identity of the garbage collector in the present time, and analyze what led this person to engage in such activity. Thus, we carried out an essentially qualitative methodology (based on field observations and interviews with 10 collectors that could provide the knowledge concerning their life story and garbage collection. Results indicate that these workers are mostly men, with low level of education, age group between 40 and 81 years, with former devaluated and depreciated occupations and no informal economic activities. In this in case, one cannot ignore the inherent factors to the activity: low wages, precarious working conditions, and factors generated from it (health problems, competition, solidarity, prejudice, discrimination that mark the itineraries that these actors of the garbage collection explore.

  14. Comparative analysis of tomato value chain competitiveness in selected areas of Malawi and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Mango

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses tomato value chain performance in Malawi and Mozambique using data collected from a market study commissioned by the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture as part of a regional research on conservation agriculture in maize-based farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa. The results show that Malawi has a slightly higher competitive advantage in the production of tomato compared to Mozambique. Malawi’s relative competitiveness in tomato is mainly due to slightly higher productivity and the cost advantage in labor (low wages and irrigation costs. The paper proposes policy implications aimed at raising the productivity and trade competitiveness of tomato, as this will ensure the overall productivity of the maize-based smallholder farming systems in the two countries.

  15. Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    2011-01-01

    Globalization and climate change challenges the Arctic communities adaptability and increases vulnerability Kåre Hendriksen, PhD student, Aalborg University, Denmark The previous isolation of the Arctic will change as a wide range of areas increasingly are integrated into the globalized world....... Coinciding climate changes cause an easier access for worldwide market as well as for the extraction of coastal oil and mineral resources. In an attempt to optimize the fishing fleet by economic measures it is centralized to larger units, and the exports of unprocessed fish and shellfish to low wage...... countries, carrying out the processing before export, are increasing. Although the local populations often are able to adapt to climate change and exploit new seasonal fluxions and species, these developments leaves a series of smaller settlements without proper basis for commercially viable activities...

  16. Den fejlslagne kampagne for økonomisk demokrati som faktor i Arbejderbevægelsens politiske udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Gielfeldt, Jonas Kylov

    2013-01-01

    THE FAILED CAMPAIGN FOR ECONOMIC DEMOCRACY AS A FACTOR IN THE POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE LABOUR MOVEMENT The campaign for Economic Democracy (ED) running from 1973 to 1986 was the Danish labour movement’s most extensive campaign after World War II. It was also relatively radical as it called....... The campaign was relative successful in targeting the wage earners by framing ED as both a realisation of these two major goals of the labour movement as well as being a practical and efficient answer to unemployment, low wages, lack of influence on workplace policies etc. Despite the relative success....... In this perspective, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that as a consequence of the failure of the ED program the ideas of democracy and socialism suffered a defeat as well: on the one hand a loss of centrality in the ideology of the labour movement, and on the other hand a loss of credibility in the general public...

  17. The Nordic version of working poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    identified new segments of workers in private services at the bottom of the labour market like the ‘emergent service workers’ or the ‘precariat’ in the UK or the ‘working poor’ in the US and Germany (Klein & Rones 1989; Palier & Thelen 2010; Savage et al. 2013; Standing 2011). Although the incidence of low...... from the European Labour Force Survey it is examined how low wage service work has developed in the private sector in the three countries since 2000 and which segments that can be identified. Data is drawn from the last quarter of 2000 (before the economic boom), 2007 (before the financial crisis......) and 2014 (after the financial crisis). We examine the changes in worker profiles (age, sex, ethnicity, education) to identify new groups of workers and the changes in working conditions (pay, working hours, contract, tenure) to locate trends of erosion. Focus is on workers in retail and hotels/restaurants...

  18. Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Román

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Apertura y Eficiencia Productiva: La Industria Chilena, 1975-1988 The results of Chile's profound economic liberalizations remain the subject of ongoing debate. Using the Total Factor Productivity approach (TFP; we review the industrial sector performance during the 1975-1988 period. Our analysis shows that greater competitiveness dictated by economic liberalization was not accomplished through technical change but, rather, through intensive factor use (1976-81, or extensive factor use (1984-88. After exhaustion of the "easy phase", new levels of productive efficiency necessitated technical innovation, that is, investment in equipment, training. and reorganization of productive processes. However, after the 1982-83 crisis, firms did not follow this path: previous financial stress and low wage costs determined a growth path based on extensive use of labor, thereby delaying technological modernization of the industrial sector.

  19. Trade Friction, Upgrading Path and Development of Chinese Textile and Apparel Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jun-li

    2008-01-01

    China is the largest producer and exporter in textiles in the world now, but most Chinese textile and apparel enterprises operate in the low stream of global value chain-processing and assembling. A combination of domestic supply side constrains of high wages and external pressures of appreciation of RMB and trade friction make it difficult for Chinese textile and apparel industry to maintain the low-wage manufacturing. The paper analyzes by stakeholder map for trade friction. It may be more effective that China deals with the trade issues based on the analysis of different stakeholders. The political agreement is only a temporary resolution; the more important way is try to upgrade the operations in developed regions. According to industrial organization theory and global value chain theory, it is suggested product development and marketing are upgrading paths for Chinese enterprises.

  20. Emerging from the tragedies in Bangladesh: a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Björn Skorpen

    2015-02-01

    Under the regime of private company or multi-stakeholder voluntary codes of conduct and industry social auditing, workers have absorbed low wages and unsafe and abusive conditions; labor leaders and union members have become the targets of both government and factory harassment and violence; and trade union power has waned. Nowhere have these private systems of codes and audits so clearly failed to protect workers as in Bangladesh's apparel industry. However, international labor groups and Bangladeshi unions have succeeded in mounting a challenge to voluntarism in the global economy, persuading more than 180 companies to make a binding and enforceable commitment to workers' safety in an agreement with 12 unions. The extent to which this Bangladesh Accord will be able to influence the entrenched global regime of voluntary codes and weak trade unions remains an open question. But if the Accord can make progress in Bangladesh, it can help to inspire similar efforts in other countries and in other industries.

  1. A Platform to Support the Product Servitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Di Orio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays manufacturers are forced to shift from their traditional product-manufacturing paradigm to the goods-services continuum by providing integrated combination of products and services. The adoption of service-based strategies is the natural consequence of the higher pressure that these companies are facing in the global markets especially due to the presence of competitors which operate in low wage region. By betting on services, or more specifically, on servitization manufacturing companies are moving up the value chain in order to move the competition from costs to sophistication and innovation. The proliferation of new emerging technologies and paradigms together with a wider dissemination of information technology (IT can significantly improve the capability of manufacturing companies to infuse services in their own products. The authors present a knowledge-based and data-driven platform that can support the design and development of Product Extended by Services (PESs solutions.

  2. CSC9000T A Toll Bell to“Sweat Shops”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Deing a member of WTO doesn’t only mean having better opportunities in business,but also being responsible for the total welfare for the whole world. Chinese government expressed the Chinese care to environmental issues since 1992 Rio Earth Summit,and more than 150 NGOs are also mushrooming out of China,however CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility)is still something new to most companies in China. Environmental pollutions,factories of"sweatshops",low-wages, underaged workers,unsafe working conditions...After the crazy economic growth in 1990s,the Chinese enterprises,more or less,have begun to realize that an enterprise should be something more than a gold digger.Talking about social responsibilities,it seems textile industry needs a good thinking about the issue,since it offers jobs to 19.5 million employees.

  3. THE FEMALE UNIVERSE IN THE CLASSROOM: THE WORK MARKED BY ISSUE OF SORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Caetano

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article will discuss the history of women in the exercise of teaching relates to the world of work and thus broaden their eyes on the establishment of the teaching profession. In the search for greater integration into the labor market, women, through struggles, advanced and retreated at different times, but eventually conquer space and Professional identity. The feminization of the teaching profession is seen as one of the factors of professional devaluation of the teaching profession. Currently, a considerable part of teachers expressed dissatisfaction with teaching, due to the increasing devaluation of the profession, the low wages and poor working conditions. The text also discusses the interferences promoted for the reorganization of the pedagogical work in the direction of the flexibilization and precariousness of the teacher’s work.

  4. Design and construction of power plants in the Netherlands; Ontwerp en constructie [van elektriciteitscentrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, A. [ed.

    2000-06-01

    In order to fulfil the increasing demand for energy - the capacity should be doubled within 25 years - much capacity for electricity must be built. To actually build them and modernise and expand the existing plants, the stages engineering, procurement and construction are crucial. The form of the contract is determining the way in which these phases of the project will be executed. EPC-contractors (EPC stands for Engineering, Procurement, and Contractors) can increase their efficiency level of the building-process by using standards en by outsourcing the detailed engineering to subcontractors and offices in countries with low wages. When it comes to procurement, EPC-contractors can improve their efficiency by developing and using e-procurement. Finally, a proper planning of the construction phase is essential, but not a guarantee that everything will go smoothly.

  5. Making working in retailing interesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... context of Danish grocery retailer, we identify three types of retail employees (transitional workers, core employees and career seekers), who have different motivations and aspirations for working in grocery retailing. The central challenge for retailers is how to cope with the different employee types...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...

  6. Skills on the Move: Rethinking the Relationship Between Human Capital and Immigrant Economic Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Jacqueline; Lowe, Nichola; Quingla, Christian

    2011-05-01

    Studies of immigrant labor market incorporation in the unregulated sector of the US economy either assume that immigrant workers are trapped in low-wage jobs because of low human capital, or paint a picture of blocked mobility because of exploitation and discrimination. In this paper we offer a third sociological alternative to understand processes of occupational mobility and skill learning. Drawing on work histories of 111 immigrant construction workers, we find that many immigrants are skilled, having come to their jobs with technical skill sets acquired in their home communities and their previous U.S. jobs. We further find that these less-educated immigrants, who rank low on traditional human capital attributes but high on work experience may circumvent exploitation and build mobility pathways through skill transference, on- the- job reskilling, and brincando (job jumping).

  7. Comments on "Population Change in the Wake of Agricultural Improvement: Lessons for Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, M

    1992-01-01

    The author critiques an article on Pakistan's agricultural improvement and population change. The focus of concern was the theory proposed by the Chicago/Columbia school on the relationship between income and demand for children. There is disagreement that technical change which increases labor use will lead to increases in the demand for children and increases in the total fertility rate (TFR). The author proposes that when technical change reduces labor needs, employment decreases lead to decreasing or low household income, resulting in an increased demand for children and increased TFRs. The contention is that low income, not high probabilities of employment, will raise the demand for child labor. There is also concern that demand for children is not stable across all income classes; rich parents are unlikely to rely on children's future income. The micro thinking would place the household in the position, with low adult employment and low wages, of desiring to increase income with a child's wages, which are offered in the market at lower than adult wages. This would allow employers to take advantage of the low wages of children. There is evidence that a strong, significant, and positive relationship exists between mechanization in 1961 and growth of mechanization and the decline in TFRs. There is also evidence that real wages are significantly and strongly positively related to a decrease in TFR. The implications for Pakistani policy are that increasing landlessness and agricultural unemployment have a deleterious effect on future growth and may account for high levels of TFR in Pakistan. TFRs are expected to decline when agrarian income and assets even out.

  8. O urnabo - uma experiência em comum: os bairros de periferia e a ação das associações de bairro em campina grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Santos-Gareis Da Guia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The quarters in the periphery generally are situated in hilly localities; in the principal streets and avenues are found the best residences and business houses (stores. The structural services are very deficient in this quarters. The maintenance generally is bad and there aren’t big stores. The commerce is replaced by little shops and similars. These little stores normally sell unique pieces and the people buy all days bread and milk, furthermore other basic products of nutrition. In the quarters of the periphery normally are living families with small wage, in their little space of living they have a way of life similar and they find themselves in front of calamities similars with a restrict family budget and an unsatisfactory situation of the quarter. The poverty, the illiteralism, the undernourishment, the unemployment, low wages and the very bad residence conditions, which characterise the community living in the periphery quarters, represent at least the conditions of life of this population The social conditions of the inhabitants of these periphery quarters and also the bad infra-structure of these quarters had been and are the motivation to organise the population in Associations of the Quarter. As a principal purpose these associations will improve the conditions of life and habitation of the population of these quarters This paper is trying to analyse the mutual characteristics of the periphery quarter inhabitants of Brazilian cities. This way the paper will study the organisation of the inhabitants by means of the Associations of the Quarter, which are created as a response of the fight of the population with low wage.

  9. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  10. 76 FR 61746 - Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development Engineering Group Irvine (Formerly at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group, Lake Forest, California... workers and former workers of Western Digital Technologies, Inc., Hard Drive Development Engineering Group... Employment and Training Administration Western Digital Technologies, Inc.: Hard Drive Development...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Employment Activity in the Conterminous U.S. Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service includes maps that illustrate job activity in each census block group. Employment diversity, employment density, and proximity of...

  12. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  13. Believe Me, You are (not) that Bad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez Jimenez, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of incentive schemes incorporating status classes on workers’ performance. I focus on performance comparisons between similarly skilled workers that belong to different status classes. A theoretical framework predicts that, under certain conditions, low ability workers

  14. AJDAS vol 9 No 2.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corresponding author: Anastasia Onyinye Aguiyi, Department of Psychology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Telephone: +234 703 ... highly impulsive rats (HI-5CSRT) showed .... park workers that a particular type of youth fre- quent and ...

  15. Outplacement for Underserved Women Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Suzanne C.; Haring-Hidore, Marilyn

    1988-01-01

    Describes an outplacement program for hourly women workers that assisted participants in identifying skills, interests, and values; identified community resources; taught job hunting skills; and encouraged participation in a support group. (JOW)

  16. Expectativas de migración internacional en estudiantes de enfermería en México, Distrito Federal Migration expectations among nursing students in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetzi Rosales-Martínez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analizar los factores asociados con la expectativa de migrar al extranjero en estudiantes de licenciatura en enfermería de escuelas públicas en México, Distrito Federal. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal con una muestra no probabilística de 420 estudiantes. Se construyó un modelo logístico multivariado. RESULTADOS: El 69% de los informantes expresó la intención de migrar para trabajar (65% o estudiar (26%. El 50% elegiría como destino Canadá, seguido de España y Estados Unidos. Las variables asociadas con la expectativa de migrar fueron: edad, ingreso, tener familiares en el extranjero y percibir malas condiciones laborales/salarios en México. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados concuerdan con la literatura internacional. Los bajos salarios, malas condiciones laborales y escasas posibilidades de desarrollarse profesionalmente en México contribuyen a generar la expectativa de migrar en la población de estudio. Adicionalmente, la percepción optimista de los estudiantes sobre el mercado extranjero y la demanda laboral de países desarrollados coadyuvan a enfatizar dicho fenómeno.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the factors associated with the expectations to migrate abroad among nursing students in Mexico City. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a non-random sample of 420 students. A logistic regression model was estimated. RESULTS: A total of 69% of the informants expressed their intention to move abroad, to look for employment (65% and/or to continue their studies (26%. Of those, 50% would choose Canada as their destination, followed by Spain and the United States. The variables associated with migration expectations were: age, income, having relatives abroad, and perception of poor labor conditions and low wages in Mexico. CONCLUSIONS: Results are consistent with international literature. Low wages, poor labor conditions and the limited possibilities for professional development in

  17. Labor migration, externalities and ethics: theorizing the meso-level determinants of HIV vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses labor migration as an example of how focusing on the meso-level highlights the social processes through which structural factors produce HIV risk. Situating that argument in relation to existing work on economic organization and HIV risk as well as research on labor migration and HIV vulnerabilities, the paper demonstrates how analyzing the processes through which labor migration creates vulnerability can shift attention away from the proximate behavioral determinants of HIV risk and toward the community and policy levels. Further, it presents the concepts of externalities and the ethics of consumption, which underline how both producers and consumers benefit from low-waged migrant labor, and thus are responsible for the externalization of HIV risk characteristic of supply chains that rely on migrant labor. These concepts point to strategies through which researchers and advocates could press the public and private sectors to improve the conditions in which migrants live and work, with implications for HIV as well as other health outcomes.

  18. [Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luiz Sérgio; Pinheiro, Tarcísio Márcio Magalhães; Sakurai, Emília

    2007-12-01

    Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business re-engineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also analyzes absenteeism rates from 1998 to 2003, when there was an increase in diseases such as repetitive stress injury (RSI)/work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMD) and mental/behavioral disorders, accounting for 56% and 19% of sick leaves. The process has continued to the present, with a restrictive recruitment policy. Further study is needed to confirm the results.

  19. The crisis of the core seen through the eyes of the periphery: A Schelling model of the global-south megacity and the European crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymski Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adapting Schelling’s checker-board discrimination framework, we develop a disequilibrium model to examine growth in two core-periphery settings: global-South megacities and the Eurozone. Regarding megacities, informal sector growth undercuts the government’s capacity to fund fully adequate public services. Regarding the Eurozone, an increase in the relative size of the periphery will - under the government’s balanced-budget constraint - undercut the provision of public safety-net and infrastructure services. And if low-wage production is initiated in the European periphery, the core is likely to collapse. “Urbanization is decisive because it is so expensive. The difference between the costs of urban development and rural development does not turn on comparing the capital required for factories and that required for farms. Each of these is a small part of total investment, and the difference per head is not always in favor of industry. The difference turns on infrastructure.” W. Arthur Lewis (1977, pp. 39-40.

  20. Una radiografía del sector hotelero andaluz : análisis del compromiso y la satisfacción laboral de sus trabajadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gallardo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se realiza, en primer lugar, un análisis descriptivo del sector hotelero andaluz -sector de creciente importancia en la economía española-, considerando su composición en función de diversas variables sociodemográficas. Para, posteriormente, y dada la importancia que actualmente tienen las actitudes de los trabajadores en las organizaciones de servicios, analizar el grado de compromiso de los trabajadores así como su relación con el grado de satisfacción respecto a diversas facetas del trabajo. Los resultados muestran que, a pesar de que la plantilla de estas empresas es mayoritariamente joven, con un porcentaje elevado de contratos eventuales y de salarios bajos, el nivel de compromiso con la organización es singularmente alto.A descriptive analysis of the Andalusian hotel trade is carried out in this paper, on the basis of its different socio-demographical variables. Subsequently, and because of the increasing importance of employees' attitudes in the service sector organizations, the employees' degree of commitment and its correlation with their degree of satisfaction with some job facets have been analysed.The results have shown that, even though these organizations are characterized by young personnel, with a high percentage of temporary contracts and low wages, there is an outstanding high degree of organizational commitment within their staff.

  1. Wild Food, Prices, Diets and Development: Sustainability and Food Security in Urban Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Q. Sneyd

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses wild food consumption in urban areas of Cameroon. Building upon findings from Cameroon’s Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA this case study presents empirical data collected from 371 household and market surveys in Cameroonian cities. It employs the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food’s framework for understanding challenges related to the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of food. The survey data suggest that many wild/traditional foods are physically available in Cameroonian cities most of the time, including fruits, vegetables, spices, and insects. Cameroonians spend considerable sums of their food budget on wild foods. However, low wages and the high cost of city living constrain the social and economic access most people have to these foods. The data also suggest that imports of non-traditional staple foods, such as low cost rice, have increasingly priced potentially more nutritious or safe traditional local foods out of markets after the 2008 food price crisis. As a result, diets are changing in Cameroon as the resource-constrained population continues to resort to the coping strategy of eating cheaper imported foods such as refined rice or to eating less frequently. Cameroon’s nutrition transition continues to be driven by need and not necessarily by the preferences of Cameroonian consumers. The implications of this reality for sustainability are troubling.

  2. The challenges of the homeless haemophilia patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambing, A; Kuriakose, P; Kachalsky, E; Mueller, L

    2013-07-01

    The current economic hardships within the United States can increase the risk of persons becoming homeless. In 2001, it was estimated that between 0.1% and 2.1% of the population were homeless every night and that 2.3 - 3.5 million persons could become homeless every year [1]. Many issues can increase the risk of homelessness including: home foreclosure, declining work force due to declining wages, low-wage opportunities and less secure jobs, decline in public assistance, lack of affordable housing with limited housing assistance programs, poverty, lack of affordable health care, domestic violence, mental illness, and addiction disorders. Many on the streets may suffer from mental illness, developmental disabilities, and or chronic physical illness [6]. Given these issues, the Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) can expect to experience the issue of homelessness within their own population of persons with hemophilia. Currently, there are no studies that address the issue of the person with hemophilia who may become homeless. This presents unique challenges that this population may encounter to survive in addition to managing bleeding issues related to the diagnosis of hemophilia. This article will review the issues related to homelessness in the general population. Two case studies of persons with hemophilia who became homeless will be discussed outlining the strategies utilized to assist the patient during this crisis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Classification of Region’s Municipalities by Structure and Level of Incomes and Consumer Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Yakovlevich Fokin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a classification of region’s municipalities that differ according to two criteria – the structure and level of incomes, and the level of consumer spending. The author investigated the combination of income sources (wages, pensions and unemployment benefits that form in the aggregate the amount of disposable money income of the people who live in the administrative-territorial units of Perm Krai. The author also analyzed the influence of people’s incomes on retail trade turnover in the region’s municipalities. The data were collected, grouped and analyzed; they show that the level of people’s income in large and medium cities, which are industrial centers, exceeds considerably the values of these indicators registered in rural municipalities, single-industry settlements and depressed areas. The reason for this lies in low wages of working population, a large proportion of retirees and the unemployed in the rural areas, single-industry settlements and depressed areas. The article defines nine types of territorial entities in the region that differ in level and structure of income and consumer spending in the municipalities. The author concludes that the territorial differentiation of municipal formations influences the formation of stratified population groups distinguished by the level of income and consumption. The solution to this problem requires joint efforts by the regional administration and municipal authorities to develop management actions with regard to specific features of each municipality

  4. Effects of regulation on youth unemployment: Evidence from European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic trends in recent years have led to rising unemployment across Europe. This trend is particularly evident among youth. At the same time, the negative demographic trends in many countries show that the number of young people is decreasing. Problems among young people are the reflection of the future state of the nation. Therefore there is a need to analyse whether the government can reduce youth unemployment rate using available regulatory tools. In this paper, the authors have analysed the impact of three groups of factors on the youth unemployment rate by using multiple regression analysis and controlling the long-term determinants of unemployment. The results show that the level of unemployment is largely impacted by a tax rate on low wages, primarily in the mid-term. Factors related to the general rate of unemployment, as well as the other demographic factors have showed no statistically significant impact on mid-term and long-term youth unemployment rate.

  5. The Impact of a City-Level Minimum-Wage Policy on Supermarket Food Prices in Seattle-King County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Buszkiewicz, James; Tang, Wesley; Aggarwal, Anju; Long, Mark; Vigdor, Jacob; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-09

    Background: Many states and localities throughout the U.S. have adopted higher minimum wages. Higher labor costs among low-wage food system workers could result in higher food prices. Methods: Using a market basket of 106 foods, food prices were collected at affected chain supermarket stores in Seattle and same-chain unaffected stores in King County (n = 12 total, six per location). Prices were collected at 1 month pre- (March 2015) and 1-month post-policy enactment (May 2015), then again 1-year post-policy enactment (May 2016). Unpaired t-tests were used to detect price differences by location at fixed time while paired t-tests were used to detect price difference across time with fixed store chain. A multi-level, linear differences-in-differences model, was used to detect the changes in the average market basket item food prices over time across regions, overall and by food group. Results: There were no significant differences in overall market basket or item-level costs at one-month (-$0.01, SE = 0.05, p = 0.884) or one-year post-policy enactment (-$0.02, SE = 0.08, p = 0.772). No significant increases were observed by food group. Conclusions: There is no evidence of change in supermarket food prices by market basket or increase in prices by food group in response to the implementation of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance.

  6. The balancing act: exploring stigma, economic need and disclosure among male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities.

  7. Reasons for job separations in a cohort of workers with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Judith A; Burke-Miller, Jane K

    2015-01-01

    We explored the relative effects of adverse working conditions, job satisfaction, wages, worker characteristics, and local labor markets in explaining voluntary job separations (quits) among employed workers with psychiatric disabilities. Data come from the Employment Intervention Demonstration Program in which 2,086 jobs were ended by 892 workers during a 24 mo observation period. Stepped multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the effect of variables on the likelihood of quitting. Over half (59%) of all job separations were voluntary while 41% were involuntary, including firings (17%), temporary job endings (14%), and layoffs (10%). In multivariable analysis, workers were more likely to quit positions at which they were employed for 20 h/wk or less, those with which they were dissatisfied, low-wage jobs, non-temporary positions, and jobs in the structural (construction) occupations. Voluntary separation was less likely for older workers, members of racial and ethnic minority groups, and those residing in regions with lower unemployment rates. Patterns of job separations for workers with psychiatric disabilities mirrored some findings regarding job leaving in the general labor force but contradicted others. Job separation antecedents reflect the concentration of jobs for workers with psychiatric disabilities in the secondary labor market, characterized by low-salaried, temporary, and part-time employment.

  8. MINING AND SPATIALITY: Space, society, and environment in the coal-based economy in Criciúma City, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Filho Montibeller

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes Criciúma City´s spatiality, i.e., the space-social economics-environment relationship, during the intense coal mining exploration until nowadays. We consider studies on other mining regions and studies about the specific case. In that, we verify the social, economics and environmental dynamics along the history and today. We seek to interpret the dialectic relationship between history, space and society in an area when the ore´s deposits determine the locations of all the infrastructure to their exploration. Furthermore, the activity needs high amount of capital and unskilled work with low wages, which configures the social stratification on space. Recently, other activities outweigh the mining in the region. But the efects of coalming period remain. The city districts map shows the spacial location by social classes and degradaded areas. We can observe therefore the highest classes´ interests configured on a microcosmo like Criciúma. In this way, this study could also contribute to the complex issue of spatiality in the urban environment.

  9. A VAR Analysis of FDI and Wages: The Romania’s Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Ioan Mutascu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Lall (1997, the FDI are strongly interconnected with a series of variables, such as: economic conditions (markets, natural resources, competitiveness, host country policies (macro policies, private sector, trade and industry, FDI policies, as well as MNE strategy (risk perception, location, sourcing of products/inputs, integration transfer. Recent studies have shown that the relationship ‘FDI-Wages’ is significant and the two variables have one on one influence. More precisely, the low wages have the role to attract FDI and the high volume of FDI generates the increase of the wages on the destination’s country labor market. Also, the FDI augmentations determine inequalities on the structure of the wages. The paper analyses the ‘behavior’ of the relationships between the volume of FDI and the level of wages, in Romania, using an unrestricted vector autoregressive model (Unrestricted VAR. Based on the impulse functions generated by the model, some principal conclusions have resulted: (1 The impact of the FDI on the wages is not uniform during the year, depending usually on the FDI flow and also on the self-regulation way and reaction of the wages on the labor market;(2 The impact of the wages on the FDI is temporally sinuous in short term. In this situation, the FDI flow does not depend entirely on the signals received by investors regarding the level of wages in the destination country.

  10. Migration and Workforce Planning in Medicine with Special Focus on Anesthesiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Mellin-Olsen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Counting health personnel and defining migration is more complicated than one should think at first glance. Migrating health workers are not a homogenous group, and many factors cause people to migrate—not only low wages but also lack of professional development possibilities, poor job satisfaction, outdated equipment, unsafe environment, and more. The opposite factors encourage people to stay. Many countries, including high-income countries benefit from remittances from migrating individuals. The World Health Organization has installed a code of Practice on the international recruitment of health workers. Although member countries have committed to follow this Code, it is not widely adhered to. Planning for the future is difficult, also because there are so many unknown factors related to the development of health-care levels, policies, inflow and outflow and more. Action must be taken in both donor and receiving countries. In anesthesiology, there is a huge workforce deficit globally. The world would need 136,000 additional physician anesthesia providers today to achieve an absolute minimum of five per 100,000 population. This will not happen unless all countries follow those that already have taken proactive steps in leading the direction forward. Anaesthesiology Society involvement is crucial.

  11. The Health and Working Conditions of Women Employed in Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnan, Laura; Arandia, Gabriela; Bateman, Lori A; Vaughn, Amber; Smith, Natalie; Ward, Dianne

    2017-03-09

    Over one million women are employed in child care and are among the lowest wage workers in the US. The health and working conditions of 674 child care workers (118 administrators and 556 staff) from 74 centers is described using baseline data from a larger intervention trial. Participants were 39.9 (±13.0) years old; 55.4% African American, 37.1% Caucasian, and 5.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Seventy-six percent reported having an Associate's degree or less; 42% were classified as at or below poverty (income and job category. Lower income participants were significantly more likely to be current smokers (19.9% vs. 11.7%), drink more sweetened beverages (1.9 vs. 1.5), and report higher depressive symptoms (15.5 vs. 12.6). Administrators worked more hours weekly compared to staff (46.4 vs. 40.6), are less active (100 vs. 126 min/week), more sedentary (501 vs. 477 min/day), and reported higher job demands (13.3 vs. 12.5). Given the numerous health issues and challenging work conditions, we hope our results serve as a call to action for addressing low wages and the work environment as a means of influencing the health and well-being of child care workers.

  12. The Health and Working Conditions of Women Employed in Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Linnan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Over one million women are employed in child care and are among the lowest wage workers in the US. The health and working conditions of 674 child care workers (118 administrators and 556 staff from 74 centers is described using baseline data from a larger intervention trial. Participants were 39.9 (±13.0 years old; 55.4% African American, 37.1% Caucasian, and 5.3% of Hispanic ethnicity. Seventy-six percent reported having an Associate’s degree or less; 42% were classified as at or below poverty (<$20,000; and exhibited many health risks such as excess weight, insufficient activity, poor diet, and inadequate sleep. We investigated potential differences by income and job category. Lower income participants were significantly more likely to be current smokers (19.9% vs. 11.7%, drink more sweetened beverages (1.9 vs. 1.5, and report higher depressive symptoms (15.5 vs. 12.6. Administrators worked more hours weekly compared to staff (46.4 vs. 40.6, are less active (100 vs. 126 min/week, more sedentary (501 vs. 477 min/day, and reported higher job demands (13.3 vs. 12.5. Given the numerous health issues and challenging work conditions, we hope our results serve as a call to action for addressing low wages and the work environment as a means of influencing the health and well-being of child care workers.

  13. Training in basic Internet skills for special target groups in non-formal educational settings – conclusions from three pilot projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Berger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With the progress of Digital Inclusion, it becomes important to address marginalised groups that face specific barriers in being part of the information society. From 2009 to 2011 within the framework of the nation-wide Initiative Internet erfahren, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics, Stiftung Digitale Chancen has accompanied three pilot projects and researched the hindrances and motivations of specific target groups including young migrants from Russia, women in the low-wage sector and disabled elderly people, regarding their use of information and communication technology and related skills. This article describes the teaching methodologies in the training provided in non-formal education settings, exposes the different evaluation methods and sums up the results. A special focus in the discussion is given to the role of the teacher and the relationship between teacher and students as there turned out to be similarities in all three target groups. Understanding the balance between the training and abilities and preferences of the learners will facilitate the further development of training appropriate to those who are still digitally excluded.

  14. The Latest Books on Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Zaru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest books published on globalization raise interesting issues which reflect upon the very complexity of the process we are facing. In The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization Richard Baldwin proposes a history of globalization divided into two stages. As Baldwin argues, the process of globalization has to be divided into “old” and “new” age. The “old” globalization took place between 1820 and 1990. It was characterized by the “great divergence”, that is by the centralization of world income in today’s wealthy nations. However, since 1990 the sharing of world income has plummeted to where it was in 1900. According to Baldwin, this reversal of fortune is a symptom of a shift in the globalization process. The “new” globalization, driven by information technology, has combined high tech with low wages, and lead simultaneously to the industrialization of developing nations and deindustrialization of developed ones. This is the “great convergence”: in the “new” globalization rich and developing nations are alike and they face equal global challenges.

  15. Labor Migration from Ukraine to the EU: an Analysis of Characteristics and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezrukova Nataliya V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing characteristics of labor migration from Ukraine to the European Union and evaluating the possible consequences of this process, as well as determining the future development trends in terms of emigration from Ukraine. The main directions of labor migration from Ukraine have been examined. An estimation of the volume of labor migration has been provided. Data about the socio-demographic characteristics of migrants have been presented. It is specified that the process of emigration has both positive and negative consequences for our country. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of employment settings of migrants in the Member States of the European Union. The main causes of emigration from Ukraine, among which both unemployment and low wages, have been allocated. The authors prove that the average monthly salary of Ukrainian migrants in the EU Member States is much higher than in Ukraine. On the basis of the carried out study has been concluded that labor migration from Ukraine to the EU has important socio-economic importance to our State. At the same time, signing of the Association agreement between Ukraine, on the one hand, and the European Union, the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, on the other hand, as well as introduction of a visa-free regime, will contribute to an increase in the number of labor migrants.

  16. Problems and social policy priorities sustainable development of rural territories (on the Republic Komi example

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    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of term «sustainable development» of rural areas. Social problems of rural development of the republic of Komi are identified. An intra-rural typology creation is performed. An increasing differentiation in the development of rural areas is concluded. Rural settlements in the republic are characterized by low population density and a rare network of settlements. Low level and quality of rural life (low rural incomes, poor living conditions and high unemployment and better living conditions in urban areas adversely affect migration processes of the village. Characteristic features of modern rural labour market are: inconsistency of supply and demand of labour in vocational and qualification angle, seasonality of production and temporary nature of the proposed work, low wages, low competitiveness of the youth labour market, high level of registered unemployment and even higher — of unregistered. Analytical material allowed the authors to determine the direction of social policy for sustainable development of rural areas according to the conditions of the North.

  17. [Analyzing the attributes of surgeons and working environment required for a successful career path and work-life balance: results of a survey administered to doctors working at Kyoto University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoshi, Kae; Tanabe, Tomoko; Hisamoto, Norio; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    We conducted a survey in March 2010 of all physicians at Kyoto University Hospital on working environments, levels of satisfaction, and level of exhaustion. A comparison of surgeons with other physicians showed tendencies among surgeons toward longer working hours and lower income. The findings indicated that surgeons experienced satisfaction from teamwork with fellow physicians, opportunities to manage interesting cases, and patient gratitude. Surgeons tended to have low fatigue level and were satisfied with their working environments, despite their low wages and long working hours. Although surgical treatment is currently built upon the feelings of accomplishment and satisfaction of individual surgeons, there is always a limit to his/her psychological strength. Indeed, the number of young surgeons is not increasing. In the future, efforts must be taken to prevent the departure of currently practicing surgeons. Consideration must also be given to reducing nonsurgical duties by increasing the numbers of medical staff, and making work conditions more appealing to young surgeons by guaranteeing income and prohibiting long working hours, particularly consecutive working hours.

  18. Skill Content of Intra-European Trade Flows

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    Zeddies, Goetz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the international division of labor has expanded rapidly in the wake of European integration. In this context, especially Western European high-wage countries should have specialized on (human-capital intensively manufactured goods and should have increasingly sourced labor-intensively manufactured goods, especially parts and components, from Eastern European low wage countries. Since this should be beneficial for the high-skilled and harmful to the lower-qualified workforce in high-wage countries, the opening up of Eastern Europe is often considered as a vital reason for increasing unemployment of the lower-qualified in Western Europe. This paper addresses this issue by analyzing the skill content of Western European countries’ bilateral trade using input-output techniques in order to evaluate possible effects of international trade on labor demand. Thereby, differences in factor inputs and production technologies have been considered, allowing for vertical product differentiation. In this case, skill content of bilateral exports and imports partially differs substantially, especially in bilateral trade between Western and Eastern European countries. According to the results, East-West trade should be harmful particularly to the medium-skilled in Western European countries.

  19. Biopolitics in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666, “The Part About the Crimes”

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    Camelia Raghinaru

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from Agamben’s theories of state of exception, and sovereignty and subalternity, this article looks at Roberto Bolaño’s 2004 novel, 2666, as a critique of neoliberal capitalism, where the law is predicated on violence and exploitation of surplus humanity—in this case, the poor female maquiladora workers at the U.S./Mexico border. Narco-trafficking and misogyny are symptomatic of a juridical and economic order that revolves around exploitation as central to the workings of transnational capitalism. As the boundary between legality and illegality breaks down, an aporetic state of exception forms, in which the transnational corporation acts as sovereign power by introducing a space of exception in the law. This force of law without law obscures the politicization of bare life, while maintaining traditional means of exploitation. The maquiladora workers emerge as docile bodies imprinted by the biopolitical power of sovereign financial capital. Powerless victims of overwork, displacement, destitution, and ultimately rape and slaughter, they objectify the violence of low wage labour in the global exchange of power and capital.

  20. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Helena; Gore, Rebecca J; Boyer, Jon; Nobrega, Suzanne; Punnett, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides) utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational), such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health.

  1. Transnationalism and Financial Crisis: The Hampered Migration Projects of Female Domestic Workers in Spain

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    Zenia Hellgren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of transnational migration projects for international development has been increasingly recognized over the past decades. Migrants who move from the Global South or East to work in low-wage sectors such as construction, agriculture or domestic services in wealthier countries may contribute both to growth in the receiving countries and socio-economic development in their countries of origin. Parallel to scholarship on migration and development, research on the transnationalization of domestic work generally assumes that growing care needs and increasing demand for private household services in Western societies imply a continuing demand for migrant labour. However, since the global financial crisis broke out in 2008, unemployment among migrant workers has increased dramatically in many immigrant-receiving countries, Spain being among the most severely affected. Job destruction has so far been lower in the domestic sector than in other sectors occupying large numbers of migrant workers. Yet, we find that migrant domestic workers in Spain are affected by the recession both in terms of unemployment or underemployment and deteriorating job conditions, with transnational consequences such as loss of remittances. Many migrants find themselves in a situation of “standby,” trying to subsist while waiting for the recession to end.

  2. Health Behaviors and Overweight in Nursing Home Employees: Contribution of Workplace Stressors and Implications for Worksite Health Promotion

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    Helena Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many worksite health promotion programs ignore the potential influence of working conditions on unhealthy behaviors. Methods. A study of nursing home employees (56% nursing aides utilized a standardized questionnaire. We analyzed the cross-sectional associations between workplace stressors and obesity, cigarette smoking, and physical inactivity. Results. Of 1506 respondents, 20% reported exposure to three or more workplace stressors (physical or organizational, such as lifting heavy loads, low decision latitude, low coworker support, regular night work, and physical assault. For each outcome, the prevalence ratio was between 1.5 and 2 for respondents with four or five job stressors. Individuals under age 40 had stronger associations between workplace stressors and smoking and obesity. Conclusions. Workplace stressors were strongly associated with smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity, even among the lowest-status workers. Current working conditions affected younger workers more than older workers. Although this study is cross-sectional, it has other strengths, including the broad range of work stressors studied. Strenuous physical work and psychosocial strain are common among low-wage workers such as nursing home aides. Workplace health promotion programs may be more effective if they include measures to reduce stressful work environment features, so that working conditions support rather than interfere with employee health.

  3. Study on Consumer Opposition to Exporting Recyclable Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kunishige; Zhou, Weisheng

    Trans-boundary trade from Japan to China of recyclable wastes such as waste copper has increased rapidly, because of resource demands through economic growth. These wastes are recycled at high rates thanks to the Chinese manual recycling process by a lot of low wage migrant workers from rural districts. China benefits by supplying jobs to many migrant workers and getting cheap resources. Although, Japanese consumers may have some opposition to exporting end-of-pipe home appliance wastes to foreign countries. From the results of the path-analysis from the questionnaire to Japanese consumers, it became clear that their reluctance came from anxiety about illegal dumping, the labor environment at the import country and the destruction of the ecosystem. Through conjoint analysis, willingness to pay the recycling fee decreases - 1,625 yen (equal to 34% of the current recycling fee of 4,630 yen) when choosing global recycling as opposed to domestic recycling, hypothesizing that consumers would rather recycle domestically instead of globally.

  4. Health status, job stress and work-related injury among Los Angeles taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.

  5. Employer-sponsored health insurance: down but not out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christanson, Jon B; Tu, Ha T; Samuel, Divya R

    2011-10-01

    Rising costs and the lingering fallout from the great recession are altering the calculus of employer approaches to offering health benefits, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2010 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Employers responded to the economic downturn by continuing to shift health care costs to employees, with the trend more pronounced in small, mid-sized and low-wage firms. At the same time, employers and health plans are dissatisfied and frustrated with their inability to influence medical cost trends by controlling utilization or negotiating more-favorable provider contracts. In an alternative attempt to control costs, employers increasingly are turning to wellness programs, although the payoff remains unclear. Employer uncertainty about how national reform will affect their health benefits programs suggests they are likely to continue their current course in the near term. Looking toward 2014 when many reform provisions take effect, employer responses likely will vary across communities, reflecting differences in state approaches to reform implementation, such as insurance exchange design, and local labor market conditions.

  6. Challenges in critical care services in Sub-Saharan Africa: Perspectives from Nigeria

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    Okafor U

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical care services in Nigeria and other West African countries had been hampered by economic reversals resulting in low wages, manpower flight overseas, government apathy towards funding of hospitals, and endemic corruption. Since then things have somewhat improved with the government′s willingness to invest more in healthcare, and clampdown on resource diversion in some countries like Nigeria. Due to the health needs of these countries, including funding and preventive medicine, it may take a long time to reach reasonably high standards. Things are better than they were several years ago and that gives cause for optimism, especially with the debt cancellation by Western nations for most countries in the region. Since most of the earlier studies have been done by visiting doctors, mainly outside the West African subregion, this paper seeks to present a view of the challenges faced by providers of critical care services in the region, so that people do not have to rely on anecdotal evidence for future references.

  7. Household Food Insufficiency, Financial Strain, Work–Family Spillover, and Depressive Symptoms in the Working Class: The Work, Family, and Health Network Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayadi, Alison M.; Tamers, Sara L.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association of household-level stressors with depressive symptoms among low-wage nursing home employees. Methods. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 452 multiethnic primary and nonprimary wage earners in 4 facilities in Massachusetts. We used logistic regression to estimate the association of depressive symptoms with household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work–family spillover (preoccupation with work-related concerns while at home and vice versa). Results. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with household financial strain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.82; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 3.21) and food insufficiency (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.10, 4.18). Among primary earners, stratified analyses showed that food insufficiency was associated with depressive symptoms (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.42, 9.11) but financial strain was not. Among nonprimary wage earners, depressive symptoms correlated with financial strain (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 1.48, 9.01) and work–family spillover (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.11, 9.35). Conclusions. Household financial strain, food insufficiency, and work–family spillover are pervasive problems for working populations, but associations vary by primary wage earner status. The prevalence of food insufficiency among full-time employees was striking and might have a detrimental influence on depressive symptoms and the health of working-class families. PMID:22095360

  8. Why income inequality is so high in Serbia: Empirical evidence and a measurement of the key factors

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    Krstić Gorana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the extent and evolution of income inequality in Serbia and examine factors that may have contributed to the high and rising inequality. Specifically, using data from the 2013 Survey of Income and Living Conditions, we focus on two issues: the effect of the quantity and quality of household members’ employment on the earnings of low-wage workers, and the role of taxes and social transfers in redistributing income from the betteroff to the poor. The results suggest that income inequality, measured by the Gini coefficient, has significantly increased in Serbia over the period of economic crisis, reaching 38.7 in 2013. The examined causes of such a high inequality are the high rate of low work intensity of household members and the high proportion of people working in non-standard forms of employment (i.e., part-time, temporary, and self-employment arrangements, mostly in the informal sector. In addition, the low coverage of social transfers, particularly monetary social assistance and child benefits, and the very low level of progressivity of the Serbian personal tax system explain the relatively modest - by international standards - redistributive role of direct taxes and social transfers.

  9. Labour market effects of social security contributions reform in Serbia

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    Žarković-Rakić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia the inactivity rate of the working-age population is close to 40%, among the highest in Europe. The country also faces a high informal employment rate of 24%. Previous research has argued that high levels of informality and inactivity are mostly due to a high effective tax wedge at low wage levels caused by a minimum base for calculation of social security contributions (SSC, sudden withdrawal of means-tested benefits once formal income is earned, and low progressivity of income tax. This paper evaluates the impact of the minimum SSC base reform scenarios on labour supply and employment formalization using tax and benefit micro-simulation models together with the structural discrete choice labour supply model based on the Survey on Income and Living Conditions Data. Although we do not find positive employment effects of the reform, it would be premature to deduce that abolishment of the minimum SSC base is not needed. At this stage in our research, until alternative labour-supply modelling is applied, with both sector and hours of work choice alternatives, it is only safe to conclude that the proposed reform will not significantly contribute to the transformation of informal full-time to formal full-time jobs.

  10. Reasons for job separations in a cohort of workers with psychiatric disabilities

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    Judith A. Cook, PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We explored the relative effects of adverse working conditions, job satisfaction, wages, worker characteristics, and local labor markets in explaining voluntary job separations (quits among employed workers with psychiatric disabilities. Data come from the Employment Intervention Demonstration Program in which 2,086 jobs were ended by 892 workers during a 24 mo observation period. Stepped multivariable logistic regression analysis examined the effect of variables on the likelihood of quitting. Over half (59% of all job separations were voluntary while 41% were involuntary, including firings (17%, temporary job endings (14%, and layoffs (10%. In multivariable analysis, workers were more likely to quit positions at which they were employed for 20 h/wk or less, those with which they were dissatisfied, low-wage jobs, non-temporary positions, and jobs in the structural (construction occupations. Voluntary separation was less likely for older workers, members of racial and ethnic minority groups, and those residing in regions with lower unemployment rates. Patterns of job separations for workers with psychiatric disabilities mirrored some findings regarding job leaving in the general labor force but contradicted others. Job separation antecedents reflect the concentration of jobs for workers with psychiatric disabilities in the secondary labor market, characterized by low-salaried, temporary, and part-time employment.

  11. Conservation and Development of Central Thai Folk Music for Cultural Inheritance

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    Thipsuda Imjai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Folk music of Central Thailand is an artistic performance and an important cultural heritage of Thais that is in need of conservation, revitalization and development. The performance factors of all 5 folk music bands studied in the research were similar in areas of 1 performance stages. 2 Similar traditional clothing. 3 Music instruments. 4 Light and sound. 5 The amount of performers was selected according to appropriateness. The difficulties of Central Thailand folk music are 1 Declining support from audiences, 2 Social and environment difficulties from the influx of modern forms of entertainment. 3 Low wages. 4 Problems with public cultural officials. The conservation of Central Thailand folk music can be done by 1 Central Thailand folk music artists should create and develop their importance, knowledge and skills. 2 Local communities should embrace and create cultural networks, 3 Government and private organizations should organize welfare services system to support cultural artists. 4 The cultural inheritance Central Thailand folk music can be accomplished through the education system by integrating Central Thailand folk music into local educational curriculums and through research studies.

  12. Robust determinants of OECD FDI in developing countries: Insights from Bayesian model averaging

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    Nikolaos Antonakakis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the determinants of outward FDI from four major OECD investors, namely, the US, Germany, France, and the Netherlands, to 129 developing countries classified under five regions over the period 1995–2008. Our goal is to distinguish whether the motivation for FDI differs among these investors in developing countries. Rather than relying on specific theories of FDI determinants, we examine them all simultaneously by employing Bayesian model averaging (BMA. This approach permits us to select the most appropriate model (or combination of models that governs FDI allocation and to distinguish robust FDI determinants. We find that no single theory governs the decision of OECD FDI in developing countries but a combination of theories. In particular, OECD investors search for destinations with whom they have established intensive trade relations and that offer a qualified labor force. Low wages and attractive tax rates are robust investment criteria too, and a considerable share of FDI is still resource-driven. Overall, investors show fairly similar strategies in the five developing regions.

  13. Leadership Development Experiences of Women Leaders in State-Owned Enterprises in Indonesia

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    Yuliana Dewi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Similar to many other countries in the world, Indonesia has been experiencing the increasing num- ber of women workers participation both in formal and informal sectors. While in formal sector the number of female employees has increased from around 10 millions in 2008 to nearly 13 mil- lions in 2011; in informal sector the figure is even doubled: more than 28 millions in 2008 to more than 30 millions in 2011. However to date, women workers are associated with low-skilled, low- wage workers who work in precarious working environment. Women are seldom hold managerial position both in public and private sector. The proportion of women in Indonesia who sit in the board of directors is only 6% from the entire women workers. Thus, this research aims to explore their development experience along the way. In order to obtain initial information, interviews with nine women managers from State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs were conducted. SOEs were chosen for convenience reason. The research indicates the low ratio number of women in SOEs management team although there is an optimism that the number would increase. Key point discovered in this research is that development experience is mainly done by the participants own initiatives whereas organisational supports are found very limited. This findings will be further explored and confirmed by involving more women managers from various sectors.

  14. Work–Life Integration and Workplace Rights for Domestic Workers in Support to Elderly Persons

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    Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our article shows that there is a real challenge in balancing work and family for employees working in support services in domestic work for elderly persons; their workplace rights on this issue are quite limited, and they depend largely on managers’ understanding and support. Given their difficult working conditions, these workers actually find quite a challenge in trying to reconcile work and family. Our article is based on a qualitative research mobilizing 33 semi-structured interviews with employees of the home care sector in the field of the social economy mainly but also in the private sector. We first present the concept of work–family and personal life, then the area of home care and domestic work for the elderly. Then, we present the particular challenges observed in reconciling work and family life, where possible by comparing men and women. The results highlight two major sources of differentiation: age and single parenthood. Those who are older highlight the fact that children have grown up, and they have (finally some time for themselves, even if their working conditions are difficult (broken schedules, etc.. In contrast, single women live a much more difficult situation concerning work–family, partly because of the lack of workplace rights on this issue and because of the poor working conditions for many (broken hours of work, low wages, difficult working conditions. We conclude with some recommendations, including the Right to request, which appears to be the best option, although it would need some further analysis.

  15. Innovations in the Forest Products Industry: The Malaysian Experience

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    Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The forest products industry is an important socioeconomic sector to many developing countries, both in terms of foreign exchange earnings and employment. In the case of Malaysia, the industry has been one of the fastest growing manufacturing sectors in the country, driven primarily by comparative advantages derived from factor inputs. However, with increasing competition from other cheaper producing nations particularly China and Vietnam, the Malaysian forest products industry is forced to transform and move along the value-chain through innovation and value-addition. Although the government has played a pivotal role in providing a broad policy framework to support value-adding and innovative activities, success on the ground has been limited. The creativity environment, which is plagued with by low-wage economy, coupled with limited network between research, market and industrial enterprises have stifled innovation within the industry. The lack of information and the poor quality human capital has also contributed to the limited innovation within the forest products industry in the country. Against this background, most innovation within the industry is confined to the realms of alternative raw materials, with minimal technological and design variations. Although extensive research and development activities are undertaken, the commercialization potential of the research outputs is limited due to being not market-driven. Inevitably, innovation in the forest products sector must be based on market-needs and must be driven through technological and design change in order to ensure long-term competitiveness.

  16. Artists and Multiple Job Holding—Breadwinning Work as Mediating Between Bohemian and Entrepreneurial Identities and Behavior

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    Sofia Lindström

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Artists are known to manage low income and work insecurity by holding multiple jobs. Through an analysis of interview data, this study explores the narratives of 20 visual artists in Sweden regarding breadwinning work. Positive and negative experiences of such work are analyzed in relation to the artists’ work behavior and identity as either ‘bohemian’ or ‘entrepreneurial.’ Breadwinning work may be seen by artists as either enabling autonomy from the market or hindering the construction of a professional identity, depending on these behaviors/identities. However, conditions such as low wage, temporary contracts, and low control over work hours ultimately decides artist’s experiences of breadwinning work. This article adds to the existing knowledge on artistic labour markets by highlighting the role of multiple job holding in mediating between an understanding of the bohemian art for art’s sake artist role and the entrepreneurial role of the artist. NB: The endnotes 7 and 8 have switched places, where endnote 7 should belong to the text of endnote 8 and vice versa

  17. [The organization of the preventive work in educational institutions: problems and solutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Sokolova, S B; Rapoport, I K; Makarova, A Yu

    2015-01-01

    Prevention measures are relevant for children and adolescents as among them there is the high prevalence of leading risk factors for chronic diseases. For the improvement of the preventive work it is necessary the introduction of amendments into the legislative documents and orders of the Ministry of Health, governing health care for children and adolescents in educational organizations. The consistent methodology for primary health care must be provided with the appropriate protocols. It is necessary to perform the systematic work on the reduction of the prevalence of risk factors for children's health and a healthy lifestyle. The number of doctors and nurses in the preschool and educational institutions is insufficient, and in organizations of primary and secondary vocational education is disastrous. Medical personnel departments of medical assistance to students due to the excessive load is not capable to fufill all of their functional responsibilities. Due to the low wages there is a constant reduction of health workers in schools and kindergartens. In the paper there are proposed measures aimed at improving the quality of preventive work in educational organizations.

  18. An Evaluation of Skilled Labour shortage in selected construction firms in Edo state, Nigeria

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    Oseghale, B.O

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated skilled labour requirement in the construction industry of Edo State. The study aimed at assessing the current state of the construction industry’s skilled workforce, causes and prevalence of skilled labour shortage and the effect of skilled labour shortage in construction project delivery. The method employed for collection of data includes distribution of structured questionnaires. The data collected were analyzed using Frequency tables, percentages, mean response analysis, relative importance index and cross tabulation. The research identified the most severe factors responsible for labour shortage to include; no clear carrier path, high mobility of construction workers and low wages. The study found that construction firms are not sending their skilled workforce for training, and that the skilled workers are unwilling to recommend the profession to their children. The research revealed that the construction firms were paying extra money for labour, and Schedule delay in their construction programmes as a result of skilled labour shortage. The study found aging workforce in the construction trades sampled, and that the entrance of young people into the construction trades was very low

  19. Does Raising the Early Retirement Age Increase Employment of Older Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubli, Stefan; Zweimüller, Josef

    2013-12-01

    Two pension reforms in Austria increased the early retirement age (ERA) from 60 to 62 for men and from 55 to 58.25 for women. We find that raising the ERA increased employment by 9.75 percentage points among affected men and by 11 percentage points among affected women. The reforms had large spillover effects on the unemployment insurance program but negligible effects on disability insurance claims. Specifically, unemployment increased by 12.5 percentage points among men and by 11.8 percentage points among women. The employment response was largest among high-wage and healthy workers, while low-wage and less healthy workers either continued to retire early via disability benefits or bridged the gap to the ERA via unemployment benefits. Taking spillover effects and additional tax revenues into account, we find that for a typical birth-year cohort a one year increase in the ERA resulted in a reduction of net government expenditures of 107 million euros for men and of 122 million euros for women.

  20. CONTRADICTIONS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PRIVATE PENSION PROVISION IN UKRAINE

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    D. Tretiak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pension system of Ukraine is working at the maximum financial stress, without providing sufficient to meet the needs of retirees. Pension benefits can play an important role in ensuring a decent standard of living after retirement. And also, to promote economic development, as funds generated through contributions of depositors is a stable source of investment. Investigated, that the development of private pension provision is determined by the following factors: demographic – strengthening of demographic aging; social – economic slowdown working population, largescale labor migration, proliferation of illegal employment, low wages, etc. Proposed the following main areas for improvement of the system of private pension provision: the development of comprehensive measures to ensure an adequate level of state support for the pension system in Ukraine as a whole, as well as the scope of private pension provision, improvement of regulatory – legal framework in the field of regulation of the activity of non-state pension funds, to inform citizens about the development private pension provision, operation of private pension funds and the range of services they provide, as well as prospects for their development.

  1. Why "good jobs" are good for retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Too many retail managers believe that they must offer bad jobs to keep prices low. As a result, almost one-fifth of American workers suffer low wages, poor benefits, constantly changing schedules, and few opportunitie for advancement. The author's research reveals, however, that the presumed trade-off between investment in employees and low prices is false. To meet short-term performance targets, many retailers cut labor. The unmotivated and poorly trained employees who remain often cannot keep up with their tasks in a complex operating environment. The result is a vicious cycle, in which lower sales and profits tempt managers to cut even more employees. Retailers such as QuikTrip, Mercadona, Trader Joe's, and Costco instead create a virtuous cycle of investment in employees, stellar operational execution, higher sales and profits, and larger labor budgets. They also make work more efficient and fulfilling for employees, improve customer service, and boost sales and profits through four practices: simplify operations by offering fewer products and promotions, train employees to perform multiple tasks, eliminate waste in everything but staffing, and let employees make some decisions.

  2. Lifestyle production: Transformation from manufacturing to knowledge based production using innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogens Dilling-Hansen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, traditional manufacturing firms in Western economies have undergone a rapid transformation. Two effects of the globalised economy prompting firms to outsource labour intensive production to low wage areas are the increased market size andthe competition. Innovation is a prerequisite for a successful transformation process and this paper analyses this process within four Danish lifestyle production industries: textile and clothing and wood product and furniture, which are being developed from being traditional production-oriented industries to becoming much more oriented towards knowledge intensive production in the form of design and marketing aspects.The analysis shows that the industries have experienced a decline in employment and a positive development in productivity while maintaining a significant contribution to export. A 2008 survey of Danish SMEs reveals that about two thirds of the firms carry out innovative activities. The decision to innovate is influenced by networking activities, access to financial resources, firm strategy, export orientation, growth potentials and age of the firm while atraditional characteristic like size does not influence the decision to innovate; innovation is a prerequisite for firm survival in the four industries.

  3. High mobile phone ownership, but low Internet and email usage among pregnant, HIV-infected women attending antenatal care in Johannesburg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Kate; Schwartz, Sheree R; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Vermund, Sten H; Pettifor, Audrey E

    2015-03-01

    We investigated mobile phone usage amongst HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal services in a primary care clinic in Johannesburg (n = 50). We conducted a semi-structured interview and asked them about their mobile phone, Internet and email use. The median age of the women was 28 years, 36% had moved one or more times in the past year, and most were employed or recently employed, albeit earning low wages. Nearly all women (94%) reported that they did not share their phone and 76% of the SIM cards were registered to the woman herself. The median time with the current phone was one year (range 1 month-6 years) and the median time with the current phone number was three years (range 1 month-13 years). Even though 42% of the participants were from outside South Africa, they all had mobile phone numbers local to South Africa. About one-third of respondents reported Internet use (30%) and about one-fifth reported using email (18%). Overall, 20% accessed the Internet and 10% accessed email on their mobile phone. Mobile phone interventions are feasible amongst HIV-positive pregnant women and may be useful in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Email and Internet-based interventions may not yet be appropriate. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. 合肥市小学女子校园足球运动开展现状研究%Research on the Current Situation of Hefei City Primary School Women's Football Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓飞; 丁学宽; 汪辉

    2015-01-01

    By using the methods of documentary, questionnaire and other research methods , Hefei women's football movement development present situation of the elementary school campus was studied. The results are that football field facilities can meet the demands basically, coaches lack, business knowledge is imperfect, low wages, the general lack of funding, the game is less, the systematic competition mechanism is not perfect. Suggestions of improving the football related policies, strengthening team construction, coaches, increasing social propaganda, perfecting competition mechanism are put forward.%文章运用文献资料、问卷调查法等研究方法对合肥市小学女子校园足球运动开展现状进行了研究,得出:足球场地设施配备基本满足需求,指导员的配备不足、业务知识不完善、工资待遇低,总体经费投入不足,比赛次数少,系统性的比赛机制不健全.提出改善足球相关政策、加强指导员的队伍建设、加大社会宣传力度、健全比赛机制等建议.

  5. Productive Employment in Romania: A Major Challenge to the Integration into the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Herman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that productive employment represents an essential element of inclusive economic growth, and it can be a driving force in reducing gaps between countries (especially experienced by productivity and income in order for these to integrate into the European Union. The aim of the article is to highlight the process of integration from the perspective of productive employment and its main determinants, in Romania, in the period following accession to the EU and integration into the European economic structures, the 2007-2014 period respectively. The results of this paper highlight a low level of productive employment in Romania determined mainly by low labour productivity, low wages, high vulnerable employment, high and inefficient employment in agriculture and a low level of employment in knowledge-intensive activities. The existence of large gaps, in terms of productive employment and economic development, between Romania and the developed EU countries, as well as the existence of the highest in-work poverty risk in EU emphasizes the need to accelerate productivity growth, which requires a real structural transformation, a shift from low-productivity sectors to high-productivity sectors. However, it is very important that poor workers should significantly benefit from the gains in labour productivity. The findings of this study can be useful for policy makers in order to support the improvement of productive employment so that productive employment contributes efficiently to the real integration of Romania into the EU.

  6. The international electronics industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, J; Rohm, T

    1998-01-01

    High-technology microelectronics has a major presence in countries such as China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, now the third-largest manufacturer of semiconductor chips. The migration of European, Japanese, and American companies accommodates regional markets. Low wage rates and limited enforcement of environmental regulations in developing countries also serve as incentives for the dramatic global migration of this industry. The manufacture of microelectonics products is accompanied by a high incidence of occupational illnesses, which may reflect the widespread use of toxic materials. Metals, photoactive chemicals, solvents, acids, and toxic gases are used in a wide variety of combinations and workplace settings. The industry also presents problems of radiation exposure and various occupational stressors, including some unresolved ergonomic issues. The fast-paced changes of the technology underlying this industry, as well as the stringent security precautions, have added to the difficulty of instituting proper health and safety measures. Epidemiologic studies reveal an alarming increase in spontaneous abortions among cleanroom manufacturing workers; no definitive study has yet identified its cause. Other health issues, including occupational cancer, are yet to be studied. The microelectronics industry is a good example of an industry that is exported to many areas of the world before health and safety problems are properly addressed and resolved.

  7. The Steel and Shipbuilding Industries of South Korea: Rising East Asia and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-ho Shin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the roles of the steel and shipbuilding industries as generative sectors in Korea’s rapid economic ascent. We argue that a world-systems analysis focusing on these generative sectors provides a more complete understanding of Korea’s rapid economic ascent than do other theoretical models. We outline the similarities between this case and those analyzed by Bunker and Ciccantell (2005, 2007 both in terms of the central role of generative sectors in raw materials and transport industries and how the creation and growth of these two industrial sectors shaped institutional patterns and the broader economic ascent of South Korea and East Asia. Even though South Korea has not and may never become a challenger for global hegemony, its rapid ascent has helped reshape East Asia and the capitalist world-economy. We use the model of generative sectors to analyze the critical industries that underlay and shaped South Korea’s ascent from a low wage, light industry base to a world leader in electronics, automobiles, and other advanced industries.

  8. Hepatitis B and C in household and health services solid waste workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Paulo Gomes Mol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human contact with solid waste poses biological, chemical, and physical health risks for workers involved in waste collection, transportation, and storage. The potential risk to human health resulting from contact with health services waste or household waste still sparks considerable controversy. The aim of this study was to identify the context of scientific discussions on risk/infection from the hepatitis B and C viruses in workers that collect solid waste from health services or households. The search covered publications up to 2013 in Brazilian and international databases, and 11 articles were selected through a literature review. Of these, six conclude that there is an increased risk of infection in workers that collect household waste when compared to those unexposed to waste, three point to greater risk for workers that collect health services waste as compared to those that collect ordinary waste, and the other two found no difference between exposed and unexposed individuals.

  9. Genealogies of Islamic radicalism in post-Suharto Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinessen, M.M. van

    2002-01-01

    The emergence of violent Muslim vigilante groups employing a jihadist discourse and mobilizing followers for jihad in regions where there have been inter-religious conflicts, such as the Moluccas or the Poso district in Central Sulawesi, is one of the most conspicuous new phenomena

  10. Critical assessment of rhBMP-2 mediated bone induction: an in vitro and in vivo evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kisiel, M.; Ventura, M.; Oommen, O.P.; George, A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Hilborn, J.; Varghese, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the influence of formulation and storage conditions on rhBMP-2 bioactivity is extremely important for its clinical application. Reports in the literature show that different research groups employ different parameters such as formulation conditions, storage, doses for in vivo applicati

  11. New Workers in the Banking Industry: A Minority Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, R. David

    To investigate the effects of the employment policies and practices of New York City banks upon minority employment, six banks were selected on the basis of their higher than average minority group employment. Nearly 200 interviews were conducted with bank personnel, including policy formulators, policy executors, and lower level personnel. These…

  12. Missionaries and Tonic Sol-fa Music Pedagogy in 19th-Century China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcott, Jane E.; Lee, Angela Hao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    In the 19th century, Christian missionaries in China, as elsewhere, used the Tonic Sol-fa method of music instruction to aid their evangelizing. This system was designed to improve congregational singing in churches, Sunday schools and missions. The London Missionary Society and other evangelical groups employed the method. These missionaries took…

  13. Underage and Under Fire: An Enquiry into the Use of Child Soldiers 1994-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoiskar, Astri Halsan

    2001-01-01

    Identifies, via analysis of 165 countries, the circumstances under which some nations' armed forces or groups employed children in armed conflicts during the period 1994-98. Concludes that child participation is primarily linked to repressive and unstable regimes and to protracted conflicts. Suggests child employment reduces rather than enhances…

  14. Qualifying the Workforce: The Use of Nationally-Recognised Training in Australian Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erica; Smith, Andrew; Pickersgill, Richard; Rushbrook, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To report on research that examines the impact of the adoption of nationally-recognised training by enterprises in Australia. Design/methodology/approach: The project involved a mix of methodologies including focus groups, employer survey and case studies. Findings: The research found that there had been a higher than expected adoption of…

  15. Content and Curriculum Location of the Business and Society Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahalas, Harvey

    1974-01-01

    The Business and Society course should begin with a theoretical discussion of such issues as ecology, business-government relations, corporate philanthropy, and minority group employment. Then case studies should be used to allow the student to apply his knowledge to his own values and ethics. (SC)

  16. Research in Image Indexing and Retrieval as Reflected in the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Heting

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of research in image indexing and retrieval focuses on a study that analyzed citations and documents relevant to image indexing and retrieval obtained from the SCI (Science Citation Index) and SSCI (Social Science Citation Index). Results confirmed that there exist two distinctive research groups, employing the content-based and…

  17. County level socioeconomic position, work organization and depression disorder: a repeated measures cross-classified multilevel analysis of low-income nursing home workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Li, Yong; Xue, Xiaonan; Thompson, Theresa; O'Campo, Patricia; Chung, Haejoo; Eaton, William W

    2006-12-01

    disorder. Longitudinal county level measures of low-income as predictors of depression may even offer a methodological advantage in that they are presumably more stable indicators of cumulative exposure of low income than are more transient workplace indicators. Incorporating measures of cumulative exposure to low income into empirical studies would be particularly timely given the global changes that are currently restructuring the labor force and influencing work organization and labor processes--most notably the growth in low income jobs and the deskilling of labor. Though this study provides evidence that workplace and organizational level variables are associated with depressive disorder among low-wage nursing assistants in US nursing homes, the fact that these relationships do not hold once county level measures of poverty are controlled for, suggests that more distal upstream determinants of workplace mental health problems, such economic inequality, may be at play in determining the mental health of low wage workers.

  18. ¿Ladrones, pequeños empresarios o trabajadores independientes? : K’ajchas, trapiches y plata en el cerro de Potosí en el siglo XVIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragàn, R.

    2015-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the history of a group of self-employed workers that produced 20 to 35% of Potosí’s silver in the 18th century. The paper begins remembering the contribution of historiography to the study of the k’ajchas. The analysis is centered then, in the property rights to the

  19. K'ajchas, trapiches y plata en el cero de Potosí en el período colonial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barragàn, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article is a contribution to the history of the k’ajchas or self-employed workers that produced 20 to 35% of Potosí’s silver in the 18th century. The paper began remembering the contribution of Gunnar Mendoza and other authors to the study of the k’ajchas. For the mine owners, they were simple

  20. Career Opportunities: Career Technical Education and the College Completion Agenda. Part III: Promising CTE Policies from across the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulock, Nancy; Chisholm, Eric; Moore, Colleen; Harris, Latonya

    2018-01-01

    California's community colleges are key to resolving the shortage of educated workers that is threatening the competitive position of the state's economy. Tremendous potential for addressing this challenge resides in the system's career technical education (CTE) mission which, with appropriate structures and support, could help many more students…

  1. Going beyond Language: Soft Skill-ing Cultural Difference and Immigrant Integration in Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kori

    2016-01-01

    This article traces how a language and soft skills training approach to Canadian immigrant integration emerged with Canada's shift towards a post-industrial tertiary economy. In this economy, soft skills index characteristics of ideal workers that fit the needs of Canada's post-Fordist labour regime. It examines how skills' training is not viewed…

  2. Understanding "The Grapes of Wrath": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claudia Durst

    When the novel "The Grapes of Wrath" was published in 1939, it had an explosive effect on the public, calling attention to the problems of migrant farm workers during the Great Depression. This casebook provides primary materials on the period and the plight of the migrant worker that bring to life the problems John Steinbeck…

  3. Photographs of Lewis Hine: Documentation of Child Labor. The Constitution Community: The Development of the Industrial United States (1870-1900).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Linda Darus

    By the early 1900s, many Americans were calling child labor child slavery and were demanding an end to it. Lewis Hine, a New York City schoolteacher and photographer, believed that a picture could tell a powerful story. He felt so strongly about the abuse of children as workers that he quit his teaching job and became an investigative photographer…

  4. 49 CFR 214.315 - Supervision and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision and communication. 214.315 Section 214... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.315 Supervision and communication. (a) When an employer assigns duties to a roadway worker that call for...

  5. Increasing cheat robustness of crowdsourcing tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eickhoff, C.; De Vries, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Crowdsourcing successfully strives to become a widely used means of collecting large-scale scientific corpora. Many research fields, including Information Retrieval, rely on this novel way of data acquisition. However, it seems to be undermined by a significant share of workers that are primarily in

  6. Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Highly productive economies require a flexible labor force with workers that move in accordance with the changing demand for goods and services. In times with falling housing prices, the mobility of home owning workers may be hampered by a lock-in effect of low or even negative housing equity. Th...

  7. It Isn't Easy Being Green: Overcoming the Challenges of Building a Green Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmelman, Chris

    2011-01-01

    As community and technical colleges work to train workers for green-energy jobs, they face myriad challenges. Among them are the recession and the financial strain it places on institutions' ability to develop programs, trying to meet the demand for trained workers that is a projection and not a certainty, and training low-skilled individuals for…

  8. The application of an empowerment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E; van Delft, B; Slomp, J

    2001-01-01

    In this study we applied an empowerment model that focuses on (a) the need for empowerment in light of organizational strategy, (b) job design issues such as job enlargement and job enrichment that facilitate empowerment, and (c) the abilities, and (d) the attitudes of workers that make empowerment

  9. Cream-Skimming, Parking and Other Intended and Unintended Effects of High-Powered, Performance-Based Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Pierre; Heinrich, Carolyn J.

    2013-01-01

    As performance-based contracting in social welfare services continues to expand, concerns about potential unintended effects are also growing. We analyze the incentive effects of high-powered, performance-based contracts and their implications for program outcomes using panel data on Dutch cohorts of unemployed and disabled workers that were…

  10. The Impact Assessment of Demographic Factors on Faculty Commitment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Adnan; Kokash, Husam A.; Al-Oun, Salem

    2011-01-01

    Organizational commitment is perceived as an attitude of association to the organization by an employee, which leads to particular job-related behaviors such as work absenteeism, job satisfaction and turnover intensions. Turnover is the ratio of the number of workers that had to be replaced in a given time period to the average number of workers.…

  11. Responses to "Intention to Leave, Anticipated Reasons for Leaving, and 12-Month Turnover of Child Care Center Staff."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Linda; Russell, Susan

    1997-01-01

    Two practitioners address problem of employee turnover in child care centers. The first plan argues for comprehensive wage raises, increased benefits, and low cost options to workers that increase flexibility. The second strategy advocates continuing education opportunities, special mentoring programs, and bonuses or raises paid early in the…

  12. Understanding "The Grapes of Wrath": A Student Casebook to Issues, Sources, and Historical Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claudia Durst

    When the novel "The Grapes of Wrath" was published in 1939, it had an explosive effect on the public, calling attention to the problems of migrant farm workers during the Great Depression. This casebook provides primary materials on the period and the plight of the migrant worker that bring to life the problems John Steinbeck…

  13. The application of an empowerment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E; van Delft, B; Slomp, J

    2001-01-01

    In this study we applied an empowerment model that focuses on (a) the need for empowerment in light of organizational strategy, (b) job design issues such as job enlargement and job enrichment that facilitate empowerment, and (c) the abilities, and (d) the attitudes of workers that make empowerment

  14. Going beyond Language: Soft Skill-ing Cultural Difference and Immigrant Integration in Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kori

    2016-01-01

    This article traces how a language and soft skills training approach to Canadian immigrant integration emerged with Canada's shift towards a post-industrial tertiary economy. In this economy, soft skills index characteristics of ideal workers that fit the needs of Canada's post-Fordist labour regime. It examines how skills' training is not viewed…

  15. Proletarianisation, land, income and living conditions of farm labourers in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Tellegen, N.

    1996-01-01

    In some areas in sub-Saharan Africa a rural proletariat has emerged, consisting mainly of labourers living and working on plantations and large mixed farms. Besides these fully proletarianized estate workers, there is also a category of workers that can be labelled 'semi-proletarianized'. They live

  16. Advanced Manufacturing Training: Mobile Learning Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukich, John C.; Ackerman, Amanda A.

    2010-01-01

    Across Colorado, manufacturing employers forecast an on-going need not only for workers who are interested in career opportunities but who are prepared to enter the advanced manufacturing industry with the necessary high-tech skills. Additionally, employers report concerns about replacing retiring workers that take with them decades of…

  17. Advanced Manufacturing Training: Mobile Learning Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukich, John C.; Ackerman, Amanda A.

    2010-01-01

    Across Colorado, manufacturing employers forecast an on-going need not only for workers who are interested in career opportunities but who are prepared to enter the advanced manufacturing industry with the necessary high-tech skills. Additionally, employers report concerns about replacing retiring workers that take with them decades of…

  18. Cream-Skimming, Parking and Other Intended and Unintended Effects of High-Powered, Performance-Based Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Pierre; Heinrich, Carolyn J.

    2013-01-01

    As performance-based contracting in social welfare services continues to expand, concerns about potential unintended effects are also growing. We analyze the incentive effects of high-powered, performance-based contracts and their implications for program outcomes using panel data on Dutch cohorts of unemployed and disabled workers that were…

  19. Functional flexibility and team performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, E.; Slomp, J.

    1999-01-01

    This study deals with workforce flexibility defined in terms of 'multifunctionality' and 'redundancy'. These concepts refer, respectively, to the number of different tasks a worker has mastered and the number of workers that are qualified to do a specific task. A third factor to be considered is wor

  20. Spanish Language Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Spanish-Speaking Social Workers: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists about Spanish-speaking social workers that provide bilingual social work services. To date, studies have not exclusively focused on actual language competence of bilingual social workers or even their self-perceived language beliefs. This study reviews the results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey exploring…

  1. Who's for the Ark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Kathryn L.

    1999-01-01

    This ACPA presidential address from 1961 comments upon the current and complex situation of student personnel work in the American college and university. Explores characteristics of student personnel workers that should be identified and nurtured so that they will thrive well into the future. (GCP)

  2. Colony fusion and worker reproduction after queen loss in army ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, Daniel J C; Schöning, Caspar; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    their reproductive success. We show that worker chemical recognition profiles remain similar after queen loss, but rapidly change into a mixed colony Gestalt odour after fusion, consistent with indiscriminate acceptance of alien workers that are no longer aggressive. We hypothesize that colony fusion after queen...

  3. Air Base Attacks and Defensive Counters: Historical Lessons and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    in Belgium and complete his return to base via bicycle . The aircraft was subsequently lost to German forces as their offensive closed on Antwerp. See...facilities, electrical power, communication, transportation networks, skilled workers) that is not designed to withstand serious attack. For

  4. An Empirical Measure for Labor Market Density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier (Pieter); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we derive a structural measure for labor market density based on the Ellison and Glasear (1997) index for industry concentration''. This labor market density measure serves as a proxy for the number of workers that can reach a certain work area within a reasonal amount of t

  5. Does Work Contribute to Successful Aging Outcomes in Older Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Martha J.; McCready, Jack W.

    2010-01-01

    Older workers are the fastest growing segment of the labor force, yet little is known about designing jobs for older workers that optimize their experiences relative to aging successfully. This study examined the contribution of workplace job design (opportunities for decision-making, skill variety, coworker support, supervisor support) to…

  6. A produção de etanol de cana no Estado da Paraíba: alternativas de sustentabilidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Batista da Fonseca

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s abundance regarding natural resources, low-waged manual labor and high productivity in the last decades generated advantages in producing ethanol cane. However, exports face trade barriers and allegations of environmental damage since pre-harvest burning causes GHG emissions. Cane burning is a worldwide common practice but this scenario has changed in Brazil through an initiative of the São Paulo State government in cooperation with the industry’s leaders: as an alternative to burning they are working toward the gradual increase of all cane residues’ collection, being used as biomass. This might co-generate input for the electricity production. The State of Paraíba is the third largest producer of ethanol cane in the Brazilian Northeast Region and data suggests the economic relevance of this production for one of the poorest Brazilian States: about 40% of the sugar cane is produced by micro and small suppliers. However, state-level legislation for reducing cane burning is absent. Therefore, this study presents the results of a survey for local producers’ measures regarding sustainability. Also, this study seeks to estimate, by using economic valuation methods, the potential gains through a supposed elimination of cane burning. The survey indicated that Paraíba’s ethanol industry has extended the techniques for the re-use of production waste as a substitute for agricultural-chemical products and for electric power generation. The main conclusion is that local producers have notably acknowledged the environmental and economic advantages of reducing cane burning, since they provided information regarding their planning for reducing it from 2011 onwards as a private initiative.

  7. An Investigation and Analysis of the Existence Status of Female Migrant Workers in the City:Take Female Migrant Workers in Yinchuan as an Example%女性农民工城市生存现状的调查与分析--以银川市女性农民工为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江晓红

    2015-01-01

    About half of the laborers who flock into the cities in China are female migrant workers. Com-pared with their male counterparts in personal characteristics, females are likely to encounter more difficulties, to be excluded from the society and the city itself, and even experience some unfair treatments just because of their gender. After the female migrant workers move into the cities, they often take up the jobs which urban females are unwilling to take. Actually, they have helped solve the problem of labor shortage in the cities. However, they are placed in such an awkward situation that they suffer from poor treatment, receive low wages, and have no social security. Therefore, the whole society should pay more attention to the existence status of female mi-grant workers in the cities.%从农村流入城市劳动力中大约半数以上是女性农民工。由于女性自身的性别特征与男性相比,她们遇到的困难会更多,更容易受到来自社会与城市的排斥,甚至会有一些不公平的待遇。女性农民工进入城市后所从事的工作是城市女性不愿意做的,但她们确实解决了城市的用工问题,可她们却面临着待遇差、工资低、缺失社会保障等尴尬境地。因此,女性农民工城市生存现状更应该引起社会的高度关注。

  8. A poor country clothing the rich countries: case of garment trade in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahboob Ali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ready-made garment industry of Bangladesh is one of the largest formal manufacturing sectors. It has played a key role in the country’s process of industrialisation, empowerment of women, export oriented development and growth. Workers from poor socio-economic backgrounds are working in the garment industry. Their health, safety and working conditions are very poor and not protected. There is a lack of regular inspection and compliance with local law in buildings and factories. This led to the collapse of the eight story Rana Plaza building in the capital Dhaka on the 24th of April 2013, “killing 1,100 workers and 2,500 injured”2 . The main aim of the study is to assess the impact of Rana Plaza Tragedy, where RMG workers make garments for multinational brands of Australia, Europe and USA, and the advantage which took these companies of the absence of labour laws, workplace health and safety standards, building standards, long working hours and low wages in Bangladesh. The study used both primary and secondary data including related case studies. The practical application of the study is to develop formal ethical, labour-law, health and safety standards for a factory worker; construction; institutions and courts for monitoring the supplier’s behaviour onshore and large multinational firms offshore. The study recommends to protect the rights of women workers who are sowing garments for the fashion conscious consumers from the developed countries. Future research will explore inclusive growth for workers and how to stimulate inclusive sustainable business for export led garment industry.

  9. Mitigation potential and cost in tropical forestry - relative role for agroforestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makundi, Willy R.; Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes studies of carbon mitigation potential (MP) and costs of forestry options in seven developing countries with a focus on the role of agroforestry. A common methodological approach known as comprehensive mitigation assessment process (COMAP) was used in each study to estimate the potential and costs between 2000 and 2030. The approach requires the projection of baseline and mitigation land-use scenarios derived from the demand for forest products and forestland for other uses such as agriculture and pasture. By using data on estimated carbon sequestration, emission avoidance, costs and benefits, the model enables one to estimate cost effectiveness indicators based on monetary benefit per t C, as well as estimates of total mitigation costs and potential when the activities are implemented at equilibrium level. The results show that about half the MP of 6.9 Gt C (an average of 223 Mt C per year) between 2000 and 2030 in the seven countries could be achieved at a negative cost, and the other half at costs not exceeding $100 per t C. Negative cost indicates that non-carbon revenue is sufficient to offset direct costs of about half of the options. The agroforestry options analyzed bear a significant proportion of the potential at medium to low cost per t C when compared to other options. The role of agroforestry in these countries varied between 6% and 21% of the MP, though the options are much more cost effective than most due to the low wage or opportunity cost of rural labor. Agroforestry options are attractive due to the large number of people and potential area currently engaged in agriculture, but they pose unique challenges for carbon and cost accounting due to the dispersed nature of agricultural activities in the tropics, as well as specific difficulties arising from requirements for monitoring, verification, leakage assessment and the establishment of credible baselines.

  10. Que transmet l’école publique au Brésil ? What is transmitted in Brazilian public schools ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Brochier

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose d’examiner certains aspects de la transmission de connaissances scolaires dans les écoles publiques brésiliennes. Depuis les années 1980, en effet, le système scolaire s’est largement ouvert aux couches les plus défavorisées des populations urbaines, ce qui a provoqué des changements dans les modes de fonctionnement. Face à ce nouveau public, les exigences en termes de discipline et de travail scolaires se sont considérablement affaiblies, de même que le suivi des programmes. Par ailleurs, les enseignants surmenés qui occupent souvent plusieurs emplois pour compenser leurs bas salaires, manifestent un découragement évident tandis que les élèves s’habituent à un monde institutionnel tolérant qui ne propose plus une vraie rupture avec leur univers social d’origine.This article studies certain aspects of how knowledge is transmitted in Brazilian state schools. Since the 1980s, the school system has opened its doors to the most underprivileged segments of the urban populations, bringing about considerable changes in day-to-day behavior patterns. Faced with this new public, requirements in terms of discipline and dedication to learning have considerably weakened, as has the observance of the official programs. Moreover, the teachers, exhausted since they often hold down several jobs to compensate for their low wages, are prone to depression. The pupils, in turn, get used to a tolerant institutional world which no longer represents a departure from their original social environment.

  11. 大力推进工资三方协商机制建设的重大意义%The Significance of Building Three-party Consultation Mechanisms on Wages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易重华

    2015-01-01

    当前中国在工资三方协商机制建设上已经取得了一定的成效,但与经济社会发展的要求还有相当大的差距,这是导致工资率偏低、消费不足、贫富差距过大的根本原因。大力推进工资三方协商机制建设,对于中国解决收入差距过大问题、成功跨越“中等收入陷阱”、保持经济持续较快发展、实现国家治理体系和治理能力现代化、促进全面深化改革都具有十分重要的意义。%At present,the construction of our country in three-party consultation mechanism on wage has achieved certain results ,but with the requirements of economic and social development there is still a considerable gap,which is the fundamental cause of low wage rates, lack of consumption,the gap between the wealthy and poor is too large.We should vigorously promote the construction of three-party consultation mechanism on wage,which is of great significance for our country to solve the problem of gap between the wealthy and poor,to crossed the“middle income trap”successfully,to maintain steady and rapid economic development,to realize modernization of national governance system and governance ability,to promote the comprehensive reform.

  12. Impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-04-02

    To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers' employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers' employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Mothers of infants <12 months of age. Ten FGDs, two in each of the five administrative blocks of the study district were conducted. The groups were composed of a minimum of 5 and maximum of 8 participants, giving a total of 62 mothers. Thematic analysis was conducted to assess patterns and generate emergent themes. Four major themes were identified-'mothers' employment compromises infant feeding and care', 'caregivers' inability to substitute mothers' care', 'compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA' and 'employment as disempowering'. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers' employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers' employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions.

  13. A Graduate Student's Perspective on Engaging High School Students in Research Outside of the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, A. B.; Horton, R. A., Jr.; Andrews, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    The southern San Joaquin basin is one of the United States' most prolific oil producing regions but also one facing numerous problems including low high school graduation rates, low college enrollments, high college dropout rates, low wages, and higher than average unemployment. Investment in STEM education experiences for high school students has been emphasized by California State University Bakersfield as a means to improving these metrics with programs such as the Research Experience Vitalizing Science-University Program (REVS-UP). Now in its seventh year, the REVS-UP (funded by Chevron) forms teams of high school students, a high school teacher, a CSUB graduate student, and a CSUB professor to work for four weeks on a research project. For the past two summers student-teacher teams investigated the diagenesis and mineralogy of the Temblor Formation sandstones in the subsurface of the San Joaquin basin oil fields that are potential CO2 sequestration sites. With a graduate student leading the teams in sample preparation and analysis by scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and cathode luminescence system (SEM-CL) data was gathered on diagenetic processes, detrital framework grains, and authigenic cements. Typically students are introduced to the project in a series of brief seminars by faculty and are then introduced to the techniques and samples. During the second week the students are usually capable of preparing samples and collecting data independently. The final week is focused on developing student-authored research posters which are independently presented by the students on the final day. This gives high school students the opportunity to learn advanced geologic topics and analytical techniques that they would otherwise not be exposed to as well as to gain research and presentation skills. These types of projects are equally important for the graduate students involved as it allows them the

  14. Mobbing, threats to employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vene

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: Is there a connection among perception of hostile and unethical communication, timely removal of causes and employee satisfaction?Purpose: Perceived mobbing in the organization, analysing causes and timely removal of them without any effect; achieve an environment of satisfied employees. The purpose is to study the relationship amongthe categories: perceiving mobbing, removing the effects, employee satisfaction.Methods: Qualitative research approach, method of interview by using the seven steps principles.Results: The findings clearly state that being aware of the negative factors and psychological abuse in organizations was present. The interview participants perceived different negative behaviours especially by the female population and from the side of superiors. In some organizations perceived negative factors are insults,insinuations, low wages, inadequate working day, competition, lobbying, and verbal threats. All negative factors lead to serious implications for employees, in which the organization can lose its reputation, productivity is reduced, costs of employment can increase with more sick leaves and in extreme cases, the results can be soserious that the organization can end in bankruptcy or liquidation.Organization: The result of the study warns management to acceptcertain actions and remediate the situation in organizations. The employer and managers must do everything to protect their subordinates from violence and potential offenders.Society: The research study warns on the seriousness of mobbing among employees, the aim is to bring the issue to individuals and society. The victim usually needs help (health costs, losses in the pension system, increased unemployment, and lower productivity of the whole society.Originality: In view of the sensitivity of the issues, the author concludes that the existing research studies are based especially on closed questions (questionnaires; however, interviews create mutual trust between

  15. The labor force of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, J L

    1987-07-01

    In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.

  16. Is the minimum enough? Affordability of a nutritious diet for minimum wage earners in Nova Scotia (2002-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G

    2014-05-09

    This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.

  17. 论新生代农民工的边缘化及其成因%Cenozoic Migrant Workers' Marginalization and Its Causes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭立场

    2012-01-01

    As is known to us all,cenozoic migrant workers who grew up under the background of the opening-up,gradually become the main part of the migrant workers.In addition,they not only don't familiar with agriculture and are without feelings to the land,but are eager to melt into the city life to become citizens.But neither the system,policy and specific measures,or social atmosphere,social conditions and social mind,all of those are not ready to accept them.As a result,the group is still faced with institutional supplies,political participation,cultural identity,quality promotion and some other aspects of the obstacles,and then,their political power deficiency,uncertainty of career choice,education degree lag and some other problems,which make them excluded from the urban fringe.it lead to their low wages,which hinder our urbanization process.%改革开放背景下成长起来的新生代农民工逐渐成为外出务工的主体,他们特别渴望融入城市生活并成为市民,但无论是制度、政策和具体措施,还是社会氛围、社会条件和社会心理,都还没有做好接纳他们的准备。新生代农民工市民化依然面临着政治、经济、文化等方面的重重障碍。

  18. Children at health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, H R

    1992-01-01

    In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the

  19. Reform of labour taxes in Latvia 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmārs Šņucins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the motives for and results of the labour tax reforms undertaken by the Latvian government in 2011-2013 with a special focus on the lowwage sector. The reforms were developed with the goal of overcoming negative effects on the labour market caused by the deep economic crisis in 2008-2010 as well as of coping with an increase in labour tax burdens during consolidation. In 2008-2010, Latvia was seriously affected by the global economic crisis and during these years real gross domestic product (GDP declined by 21 percent. Labour market conditions became worse rapidly and at the beginning of 2010, the unemployment rate reached 21.5 per cent of the economically active population. For the period of 2011-2016, the reforms provide for a reduction in the rates of personal income tax (PIT and social security contributions (SSC as well as for an increase in PIT allowances. Taking into account the changes made in labour tax laws, we employed forecasts of average wages and applied the Eurostat methodology to calculate the tax wedge for different groups of employees depending on income level and on the number of their dependants. The results show that the impact of the reform varies greatly and it is more beneficial for employees with dependants and for low-wage earners. The findings of the paper contribute to policy discussions and decisions on the tax wedge, especially in the Euro area. In the period covered by the paper, about half of the Euro area member states (including Latvia received a country-specific recommendation to address this issue in the context of the European Semester.

  20. Risks of poverty in the modern Russian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Mikhailovna Pasovets

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Poverty acts as an indicator of insufficiency and deficit of economic resources of the population; its boundaries serve as a demarcation line between people’s adaptation to social and economic changes and their maladjustment. The construction of a socio-demographic portrait of the poor, reflecting its recent dynamics and the current state helps identify the key risks of poverty and their stability in the modern Russian conditions. It is difficult for certain social categories to adapt. The specificity of socio-economic differentiation of the population in the modern Russian society is connected with the persistence of the stratification profile defined by the unequal distribution of money income among the population groups during the period of reforms. Raised standards of living of most population in the 2000s led to the drastic reduction in absolute poverty, defined by the boundaries of income below the subsistence minimum. However, nowadays, according to the objective indicators of the income amount, the tenth part of the Russians is considered as the poor. The population’s income is still insufficient; it testifies the presence of poverty risks for some categories of the population in the modern Russian conditions. The analysis of the dynamics and state of the objective sources of poverty shows that the high poverty rates are observed in small towns (with the population being equal to 50–100 thousand inhabitants and up to 50 thousand people and rural settlements and refer to children and youth under 30, the unemployed and economically inactive population. Besides, the working poor employed in industries get low wages

  1. Rural-Urban Migration and Women’s Development:an Examination of Rural Married Women’s Migration and Employment Experiences%城乡流动与妇女发展--农村已婚妇女外出打工经验考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳玉臻

    2015-01-01

    Based on women garment workers’ experiences in the Pearl River Delta, this paper explores causes and con-sequences of rural married women’s migration. The interview data shows rural women are motivated to migrate not only to fulfil their family goals, but also to seek individual independence and development. However, the precariousness of employ-ment and living arrangement confines women’s possibility of development. In garment factories, migrant women’s employ-ment is featured by low wages, long working hours, and little social security coverage. The rural-urban divided Hukou system renders it hard for them to migrate with their families. After a short-term migration, most women can only return to their rural life and rural work.%基于珠三角制衣厂女工的经历,本文探讨了农村已婚妇女外出打工的原因和影响。访谈数据显示农村已婚妇女外出不仅为实现家庭目标,而且为寻求个人独立和发展。然而,就业和生活的不稳定限制了她们的发展空间。在制衣厂,流动妇女的工作往往工资低、工作时间长和缺乏劳动保障。受城乡分离的户籍制度限制,她们很少居家迁移。对多数妇女而言,她们只能在短期打工后返回农村和从事农业生产。

  2. THE FREEDOMS OF MOVEMENT OF THE SINGLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hategan Camelia - Daniela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Single Market implies not only the free movement of goods and services, but also the free movement of production factors (the capital and the labor force.The liberalization of goods and services and of production factors movement has determined, on the short term, the appearance of some structural and specialization adjustment processes within the member countries, and on the long term a more efficient allocation of the production factors, an improvement of labor productivity and positive effects in the field of labor force employment. According to the neoclassical theory, the labor force migrates from regions with low wages and low profit rates, to regions having high wages and high profit rate. Thus, the production factors are used in a more productive way. According to this theory, the factors mobility contributes to the equalization of the wages and to a better factors allocation. Issues such as structural funds, persons freedom of movement, convergence could be turned into advantages by any member state, and especially by a new member state. From an economic perspective, the causes of labor force mobility, as a production factor, are: the price differences (wage differences, profit rates differences, interest rates differences according to neoclassical theory; income difference, meaning saving excess or insufficiency for the capital, according to Keynes approach; differences in the level of economic development, determining unequal changes, according to the monetarists. Romania has become a European Union member at January, the 1st, 2007. The accession road has been a long one, full of challenges, issues, but also satisfactions. The 1st of January has not been the end of a process, but the beginning of a new period for Romania's present history. The author will try to emphasize the freedoms of movement of the Single Market. The humanitarian reasons also determine the migration of the population; these are the refugees, the

  3. 无锡市部分三级医院护士工作满意度的调查与分析%Analysis and Investigation of Job Satisfaction of Nurses at Tertiary Hospitals in Wuxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴菊芬

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解无锡市部分三级医院护士的工作满意度现状,为提高护士的工作满意度提供科学依据.方法 自行设计调查表,对无锡市8所三级医院的2 057名护士的工作满意度及其影响因素进行调查.结果 护士的工作满意度总体呈一般水平,影响其工作满意度的主要因素有护理工作量大、社会地位低、工资待遇低、职业发展机会少等.结论 护士的工作满意度不高,管理者应予以高度重视,采取干预措施提高护理人员的工作积极性.%Objective To understand the job satisfaction of tertiary hospital nurses in Wuxi so as to pro-vide scientific basis for improving their job satisfaction. Methods A self-designed questionnaire was adopt-ed to investigate 2 057 nurses from 8 tertiary hospitals in Wuxi. Results The overall satisfaction of nurses remained at an average level. The major dissatisfaction factors included heavy workload,low social status, low wages and fewer opportunities for career advancement. Conclusion Nurses generally have low satisfac-tion towards their job. Managers should address this issue and apply necessary actions to improve the situation.

  4. Impact of China in Latin America: The inter-industry trade and its challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hyong Rhee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the implications of the rapid economic rise of China for the development prospects of Latin America. Since 1990s we have witnessed the growing exchanges between Latin America and Asian economies. China has led the Latin-Pacific exchanges. Based on an analysis of the changing trade relations between China and major Latin American countries since 2000, it argues as follows. First, China imports energy, food and other resources for domestic and export needs, and looks more like a “trade angel” and a “helping hand” as well as being an outlet for huge amounts of commodities from the region. China’s trade impact on Latin America is positive with higher gdp per capita, both directly, through a boom of export and indirectly, through better terms of trade. But it is also a challenge for development for the future. Second, the trade relations are now structured into a kind of inter-industry trade. China imports natural resources and primary products but exports manufacturing products from low-wage products (such as textiles and apparel to high-wage products (mainly electronics and telecommunications. Lack of inter-industry relation with China shows the weaker side of Latin America’s integrations in the value chain of global production.In this sense, the China boom presents a challenge to Latin American countries. For the region’s raw-materials producers, there is good news in the short-term but they run the risk of losing enthusiasm for diversification beyond extraction-based industries. Economic forces tend to reduce incentives for engaging in activities outside the resource sector: the “Dutch disease.” In order to ameliorate somewhat the effects of Dutch disease and move up the value chain, they need more proactive development strategy which has focused on developing domestic technological capabilities and diversifying the productive structure.

  5. Culture, survival, and family size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-02

    Judith Jacobson, senior researcher at the Worldwatch Institute which analyzes economic and social issues, states that people have large families for about as many reasons as there are different cultures. The reasons include carrying on the family name, show of "macho" by the father, or force of habit, i.e., doing what their poverty stricken families and neighbors have always done. These traditions did not simply develop by chance. Throughout history, a high death rate coincided with the high birthrate. If a couple wanted 2 or 3 children, they had several more, assuming -- often correctly -- that at least a few of their children would die of any number of diseases. In addition there were and continue to be economic reasons for big families. Working children add to thefamily income, and they are a kind of pension plan, looked to for support during old age. Thus, the desire for big families is deeply rooted in many cultures. At present, in less developed nations, medicines and pesticides have eradicated many diseases and increased life expectancy. Infant mortality has dropped markedly in the last 25 years, but there has not been a matching drop in birthrates, especially in rural areas. The result is that poor nations' populations are growing about twice as fast as needed to replace those dying. The result in some rural areas has been hunger and even starvation. Rural people and their problems are often easier to ignore than the unrest of city dwellers. Many governments provide jobs and keep food prices low in cities where political opposition is more likely to start. This urban rural gap tends to widen as population grows. Low wages for the poorest rural residents drop when there are more available workers for the same amount of land. This creates another dimension of the population problem -- migration to the cities and to foreign countries.

  6. A sociohydrological model for smallholder farmers in Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert H. G.

    2016-03-01

    We present a sociohydrological model that can help us to better understand the system dynamics of a smallholder farmer. It couples the dynamics of the six main assets of a typical smallholder farmer: water storage capacity, capital, livestock, soil fertility, grazing access, and labor. The hydroclimatic variability, which is a main driver and source of uncertainty of the smallholder system, is accounted for at subannual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms of smallholders (for example, adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers and selling livestocks) when farmers face adverse sociohydrological conditions, such as low annual rainfall, occurrence of dry spells, or variability of input or commodity prices. We have applied the model to analyze the sociohydrology of a cash crop producing smallholder in Maharashtra, India, in a semisynthetic case study setting. Of late, this region has witnessed many suicides of farmers who could not extricate themselves out of the debt trap. These farmers lacked irrigation and were susceptible to fluctuating commodity prices and climatic variability. We studied the sensitivity of a smallholder's capital, an indicator of smallholder well-being, to two types of cash crops (cotton and sugarcane), water storage capacity, availability of irrigation, initial capital that a smallholder starts with, prevalent wage rates, and access to grazing. We found that (i) smallholders with low water storage capacities and no irrigation are most susceptible to distress, (ii) a smallholder's well-being is low at low wage rates, (iii) wage rate is more important than absolution of debt, (iv) well-being is sensitive to water storage capacity up to a certain level, and (v) well-being increases with increasing area available for livestock grazing. Our results indicate that government intervention to absolve the debt of farmers or to invest in local storage to buffer rainfall variability may not be enough. In addition, alternative

  7. Smarter offshoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2006-06-01

    During the past 15 years, companies have flocked to a handful of cities in India and Eastern Europe for offshore service functions. As a result, the most popular sites are now overheating: Demand for young professionals is outstripping supply, wages and turnover are soaring, and overburdened infrastructure systems are struggling to serve the explosive growth. The happy news is that the tight labor markets in the well-known hot spots are the exceptions, not the rule. Many attractive alternatives are emerging around the world. According to a McKinsey Global Institute study, more than 90% of the vast and rapidly growing pool of university-educated people suitable for work in multinationals are located outside the current hot spot cities. For instance, Morocco is now home to offshore centers for French and Spanish companies requiring fluent speakers of their home languages. Neighboring Tunisia has used its modern infrastructure, business-friendly regulations, and stable, low-cost workforce to attract companies such as Siemens and Wanadoo. Vietnam offers university graduates who have strong mathematics skills; speak French, English, German, or Russian; and do not demand high wages. The problems facing the hot spots, coupled with the emergence of many more countries able and willing to provide offshore services, mean that picking a site has become more complicated. In choosing a location, companies will have to focus less on low wages and much more on other ways that candidate cities can fulfill their business needs. They will have to be much more rigorous in articulating precisely what they require from an offshore location. That means evaluating their unique needs on a range of dimensions and understanding how alternative locations can meet those needs for the foreseeable future.

  8. Neoliberalism, welfare policy and health: a qualitative meta-synthesis of single parents' experience of the transition from welfare to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kay

    2012-09-01

    Following the United States' lead, the emergence of neoliberal welfare policy across the western world has resulted in employment programmes for single parents, who are predominantly single mothers. While some governments claim that employment will improve single parents' incomes and well-being, researchers dispute that single parents can unproblematically move into the workforce, with net positive effects. While researchers have quantified the socio-economic effect of these programmes, in particular on participant health, no study has yet synthesized participants' experiences of welfare-to-work. Here, I present a meta-synthesis of eight qualitative health-related studies of single parents' (and exclusively single mothers') welfare-to-work transition. I report that single mothers faced a combination of health and economic issues which made their transition from welfare to work difficult, including degrees of poor physical and mental health. For participants in the United States, these health issues were often compounded by a loss of health benefits on moving into low-wage employment. In countries where a return to employment was required before children reached school age, a lack of affordable and appropriate child care, especially for children with health problems, exacerbated these difficulties. As a result of scarce resources, single mothers in receipt of welfare benefits often relied on food banks or went without food. A return to the workforce did not alleviate this problem as additional child care and reduced government subsidies depleted the funds available for food. I conclude that welfare-to-work policies are underpinned by the neoliberal assumption that the market more efficiently distributes resources than the State. However, for the women in the studies examined here, labour market participation often depleted access to essential resources. Interventions to address the 'problem' of welfare dependency must recognize the complex interplay between work

  9. Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, A E

    1988-01-01

    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF REGIONAL AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY AND THE ROLE OF SMALL FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolmachev A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic position of the agricultural sector of the Krasnodar region and the place of small business in economy of the region is considered. It is noted that in structure of agricultural production of the country today the region produces 8%, in gross regional product – about 13% of the total material production. The main share of agricultural production is still produced by agricultural organizations, in 2013, they generated more than 61% of total production, farm population - 24%, domestic farms - 15%. Regional plant growing today produces more than 72% of all agricultural products. In the sphere of animal husbandry, the authors recommend stabilizing dairy herd, to restore the normal functioning of pig farms, build and reconstruct farms and complexes, to increase the supply of quality feeds, to restore the productivity of animals and poultry, the quality level of the staffing industry. It is noted that the production of milk has become a pretty beneficial business; its profitability has risen to 37%. But meat production remains unprofitable due to weak motivation of investing, and problems with lending. There are also serious problems in technical support, especially to the sector of small farm management. As a result, producers suffer from significant financial losses due to the great timing of major agricultural companies. Attention is drawn to the unused opportunities of leasing machinery and equipment, negative policy of low wages for rural workers, and high number of farms which are in bankruptcy proceedings. To increase the stability of development of the agrarian economy, the authors recommend taking into account the peculiarities of financial-economic activity of small rural businesses

  11. Empleo y salarios en argentina en el periodo de la Post-Convertibilidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Javier Ibagón Martín

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El Articulo analiza los procesos de precarización laboral que se han dado en Argentina a la largo de los últimos 25 años, haciendo  especial énfasis en el llamado periodo de “post-convertibilidad” o “dólar alto”. En este sentido, se estudia para dicho periodo, la existencia de una serie de continuidades económicas y sociales  heredadas de la década del noventa, las cuales, ponen de manifiesto una serie de estrategias y políticas empleadas por parte de los sectores económicos dominantes, que les han permitido en buena parte, por un lado, transferir a las trabajadores los costos de las crisis económicas, y por otro, frenar el acceso de estos últimos a una             redistribución de la riqueza en tiempos de bonanza y crecimiento.Palabras clave: Empleo; Salarios bajos; Política Monetaria; Desindustrialización; Política Industrial. Employment and wages in argentina in the period of Post-ConvertibilityAbstract Article analyzes the processes of labor precariousness that have occurred in Argentina during the last 25 years, with particular emphasis in the period of “post-convertibility” or “high dollar”. In this direction, the existence of a number of inherited continuities of the nineties is studied. These legacies reveal a series of strategies and policies used by the dominant economic sectors, that have allowed them, on the one hand, transfer the costs of the economic crisis on workers, and secondly, curb the access of this group to a redistribution of wealth in good times and growth.Keywords: Employment; Low Wage; Monetary Policy; Deindustrialization; Industrial Policy.

  12. Social security: the Ponzi path to dystopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, D

    1998-10-01

    This article challenges the Ben Wattenberg view that Social Security solvency in the US is related to population growth. Population growth would only delay the problem and future sustainability and aggravate demographic and environmental conditions. The Social Security Trust Fund needs a remedy before 2013 and 2032. Revenues will only pay for 70-77% of benefits paid out to the elderly. Population size would need to increase by an additional 200 million to reach 600 million by 2050 in order to balance the ratio of workers to elderly. In 2013, 22.2% of immigrants and 19.1% of native population will be aged 65 years and older. The author shows population projections to 2050 to show the impact of increased immigration and a 4:1 ratio of working age to elderly persons. The pace of growth and the size of the growth would strain social resources, management ability, and infrastructure. Immigrants' low wages would not satisfy the trust income deficit. A doubling of the immigrant labor force by 2040 would also require an additional capital investment of over $20 trillion for equipment and training. The tripling of new immigrants since 1995 could increase immigration of aged parents. Solvency may be reached through policy shifts that would encourage more women to work for longer periods, eliminate pronatalist taxes, limit immigration to under 200,000 yearly, deter non-self-sufficient, unproductive immigrants, restrict immigration of those aged over 50 years, end evasion of Social Security taxes in the informal economy, charge user fees for sponsorship or employment of foreign workers, and deny retirement credits for those ineligible to work in the US. Policies should allow seniors to work.

  13. [Demand and supply of otolaryngology specialists based on evidence: What is the required number of specialists who should be trained?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Gómez, Serafín; Suárez Nieto, Carlos; Cobeta Marco, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    Several concurrent circumstances have created an impression through the media of a presumed lack of specialists in Spain, which has one of the highest densities of doctors per population in the world: simultaneous creation of jobs in many newly built hospitals; accepting garbage contracts (for months, half/thirds of days, shifts) in relevant hospitals rather than moving to unattractive positions; full dedication to the field of public or private healthcare rather than matching them; bad public healthcare working conditions (low wages, excessive healthcare pressure, lack of respect from the public and from healthcare managers, shifts, scarce professional promotion, difficult family reunification); decreased mobility due to insulation of the markets as a result of decentralization of healthcare by regions. There is no shortage of specialists in otolaryngology, but instead there are sporadic inequalities in their geographical distribution. The current number of positions as training doctors offered annually is higher at the moment than the demand of the Spanish society, for specialists who have adapted smoothly to the requirements of the new medical practice: clinical management, care quality, technology-based efficiency, evidence-based medicine. The modification of working conditions through higher flexibility in the working models and an increase of salaries based on activity and quality will show that the otolaryngology workforce which is generated with the current offer can assume the present and future demand. A high quality of specialized otolaryngology training is the substrate to be improved, so that future otolaryngology specialists will be able to face health challenges without unduly increasing their number.

  14. Determinants of the Egyptian labour migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, M; Metwally, M

    1992-03-01

    The objective is to summarize the pattern of Egyptian migration to Arab oil-producing countries (AOPC), to review some factors that are important determinants of labor movement based on theory, and to empirically model the migration rate to AOPC and to Saudi Arabia. Factors are differentiated as to their relative importance. Push factors are the low wages, high inflation rate, and high population density in Egypt; pull factors are higher wages. It is predicted that an increase in income from destination countries has a significant positive impact on the migration rate. An increase in population density stimulates migration. An increase in inflation acts to increase out-migration with a 2-year lag, which accommodates departure preparation. Egypt's experience with labor migration is described for the pre-oil boom, and the post-oil boom. Several estimates of labor migration are given. Government policy toward migration is positive. Theory postulates migration to be determined by differences in the availability of labor, labor rewards between destination and origin, and the cost of migration. In the empirical model, push factors are population density, the current inflation rate, and the ratio of income/capita in AOPC to Egypt. The results indicate that the ratio of income/capita had a strong pull impact and population density had a strong push impact. The inflation rate has a positive impact with a lag estimated at 2 years. Prior to the Camp David Accord, there was a significant decrease in the number of Egyptian migrants due to political tension. The findings support the classical theory of factor mobility. The consequences of migration on the Egyptian economy have been adverse. Future models should disaggregate data because chronic shortages exist in some parts of the labor market. Manpower needs assessment would be helpful for policy makers.

  15. The future of globalisation. Changes in value adding networks in times of global climate change, rising energy cost and short traffic infrastructure capacities. A study; Die Zukunft der Globalisierung. Die Veraenderung von Wertschoepfungsnetzwerken in Zeiten des Klimawandels, steigender Energiekosten und knapper Verkehrsinfrastrukturkapazitaeten. Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretzke, Wolf-Ruediger [Barkawi Management Consultants GmbH und Co. KG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    The authors examine the question of whether and to what extent globalization changes in the future. For this purpose, an expert survey is carried out. The results of this expert surveys are described in the contribution under consideration: (1) The vast majority of climate scientists says that limiting global warming to two degrees celsius only is possible if the developed industrial countries reduce their emissions by 80 % compared to the year 1990; (2) This inevitably requires interventions of the policy for sustainable management; (3) Despite the economic and financial crisis the policy shall not ease its ambitious targets in the medium term; (4) The threat of global warming is a global problem. The solution of this problem at political level requires a more advanced form of 'global governance'; (5) A significant increase in the petroleum price may affect the globally distributed industrial 'settlement structures' and the configuration of logistics networks. A possible adaptation may consist in multistage distribution systems with regional, customer-oriented stocks; (6) A stronger focus of companies to a low-polluting, sustainable business can be facilitated and supported by financial incentives; (7) It is not expected that professional buyers of companies do not sacrifice price advantages in low-wage countries; (8) Scale effects in the production by special factories result in a continuation of the current 'production footprints' even if this model significantly increases the transport intensity of the economy due to the longer distance between the place of production and the place of consumption; (9) In the logistics presumable there exists any other single measure to eliminate many pollutants such as the replacement of air cargo by sea freight; (10) Economic-historically, globalization has developed very quickly. The experts disagree on whether globalization slows down or whether the globalization changes at a constant speed.

  16. Is family planning an economic decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderink, S R

    1995-09-01

    This study examines economic models of household choice and the role of economic factors in determining the timing of births. A static economic model is presented and tested with data from the Netherlands. After the availability of contraceptives, the family size variable shifted from being an exogenous to an endogenous one, because births could be regulated. Costs of childbearing were construed to have maintenance costs for parents and society, attendance costs of care, and intangible costs such as anxiety or personal freedom. Benefits were intangible ones, such as joy and happiness; income; public benefits; and attendance benefits. Intangible benefits enlarged the utility of children, but maintenance costs diminished resources available for consumption. Child quality was a product of market goods purchased by parents and others and household labor. Household time allocation varied with child's age. Private responsibility for children varied by country. Quality of child care varied between countries and over time. Quality was dependent upon economies of scale, variable costs by the age of the child, variable time commitments by age of the child, and market substitutes for private child care. Higher income families spent more money but less time on children. It is pointed out that Becker's model explained number of children, but not timing of births. Postponement of birth was unlikely for those with a limited education, an unpleasant job, and low wages. When the advantages and disadvantages of having a baby were positive, spouses or single women with a high subjective preference were expected to bear a child as soon as possible. Government policy can affect the average family size by increasing or decreasing the financial and/or time burden of children. Postponement may be chosen based on long term analysis of a couple's future, the formation and use of capital, and/or high subjective time preference. Before and after first birth are different frames of reference

  17. The Influence Factors of Clothing Industry Transferring Dynamic Mechanism:the Comparative Analysis of Shanghai and Jiangxi Province%服装产业转移动力机制的影响因素研究--上海市和江西省的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡建忠

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai is the roll-out of the regional clothing industry, and Jiangxi province has become the undertaking by means of ex-cellent geographical location.Analyzing the influence factors of clothing industry transferringdynamic mechanism in terms of industrial e-conomy gradient difference, market size difference, business cost difference and industrial policy guidance, we concluded that economy gradient of Shanghai is higher than Jiangxi. The clothing industry of Jiangxi province is in the period of growth, and has sufficient labor, low wages and increasing demand, which promotes the transfer of Shanghai clothing industry.In order to speed up the transfer, the east-ern coastal areas and the central and western areas should make use of their own advantages.%上海市是服装区域产业的转出地,而江西省凭借优秀的地理位置成为了服装区域产业的承接地。通过对产业经济梯度差异、市场规模差异、商务成本差异、产业政策的引导措施等服装产业转移动力机制的影响因素进行分析,得出上海经济梯度高于江西经济梯度;江西服装产业处于成长期;江西省劳动力充足,工资低,而且人们对服装需求总量不断增加,这些都促进上海服装产业的转移。加快服装产业转移,东部沿海地区与中西部地区应利用自身优势快速的承接服装产业。

  18. Female labour force integration and the alleviation of urban poverty: a case study of Kingston, Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J

    1995-01-01

    The author posits that female labor force integration in Jamaica accomplishes little in alleviating poverty and making maximum use of human resources. Women are forced into employment in a labor market that limits their productivity. Women have greater needs to increase their economic activity due to price inflation and cuts in government spending. During the 1980s and early 1990s the country experienced stabilization and structural adjustment resulting in raised interest rates, reduced public sector employment, and deflated public expenditures. Urban population is particularly sensitive to monetary shifts due to dependency on social welfare benefits and lack of assets. Current strategies favor low wage creation in a supply-side export-oriented economy. These strategies were a by-product of import-substitution industrialization policies during the post-war period and greater control by multilateral financial institutions in Washington, D.C. The World Bank and US President Reagan's Caribbean Basin Initiative stressed export-oriented development. During the 1980s, Jamaican government failed to control fiscal policy, built up a huge external debt, and limited the ability of private businessmen to obtain money for investment in export-based production. Over the decade, uncompetitive production declined and light manufacturing increased. Although under 10% of new investment was in textile and apparel manufacturing, almost 50% of job creation occurred in this sector and 80% of all apparel workers were low-paid women. Devaluation occurred both in the exchange rate and in workers' job security, fringe benefits, union representation, and returns on skills. During 1977-89 women increased employment in the informal sector, which could not remain competitive under devaluation. Women's stratification in the labor market, high dependency burdens, and declining urban infrastructure create conditions of vulnerability for women in Jamaica.

  19. Child poverty can be reduced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  20. Mining lore : Chinese labourers in BC's coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, C.

    2010-09-15

    This article presented a historical review of Chinese labourers in Canada's industries and how they were often exploited and treated poorly. The 1860 gold rush in British Columbia attracted the first labourers from China. More labourers followed, the majority male, to work in the coal mines around Nanaimo. More than half the employees at coal baron Robert Dunsmuir's Wellington mine on Vancouver Island were Chinese labourers who worked under conditions and wages that other miners would not accept. During a large strike at the Wellington Mine in 1883, the striking white miners were replaced with Chinese from Victoria, which contributed to a brewing anti-Chinese sentiment. The striking miners eventually withdrew their demand for higher wages, insisting only that Dunsmuir rid his mine of the Chinese. Dunsmuir refused, held out, and broke the strike. When an anti-immigration bill was passed in 1884 by the British Columbia (BC) Legislative Assembly, the Canadian government stepped in, only to hire thousands of Chinese labourers to work on the railway. Their low wages saved contractors $3 million, making construction economically feasible. However, just a few weeks after blocking BC's anti-immigration bill, the Canadian government passed a Chinese Immigration Act that would come into effect only after construction was completed. The Act restricted and regulated Chinese immigration, and imposed a head tax on any Chinese entering the country, making it unaffordable to bring a wife and family to Canada. When the railroad was completed, thousands of Chinese labourers were left unemployed with nowhere to go. In 1887, an explosion at a Nanaimo mine killed 150 employees. The miners blamed the Chinese, claiming that their lack of English made them a safety hazard. By the early 1920s, the Chinese community in Victoria formed the Chinese Benevolent Association to provide general welfare assistance and oppose discriminatory laws. In 2006, the Canadian government

  1. 浅析我国基层公务员职业倦怠原因及对策%Analysis of the Reason and Its Countermeasures of Junior Civil Servants' Job Burnout in Our Country

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜

    2015-01-01

    Job burnout is as a universal career issue which every industry may encounter. Job burnout not only affects the health of the grass-roots civil servants,but also affects their working quality and efficiency,related to the governance and ad?ministrative efficiency of the government. The paper describes the coexistence of the heat exam of civil service and job burn?out,analyzes job burnout due to promotion difficulties,work pressure,relatively low wages of civil servants and their not es?tablishing correct professional values and other reasons,and puts forward countermeasures to relieve and prevent job burnout based on the actual situation.%职业倦怠作为一种普遍性职业问题,是每一个行业都可能会遇到的.职业倦怠问题不仅会影响基层公务员自身的身心健康,而且还会影响着基层公务员的工作质量和效率,关系到政府的执政水平和行政效能,文章通过介绍我国公务员报考热与公务员职业倦怠并存的现状,分析了基层公务员由于晋升困难、工作压力大、工资待遇比较低和基层公务员个人没有树立正确的职业价值观等原因而产生了职业倦怠,并针对基层公务员职业倦怠的实际情况,提出了相应的对策.

  2. An Empirical Research on China,s Price Stickiness%中国价格粘性的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡晓陈

    2012-01-01

    价格粘性程度是宏观经济短期分析的基础。本文以隐含的季度GDP缩减指数作为价格指数度量指标,采用Snordone(2002)与Gali&Gertler(1999)的方法实证估计了1992年第1季度至2012年第1季度的中国价格粘性程度。实证结果表明,中国价格粘性程度远低于发达国家(美国)的水平,价格平均持续时间为3.4~8.1个月。低工资粘性、缺乏长期买卖关系以及宏观环境的易变性是导致低价格粘性的主要原因。%Prices stickiness is the foundations of short-term macroeconomic analysis. This paper defines indicator of infla- tion as the quarterly implicit GDP deflator index, and use empirical methods of Snordone (2002) and Gall and Gertler (1999) to estimate the China prices stickiness from 1st quarter 1992 to 1st quarter 2012. The empirical results indicate that the China price average duration was 3.4-8.1 months, which shows that the degree of prices stickiness in China is far lower than in devel- oped countries (the United States). Low wage stickiness, lack of long-term business relationship and volatilities of the macro environment are key reasons of low price stickiness in China.

  3. ¿Evadir, corromper o confrontar? El crimen organizado y el Estado en Brasil y México

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Matthew M.; John Bailey

    2009-01-01

    Government and organized criminal groups co-exist in uneasy equilibrium. Criminal groups adjust their behavior as a function of their own goals and resources in relation to inter-group cooperation and conflict, dynamic markets, and public policies; governments adjust their behavior according to shifting perceptions of the benefits offered, threats posed, and strategies adopted by criminal groups. When governments attempt to control or repress their activities, criminal groups employ various t...

  4. Superconductivity in Cuba: Reaching the Frontline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arés Muzio, Oscar; Altshuler, Ernesto

    The start of experimental research in the field of superconductivity was a very special moment for Cuban physics: Cuban scientists at the Physics Faculty, University of Havana, synthesized the first Cuban superconductor (a 123-YBCO ceramic sample) just 2 months after the publication of the famous paper by Wu and co-workers that triggered the frantic race of High Tc superconductors all over the world. We timely joined the world's frontline in superconductor research.

  5. Healthcare waste management in selected government and private hospitals in Southeast Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Angus Nnamdi Oli; Callistus Chibuike Ekejindu; David Ufuoma Adje; Ifeanyi Ezeobi; Obiora Shedrack Ejiofor; Christian Chibuzo Ibeh; Chika Flourence Ubajaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess healthcare workers' involvement in healthcare waste management in public and private hospitals. Methods: Validated questionnaires (n = 660) were administered to randomly selected healthcare workers from selected private hospitals between April and July 2013. Results: Among the healthcare workers that participated in the study, 187 (28.33%) were medical doctors, 44 (6.67%) were pharmacists, 77 (11.67%) were medical laboratory scientist, 35 (5.30%) were waste handlers...

  6. Occupational mercury vapour poisoning with a respiratory failure, pneumomediastinum and severe quadriparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiechowicz, Jakub; Skoczynska, Anna; Nieckula-Szwarc, Agata; Kulpa, Katarzyna; Kübler, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Despite restrictions, mercury continues to pose a health concern. Mercury has the ability to deposit in most parts of the body and can cause a wide range of unspecific symptoms leading to diagnostic mistakes. Methods and results: We report the case of severe mercury vapour poisoning after occupational exposure in a chloralkali plant worker that resulted in life-threatening respiratory failure, pneumomediastinum and quadriparesis. Conclusions: Prolonged mechanical ventilation and treatment with penicillamine and spironolactone was used with successful outcome. PMID:28321305

  7. The origin of the chemical profiles of fungal symbionts and their significance for nestmate recognition in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Poulsen, Michael; Hefetz, Abraham;

    2007-01-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles are essential for nestmate recognition in insect societies, and quantitative variation in these recognition cues is both environmentally and genetically determined. Environmental cues are normally derived from food or nest material, but an exceptional situation may...... significantly with amides, aldehydes, and methyl esters contributing to the correlations, but acetates, alkanes, and formates being unrelated to genetic variation among symbionts. We show experimentally that workers that are previously exposed to and fed with the fungal symbiont of another colony are met...

  8. Occupational mobility in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Due, Jonas Røer

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates how yearly occupational mobility has developed in Norway between the years 1972 and 2015. It also analyses the characteristics of workers that experienced the most occupational switches, and control for demographic changes in the workforce of the population. To investigate this topic, this thesis uses quarterly panel data from the Norwegian Labor Force Survey, where several cleaning procedures have been conducted through the computer program STATA with additional calc...

  9. Embracing Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XINLIAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The labor force shortage in China's southeast coastal cities had many factory managers and owners wound tight with anticipation prior to the Chinese New Year,with many hopeful for an influx of migrant workers later in February.But when the Spring Festival that fell on February 14 this year concluded,enterprises and factories in the advanced coastal region did not experience the large inflow of migrant workers that had been expected.

  10. Strong Artificial Intelligence and National Security: Operational and Strategic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    howstuffworks.com/american-history/old-railroads htm. 3 The Luddites were a group of 19th-century English textile workers that protested the use of technology...19 Conclusion Several prominent innovators and scientists contend that strong AI will likely appear within the next few decades. Strong AI...Intelligence. Berkeley: Self Published. Hodjat, Babak. 2015. "The AI Resurgence: Why Now?" Wired: Innovation Insights Blog. March 24. Accessed March 25

  11. Postproduction agents : audiovisual design and contemporary constraints for creativity

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Moving images and sounds are processed creatively after they have been recorded or computer generated. These processes consists of design activities carried out by workers that hold ‘agency’ through the crafts they exercise, because these crafts are defined by the Moving Image Industry and are employed in practically the same way regardless of company. This thesis explores what material constraints there are for such creativity in contemporary Swedish professional moving image postproduction....

  12. Migrasi Internasional dan Pembangunan Daerah: Realitas dan Dualisme Kebijakan Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Haris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was an effort to understand the Sasak people migration phenomena to Malaysia and how those activities were placed in the local development policies This study was also done to understand its contribution in development process. This research was carried out in East Lombok and some sub.districts had been taken as area research sample, such as Pringgasela, Masbagik, Kerrie:1k and Sakra. The sample of research areas were chosen because statistically, were the most potential international migration sources in East Lombok and Lombok island in general. Based on this research, there are three conditions that forte the Sasak people migrate from their area of origin to Malaysia, e.g: poverty, lack of opportuniD4 and low wage compare to destination country. The inability of localgovernment to create new opportunity has become a main factor in all of the migration process. The increasing of employment growth that unbalanced with the growth of opportunity also creates open unemployment and under unemployment at the origin. This fact caused frustration among those of productive age that pushed them to get a better alternative of theirown. The fact also shows that localgovernmentfaced difficulties to put returnees in a clearposition in local development process. This was because there is no regulation that gives possibilities for returnees to involve in all of development process and policy implementation. Migrant participation in a whole development process, therefore, cannot be seen as a program made by government in order to give chance to the returnees directly involved. The other facts show of migrant workers' contribution in local economic development. The increasing of economic activities and local treading, workers substitution from farm to non farm are the real phenomenon that can be seen as their contribution in the whole of development process At the macro level, rnigrans' contribution has created new opportunity to improve economic

  13. AN EXPLORATORY RESEARCH OVER THE CHINESE PRODUCTS ON THE ROMANIAN MARKET

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    Aldea Roxana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we studied the influence on the Asian products over the consumer decision making. We observed that because of the economic crisis most of the people are buying products made in China, although they now that the quality and the price are lower. The factors that change the habits and the consumer behavior decision making are: the lower wage, the small number of work places and the prices of the products. Regarding the low price of Chinese products quality, some times arouses suspicions. Romania is a parts of the European Union and on the market there are various products made in European countries but also products made in China. People with low wages from the last step of social classes are prone to buy lower prices products. Other consumers on the contrary became more sensitive and they prefer to pay more than to buy products made in China. The quality prevails over the price and sometimes over the quantity although the money to spend are dwindled. The crisis affected consumer behavior, consumers have become more attentive to the country of origin and the disposable income for shopping. In order to validate some of the ideas the authors undertook a quantitative online research. The research had as purpose to identify the main influences of the decision making when the consumer buys Chinese products. The chosen investigation was the selective survey, the research technique was the exploratory interrogation and the research instrument – structured in online questionnaire. After research we found that the economic crisis caused consumer behavior change as a result of diminishing the income buyers, the consumer is placed in a position to buy products of questionable quality at low prices, mostly from China. Lower purchase price often makes Chinese goods represent an attractive option for consumers. On the other hand, the quality of Chinese products has proven to not comply with the quality expectations of the consumers, based on

  14. 大学生性别工资差异的实证研究--基于分位数回归与分解的发现%The Empirical Study of College Students' Gender Wage Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡颖

    2015-01-01

    利用2013年S高校大学生就业统计数据对大学生起薪的性别效应进行实证分析,分位数回归和分解的结果表明:均值分布和条件分布上,户籍、政治面貌、获奖层次、GPA、学科专业和就业地点对大学生起薪的影响具有显著的性别差异;就业企业、就业行业对大学生起薪的影响的性别效应仅在均值和部分分位数上显著;随着分位数的提高,大学生性别工资差异扩大,在收入分布的低端,特征效应是性别工资差异的主要原因,在收入分布的高端,性别工资差异主要由歧视引起,女生的“天花板效应”严重。%Using college students employment statistics of S university in 2013 ,this paper empirically studies gender wage gap. Quantile regression and decomposition results show that: The impact of household registration,political affiliation,awards lev-el,GPA,professional disciplines,and the location of the employment on college students' starting salaries has significant gen-der differences in the average distribution and conditional distribution;Gender effect of enterprise type and industry type to college students' starting salaries is significant in the average distribution and some quantile condition. With the improvement of quantile,college students' gender wage gap widenes;In low wage distribution,characteristics differential is the main reason for the gender wage gap;In high wage distribution,the gender wage gap is mainly caused by discrimination, the ceiling effect of girls is more apparent.

  15. 欧美企业劳资关系管理的演变及对我国的启示%The Evolution of Labor-capital Relations Management in U.S & European Enterprises and its Inspiration on the Labor-capital Relation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨观来

    2012-01-01

    U.S.and European companies has been in the competition on "low wages" during the "Free Competition Capitalist Period",and now have turned to the competition on "product differentiation and low cost of both " in the "Era of Economic Globalization".Which has led U.S.and European companies to increasingly depend on employee human capital and employee active cooperation.Therefore has narrowed the gap of bargaining power between employees and employers,with the evolution of internal labor relations management from the "Oppressive" to the "humane" management for core employees.Our government should guide enterprises to adapt to the "low cost and product differentiation both" competition on world market,and encourage enterprises to turn to human capital competition from low-wage competition,so that employers have an incentive to improve the internal labor relations management of enterprise.%随着欧美企业竞争重点由原来的"低成本"向现在的"产品差别化和低成本并重"竞争的演变,企业生存与发展对雇员人力资本和主动合作的依赖性不断增强,这缩小了雇主和雇员之间谈判力差距,企业内部劳资关系管理也逐渐由"压制式"管理走向目前以核心雇员为中心的"人性化"管理。我国政府应引导企业适应目前世界市场的"低成本和产品差别化并重"的竞争,促使企业由"低工资"竞争转向人力资本竞争,使雇主有动力改善企业内部劳资关系管理。

  16. 深圳市护士压力水平及相关因素分析%The pressure level of nurses in Shenzhen special administrative region and its influencing factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟园芬; 陈艳玲

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨深圳市护士工作压力水平及相关因素,以采取针对性的心理干预,设法减少工作压力,提高护士的工作效率及护理质量.方法 采用问卷调查法,参照工作压力源量表对深圳特区250名护士进行调查,并对结果进行分析.结果 担心工作中出差错,经常倒班,工资及其他福利低,护理工作的性质及社会地位,深造及进修机会太少,患者、家属及社会认同度低是特区护士的主要工作压力源.不同岗位、护龄、学历护士的工作压力源亦不相同.结论 特区护士心理压力大,建议从管理角度减少或消除护士工作压力源,并对护士进行减轻工作压力训练,针对具体情况进行减压.%Objective To discuss the pressure level of nurses in Shenzhen special administrative region (SAR) and its influencing factors and adopt selective psychological intervention to alleviate their working pressure,increase working efficiency and nursing quality. Methods The investigation by questionnaires was carried out by reference of working stress scale in 250 nurses and the results were analyzed.Results The main sources of working pressure include being afraid of making mistakes during work,frquent shift-work, low wages and other benefits,the character and social status of nursing work,less chances of advanced study and continuing education,lower recognition by patients,family and society.The working pressure was different in nurses with different position,time length of nursing work and education background. Conclusion Great working pressure existed in nurses in Shenzhen special administrative region(SAR).It is suggested that the management department should lessen or eliminate nurses'working pressure sourcs.Besides, they should practice measures to alleviate nurses'working pressure according to selective conditions.

  17. Trabalho infanto-juvenil: motivações, aspectos legais e repercussão social Child and adolescent labor: factors, legal aspects, and social repercussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Cruz Neto

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A população infanto-juvenil constitui-se hoje em um dos segmentos mais prejudicados pelo acirramento dos problemas sócio-econômico-culturais que o País enfrenta. O não oferecimento por parte do poder público de uma rede de ensino de qualidade e universal, a concentração de renda, os baixos salários, o desemprego e a desestruturação das famílias são fatores que vêm afetando diretamente a trajetória de vida de crianças e adolescentes, abrigando-os a inserirem-se precocemente no mercado de trabalho, no qual seus direitos como "cidadãos em condições especiais de desenvolvimento" são seguidamente vilipendiados. O presente artigo objetiva fornecer subsídios para a erradicação do trabalho infantil e para a adequação da atividade laboral juvenil ao preconizado pela legislação brasileira. Para isso, procura levantar na Constituição Federal, na Consolidação das Leis Trabalhistas e no Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente as situações em que estas atividades são ­ ou não ­ permitidas, dirimindo as possíveis divergências existentes entre estes instrumentos jurídicos e analisando seus aspectos sociais.Children and youth are currently one of the population segments most heavily jeopardized by the worsening of social, economic, and cultural problems in Brazil. Factors such as lack of government support for a sound, universally accessible school system, income concentration, low wages, unemployment, and family dysfunction have direct impacts on the life histories of children and adolescents, forcing them to join the labor market early, where their rights as "citizens with special developmental conditions" are routinely ignored. This article aims to provide support for the eradication of child labor and the adaptation of adolescent labor to the terms of the pertinent Brazilian legislation. To this end, the article reviews the Federal Constitution, Consolidated Labor Laws, and Statute for Children and Adolescents to

  18. Journalists' working conditions in Chiapas/ La condición laboral del periodista en Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ddo. Hugo A. Villar Pinto; hvillar@unach.mx

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Even if they are at the center of the opinion and the information, journalists are not well-known. In fact, we know little about them: their salary, the relationships they establish with their sources, the values they profess, their level of education, their social security benefits and their work routines. In the absence of studies about journalists in the context of Chiapas, Mexico, this work aims to investigate the conditions under which journalists perform, the average salary they receive, their benefits and the social organizations they belong to. In Chiapas, there are approximately 300 journalists; the remaining employees are sometimes involved in the tasks of information and opinion. We have focused on these 300 journalists in order to do this project. They have become the object of our study. We surveyed 158 journalists who live in different parts of the state and, afterwards, we interviewed 88 of them. The article shows the workings conditions in which the Chiapas journalists perform their job: low wages and little support from their companies to carry out their task of providing information.Aunque están en el centro de la opinión y de la información, los periodistas son poco conocidos. Se sabe escasamente de ellos: salarios, relaciones que establecen con sus fuentes, valores que profesan, grados de estudio, prestaciones sociales y rutinas laborales. Ante la inexistencia de estudios sobre el periodista chiapaneco en el contexto de Chiapas, México, este trabajo tiene como objetivo indagar las condiciones en que se desempeña el periodista, el salario promedio que percibe, prestaciones sociales y las organizaciones a las que pertenece.El número aproximado de periodistas en Chiapas es de 300; el restante son colaboradores que participan ocasionalmente en las labores de información y opinión. En esos 300 nos hemos centrado para hacer este trabajo. Ellos fueron nuestro objeto de estudio. Encuestamos a 158 comunicadores que viven en

  19. PERAN GANDA PEREMPUAN PEMETIK TEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Kusumawati

    2013-04-01

    , located near the tea plantation PT Pagilaran where many women of this village became tea pickers. Observation, interviews, and documentation were used in data collection. The validity of data is done by triangulation of data sources and analysis was conducted by interpretative analysis. This study explains that women has multiple roles in domestic and public, and this has impact in their life. The tea pickers women still have good social interactions with family, and even expanding relationships with the community. In terms of economics, the profession as a tea picker does not significantly raise the women’s welfare because of low wages they receive. But with economic independence that they gain as tea leaves pickers, these women have an active role in decision-making in the family. This socio-economic demands shouldered upon these women also reduce levels of discrimination.

  20. Fighting poverty: the economic adjustment of female migrants in Dhaka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq-hussain, S

    1995-10-01

    jobs more than once. 44% were satisfied with their work. Women were unhappy with low wages, tiring and hard work, and long working hours.

  1. The Importance of Community Consultations for Generating Evidence for Health Reform in Ukraine

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    Olena Hankivsky

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The paper presents the results of community consultations about the health needs and healthcare experiences of the population of Ukraine. The objective of community consultations is to engage a community in which a research project is studying, and to gauge feedback, criticism and suggestions. It is designed to seek advice or information from participants directly affected by the study subject of interest. The purpose of this study was to collect first-hand perceptions about daily life, health concerns and experiences with the healthcare system. This study provides policy-makers with additional evidence to ensure that health reforms would include a focus not only on health system changes but also social determinants of health (SDH. Methods The data collection consisted of the 21 community consultations conducted in 2012 in eleven regions of Ukraine in a mix of urban and rural settings. The qualitative data was coded in MAXQDA 11 software and thematic analysis was used as a method of summarizing and interpreting the results. Results The key findings of this study point out the importance of the SDH in the lives of Ukrainians and how the residents of Ukraine perceive that health inequities and premature mortality are shaped by the circumstances of their daily lives, such as: political and economic instability, environmental pollution, low wages, poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and unsatisfactory state of public services. Study participants repeatedly discussed these conditions as the reasons for the perceived health crisis in Ukraine. The dilapidated state of the healthcare system was discussed as well; high out-of-pocket (OOP payments and lack of trust in doctors appeared as significant barriers in accessing healthcare services. Additionally, the consultations highlighted the economic and health gaps between residents of rural and urban areas, naming rural populations among the most vulnerable social groups in Ukraine

  2. The Haitian Rice Tariff

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    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  3. Professores, desencanto com a profissão e abandono do magistério Teachers, disenchantment in the profession and quitting the public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavinês Rebolo Lapo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ao examinar a questão do abandono do magistério público na rede de ensino do Estado de São Paulo, este artigo teve como principal objetivo compreender de que modo esse processo é tecido ao longo da vida e da experiência profissional dos professores. O estudo focalizou o período de 1990-1995 e se baseou em dados quantitativos, obtidos na Secretaria Estadual de Educação, a partir dos quais verificou-se, no interregno, um aumento da ordem de 300% nos pedidos de exoneração do magistério, e em dados qualitativos, obtidos de um questionário, enviado a 158 ex-professores da rede pública, e de 16 entrevistas sobre histórias de vida profissional. As análises evidenciam que, além dos baixos salários, as precárias situações, a insatisfação no trabalho e o desprestígio profissional estão entre os fatores que mais contribuem para que os professores deixem a profissão docente. Mostram também que esse processo acontece lentamente, por meio de uma série de mecanismos pessoais e institucionais de que os docentes fazem uso, até que ocorra o abandono definitivo.The goal of this study was to investigate why teachers give up their work at the State of São Paulo (Brazil public schools, understanding how this process is woven throughout their lives and professional experience. The study focused on the period between 1990 and 1995, and was based on two types of data: quantitative data, collected from the State Secretariat for Education revealed an increasing of 300%, approximately, in teachers' resignations in that period. Qualitative data were obtained through answers given to 158 questionnaire, besides 16 interviews on teachers' professional life histories. The analyses showed that, apart from low wages, bad working conditions, professional debasement, and dissatisfaction at work were among the factors that contributed most to teachers' disenchantment in their profession. They also showed that quitting does not happen suddenly. The

  4. CCU与心内科护士工作压力及其应对方式调查与分析%An investigation of work related stress and coping strategies in nursing staff with different backgrounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽华; 姚景鹏; 肖怡娜

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To understand the main work related stress in a sample of nursing staff with different backgrounds and how they dealt with them, in order to facilitate nurses to improve their coping strategies. Methods: 126 nurses in the department of cardiology and CCU from 4 third class A hospitals in Beijing were involved in this study, a self-assessed questionnaire survey was conducted. Results: The leading work related stress were low wages and unsatisfied ware fare services; work related stress of nurses in the department of cardiology was higher than those in CCU, and there were statistical significances in the aspects of workloads; work related stress was higher in nurses with lower educational backgrounds; work related stress was higher in senior nurses than junior nurses; there was room for improvements in post registration education. Conclusion: The findings suggested that more effective stress management strategies should be the key to relieve work related stress among nurses in order to achieve effective patient care with good quality.%目的:了解不同层次的CCU与心内科护士的工作压力源及其应对方式,以提高护士的应对能力和工作效率以及护理质量.方法:采用问卷调查法,选取北京市4所三级甲等医院的126名心内科和CCU临床护士参与本研究.结果:调查对象工作压力处于较高状态,主要源于工资及其他福利待遇低;心内科护士较CCU护士工作压力更大,在工作量及时间分配上二者差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);高中或中专学历的护士在护理专业及工作方面压力比大专护士高(P<0.05);护师职称的护理人员在工作量及时间分配、病人护理方面较护士压力大(P<0.05).结论:建议从管理角度有针对性地对不同层次、不同科室护士给予相应的干预以减少其工作压力,改进在职教育方式,加强沟通.

  5. In Search of Work – the Life of Croatian Immigrant Men in Canada between the Two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Ružić

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to describe the life of Croatian immigrants in Canada duringthe interwar period. She looks at how emigration to Canada effected family life, especially for men who went abroad in search of work and higher earnings. To begin the article, the author surveys the existing historiography, in particular the new trends in social history that examine the everyday life of “average” men and women which have opened new approaches in immigration history, paying less attention to the political and diplomatic events surrounding migration studies. Her methodological approach follows concepts developed by the “new” social history and is based on a theoretical concept of masculinity. The major primary source for her research is Canadian/Croatian Voice which was printed in Canada in Croatian, but she also leans heavily on important historiographical literature concerning Croatian immigrants in Canada. In her article the author provides a short survey of the emigration of Croatians to Canada which grows after an agreement was signed in 1925 between the Canadian government and the two large railway companies, Canadian Pacific Railway and Canadian National Railway. The major portion of the work examines the life of Croatian men in isolated labour camps, the hard working conditions, the constant search for work, and the psychological effects of long years of separation from family. Men leave for Canada with the intent of staying for only a certain period of time in order to bring money back home. But in the event of the economic crisis created by the Great Depression, low wages, and periods of unemployment, the length of the stay in Canada grows, creating frustration among the immigrant men as well as their families back home. In conclusion, the author shows how improving economic conditions in Canada in the mid 1930s coupled with worsening conditions in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia led most men to find steady employment in

  6. The dual labour market theory and the informal sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Uys

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the paper: The purpose of this paper is to revisit the dual labour market theory as far as the informal sector in South Africa is concerned. The hypothesis is that the dual labour market theory must be extended in order to be applicable to the informal sector of the South African economy. It is our view that within some informal occupations a further segmentation exists. Problem investigated: Among South Africa ’s grave socio-economic problems, unemployment is one of the most serious and intractable. An increase in informal and self-employment was experienced during the last decades. Traditional dual labour market theory maintains that jobs can be roughly divided into two groups: those with low wages, bad working conditions, unstable employment and little opportunity for advancement; and those with relatively high wages, good working conditions and opportunities for advancement. The problem that confronts researchers is that even within informal employment, further segmentation is possible. Approach: To determine whether the dualism, that described by the dual labour market theory, is also present within the informal sector itself, available data on a typical informal sector activity, namely car guarding, is analysed. This provides the evidence to achieve the objective of this paper. Findings and implications: The case study of car guards confirms that the dual labour market theory can also apply within the informal sector on the condition that it is expanded to make provision for a further segmentation of the periphery sector. This finding presents several important policy implications. A basket of policies is needed to address the problem of unemployment as effectively as possible. Value of the research: The paper provides further knowledge on informal employment in South Africa. This is an area that requires a lot of attention, given the importance of the informal sector in South Africa and Africa at large. It goes further than

  7. Comparative analysis on job stressors between non-active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses%非现役文职护士和合同护士压力源对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺杰

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较非现役文职护士和合同护士的工作压力源和应对方式.方法:采用工作压力源量表和简易应对方式量表,对30名非现役文职护士和30名合同护士进行问卷调查.结果:非现役文职护士与合同护士在专业及社会地位、工作量方面的工作压力源比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);但在工作环境和资源、病人护理、管理及人际关系方面的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).相同条目得分比较,担心工作出现差错事故、工资及其他福利待遇低和地位低三个条目差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).应对方式得分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:非现役文职护士和合同护士工作压力源不同,护理管理者应采取有针对性的减压措施.%ObjectiveiTo compare the job stressors and coping style between non-active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses. Methods: Thirty non- active civil servant nurses and thirty contracted nurses were recruited and investigated with Job Stressor Scale and Simplified Coping Style ' Questionnaire. Results .-There was significant difference in professional development and social status as well as workload (P0. 05). In comparison of identical items, there was significant diffierence in worry over nursing error and mistake, low wages and material benefits as well as low status (P0. 05). Conclusions:There are different job stressors between non -active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses. Nursing administrators should take corresponding measures to relieve nurses'job stress.

  8. Comparative analysis on job stressors between non-active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses%非现役文职护士和合同护士压力源对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To compare the job stressors and coping style between non —active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses. Methods: Thirty non—active civil servant nurses and thirty contracted nurses were recruited and investigated with Job Stressor Scale and Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire. ResultS:There was significant difference in professional development and social status as well as workload (P0. 05). In comparison of identical itemsi there was significant difference in worry over nursing error and mistake, low wages and material benefits as well as low status (P0. 05). Conclusions: There are different job stressors between non—active civil servant nurses and contracted nurses. Nursing administrators should take corresponding measures to relieve nurses'job stress.%目的:比较非现役文职护士和合同护士的工作压力源和应对方式.方法:采用工作压力源量表和简易应对方式量表,对30名非现役文职护士和30名合同护士进行同卷调查.结果:非现役文职护士与合同护士在专业及社会地位、工作量方面的工作压力源比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);但在工作环境和资源、病人护理、管理及人际关系方面的差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).相同条目得分比较,担心工作出现差错事故、工资及其他福利待遇低和地位低三个条目差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).应对方式得分差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:非现役文职护士和合同护士工作压力源不同,护理管理者应采取有针对性的减压措施.

  9. Discussion on the Meaning of Operating Room Nursing Check System in the Prevention of Nursing Disputes%探讨手术室护理查对制度在防范护理纠纷中的意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惠

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨手术室护理人员心理压力源分析及防范策略。方法:将27例护理人员作为调查对象,采用自制调查问卷对其心理压力的原因进行统计分析,并提出防范策略。结果:手术室护理人员心理压力源依次为经常倒班及工作量太大、无用的书面工作太多、工作环境对健康的威胁、工资福利待遇低、进修学习机会少、竞争压力大、工作的高度风险等。结论:通过采取积极的主观措施减轻手术室护理人员的心理压力,消除或降低这些压力给手术室护土造成的身体和心理伤害,以提高工作效率。%Objective:To investigate the prevention measures and the source of psychological stress of nursing staff in the operation room. Methods:All 27 nurses were selected as the subjects, the reasons of psychological stress of nursing staff were ananlyzed statistically with selfmade questionnaires, and the prevention measures were raised according to the reasons of psychological stress. Results:The sources of psychological stress of nursing staff in the operating room were:shifting frequently, heavy workload, too much useless paper work, the threat of work environ-ment to the health, low wages and benefits, few chances to mid-caree studies, too much stress, high risk of the job and others. Conclusion:Positive subjective measures should be taken to find out an outlet of psychological stress of the nursing staff in the operating room, in order to get rid of or reduce physical and psychological damage to nurses in the operating room induced by the pressure, consequently to improve work efficiency.

  10. Decent wage is more important than absolution of debts: A smallholder socio-hydrological modelling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2015-04-01

    We present a framework to understand the socio-hydrological system dynamics of a small holder. Small holders are farmers who own less than 2 ha of farmland. It couples the dynamics of 6 main variables that are most relevant at the scale of a small holder: local storage (soil moisture and other water storage), capital, knowledge, livestock production, soil fertility and grass biomass production. The hydroclimatic variability is at sub-annual scale and influences the socio-hydrology at annual scale. The model incorporates rule-based adaptation mechanisms (for example: adjusting expenditures on food and fertilizers, selling livestocks etc.) of small holders when they face adverse socio-hydrological conditions, such as low annual rainfall, higher intra-annual variability in rainfall or variability in agricultural prices. We apply the framework to understand the socio-hydrology of a sugarcane small holder in Aurangabad, Maharashtra. This district has witnessed suicides of many sugarcane farmers who could not extricate themselves out of the debt trap. These farmers lack irrigation and are susceptible to fluctuating sugar prices and intra-annual hydro-climatic variability. We study the sensitivity of annual total capital averaged over 30 years, an indicator of small holder wellbeing, to initial capital that a small holder starts with and the prevalent wage rates. We find that a smallholder well being is low (below Rs 30000 per annum, a threshold above which a smallholder can afford a basic standard of living) and is rather insensitive to initial capital at low wage rates. Initial capital perhaps matters to small holder livelihoods at higher wage rates. Further, the small holder system appears to be resilient at around Rs 115/mandays in the sense that small perturbations in wage rates around this rate still sustains the smallholder above the basic standard of living. Our results thus indicate that government intervention to absolve the debt of farmers is not enough. It

  11. Investigation of Status Quo and Difficulties of Employees' Wage Growth Mechanism%企业职工工资正常增长机制建设现状和面临困境探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绮雯

    2012-01-01

    摘要企业职工工资正常增长机制是保障企业职工工资随经济效益提高及其他因素变化而相应协调合理、持续增长的体制和制度。改革开放特别是“十一五”以来,我国企业职工工资增长机制建设取得显著成效,职工收入大幅度提高。但同时由于协商主体缺位、法律不健全、政府调控乏力、体制性障碍等导致一线职工工资偏低、增长缓慢,行业间收入差距扩大等诸多问题,制约了职工工资正常增长机制建设。解决制约职工工资正常增长机制建设的关键问题,要完善劳动力市场,消除行业壁垒,建立健全法律法规,加强工会组织建设,明确有关部门职责,形成合力,共同推进。%With the economic development and higher efficiency, salary growth mechanism for enterprise employees is the corresponding rational, coordinated and sustained system. Since the "Eleventh Five-Year", salary growth mechanism for enterprise employees achieved remarkable results. But at the same time, there are many problems, which restrict the normal construction of wages growth mechanism, such as the absence of consultations on the main, the imperfect law, weak government regulation, institutional barriers, the front-line workers low wages, slow growth, widening income gap between the industry and many other issues. It is of vital importance to improve the labor market, eliminate the trade barriers, establish and improve laws and regulations, strengthen the trade union organizations, and clear the duties of relevant departments.

  12. Supporting employees' work-family needs improves health care quality: Longitudinal evidence from long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Kelly, Erin L; Bacic, Janine; DePasquale, Nicole; Hurtado, David; Kossek, Ellen; Sembajwe, Grace

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from U.S.-based employees in 30 long-term care facilities. Analysis of semi-structured interviews from 154 managers informed quantitative analyses. Quantitative data include 1214 employees' scoring of their supervisors and their organizations on family supportiveness (individual scores and aggregated to facility level), and three outcomes: (1), care quality indicators assessed at facility level (n = 30) and collected monthly for six months after employees' data collection; (2), employees' dichotomous survey response on having additional off-site jobs; and (3), proportion of employees with additional jobs at each facility. Thematic analyses revealed that managers operate within the constraints of an industry that simultaneously: (a) employs low-wage employees with multiple work-family challenges, and (b) has firmly institutionalized goals of prioritizing quality of care and minimizing labor costs. Managers universally described providing work-family support and prioritizing care quality as antithetical to each other. Concerns surfaced that family-supportiveness encouraged employees to work additional jobs off-site, compromising care quality. Multivariable linear regression analysis of facility-level data revealed that higher family-supportive supervision was associated with significant decreases in residents' incidence of all pressure ulcers (-2.62%) and other injuries (-9.79%). Higher family-supportive organizational climate was associated with significant decreases in all falls (-17.94%) and falls with injuries (-7.57%). Managers' concerns about additional jobs were not entirely unwarranted: multivariable logistic regression of employee-level data revealed that among employees with children, having family-supportive supervision was associated with significantly higher likelihood of additional off-site jobs (RR 1.46, 95%CI 1.08-1.99), but family-supportive organizational climate was associated with lower likelihood

  13. O pulo do gato da pequena indústria precária Tricks up their sleeves: business strategies in small industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Noronha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os resultados de pesquisa sobre o processo de transição da ilegalidade e/ou informalidade para a formalidade, vivenciado por arranjos produtivos intensivos em mão-de-obra e inseridos em mercados precários nas regiões Nordeste e Centro-oeste do Brasil. A pesquisa revelou que o processo de mudança resultou de momentos de crise ou rupturas, e não de uma evolução em que os atores teriam sentido necessidade de cooperar para a solução de problemas de interesse coletivo. Essa cooperação foi posterior ou, mais especificamente, só foi possível pela atuação de instituições que deram origem à crise e estiveram presentes em seu enfrentamento. Em Jaraguá (GO, a instituição determinante da mudança foi o aparato legal necessário para a inserção no mercado formal; em Toritama (PE, a promotoria pública e a agência governamental de meio ambiente levaram à necessidade de buscar soluções menos poluentes entre os empresários locais.This paper presents the main research findings of a study conducted in two industrial districts and what I refer to here as Local Industrial Arrangements - LIAs. The research focuses on the transition from a situation characterized by informal or illegal production, low wages and precarious work conditions, to one characterized by high levels of productivity/quality/fair labour conditions. The findings of the empirical study reveal the importance of specific institutions in the transition from a widespread informality to the more stable and sustainable situation of the LIAs. In the case of Jaraguá (GO, it was the legal framework that enabled this change and the subsequent impact on local development, while in the case of Toritama (PE, transition was stimulated by the cooperation between legal and environmental institutions.

  14. Dental practice during a world cruise: treatment needs and demands of crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotta, Bernhard A J; John, Mike T; Nitschke, Ina

    2007-01-01

    To describe dental treatment needs and demands of crew on a cruise ship during a world cruise. The routine dental documentation of a two months period at sea on a cruise ship carrying 999 crew was analysed. Age, gender, diagnosis, treatment performed, percentage of emergency and routine procedures, number of appointments, duration of appointment and time since last visit to the dentist were recorded. Oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) was measured using the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile. Subjects were n = 56 crew with a mean age of 37 (+/- 12.0) years. Out of 114 patient contacts n = 29 (25%) were for emergency treatment. Caries and its sequelae accounted for 85% of time spent treating emergencies and 50% of routine treatment time. The two most frequent treatment options during emergency appointments were extractions and endodontics. In routine cases fillings and periodontal treatment were dominating. Per 1000 persons per month crew required 14.5 emergency plus 42.5 routine appointments. 80 % of crew had seen a dentist within 12 months before their shipboard dental appointment. Oral health-related quality of life was most impaired in case of emergency patients with a particular emphasis on the diagnosis of pulpal disease. High numbers of dental emergencies largely due to caries indicated that International Labour Organisation (ILO) recommendations requiring seafarers to be dentally fit were not adhered to. It is suggested that some doctors performing pre-sea medical examinations may not adequately diagnose caries. A pre-sea examination by a dental professional has the potential to reduce the number of emergency port referrals to dentists. Treatment costs and attitude to preventive dental care were identified as barriers impeding the access of low-wage crew to the ship's dental clinic. Cosmetic dentistry and prophylaxis attracted those crew with an interest in prevention and the ability to pay the fees. In large cruise ships there is a substantial

  15. Rural Land Institutions and Labor Relations of Migrant Workers in China%中国农村土地制度与农民工劳资关系状况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯风云; 潘芸红

    2016-01-01

    中国农村集体土地产权制度对农民工劳资关系状况的影响是很明显的,尤其是对农民工工资水平的影响。研究表明,中国农村集体土地产权制度对中国农民、外出务工人员以及改革开放后的中国经济发展有积极影响,稳定的农村土地制度为外出务工农民提供了一个基本的保障和劳资谈判底线,在某种程度上起到了对农民工权益的保护作用。实行土地私有制的印度难以确保土地权的稳定,大量农民失去土地,流落城市贫民窟,忍受低工资盘剥。因此,城镇化是一个自然过程,城镇化过程一定要充分考虑农民工进城的生存能力,任何行政命令式的推进都会事与愿违,带来严重后果。%This paper examines the impact of collective land ownership in rural China on labor relations of migrant workers ,especially on migrants’ wages .The results indicate that the collective land ownership in rural China has a positive impact on Chinese farmers ,migrant workers and China’ s economic development since the reform and opening up . T he stability of land tenure provides a basic protection and bottom line of labor negotiations for migrant workers ,which serves as some kind of unemployment insurance mechanism to protect their labor rights .By comparison ,the private land ow nership in India fails to ensure the stability of land tenure ,and many Indian farmers have lost their land and have to live in urban slums enduring low wages and poor living conditions .The policy implication is that urbanization is a natural process ,w hich must take into full account the ability of rural migrant workers to survive in cities ,and any administration intervention by the government to push the urbanization forward is likely to be counterproductive with serious consequences .

  16. 西方发达国家福利制度的重构——基于终身学习的视角%Reconstruction of Welfare System in Western Developed Countries——From the Perspective of Lifelong Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪燕敏; 金静

    2012-01-01

    The modern welfare system is essential to economic development and social cohesion of capitalist countries after WW II.Since the 1990s,welfare system has involved in crisis,which arises from the infeasibility of full employment.Low-wage strategy can expand employment,but it faces the growing crisis of full protection.From the perspective of dynamics of skill formation,lifelong learning strategy may provide an overall solution to achieve the balance between employment and wages.The determinant of policy effectiveness lies in that capital is invested in the education system which can maximize social return.For liberal countries and corporatism countries,the children from disadvantaged families need more protection;and for social democratic countries,the control of labor market should be relaxed and private return ratio on education be improved.%现代福利制度对战后资本主义国家的经济发展和社会融合起了重要作用。20世纪90年代以来福利制度的危机根源于充分就业的坍塌。低工资战略可以扩大就业,但会面临充分保护日益增长的危机。从技能形成的动态性来看,终身学习战略可能提供了一个在就业与工资间达到均衡的总体积极的解决办法。政策有效性的关键在于资金被投资于能够产生最高社会回报的教育体系。对于自由主义国家和法团主义国家来说,需要加强弱势家庭的儿童保护;而对于社会民主国家来说,应该放松劳动力市场,提高教育的个人收益率。

  17. Economic effects of recent immigration on American workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreitas, G

    1988-01-01

    DeFreitas examines the principal positions which have emerged among economists about immigration's impact, and reports results of his empirical analysis of the wage and employment effects of both recent undocumented aliens and settled migrants on native-born workers. A large 1980 census microdata bank is used to permit separate estimates for men and women, subdivided by race and Spanish origin. The sample used includes male and female respondents, ages 16-64, in the 79 largest metropolitan areas in the country. To test the segmented labor market model, the author acquired the detailed industrial/occupational matrix developed by Gerald Oster and David Gordon and applied it to the 1980 census microdata. A multivariate regression procedure was used to evaluate immigrant influence on employment and wage levels. The study shows that migrant workers today are disproportionately concentrated in low-wage jobs in distinct industries. Contrary to common belief, recent immigrants do not typically constitute a high-turnover labor pool with unemployment above that of similar natives. Results indicate that increased migration does not significantly affect the employment or wages of native-born Hispanics. Recent undocumented migration does reduce black men's employment and black women's wages; larger concentrations of settled immigrants are associated with lower Anglo wages, but the estimated magnitudes of these effects are not large. Empirical analysis raises questions about the direct applicability to modern immigration of the coreperiphery segmentation scheme used in the dual labor market literature. Nevertheless, the findings appear to be far less consistent with theories emphasizing migrant-native suitability over complementarity. Employment and training programs that provide upward mobility for natives, coupled with stepped-up unionization efforts among both the native and migrant unskilled seem more promising ameliorative measures than present policies focused on

  18. 流动人口工作时间及影响因素研究--基于2013年流动人口动态监测数据的经验分析%The Study on the Work-Time and Influencing Factors for the Employed-Migrants-An Empirical Analysis Based on the Dynamic Monitoring Data of the Migrant in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗俊峰; 童玉芬

    2016-01-01

    Based on the dynamic monitoring data of the migrant in 2013 from National Family Planning Commission,adopting the method of Ordinal logistic regression,the paper uses the weekly working hours to measure the working time of migrant workers and further discusses the influencing factors.The characteristics of the individual laborers and their employment are significant effect,which are respectively the factors of the age ,the education ,the gender,the household registration and the state of health ,employment career,industry of employment,employment unit nature and employment income.We should pay attention to the over fatigue problem of migrant workers who are in low education and low-wage ,make the specification of the labor standard system,and strengthen the power of supervision of long working hours for those who work in the labor-intensive enterprise,the self-employer,the private enterprise.%基于2013年流动人口动态监测数据,采用有序多元回归计量分析方法深入探讨了流动人口工作时间的影响因素。研究发现:年龄、受教育程度、性别、户口性质、健康状况等个体特征和就业职业、就业行业、就业单位性质、工资收入等就业特征对流动人口工作时间影响显著。应该关注低知低薪农民工群体的过劳问题,规范劳动标准制度,加大对劳动密集型企业、个体户、私营企业劳动者超长工作时间的监管力度。

  19. Trabalho e sofrimento psíquico de caixas de agências bancárias na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Work and psychological distress among bank tellers in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Palácios

    2002-06-01

    rules and blames them for "discrepancies" in the till. The form of work organization also fails to support tellers in answering customer demands appropriately. The context of low wages and major transformations favoring workers' isolation generates insecurity over their future, viewed as lack of individual recognition. An approach to tellers' actual working conditions allowed for an understanding of stress factors and their determinants.

  20. Heat generation caused by ablation of dental restorative materials with an ultra short pulse laser (USPL) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Wehry, Richard; Brede, Olivier; Frentzen, Matthias; Schelle, Florian

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess heat generation in dental restoration materials following laser ablation using an Ultra Short Pulse Laser (USPL) system. Specimens of phosphate cement (PC), ceramic (CE) and composite (C) were used. Ablation was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm and a pulse length of 8 ps. Heat generation during laser ablation depended on the thickness of the restoration material. A time delay for temperature increase was observed in the PC and C group. Employing the USPL system for removal of restorative materials, heat generation has to be considered.

  1. Spin-1/2 Maxwell Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Armour, R S

    2003-01-01

    Requiring covariance of Maxwell's equations without {\\it a priori} imposing charge invariance allows for both spin-1 and spin-1/2 transformations of the complete Maxwell field and current. The spin-1/2 case yields new transformation rules, with new invariants, for all traditional Maxwell field and source quantities. The accompanying spin-1/2 representations of the Lorentz group employ the Lorentz metric, and consequently the primary invariants of the spin-1/2 Maxwell field are also spin-1 invariants, for example, $\\Phi^2 - {\\bf A}^2$, ${\\bf E}^2 - {\\bf B}^2 + 2i {\\bf E} \\bm{\\cdot} {\\bf B} - ({\\partial}_{0}{\\Phi} + {\\bm{\

  2. 基于人工神经网络的滴流床脉冲流频率的预测%Prediction of Pulsation Frequency of Pulsing Flow in Trickle Beds Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国柱; 米镇涛

    2004-01-01

    An extensive database (946 measurements) for the frequency of pulsing flow in trickle beds was established by collecting the experimental results published over past 30 years. A new correlation based on artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the pulsation frequency was developed. Seven dimensionless numbers (groups)employed in the proposed correlation were liquid and gas Reynolds, liquid Weber, liquid Eotvos, gas Froude, and gas Stokes numbers and a bed correction factor. The comparisons of performance reported in the of literature and present correlations show that ANN correlation is a significant improvement in predicting pulsation frequency with an average absolute relative error (AARE) of 10% and a standard deviation less than 18%.

  3. Synthesis of Fluoroalkoxy Substituted Arylboronic Esters by Iridium-Catalyzed Aromatic C–H Borylation

    KAUST Repository

    Batool, Farhat

    2015-08-17

    The preparation of fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters by iridium-catalyzed aromatic C–H borylation is described. The fluoroalkoxy groups employed include trifluoromethoxy, difluoromethoxy, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethoxy, and 2,2-difluoro-1,3-benzodioxole. The borylation reactions were carried out neat without the use of a glovebox or Schlenk line. The regioselectivities available through the iridium-catalyzed C–H borylation are complementary to those obtained by the electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions of fluoroalkoxy arenes. Fluoroalkoxy arylboronic esters can serve as versatile building blocks.

  4. Feedback control strategies for spatial navigation revealed by dynamic modelling of learning in the Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Dirk; Commins, Sean; Bullinger, Eric

    2011-04-01

    The Morris water maze is an experimental procedure in which animals learn to escape swimming in a pool using environmental cues. Despite its success in neuroscience and psychology for studying spatial learning and memory, the exact mnemonic and navigational demands of the task are not well understood. Here, we provide a mathematical model of rat swimming dynamics on a behavioural level. The model consists of a random walk, a heading change and a feedback control component in which learning is reflected in parameter changes of the feedback mechanism. The simplicity of the model renders it accessible and useful for analysis of experiments in which swimming paths are recorded. Here, we used the model to analyse an experiment in which rats were trained to find the platform with either three or one extramaze cue. Results indicate that the 3-cues group employs stronger feedback relying only on the actual visual input, whereas the 1-cue group employs weaker feedback relying to some extent on memory. Because the model parameters are linked to neurological processes, identifying different parameter values suggests the activation of different neuronal pathways.

  5. Permanent education that approaches radiation protection in hemodynamic service; Educacao permanente que aborde radioprotecao em servico de hemodinamica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor, Rita de Cassia; Anjos, Djeniffer Valdirene dos, E-mail: flor@ifsc.edu.b [Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (IF-SC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    In the hemodynamic services that apply ionizing radiation yet exist the necessity of capacitation of workers for actuation in those areas. So, this qualitative study performed in a hemodynamic service at Sao Jose, Santa Catarina, Brazil, had the objective to analyse how are developed the permanent education programs and the real necessity of workers. The results have shown that the workers are longing for their qualification and formation, as generally they are admitted with not any qualification for those services. So, the workers that realize the on duty hemodynamic service praxis must do it in a conscious manner and the E P is a way for to adopt good practice in radiological protection

  6. Team work of care workers in residential care institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mišković, Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    In my diploma thesis special attention is given to care workers that work with a group of youth in extrafamilial residential institutions. They are defined as a team or work group, depending on the work structure. I am aware of the difficulty of educational team work and that is why I want to define and research their experiencing team or group work. At the beginning of the theoretical part I define educational work in educational institutions and youth homes, then continue with the definitio...

  7. Fungal Adaptations to Mutualistic Life with Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus

    that forage on crude substrates such as insect frass and dry plant material, to large colonies of the leaf-cutting ants with several thousands to several million workers that provide live plant material to their fungus gardens. Leaf-cutting ants are the dominant herbivores of the Neo-tropics, and have a major...... on specific enzyme groups and Acromyrmex having an overall high enzyme activity. Finally, I show that the fungal symbiont of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior produces large amounts of biodegrading enzymes in special structures called gongylidia. The ants eat these structures, but enzymes pass...

  8. Computerized glow curve deconvolution: the case of LiF TLD-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gartia, R.K.; Dorendrajit Singh, S.; Mazumdar, P.S. (Manipur Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1993-05-14

    It has been accepted by a large number of workers that the glow curve of LiF TLD (Thermoluminescent dosimetry)-100 can be described by thermoluminescence (TL) peaks following the Randall-Wilkins (RW) equation, even though the model fails to explain a number of experimental facts. A further simplification of the model is the Podgorsak-Moran-Cameron (PMC) approximation which is also in use. This paper points out the limitation of the PMC approximation in deconvoluting glow curves of LiF TLD-100. (author).

  9. KNOWLEDGE WORKERS’ MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona TODERICIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The empirical research of this paper deals with knowledge workers in Romanian organizations from different fields of activity, with the purpose of distinguishing them from other types of employees and clarifying their profile and individual characteristics. Also, the paper presents the most important challenges concerning the knowledge workers’ management: identifying, developing and evaluating knowledge workers, motivating and rewarding them, as well as describing specific structure of the organizations that rely mostly on knowledgeable workforce. The findings of the research represent an important factor in developing future efficient human resources strategies and practices regarding workers that fuel the knowledge economy.

  10. The Costs of Displacement in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Naercio Menezes-Filho

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses new data that combines information on workers’ education and earnings trajectories with information about their firms to estimate the costs of job displacement in Brazil. We find that high-tenure workers displaced from their firms during mass lay-offs suffer a long-term loss in monthly wages of about 20% per year. We show that this result is robust to different treatment of workers that leave the formal sector of the economy and is driven by the losses suffered by more educa...

  11. Differences in forage-acquisition and fungal enzyme activity contribute to niche segregation in Panamanian leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooij, Pepijn Wilhelmus; Liberti, Joanito; Giampoudakis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    to match overall differences in colony size, especially when Atta workers that return to their nests without leaves are assumed to carry liquid food. We confirm that Panamanian Atta specialize primarily on tree-leaves whereas Acromyrmex focus on collecting flowers and herbal leaves and that species within...... activities of twelve fungus garden decomposition enzymes, belonging to the amylases, cellulases, hemicellulases, pectinases and proteinases, and show that average enzyme activity per unit of fungal mass in Atta gardens is lower than in Acromyrmex gardens. Expression profiles of fungal enzymes in Atta also...

  12. Oceňování dobrovolné práce při pořádání velké sportovní akce

    OpenAIRE

    Dusílek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The research problem of this thesis was to hold large-scale sports event and its organization by nonprofessional workers that must be managed. To solve the main problem, we selected two main objectives. Determining monetary value of voluntary labour during organization of big sports event based on method VŠE was the first goal. This objective was fulfilled and determines the value at CZK 118.25. The second goal was to analyse the organization of sports event and it's securing. Using network a...

  13. Dramaturgi Citra Pemimpin Korea Utara Kim Jong Un dalam Film The Interview Produksi Columbia Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study titled “Dramaturgy of the image of North Korean leader Kim Jong Un in the film The Interview”. The duration of The Interview film is 112 minutes told a story about the murder plan North Korean leader Kim Jong Un by intelligence services, the United States 'CIA' through two media workers that Dave Skylark and Aaron Rapoport, which is a host and producer of the program infotainment show in United States named Skylark Tonight. This study uses analysis of Erving Goffman Dramaturgy pers...

  14. [Workplace campaigns for metabolic syndrome prevention and healthy lifestyles promotion in mechanical engineering industries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigna, L; Agnelli, G M; Belluigi, V; Calvelli, L; Riboldi, L

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes 2 years outcome on BMI, smoking habits and physical activity of 2 WHP carried in engineering plants. Three important results were achieved: stationarity of body weight despite ageing of examined population; increase of workers that perform regular physical activity and a slight increase of smoking cessation. NSAS questionnaire showed a marked improvement in life styles compared to the data obtained 2 years before. Our findings suggest that an efficacy on life style modification can be achieved by WHP campaigns with little time and cost consuming. The collaboration between occupational physician, employer and employees but also with external professionals is the key of success.

  15. [Physical work capacity of electronics workers (the assembling and checking of printed circuit boards)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadzhiolova, I; Mincheva, L; Nakasheva, E; Diankova, M

    1984-01-01

    The physical capacity for work of electronic workers that assembly and check up the printed was determined. The physical capacity for work of the female assembly-workers is assessed to be moderate and that of the operators-very good. A reduction of the maximum oxygen consumption with 0.375 ml/kg per year was established in the female assembly-workers, in the age group 21-40. The results obtained are discussed in connection with the unfavourable effect of the reduced motor activity during work, taken as base for the elaboration of measures for the improvement of the physical capacity for work.

  16. Staffing remote rural areas in middle- and low-income countries: a literature review of attraction and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Uta; Dieleman, Marjolein; Martineau, Tim

    2008-01-23

    Many countries in middle- and low-income countries today suffer from severe staff shortages and/or maldistribution of health personnel which has been aggravated more recently by the disintegration of health systems in low-income countries and by the global policy environment. One of the most damaging effects of severely weakened and under-resourced health systems is the difficulty they face in producing, recruiting, and retaining health professionals, particularly in remote areas. Low wages, poor working conditions, lack of supervision, lack of equipment and infrastructure as well as HIV and AIDS, all contribute to the flight of health care personnel from remote areas. In this global context of accelerating inequities health service policy makers and managers are searching for ways to improve the attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. But the development of appropriate strategies first requires an understanding of the factors which influence decisions to accept and/or stay in a remote post, particularly in the context of mid and low income countries (MLICS), and which strategies to improve attraction and retention are therefore likely to be successful. It is the aim of this review article to explore the links between attraction and retention factors and strategies, with a particular focus on the organisational diversity and location of decision-making. This is a narrative literature review which took an iterative approach to finding relevant literature. It focused on English-language material published between 1997 and 2007. The authors conducted Pubmed searches using a range of different search terms relating to attraction and retention of staff in remote areas. Furthermore, a number of relevant journals as well as unpublished literature were systematically searched. While the initial search included articles from high- middle- and low-income countries, the review focuses on middle- and low-income countries. About 600 papers were initially assessed and

  17. Potential Beneficiaries of the Obama Administration’s Executive Action Programs Deeply Embedded in US Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-03-01

    ties, long tenure, and high employment rates in the United States. Nearly one-half of the DAPA population and far higher percentages of the two DACA populations speak English well, very well, or exclusively. An unknown, albeit not insubstantial percentage of both the DAPA- and DACA-eligible may already qualify for an immigration benefit or relief that would put them on a path to permanent residency and US citizenship. These mostly low-wage populations have relatively high rates of poverty and low rates of health insurance. Not surprisingly, the educational attainment, school enrollment rates, and English-language proficiency of the DACA-eligible substantially exceed those of the DAPA-eligible. Both populations enjoy high levels of computer and Internet access.The Center for Migration Studies (CMS derived its estimates on the DAPA- and DACA-eligible from statistics on the foreign-born population collected in the US Census Bureau’s American Community Survey (ACS, as described in Warren (2016. It first derived detailed estimates for all undocumented residents, and then used the characteristics of this population (e.g., year of entry, age at entry, etc. to tabulate the numbers of those who would be eligible for DAPA and DACA in 2014, which is the most recent year available.

  18. Três anos de acidentes do trabalho em uma metalúrgica: caminhos para seu entendimento Three years of work-related accidents in a metallurgic plant: ways to its understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira Gonçalves

    2011-02-01

    -50 years (55.4%, 64.5% of workers had already suffered more than one accident. Besides, workers exposed to intense noise (+ 90 dBA were the most affected (53%. In the focal groups, perceptions and feelings of workers regarding the accidents were identified that had not appeared in the previous stages. It can be concluded that focal groups allow for a better identification of factors that may contribute for accidents such as performance pressures, extra-hours of work, low wages, and precarious conditions of work and work organization.

  19. The Future Of Nontraditional Occupations For Women: A Comprehensive Review Of The Literature And Implications For Workplace Learning And Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Zula

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The United States entrance into World War II in 1941 has been credited with beginning a large movement of women into the workforce and the commencement of governmental support for women working in nontraditional occupations. However, the beginning of the support for women in the workforce can be traced back to the 1920 federal mandate to create the Women’s Bureau within the United States Department of Labor. The United States Department of Labor Women’s Bureau is the only federal agency mandated to represent the needs of wage-earning women in the public policy process. The workingwomen tradition has continued into modern day and the number of workingwomen continues to increase steadily, however, the number of women entering nontraditional occupations has declined to 4.9 percent from 7.1 percent in 1983. There has been an effort to increase the number of women in nontraditional occupations in order to increase high skill/high wage employment to provide women with the opportunity for self-sufficiency. Women predominately are employed as clerical workers, childcare providers, sales clerks, and in other low skill/low wage employment, which does not lead to self-sufficiency. Workingwomen largely remain in nonprofessional occupations (73%, where NTO gains have been minimal. This study provided the preliminary exploratory of the literature to establish best practice guidelines to encourage women to enter non-traditional occupations (NTO. The major factor identified from literature is career self-efficacy. Career self-efficacy can be increased through: performance accomplishments, vicarious learning, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal. The results of this study reveal that women have perceived challenges to nontraditional occupations, which are rather easily overcome but have been a hindrance to their pursuing nontraditional employment. Challenges include sex-role socialization, discrimination and harassment, transportation and childcare

  20. Using Portable Health Information Kiosk to assess chronic disease burden in remote settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ashish; Puricelli Perin, Douglas M; Arora, Mohit

    2013-01-01

    years and older were enrolled in three different community settings: urban, slum and tribal. Significant differences were seen in the systolic blood pressure of those living in the urban settings as compared with those living in either slum (p=0.04) or tribal settings (p=0.02). Significant differences in the blood sugar levels were seen only among those living in the tribal as compared with the urban settings (p=0.04). Results showed high prevalence of pre-hypertension, stages 1 and 2 hypertension among those living in the slum and tribal settings. The results show the presence of chronic diseases in tribal and slum communities. The assessment of chronic health conditions in these populations is insufficient. Poor infrastructure and lack of qualified personnel are challenges to providing a meaningful service, as low wages, poor living and working conditions are obstacles that prevent the trained workforce from establishing themselves in these areas of extreme need. Health kiosks can be a multifaceted solution, as they can be used to assess health outcomes in areas that normally are not covered due to lack of infrastructure or health personnel, to establish health education modules and inform the local population about them. They can support evidence-based decisions for national and regional programs and policies.

  1. Apropriação cultural e mediação pedagógica: contribuições de Vigotski na discussão do tema Apropiación cultural y mediación pedagógica: las contribuciones de Vigotski para discutir el tema Cultural appropriation and pedagogic mediation: contributions from Vygotsky to discuss the subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Cintra da Silva

    2011-06-01

    discusión sobre el tema que aborda, como la urgencia de crear una política pública para el bienestar cultural y estético de los docentes.This article refers to the research that targeted the understanding of the cultural repertoire of public school teachers in primary and high school of Uberaba and Uberlândia cities (Minas Gerais state. Based on on Vygotsky’s and Bourdieu’s theories, the project assumes that the mediation for learning would be better as much as its repertoire of knowledge and experience is wide and varied. Data on the aesthetic experiences of teachers were collected through a questionnaire. The results indicate that the majority does not have the habit of visit spaces and cultural events, and that the familiarity with expressions of high culture is weak or virtually nonexistent, mainly due to low wages and intense days of work. Considering that the school is, for many, the only possibility of accessing the non mass artistic production, the study identifies the need to expand investigations that deepen the discussion about the topic it addressed, as well as the urgent need of creating a governmental policy to the cultural and aesthetic formation of teachers.

  2. Governance in Times of Globalisation: the Kaleidoscope of the Legal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Scamardella

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, the West has been deeply transformed by globalisation; global markets have been replacing national economies and states have been losing their legislative and executive powers. The global economy is imposing its own standards, such as the so-called Brazilianisation of the West, consisting of labour changes inspired by typical Brazilian features (low wages, flexibility and insecurity. In such a context, a question arises: how is the legal system changing? Sociology of law has indicated legal transformations in terms of soft law, such as lex mercatoria, codes of conduct, etc. This informal system seems to constitute a legal kaleidoscope where global and local players are involved, rather than an effective legal system. From this perspective, globalisation can also be considered the legal premise of governance, based on the participation of social parties to policy and law-making processes. The aim of this article is to focus on legal transformations in times of globalisation, stressing the governance approach as a legal kaleidoscope capable of managing social inequalities, different distributions of power and knowledge and the other perverse effects determined by globalisation.En las últimas décadas, la globalización ha transformado profundamente Occidente; los mercados mundiales han ido sustituyendo a las economías nacionales y los Estados han ido perdiendo sus poderes legislativo y ejecutivo. La economía mundial está imponiendo sus propias normas, como la denominada brasileñización de Occidente, que consiste en implantar cambios laborales inspirados en las características típicas de Brasil (salarios bajos, flexibilidad e inseguridad. En este contexto, surge una pregunta: ¿cómo está cambiando el sistema legal? La sociología jurídica ha apuntado transformaciones legales en materia de leyes "blandas", como la lex mercatoria, códigos de conducta, etc. Este sistema informal parece constituir un caleidoscopio

  3. Employers, workers, and the future of employment-based health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    EBRI'S BIANNUAL POLICY FORUM: This Issue Brief summarizes presentations at EBRI's 65th biannual policy forum, held in Washington, DC, on Dec. 10, 2009, on the topic, "Employers, Workers, and the Future of Employment-Based Health Benefits." The forum brought together a wide range of economic, benefits, management, and labor experts to share their expertise at a time when major health reform legislation was being debated in Congress. The focus: How might this affect the way that the vast majority of Americans currently get their health insurance coverage? THE EMPLOYMENT-BASED HEALTH INSURANCE SYSTEM: Most people who have health insurance coverage in the United States get it through their job: In 2008, about 61 percent of the nonelderly population had employment-based health benefits, 19 percent were covered by public programs, 6 percent had individual coverage, and 17 percent were uninsured. Not surprisingly, given the deep conflicts that exist over President Obama's health reform plan and the different bills that have passed the House and Senate, benefits experts also do not agree on what "health reform" will mean for either workers or employers. Views ranged from "Will anyone notice?" to predictions of great upheaval for workers and their employers, patients and health care providers, and the entire U.S. health care system. One point of consensus among both labor and management representatives: Imposing a tax on health benefits is likely to cause major cuts in health benefits and might result in structural changes in the employment-based benefits system. A common disappointment voiced at the forum was that the initial effort to reform the delivery and cost of health care in America gradually became focused on just financing and coverage of health insurance. The ever-rising cost of health insurance affects different employers and workers in different ways--with small employers and low-wage workers being the most disadvantaged. With health premiums having risen

  4. Reestruturação produtiva, impactos na saúde e sofrimento mental: o caso de um banco estatal em Minas Gerais, Brasil Economic restructuring and impacts on health and mental distress: the case of a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sérgio Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A reestruturação produtiva no setor financeiro brasileiro instalou-se por meio do trinômio demissões em massa, automação e terceirização, além de processos de reengenharia empresarial, com redução de níveis hierárquicos, flexibilização e polivalência de funções. O bancário, para se adaptar e resistir às exigências, aumentou seu nível de escolaridade, tornou-se polivalente e exímio vendedor, submetendo-se à precariedade das condições de trabalho, aumento da carga de serviços, longas jornadas e baixos salários. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o processo de reestruturação produtiva em um banco público do Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil, e seus possíveis impactos na saúde de seus trabalhadores. Analisou-se também o absenteísmo no período entre 1998 e 2003, quando houve maior desenvolvimento de doenças, como lesão por esforço repetitivo/distúrbios osteomusculares relacionados ao trabalho (LER/DORT e os distúrbios mentais e comportamentais, sendo responsáveis, respectivamente, por 56% e 19% do número de dias de afastamentos. O processo continuou até os dias atuais, com uma política restritiva de contratações. Novos estudos se fazem necessários para a continuidade desta análise e para confirmar os resultados encontrados.Restructuring of the Brazilian financial sector was consolidated through the combination of mass lay-offs, automation, and outsourcing, in addition to business reengineering with leveling of hierarchical echelons, labor casualization, and multi-function jobs. In order to comply and deal with the new demands, bank employees had to increase their schooling, become multi-functional and expert sales attendants, and submit to substandard conditions in the workplace, increased workload, overtime, and low wages. The purpose of the current study was to examine the restructuring process in a state-owned bank in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and its impacts on workers' health. The study also

  5. An analysis of characteristic occupational stressors for medical staff in general hospitals%三级综合医院医务人员职业压力源特征及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王香平; 赵利杰; 邢华; 刘佑琴; 王卓; 钱慧欣; 王建敏; 花蕾; 白弘冬; 王晓燕; 王明晓; 贺蓓; 席修明; 信彬; 汤哲

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨北京市医务人员职业压力源水平、特征及其相关因素.方法 应用自行设计问卷对北京市5所三级综合医院2 460名医务人员进行调查.结果 三级综合医院医务人员的压力源排序前10位的是工作责任重、风险大,工作量大,工资待遇低,医疗管理体制问题,人员配备数量不足,各类检查考核频繁,医患关系紧张,物价上涨因素,经常加班超时工作,继续学习压力;认为职业压力中度及以上的占95.2%;不同年龄、性别、婚姻状态、职称、学历、工作年限及不同单位、科室、专业、职务等对职业压力的影响均有统计学意义.结论 应结合人口学特征与压力特点针对性地开展压力管理,采取有效措施缓解医务人员的工作压力,保持员工身心健康,提高工作效率与组织凝聚力.%Objective To explore the status, characteristics and factors in relation to occupational stress for medical staffs in tertiary general hospitals. Methods A total of 2460 medical staff were sampled in five tertiary general hospitals in Beijing, with their occupational stress levels evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory. Results The top ten stressors as found ranked as heavy duty, high risk exposure, high workload, low wages, setbacks in the health care management system, insufficient staffing, excessively frequent inspections and examinations, strained doctor-patient relationship, price inflation, frequent overtime, and pressure from continuous learning. Occupational stress is seen as moderate and above by 95.2% of the surveyed. Differences in age, gender, marital status, professional title, education, work experience, as well as those of different organizations, departments, professions, and duty were found to be statistically significant in regard of professional stress. Conclusions Stress management should be in place targeting demographic and stress characteristics. Effective measures are recommended to

  6. Social Security's special minimum benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D

    Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen

  7. As características dos alunos são determinantes para o adoecimento de professores: um estudo comparativo sobre a incidência de Burnout em professores do ensino regular e especial The student characteristics affect teachers' illnesses: a comparative study on the incidence of Burnout in regular and special education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Rogério da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O exercício da docência é permeado por condições de trabalho adversas, baixos salários, insuficiência de recursos materiais e didáticos, salas numerosas, tensão no relacionamento com os alunos, carga horária de trabalho excessiva, inexpressiva participação no planejamento da instituição e nas políticas institucionais e falta de segurança no ambiente escolar. O presente estudo teve por objetivo comparar a presença de indicadores de burnout em três grupos de professores que atuam no primeiro ciclo do Ensino Fundamental: a 20 no ensino regular, em turmas sem a inserção de alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais - RSI; b 20 no ensino regular, em turmas com a inserção de alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais - RCI; c 20 em salas de recursos - SR. Para a coleta, foi utilizado o Maslach Burnout Inventory -MBI. Na análise de dados, empregou-se o SPSS, versão 13.0, e o Teste de Kruskal-Wallis para comparação dos grupos. Os resultados, que foram organizados em forma de Figuras e Tabelas, revelam que, de maneira geral, os grupos apresentaram relativa similaridade. Entretanto, algumas diferenças foram encontradas. O grupo de professores SR obteve os melhores resultados na avaliação das três escalas do burnout, quando comparado com RSI e RCI, ou seja, com predominância de respostas nos níveis mais baixos de exaustão emocional, altos na diminuição da realização pessoal e baixos para despersonalização. Espera-se que os dados expostos contribuam para a compreensão do burnout em professores do ensino regular com e sem inclusão de alunos com necessidades educacionais especiais, e/ou suscitem novos encaminhamentos de pesquisas.The practice of teaching is permeated by adverse working conditions, low wages, inadequacy of material and teaching resources, overcrowded classrooms, tension in relationships with the students, excessive work load, lack of safety in the school environment, insignificant participation

  8. 农民工工资:珠江三角洲农民工工资的决定因素%Wages for migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta: determining factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘林平; 张春泥

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to examine the effect of the enterprise system and social environment under conditions of market transition on the wages of migrant workers using regression analysis of Pearl River Delta migrant worker survey data. The research found that among human capital variables, educational level and length of employment in their present firms have a significant positive effect on the wages of migrant workers, while age and gender also have a significant effect; among enterprise system variables, the type of work also significantly influences wages, demonstrating clear stratification. Industry, scale and firm type do not significantly influence wages, regardless of labor contract or labor supply status. Social capital variables and social environmental factors do not have a significant effect on peasant-worker wage levels. The article therefore concludes that migrant worker wages are highly marketized and are at one extreme of a segmented dual labor market. They lack intra-firm labor markets and promotion mechanisms, are little influenced by changes in labor market conditions, and show no regional variations. They represent low wages of an extreme rigidity.%本文通过对珠江三角洲农民工问卷调查资料的回归分析,试图检验在市场转型下的企业制度和社会环境对农民工工资的影响.研究发现,人力资本中的教育年限、本企业工龄等变量对农民工工资有显著的正向影响,年龄和性别也有显著影响;企业制度中的工种对工资有显著影响,表现出明显的等级性.企业所属行业、规模和企业性质对工资没有显著影响,是否签订劳动合同和缺工情况同样如此.社会资本变量和社会环境变量对农民工工资水平没有显著影响.文章由此认为,农民工的工资是处于分割的二元劳动力市场一端,是高度市场化的,缺乏企业内部劳动力市场或晋升机制,也少受劳动力市场用工情况变化影响,没有地区性差

  9. Lycaenid Caterpillar Secretions Manipulate Attendant Ant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Pierce, Naomi E; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2015-08-31

    Mutualistic interactions typically involve the exchange of different commodities between species. Nutritious secretions are produced by a number of insects and plants in exchange for services such as defense. These rewards are valuable metabolically and can be used to reinforce the behavior of symbiotic partners that can learn and remember them effectively. We show here novel effects of insect exocrine secretions produced by caterpillars in modulating the behavior of attendant ants in the food-for-defense interaction between lycaenid butterflies and ants. Reward secretions from the dorsal nectary organ (DNO) of Narathura japonica caterpillars function to reduce the locomotory activities of their attendant ants, Pristomyrmex punctatus workers. Moreover, workers that feed from caterpillar secretions are significantly more likely to show aggressive responses to eversion of the tentacle organs of the caterpillars. Analysis of the neurogenic amines in the brains of workers that consumed caterpillar secretions showed a significant decrease in levels of dopamine compared with controls. Experimental treatments in which reserpine, a known inhibitor of dopamine in Drosophila, was fed to workers similarly reduced their locomotory activity. We conclude that DNO secretions of lycaenid caterpillars can manipulate attendant ant behavior by altering dopaminergic regulation and increasing partner fidelity. Unless manipulated ants also receive a net nutritional benefit from DNO secretions, this suggests that similar reward-for-defense interactions that have been traditionally considered to be mutualisms may in fact be parasitic in nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Global network structure of dominance hierarchy of ant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Hiroyuki; Abe, Masato S; Tsuji, Kazuki; Masuda, Naoki

    2014-10-06

    Dominance hierarchy among animals is widespread in various species and believed to serve to regulate resource allocation within an animal group. Unlike small groups, however, detection and quantification of linear hierarchy in large groups of animals are a difficult task. Here, we analyse aggression-based dominance hierarchies formed by worker ants in Diacamma sp. as large directed networks. We show that the observed dominance networks are perfect or approximate directed acyclic graphs, which are consistent with perfect linear hierarchy. The observed networks are also sparse and random but significantly different from networks generated through thinning of the perfect linear tournament (i.e. all individuals are linearly ranked and dominance relationship exists between every pair of individuals). These results pertain to global structure of the networks, which contrasts with the previous studies inspecting frequencies of different types of triads. In addition, the distribution of the out-degree (i.e. number of workers that the focal worker attacks), not in-degree (i.e. number of workers that attack the focal worker), of each observed network is right-skewed. Those having excessively large out-degrees are located near the top, but not the top, of the hierarchy. We also discuss evolutionary implications of the discovered properties of dominance networks. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Evolution of Daily Activity Patterns from 1971 to 1981: A Study of the Halifax Activity Panel Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S. Harvey

    2001-12-01

    similarity measures between character strings, which can be used to measure the similarity of two persons’ daily activities, to measure change over time, or to determine the relative similarity of three or more activity diaries. The results of the research showed that both pure activities and activity-settings identified broadly the same behvioural groupings: employed workers, domestic workers, and weekend activities. The similarity of activity patterns of individuals was greater over the ten-year analysis period than the average similarity of the sample in either 1971 or 1981. The average similarity of activity and activitysetting patterns rose from 1971 to 1981, which contradicts observations that daily routines are becoming more complex and diverse.

  12. Poly-functional porous-organic polymers to access functionality – CO 2 sorption energetic relationships

    KAUST Repository

    Alkordi, Mohamed H.

    2015-09-21

    Herein, we report a facile approach towards the construction of poly-functional porous organic polymers (POPs). The functional groups employed were selected to span the range of Lewis-base to neutral to Lewis-acid character. Our results underline the effect of chemical functionality on the observed Q for CO adsorption inside the material, being largest for functional groups with electron donating O- and N-centered Lewis base sites. Our systematic investigation within a family of POPs revealed a wide range for CO heat of adsorption (23.8-53.8 kJ mol) that is clearly associated with the chemical nature of the functional groups present. In addition, post-synthetic modification of POPs reported herein demonstrated a facile pathway to dramatically enhance carbon dioxide uptake energetics.

  13. [Non-variceal upper digestive hemorrhage: evaluation of endoscopic sclerosing treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuguero del Moral, L; López Morante, A J; Martín Lorente, J L; Ojeda Giménez, C

    1990-11-01

    We appraise the efficacy of endoscopic injection treatment in 112 patients with gastroduodenal bleeding lesion versus 78 control patients (historical group), employing adrenaline (29 patients), absolute ethanol (52 patients) o adrenaline and ethanol (31 patients) as sclerosants. We observe in the treated group a diminution in rebleeding, lower transfusional blood needs and shorter hospital staying, with high stadistic significance versus the control group (p less than 0,001). Among treated patients the larger relapsing index (29.6%) was in patients treated with adrenaline injection only, against the group treated with ethanol or adrenaline and ethanol (10.2%) (p less than 0.05). The demand of surgical treatment was not significant between both groups, except in patients with actively jet bleeding, because urgent treatment was necessary in 37.5% of endoscopically treated patients versus 88.8% in not endoscopically treated. The mortality was similar in both groups.

  14. Of Coordinators and Dictators: A Public Goods Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Fleiß

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally investigate whether human subjects are willing to give up individual freedom in return for the benefits of improved coordination. We conduct a modified iterated public goods game in which subjects in each period first decide which of two groups to join. One group employs a voluntary contribution mechanism, the other group an allocator contribution mechanism. The setup of the allocator mechanism differs between two treatments. In the coordinator treatment, the randomly selected allocator can set a uniform contribution for all group members, including herself. In the dictator treatment, the allocator can choose different contributions for herself and all other group members. We find that subjects willingly submit to authority in both treatments, even when competing with a voluntary contribution mechanism. The allocator groups achieve high contribution levels in both treatments.

  15. Legomedicine—A Versatile Chemo-Enzymatic Approach for the Preparation of Targeted Dual-Labeled Llama Antibody–Nanoparticle Conjugates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Conjugation of llama single domain antibody fragments (Variable Heavy chain domains of Heavy chain antibodies, VHHs) to diagnostic or therapeutic nanoparticles, peptides, proteins, or drugs offers many opportunities for optimized targeted cancer treatment. Currently, mostly nonspecific conjugation strategies or genetic fusions are used that may compromise VHH functionality. In this paper we present a versatile modular approach for bioorthogonal VHH modification and conjugation. First, sortase A mediated transPEGylation is used for introduction of a chemical click moiety. The resulting clickable VHHs are then used for conjugation to other groups employing the Cu+-independent strain-promoted alkyne–azide cycloadition (SPAAC) reaction. Using this approach, tail-to-tail bispecific VHHs and VHH-targeted nanoparticles are generated without affecting VHH functionality. Furthermore, this approach allows the bioconjugation of multiple moieties to VHHs for simple and convenient production of VHH-based theranostics. PMID:28045502

  16. [Alimentation, health promotion and work: a strategy for alimentary education and food quality promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, E; Coggiola, M; Romano, C

    2010-01-01

    As health promotion activity have been started two alimentary education projects for CTO Turin Hospital and LntesaSanpaolo bank group employers. Both projects have been co-ordinated by structure of Occupational Health of CTO Hospital and Turin University. The first step of the projects provided information and formation by using a brochure containing good alimentation tips. In the next step each participant at projects registered daily the food choice on specific software. At the end of observational period (six months) each participant received a final report containing quali-quantitative evaluation on the food choice uprightness. At the same time in IntesaSanpaolo bank group it have been proceeded, following Slow Food indication, on introducing a new menu based on using localfood products.

  17. Interlocking Directorships in Polish Joint Stock Companies = Medsebojna prepletenost članov nadzornih svetov v delniških družbah na Poljskem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Pawlak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies concerning interlocking directorships have been carried out among Polish joint stock corporations. The main source of data have been the announcements that are to be published by corporations regularly in a journal called Business and Court Gazette (BCG. Interlocking directorships constitute a network among corporations the use of which enables co-ordinated management of the whole group. The phenomenon of interlocking directorships in Polish joint stock companies can be compared to the same phenomenon existing in other countries. About 13.43 percent of Polish joint stock company directors possess additional directorships. The average number of directorships for the whole group employed by Polish joint stock companies is 1,207, and 2,541 for people who hold more than one mandate. There is a positive correlation between the total investments in the Polish economy and the number of multiple directorships.

  18. Prediction of Pulsation Frequency of Pulsing Flow in Trickle Beds Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国柱; 米镇涛

    2004-01-01

    An extensive database (946 measurements) for the frequency of pulsing flow in trickle beds was established by collecting the experimental results published over past 30 years. A new correlation based on artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the pulsation frequency was developed. Seven dimensionless numbers (groups) employed in the proposed correlation were liquid and gas Reynolds, liquid Weber, liquid Eǒtvǒs, gas Froude, and gas Stokes numbers and a bed correction factor. The comparisons of performance reported in the of literature and present correlations show that ANN correlation is a significant improvement in predicting pulsation frequency with an average absolute relative error (AARE) of 10% and a standard deviation less than 18%.

  19. Supporting one another: the definition of PHN, awards, and the impromptu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinder, J

    1997-04-01

    Public health nursing is nursing practice directed toward a population. Public health nursing practice includes assessment and identification of sub-populations who are at high risk of injury, disease, threat of disease, or poor recovery and focusing resources so that services are available and accessible. The goal of public health nursing is to improve the health of populations through ongoing assessment; coordinated interventions; and care management, working with and through relevant community leaders, interest groups, employers, families and individuals; and through involvement in relevant social and political actions. The underlying assumptions concerning the quantity, quality and availability of health care in the United States are under reconsideration and revision. Responsibility and accountability for the provision of basic health services to the entire population, and specifically to vulnerable populations, include both public and private providers. The dialogue must include public health nursing and the unique expertise and skills that public health nurses bring to promoting and protecting the health of populations.

  20. Disorienting the Art World: Mona Hatoum in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Applin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 the German curator René Block was invited to curate the 4th International Istanbul Biennial. Titled “Orient/ation: The Vision of Art in a Paradoxical World”, Block eschewed the national groupings employed by most biennials, instead tackling head-on the idea of what nationality might mean in a climate of increasing global mobility in which the art world comprised an “international diaspora of artists”. Block’s poster for the Biennial was a hastily hand-drawn compass, its coordinates marked deliberately incorrectly. West was labelled North, South-East read as South-West, and the North-East was renamed “Istanbul”. According to this compass there is no one central point or locale relative to which its cardinal points of north, south, east, and west can make sense.

  1. The effects of occupational health and safety management on work environment and health: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torp, S; Moen, B E

    2006-11-01

    According to Norway's Internal Control Regulation, all companies are required to have an occupational health and safety (H&S) management system. This study investigated the effects of implementing or improving occupational H&S management on the work environment, H&S-related behaviour and musculoskeletal health of workers in small and medium-sized companies. A one-year prospective cohort study, using self-administered questionnaires, was performed among the managers and blue-collar workers in 226 motor vehicle repair garages. Out of 1559 workers that responded at baseline 721 workers could be identified at follow-up. These 721 workers were included in the study. The workers in companies with improved H&S management from baseline to follow-up reported increased satisfaction with the H&S activities at the garage; improved support from management and colleagues; improved health-related support and control; and increased participation in H&S activities.

  2. Asia-Pacific Journal for Student Affairs (AJSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Bardill Moscaritolo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS serves as a global network of student affairs and services workers that encourages sharing, cooperation, research, exchanges, and attendance at each other’s conferences. The Vice President and General Secretary of IASAS attended the 2016 Asia Pacific Student Services Association (APSSA Conference in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Long-time colleague and past regional coordinator in Asia for IASAS, Evelyn Ariola-Songco, presented both members with a copy of the inaugural Journal of the Philippine Association of Administrators of Student Affairs (PAASA. This is the first journal in the South East Asian region and is an important first step in advancing the field.

  3. Social Work in the Department of Defense Hospital: Impact of the Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan C. Beder

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Social workers in the Department of Defense Hospital are faced with numerous challenges to best address the needs of the nation’s wounded. Social workers serve diverse roles on the multidisciplinary team and are integral to the hospital work environment. Sometimes, however, the work extracts a toll on the social worker that may be expressed in terms of burnout and compassion fatigue. The converse is also true, that social workers may have a strong sense of compassion satisfaction about what they do. This article details the experience of social workers in Department of Defense hospitals. It describes the impact of the work on the social workers noting levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout. Findings suggest that generally the social workers find satisfaction in their work and degrees of compassion fatigue and burnout.

  4. WORK ACCIDENTS ANALYSIS, EMPHASIZING THE FOREST SECTORS, IN A FEDERAL HIGH EDUCATION INSTITUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héder Alencar Vianna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the probable causes of accidents at work, of the forest sectors, of a Federal Institution of Higher education in Minas Gerais State looking for minimizing risks damages to worker’s health and safety. The analyses were accomplished by means of the Accidents Communications in Service data bank and the results showed that in the studied period, for the forest sector, 50.71% of the accidents were attributed to the insecure act, 16.98% to insecure condition and 17.94% to personal factor of insecurity. The functional evaluation indicated that in 7.14% of the accidents occurred with workers that were not in the function established by the employment respective contracts. The rates of gravity and frequency of accidents calculated for the forest sectors allowed to conclude that the indices were higher than the others sectors and much higher than the values published by the Brazilian Ministry of Social Service and Assistance.

  5. A genomic comparison of two termites with different social complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korb, Judith; Thomas-Poulsen, Michael; Hu, Haofu

    2015-01-01

    The termites evolved eusociality and complex societies before the ants, but have been studied much less. The recent publication of the first two termite genomes provides a unique comparative opportunity, particularly because the sequenced termites represent opposite ends of the social complexity...... spectrum. Zootermopsis nevadensis has simple colonies with totipotent workers that can develop into all castes (dispersing reproductives, nest-inheriting replacement reproductives, and soldiers). In contrast, the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis belongs to the higher termites and has very...... large and complex societies with morphologically distinct castes that are life-time sterile. Here we compare key characteristics of genomic architecture, focusing on genes involved in communication, immune defenses, mating biology and symbiosis that were likely important in termite social evolution. We...

  6. A genomic comparison of two termites with different social complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith eKorb

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The termites evolved eusociality and complex societies before the ants, but have been studied much less. The recent publication of the first two termite genomes provides a unique comparative opportunity, particularly because the sequenced termites represent opposite ends of the social complexity spectrum. Zootermopsis nevadensis has simple colonies with totipotent workers that can develop into all castes (dispersing reproductives, nest-inheriting replacement reproductives, and soldiers. In contrast, the fungus-growing termite Macrotermes natalensis belongs to the higher termites and has very large and complex societies with morphologically distinct castes that are life-time sterile. Here we compare key characteristics of genomic architecture, focusing on genes involved in communication, immune defenses, mating biology and symbiosis that were likely important in termite social evolution. We discuss these in relation to what is known about these genes in the ants and outline hypotheses for further testing.

  7. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  8. Listening to Chinese Immigrant Restaurant Workers in the Midwest: Application of the Culture-Centered Approach (CCA) to Explore Perceptions of Health and Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haijuan; Dutta, Mohan; Okoror, Titilayo

    2016-01-01

    This study engages with the culture-centered approach (CCA) to explore Chinese immigrant restaurant workers' perception of the U.S. health care system and their interactions with the health care system in interpreting meanings of health. Chinese restaurant workers are marginalized because of their struggles on the job, their immigrant identity, and their negotiations with the structural contexts of occupation, migration status, and culture. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 Chinese immigrant restaurant workers that lasted an average of 1.5 hours each, and were audiotaped. Interviews with participants highlighted critical issues in access to health care and the struggles experienced by restaurant workers in securing access to health, understood in the context of work. Critical to the workers' discourse is the acknowledgment of structural constraints such as lack of insurance coverage, immigration status, and lack of understanding of how the U.S. health care system works.

  9. Causes and Scale of Winter Flights in Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Carnica Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzynowicz Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter honey bee losses were evaluated during the two overwintering periods of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The research included dead bee workers that fell on the hive bottom board (debris and the ones that flew out of the hive. Differences were observed in the number of bees fallen as debris between the two periods, whereas the number of bees flying out was similar in both years. No differences were found between the numbers of dead bees in strong and weak colonies. The percentage of bees flying out of the colony increased in the presence of Nosema spores, Varroa infestation, increased average air temperature, and insolation during the day. In addition, both the presence of Nosema and insolation during the day had an impact on the number of bees that died and fell on the hive board.

  10. The nature of culture: technological variation in chimpanzee predation on army ants revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöning, Caspar; Humle, Tatyana; Möbius, Yasmin

    2008-01-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) predation on army ants (Dorylus, subgenus Anomma) is an impressive example of skillful use of elementary technology, and it has been suggested to reflect cultural differences among chimpanzee communities. Alternatively, the observed geographic diversity in army......-ant-eating may represent local behavioral responses of the chimpanzees to the anti-predator traits of the army ant species present at the different sites. We examined assemblages of available prey species, their behavior and morphology, consumption by chimpanzees, techniques employed, and tool lengths at 14...... sites in eastern, central, and western Africa. Where army ants are eaten, tool length and concomitant technique are a function of prey type. Epigaeically foraging species with aggressive workers that inflict painful bites are harvested with longer tools and usually by the "pull-through" technique...

  11. Between the “Spheres of Justice” and the “Right to Citizenship”: The Limits of the Communitarian Theory of Michael Walzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Ţuţui

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present and analyze the communitarian theory of Michael Walzer regarding the difference between the spheres of social justice. From this theoretical perspective, Walzer argues that the distribution of citizenship should be open to those categories of foreigners, such as refugees or guest workers that inhabit the territory of a political community. I underline the fact that this theory of “potential citizenship” is not compatible with the communitarian theory mentioned above. In the final section of the paper I suggest that a solution for maintaining the potential citizenship thesis is to offer a weaker reading of the communitarian thesis, according to which the acceptance of some principles of distribution should be based on the fact that a justification would be available for the belief that those principles are likely to be the right ones.

  12. IBM, Elsevier Science, and academic freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailar, John C; Cicolella, Andre; Harrison, Robert; LaDou, Joseph; Levy, Barry S; Rohm, Timothy; Teitelbaum, Daniel T; Wang, Yung-Der; Watterson, Andrew; Yoshida, Fumikazu

    2007-01-01

    Elsevier Science refused to publish a study of IBM workers that IBM sought to keep from public view. Occupational and environmental health (OEH) suffers from the absence of a level playing field on which science can thrive. Industry pays for a substantial portion of OEH research. Studies done by private consulting firms or academic institutions may be published if the results suit the sponsoring companies, or they may be censored. OEH journals often reflect the dominance of industry influence on research in the papers they publish, sometimes withdrawing or modifying papers in line with industry and advertising agendas. Although such practices are widely recognized, no fundamental change is supported by government and industry or by professional organizations.

  13. Domestic Service and the Labour Market in Spain: A Gender Perspective on Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Domínguez Mujica

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many Spanish women manage to cope with the demands of both job and family by hiring immigrant women to do some housework and look after dependant relatives. In the last few years there has been an important increase in the demand for extra-communitarian workers to carry out this kind of task. These workers have been segregated by sex regarding occupation. In the procedure of regularisation of foreign workers that took place in Spain during 2005, 83.4 percent of the applications for jobs in the area of domestic service were submitted by women (around 220,000, with an absolute predominance of immigrants from Latin America. Among the factors that explain this specialization we may find cultural affinity and the flexibility that characterizes this kind of job. This phenomenon reveals an occupational ethno-stratification on the grounds of gender and origin.

  14. Atividades de coleta e origem floral do pólen armazenado em colônias de Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae no sul do Brasil Collection activities and floral origin of the stored pollcn in colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponinae in south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel A. Pick

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Four colonies of Plebeia saiqui (Holmberg, 1903, of São Francisco de Paula, were studied during the period from October/1998 to October/1999. The counting of the bees was proceeded monthly, differentiated workers that came back with and without pollen in the corbicula. Grains of pollen of pots previously marked were collected monthly and identified. The percentage of the pollen types of the samples was estimated: 20% of Asteraceae, 17% Myrtaceae, 15% type Meliaceae and 10% Euphorbiaceae. The remaining corresponds to other pollen types of small representation, besides those the were no identified. The climatic influence on the pollen collection was analyzed being used simple and multiple regressions. It was verified that in the spring and in the summer the temperature, the solar irradiation and relative humidity were significant for the pollen foraging. During autumn and winter the relative humidity had smaller influence in the pollen collection.

  15. Partner manipulation stabilises a horizontally transmitted mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Barajas-Barron, Alejandro; Orona-Tamayo, Domancar; Wielsch, Natalie; Svatos, Ales

    2014-02-01

    Mutualisms require protection from non-reciprocating exploiters. Pseudomyrmex workers that engage in an obligate defensive mutualism with Acacia hosts feed exclusively on the sucrose-free extrafloral nectar (EFN) that is secreted by their hosts, a behaviour linking ant energy supply directly to host performance and thus favouring reciprocating behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that Acacia hosts manipulate this digestive specialisation of their ant mutualists. Invertase (sucrose hydrolytic) activity in the ant midguts was inhibited by chitinase, a dominant EFN protein. The inhibition occurred quickly in cell-free gut liquids and in native gels and thus likely results from an enzyme-enzyme interaction. Once a freshly eclosed worker ingests EFN as the first diet available, her invertase becomes inhibited and she, thus, continues feeding on host-derived EFN. Partner manipulation acts at the phenotypic level and means that one partner actively controls the phenotype of the other partner to enhance its dependency on host-derived rewards.

  16. Algorithmic mechanisms for reliable crowdsourcing computation under collusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Anta, Antonio; Georgiou, Chryssis; Mosteiro, Miguel A; Pareja, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We consider a computing system where a master processor assigns a task for execution to worker processors that may collude. We model the workers' decision of whether to comply (compute the task) or not (return a bogus result to save the computation cost) as a game among workers. That is, we assume that workers are rational in a game-theoretic sense. We identify analytically the parameter conditions for a unique Nash Equilibrium where the master obtains the correct result. We also evaluate experimentally mixed equilibria aiming to attain better reliability-profit trade-offs. For a wide range of parameter values that may be used in practice, our simulations show that, in fact, both master and workers are better off using a pure equilibrium where no worker cheats, even under collusion, and even for colluding behaviors that involve deviating from the game.

  17. Genotoxic effects of textile printing dye exposed workers in India detected by micronucleus assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellappa, Sudha; Prathyumnan, Shibily; Joseph, Shyn; Keyan, Kripa S; Balachandar, Vellingiri

    2010-01-01

    The textile printing industry in South India employs a great number of workers that may possibly be exposed to toxic compounds. In the present study, subjects from textile printing units were investigated for the presence of genetic damage in their peripheral blood lymphocytes using micronucleus assay. Proliferation was also investigated using a nuclear division index. It was found that the micronucleus frequency was considerably greater in exposed subjects than in non exposed control subjects, but division was not increased in a statistically significant way. For the time being, this investigation should be considered as a preliminary study in which the influence of potential confounders could be adequately assessed. However, our results are non-ambiguous, indicating a potential health risk in these workers.

  18. Ergonomic evaluation of the preparation of cuttings and minicuttings for eucalyptus seedling production, with the use of scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Eduarda Gabriela Santos; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in a nursery for eucalyptus seedling production in a forest Company, located in the southern state of Bahia, Brazil. It aimed to evaluate the ergonomic conditions of the preparation of cuttings and mini-cuttings with scissors for Eucalyptus seedling production to increase well-being, satisfaction and safety and minimizing the occurrence of occupational diseases, also improving the process efficiency and final product quality. Environmental conditions, levels of noise, postures, RSI risk and physical workload were assessed. The environmental conditions complied with the recommended norms, except at certain times of day, when workers should make compensation breaks. The workers that collect minicuttings presented postures classified as normal by OWAS. On the other hand, the posture of workers dealing with cutting preparation requires corrections in a short run. The workers were subjected to moderate RSI risk due to the high degree of repeatability found. The physical workload was classified as mild, with no need for ergonomic interventions.

  19. Ethics Do Matter, But Where?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. O'Brien

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The implications of social work being an ethics-based profession are explored. Conduct toward colleagues in the discharge of ethical practices is a focus of this article. The author’s view is that other disciplines involved in mental health, for example, psychiatry, family physicians, psychology, nursing, pastoral services, education, and rehabilitation therapy, share these values. As such, these themes are relevant across many professional disciplines. The article’s intent is to promote discussion as to how we cultivate a collective demeanor as social workers that is congruent with our most hallowed values and principles, namely, social justice, ethical practice, fairness and respect for all people. An examination of daily practices in the workplace and suggested remedies to enhance ethical conduct, including a series of questions we can ask ourselves, are offered.

  20. La funzione di produttività di Sylos Labini tra mercato e territorio: un'analisi econometrica per le regioni italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Guarini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the labour productivity for the Italian regions estimating the Sylos Labini's function. In this function, in dynamic term, the labour productivity depends positively on market (Smith effect, on unit labour cost (organization's effect, on difference between wages and prices of machine (Ricardo effect and past investments, while it depends negatively on current investments (disturbance effect. According to the estimates, for the Italian regions, these three effects are significant; moreover the dimension of these effects are conditioned by sector and territorial peculiarities. In particular, the Smith effect could be determined by the phenomenon of labour hoarding for which during recession entrepreneur prefers to reduce utilization of workers that fire them. Finally, the significance of investments could be caused by an important multicollinearity between present and past investments.

  1. From discharge planner to "concierge": recommendations for hospital social work by clients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Kristen F; Ing, Marissa M; Vento, Megan A; Nakagawa, Kazuma

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act and budget cuts have changed the role of hospital social workers by placing pressure on them to conduct speedy discharges and decrease readmission rates. This qualitative study aimed to assess if hospital social work is meeting the needs of clients in the hospital and postdischarge. Semistructured interviews with 10 clients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 11 caregivers were conducted. Participants reported that social work services were not meeting their needs. Clients with ICH and their caregivers expressed needs from social workers that surpassed their roles as discharge planners, including counseling, help with finances and insurance, and advocacy. Participants wanted social work services to begin early in acute treatment with continuity postdischarge. Social workers should conduct ethical social work by meeting clients where they are, addressing needs as prioritized by the client, and advocating individually and organizationally for clients.

  2. O’Brien Actinic Granuloma: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Inês D; Ramos, Leonor I C; Brites, Maria M; Tellechea, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    O’Brien first described the actinic granuloma in 1975, as an infrequent granulomatous disorder occurring in sun-exposed skin, with a slow but often self-limited course. Ever since its initial description, the actinic physiopathogenic hypothesis has been debated by many authors. We report a 60-year-old female rural worker that presented with a 14 × 7 cm annular lesion with erythematous elevated borders and an atrophic center on the right calf. The lesion was evolving for 2 years, and histopathology confirmed actinic granuloma. She started acitretin with halting of disease progression after 6 months of therapy. Our case can also be associated to actinic damage, despite its unusual location, therefore highlighting the role of solar elastosis in the development of O’Brien actinic granuloma. PMID:26288411

  3. O′Brien actinic granuloma: A case report and brief review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês D Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O′Brien first described the actinic granuloma in 1975, as an infrequent granulomatous disorder occurring in sun-exposed skin, with a slow but often self-limited course. Ever since its initial description, the actinic physiopathogenic hypothesis has been debated by many authors. We report a 60-year-old female rural worker that presented with a 14 × 7 cm annular lesion with erythematous elevated borders and an atrophic center on the right calf. The lesion was evolving for 2 years, and histopathology confirmed actinic granuloma. She started acitretin with halting of disease progression after 6 months of therapy. Our case can also be associated to actinic damage, despite its unusual location, therefore highlighting the role of solar elastosis in the development of O′Brien actinic granuloma.

  4. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  5. Evaluation of medical residents exposed to X-ray during surgical procedures; Avaliacao dos medicos residentes expostos aos raios-X durante procedimentos cirurgicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alabarse, F.G.; Leal, R.; Amador, G.B.; Bacelar, A. [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fisica Medica. Servico de Engenharia Biomedica; Westphal, M.; Furtado, A.P.A. [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fisica Medica. Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail: abacelar@hcpa.ufrgs.br

    2001-07-01

    This work present some evaluations in relation to the Medical Resident that work with X-rays during surgery procedures. The objective is discovery what the staff that make more use of this kind of radiation during their procedures and evaluate the relation with their respective doses. The information was toke during the activities that make some use of X-rays. This information was connected with the respective dose of Medical Resident. The results is that the worker of Medical Resident is the worker that are most in exposure in a surgery unit. The staff that use X-rays with more frequency and have the biggest time in exposure is Orthopedy and Traumathology. The highest dose that they received were of 22,72 mSv, in a Resident of the Urology group. (author)

  6. Immigration and the labor mobility of working Mexican legal residents at a border town in the United States: Calexico, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Fimbres Durazo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the labor mobility of a group of Mexican migrant workers that are permanent legal residents in the city of Caléxico, Ca. USA. Since the beginnings of the XX century, this city has been a settlement of immigrants from different countries, among them stands out the Mexican immigrant group that, legally or illegally, has arrived to work temporal or permanently. In order to have and approach to the study of the labor milility of the immigrant workers and identify some situations that made it possible, this paper presents an overview of the historic events that favored the immigration of Mexican workers to this city as well as their participation in the labor market.

  7. Climatic and psychosocial risks of heat illness incidents on construction site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunyan Andrea; Rowlinson, Steve; Ciccarelli, Marina

    2016-03-01

    The study presented in this paper aims to identify prominent risks leading to heat illness in summer among construction workers that can be prioritised for developing effective interventions. Samples are 216 construction workers' cases at the individual level and 26 construction projects cases at the organisation level. A grounded theory is generated to define the climatic heat and psychosocial risks and the relationships between risks, timing and effectiveness of interventions. The theoretical framework is then used to guide content analysis of 36 individual onsite heat illness cases to identify prominent risks. The results suggest that heat stress risks on construction site are socially constructed and can be effectively managed through elimination at supply chain level, effective engineering control, proactive control of the risks through individual interventions and reactive control through mindful recognition and response to early symptoms. The role of management infrastructure as a base for effective interventions is discussed.

  8. Saúde ocupacional: considerações a respeito da perda auditiva induzida por ruído e da disfonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Corrêa de Barros

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available This study provides some information about occupational health, more specifically about noise-induced hearing loss and voice disorders caused by the attempt to overcome background noise. Repeated exposures to excessive sound levels can lead to noise-induced hearing loss and voice disorders. Several studies have been conducted in order to suggest best means to control noise. Among the professionals involved in the hearing loss prevention are the industrial engineers and operations managers. This study also suggests that many of the workers that perform their job in a noisy place have to raise their voices to be heard over the sound environment, which could cause voice disorders. Therefore, some considerations have been made about the aspects of noise control projects and ways to prevent hearing loss and voice disorders in a noisy environment. Keywords: excessive sound levels, hearing loss, voice disorders.

  9. Algorithmic mechanisms for reliable crowdsourcing computation under collusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernández Anta

    Full Text Available We consider a computing system where a master processor assigns a task for execution to worker processors that may collude. We model the workers' decision of whether to comply (compute the task or not (return a bogus result to save the computation cost as a game among workers. That is, we assume that workers are rational in a game-theoretic sense. We identify analytically the parameter conditions for a unique Nash Equilibrium where the master obtains the correct result. We also evaluate experimentally mixed equilibria aiming to attain better reliability-profit trade-offs. For a wide range of parameter values that may be used in practice, our simulations show that, in fact, both master and workers are better off using a pure equilibrium where no worker cheats, even under collusion, and even for colluding behaviors that involve deviating from the game.

  10. Motivating the Nigerian Worker for Strategic Human Management: Insights and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinta Agbarachi Opara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to contribute to the fact that there is no one best way of Motivating the Nigerian worker. That the best approach depends on the individual and the circumstances prevailing the workplace. Broadly speaking, motivation consists of a driving force or state of need deficiency which inclines a person to behave in a particular manner, or to develop a capacity for certain type of behaviour. The urge to act in a certain way may be generated by physiological or psychological needs or states including unconscious and conscious thought process or by external stimuli o by some combination of these. People obviously differ widely in these respects, and accordingly their behaviours also differ.

  11. The effects of new ways of work in the Netherlands: national data and a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, P; Blok, M; Formanoy, M; de Korte, E; Groenesteijn, L

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 15.2% of the work force in the Netherlands works with a computer at another location than at the office or at the clients' location. 27% of the Dutch working population is not satisfied about the possibility to work at home and 18% is not satisfied on the possibility to plan your own working time. The case control study affirms what has been reported as effects of new ways of work: the experienced productivity by communication and the representativeness of the office interior are improved and attention is needed for workers that need concentration space and need to personalize their work environment. In implementing new ways of work these issues need attention.

  12. Electronic information systems and social work: principles of participatory design for social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Gillingham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of electronic information systems (IS to human service organizations has been heavily critiqued, most notably for the ways that they may undermine frontline social work practice. Socio-technical design has been proposed as one means to redesign IS and a key element of this approach is the involvement of practitioners in the design process. Social workers, though, may be ill-prepared to engage in such processes. Reflecting on the findings of a program of research which aims to contribute to future designs of IS that support frontline practice, the aim in this article is to provide some guidance for social workers that will assist them to be active and effective participants in the future development of IS.

  13. Defensive dehumanization in the medical practice: a cross-sectional study from a health care worker's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, Jeroen; Muratore, Martina

    2013-03-01

    Health care workers are often required to consider the emotions of their patients making their work susceptible for burnout. Extending recent developments in work on dehumanization, the present study tested whether or not considering a patient's suffering in terms of uniquely human compared to more basic emotions, would be linked with burnout especially for those health care workers that frequently encounter emotional demands through their contact with suffering patients. Professional health care workers were presented with the fictitious case of a terminal patient and asked to infer her emotional state in terms of uniquely human or basic, primary emotions. As expected, humanizing a patient's suffering positively predicted symptoms of burnout especially for those participants that had higher levels of direct contact with patients.

  14. [Bases for the development of teaching, research and maternal and infant care in the rural area. The Temascalcingo plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso Yáñez, G; Ortega Espinosa, R; Hevia Rivas, P; García Romero, H

    1975-01-01

    The Instituto de Ensenanza e Investigaciones Rurales (Institute for Rural Training and Research) has been established in Solís, Municipality of Temascalcingo, State of Mexico. The institute is part of the Institucion Mexicana de Asistencia a la Ninez, IMAN (Mexican Institution for the Assistance of Childhood). The institute will study a system of healthy delivery in its (rural) zone of activity, based principally in programes with a strong content in the preventive and promotional aspects. For this purpose it will use in a preferential way, auxiliary and technical personnel which is being trained by the institute and that is original from the community where it will serve. At the professional level, the institute will mainly employ pediatricians, nurses and social workers that are completing their residency at the Hospital del Nino IMAN in Mexico City. These professional will obtain important supplementary training through their participation in the rural community health programes that the institute will develop.

  15. From healthcare support worker to registered nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driffield, Amanda

    2016-09-01

    Workforce planning, education and training are essential for achieving an appropriate mix of skilled and motivated staff, but the NHS's financial challenges mean new ways of providing safe staffing levels and balancing the books are required. This article describes the development of an education programme for band 1 to band 4 unregistered support workers that led to the introduction of an assistant practitioner (AP) role. It also explains how the programme evolved from a one-year certificate in higher education to a foundation degree in health care, and has since produced over 100 APs in a range of clinical areas who deliver high quality, competent and patient-centred care in a cost-effective, sustainable way.

  16. Colti in trappola. L’università postfordista e la formazione del cognitariato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Burgio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In post-Fordism has now emerged the figure of cognitive workers, who work through communication, symbols and the relationship. Among these should be placed also precarious intellectual workers, that the article fits into the theorist landscape of Italian post-operaism. The analysis deals with the plan of social building and education of precarious cognitive workers. In this perspec-tive, the precarious researchers of Italian universities (PhDs, PostDocs, tem-porary teachers etc. appear to play a central role because they exploit themself and simultaneously educate cognitive workers of postfordism into submission and obedience. To this aim seems to tend the process of restructuring of the university system. 

  17. Acoso moral y sus repercusiones médico legales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisy Castillo Ramírez

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El acoso moral o psicoterror laboral es una de las patologías que más daños producen a las personas trabajadoras así como al rendimiento de las instituciones, que permiten este tipo de estrategias de abuso de poder y de manipulaciones perversas por parte de jefes disfuncionales que son profesionales mediocres e incapaces laboralmente, contra trabajadores brillantes que son excelentes profesionales y que con su capacidad laboral evidencian la mediocridad de esas jefaturas acosadoras.The moral abuse or laborer psychoterror is one of the pathologies that make more damage in the workers and affect the institutional performance, that led this type of strategies of power abuse and manipulating perversions from dysfunctional leader Head, that are mediocre professionals or handicap labouredly, against brilliant workers that are excellent professionals and their labor capacity evidence the mediocrity of this abuse chairman.

  18. Urinary lithiasis in civil construction workers as a management indicator for health and improvement in personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ribeiro Nogueira Ferraz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Empirical information provided by health care professionals acting in the first line of care report a constant increase in the number of civil construction workers that present painful acute conditions, in most cases associated with the existence of urinary tract calculi. Aims: Evaluating the prevalence of urinary lithiasis in civil construction workers, as a means to identify indicators for the management of health and personnel. Methods: Observational study based on directed questionnaire. Results: From the 94 participants, 18 (19% were lithiasic, mostly due to overweight and reduced fluid intake. Conclusion: The observed prevalence appeared to be two times greater than that of the general population. Thus, prevention for such condition gains relevance, in order to avoid discomfort for the worker, and also reduce costs due to absenteeism, improving productivity, benefiting the workers by performance and creating the perspective of an improved quality of life.

  19. Diabetes among refugee populations: what newly arriving refugees can learn from resettled Cambodians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Berthold, S Megan; Buckley, Thomas; Kong, Sengly; Kuoch, Theanvy; Scully, Mary

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that cardiometabolic disease generally and type 2 diabetes specifically are problems among refugee groups. This paper reviews rates of cardiometabolic disease and type 2 diabetes among refugees and highlights their unique risk factors including history of malnutrition, psychiatric disorders, psychiatric medications, lifestyle changes toward urbanization and industrialization, social isolation, and a poor profile on the social determinants of health. Promising interventions are presented for preventing and treating diabetes in these groups. Such interventions emphasize well-coordinated medical and mental health care delivered by cross-cultural and multidisciplinary teams including community health workers that are well integrated into the community. Finally, recommendations for service, policy, and research are made. The authors draw on local data and clinical experience of our collective work with Cambodian American refugees whose 30-year trajectory illustrates the consequences of ignoring diabetes and its risk factors in more recent, and soon to be arriving, refugee cohorts.

  20. Choice chamber experiments to test the attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to water of estuarine and riverine origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Nicola C.; Cowley, Paul D.; Whitfield, Alan K.; Kaiser, Horst

    2008-03-01

    Although the recruitment of larvae and juveniles of marine fishes into estuaries has been well documented, little is known about the factors governing the immigration of estuary-associated marine fishes into estuaries. Fishes have a well-developed sense of smell and it has been suggested by several workers that olfactory cues of freshwater or estuarine origin serve as stimuli, attracting larvae and juveniles of estuary-associated species into estuaries. Attraction of postflexion Rhabdosargus holubi larvae to estuary and river water from the Kowie estuarine system, South Africa, was measured using a rectangular choice chamber. In experiments, conducted during peak recruitment periods, larvae selected estuary and river water with a significantly higher frequency than sea water. This study, the first to assess the possible role of olfaction in the recruitment process of an estuary-associated marine fish species, demonstrates that larvae are able to recognise water from different origins, probably based on odour.

  1. The origin of the chemical profiles of fungal symbionts and their significance for nestmate recognition in Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Freddie-Jeanne; Poulsen, Michael; Hefetz, Abraham

    2007-01-01

    and evaluated the quantitative variation of the 47 compounds in a multivariate analysis. Colony-specific chemical profiles of fungal symbionts were highly distinct and significantly different between the two ant species. We also estimated the relative genetic distances between the fungal symbionts using...... in chemical profiles could be explained by genetic differences between the fungal symbionts. However, there was no significant effect of ant species in partial analyses because genetic differences between symbionts tend to coincide with being reared by different ant species. However, compound groups differed...... significantly with amides, aldehydes, and methyl esters contributing to the correlations, but acetates, alkanes, and formates being unrelated to genetic variation among symbionts. We show experimentally that workers that are previously exposed to and fed with the fungal symbiont of another colony are met...

  2. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  3. Public health response to striking solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murti, Michelle; Ayre, Reg; Shapiro, Howard; de Burger, Ron

    2011-10-01

    In 2009, the City of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, experienced a six-week labor disruption involving 24,000 city workers that included solid waste and public health employees. In an attempt to control illegal dumping and to manage garbage storage across the city during this period, 24 temporary garbage storage sites were established by the city (mostly in local parks) for residents to dispose of their household waste. No other municipality in North America has attempted to operate this many temporary sites for this long a period. Management and nonunion staff from Healthy Environments in Toronto Public Health performed daily inspections, responded to community questions, issued public health orders, and worked closely with Solid Waste Management and the Ministry of the Environment to actively manage the public health concerns associated with these sites. This intensive oversight mitigated public health risks to the community and facilitated an effective, safe solution to the temporary garbage storage problem.

  4. Segmented Labor Markets and the Distributive Cycle: A Roadmap towards Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Charpe

    2014-01-01

    structure with fluid, latent, and stagnant components. The model exhibits a unique balanced growth path which depends on the speeds with which workers are pushed into or out of the labor market segments. We investigate the stability properties of this growth path with segmented labor markets and find that, though there is a stabilizing inflation barrier term in the wage Phillips curve, the interaction with the latent and stagnant portions of the labor market generates potentially (slowly destabilizing forces if policy measures are absent that regulate these labor markets. We then introduce an activating labor market policy, where government in addition acts as employer of last resort thereby eliminating the stagnant portion of the labor market, whilst erecting benefit systems that partially sustain the incomes of workers that have to leave the floating/latent labor market of the private sector of the economy. We show that such policies guarantee the macrostability of the economy’s balanced growth path.

  5. Healthcare waste management in selected government and private hospitals in Southeast Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus Nnamdi Oli; Callistus Chibuike Ekejindu; David Ufuoma Adje; Ifeanyi Ezeobi; Obiora Shedrack Ejiofor; Christian Chibuzo Ibeh; Chika Flourence Ubajaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To assess healthcare workers’ involvement in healthcare waste management in public and private hospitals.Methods:Validated questionnaires(n = 660) were administered to randomly selected healthcare workers from selected private hospitals between April and July 2013.Results:Among the healthcare workers that participated in the study,187(28.33%) were medical doctors,44(6.67%) were pharmacists,77(11.67%) were medical laboratory scientist,35(5.30%) were waste handlers and 317(48.03%) were nurses.Generally,the number of workers that have heard about healthcare waste disposal system was above average 424(69.5%).More health-workers in the government(81.5%) than in private(57.3%) hospitals were aware of healthcare waste disposal system and more in government hospitals attended training on it.The level of waste generated by the two hospitals differed significantly(P=0.0086) with the generation level higher in government than private hospitals.The materials for healthcare waste disposal were significantly more available(P=0.001) in government than private hospitals.There was no significant difference(P = 0.285) in syringes and needles disposal practices in the two hospitals and they were exposed to equal risks(P =0.8510).Fifty-six(18.5%) and 140(45.5%) of the study participants in private and government hospitals respectively were aware of the existence of healthcare waste management committee with 134(44.4%) and 19(6.2%) workers confirming that it did not exist in their institutions.The existence of the committee was very low in the private hospitals.Conclusions:The availability of material for waste segregation at point of generation,compliance of healthcare workers to healthcare waste management guidelines and the existence of infection control committee in both hospitals is generally low and unsatisfactory.

  6. Investigating consumers' and informal carers' views and preferences for consumer directed care: A discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaambwa, Billingsley; Lancsar, Emily; McCaffrey, Nicola; Chen, Gang; Gill, Liz; Cameron, Ian D; Crotty, Maria; Ratcliffe, Julie

    2015-09-01

    Consumer directed care (CDC) is currently being embraced internationally as a means to promote autonomy and choice for consumers (people aged 65 and over) receiving community aged care services (CACSs). CDC involves giving CACS clients (consumers and informal carers of consumers) control over how CACSs are administered. However, CDC models have largely developed in the absence of evidence on clients' views and preferences. We explored CACS clients' preferences for a variety of CDC attributes and identified factors that may influence these preferences and potentially inform improved design of future CDC models. Study participants were clients of CACSs delivered by five Australian providers. Using a discrete choice experiment (DCE) approach undertaken in a group setting between June and December 2013, we investigated the relative importance to CACS consumers and informal (family) carers of gradations relating to six salient features of CDC (choice of service provider(s), budget management, saving unused/unspent funds, choice of support/care worker(s), support-worker flexibility and level of contact with service coordinator). The DCE data were analysed using conditional, mixed and generalised logit regression models, accounting for preference and scale heterogeneity. Mean ages for 117 study participants were 80 years (87 consumers) and 74 years (30 informal carers). All participants preferred a CDC approach that allowed them to: save unused funds from a CACS package for future use; have support workers that were flexible in terms of changing activities within their CACS care plan and; choose the support workers that provide their day-to-day CACSs. The CDC attributes found to be important to both consumers and informal carers receiving CACSs will inform the design of future CDC models of service delivery. The DCE approach used in this study has the potential for wide applicability and facilitates the assessment of preferences for elements of potential future aged care

  7. Healthcare waste management in selected government and private hospitals in Southeast Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angus Nnamdi Oli; Callistus Chibuike Ekejindu; David Ufuoma Adje; Ifeanyi Ezeobi; Obiora Shedrack Ejiofor; Christian Chibuzo Ibeh; Chika Flourence Ubajaka

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess healthcare workers' involvement in healthcare waste management in public and private hospitals. Methods: Validated questionnaires (n = 660) were administered to randomly selected healthcare workers from selected private hospitals between April and July 2013. Results: Among the healthcare workers that participated in the study, 187 (28.33%) were medical doctors, 44 (6.67%) were pharmacists, 77 (11.67%) were medical laboratory sci-entist, 35 (5.30%) were waste handlers and 317 (48.03%) were nurses. Generally, the number of workers that have heard about healthcare waste disposal system was above average 424 (69.5%). More health-workers in the government (81.5%) than in private (57.3%) hospitals were aware of healthcare waste disposal system and more in government hospitals attended training on it. The level of waste generated by the two hospitals differed significantly (P = 0.0086) with the generation level higher in government than private hospitals. The materials for healthcare waste disposal were significantly more available (P = 0.001) in government than private hospitals. There was no significant difference (P = 0.285) in sy-ringes and needles disposal practices in the two hospitals and they were exposed to equal risks (P = 0.8510). Fifty-six (18.5%) and 140 (45.5%) of the study participants in private and government hospitals respectively were aware of the existence of healthcare waste man-agement committee with 134 (44.4%) and 19 (6.2%) workers confirming that it did not exist in their institutions. The existence of the committee was very low in the private hospitals. Conclusions: The availability of material for waste segregation at point of generation, compliance of healthcare workers to healthcare waste management guidelines and the existence of infection control committee in both hospitals is generally low and unsatisfactory.

  8. Lifetime earnings patterns, the distribution of future Social Security benefits, and the impact of pension reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, B; Burtless, G; Steuerle, E

    2000-01-01

    career earnings at a somewhat earlier age. However, the difference in career earnings patterns between men and women has narrowed dramatically over time. Workers with greater educational attainment earn substantially higher wages than those with less education, and they attain their peak career earnings later in life. For example, among men with the least education, peak earnings are often attained around or even before age 40, whereas many men with substantial postsecondary schooling do not reach their peak career earnings until after 50. Our tabulations of the lifetime earnings profiles of the oldest cohorts (born around 1930) and projections of the earnings of the youngest profiles (born around 1960) imply that the inequality of lifetime earnings has increased noticeably over time. Women in the top one-fifth of female earners and men in the top one-fifth of male earners are predicted to receive a growing multiple of the economy-wide average wage during their career. Women born between 1931 and 1935 who were in the top fifth of female earners had lifetime average earnings that were approximately equal to the average economy-wide wage. In contrast, women born after 1951 who were in the top fifth of earners are predicted to earn almost 50 percent more, that is, roughly 150 percent of the economy-wide average wage. Women with a lower rank in the female earnings distribution will also see gains in their lifetime average earnings, but their gains are predicted to be proportionately much smaller than those of women with a high rank in the distribution. Men with high earnings are also predicted to enjoy substantial gains in their relative lifetime earnings, while men with a lower rank in the earnings distribution will probably see a significant erosion in their typical wages relative to the economy-wide average wage. That is mainly the result of a sharp decline in the relative earnings of low-wage men born after 1950. In creating stylized earnings profiles that are

  9. Study protocol: developing a decision system for inclusive housing: applying a systematic, mixed-method quasi-experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeman, Heidi; Kendall, Elizabeth; Whitty, Jennifer A; Wright, Courtney J; Townsend, Clare; Smith, Dianne; Lakhani, Ali; Kennerley, Samantha

    2016-03-15

    Identifying the housing preferences of people with complex disabilities is a much needed, but under-developed area of practice and scholarship. Despite the recognition that housing is a social determinant of health and quality of life, there is an absence of empirical methodologies that can practically and systematically involve consumers in this complex service delivery and housing design market. A rigorous process for making effective and consistent development decisions is needed to ensure resources are used effectively and the needs of consumers with complex disability are properly met. This 3-year project aims to identify how the public and private housing market in Australia can better respond to the needs of people with complex disabilities whilst simultaneously achieving key corporate objectives. First, using the Customer Relationship Management framework, qualitative (Nominal Group Technique) and quantitative (Discrete Choice Experiment) methods will be used to quantify the housing preferences of consumers and their carers. A systematic mixed-method, quasi-experimental design will then be used to quantify the development priorities of other key stakeholders (e.g., architects, developers, Government housing services etc.) in relation to inclusive housing for people with complex disabilities. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 1 (experimental group) will participate in a series of focus groups employing Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) methodology. Stakeholders randomly assigned to Group 2 (control group) will participate in focus groups employing existing decision making processes to inclusive housing development (e.g., Risk, Opportunity, Cost, Benefit considerations). Using comparative stakeholder analysis, this research design will enable the AHP methodology (a proposed tool to guide inclusive housing development decisions) to be tested. It is anticipated that the findings of this study will enable stakeholders to incorporate consumer housing

  10. Perfil sociodemográfico e condições de saúde e trabalho dos professores de nove escolas estaduais paulistas Perfil Sociodemográfico y las condiciones de salud y trabajo de profesores de nueve Escuelas Estatales Paulistas Socio-demographic profile and health and working conditions of teachers of nine state of são paulo public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Giovanelli Vedovato

    2008-06-01

    riesgos en las escuelas y que las medidas de promoción a la salud y prevención deberían ser tomadas por los gobernantes.This is a crosssectional study carried out with 258 teachers in nine public schools located in the cities of Campinas and São José do Rio Pardo, in the State of São Paulo, in order to describe their socio-demographic profiles, lifestyles and health and working conditions. The sample was comprised mostly by females (81.8%, married (60.8%, averaging 41.4 years of age (SD 9.2, working out (56.6%, with leisure time (93.4% and performing home duties (88.4%. In terms of health, 20.9% did not sleep well at night and 82.1% had one of following diseases diagnosed by a physician: musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases (27.1%; injuries due to accidents and digestive diseases (22.1%, and mental disorders (20.9%. These diseases were related to the professional risks that were described: repetitive movements, chalk dust, stressing work, long working hours, work in more of one school and low wage. It was concluded that teachers are exposed to risks at schools and that prevention and health care policies should be taken by the authorities.

  11. A grain of sand or a handful of dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Fabian

    2013-03-01

    forth? Eventually you are forced call a single grain a heap. By a similar type of reasoning none of us consumers makes any difference individually. It is tempting to conclude that therefore consumption side mitigation is not sufficient. But it also does not really seem necessary in the strict sense of the word as long as some supply side measure can compensate for a demand side measure not taken. Thus each one of us could go on as before, as long as someone else or some technology is compensating for our own failure to change. To be sure, such elusive argument is, to say the least, not very helpful, but it highlights the difficulty to derive very specific courses of action from aggregate goals. So it takes a more prescriptive approach to get things going. The pragmatic mitigation wedge analysis by, e.g., Pacala and Socolow (2004) has highlighted that a relatively small number of dedicated and practicable measures is sufficient to achieve deep emission cuts, but the balance of these measures in the analyses is understandably somewhat arbitrary. Other analysis, based on Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) has focused more specifically on the questions of where and when measures would be implemented in the most cost-effective manner. From such studies one can learn about carbon price trajectories, technology diffusion rates, and possibly about conditional probabilities for reaching targets over time. However, IAMs are rarely used to assess systematically the necessary or sufficient conditions for reaching a given target, and when they do the outcome often is—with the occasional exception—disappointingly generic. Moreover, the controversies arising from value-laden allocations derived from IAMs are well-known: in these models emissions are typically reduced where it (supposedly) can be done cheapest, i.e. in low-wage countries, or according to some burden sharing scheme. The allocation of mitigation over time is essentially determined by the magnitude of the discount

  12. An Empirical Analysis of Human Capital of Peasant Workers and Their Urban Living Integration: A Case Study of Peasant Workers in Shaanxi Province%农民工人力资本与城市融入的实证分析——以陕西籍农民工为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金崇芳

    2011-01-01

    Peasant workers are the most vital human resource since China' s reform and opening up policy. They have made a historic contribution to China' s industrialization and urbanization. However, as the regulations of China' s economic structure, change in demand for labors, and the restriction of educational degree and labor skills or some other human capital factors, the vast majority of peasant workers is still in the edge and bottom of cities. They are primarily engaged in long-term, low-tech, low wages, and poor accommodation occupation, with full realization of their political status, economic rights, and social rights subject to many limitations. Causes for difficulties of peasant workers' integration into the mainstream of cities and the society and how the peasant workers share and enjoy achievements and civilization of reform and development with city dwellers are the important issues being paid much attention and to be addressed in China' s society. From the perspective of resource economics, the quality of human resources, i.e., human capital, becomes an important factor of peasant workers' integration into the urban life. This study laid the foundation of basic concepts and assumptions on building peasant workers' human capital and their urban living integration by investigating the case of peasant workers in Shaanxi Province from economic, social, and psychological/cultural dimensions. Results show that the elements of health, education, and labor skills in the human capital of peasant workers were significantly affected the dimension of their integration into cities. Work experience has a significant influence on the urban dimension of social integration, and shows a less effect on economic and psychological/cultural integration. This means that peasant workers in good health, on the one hand, are able to avoid spending much in city' s medical costs; on the other hand, they can obtain more job opportunities which help them more easily to

  13. Pressão arterial entre trabalhadores de curtume Blood pressure among tannery workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    1998-10-01

    death in Brazil since the 1970s. High blood pressure has been the major risk factor among the above mentioned diseases. A negative correlation between occupational qualification and blood pressure has been observed among workers. The above mentioned facts bring out the importance of the knowledge of high blood pressure distribution among the different occupational groups. The aim of the present study was to describe the distribution of blood pressure in stable and homogeneous population of unskilled, low wage larning industrial workers. The Prevalence of high blood pressure was established for this specific group. This prevalence was also related to some biological and socio-economical covariates as compared with that among other occupational groups in Brazil. METHOD: The subjects were 73 active employees at a tannery in Botucatu, state of S.Paulo, Brazil, in July 1993. These subjects underwent blood pressure measurements, anamnesis and clinical examination. The results were compared with those of similar studies carried out in elsewhere Brazil. Age confounding was controlled by different techniques. RESULT: The crude prevalence of high blood pressure detected in this group of workers was of 56.1%, with 15.8% of isolated systolic hypertension. Alcohol abuse and smoking were associated with high blood pressure and isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. DISCUSSION: Prevalence of hypertension in the group studied is significantly higher than that observed in other groups of workers studied in Brazil. Such a finding points to the need for further investigation so as to isolate those factors involved in the increased blood pressure found in this group.

  14. Violência do cotidiano e no trabalho de enfermagem: apreensões e expectativas de alunos de um curso de graduação em Enfermagem do Rio de Janeiro Violencia del cotidiano y en el trabajo de enfermería: aprehensiones y expectativas de los estudiantes de un curso de pregrado en enfermería del Rio de Janeiro Violence of the everyday and in the nursing work: apprehensions and expectations of the students from a course of graduation in nursing of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Tereza Luz Lisboa

    2006-04-01

    violencia en el trabajo de enfermería. En los resultados, 62,9% de los alumnos tenian, como significado de la violencia, la agresión física; 57,7% afirmaron que la enfermería es una profesión de alto riesgo; y las cinco expresiones elegidas por los alumnos,que mejor describen la violencia en el trabajo de enfermería, fueron: carencia de condiciones de trabajo, cliente agresivo, actuación en locales peligrosos, bajos salarios y abuso sexual.Quantitative research, that had as objectives: to identify the expectations of the students of nursing on the violence of the everyday; to describe the apprehensions of the students of nursing on the violence in the nursing work. From the approval of the Committee of Ethics in Research of the Anna Nery School of Nursing of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (EEAN/UFRJ, the research was carried through with the participation of 52 students from the 3rd period of the Graduation in Nursing and Obstetricses Course of the EEAN/UFRJ. For the data collection a questionnaire was used with 14 opened questions about the professional expectations related to the meaning of the violence; to the violence in the everyday of the nursing student; and to the violence in the nursing work. In the results, 62.9% of the students had as meaning of the violence, the physical aggression; 57,7% had affirmed that the nursing is a profession of high risk; and the five expressions chosen for the students who better portray the violence in the work of the nurse had been: the lack of work conditions, the aggressive customer, work in dangerous places, low wages and sexual abuse.

  15. THE VOCABULARY LEARNING STRATEGIES USED BY UUM STUDENTS IN RELATION TO THEIR PROFICIENCY LEVELS

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    Noraziah Mohd Amin

    2013-04-01

    Abstract  This thesis is concerned with the vocabulary learning strategies used by Band 1 and Band 4 undergraduate students of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM.  The objectives of this descriptive study were to survey the vocabulary learning strategies used by the respondents and to determine to what extent their use of the strategies was influenced by their proficiency level. The instrument employed in the study was a questionnaire developed by Lachini (2007 based on Cottrell’s classification of learning strategies. It consists of five categories of vocabulary learning strategies: creative, reflective, effective, active and motivated. The responses of 100 Band 1 and 100 Band 4 students to the questionnaire were examined on the frequency of their use of the vocabulary learning strategies. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in terms of the frequency of use between Band 1 and Band 4 participants as  the majority of both groups employed most of the strategies either ‘a little’ or ‘often’. The findings of the study perhaps could help instructors to facilitate the learning of English vocabulary by UUM students and other students at large.    Keywords: The vocabulary learning strategies, proficiency levels

  16. An intercomparison of dissolved iron speciation at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site: Results from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A

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    Kristen Nicolle Buck

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The organic complexation of dissolved iron (Fe was determined in depth profile samples collected from GEOTRACES Crossover Station A, the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site, as part of the Dutch and U.S. GEOTRACES North Atlantic programs in June 2010 and November 2011, respectively. The two groups employed distinct competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV methods, and resulting ligand concentrations and conditional stability constants from each profile were compared. Excellent agreement was found between the total ligand concentrations determined in June 2010 and the strongest, L1-type, ligand concentrations determined in November 2011. Yet a primary distinction between the datasets was the number of ligand classes observed: a single ligand class was characterized in the June 2010 profile while two ligand classes were observed in the November 2011 profile. To assess the role of differing interpretation approaches in determining final results, analysts exchanged titration data and accompanying parameters from the profiles for reinterpretation. The reinterpretation exercises highlighted the considerable influence of the sensitivity (S parameter applied on interpretation results, consistent with recent intercalibration work on interpretation of copper speciation titrations. The potential role of titration data structure, humic-type substances, differing dissolved Fe concentrations, and seasonality are also discussed as possible drivers of the one versus two ligand class determinations between the two profiles, leading to recommendations for future studies of Fe-binding ligand cycling in the oceans.

  17. A lifespan observation of a novel mouse model: in vivo evidence supports aβ oligomer hypothesis.

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    Yichi Zhang

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse models are powerful tools in exploring the mechanisms of AD. Most current transgenic models of AD mimic the memory impairment and the main pathologic features, among which the formation of beta-amyloid (Aβ plaques is considered a dominant pathologic event. Recently, Aβ oligomers have been identified as more neurotoxic than Aβ plaques. However, no ideal transgenic mouse model directly support Aβ oligomers as a neurotoxic species due to the puzzling effects of amyloid plaques in the more widely-used models. Here, we constructed a single-mutant transgenic (Tg model harboring the PS1V97L mutation and used Non-Tg littermates as a control group. Employing the Morris water maze, electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, biochemistry, and electron microscopy, we investigated behavioral changes and pathology progression in our single-mutant transgenic model. We discovered the pathological alteration of intraneuronal accumulation of Aβ oligomers without Aβ plaques in the PS1V97L-Tg mouse model, which might be the result of PS1 gene mutation. Following Aβ oligomers, we detected synaptic alteration, tau hyperphosphorylation and glial activation. This model supports an initial role for Aβ oligomers in the onset of AD and suggests that Aβ plaques may not be the only prerequisite. This model provides a useful tool for studying the role of Aβ oligomers in AD pathogenesis.

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of Pallister-Killian syndrome in young woman: ultrasound indicators and confirmation by FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarski, Milenko; Joksić, Gordana; Beres, Maja; Krstić, Aleksandar; Joksić, Ivana; Dobrojević, Boris; Nikić, Slavko

    2009-03-01

    We report the first case of Pallister-Killian syndrome diagnosed prenatally in Western Balkan region where one of the ultrasound markers was intrauterine growth restriction. During routine ultrasound control of the pregnancy at 21st gestation week (second pregnancy of the 25 year old woman) symmetrical intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), short long bones, ventriculomegaly and oligoamnion were noted. Amniotic fluid was examined cytogenetically. Fetal karyotype obtained by GTG banding of amniocytes revealed mosaic female karyotype 46,XX/47,XX,+mar (F-like). C-banding indicated that F-like marker does not belong to F, E or G chromosomal group. Employing targeted FISH with arm-specific probe for chromosome 12, tetrasomy 12p was confirmed. Fetal lymphocytes revealed normal female karyotype. This case showed that i(12p) could be found in pregnancy of young woman, not only in those of advanced age, as usually reported in the literature. This case also showed that intrauterine growth restriction could be one of the ultrasound markers associated with Pallister-Killian syndrome.

  19. A General Threshold Signature and Authenticated Encryption Scheme Based on ElGamal System

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    Yulian Shang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on ElGamal system, a group-oriented threshold signature and authenticated encryption scheme was put forward. After being signed by a signer group employing threshold signature scheme, the message was transmitted to a particular verifier group, and then the signature was verified through the cooperation of  ones from the verifier group with  members. Similarly, a general authenticated encryption scheme characterized by joint verification was put forward through integrating threshold signature scheme and message recovery technique together; After being encrypted singed by any  ones from a group with  members, the message was transmitted to a particular verifier group with members, and then recovered through the cooperation of any ones from the verifier group. The security of this scheme is based on Shamir threshold scheme and ElGamal system. It realized the directional transmission of message between different groups and enjoyed the characteristics of reduced communication load and lowered calculation complexity, etc.

  20. A sustainable storage solution for the Science Museum Group

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    Marta Leskard

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Museums in recent years have sought ways to reduce the environmental impact of their operations. One approach has been to look at ways to cut back on the energy required to stabilise storage conditions, particularly relative humidity, through passive moisture control rather than mechanical systems of heating and air conditioning. To this end the Science Museum Group employed hemp in the form of hemp-lime concrete, to construct a new storage facility for its collections, drawing on research into the buffering ability of hygroscopic natural building materials. The objective was to reduce energy use, to decrease reliance on mechanical systems and to produce very stable levels of relative humidity, in order to ensure the preservation of significant heritage collections. Although a prototype, to date, this building has performed as anticipated despite some initial construction snags and mechanical system malfunctions. The results encourage further investigation into hygroscopic construction materials to design even more energy-saving ways of providing stable storage conditions for museums.

  1. Research of the relationship of intracellular acidification and apoptosis in Hela cells based on pH nanosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,the relationship of intracellular acidification and apoptosis in Hela cells induced by vin-cristine sulfate has been studied by use of the ratiometric pH nanosensors that have been developed by our group,employing fluorescein isothiocyanate(FITC) doped as the pH-sensitive dye and Tris(2,2’-bipyidyl) dichlororuthenium(II) hexahydrate(RuBpy) doped as reference dye. The pH change of the Hela cells induced by vincristine sulfate has been monitored in vivo,in situ and real time by use of the ratiometric pH nanosensors. The experimental results show that the pH of the apoptotic Hela cells induced by vincristine sulfate has been acidified from 7.11 to 6.51,and the percentage of intra-cellular acidification is correlated with the induced concentration and incubation time of the vincristine sulfate. The further study of the percentage of intracellular acidification and the percentage of apop-tosis of Hela cells at the same time reveals that apoptosis of Hela cells induced by vincristine sulfate is preceded by intracellular acidification. These results would provide theoretical foundation for the therapy of cancer through interfering the pH of cells by use of vincristine sulfate or other anti-cancer drugs.

  2. Profiles of aberrant white matter microstructure in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S; Dougherty, Robert F; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies attempting to quantify white matter (WM) microstructure in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS) have produced inconsistent findings, most likely due to the various control groups employed, differing analysis methods, and failure to examine for potential motion artifact. In addition, analyses have heretofore lacked sufficient specificity to provide regional information. In this study, we used Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ) to identify specific regions of aberrant WM microstructure along WM tracts in patients with FXS that differed from controls who were matched on age, IQ and degree of autistic symptoms. Participants were 20 patients with FXS, aged 10 to 23 years, and 20 matched controls. Using Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ), we created Tract Profiles of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along 18 major WM fascicles. We found that fractional anisotropy was significantly increased in the left and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), right uncinate fasciculus, and left cingulum hippocampus in individuals with FXS compared to controls. Conversely, mean diffusivity was significantly decreased in the right ILF in patients with FXS compared to controls. Age was significantly negatively associated with MD values across both groups in 11 tracts. Taken together, these findings indicate that FXS results in abnormal WM microstructure in specific regions of the ILF and uncinate fasciculus, most likely caused by inefficient synaptic pruning as a result of decreased or absent Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  3. Profiles of aberrant white matter microstructure in fragile X syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott S. Hall

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies attempting to quantify white matter (WM microstructure in individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS have produced inconsistent findings, most likely due to the various control groups employed, differing analysis methods, and failure to examine for potential motion artifact. In addition, analyses have heretofore lacked sufficient specificity to provide regional information. In this study, we used Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ to identify specific regions of aberrant WM microstructure along WM tracts in patients with FXS that differed from controls who were matched on age, IQ and degree of autistic symptoms. Participants were 20 patients with FXS, aged 10 to 23 years, and 20 matched controls. Using Automated Fiber-tract Quantification (AFQ, we created Tract Profiles of fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity along 18 major WM fascicles. We found that fractional anisotropy was significantly increased in the left and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, right uncinate fasciculus, and left cingulum hippocampus in individuals with FXS compared to controls. Conversely, mean diffusivity was significantly decreased in the right ILF in patients with FXS compared to controls. Age was significantly negatively associated with MD values across both groups in 11 tracts. Taken together, these findings indicate that FXS results in abnormal WM microstructure in specific regions of the ILF and uncinate fasciculus, most likely caused by inefficient synaptic pruning as a result of decreased or absent Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  4. The effect of A teacher questioning strategy training program on teaching behavior, student achievement, and retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Paul B.; Schuck, Robert F.

    The use of questions in the classroom has been employed throughout the recorded history of teaching. One still hears the term Socratic method during discussions of questioning procedures. The use of teacher questions is presently viewed as a viable procedure for effective instruction. This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of training teachers in the use of a questioning technique and the resultant effect upon student learning. The Post-Test Only Control Group Design was used in randomly assigning teachers and students to experimental and control groups. A group of teachers was trained in the use of a specific questioning technique. Follow-up periodic observations were made of questioning technique behavior while teaching science units to groups of students. Post-unit achievement tests were administered to the student groups to obtain evidence of a relationship between the implementation of specific types of teacher questions and student achievement and retention. Analysis of observation data indicated a higher use of managerial and rhetorical questions by the control group than the experimental group. The experimental group employed a greater number of recall and data gathering questions as well as higher order data processing and data verification type questions. The student posttest achievement scores for both units of instruction were greater for the experimental groups than for the control groups. The retention scores for both units were Beater for the experimental groups than for the control groups.

  5. Evaluating Labour Market Effects of Wage Subsidies for the Disabled -The Danish Flexjobs Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving the employm......We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving...... the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We find a substantial, positive employment effect of the scheme in the 1994-2001 period within the target group compared to a control group of closely matched ineligibles, but no discernable effects on the probability of disability...... exit. For the target group employment probability is raised by 33 pct. points after the scheme is introduced relative to a mean employment rate at baseline of 44%. One explanation for a strong employment entry effect concomitant with a non-existent disability exit effect could be that subsidized jobs...

  6. Evaluating Labour Market Effects of Wage Subsidies for the Disabled – the Danish Flexjob Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving the employm......We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving...... the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We find a substantial, positive employment effect of the scheme in the 1994-2001 period within the target group compared to a control group of closely matched ineligibles, but no discernable effects on the probability of disability...... exit. For the target group employment probability is raised by 33 pct. points after the scheme is introduced relative to a mean employment rate at baseline of 44%. One explanation for a strong employment entry effect concomitant with a non-existent disability exit effect could be that subsidized jobs...

  7. Do Persian and English Dissertation Acknowledgments Accommodate Hyland’s Model: a Cross-Linguistic Study

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    Mohammad Javad Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, genre analysis has attracted many researchers' attention. The present study was to observe the differences in generic structure of doctoral dissertation acknowledgements texts written by native speakers of Persian (NSP and native speakers of English (NSE. To this end, 80 Persian acknowledgement texts and the same number of English dissertations acknowledgement texts were selected. The model relied on in the current study was Hyland’s (2004 model. After analyzing each text the main moves and their steps were extracted and the frequencies of each one were calculated and compared. Also, chi-square test was applied to check the meaningfulness of the differences. The result revealed a high degree of match between the two groups in exploiting most moves and steps. Also, the two groups employed the reflective move and accepting responsibility step in a statistically meaningful manner. In addition, a new step called ''thanking God'' step was discovered throughout this study which the difference in using this step between NSP and NSE was statistically significant.

  8. Religiosity and the Transition to Nonmarital Parity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott James

    2014-01-01

    Nonmarital parity is associated with several negative outcomes, including health problems, educational problems, and poverty. Understanding the risk and protective factors associated with nonmarital parenthood can inform policy and interventions, reducing both the incidences and associated consequences. The current study focuses on how intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity (the degree to which individuals or groups employ religious ideology in forming values and making decisions) are related to the timing of nonmarital parity using discrete time hazard modeling of a nationally representative sample of adolescent females (N=7,367) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The majority of the sample (86 %) claimed a religious affiliation and almost a third (32 %) had a nonmarital birth during the study. Even though the majority of the sample is White (67 %), Black and Hispanic females were more likely to experience a nonmarital birth. Results indicate that intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and religious affiliation assert protective effects for some populations while religious affiliation increases risk in the full model. Recommendations for policy, intervention, and future research are offered. PMID:25298755

  9. Implementation of evidence-based home visiting programs aimed at reducing child maltreatment: A meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, Katherine L; Fauchier, Angèle; Derkash, Bridget T; Garrido, Edward F

    2016-03-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in the popularity of home visitation programs as a means of addressing risk factors for child maltreatment. The evidence supporting the effectiveness of these programs from several meta-analyses, however, is mixed. One potential explanation for this inconsistency explored in the current study involves the manner in which these programs were implemented. In the current study we reviewed 156 studies associated with 9 different home visitation program models targeted to caregivers of children between the ages of 0 and 5. Meta-analytic techniques were used to determine the impact of 18 implementation factors (e.g., staff selection, training, supervision, fidelity monitoring, etc.) and four study characteristics (publication type, target population, study design, comparison group) in predicting program outcomes. Results from analyses revealed that several implementation factors, including training, supervision, and fidelity monitoring, had a significant effect on program outcomes, particularly child maltreatment outcomes. Study characteristics, including the program's target population and the comparison group employed, also had a significant effect on program outcomes. Implications of the study's results for those interested in implementing home visitation programs are discussed. A careful consideration and monitoring of program implementation is advised as a means of achieving optimal study results.

  10. Load Handling and Repetitive Movements Are Associated with Chronic Low Back Pain among Jute Mill Workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, S; Dasgupta, S; Samanta, A; Talukdar, G; Chanda, A; Ray Karmakar, P; Majumdar, A; Bhattacharya, D; Chakrabarti, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. WHO recognizes low back pain as one of the most important ergonomic stressors. Therefore, the present study was designed to find out the magnitude of the problem among jute mill workers in India and identify possible associations. Methodology. This cross-sectional workplace based study was conducted among eight (8) selected jute mills of India. Subjects with self-reported back pain for at least last 12 weeks were included and n = 717 male jute mill workers actively engaged in work entered the study and completed all assessments. Results. Among all participants 55% (n = 392) had current chronic low back pain. Age was an important association with subjects in the age group of 40-59 years more likely to have pain (p = 0.02, OR 1.44). Regarding ergonomic risk factors lifting of load of more than 20 kg (p = 0.04, OR 1.42) and repetitive movements of limbs (p = 0.03, OR 0.67) were significant associations of chronic low back pain. Conclusion. This study identified a significant prevalence of current chronic low back pain among jute mill workers. Regarding ergonomic risk factors the present study has identified two significant associations: lifting of load above 20 kg and repetitive movements of limbs. Therefore, this study has identified need for workplace interventions in this occupational group employing approximately 3,50,000 workers in India.

  11. Load Handling and Repetitive Movements Are Associated with Chronic Low Back Pain among Jute Mill Workers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Goswami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. WHO recognizes low back pain as one of the most important ergonomic stressors. Therefore, the present study was designed to find out the magnitude of the problem among jute mill workers in India and identify possible associations. Methodology. This cross-sectional workplace based study was conducted among eight (8 selected jute mills of India. Subjects with self-reported back pain for at least last 12 weeks were included and n=717 male jute mill workers actively engaged in work entered the study and completed all assessments. Results. Among all participants 55% (n=392 had current chronic low back pain. Age was an important association with subjects in the age group of 40–59 years more likely to have pain (p=0.02, OR 1.44. Regarding ergonomic risk factors lifting of load of more than 20 kg (p=0.04, OR 1.42 and repetitive movements of limbs (p=0.03, OR 0.67 were significant associations of chronic low back pain. Conclusion. This study identified a significant prevalence of current chronic low back pain among jute mill workers. Regarding ergonomic risk factors the present study has identified two significant associations: lifting of load above 20 kg and repetitive movements of limbs. Therefore, this study has identified need for workplace interventions in this occupational group employing approximately 3,50,000 workers in India.

  12. Evaluating Labour Market Effects of Wage Subsidies for the Disabled -The Danish Flexjobs Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving the employm......We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving...... the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We find a substantial, positive employment effect of the scheme in the 1994-2001 period within the target group compared to a control group of closely matched ineligibles, but no discernable effects on the probability of disability...... exit. For the target group employment probability is raised by 33 pct. points after the scheme is introduced relative to a mean employment rate at baseline of 44%. One explanation for a strong employment entry effect concomitant with a non-existent disability exit effect could be that subsidized jobs...

  13. Evaluating Labour Market Effects of Wage Subsidies for the Disabled – the Danish Flexjob Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Larsen, Mona

    We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving the employm......We evaluate the employment and disability exit effects of a wage subsidy program for the disabled in a setting characterized by universal health insurance and little employment protection. We focus on the Danish Flexjob scheme that was introduced in 1998 and targeted towards improving...... the employment prospects of the long-term disabled with partial working capacity. We find a substantial, positive employment effect of the scheme in the 1994-2001 period within the target group compared to a control group of closely matched ineligibles, but no discernable effects on the probability of disability...... exit. For the target group employment probability is raised by 33 pct. points after the scheme is introduced relative to a mean employment rate at baseline of 44%. One explanation for a strong employment entry effect concomitant with a non-existent disability exit effect could be that subsidized jobs...

  14. Prospective Comparison of Nonnarcotic versus Narcotic Outpatient Oral Analgesic Use after Laparoscopic Appendectomy and Early Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Alkhoury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare narcotic versus nonnarcotic outpatient oral pain management after pediatric laparoscopic appendectomy. Methods. In a prospective study from July 1, 2010, to March 30, 2011, children undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy on a rapid discharge protocol were treated with either nonnarcotic or narcotic postoperative oral analgesia. Two surgeons in a four-person faculty group employed the nonnarcotic regimen, while the other two used narcotics. Days of medication use, time needed for return to normal activity, and satisfaction rate with the pain control method were collected. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. A total of 207 consecutive children underwent appendectomy for acute, nonperforated appendicitis or planned interval appendectomy. The age and time to discharge were equivalent between the nonnarcotic (n=104 and narcotic (n=103 groups. Both had an equivalent number of medication days and similar times of return to normal activity. Ninety-seven percent of the parents of children in the nonnarcotic group stated that the pain was controlled by the prescribed medication, compared to 90 percent in the narcotic group (P=0.049. Conclusion. This study indicates that after non-complicated pediatric laparoscopic appendectomy, nonnarcotic is equivalent to narcoticbased therapy for outpatient oral analgesia, with higher parental satisfaction.

  15. Die verband tussen werknemerstatus en werkhoudings in 'n winkelgroep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. Prinsloo

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between employment status and work attitudes in a retail group. Employment status refers to the type of employment contract that may be concluded between an employer and an employee. It rests upon a continuum, varying from a permanent full-time appointment to a temporary appointment for a certain task or period. More and more organisations maintain a smaller core group of permanent full-time employees, which is supplemented by temporary or part-time employees. In this research the job satisfaction of full-time and part-time workers in a retail group is compared. The part-time group differed significantly from the full-time group regarding one facet of job satisfaction namely a lower level of satisfaction with supervision. Opsomming Werknemerstatus het betrekking op die tipe dienskontrak wat tussen 'n werkgewer en werknemer gesluit word. Dit berus op 'n kontinuum wat wissel vanaf 'n permanent-voltvdse aanstelling tot 'n tvdelike aanstelling vir 'n bepaalde taak of tydperk. Meer en meer organisasies handhaaf 'n kleiner kemgroep van permanent-voltydse werknemers/ wat aangevul word met tydelike of deeltydse werknemers. In hierdie navorsing word die werktevredenheid van voltydse en deeltydse werknemers in 'n winkelgroep vergelvk. Die deeltydse groep het beduidend van die voltydse groep verskil ten opsigte van een faset van werktevredenheid, naamlik 'n laer vlak van tevredenheid met toesighouding.

  16. The genesis of 'the Neophytes': a writing support group for clinical nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Teresa; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Harris, Margaret; Sinclair, Peter M

    2010-10-01

    This paper profiles the establishment and evaluation of the Neophyte Writers' Group, run by nurse academics in collaboration with clinical nurses. The growing demand for nurses to write, publish and present their work had inspired the introduction of a series of workshops designed to develop and improve writing and presentation skills, which eventuated in formation of the Neophytes. The group was founded on the basis of Bandura's theory of self-efficacy (1997), a concept which has been discussed extensively in social psychology literature to explain motivation and learning theory. People with high assurance in their capabilities regard difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided (Bandura, 1994). The Neophytes' group employs a collaborative approach intended to increase and reinforce members' self-confidence; the underlying philosophy is to promote and enhance writers' motivation, capacity and self-efficacy in order to achieve future publication goals confidently and independently. Support which engenders these strengths through a program relevant to participants' needs is likely, as this group found, to increase publication productivity. Additional unexpected outcomes resulted, such as engagement by clinical nurses' in academic work, and an increase in research higher degree enrolments.

  17. Research of the relationship of intracellular acidification and apoptosis in Hela cells based on pH nanosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE XiaoXiao; WANG Yan; WANG KeMin; PENG JiaoFeng; LIU Fang; TAN WeiHong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship of intracellular acidification and apoptosis in Hela cells induced by vincristine sulfate has been studied by use of the ratiometric pH nanosensors that have been developed by our group, employing fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) doped as the pH-sensitive dye and Tris(2,2'-bipyidyl) dichlororuthenium(Ⅱ) hexahydrate (RuBpy) doped as reference dye. The pH change of the Hela cells induced by vincristine sulfate has been monitored in vivo, in situ and real time by use of the ratiometric pH nanosensors. The experimental results show that the pH of the apoptotic Hela cells induced by vincristine sulfate has been acidified from 7.11 to 6.51, and the percentage of intracellular acidification is correlated with the induced concentration and incubation time of the vincristine sulfate. The further study of the percentage of intracellular acidification and the percentage of apoptosis of Hela cells at the same time reveals that apoptosis of Hela cells induced by vincristine sulfate is preceded by intracellular acidification. These results would provide theoretical foundation for the therapy of cancer through interfering the pH of cells by use of vincristine sulfate or other anti-cancer drugs.

  18. Nanomechanical properties of hydroxyapatite (HAP) with DAB dendrimers (poly-propylene imine) coatings onto titanium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charitidis, Costas A., E-mail: charitidis@chemeng.ntua.gr [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Skarmoutsou, Amalia [School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tsetsekou, Athena; Brasinika, Despina [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Iroon Polytechniou, Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Tsiourvas, Dimitris [National Centre for Scientific Research “Demokritos”, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► The synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB). ► The nanomechanical properties of different HAP-DAB coatings onto titanium surfaces. ► Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the synthesized coatings quantified by nanoindentation data analysis. -- Abstract: Coatings of hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanorods onto titanium surfaces were synthesized with the aim to improve coatings’ mechanical properties and adhesion to the substrate. The coatings are consisting of HAP nanorods synthesized in the presence of a cationic fourth generation diaminobutane poly(propylene imine) dendrimer (DAB) bearing 32 amine end groups employing varying calcium: dendrimer ratios and varying hydrothermal treatments. The quality, surface morphology and structure of the coatings were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive microanalysis. Wear resistance and adhesion properties of the coatings onto titanium substrates were studied through nanoindentation analysis. The experimental conditions, namely the calcium: dendrimer molar ratio and the hydrothermal treatment temperature were carefully selected; thus, it was possible to produce coatings of high hardness and elastic modulus values (ranging between 1–4.5 GPa and 40–150 GPa, respectively) and/or high wear resistance and plastic deformation values.

  19. National implementation of a mental health service model: A survey of Crisis Resolution Teams in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Paterson, Bethan; Onyett, Steve; Brown, Ellie; Istead, Hannah; Gray, Richard; Henderson, Claire; Johnson, Sonia

    2017-01-11

    In response to pressures on mental health inpatient beds and a perceived 'crisis in acute care', Crisis Resolution Teams (CRTs), acute home treatment services, were implemented nationally in England following the NHS Plan in the year 2000: an unprecedentedly prescriptive policy mandate for three new types of functional community mental health team. We examined the effects of this mandate on implementation of the CRT service model. Two hundred and eighteen CRTs were mapped in England, including services in all 65 mental health administrative regions. Eighty-eight percent (n = 192) of CRT managers in England participated in an online survey. CRT service organization and delivery was highly variable. Nurses were the only professional group employed in all CRT staff teams. Almost no teams adhered fully to government implementation guidance. CRT managers identified several aspects of CRT service delivery as desirable but not routinely provided. A national policy mandate and government guidance and standards have proved insufficient to ensure CRT implementation as planned. Development and testing of resources to support implementation and monitoring of a complex mental health intervention is required.

  20. Finding a voice through 'The Tree of Life': a strength-based approach to mental health for refugee children and families in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gillian

    2014-01-01

    The Child and Family Refugee Service at the Tavistock Centre in London has run a series of 'Tree of Life' groups for both parents and children in schools. The groups were developed in response to a concern about the majority of psychological treatments, which focus predominantly on vulnerability factors in refugee populations, and the effect that this can have on those they are attempting to help. In addition, these are modelled on western assumptions, which do not adequately take account of culture. The Tree of Life groups have provided an alternative to traditional mental health services, which many refugee families find hard to access because of perceived stigma and lack of knowledge about what is on offer. The groups employed a strength-based narrative methodology, using the tree as a creative metaphor, which enabled parents and children to develop empowering stories about their lives, which were rooted in their cultural and social histories. From this secure base, participants were able to develop shared, culturally congruent solutions to their problems. The groups have been found to benefit parents and children alike, as well as the school communities in which they have taken place.

  1. Project HealthDesign: enhancing action through information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Casper, Gail; Downs, Stephen; Aulahk, Veenu

    2009-01-01

    Project HealthDesign is a country-wide initiative in the United States designed to stimulate innovation in personal health records (PHRs). Nine grantee teams engaged in an 18-month long design and prototyping process. Two teams addressed the needs of children and adolescents; three created novel approaches to help adults prevent or manage metabolic syndrome; three groups employed interface innovations to assist patients with chronic care management and one team devised a novel calendaring system to assist patients undergoing complex medical/surgical treatments to integrate care processes into their daily lives. These projects not only included development and testing of novel personal health records applications, but also served as the starting point to specify and implement a common technical core platform. The project advanced PHR development in two key ways: intensive user-centered design and a development architecture that separates applications of PHRs from the infrastructure that supports them. The initiative also allowed systematic investigation of significant ethical, legal and social issues, including how privacy considerations are changed when information technology innovations are used in the home and the rebalancing of the authority structure of health care decision making when patient-centered approaches guide the design of PHRs.

  2. Genetic variation of hydraulic and wood anatomical traits in hybrid poplar and trembling aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Stefan G; Hacke, Uwe G; Hamann, Andreas; Thomas, Barb R

    2011-04-01

    Intensive forestry systems and breeding programs often include either native aspen or hybrid poplar clones, and performance and trait evaluations are mostly made within these two groups. Here, we assessed how traits with potential adaptive value varied within and across these two plant groups. Variation in nine hydraulic and wood anatomical traits as well as growth were measured in selected aspen and hybrid poplar genotypes grown at a boreal planting site in Alberta, Canada. Variability in these traits was statistically evaluated based on a blocked experimental design. We found that genotypes of trembling aspen were more resistant to cavitation, exhibited more negative water potentials, and were more water-use-efficient than hybrid poplars. Under the boreal field test conditions, which included major regional droughts, height growth was negatively correlated with branch vessel diameter (Dv ) in both aspen and hybrid poplars and differences in Dv were highly conserved in aspen trees from different provenances. Differences between the hybrid poplars and aspen provenances suggest that these two groups employ different water-use strategies. The data also suggest that vessel diameter may be a key trait in evaluating growth performance in a boreal environment.

  3. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  4. Declaración de embarazo del personal sanitario del hospital universitario Ramón y Cajal: Año 2009 Pregnancy declaration of healthcare workers of the Ramon y Cajal university hospital: Year 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian C. Navarro Chumbes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: según la Ley 31/1995 del 8 de noviembre de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales, Capítulo III artículo 26 "Protección de la Maternidad", el empresario deberá adoptar las medidas para evitar la exposición a riesgos en mujeres embarazadas y en periodos de lactancia. Objetivo: conocer las características del personal sanitario que declaró su embarazo al Servicio de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales (SPRL. Material y Métodos: el diseño del estudio es transversal, los datos fueron obtenidos del personal sanitario gestante que declaró su embarazo al SPRL durante el año 2009; se realizó análisis de estadística descriptiva de media +/- desviación estándar, así como porcentajes. Se consideraron significativas aquellas con un valor de significación Introduction: according to the Labour Risks Prevention Law 31/1995 of November the 8th, Chapter III, article 26 "Protection of Maternity", the employer must carry out all precautions in order to avoid exposure to risks in pregnant women as well as breastfeeding women. Objective: know all characters of healthcare workers that declared their pregnancy to the Labour Risks Prevention Service (LRPS. Method and materials: the study design is transversal; all data was obtained from the healthcare workers that declared their pregnancy to the LRPS in 2009; a descriptive statistic analysis of media +/- standard deviation and percentages was done. A value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 50 persons declared their pregnancy; age average was 33.10+/- 3.18 years. The age group that most frequent declared was 30-34 years (52 %, the average week of pregnancy at the moment of declaring was 12.01 +/- 5.18; the professional category that most frequently declared was UNQ (University Nursing Qualified 24.48 %. Conclusions: according to the results obtained and after contrasting them with the data of the Community of Madrid, other studies must be designed to find out if there

  5. Effect of Workplace Noise on Hearing Ability in Tile and Ceramic Industry Workers in Iran: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mostaghaci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Noise as a common physical hazard may lead to noise-induced hearing loss, an irreversible but preventable disorder. Annual audiometric evaluations help detect changes in hearing status before clinically significant hearing loss develops. This study was designed to track hearing threshold changes during 2-year follow-up among tile and ceramic workers. Methods. This follow-up study was conducted on 555 workers (totally 1110 ears. Subjects were divided into four groups according to the level of noise exposure. Hearing threshold in conventional audiometric frequencies was measured and standard threshold shift was calculated for each ear. Results. Hearing threshold was increased during 2 years of follow-up. Increased hearing threshold was most frequently observed at 4000, 6000, and 3000 Hz. Standard threshold shift was observed in 13 (2.34%, 49 (8.83%, 22 (3.96%, and 63 (11.35% subjects in the first and second years of follow-up in the right and left ears, respectively. Conclusions. This study has documented a high incidence of noise-induced hearing loss in tile and ceramic workers that would put stress on the importance of using hearing protection devices.

  6. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  7. Drafting an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hune, S

    1987-01-01

    The open-ended Working Group (WG) completed its 3rd session of the 2nd reading on the Elaboration of an International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Their Families during September 24-October 3, 1986 in New York. In this session, the WG elaborated a "dictionary" of terms related to the migrant worker and members of the family of the migrant worker that, when ratified, will be viewed as international standards. The WG also approved 8 articles primarily relating to civil and political rights. These included articles regarding the rights of migrant workers and their families to 1) leave any State, including their State of origin; 2) life; 3) be excluded from forced or compulsory labor except under specific conditions; 4) the freedom of thought, conscience, and religion; 5) hold opinions without interference and the freedom of expression, subject only to certain restrictions; and 6) liberty and security of person. The Convention's intention was to ensure the application of human rights to migrant workers. There were nearly 60 participating states in attendance, with 1/3 of them from African states. African and Arab states played a very active role in the discussions. The number of women delegates has increased with each session. Future issues include 1) economic and cultural rights, and 2) the additional rights of migrant workers and their families in a regular situation of lawful status.

  8. Improving human performance: Industry factors influencing the ability to perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güera Massyn Romo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Learning interventions and new technologies that aim to improve human performance must take cognisance of industry factors inhibiting human performance. The dynamic and fast pace nature of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT and the engineering industries do not lend themselves to proper skills planning and management. These industries experience real skills gaps, to some of which they contribute by themselves. This study reports on these performance-inhibiting factors such as the underutilisation of available skills, tolerance for individual preferences, and dynamically, and informally refining a role objective while an employee is occupying a certain role. The important professional skills required by individuals to cope with these real life factors are also explored in the skills gaps management context. Moreover, these industries need a profile they refer to as Special Forces, which denotes a high calibre of worker that possesses well-developed professional skills whilst having advanced technical expertise and sufficient experience. This resource profile is required largely due to the poor management of human resource processes in practice and the current reported lack of adequate skills. Furthermore, this study refers to the recent lack of a working definition for these Special Forces leading to the omitted active development of these profiles in industry today, which appears to become a key human performance inhibiting factor.

  9. Evolution of thorax architecture in ant castes highlights trade-off between flight and ground behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Roberto A; Peeters, Christian; Beldade, Patrícia

    2014-01-01

    The concerted evolution of morphological and behavioral specializations has compelling examples in ant castes. Unique to ants is a marked divergence between winged queens and wingless workers, but morphological specializations for behaviors on the ground have been overlooked. We analyzed thorax morphology of queens and workers in species from 21 of the 25 ant subfamilies. We uncovered unique skeletomuscular modifications in workers that presumably increase power and flexibility of head-thorax articulation, emphasizing that workers are not simply wingless versions of queens. We also identified two distinct types of queens and showed repeated evolutionary associations with strategies of colony foundation. Solitary founding queens that hunt have a more worker-like thorax. Our results reveal that ants invest in the relative size of thorax segments according to their tasks. Versatility of head movements allows for better manipulation of food and objects, which arguably contributed to the ants' ecological and evolutionary success. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01539.001.

  10. Mineralogical and chemical character- istics of newer Dolerite Dyke around Keonjhar, Orissa: Implication for hydrothermal activity in subduction zone setting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Piyali Sengupta; Arijit Ray; Sayantani Pramanik

    2014-06-01

    The newer dolerite dykes around Keonjhar within the Singbhum Granite occur in NE–SW, NW–SE and NNE–SSW trends. The mafic dykes of the present study exhibit several mineralogical changes like clouding of plagioclase feldspars, bastitisation of orthopyroxene, and development of fibrous amphibole (tremolite–actinolite) from clinopyroxene, which are all considered products of hydrothermal alterations. This alteration involves addition and subtraction of certain elements. Graphical analyses with alteration index and elemental abundances show that elements like Rb, Ba, Th, La and K have been added during the alteration process, whereas elements like Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Si, Al, Fe, Mg and Ca have been removed. It is observed that in spite of such chemical alteration, correlation between major and trace elements, characteristic of petrogenetic process, is still preserved. This might reflect systematic alteration (addition or subtraction) of elements without disturbing the original element to element correlation. It has also been established by earlier workers that the evolution of newer dolerite had occurred in an arc-back arc setting which may also be true for newer dolerites of the present study. This is evident from plots of pyroxene composition and whole rock composition of newer dolerite samples in different tectonic discrimination diagrams using immobile elements. The newer dolerite dykes of the Keonjhar area may thus be considered to represent an example of hydrothermal activity on mafic rocks in an arc setting.

  11. The expression and impact of antifungal grooming in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reber, A; Purcell, J; Buechel, S D; Buri, P; Chapuisat, M

    2011-05-01

    Parasites can cause extensive damage to animal societies in which many related individuals frequently interact. In response, social animals have evolved diverse individual and collective defences. Here, we measured the expression and efficiency of self-grooming and allo-grooming when workers of the ant Formica selysi were contaminated with spores of the fungal entomopathogen Metarhizium anisopliae. The amount of self-grooming increased in the presence of fungal spores, which shows that the ants are able to detect the risk of infection. In contrast, the amount of allo-grooming did not depend on fungal contamination. Workers groomed all nestmate workers that were re-introduced into their groups. The amount of allo-grooming towards noncontaminated individuals was higher when the group had been previously exposed to the pathogen. Allo-grooming decreased the number of fungal spores on the surface of contaminated workers, but did not prevent infection in the conditions tested (high dose of spores and late allo-grooming). The rate of disease transmission to groomers and other nestmates was extremely low. The systematic allo-grooming of all individuals returning to the colony, be they contaminated or not, is probably a simple but robust prophylactic defence preventing the spread of fungal diseases in insect societies.

  12. Cytogenetic diagnostic of 3 populations of occupationally exposed personnel; Diagnostico citogenetico de 3 poblaciones de personal ocupacionalmente expuesto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C., E-mail: citlali.guerrero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In the year 2000 the first service of biological dosimetry was requested to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), and until the year 2012 have been assisted 52 cases approximately. Most of the cases correspond to workers dedicated to the industrial radiography, followed by the occupationally exposed personnel either in the hospital area or health services and the minority corresponds to individuals linked to research institutions. The incident with more serious consequences to the individual happened to workers that ingested I-131 in the year 2003. Using the biological dosimetry to estimate exposure dose by damage in the lymphocyte chromosomes of each worker has been possible to establish the exposure dose in each one of them, or also to discard the supposed exposure. The dosimetry demonstrates to be an useful tool for situations with exposure suspicion, for example when the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeter of a occupationally exposed personnel does not correspond to the event, or when the personnel forgets to carry his dosimeter, the exposure dose can be determined. (Author)

  13. Health system reform in peri-urban communities: an exploratory study of policy strategies towards healthcare worker reform in Epworth, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Hope Taderera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human resources for health (HRH remains a critical challenge, according to the Kampala Declaration and Agenda for Global Action of 2008 and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. Available literature on health system reforms does not provide a detailed narrative on strategies that have been used to reform HRH challenges in peri-urban communities. This study explores such strategies implemented in Epworth, Zimbabwe, during 2009–2014, and the implications these strategies might have on other peri-urban areas. Design: Qualitative and quantitative methods were used in an exploratory and cross-sectional design. Purposive sampling was used to select key informants, a sample of healthcare workers that participated in in-depth interviews and community members who took part in focus group discussions. Secondary data were collected through a documentary search. Qualitative data were analysed through thematic analysis. Quantitative secondary data were examined using descriptive statistics and then compared with qualitative data to reinforce analysis. Results: The HRH reform policy strategies that were identified included ministerial intervention; policy review; and revival of the human resource for health planning, financial planning, multi-sector collaboration, and community engagement. These had some positive effects; however, desired outcomes were undermined by financial, material, human resource, and social constraints. Conclusions: Despite constraints, the strategies helped revive the health delivery system in Epworth. In turn, this had a favourable outlook on post-2008 efforts by the Global Health Alliance towards healthcare worker reform and the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda in peri-urban communities.

  14. Soft Skills in Pedagogical Practices with Different Curriculum for Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Yee, M. H.; Tee, T. K.; Mukhtar, M. Ibrahim; Ahmad, A.

    2017-08-01

    The rapid growth of the economy in Malaysia is a benchmark for the country’s progress. The demand for skilled worker has started to increase from year to year resulted in the implementation of reforms and necessary skills will be applied to each of the graduates who will step into the nature of work. Therefore, a study was conducted to identify the level of soft skills among students in higher education institutions. The study was conducted at the Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and involved 302 samples of final year students from Faculty of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Electrical Engineering. There are several types of soft skills have been viewed on the students such as creative thinking skills, teamwork skills, communication skills, decision-making skills, interpersonal skills and leadership skills. The analysis results show that all of the soft skills are on the high level. Furthermore, the results of ANOVA showed a significant difference in soft skills mastery among Civil Engineering students and Mechanical Engineering students. As a conclusion, the overall level of soft skills mastery among Faculty of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and the Faculty of Electrical Engineering students is on the high level. The soft skills elements are very important in order to produce skills workers that suitable with the industry.

  15. Preparing a 21st century workforce: is it time to consider clinically based, competency-based training of health practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancarrow, Susan A; Moran, Anna M; Graham, Iain

    2014-02-01

    Health workforce training in the 21st century is still based largely on 20th century healthcare paradigms that emphasise professionalisation at the expense of patient-focussed care. This is illustrated by the paradox of increased training times for health workers that have corresponded with workforce shortages, the limited career options and pathways for paraprofessional workers, and inefficient clinical training models that detract from, rather than add to, service capacity. We propose instead that a 21st century health workforce training model should be: situated in the clinical setting and supported by outsourced university training (not the other way around); based on the achievement of specific milestones rather than being time-defined; and incorporate para-professional career pathways that allow trainees to 'step-off' with a useable qualification following the achievement of specific competencies. Such a model could be facilitated by existing technology and clinical training infrastructure, with enormous potential for economies of scale in the provision of formal training. The benefits of a clinically based, competency-based model include an increase in clinical service capacity, and clinical training resources become a resource for the delivery of healthcare, not just education. Existing training models are unsustainable, and are not preparing a workforce with the flexibility the 21st century demands.

  16. Antibacterial activity of some ethno-botanically important ferns of Southern Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathakali Nath

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pteridophytes form an important part of the biodiversity of this blue green planet. It has been agreed by recent workers that pteridophytic population of India is about 10% of the total pteridophytic flora of the world. Besides showing economic values towards food and fodder, indicators, bio fertilizers, insect repellents etc. quiet a large number of pteridophytic species are used by different communities as medicine and folk medicines. They treat cuts and wounds and many other diseases with leaf extract/rhizome extract of pteridophytes. The tribal people of Barak Valley area of Southern Assam, are using different species of pteridophytes to cure various diseases. In the present communication, total 21 species of common pteridophytes were enumerated from Barak Valley. The ethnobotanical importance of these species as reported by different authors were reviewed and presented in tabulated form. Further, frond extract of these species were tested against five potentially pathogenic microorganisms. The result showed that 10 species have antibacterial activity against one or more organisms while the remaining 11 species did not show any activity against any of the test organisms. The ferns showing antibacterial activity are Adiantum capillus-veneris, Asplenium nidus, Cyathea brunoniana, Cyathea gigantea, Dipteris wallichii, Drynaria quercifolia, Lygodium japonicum, Lygodium flexuossum, Pityrograma calomelanos, and Pteris biaurita.

  17. Immune gene expression in Bombus terrestris: signatures of infection despite strong variation among populations, colonies, and sister workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska S Brunner

    Full Text Available Ecological immunology relies on variation in resistance to parasites. Colonies of the bumblebee Bombus terrestris vary in their susceptibility to the trypanosome gut parasite Crithidia bombi, which reduces colony fitness. To understand the possible origin of this variation in resistance we assayed the expression of 28 immunologically important genes in foraging workers. We deliberately included natural variation of the host "environment" by using bees from colonies collected in two locations and sampling active foraging workers that were not age controlled. Immune gene expression patterns in response to C. bombi showed remarkable variability even among genetically similar sisters. Nevertheless, expression varied with parasite exposure, among colonies and, perhaps surprisingly, strongly among populations (collection sites. While only the antimicrobial peptide abaecin is universally up regulated upon exposure, linear discriminant analysis suggests that the overall exposure effect is driven by a combination of several immune pathways and further immune functions such as ROS regulation. Also, the differences among colonies in their immune gene expression profiles provide clues to the mechanistic basis of well-known inter-colony variation in susceptibility to this parasite. Our results show that transcriptional responses to parasite exposure can be detected in ecologically heterogeneous groups despite strong background noise.

  18. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  19. Narratives of neoliberalism: 'clinical labour' in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Bronwyn

    2015-06-01

    Cross-border reproductive care has been thrust under the international spotlight by a series of recent scandals. These have prompted calls to develop more robust means of assessing the exploitative potential of such practices and the need for overarching and normative forms of national and international regulation. Allied theorisations of the emergence of forms of clinical labour have cast the outsourcing of reproductive services such as gamete donation and gestational surrogacy as artefacts of a wider neoliberalisation of service provision. These accounts share with many other narratives of neoliberalism a number of key assertions that relate to the presumed organisation of labour relations within this paradigm. This article critically engages with four assumptions implicit in these accounts: that clinical labourers constitute a largely homogeneous underclass of workers; that reproductive labour has been contractualised in ways that disembed it from wider social and communal relations; that contractualisation can provide protection for clinical labour lessening the need for formal regulatory oversight; and that the transnationalisation of reproductive service labour is largely unidirectional and characterised by a dynamic of provision in which 'the rest' services 'the West'. Drawing on the first findings of a large-scale ethnographic research project into assisted reproduction in India I provide evidence to refute these assertions. In so doing the article demonstrates that while the outsourcing and contractualisation of reproductive labour may be embedded in a wider neoliberal paradigm these practices cannot be understood nor their impacts be fully assessed in isolation from their social and cultural contexts.

  20. Degeneration patterns of the worker spermatheca during morphogenesis in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Ayako; Billen, Johan; Hashim, Rosli; Ito, Fuminori

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive division of labor is one of the crucial features in social insects, however, the developmental mechanisms leading to modifications in the reproductive apparatus of workers are still not very clear. Ants show a remarkable diversity in the morphological specialization of the worker's reproductive apparatus, that allows to distinguish four types, type 1: workers that have ovaries and a functional spermatheca, and that reproduce like queens, type 2: workers have ovaries and a vestigial spermatheca, type 3: workers have ovaries but no spermatheca, and type 4: workers lost both ovaries and spermatheca. We investigated morphogenesis of the worker spermatheca in 28 ant species by histological examination. In workers of type 1, the morphogenesis of the spermatheca is very similar to that in ant queens. In type 2, the spermathecal disc also differentiates, however, the development is interrupted and remains vestigial. In types 3 and 4, the absence of the spermatheca in the adult phase is caused by a degeneration after initial formation of the spermathecal disc or by a complete lack of the spermathecal discs. The timing of these interruption and degeneration events varies among species. The species exhibiting an earlier interrupting point of spermatheca formation in workers have a larger queen-worker dimorphism, that seems to be independent from ant phylogeny. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.