WorldWideScience

Sample records for group-dbcg history organization

  1. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group--DBCG: History, organization, and status of scientific achievements at 30-year anniversary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichert-Toft, M.; Christiansen, Peter; Mouridsen, H.T.

    2008-01-01

    , and data secretaries making current analyses of outcome results feasible. DBCG is run by the Executive Committee consisting of expert members appointed by their respective society. From 1978 the DBCG project gained widely accession from participating units, and since then nearly all newly diagnosed breast...... treatment programmes including in situ lesions and primary invasive breast cancer. Probands are subdivided into risk groups based on a given risk pattern and allocated to various treatment programmes accordingly. The scientific initiatives are conducted in the form of register- and cohort analysis...... or randomized trials in national or international protocolized settings. Yearly, about 4 000 new incident cases of primary invasive breast cancer and about 200 in situ lesions enter the national programmes. Further, about 600 women with hereditary disposition of breast cancer are registered and evaluated...

  2. Risk of second primary cancer among patients with early operable breast cancer registered or randomised in Danish Breast Cancer cooperative Group (DBCG) protocols of the 77, 82 and 89 programmes during 1977-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, M.; Jensen, Maiken Brit; Engholm, G.;

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors have increased risks of developing second primary cancers due to shared etiology, life style factors but also to primary breast cancer treatment. Among 53 418 patients registered by the population based Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) during 1977-2001, 31 818...... rates of the Danish population were used for calculation of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Time at risk was from diagnosis of breast cancer+1 year until death or through 2002. Risk for all second primary cancers combined was increased, SIR=1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.08). Sites...

  3. History of crystalline organic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Keizo

    2017-05-01

    A brief view of crystalline organic conductor is presented. Since the discovery of TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane) in the mid 1970’s, pressure has been an indispensable tool to develop the physics of this field. From the aspect of charge transfer salt, TTF-TCNQ and its family was specified with partial charge transfer, two chain one-dimensional (1D) system, charge density wave (CDW) and commensurability. On the other hand, in (TMTSF)2X family (TMTSF: tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene, X: electron acceptor such as PF6, ClO4), complete charge transfer, one chain system, spin density wave (SDW), field-induced SDW, quantum Hall effect, superconductivity were discussed. Further, together with pressure itself, cooling rate was noticed to be important for low temperature properties. Recently, coming back to TTF-TCNQ family, i.e., HMTSF-TCNQ, whether or not field-induced CDW, instead of field-induced SDW, and quantum Hall effect is present was discussed (HMTSF: hexamethylene-tetraselenafulvalene). Whether or not the Fermiology in (TMTTF)2X under pressure is similar to that of (TMTSF)2X is discussed as well. In (BEDT-TTF)2X, new aspect of macroscopic polarization of α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 related to charge order is described. At the end, in contrast to the charge transfer salts, non-charge transfer salt, that is, single component conductor is presented as a new possible example of Dirac cone, which was deeply studied by many researchers in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3, together with the theoretical calculation of its magnetic susceptibility (BEDT-TTF: bisethylenedithia-tetrathiafulvalene).

  4. A history of homosexuality and organized psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Today the Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry welcomes its gay and lesbian members. Yet at the time of its 1956 founding, organized psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality could be reasonably characterized as hostile. First there was a transition from Freud's early views of homosexuality as immature to later neofreudian theories that pathologized same-sex attractions and behavior. Following the 1973 decision of the American Psychiatric Association to remove homosexuality from the DSM, homosexuality is now more commonly regarded as a normal variant of human sexuality. The history of psychoanalytic attitudes toward homosexuality reinforces the impression that psychoanalytic theories cannot be divorced from the political, cultural, and personal contexts in which they are formulated. This history also shows that analysts can take positions that either facilitate or obstruct tolerance and acceptance.

  5. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: national guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette H; Berg, Martin; Pedersen, Anders N;

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus...... on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required....

  6. Review of History and Recent Development of Organic Farming Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The history of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed in this paper. The development of the organic farming worldwide had gone through three stages, emergence, expansion, and growth. The contributors and their thoughts during the different development stages of the organic farming were briefly introduced. And the development status of the organic farming worldwide was reviewed from the aspects of land area under organic management, land area under organic management in percentage of total agricultural area, and world markets for organic products. Besides, the main existing problems for the further development of the world's organic farming, as well as the development status, problems and strategies of the Chinese organic farming were discussed.

  7. The Burden of History in the Family Business Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Dawson, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    In this article we focus on the study of history through the use of narratives, within the context of the prevalent form of organization worldwide: the family business. Specifically we consider the dilemma of the impossible gift of succession using Nietzsche’s discussion of the burden of history...... and paralleling the story of a family business succession with that of Shakespeare’s King Lear. This way, we seek to make a contribution to organizational studies by answering recent calls to engage more with history in studies of business organizations. By implication, the study also initiates an integration...... of family business studies into organization studies....

  8. History of Martian volatiles - Implications for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F. P.

    1971-01-01

    A theoretical reconstruction of the history of Martian volatiles indicates that Mars probably possessed a substantial reducing atmosphere at the outset of its history, and that its present tenuous and more oxidized atmosphere is the result of extensive chemical evolution. As a consequence, it is probable that Martian atmospheric chemical conditions, now hostile with respect to abiotic organic synthesis in the gas phase, were initially favorable. Evidence indicating the chronology and degradational history of Martian surface features, surface mineralogy, bulk volatile content, internal mass distribution, and thermal history suggests that Mars catastrophically developed a substantial reducing atmosphere as the result of rapid accretion.

  9. History of Martian volatiles - Implications for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F. P.

    1971-01-01

    A theoretical reconstruction of the history of Martian volatiles indicates that Mars probably possessed a substantial reducing atmosphere at the outset of its history, and that its present tenuous and more oxidized atmosphere is the result of extensive chemical evolution. As a consequence, it is probable that Martian atmospheric chemical conditions, now hostile with respect to abiotic organic synthesis in the gas phase, were initially favorable. Evidence indicating the chronology and degradational history of Martian surface features, surface mineralogy, bulk volatile content, internal mass distribution, and thermal history suggests that Mars catastrophically developed a substantial reducing atmosphere as the result of rapid accretion.

  10. Molecular Phylogenetic: Organism Taxonomy Method Based on Evolution History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic is described as taxonomy classification of an organism based on its evolution history namely its phylogeny and as a part of systematic science that has objective to determine phylogeny of organism according to its characteristic. Phylogenetic analysis from amino acid and protein usually became important area in sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to follow the rapid change of a species such as virus. The phylogenetic evolution tree is a two dimensional of a species graphic that shows relationship among organisms or particularly among their gene sequences. The sequence separation are referred as taxa (singular taxon that is defined as phylogenetically distinct units on the tree. The tree consists of outer branches or leaves that represents taxa and nodes and branch represent correlation among taxa. When the nucleotide sequence from two different organism are similar, they were inferred to be descended from common ancestor. There were three methods which were used in phylogenetic, namely (1 Maximum parsimony, (2 Distance, and (3 Maximum likehoood. Those methods generally are applied to construct the evolutionary tree or the best tree for determine sequence variation in group. Every method is usually used for different analysis and data.

  11. Organic maturation and thermal history of Queen Charlotte Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustin, R.M.; Vellutini, D. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1989-09-01

    The level of organic maturation and thermal history of Mesozoic and Tertiary strata of the Queen Charlotte Islands have been determined with vitrinite reflectance (R{sub 0}), numerical modeling (modified Arrhenius model), and Rock-Eval Pyrolysis. The level of organic maturation increases from northern Graham to southern Moresby Island, which primarily reflects high heat flow resulting from Middle to Late Jurassic and Eocene to Oligocene plutonism and cospatial dyking. Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic and most Cretaceous strata are overmature on Moresby Island, with R{sub 0} values ranging from 2.40 to 5.80%. Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata are immature to overmature on Graham Island, with R{sub 0} values ranging from 0.15% (Skonun Formation) to 2.4% (Haida Formation). Locally, R{sub 0} values up to 3.2% on Graham Island and 8.3% on Moresby Island occur adjacent to igneous intrusives. Modeling measured levels of organic maturation suggests that elevated geothermal gradients ranging from 83{degree} to 150{degree}C/km existed during Yakoun (183-178 Ma) and Masset (35-10 Ma) volcanism on Graham Island. Numerical modeling further suggests that Triassic strata on Fredrick Island and Kennecott Point (Graham Island) entered the oil window during the early Miocene, whereas Jurassic strata at Rennell Junction and Cumshewa Inlet entered the oil window during the Bajocian. Cretaceous strata on north and south Graham Island entered the oil window during the early Miocene and are currently within the oil window. The Tertiary Skonun Formation is generally immature except for strata on west and northeast Graham Island, which entered the oil window in the late Miocene.

  12. Organic matter and metamorphic history of CO chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Lydie; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Quirico, Eric; Montagnac, Gilles; Lewin, Eric

    2007-03-01

    The metamorphic grades of a series of eight CO3 chondrites (ALHA77307, Colony, Kainsaz, Felix, Lancé, Ornans, Warrenton and Isna) have been quantified. The method used was based on the structural grade of the organic matter trapped in the matrix, which is irreversibly transformed by thermal metamorphism. The maturation of the organic matter is independent with respect to the mineralogical context and aqueous alteration. This metamorphic tracer is thus valid whatever the chemical class of chondrites. Moreover, it is sensitive to the peak metamorphic temperature. The structural grade of the organic matter was used along with other metamorphic tracers such as petrography of opaque minerals, Fa and Fs silicate composition in type I chondrules, presolar grains and noble gas (P3 component) abundance. The deduced metamorphic hierarchy and the attributed petrographic types are the following: ALHA77307 (3.03) Chopin C., and Rouzaud J. N. (2002) Raman spectrum of carbonaceous material in metasediments: a new geothermometer. J. Metamorph. Geol., 20, 859-871]. A value of 330 °C was obtained for Allende (CV chondrite), Warrenton and Isna, consistent with temperatures estimated from Fe diffusion [Weinbruch S., Armstrong J., and Palme H. (1994). Constraints on the thermal history of the Allende parent body as derive from olivine-spinel thermometry and Fe/Mg interdiffusion in olivine. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta58(2), 1019-1030.], from the Ni content in sulfide-metal assemblages [Zanda B., Bourot-Denise M., and Hewins R. (1995) Condensate sulfide and its metamorphic transformations in primitive chondrites. Meteorit. Planet. Sci.30, A605.] and from the d002 interlayer spacing in poorly graphitized carbon [Rietmeijer, F., and MacKinnon, I. (1985) Poorly graphitized carbon as a new cosmothermometer for primitive extraterrestrial materials. Nature, 315, 733-736]. The trapped noble gas and C content appear to be sensitive but not precise metamorphic tracers, indicating that the "Ornans

  13. Evolutionary history and genome organization of DUF1220 protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bleness, Majesta S; Dickens, C Michael; Dumas, Laura J; Kehrer-Sawatzki, Hildegard; Wyckoff, Gerald J; Sikela, James M

    2012-09-01

    DUF1220 protein domains exhibit the most extreme human lineage-specific (HLS) copy number increase of any protein coding region in the human genome and have recently been linked to evolutionary and pathological changes in brain size (e.g., 1q21-associated microcephaly). These findings lend support to the view that DUF1220 domain dosage is a key factor in the determination of primate (and human) brain size. Here we analyze 41 animal genomes and present the most complete account to date of the evolutionary history and genome organization of DUF1220 domains and the gene family that encodes them (NBPF). Included among the novel features identified by this analysis is a DUF1220 domain precursor in nonmammalian vertebrates, a unique predicted promoter common to all mammalian NBPF genes, six distinct clades into which DUF1220 sequences can be subdivided, and a previously unknown member of the NBPF gene family (NBPF25). Most importantly, we show that the exceptional HLS increase in DUF1220 copy number (from 102 in our last common ancestor with chimp to 272 in human; an average HLS increase of ~28 copies every million years since the Homo/Pan split) was driven by intragenic domain hyperamplification. This increase primarily involved a 4.7 kb, tandemly repeated three DUF1220 domain unit we have named the HLS DUF1220 triplet, a motif that is a likely candidate to underlie key properties unique to the Homo sapiens brain. Interestingly, all copies of the HLS DUF1220 triplet lie within a human-specific pericentric inversion that also includes the 1q12 C-band, a polymorphic heterochromatin expansion that is unique to the human genome. Both cytogenetic features likely played key roles in the rapid HLS DUF1220 triplet hyperamplification, which is among the most striking genomic changes specific to the human lineage.

  14. Attachment Organization and History of Suicidal Behavior in Clinical Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Kenneth S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents in psychiatric treatment (N=133) participated in a case-comparison study investigating the association of attachment patterns with a history of suicidal behaviors. Attachment patterns were assessed using the Adult Attachment Interview. In accordance with definitions provided in the scoring system, 86% of case and 78% of comparison…

  15. Tracing organizing principles: Learning from the history of systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of systems biology, the identification of organizing principles is being highlighted as a key research aim. Researchers attempt to “reverse engineer” the functional organization of biological systems using methodologies from mathematics, engineering and computer science while...

  16. The history of organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2014-03-01

    The first kidney transplant in Iran was performed in 1967, and this was the first organ transplant in countries that are current members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. In 1988, in response to the long waiting list at the Iranian Ministry of Health for kidney transplant, a state-regulated living-unrelated donor kidney transplant program was adopted. By 1999, the kidney transplant waiting list in Iran was eliminated. In 1989, a fatwa (religious approval) from the Supreme Religious Leader was obtained that recognized brain death and allowed deceased-donor organ transplant. Subsequently, transplant centers began performing deceased-donor kidney, liver, and heart transplants. In 2000, the Brain Death and Organ Transplantation Act was passed by the Iranian parliament, legalizing deceased-donor organ transplant. The transplant team at Shiraz began performing more deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants and became a successful deceased-donor organ transplant model in the country. By the end of 2012, there were 34166 kidney (including 4436 deceased-donor) and 2021 liver (including 1788 deceased-donor), 482 heart, 147 pancreas, 63 lung, and several intestine and multiorgan transplants performed in Iran. In 2011, there were 2771 solid-organ transplants performed in Iran (37 transplants per million population), and Iran ranked as number 33 among the 50 most active countries worldwide. In 2011 and 2012, Iran was ahead of all country members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation in performing deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants.

  17. Synthetic biology: lessons from the history of synthetic organic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Brian J; Lim, Wendell A

    2007-09-01

    The mid-nineteenth century saw the development of a radical new direction in chemistry: instead of simply analyzing existing molecules, chemists began to synthesize them--including molecules that did not exist in nature. The combination of this new synthetic approach with more traditional analytical approaches revolutionized chemistry, leading to a deep understanding of the fundamental principles of chemical structure and reactivity and to the emergence of the modern pharmaceutical and chemical industries. The history of synthetic chemistry offers a possible roadmap for the development and impact of synthetic biology, a nascent field in which the goal is to build novel biological systems.

  18. Tracing organizing principles: Learning from the history of systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of systems biology, the identification of organizing principles is being highlighted as a key research aim. Researchers attempt to “reverse engineer” the functional organization of biological systems using methodologies from mathematics, engineering and computer science while...... taking advantage of data produced by new experimental techniques. While systems biology is a relatively new approach, the quest for general principles of biological organization dates back to systems theoretic approaches in early and mid-twentieth century. The aim of this paper is to draw...... on this historical background in order to increase the understanding of the motivation behind the search for general principles and to clarify different epistemic aims within systems biology. We pinpoint key aspects of earlier approaches that also underlie the current practice. These are i) the focus on relational...

  19. Tracing organizing principles: learning from the history of systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sara; Wolkenhauer, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    With the emergence of systems biology, the identification of organizing principles is being highlighted as a key research aim. Researchers attempt to "reverse engineer" the functional organization of biological systems using methodologies from mathematics, engineering and computer science while taking advantage of data produced by new experimental techniques. While systems biology is a relatively new approach, the quest for general principles of biological organization dates back to systems theoretic approaches in early and mid-twentieth century. The aim of this paper is to draw on this historical background in order to increase the understanding of the motivation behind the search for general principles and to clarify different epistemic aims within systems biology. We pinpoint key aspects of earlier approaches that also underlie the current practice. These are i) the focus on relational and system-level properties, ii) the inherent critique of reductionism and fragmentation of knowledge resulting from overspecialization, and iii) the insight that the ideal of formulating abstract organizing principles is complementary to, rather than conflicting with, the aim of formulating detailed explanations of biological mechanisms. We argue that looking back not only helps us understand the current practice but also points to possible future directions for systems biology.

  20. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  1. The Bratsk Organization of the Union of Architects of Russia: A Short Excursion to the History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Astrakhantseva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the history of the Bratsk Organization of the Union of Architects of Russia, from formation of the Bratsk Branch of the Union of Architects of the USSR in 1974 and its transformation into an independent organization in 1992, until the present time.

  2. Intraspecific life history variation in contrasting habitats: Insights from an obligate symbiotic organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merinero, Sonia; Aragón, Gregorio; Martínez, Isabel

    2017-07-28

    Life history theory predicts that plants in unfavorable habitats for juvenile growth and survival will commence reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocations than those in favorable habitats. The scope of life history theory will increase if these predictions apply to a broad range of organisms. Populations of organisms in contrasting habitats may experience different demographic rates. Thus, we compared the demography and life history traits of a lichen species in contrasting habitats. We compared the abundance, growth, mortality, and reproductive strategy (threshold size for reproduction and reproductive allometry) of epiphytic and saxicolous populations of the asexually reproducing lichen Lobarina scrobiculata in two oak forests in central Spain. The growth rates of saxicolous individuals were two times faster than those of epiphytic individuals. Epiphytic specimens exhibited a smaller threshold size for reproduction and a higher reproductive allocation than their saxicolous counterparts. The populations hosted by trees were two times larger than those on rocks (13,788 vs. 6629 individuals, respectively). The mortality rate did not vary between habitats. Our results demonstrate that contrasting habitats selected for differences in the demography and life history traits of a lichen species. Consistent with life history theory predictions, in the habitat with slower growth, L. scrobiculata started to reproduce at a smaller size and its reproductive allocation was higher. This study extends the scope of life history theory and improves our understanding of life history patterns and variations in overlooked taxa such as lichens. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Public engagement in Japanese policy-making: A history of the genetically modified organisms debate

    OpenAIRE

    SHINEHA, Ryuma; Kato, Kazuto

    2009-01-01

    New laws regulating the use of genetically modified organisms have recently been enacted in Japan, and there were many stakeholders involved in the development of this policy. Our review of the history and the debates held in the course of policy development regarding genetically modified organisms in Japan shows that the current regulatory system was developed taking past national and international regulatory contexts into consideration. The turning point in Japanese policy-making occurred e...

  4. Free Radicals in Organic Matter for Thermal History Reconstruction of Carbonate Succession

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Geothermometer is one of the most useful methods to reconstruct the thermal history of sedimentary basins. This paper introduces the application of free radicals concentration of organic matter as a thermal indicator in the thermal history reconstruction of carbonate succession, based on anhydrous thermal simulation results of type Ⅰ and Ⅱ1 kerogen. A series of free radicals data are obtained under thermal simulation of different heating temperatures and times, and quantitative models between free radical concentration (Ng) of organic matter and time-temperature index (TTI) for types Ⅰ and type Ⅱ1 kerogen are also obtained. This Ng- TTI relation was used to model the Ordovician thermal gradients of Well TZ12 in the Tarim Basin. The modeling result is corresponding to the results obtained by apatite fission track data and published data. This new method of thermal history reconstruction will be benefit to the hydrocarbon generation and accumulation study and resource assessment of carbonate succession.

  5. Lactation history, serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants, and maternal risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Geng; Grandjean, Philippe; Wang, Xiaobin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Lactation may help curb diabetes risk and is also known as an excretion route for some environmental pollutants. We evaluated associations of lifetime lactation history with serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination...

  6. Organization of knowledge and the complex identity of history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana M; Waisse, Silvia; Ferraz, Márcia H M

    2013-09-01

    History of science as a formal and autonomous field of research crosses over disciplinary boundaries. For this reason, both its production and its working materials are difficult to classify and catalog according to discipline-based systems of organization of knowledge. Three main problems might be pointed out in this regard: the disciplines themselves are subject to a historical process of transformation; some objects of scientific inquiry resist constraint within rigid disciplinary grids but, rather, extend across several disciplinary boundaries; and the so-called digital revolution has replaced spatial with temporal display sequences and shifted the traditional emphasis on knowledge to user-oriented approaches. The first part of this essay is devoted to a conceptual analysis of the various approaches to the organization of knowledge formulated over time, whereas the second considers the new possibilities afforded by a faceted model of knowledge organization compatible with user-oriented relational databases to the research materials and production of history of science.

  7. Predicting Life-History Trade-Offs with Whole-Organism Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lailvaux, Simon P; Husak, Jerry F

    2017-08-01

    Whole-organism performance traits are key intermediaries between the organism and the environment. Because performance traits are energetically costly to both build and maintain, performance will compete with other life-history traits over a limited pool of acquired energetic resources at any given time, potentially leading to trade-offs in performance expression. Although these trade-offs can have important implications for organismal fitness we currently lack a conceptual framework for predicting both where trade-offs might be expected, and which traits may be especially prone to trade-offs with other fitness-related life-history traits. We propose such a framework based on an estimate of the energetic requirements of locomotion in vertebrates, the ecological cost of transport. By analyzing existing data on mammalian energetic budgets and life-history, we found that species with higher costs of locomotion also tended to be those with "slow" life histories that invest relatively less in current reproduction than "fast" life-history species. We discuss the potential implications of ectothermy for masking such relationships, and how this framework might be expanded upon in the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Growth and resilience of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of organizational histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of organizational history is important for recognizing patterns in effective management and understanding how organizations respond to internal and external challenges. This cross-case analysis of 12 histories of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations contributes an important longitudinal perspective on organizational history, complementing the cross-sectional case studies that dominate the existing research on nonprofit organizations. The literature on organizational growth, including lifecycle models and growth management, is reviewed, along with the literature on organizational resilience. Based on analysis of the 12 organizational histories, a conceptual model is presented that synthesizes key factors in the areas of leadership, internal operations, and external relations that influence organizational growth and resilience to enable nonprofit organizations to survive and thrive over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal examples from the organizational histories illustrate the conceptual map. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on nonprofit organizational history.

  9. Correlative changes in life-history variables in response to environmental change in a model organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M; Deere, Jacques A; Coulson, Tim

    2014-06-01

    Global change alters the environment, including increases in the frequency of (un)favorable events and shifts in environmental noise color. However, how these changes impact the dynamics of populations, and whether these can be predicted accurately has been largely unexamined. Here we combine recently developed population modeling approaches and theory in stochastic demography to explore how life history, morphology, and average fitness respond to changes in the frequency of favorable environmental conditions and in the color of environmental noise in a model organism (an acarid mite). We predict that different life-history variables respond correlatively to changes in the environment, and we identify different life-history variables, including lifetime reproductive success, as indicators of average fitness and life-history speed across stochastic environments. Depending on the shape of adult survival rate, generation time can be used as an indicator of the response of populations to stochastic change, as in the deterministic case. This work is a useful step toward understanding population dynamics in stochastic environments, including how stochastic change may shape the evolution of life histories.

  10. Saint Ioannis Lampadistis, the first possible case of blindness due to organic mercury poisoning in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiris, Kleonikos A

    2016-09-29

    Saint Ioannis Lampadistis is a Cypriot saint of the Greek Orthodox Church, widely venerated in his island of origin. He lived during the 11th century and was blinded by ingesting contaminated fish in the mountainous area of Galata, withdrew from civil life when he was 18, and died at the age of 22. The reason for his blindness remains unknown, though it is widely attributed to an unknown poison related to the copper mines of the region. As fish is the end reservoir of organic mercury, it is quite possible that his blindness was the result of heavy metal toxicity. Organic mercury is associated with CNS atrophy and hypoplasia, and blindness is a frequent presenting symptom. While not much is known about the saint's clinical symptoms (as his ecclestiastical biography focuses on his example and miracles), organic mercury poisoning could explain his sudden loss of vision, thus possibly making him the first-recorded case of organic mercury poisoning in history.

  11. Multifocality as a prognostic factor in breast cancer patients registered in Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) 1996-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, L.E.; Gunnarsdottir, K.A.; Lanng, C.;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. In a cohort of 7196 patients there were 945 patients with multifocality. We found no prognostic influence of multifocality on overall survival when controlling for known prognostic......, Gunnarsdottir KA, Rasmussen BB, Moeller S, Lanng C. The prognostic influence of multifocality in breast cancer patients. Breast 2004;13:188-193]....

  12. Variation in brain organization of coral reef fish larvae according to life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecchini, David; Lecellier, Gael; Lanyon, Rynae Greta; Holles, Sophie; Poucet, Bruno; Duran, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    In coral reefs, one of the great mysteries of teleost fish ecology is how larvae locate the relatively rare patches of habitat to which they recruit. The recruitment of fish larvae to a reef, after a pelagic phase lasting between 10 and 120 days, depends strongly on larval ability to swim and detect predators, prey and suitable habitat via sensory cues. However, no information is available about the relationship between brain organization in fish larvae and their sensory and swimming abilities at recruitment. For the first time, we explore the structural diversity of brain organization (comparative sizes of brain subdivisions: telencephalon, mesencephalon, cerebellum, vagal lobe and inferior lobe) among larvae of 25 coral reef fish species. We then investigate links between variation in brain organization and life history traits (swimming ability, pelagic larval duration, social behavior, diel activity and cue use relying on sensory perception). After accounting for phylogeny with independent contrasts, we found that brain organization covaried with some life history traits: (1) fish larvae with good swimming ability (>20 cm/s), a long pelagic duration (>30 days), diurnal activity and strong use of cues relying on sensory perception for detection of recruitment habitat had a larger cerebellum than other species. (2) Fish larvae with a short pelagic duration (fish larvae exhibiting solitary behavior during their oceanic phase had larger inferior and vagal lobes. Overall, we hypothesize that a well-developed cerebellum may allow fish larvae to improve their chances of successful recruitment after a long pelagic phase in the ocean. Our study is the first one to bring together quantitative information on brain organization and the relative development of major brain subdivisions across coral reef fish larvae, and more specifically to address the way in which this variation correlates with the recruitment process.

  13. Contraceptive options for women with a history of solid-organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Colleen M; Geetha, Duvuru; Gomez-Lobo, Veronica

    2013-05-27

    Women of reproductive age who have received a solid-organ transplant are at risk for unplanned pregnancy. Fertility can return as soon as 1 month after transplantation, and the baseline unplanned pregnancy rate in the United States is approximately 50%. Pregnancy, although not absolutely contraindicated in this population, carries risk greater than the general population and should be timed with regard to medication regimen and organ function. The Centers for Disease Control categorizes every form of contraception as Category 2-benefits outweigh risks-in women with an uncomplicated transplantation. There is a large range of contraceptive options, varying in drug formulation, route of delivery, and discrepancy between "perfect" and "typical" use. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs) and subdermal implants and show great promise for women with solid-organ transplant. These methods have excellent efficacy, eliminate user error, and, in the case of IUDs, have extremely low or no systemic drug absorption. Providers have historical concerns regarding the association of IUD and infection; however, modern studies have shown their safety in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Women with a history of solid-organ transplantation can be safely offered a wide range of contraceptive options to suit their individualized needs.

  14. The Diffusion of Educational Ideas among International Organizations: An Event History Analysis of Lifelong Learning, 1990-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapp, Mike; Dahmen, Clarissa

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the precipitants of the diffusion of lifelong learning among 88 governmental and nongovernmental international organizations from 1990 to 2013 within an event history framework. Research on the diffusion of educational ideas among and within international organizations usually uses small-n approaches. This work looks at…

  15. The role of model organisms in the history of mitosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2014-09-02

    Mitosis is a cell-cycle stage during which condensed chromosomes migrate to the middle of the cell and segregate into two daughter nuclei before cytokinesis (cell division) with the aid of a dynamic mitotic spindle. The history of mitosis research is quite long, commencing well before the discovery of DNA as the repository of genetic information. However, great and rapid progress has been made since the introduction of recombinant DNA technology and discovery of universal cell-cycle control. A large number of conserved eukaryotic genes required for the progression from early to late mitotic stages have been discovered, confirming that DNA replication and mitosis are the two main events in the cell-division cycle. In this article, a historical overview of mitosis is given, emphasizing the importance of diverse model organisms that have been used to solve fundamental questions about mitosis.

  16. The Early Years of Organized Chiropractic Orthopedics, 1954–1973: A Social History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bart N.; Johnson, Claire D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents the origins and development of the organized chiropractic orthopedics movement in the United States from 1954–1973. Methods: Hand searches of early periodicals were performed and information was organized chronologically to create a timeline. Context for the timeline was provided by extracting pertinent information from audio recordings of interviews. Relevant background information was located using the cumulative index of the journal Chiropractic History and searching the MANTIS database. Historical Features: After World War I, The advent of third party reimbursement for health care created a new environment for health care practitioners. For doctors of chiropractic, this event provided the impetus to begin the postgraduate chiropractic orthopedics program over 50 years ago. In 1954, Alvin A. Hancock, DC and F. Maynard Lipe, DC successfully launched an active orthopedics movement after several earlier attempts failed during the 1940s and early 1950s. The movement generated from the desire to train and certify chiropractors to manage personal injury and workers’ compensation low back injuries. In addition to developing interdisciplinary educational programs, the chiropractic orthopedics group was responsible for producing a research agenda, some of the profession’s early orthopedic-focused research, and for starting the National Council on Chiropractic Orthopedics of the National Chiropractic Association, which later became the American Chiropractic Association Council on Orthopedics. These organizations produced thousands of specialists in chiropractic orthopedics, later known as Diplomates of the American Board of Chiropractic Orthopedists. Conclusion: Several orthopedics interest groups were formed and credentialing processes were created to qualify doctors as recognized chiropractic orthopedics specialists. The popularity of this movement resulted in the inclusion of orthopedics into core chiropractic college curricula and

  17. Soil organic matter dynamics in Mediterranean A-horizons-The use of analytical pyrolysis to ascertain land-use history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, J.; Barbera, G.G.; Buurman, P.; Perez-Jorda, G.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.

    2013-01-01

    In archaeology and nature conservation studies, knowledge about (pre)historical land-use is important. The molecular composition of soil organic matter (SOM) supplies information about its history, as its composition is controlled by input material and decay processes. In this study, the molecular c

  18. Organizing Education: Schools, School Districts, and the Study of Organizational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a rationale for organizational histories of schools and school districts and discuss the findings of selected examples of the genre. Design/methodology/approach: The author presents a vignette of an organizational history, discusses key elements of the methodology, and offers seven ways in which…

  19. Organizing Education: Schools, School Districts, and the Study of Organizational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Daniel L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a rationale for organizational histories of schools and school districts and discuss the findings of selected examples of the genre. Design/methodology/approach: The author presents a vignette of an organizational history, discusses key elements of the methodology, and offers seven ways in which…

  20. Living in history: When historical events affect the organization of autobiographical memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2008-01-01

    Præsenterer Living-in-History paradigmet og resultater fra de første 10 samples samt diskuterer selvbiografisk hukommelses-effekt af hverdagsinvasive hhv. emotionelt/politisk berørende samfundsbegivenheder....

  1. History of safe use as applied to the safety assessment of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, A; Jonas, D; Cockburn, A; Davi, A; Edwards, G; Hepburn, P; Herouet-Guicheney, C; Knowles, M; Moseley, B; Oberdörfer, R; Samuels, F

    2007-12-01

    Very few traditional foods that are consumed have been subjected to systematic toxicological and nutritional assessment, yet because of their long history and customary preparation and use and absence of evidence of harm, they are generally regarded as safe to eat. This 'history of safe use' of traditional foods forms the benchmark for the comparative safety assessment of novel foods, and of foods derived from genetically modified organisms. However, the concept is hard to define, since it relates to an existing body of information which describes the safety profile of a food, rather than a precise checklist of criteria. The term should be regarded as a working concept used to assist the safety assessment of a food product. Important factors in establishing a history of safe use include: the period over which the traditional food has been consumed; the way in which it has been prepared and used and at what intake levels; its composition and the results of animal studies and observations from human exposure. This paper is aimed to assist food safety professionals in the safety evaluation and regulation of novel foods and foods derived from genetically modified organisms, by describing the practical application and use of the concept of 'history of safe use'.

  2. History of abuse and organic difficulties in a convenience sample of 46 ultra-orthodox males with pedophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witztum, Eliezer; Daie, Netzer; Daie-Gabai, Ayala; Rosler, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Evidence has started to accumulate that relates pedophilia to a history of being a victim of sexual abuse as well as to comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities. During a naturalistic study regarding treatment of pedophilia, the authors had access to clinical and psychodiagnostic evaluations of Israeli Jewish ultraorthodox male pedophiles outside the forensic system. Using psychiatric examination as well as a battery of psychological tests, presence of history of trauma as well as comorbidity with organic vulnerabilities among this unique sub-group was examined. This survey was part of a larger scale research on the effectiveness of Decapeptyl injections as treatment for pedophilia. All participants in the original research underwent comprehensive psychological assessment including an extensive clinical interview as well as psychological tests (Bender, Rorschach and TAT). Of the patients participating in the research, this survey focused on the group of 46 ultra-orthodox male pedophiles. Cross-tabs analyses were conducted in order to examine prevalence of history of trauma and organic vulnerabilities in this specific group. Based on self reports combined with corroborating reports (obtained from parents, educators and medical staff), together with indications in psychological tests, we found that 82.6% of participants were victims of sexual trauma as children and 87% suffer from some kind of organic vulnerability (learning disabilities, disinhibitions, etc.). LIMITATIONS of this small convenience sample that influence ability to generalize are discussed. The current survey indicates that in this sample, the ultra-orthodox male pedophile was frequently a victim of childhood sexual trauma, and exhibited indications of organic vulnerabilities. This is more pronounced than findings in previous studies, and calls for further research in order to understand the underlying causes.

  3. Beyond Market Models and Resistance: Organizations as a Middle Layer in the History of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawley, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Two theoretical models dominate discussion of research methods in the history of reading: "market" models such as Robert Darnton's communications circuit and "resistance" models such as those that draw on Michel de Certeau's concept of poaching. This article suggests that both make important contributions but also have limitations, especially when…

  4. Assessing the vegetation history of three Southern Appalachian balds through soil organic matter analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Larry L. Tieszen; Glen G. Fredlund

    1998-01-01

    The history of Southern Appalachian grassy balds has long been a topic of speculation. Two types have been identified: those completely covered by grass and those occupied by a mixed-hardwood overstory with a grassy herbaceous layer. Three areas historically known as balds were identified in the Wine Spring Ecosystem Project Area. Each is currently under a different...

  5. The Significance and History of Organization Development – in Hungary and International Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tímea BUDAI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the standardization of world economy, the speeding up of technical development and the sharpening market competition there is more and more responsibility on managers, whose primary duties are to make sure the efficient and successful work of the organizations. More and more of them realize that the quality (structure, culture, attitude etc. of the organization can be counted as one of those features that determine success and advantage in contest most. Organization development, which applies structural and behavioral changes to improve both the output of the organization and its members’ general feeling (personal development and well-being, intends to assist them in this respect. By this time the concept of organization development has become more or less known among Hungarian theoretical and practical experts as well. The foundations of organization development were put down in America in the fifties and sixties while carrying out group dynamic surveys at several organizations and summing up the observations. Therefore Americans are called the pioneers of organization development, but most of kind researches are still made.

  6. Enterprise Social Media: Definition, History, and Prospects for the Study of Social Technologies in Organizations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardi, Paul M; Huysman, Marleen; Steinfield, Charles

    2013-01-01

    ... and perpetuate organizations. We begin by offering a definition of enterprise social media and providing a rough historical account of the various avenues through which these technologies have entered and continue to enter the workplace...

  7. International Labor Organizations, 1864-1997: The Weight of History and the Challenges of the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Stevis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Deepening neoliberal integration, the end of the Cold War, and the decline or compromise of communist and socialist parties, offer a window of opportunity for international labor politics. Why is it, then, that the comprehensive network of global and regional labor organizations continues to play a marginal role, even though they are clearly conscious of these developments, and have sought to respond to them? The answer to this question has important practical and theoretical implications. My general goal, therefore, is to situate the contemporary predicament of international labor organizations within its historical context. Activists would like to know whether labor organizations are basically sound but need to be reformed or fundamentally unsuitable for a vital international labor politics. Theoretically, international labor organizations provide us with a rich record through which to investigate cross-border relations at the level of society and state-society relations.

  8. History of chromosome rearrangements reflects the spatial organization of yeast chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Fudenberg, Geoffrey; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Mirny, Leonid A

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) organization of genomes affects critical cellular processes such as transcription, replication, and deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) repair. While previous studies have investigated the natural role, the 3D organization plays in limiting a possible set of genomic rearrangements following DNA repair, the influence of specific organizational principles on this process, particularly over longer evolutionary time scales, remains relatively unexplored. In budding yeast S.cerevisiae, chromosomes are organized into a Rabl-like configuration, with clustered centromeres and telomeres tethered to the nuclear periphery. Hi-C data for S.cerevisiae show that a consequence of this Rabl-like organization is that regions equally distant from centromeres are more frequently in contact with each other, between arms of both the same and different chromosomes. Here, we detect rearrangement events in Saccharomyces species using an automatic approach, and observe increased rearrangement frequency between regions with higher contact frequencies. Together, our results underscore how specific principles of 3D chromosomal organization can influence evolutionary events.

  9. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46[degree]C, far below the 250 to 380[degree]C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  10. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues. Hanford Tank Safety Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46{degree}C, far below the 250 to 380{degree}C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103.

  11. The History and Founding Organizations of the American Board of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Bruce E

    2016-09-01

    In the early 1900s, ophthalmologists became the first group of American physicians to lead the call for the establishment of higher standards in the practice of medicine. This movement for excellence in practice evolved into a program of board certification through the creation of what is today the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO). Three organizations-the American Ophthalmological Society, the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology-are credited as the founders of the ABO. Representatives from these organizations were charged with overseeing the development of board certification programs from the ABO's inception in 1916 through 1982, when it became a fully autonomous organization.

  12. Effects of watershed history on dissolved organic matter characteristics in headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youhei Yamashita; Brian D. Kloeppel; Jennifer Knoepp; Gregory L. Zausen; Rudolf Jaffe'

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is recognized as a major component in the global carbon cycle and is an important driver in aquatic ecosystem function. Climate, land use, and forest cover changes all impact stream DOM and alter biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial environments. We determined the temporal variation in DOM quantity and quality in headwater streams at a...

  13. History of the Internal Control System at the Association of Organic Cacao Farmers (APKO) in Pidie

    OpenAIRE

    Mulyadi, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Plenty of Activities, but Limited Funding and Reliable Resources. Another big problem faced by ICS is weeds and diseases that attack cacao trees. The farmers are not used to the organic farming practice of mechanical or manual weeding, instead of using herbicides. The farmers are also eager to apply chemicals to control cacao plant diseases. It requires constant monitoring of ICS staff, who must continually inform the cooperative of internal problems, verbally or in writing, in every meeting.

  14. Genealogy and Critique in Kant’s Organic History of Reason

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mensch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although scholarly attention has been mostly paid to the many connections existing between Kant and the exact sciences, the landscape of Kant studies has begun to noticeably change during the last decade, with many new pieces devoted to a consideration of Kant’s relation to the life sciences of his day. It is in this vein, for example, that investigators have begun to discuss the importance of Kant’s essays on race for the development of Anthropology as an emerging field. The bulk of the contributions to this recent trend, however, have focused on Kant’s remarks on organic life in the Critique of Judgment, such that Kant’s “theory of biology” is now seen to be firmly located in that text. Amidst such consolidation, there are a few pieces that have begun to address Kant’s appeal to organic vocabulary within the context of his theory of cognition, though these too remain dominated by the interpretive template set by the third Critique. My own strategy in this essay will be different. Kant did indeed borrow from the life sciences for his model of the mind, but in a manner that would reject a naturalized account. His preference for epigenesis as a theory of organic generation needs to be carefully distinguished, therefore, from the use he would make of it when discussing a metaphysical portrait of reason.

  15. The Pan American Health Organization and international health: a history of training, conceptualization, and collective development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Annella; Guerrero Espinel, Juan Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    A constantly changing and increasingly complex global environment requires leaders with special competencies to respond effectively to this scenario. Within this context, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) goes beyond traditional leadership training models both in terms of its design as well as its conceptual approach to international health. As an intergovernmental, centenary organization in health, PAHO allows participants a unique vantage point from which to conceptualize, share experiences and develop projects relevant to international health. Derived from over two decades of experience (1985-2006) training professionals through its predessor Training Program in International Health, the Leaders in International Health Program "Edmundo Granda Ugalde" (LIHP) utilizes an innovative design, virtual and practical learning activities, and a problem-based approach to analyze the main concepts, theories, actors, forces, and processes relevant to international health. In collaboration with PAHO/WHO Representative Offices and national institutions, participants develop country projects based on priority health issues, many of which are integrated into the Organization's technical cooperation and/or implemented by relevant ministries and other entities in their respective countries/subregions. A total of 185 participants representing 31 countries have participated in the LIHP since its inception in 2008, building upon the 187 trained through its predecessor. These initiatives have contributed to the development of health professionals in the Region of the Americas devoted to international health, as well as provided important input towards a conceptual understanding of international health by fostering debate on this issue.

  16. The organism as ontological go-between: hybridity, boundaries and degrees of reality in its conceptual history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Charles T

    2014-12-01

    The organism is neither a discovery like the circulation of the blood or the glycogenic function of the liver, nor a particular biological theory like epigenesis or preformationism. It is rather a concept which plays a series of roles--sometimes overt, sometimes masked--throughout the history of biology, and frequently in very normative ways, also shifting between the biological and the social. Indeed, it has often been presented as a key-concept in life science and the 'theorization' of Life, but conversely has also been the target of influential rejections: as just an instrument of transmission for the selfish gene, but also, historiographically, as part of an outdated 'vitalism'. Indeed, the organism, perhaps because it is experientially closer to the 'body' than to the 'molecule', is often the object of quasi-affective theoretical investments presenting it as essential, sometimes even as the pivot of a science or a particular approach to nature, while other approaches reject or attack it with equal force, assimilating it to a mysterious 'vitalist' ontology of extra-causal forces, or other pseudo-scientific doctrines. This paper does not seek to adjudicate between these debates, either in terms of scientific validity or historical coherence; nor does it return to the well-studied issue of the organism-mechanism tension in biology. Recent scholarship has begun to focus on the emergence and transformation of the concept of organism, but has not emphasized so much the way in which organism is a shifting, 'go-between' concept-invoked as 'natural' by some thinkers to justify their metaphysics, but then presented as value-laden by others, over and against the natural world. The organism as go-between concept is also a hybrid, a boundary concept or an epistemic limit case, all of which partly overlap with the idea of 'nomadic concepts'. Thereby the concept of organism continues to function in different contexts--as a heuristic, an explanatory challenge, a model of

  17. Delineation of target volumes and organs at risk in adjuvant radiotherapy of early breast cancer: National guidelines and contouring atlas by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Mette H. [Dept. of Oncology, Odense Univ. Hospital, Odense (Denmark)], E-mail: mette.m.nielsen@ouh.regionsyddanmark.dk; Berg, Martin [Dept. of Medical Physics, Hospital of Vejle, Vejle (Denmark); Pedersen, Anders N. [Dept. of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-05-15

    During the past decade planning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) of early breast cancer has changed from two-dimensional (2D) to 3D conformal techniques. In the planning computerised tomography (CT) scan both the targets for RT and the organs at risk (OARs) are visualised, enabling an increased focus on target dose coverage and homogeneity with only minimal dose to the OARs. To ensure uniform RT in the national prospective trials of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), a national consensus for the delineation of clinical target volumes (CTVs) and OARs was required. Material and methods. A CT scan of a breast cancer patient after surgical breast conservation and axillary lymph node (LN) dissection was used for delineation. During multiple dummy-runs seven experienced radiation oncologists contoured all CTVs and OARs of interest in adjuvant breast RT. Two meetings were held in the DBCG Radiotherapy Committee to discuss the contouring and to approve a fi nal consensus. The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was used to evaluate the delineation agreement before and after the consensus. Results. The consensus delineations of CTVs and OARs are available online and a table is presented with a contouring description of the individual volumes. The consensus provides recommendations for target delineation in a standard patient both in case of breast conservation or mastectomy. Before the consensus, the average value of the DSC was modest for most volumes, but high for the breast CTV and the heart. After the consensus, the DSC increased for all volumes. Conclusion. The DBCG has provided the fi rst national guidelines and a contouring atlas of CTVs and OARs definition for RT of early breast cancer. The DSC is a useful tool in quantifying the effect of the introduction of guidelines indicating improved inter-delineator agreement. This consensus will be used by the DBCG in our prospective trials.

  18. Failure pattern and survival after breast conserving therapy. Long-term results of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) 89 TM cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngholm, C D; Laurberg, T; Alsner, J

    2016-01-01

    -year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival were 63.7% and 43.1%, respectively. Subdivided by age groups cumulative incidences at 20 years were LR: 18.9%, 10.5% and 12.4%, and DSM: 28.9%, 18.9% and 28.4% in young (≤45 years), middle-aged (46–55 years) and older (≥56 years) women, respectively....... Data from the DBCG database were completed via search through the Danish Pathology Data Bank and medical records. Results: Median follow-up time was 17 years. At 20 years the cumulative incidences of local recurrence (LR) and disease-specific mortality (DSM) were 15.3% and 25.8%, respectively. Twenty....... In an adjusted analysis age maintained a significant and independent effect on both LR and DSM. Conclusion: The DBCG 82 TM program was successfully implemented. The women treated with BCT in the DBCG 89 program displayed equal failure pattern and improved survival in comparison with women from the DBCG 82 TM...

  19. Use of laboratory simulated pyrolysis in tracing the history of sedimentary organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, I. R.; Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B. E.

    1986-01-01

    Results from laboratory simulated pyrolyses experiments show that in addition to depth of burial, preservation of kerogen, and hence any morphologic structure in it, is also dependent on the mineral matrix with which it is associated. In the presence of clay minerals, and especially under dry conditions, extractable lipids released during kerogen decomposition are more rapidly destroyed than in the presence of calcite or chert matrices. The result is production of gas, polar bitumen and pyrobitumen and destruction of biomarkers. During such an early reorganization of the kerogen, the biomarker constituents can be destroyed, or unrecognizably altered. The above process of organic residues maturation appears to be inhibited in the presence of water and is significantly reduced where kerogen is hosted in limestones, dolomites or cherts. These minerals have been characteristically found to be the most reliable in yielding morphological fossils and small quantities of extractable bitumen in Archean and Proterozoic rocks. To understand the validity of chemical and morphological fossils, in the early geologic record, it will be necessary to understand the process of kerogen in sedimentary rocks. To test the role of various minerals on the preservation process, kerogen extracted from a variety of rocks has been heated together with montmorillonite, illite and calcite. The kinetics of the process has been monitored and the products quantitatively identified.

  20. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, J. E. [University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Linköping University, 581 83 Linköping (Sweden); National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)

    2015-03-15

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (∼1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ∼78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese “floating-ink” art (suminagashi) developed ∼1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO{sub 2} and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including

  1. Tracing the 4000 year history of organic thin films: From monolayers on liquids to multilayers on solidsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. E.

    2015-03-01

    The recorded history of organic monolayer and multilayer thin films spans approximately 4000 years. Fatty-acid-based monolayers were deposited on water by the ancients for applications ranging from fortune telling in King Hammurabi's time (˜1800 BC, Mesopotamia) to stilling choppy waters for sailors and divers as reported by the Roman philosopher Pliny the Elder in ˜78 AD, and then much later (1774) by the peripatetic American statesman and natural philosopher Benjamin Franklin, to Japanese "floating-ink" art (suminagashi) developed ˜1000 years ago. The modern science of organic monolayers began in the late-1800s/early-1900s with experiments by Lord Rayleigh and the important development by Agnes Pockels, followed two decades later by Irving Langmuir, of the tools and technology to measure the surface tension of liquids, the surface pressure of organic monolayers deposited on water, interfacial properties, molecular conformation of the organic layers, and phase transitions which occur upon compressing the monolayers. In 1935, Katherine Blodgett published a landmark paper showing that multilayers can be synthesized on solid substrates, with controlled thickness and composition, using an apparatus now known as the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) trough. A disadvantage of LB films for some applications is that they form weak physisorbed bonds to the substrate. In 1946, Bigelow, Pickett, and Zisman demonstrated, in another seminal paper, the growth of organic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) via spontaneous adsorption from solution, rather than from the water/air interface, onto SiO2 and metal substrates. SAMs are close-packed two-dimensional organic crystals which exhibit strong covalent bonding to the substrate. The first multicomponent adsorbed monolayers and multilayer SAMs were produced in the early 1980s. Langmuir monolayers, L-B multilayers, and self-assembled mono- and multilayers have found an extraordinarily broad range of applications including controlled wetting

  2. Brucellosis With Multi-Organ Involvement in a Patient With History of Composite Aortic Graft and Hepatitis B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan Manshadi, Seyed Ali; Rezahosseini, Omid; Abdi Liaei, Zahra

    2016-11-01

    The brucellosis with multi-organ involvement in a patient with a history of the composite aortic graft (Bentall procedure) and Hepatitis B infection is rare. A 35-year-old man presented to us with fever and loss of consciousness. Four years ago, he was IDU and underwent cardiac surgery because of endocarditis. Recently lumbar spondylodiscitis was diagnosed. The Wright (1/320) and Coombs Wright tests (1/640) were positive. After CNS imaging, lumbar puncture was done. The CSF pleocytosis was lymphocyte dominant. In cardiac echocardiography, large vegetation on prosthetic aortic valve leaflets was seen. The brain MRI was reported abnormal. Treatment of brucellosis started with Ceftriaxone, Doxycycline, Rifampin and Gentamycin. After 4 days, he became oriented, and fever was disappeared then we continued the treatment for 16 days. The patient discharged and followed by daily phone calls. As symptoms of abdominal pain and jaundice were presented on the fifth day, he re-admitted. The patient expired because of hepatorenal and cardiac insufficiency. Drug side effects, activation of Hepatitis B and embolism of cardiac vegetation to other organs were suspected causes of death. We do not suggest medical therapy without cardiac surgery in such cases. When combination therapy is necessary for brucellosis in an HBsAg-positive patient, hepatitis virus activity should be assess by HBV-DNA PCR and the dose of drugs with known hepatotoxic effects such as rifampin and co-trimoxazole should be adjust. Combination therapy with quinolones instead of hepatoxic drugs is one of our suggustions.

  3. Diverse origins and pre-depositional histories of organic matter in contemporary Chinese marginal sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2016-10-01

    Marginal seas are estimated to account for up to 90% of organic carbon (OC) burial in marine sediments, and thus play an important role in global carbon cycle. However, comprehensive assessments of carbon budgets for marginal sea systems are challenging due to their inherent complexity, with spatial and temporal variability in carbon inputs and dispersal processes. We examine the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea (BS-YS) in order to further our understanding of sedimentary OC delivery, translocation and accumulation in a shallow marginal sea system. Bulk properties and the content and isotopic compositions (Δ14C, δ13C) of source-specific plant wax n-alkyl lipid biomarkers were determined for a suite of surficial sediment samples. Variable δ13C values (-25.1‰ to -28.5‰) and contemporary radiocarbon ages of short-chain n-fatty acids (FAs; C16, C18) reflect modern autochthonous marine and/or fresh terrestrial plant input. In contrast, extremely depleted Δ14C values (-932‰ to -979‰) of short-chain n-alkanes (C16, C18) suggest a predominant input from sedimentary rocks (petrogenic OC) or petroleum. Abundance-weighted average δ13C and Δ14C values of long-chain leaf wax lipids (C26+28+30n-FAs, C24+26+28n-alkanols, C27+29+31n-alkanes) are -29.1 ± 1.1‰ to -30.2 ± 0.3‰, and -286 ± 150‰ to -442 ± 119‰, respectively, illustrating that terrestrial OC delivery is dominated by pre-aged (∼3000-5000 14C yrs) C3 vegetation sources. A coupled carbon-isotopic mixing model, based on the bulk and compound-specific biomarker δ13C and Δ14C values, is used to partition the BS-YS sedimentary OC into three components that reflect both origins and transport processes. For all sampling sites, 31-64% is modern/contemporary OC, 24-49% is pre-aged terrestrial OC, and 7-26% is fossil OC, the latter likely derived from both physical erosion of ancient sedimentary rocks and fossil fuel sources. Pre-aged soil OC is most prominent in front of the modern and old Huanghe (Yellow

  4. Pollutant dehalogenation capability may depend on the trophic evolutionary history of the organism: PBDEs in freshwater food webs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Bartrons

    Full Text Available Organohalogen compounds are some of the most notorious persistent pollutants disturbing the Earth biosphere. Although human-made, these chemicals are not completely alien to living systems. A large number of natural organohalogens, part of the secondary metabolism, are involved in chemical trophic interactions. Surprisingly, the relationship between organisms' trophic position and synthetic organohalogen biotransformation capability has not been investigated. We studied the case for polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDE, a group of flame-retardants of widespread use in the recent years, in aquatic food webs from remote mountain lakes. These relatively simple ecosystems only receive pollution by atmospheric transport. A large predominance of the PBDE congener currently in use in Europe, BDE-209, largely dominated the PBDE composition of the basal resources of the food web. In contrast, primary consumers (herbivores and detritivores showed a low proportion of BDE-209, and dominance of several less brominated congeners (e.g. BDE-100, BDE47. Secondary consumers (predators showed large biomagnification of BDE-209 compare to other congeners. Finally, top predator fish characterized by low total PBDE concentrations. Examination of the bromine stable isotopic composition indicates that primary consumers showed higher PBDE biotransformation capability than secondary consumers. We suggest that the evolutionary response of primary consumers to feeding deterrents would have pre-adapted them for PBDE biotransformation. The observed few exceptions, some insect taxa, can be interpreted in the light of the trophic history of the evolutionary lineage of the organisms. Bromine isotopic composition in fish indicates that low PBDE values are due to not only biotransformation but also to some other process likely related to transport. Our finding illustrates that organohalogen compounds may strongly disturb ecosystems even at low concentrations, since the species lacking

  5. Life-History Traits of the Model Organism Pristionchus pacificus Recorded Using the Hanging Drop Method: Comparison with Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilarte, Patricia; Kreuzinger-Janik, Bianca; Majdi, Nabil; Traunspurger, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is of growing interest as a model organism in evolutionary biology. However, despite multiple studies of its genetics, developmental cues, and ecology, the basic life-history traits (LHTs) of P. pacificus remain unknown. In this study, we used the hanging drop method to follow P. pacificus at the individual level and thereby quantify its LHTs. This approach allowed direct comparisons with the LHTs of Caenorhabditis elegans recently determined using this method. When provided with 5×10(9) Escherichia coli cells ml(-1) at 20°C, the intrinsic rate of natural increase of P. pacificus was 1.125 (individually, per day); mean net production was 115 juveniles produced during the life-time of each individual, and each nematode laid an average of 270 eggs (both fertile and unfertile). The mean age of P. pacificus individuals at first reproduction was 65 h, and the average life span was 22 days. The life cycle of P. pacificus is therefore slightly longer than that of C. elegans, with a longer average life span and hatching time and the production of fewer progeny.

  6. Life-History Traits of the Model Organism Pristionchus pacificus Recorded Using the Hanging Drop Method: Comparison with Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Gilarte

    Full Text Available The nematode Pristionchus pacificus is of growing interest as a model organism in evolutionary biology. However, despite multiple studies of its genetics, developmental cues, and ecology, the basic life-history traits (LHTs of P. pacificus remain unknown. In this study, we used the hanging drop method to follow P. pacificus at the individual level and thereby quantify its LHTs. This approach allowed direct comparisons with the LHTs of Caenorhabditis elegans recently determined using this method. When provided with 5×10(9 Escherichia coli cells ml(-1 at 20°C, the intrinsic rate of natural increase of P. pacificus was 1.125 (individually, per day; mean net production was 115 juveniles produced during the life-time of each individual, and each nematode laid an average of 270 eggs (both fertile and unfertile. The mean age of P. pacificus individuals at first reproduction was 65 h, and the average life span was 22 days. The life cycle of P. pacificus is therefore slightly longer than that of C. elegans, with a longer average life span and hatching time and the production of fewer progeny.

  7. Circadian clocks and life-history related traits: is pupation height affected by circadian organization in Drosophila melanogaster?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhanashree A. Paranjpe; D. Anitha; Vijay Kumar Sharma; Amitabh Joshi

    2004-04-01

    In D. melanogaster, the observation of greater pupation height under constant darkness than under constant light has been explained by the hypothesis that light has an inhibitory effect on larval wandering behaviour, preventing larvae from crawling higher up the walls of culture vials prior to pupation. If this is the only role of light in affecting pupation height, then various light : dark regimes would be predicted to yield pupation heights intermediate between those seen in constant light and constant darkness. We tested this hypothesis by measuring pupation height under various light : dark regimes in four laboratory populations of Drosophila melanogaster. Pupation height was the greatest in constant darkness, intermediate in constant light, and the least in a light / dark regime of LD 14:14 h. The results clearly suggest that there is more to light regime effects on pupation height than mere behavioural inhibition of wandering larvae, and that circadian organization may play some role in determining pupation height, although the details of this role are not yet clear. We briefly discuss these results in the context of the possible involvement of circadian clocks in life-history evolution.

  8. [The Pharaohs: slave merchants or organizers of an efficient welfare system? Re-writing history through new documentation and research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melino, C; Del Vecchio, R; Druda, L

    2003-01-01

    The Authors have studied documents dating from the era of the Pharaohs, that is to say: the papyruses of Ebers and Smith, and have come to the conclusion that the recent claims by some archaeologists that the Egyptian workmen who built the Pyramids, were protected by health regulations and not treated as slaves, is true. This is a new interpretation of Egyptian history, because up to now, it has always been thought that the workmen were slaves. The construction of the Pharaoh's tomb was a team work including members of the upper classes (architects, physicians) and the lower classes (masons, workmen) and was the demonstration of a contribution and a symbol of recognition from all members of the team to the head of the society (the Pharaoh), who was their employer and took their interests into consideration e.g. health regulations. The Authors have also deduced from other sources of information that a public health system and welfare organization, comparable to our present day Legislative Decree 626/94, did in fact exist in the ancient world.

  9. Using Philosophical Liberalism and Philosophical Conservatism as an Organizing Theme in the First Half of the American History Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Since approximately 1970, many historians have been seeking a unifying theme for the American History Survey. Early in the twentieth century, Progressive historians identified class conflict as the main theme in American History, but during the 1950s and 1960s, this view was challenged by the Consensus Schools' assertion that Americans have always…

  10. The Context of the History of Mathematics as Previous Organizer O Contexto da História da Matemática como Organizador Prévio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Messildo Viana Nunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article consists of a reflection on the possibility of using the History of the Mathematics as a pedagogical resource for introduction of mathematical concepts, allied to the David Ausubel’s theory of significant learning. This overlap can help us in the elaboration/organization of didactic sequences that can favor the construction of the mathematical knowledge by the pupil himself. In this case, we use some examples from Euclidean Geometry as a reference to present our conception on how and why we conceive the context of the history of the mathematics as a legitimate previous organizer. Keywords: History of Mathematics. Significant Learning. Previous Organizer.Este artigo consiste em uma reflexão sobre a possibilidade de uso da História da Matemática como recurso pedagógico, para introdução de conceitos matemáticos, aliada à teoria da aprendizagem significativa de David Ausubel. Tal imbricação pode nos auxiliar na elaboração/organização de sequências didáticas que possam favorecer a construção do conhecimento matemático pelo próprio aluno. Nesse caso utilizamos alguns exemplos da Geometria Euclidiana como referência para apresentar nossa concepção sobre como e por que concebemos o contexto da história da matemática como um legítimo organizador prévio. Palavras-chave: História da Matemática. Aprendizagem significativa. Organizador Prévio.

  11. Search for EPR markers of the history and origin of the insoluble organic matter in extraterrestrial and terrestrial rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourier, Didier; Binet, Laurent; Scrzypczak, Audrey; Derenne, Sylvie; Robert, François

    2004-05-01

    The insoluble organic matter (IOM) of three carbonaceous meteorites (Orgueil, Murchison and Tagish Lake meteorites) and three samples of cherts (microcrystalline SiO2 rock) containing microfossils with age ranging between 45 million years and 3.5 billion years is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The age of the meteorites is that of the solar system (4.6 billion years). The purpose of this work was to determine the EPR parameters, which allow us to discriminate between biogenic and extra terrestrial origin for the organic matter. Such indicators should be relevant for the controversy regarding the biogenicity of the organic matter in the oldest cheroot (3.5 billion years) and in Martian meteorites containing microbe-like microstructures. The organic matter of meteorites contains a high concentration of diradicaloid moieties characterised by a diamagnetic ground state S = 0 and a thermally accessible triplet state S = 1. The three meteorites exhibit the same singlet-triplet gap (ST gap) DeltaE approximately 0.1 eV. To the best of our knowledge, such diradicaloids are unknown in insoluble organic matter of terrestrial origin. We have also shown that the EPR linewidth of insoluble organic matter in cherts and coals decrease logarithmically with the age of the organic matter. We conclude from this result that the organic matter in the oldest cherts (3.5 billion years) has the same age as their SiO2 matrix, and is not due to a latter contamination by bacteria, as was recently found in meteoritic samples.

  12. [The business game as a form of organization of competent approach in teaching of history of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopleva, E L; Ostapenko, V M

    2015-01-01

    The article considers issue of implementation of competent approach in teaching of course of history of medicine in medical universities. The such methods of active training as imitation role business games are proposed as a mean of developing common cultural and professional competences offuture medical personnel. The business games promote development of motivation basis or education and require activities related to practical implementation of acquired knowledge and skills (analysis of historical event, work with map, reading of historical documents, participation in scientific discussion, etc.). As a result, students acquire sufficiently large notion concerning world of medicine, relationship of historical epochs and occurrences and unity of medical systems.

  13. Evolutionary history inferred from the de novo assembly of a nonmodel organism, the blue-eyed black lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wynn K; Venkat, Aarti; Kermany, Amir R; van de Geijn, Bryce; Zhang, Sidi; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Lemurs, the living primates most distantly related to humans, demonstrate incredible diversity in behaviour, life history patterns and adaptive traits. Although many lemur species are endangered within their native Madagascar, there is no high-quality genome assembly from this taxon, limiting population and conservation genetic studies. One critically endangered lemur is the blue-eyed black lemur Eulemur flavifrons. This species is fixed for blue irises, a convergent trait that evolved at least four times in primates and was subject to positive selection in humans, where 5' regulatory variation of OCA2 explains most of the brown/blue eye colour differences. We built a de novo genome assembly for E. flavifrons, providing the most complete lemur genome to date, and a high confidence consensus sequence for close sister species E. macaco, the (brown-eyed) black lemur. From diversity and divergence patterns across the genomes, we estimated a recent split time of the two species (160 Kya) and temporal fluctuations in effective population sizes that accord with known environmental changes. By looking for regions of unusually low diversity, we identified potential signals of directional selection in E. flavifrons at MITF, a melanocyte development gene that regulates OCA2 and has previously been associated with variation in human iris colour, as well as at several other genes involved in melanin biosynthesis in mammals. Our study thus illustrates how whole-genome sequencing of a few individuals can illuminate the demographic and selection history of nonmodel species.

  14. The South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP): Its history and role in the ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kh; Wong, Jhd

    2008-04-01

    Informal discussion started in 1996 and the South East Asian Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP) was officially accepted as a regional chapter of the IOMP at the Chicago World Congress in 2000 with five member countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. Professor Kwan-Hoong Ng served as the founding president until 2006. Brunei (2002) and Vietnam (2005) joined subsequently. We are very grateful to the founding members of SEAFOMP: Anchali Krisanachinda, Kwan-Hoong Ng, Agnette Peralta, Ratana Pirabul, Djarwani S Soejoko and Toh-Jui Wong.The objectives of SEAFOMP are to promote (i) co-operation and communication between medical physics organizations in the region; (ii) medical physics and related activities in the region; (iii) the advancement in status and standard of practice of the medical physics profession; (iv) to organize and/or sponsor international and regional conferences, meetings or courses; (v) to collaborate or affiliate with other scientific organizations.SEAFOMP has been organizing a series of congresses to promote scientific exchange and mutual support. The South East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP) series was held respectively in Kuala Lumpur (2001), Bangkok (2003), Kuala Lumpur (2004) and Jakarta (2006). The respective congress themes indicated the emphasis and status of development. The number of participants (countries in parentheses) was encouraging: 110 (17), 150 (16), 220 (23) and 126 (7).In honour of the late Professor John Cameron, an eponymous lecture was established. The inaugural John Cameron Lecture was delivered by Professor Willi Kalender in 2004. His lecture was titled "Recent Developments in Volume CT Scanning".

  15. Sequence and organization of coelacanth neurohypophysial hormone genes: Evolutionary history of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone gene locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Sydney

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian neurohypophysial hormones, vasopressin and oxytocin are involved in osmoregulation and uterine smooth muscle contraction respectively. All jawed vertebrates contain at least one homolog each of vasopressin and oxytocin whereas jawless vertebrates contain a single neurohypophysial hormone called vasotocin. The vasopressin homolog in non-mammalian vertebrates is vasotocin; and the oxytocin homolog is mesotocin in non-eutherian tetrapods, mesotocin and [Phe2]mesotocin in lungfishes, and isotocin in ray-finned fishes. The genes encoding vasopressin and oxytocin genes are closely linked in the human and rodent genomes in a tail-to-tail orientation. In contrast, their pufferfish homologs (vasotocin and isotocin are located on the same strand of DNA with isotocin gene located upstream of vasotocin gene separated by five genes, suggesting that this locus has experienced rearrangements in either mammalian or ray-finned fish lineage, or in both lineages. The coelacanths occupy a unique phylogenetic position close to the divergence of the mammalian and ray-finned fish lineages. Results We have sequenced a coelacanth (Latimeria menadoensis BAC clone encompassing the neurohypophysial hormone genes and investigated the evolutionary history of the vertebrate neurohypophysial hormone gene locus within a comparative genomics framework. The coelacanth contains vasotocin and mesotocin genes like non-mammalian tetrapods. The coelacanth genes are present on the same strand of DNA with no intervening genes, with the vasotocin gene located upstream of the mesotocin gene. Nucleotide sequences of the second exons of the two genes are under purifying selection implying a regulatory function. We have also analyzed the neurohypophysial hormone gene locus in the genomes of opossum, chicken and Xenopus tropicalis. The opossum contains two tandem copies of vasopressin and mesotocin genes. The vasotocin and mesotocin genes in chicken and

  16. A 30 Ma history of the Amazon River inferred from terrigenous sediments and organic matter on the Ceará Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, Elsbeth E.; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Santos, Roberto Ventura; Dantas, Elton Luiz; Vasconcelos de Almeida, Fernanda; Pires, Juliana Pinheiro; Roddaz, Martin; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2017-09-01

    The history of the Amazon River is a much-discussed subject, and the timing of the development of a transcontinental system in particular is a matter of some controversy, with estimations varying between the Early Miocene and the Pliocene or even the Pleistocene. To shed further light on this, we studied the sediment provenance of an Oligocene to Late Pleistocene marine sedimentary section from the Ceará Rise (ODP Site 925), a topographic high in the central Atlantic Ocean, using major element concentrations and Nd isotopic composition in 85 samples. In addition, the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter and changes in the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) were used to identify periods of increased river outflow. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the history of the development of the Amazon River is characterized by specific steps. During the late Oligocene/Early Miocene (30-18.3 Ma), the terrigenous mass accumulation rates (TARs) were high, and sediment and GDGT compositions suggest that a large river system existed, which at times received weathering products from a younger and probably Andean sediment source. A shift to a younger Andean sediment provenance after 8.7 Ma indicates that the Amazon River became permanently connected with the Andes. Between 18.3 and 4.5 Ma, TARs were generally low, and GDGTs were derived for the most part from in situ production in marine waters. Around 4.5 Ma, the river expanded, probably due to ongoing tectonic activity, and uplift in the Andes increased Andean rock erosion. This led to a strong increase in terrigenous sediment deposition and enhanced organic matter preservation on the Ceará Rise, and the delivery of terrestrial (both soil and riverine) branched GDGTs to the Ceará Rise.

  17. The secondary history of Sutter's Mill CM carbonaceous chondrite based on water abundance and the structure of its organic matter from two clasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P.; Quirico, E.; Garenne, A.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Bonal, L.; Schmitt, B.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Montagnac, G.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.

    2014-11-01

    Sutter's Mill is a regolith breccia composed of both heavily altered clasts and more reduced xenoliths. Here, we present a detailed investigation of fragments of SM18 and SM51. We have characterized the water content and the mineralogy by infrared (IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the structure of the organic compounds by Raman spectroscopy, to characterize the secondary history of the clasts, including aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. The three methods used in this study suggest that SM18 was significantly heated. The amount of water contained in phyllosilicates derived by TGA is estimated to be approximately 3.2 wt%. This value is quite low compared with other CM chondrites that typically range from 6 to 12 wt%. The infrared transmission spectra of SM18 show that the mineralogy of the sample is dominated by a mixture of phyllosilicate and olivine. SM18 shows an intense peak at 11.2 μm indicative of olivine (Fig. 1). If we compare SM18 with other CM and metamorphosed CM chondrites, it shows one of the most intense olivine signatures, and therefore a lower proportion of phyllosilicate minerals. The Raman results tend to support a short-duration heating hypothesis. In the ID/IG versus FWHM-D diagram, SM18 appears to be unusual compared to most CM samples, and close to the metamorphosed CM chondrites Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91008 and PCA 02012. In the case of SM51, infrared spectroscopy reveals that olivine is less abundant than in SM18 and the 10 μm silicate feature is more similar to that of moderately altered CM chondrites (like Murchison or Queen Alexandra Range [QUE] 97990). Raman spectroscopy does not clearly point to a heating event for SM51 in the ID/IG versus FWHM-D diagram. However, TGA analysis suggests that SM51 was slightly dehydrated as the amount of water contained in phyllosilicates is approximately 3.7 wt%, which is higher than SM18, but still lower than phyllosilicate water contents in weakly altered CM chondrites

  18. Relationship between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants and markers of insulin resistance in a cohort of women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrebola, Juan P; González-Jiménez, Amalia; Fornieles-González, Constanza; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Olea, Nicolás; Escobar-Jiménez, Fernando; Fernández-Soto, María Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship between serum concentrations of several persistent organic pollutants and insulin resistance markers in a cohort of women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. ∑POPs was computed as the sum of individual serum POP concentrations. No statistically significant associations were found between levels of any POP and fasting glucose. However, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners 138 and 180 were positively associated with 2-h glucose levels and PCB 180 also with fasting immunoreactive insulin (IRI). We also found a positive association of p,p'- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'- DDE), PCBs (138, 153, and 180), hexachlorobenzene, and ∑POPs with 2-h IRI. Serum concentrations of PCBs (138, 153, and 180), hexachlorobenzene, and ∑POPs were also positively associated with homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2-IR) levels. Moreover, p,p'- DDE, PCBs (138, 153 and 180), hexachlorobenzene, and ∑POPs were negatively associated with Insulin Sensitivity Index (ISI-gly) levels. No significant association was found between glycated hemoglobin and the concentrations of any POP. The removal of women under blood glucose lowering treatment from the models strengthened most of the associations previously found for the whole population. Our findings suggest that exposure to certain POPs is a modifiable risk factor contributing to insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermophysical Parameters of Organic PCM Coconut Oil from T-History Method and Its Potential as Thermal Energy Storage in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Alfriska O.; Sukmawati, Nissa; Sutjahja, I. M.; Kurnia, D.; Wonorahardjo, S.

    2017-07-01

    The thermophysical parameters of organic phase change material (PCM) of coconut oil (co_oil) have been studied by analyzing the temperature vs time data during liquid-solid phase transition (solidification process) based on T-history method, adopting the original version and its modified form to extract the values of mean specific heats of the solid and liquid co_oil and the heat of fusion related to phase transition of co_oil. We found that the liquid-solid phase transition occurs rather gradually, which might be due to the fact that co_oil consists of many kinds of fatty acids with the largest amount of lauric acid (about 50%), with relatively small supercooling degree. For this reason, the end of phase transition region become smeared out, although the inflection point in the temperature derivative is clearly observed signifying the drastic temperature variation between the phase transition and solid phase periods. The data have led to the values of mean specific heat of the solid and liquid co_oil that are comparable to the pure lauric acid, while the value for heat of fusion is resemble to those of the DSC result, both from references data. The advantage of co_oil as the potential sensible and latent TES for room-temperature conditioning application in Indonesia is discussed in terms of its rather broad working temperature range due to its mixture composition characteristic.

  20. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... in the future? How and why do they have so much influence over us, and what influences them? How do they contribute to and detract from the meaningfulness of lives, and how might we improve them so they better serve our needs and desires? This Very Short Introductions addresses all of these questions...

  1. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...

  2. Life history as a source of variation for persistent organic pollutant (POP) patterns in a community of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) resident to Sarasota Bay, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordy, Jennifer E; Wells, Randall S; Balmer, Brian C; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teri K; Kucklick, John R

    2010-04-01

    As apex predators within coastal ecosystems, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are prone to accumulate complex mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). While substantial variations in POP patterns have been previously observed in dolphin populations separated across regional- and fine-scale geographic ranges, less is known regarding the factors influencing contaminant patterns within localized populations. To assess the variation of POP mixtures that occurs among individuals of a population, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were measured in blubber and milk of bottlenose dolphins resident to Sarasota Bay, FL, and principal components analysis (PCA) was used to explain mixture variations in relation to age, sex and reproductive maturity. PCA demonstrated significant variations in contaminant mixtures within the resident dolphin community. POP patterns in juvenile dolphins resembled patterns in milk, the primary diet source, and were dominated by lower-halogenated PCBs and PBDEs. A significant correlation between principal component 2 (PC2) and age in male dolphins indicated that juvenile contaminant patterns gradually shifted away from the milk-like pattern over time. Metabolically-refractory PCBs significantly increased with age in male dolphins, whereas PCBs subject to cytochrome p450 1A1 metabolism did not, suggesting that changes in male POP patterns likely resulted from the selective accumulation of persistent POP congeners. Changes to POP patterns were gradual for juvenile females, but changed dramatically at reproductive maturity and gradually shifted back towards pre-parturient profiles thereafter. Congener-specific blubber/milk partition coefficients indicated that lower-halogenated POPs were selectively offloaded into milk and changes in adult female contaminant profiles likely resulted from the offloading of these compounds during the first reproductive

  3. Community History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  4. Entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-12-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time.

  5. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  6. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  7. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  8. Quantum Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1998-01-01

    There are good motivations for considering some type of quantum histories formalism. Several possible formalisms are known, defined by different definitions of event and by different selection criteria for sets of histories. These formalisms have a natural interpretation, according to which nature somehow chooses one set of histories from among those allowed, and then randomly chooses to realise one history from that set; other interpretations are possible, but their scientific implications are essentially the same. The selection criteria proposed to date are reasonably natural, and certainly raise new questions. For example, the validity of ordering inferences which we normally take for granted --- such as that a particle in one region is necessarily in a larger region containing it --- depends on whether or not our history respects the criterion of ordered consistency, or merely consistency. However, the known selection criteria, including consistency and medium decoherence, are very weak. It is not possibl...

  9. IUTAM a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This book presents extensive information related to the history of IUTAM. The initial chapters focus on IUTAM’s history and selected organizational aspects. Subsequent chapters provide extensive data and statistics, while the closing section showcases photos from all periods of the Union’s history. The history of IUTAM, the International Union on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, began at a conference in 1922 in Innsbruck, Austria, where von Kármán put forward the idea of an international congress including the whole domain of applied mechanics. In 1946 IUTAM was then formally launched in Paris/France. IUTAM has since time organized more than 24 world congresses and 380 symposia, representing all fields of mechanics and highlighting advances by prominent international researchers. The efforts of IUTAM and its about 50 member countries serve to promote the mechanical sciences and the advancement of human society, addressing many key challenges. In this context, IUTAM preserves important traditions while...

  10. Flying high: on the airborne dispersal of aquatic organisms as illustrated by the distribution histories of the gastropod genera Tryonia and Planorbarius

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Cadée, G.C.; Renema, W.

    1999-01-01

    The actual and fossil distribution patterns of the aquatic gastropod genera Tryonia and Planorbarius indicate that avian dispersal was an important dispersal mechanism in the geological past. Combining the distribution histories of these genera with ecological data on modern relatives provides

  11. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  12. Despite all odds: a three-part history of the professionalization of black nurses through two professional nursing organizations, 1908-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, M O

    1994-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles which highlight the professionalization of Black nurses through two Black nursing organizations during the twentieth century. The second and third articles will appear in forthcoming issues of the JNBNA. The first article provides background information which sets the stage by highlighting the reasons why a separate professional organization was needed. The reasons include the practice or tolerance of institutional racism by society and White professional nursing organizations, the promotion of inferior status for Black nurses by Whites, and the maintainance of exclusionary membership policies limiting Black nurses' admission to professional nursing organizations such as the NLNE and the ANA. The purpose of these articles is to document contributions of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses (1908-1951, the first Black professional nursing organization recognized by the ANA and other White nursing organizations) and the National Black Nurses Association (1971-present). These two organizations advance the standards of nursing and develop leadership within the ranks of Black nurses. To accomplish this series, an historical method was used to identify political, social, and nursing events relevant to the development, growth, and establishment of the two Black nursing organizations. This investigation fills a void in the historiographies of professional nursing, Black studies, and women's studies.

  13. The International Big History Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  14. Paleolimnological sedimentation of organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, fossil pigments, pollen, and diatoms in a hypereutrophic, hardwater lake: a case history of eutrophication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manny, B.A.; Wetzel, R.G.; Bailey, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    The sediment history of this productive, hardwater lake (Wintergreen Lake in southern Michigan) developed as five periods of increasing eutrophy, each strongly influenced by a hybrid basin morphometry. This morphometry led to higher productivity per unit area by macrophytic plants in littoral waters of the lake than by phytoplankton in pelagic waters. Climate and trophic conditions during each of the five periods between 14,000 and 0 B.P. are postulated.

  15. The Al Qaeda Organization and the Islamic State Organization: History, Doctrine, Modus Operandi, and U.S. Policy to Degrade and Defeat Terrorism Conducted in the Name of Sunni Islam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    known about several key developments in his organizational relationships. It is known that his organization Jaysh Ahl-us Sunnah wa’al Al-Gama’a...stiffer wind, however,308 and its media operations have forced several nations and organizations to develop effective campaigns designed to counter...FOR THIS AND OTHER PUBLICATIONS, VISIT US AT http://www.carlisle.army.mil/ USAWC WebsiteSSI WebsiteThis Publication THE AL-QAEDA ORGANIZATION AND

  16. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  17. Linjefaget historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch-Christensen, Andreas

    Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning.......Afhandlingen er en undersøgelse af linjefaget historie ved læreruddannelsen. Med fokus på subjektperspektivet peger afhandlingen på en række afgørende udviklingsperspektiver for læreruddannelsen, uddannelsen af historielærere og folkeskolens historieundervisning....

  18. Matematikkens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede.......Matematikkens historie i syv kapitler: 1. Matematik i støbeskeen; 2. Matematikkens græske arv; 3. Den gyldne tidsalder for hinduer og arabere; 4. Matematik i Kina; 5. Renæssancens matematik; 6. Regning med infinitesimaler ser dagens lys; 7. Matematik i det tyvende århundrede....

  19. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  20. Organized nation-wide implementation of sentinel lymph node biopsy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, E.; Galatius, H.; Garne, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of a nationwide study of the sentinel node staging technique the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG) defined a set of minimum requirements to be met by surgical departments before they could include patients in the study. The requirements specified a minimum...... patient load in the individual surgical unit, a minimum surgical training in the sentinel node biopsy technique and a minimum quality outcome in a validating learning series of SNLB procedures. A working group assisted departments in meeting these terms and later audited and certified departments before...... they could include patients into the study. As a result of this strategy the sentinel lymph node staging was fully implemented in all Danish surgical breast cancer centres within three years and all sentinel node biopsies in the period were recorded in the DBCG data centre. Furthermore, the strategy...

  1. Cultural history as polyphonic history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This texts offers a reflection on the origins and actual development of the field of cultural history through a comparison with the term that has served as title for this seminar: “polyphonic history”. The author provides an overview of the themes that have structured the seminar (the history of representations, the history of the body and the cultural history of science with the aim of making explicit and clarifying this plurality of voices in the field of history as well as its pervasiveness in other research areas.

    En este texto se ofrece una reflexión sobre el origen y actual desarrollo del campo de la historia cultural a través de una comparación con el término que ha dado título a este seminario: “historia polifónica”. El autor propone un recorrido por las áreas temáticas que han conformado la estructura del seminario (la historia de las representaciones, la historia del cuerpo y la historia cultural de la ciencia con el objeto de explicitar y explicar esta pluralidad de voces en el campo de la historia, así como su repercusión en otras áreas del conocimiento.

  2. 《查姆》:诗、史与思的有机融合%Cha Mu : An Organic Integration of Poetry, History and Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王惠

    2011-01-01

    The Creation epic is originated from national collective memory which determines its feature of history ; it explains the genesis of the world, the origin of human and ethnic which determines its feature of poetry. Yi people' s creation epic Cha Mu that is popular in Chuxiong expresses the idea of ecological culture connotation from history and aesthetic imagination.%创世史诗是民族的集体记忆在历史延续和流变过程中不断沉淀和积累的结晶,具有历史的性质;同时,它往往以幻想的艺术形式来解释天地、万物、人类以及民族的起源,具有诗性的气质。流传在云南楚雄双柏地区的彝族创世史诗《查姆》就是通过对历史记忆和审美想象的集中书写,表达了极富生态文化内涵的观念内容。

  3. Why History?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Robert E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the way in which studying history contributes to intellectual development. Identifies five mental attributes it enhances: perspective--gained from placing people, events, institutions against larger background; encounter--confronting great ideas, personalities, etc.; relativism in a pluralistic world--developed from immersion in other…

  4. Bulletproof History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that the writers and producers of the television documentary, "The Valour and the Horror," provided a false impression of an event to fit preconceived and erroneous interpretations of history. Points out specific examples of inaccurate historical presentations and provides contradictory historical interpretations. (CFR)

  5. Business History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that a cultural and narrative perspective can enrich the business history field, encourage new and different questions and answers, and provide new ways of thinking about methods and empirical material. It discusses what culture is and how it relates to narratives. Taking...

  6. Potted history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2010-01-01

    The Jordan Valley was once populated by a people, now almost forgotten by historians, with whom the pharaoh of Egypt sought favour. That is the conclusion reached by Niels Groot, the first researcher to take a PhD at the Delft-Leiden Centre for Archaeology, Art History and Science.

  7. Business History as Cultural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    The paper engages with the larger question of how cultural heritage becomes taken for granted and offers a complimentary view to the anthropological ʻCopenhagen School’ of business history, one that draws attention to the way corporate wealth directly and indirectly influences the culture available...

  8. Sommerferiens historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    favourite ways for com- mon people to spend their holidays, and with the introduction of holiday pay in the 1930s almost everybody could take a couple of weeks off work in the sum- mer. With the introduction of charter tourism many people went off to Southern Europe to spend their holidays on the same...... pattern. Finally, the history of the special holiday camps is told, which were established by American Jews because they were excluded from many hotels....

  9. Nineteenth-century transnational urban history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Møller

    2016-01-01

    contributions to urban history in a transnational perspective are analysed. Approaches to urban planning history that focus on transnational linkages and international organization are discussed. Approaches to urban history within enlarged geographical scales that go beyond the nation-state framework...

  10. 中国器官捐献的发展历程与展望%The History and Outlook of Organ Donation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄洁夫

    2016-01-01

    器官移植在上个世纪下半叶由欧美国家引进入我国以来,已成为一种成熟的临床技术,它挽救了大量晚期器官功能衰竭病人的生命.然而器官的捐献与分配涉及诸如文化、传统、伦理、法制等深层次的社会问题.建立一个伦理的公民器官捐献体系是几代中国器官移植医生的梦想,这个梦想正在我们这一代人中得以实现,我们正在开始一个阳光下的新征程,我国移植医务人员将光明正大地登上世界移植医学的舞台,使我国移植事业能在几年内以不可争辩的伦理方式成为世界移植大国.%As a cutting edge medical technology,organ transplantation was introduced to China from western countries in the late half of the 20th century and has now grown to a mature clinical approach,which saved numerous lives of the patients suffering from organ failure,and promoted the development of medical science.Although,organ donation and allocation involves many complex social issues like culture,customs,ethics and legislation.An ethical community-based organ donation system has been the dream of generations of organ transplant doctors of China,and our generation has the honor to witness such dream coming into reality.We're stepping into a new exploration under the sunshine,with Chinese transplant doctors entering into the platform of world transplant medicine with great honor,and with China becoming a major transplant country in an unquestionably ethical manner.

  11. Uncovering History for Future History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fritz

    2010-01-01

    The art of history teaching is at a crossroads. Recent scholarship focuses on the need to change the teaching of history so students can better learn history, and insists that history teachers must move beyond traditional structures and methods of teaching in order to improve their students' abilities to think with history. This article presents…

  12. Ildens historier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Henrik Roesgaard

    In December 2012 a manuscript entitled "Tællelyset" ['The Tallow Candle'] was discovered in an archive. The story was subsequently presented to the world as Hans Christian Andersen's first fairy tale and rather bombastically celebrated as such. In this book it is demonstrated that the text cannot...... from a point-by-point tracing of 'the origins and history' of Hans Christian Andersen's famous fairy tales. Where did the come from? How did they become the iconic texts that we know today? On this background it becomes quite clear that "Tællelyset" is a modern pastiche and not a genuine Hans Christian...... Andersen fairy tale....

  13. Life history types and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boel, Mikkel

    strategies and types in migratory freshwater fish, using brown trout and alewife as study organisms. Firstly, we investigated underlying mechanisms of resident and migratory life history strategies of salmonids, using indicators for nutritional status, stress, tissue damage and smoltification. Secondly......, avian predation pressure on the groups with different life history strategies was explored in their respective habitats. Thirdly, we demonstrated that the life history type of alewives, through regulation of zooplankton availability, influence the ontogeny of concurrent largemouth bass. Finally, a field...... study approach was used to evaluate the effect of PIT tagging on body condition of brown trout. Within a salmonid population several life history strategies can be found, each of which involves variations in migration and residency. Migratory life history strategies are often viewed as an adaptive...

  14. Public History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gouveia de Oliveira Rovai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como proposta apresentar o conceito e as práticas de História Pública como um novo posicionamento da ciência histórica em diálogo com profissionais da comunicação, no sentido de produzir e divulgar as experiências humanas. Para isso, discute-se a origem do conceito de História Pública e as diferentes formas de educação histórica que a utilização das novas tecnologias podem proporcionar (dentre elas a internet. Nesse sentido, convida-se o leitor para a reflexão sobre as possibilidades de publicização e de democratização do conhecimento histórico e da cultura, ampliando-se a oportunidade de produção, de divulgação e de acesso do público a diferentes formas experiências no tempo. O artigo também intenciona chamar atenção dos profissionais que lidam com a História e com a Comunicação para os perigos de produções exclusivamente submetidas ao mercado que transformam a popularização da História no reforço de estigmas culturais.   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: História Pública; Educação histórica e Comunicação; democratização e estigmatização.     ABSTRACT This article aims to present the concept and practices of Public History as a new positioning of historical science in dialogue with communication professionals, in the sense of producing and disseminating human experiences. For this, the origin of the concept of Public History and the different forms of historical education that the use of the new technologies can provide (among them the Internet is discussed. In this sense, the reader is invited to reflect on the possibilities of publicizing and democratizing historical knowledge and culture, expanding the opportunity for production, dissemination and public access to different forms of experience in time. The article also intends to draw attention from professionals dealing with History and Communication to the dangers of exclusively commercialized productions that transform the popularization

  15. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  16. The Future of History and History Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commager, Henry Steele

    1983-01-01

    Technical history, a quantitative record of history strengthened by new techniques in mathematics, computer science, and other fields has advantages over former approaches to history--history as philosophy and historical theology. For example, it makes available more source materials. However, it has drawbacks, e.g., it directs research to highly…

  17. Organic electroluminescence

    CERN Document Server

    Kafafi, Zakya H

    2005-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diode(OLED) technology has achieved significant penetration in the commercial market for small, low-voltage and inexpensive displays. Present and future novel technologies based on OLEDs involve rigid and flexible flat panel displays, solid-state lighting, and lasers. Display applications may range from hand-held devices to large flat panel screens that can be rolled up or hung flat on a wall or a ceiling. Organic Electroluminescence gives an overview of the on-going research in the field of organic light-emitting materials and devices, covering the principles of electroluminescence in organic thin films, as well as recent trends, current applications, and future potential uses. The book begins by giving a background of organic electroluminescence in terms of history and basic principles. It offers details on the mechanism(s) of electroluminescence in thin organic films. It presentsin-depth discussions of the parameters that control the external electroluminescence quantum efficien...

  18. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  19. History of Disaster Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suner, Selim

    2015-10-01

    Erik Noji, mentioned, tongue in cheek, Noah as the first disaster manager during a lecture in 2005. The canonical description of "The Genesis Flood" does describe Noah as a master planner and executer of an evacuation of biblical proportions. After gaining knowledge of a potential catastrophic disaster he planned and executed an evacuation to mitigate the effects of the "Genesis Flood" by building the Ark and organizing a mass exodus. He had to plan for food, water, shelter, medical care, waste disposal and other needs of all the evacuees. Throughout history, management of large disasters was conducted by the military. Indeed, the military still plays a large role in disaster response in many countries, particularly if the response is overseas and prolonged. The histories of emergency preparedness, disaster management and disaster medicine have coevolved and are inextricably intertwined. While disaster management in one form or another existed as long as people started living together in communities, the development of disaster medicine took off with the emergence of modern medicine. Similar to disaster management, disaster medicine also has roots in military organizations.

  20. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  1. Sporting history, moving democracy, challenging body culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The history of sport in Denmark mirrors conditions and patterns of body culture, sport and gymnastics specific to the country, among which the social organization of sport is characteristic. In modern history Danish gymnastics and sports have developed in connection with popular movements, social...

  2. Evaluating Professional Development of American History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortecamp, Karen; Steeves, Kathleen Anderson

    2006-01-01

    The first Teaching American History (TAH) grants were made available to K-12 schools from the Department of Education in 2002. They provide money to school systems for three-year projects to form partnerships with area organizations with the goal of increasing the American history knowledge of teachers and students. This study focuses on the…

  3. Sporting history, moving democracy, challenging body culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The history of sport in Denmark mirrors conditions and patterns of body culture, sport and gymnastics specific to the country, among which the social organization of sport is characteristic. In modern history Danish gymnastics and sports have developed in connection with popular movements, social...

  4. Conflict, Culture, and History Regional Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    with ancestral spirits, witchcraft or other supernational forces . All traditional structures of African political organization, whether associated...CONFLICT, CULTURE, AND HISTORY magical powers, ancestral spirits, or witchcraft . Society as an institution was perpetuated by continuous struggle

  5. Popular history magazines and history education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Thorp

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that popular history magazines may be a welcome complement to other forms of historical media in history teaching. By outlining a theoretical framework that captures uses of history, the paper analyses popular history magazine articles from five European countries all dealing with the outbreak of World War I. The study finds that while the studied articles provide a rather heterogeneous view of the causes of the Great War, they can be used to discuss and analyse the importance of perspective in history, thus offering an opportunity to further a more disciplinary historical understanding.

  6. A history of modern librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegand, Wayne; Richards, Pamela; Richards, Pamela; Wiegand, Wayne; Dalbello, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Previous histories of libraries in the Western world-the last of which was published nearly 20 years ago-concentrate on libraries and librarians. This book takes a different approach. It focuses on the practice of librarianship, showing you how that practice has contributed to constructing the heritage of cultures. To do so, this groundbreaking collection of essays presents the history of modern librarianship in the context of recent developments of the library institution, professionalization of librarianship, and innovation through information technology. Organized by region, the book a

  7. History of entomopathogenic nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, G O; Grewal, P S

    2012-06-01

    The history of entomopathogenic nematology is briefly reviewed. Topic selections include early descriptions of members of Steinernema and Heterorhabditis, how only morphology was originally used to distinguish between the species; descriptions of the symbiotic bacteria and elucidating their role in the nematode- insect complex, including antibiotic properties, phase variants, and impeding host defense responses. Other topics include early solutions regarding production, storage, field applications and the first commercial sales of entomopathogenic nematodes in North America. Later studies centered on how the nematodes locate insect hosts, their effects on non-target organisms and susceptibility of the infective juveniles to soil microbes. While the goals of early workers was to increase the efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes for pest control, the increasing use of Heterorhabditis and Photorhabdus as genetic models in molecular biology is noted.

  8. Kiropraktikkens historie i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA.......Bogen er den første samlede, forskningsbaserede fremstilling om kiropraktikkens danske historie. Den har udblik til kiropraktikkens historie i USA....

  9. Microforms and Sport History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Explores the importance of sport history as it reflects the social and cultural history of the United States. Discussion covers the various sport history materials that are available in microform, including the Spalding Collection, twentieth-century microfilm sources, and sports and social history (Sports Periodicals microfilm series). (EJS)

  10. What Is Literary "History"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the meaning of the word "history" as used in the common phrase "literary history" by critics and scholars. Asserts the differences between historical scholarship and literary history. Argues that the grounding activity of literary history is insulated from the relativism insisted upon by poststructuralist theorizing.…

  11. Vibrio chromosomes share common history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gevers Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While most gamma proteobacteria have a single circular chromosome, Vibrionales have two circular chromosomes. Horizontal gene transfer is common among Vibrios, and in light of this genetic mobility, it is an open question to what extent the two chromosomes themselves share a common history since their formation. Results Single copy genes from each chromosome (142 genes from chromosome I and 42 genes from chromosome II were identified from 19 sequenced Vibrionales genomes and their phylogenetic comparison suggests consistent phylogenies for each chromosome. Additionally, study of the gene organization and phylogeny of the respective origins of replication confirmed the shared history. Conclusions Thus, while elements within the chromosomes may have experienced significant genetic mobility, the backbones share a common history. This allows conclusions based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA for one chromosome to be applied equally to both chromosomes.

  12. A Short History of the International Physics Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunfalvi, R.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the International Physics Competition (IPC). IPC rules, aims, organization, participants, leaders, finance, language, duration, international jury, problems, evaluation, prizes, and organizers' responsibilities are discussed. Typical problems used and problem solving methods are also discussed. (JN)

  13. A Conceptual Approach to Library History: Towards a History of Open Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miert, D.K.W.

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that Library History ought to be guided by well-contextualized questions of cultural history. It proposes one such question: that which asks after the ways in which repositories of knowledge were created, organized and used in the past. The examples that are discussed in this art

  14. Deconstructing the organic movement

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, David

    2002-01-01

    This report was presented at the UK Organic Research 2002 Conference. Organic agriculture has sought to establish its scientific validity and its origins. Conford (2001) claims that these can be traced to the 1920s, and that Anglican Christianity is pivotal to its history. However, organic agriculture takes many forms and the role of religion in society has changed. In the UK, a new incarnation of organic farming occurred in the late twentieth century as part of a wider response to environmen...

  15. Organizações multilaterais, estado e políticas de educação infantil: history repeats Multilateral organizations, the Brazilian state and child education policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvia Rosemberg

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As políticas brasileiras de educação infantil (EI nas últimas quatro décadas apresentam-se como resposta a várias tensões. Nos anos 70, o despertar dos novos movimentos sociais trouxe o tema para a agenda de suas reivindicações. Nos anos 80, pressões em diferentes sentidos provocaram, de um lado, a expansão da EI seguindo, de modo geral, um modelo "a baixo custo" e, de outro, a consciência social da EI como um direito das crianças pequenas à educação e um direito de assistência aos filhos de pais e mães trabalhadores (Constituição de 1988. O artigo descreve e analisa as tensões presentes, e suas conseqüências, em três momentos da história da EI brasileira contemporânea: a fase de expansão durante o governo militar; as inovações trazidas pela Constituição de 1988; o impacto das reformas educacionais contemporâneas sob a égide do "Consenso de Washington". A descrição e análise desses momentos serão efetuadas no contexto dos modelos propugnados pelas organizações multilaterais.Brazilian child education policies over the last four decades have occurred in response to various tensions. In the 1970s, the awakening of social movement placed social demands on the agenda. In the 1980s, pressures in other direction provoked, on the one hand, the expansion of child education generally in line with the "low cost" model, and on the other hand, social consciousness of child education as the right of small children to education and the right to support on the part of working fathers and mothers (the Constitution of 1988. The article describes and analyses the tensions present and their consequences at three moments in the history of contemporary Brazilian child education: the phase of expansion during the military government; the innovations caused by the Constitution of 1988; and the impact of contemporary educational reforms under the aegis of the "Washington Consensus". Description and analysis will be done in the

  16. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  17. "Hillary - en god historie"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2007-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november......Anmeldelse af Carl Bernsteins Hillary Rodham Clinton og Michael Ehrenreichs Hillary - En amerikansk historie Udgivelsesdato: 15. november...

  18. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations MedCon Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  19. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min 38 sec) Watch Specific ...

  20. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education What's New Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... or can be used as bioterrorist weapons. Watch the Complete Program "The History of Bioterroism" (26 min ...

  1. [The history of kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzinger, M; Stastny, M; Grützmacher, P; Sohn, M

    2016-10-01

    The history of kidney transplantation is a history of many unsuccessful efforts and setbacks, but also the history of perseverance, pioneering spirit, and steadfast courage. The first successful transplantation of a dog kidney was done by the Austrian Emerich Ullmann (1861-1937) in 1902. The kidney was connected to the carotid artery of the dog and the ureter ended freely. The organ produced urine for a couple of days before it died. In 1909, there were efforts to transplant human kidneys from deceased patients to monkeys and in the following year the first xenotransplantation in humans was completed. Different kinds of donors were tried: dogs, monkeys, goats and lambs, all without success. In 1939, the first transplantation from a deceased human donor was done by the Russion Yurii Voronoy, the patient survived for only a couple of days, and the organ never worked. In 1953, the first temporarily successful transplantation of a human kidney was performed by Jean Hamburger in Paris. A 16-year-old boy received the kidney of his mother as living donor transplantation. Then in 1954, a milestone was made with the first long-term successful kidney transplantation by Joseph Murray: the transplantation was done between monozygotic twins; the organ survived for 8 years. For his efforts in kidney transplantation, Murray was honored with the Nobel Prize in medicine in 1990. In 1962, the first kidney transplantation between genetically nonrelated patients was done using immunosuppression and in 1963 the first kidney transplantation in Germany was done by Reinhard Nagel and Wilhelm Brosig in Berlin. The aim of this article is to present the history of kidney transplantation from the beginning until today.

  2. HAD Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita

    2014-01-01

    The Historical Astronomy Division is the recipient of an American Institute of Physics Neils Bohr Library Grant for Oral History. HAD has assembled a team of volunteers to conduct oral history interviews since May 2013. Each oral history interview varies in length between two and six hours. This presentation is an introduction to the HAD Oral History Project and the activities of the team during the first six months of the grant.

  3. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  4. 5 CFR 2600.101 - Mission and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mission and history. 2600.101 Section 2600.101 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF THE OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS § 2600.101 Mission and history. (a) The Office of...

  5. Towards a European History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dijk (Henk)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractAlthough historical writing is a profession with a long tradition, history as an academic discipline is strongly related to the development of the nation state in the nineteenth century. Notwithstanding specialisations like e.g. cultural history and social and economic history put less e

  6. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  7. Conducting the Medical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Martin A.; Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    A key portion of the medical evaluation of child sexual abuse is the medical history. This differs from interviews or histories obtained by other professionals in that it is focuses more on the health and well-being of the child. Careful questions should be asked about all aspects of the child's medical history by a skilled, compassionate,…

  8. History of Science and History of Philologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daston, Lorraine; Most, Glenn W

    2015-06-01

    While both the sciences and the humanities, as currently defined, may be too heterogeneous to be encompassed within a unified historical framework, there is good reason to believe that the history of science and the history of philologies both have much to gain by joining forces. This collaboration has already yielded striking results in the case of the history of science and humanist learning in early modern Europe. This essay argues that first, philology and at least some of the sciences (e.g., astronomy) remained intertwined in consequential ways well into the modern period in Western cultures; and second, widening the scope of inquiry to include other philological traditions in non-Western cultures offers rich possibilities for a comparative history of learned practices. The focus on practices is key; by shifting the emphasis from what is studied to how it is studied, deep commonalities emerge among disciplines--and intellectual traditions--now classified as disparate.

  9. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  10. Diet History Questionnaire: Database Revision History

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following details all additions and revisions made to the DHQ nutrient and food database. This revision history is provided as a reference for investigators who may have performed analyses with a previous release of the database.

  11. History of mathematics and history of science

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Tony

    2011-01-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic\\ud careers open to practitioners have had a profoun...

  12. What about Global History? Dilemmas in the Selection of Content in the School Subject History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Aage Poulsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a cliché, but also a fundamental fact that we live in a world where globalization and international challenges, opportunities and relationships play an increasing role. However, how have these changing conditions affected the content of school history? To what degree have curricula and textbooks addressed these challenges? Is the main focus in school history still on the history of the nation state, or has it successfully integrated topics and themes from world history? These are questions I discuss in this paper. In the main, my starting point is the situation in Denmark, but with perspectives and comparisons from Norway, England and Germany. Among other things, I will put school history in a historical context, because the subject’s history and genesis—in my opinion—tends to maintain a traditional content and form of organization, thereby reducing the subject’s usefulness. At the end of the paper, I outline and discuss a few alternative options for selecting and organizing the content with the aim of being more inclusive with regard to global and international aspects. The paper must be understood as a step towards the clarification of a development project that aims to propose and experiment with practices for the selection and organization of the content of the history curriculum, with the aim of increasing the international and global dimensions in history teaching.

  13. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2008-01-01

    in that they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some speculations......The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history at large have been sparse. However, a small spate of publications appeared recently, so a reasonable number of papers are available. Hence this work-in-progress paints a portrait of the current history of user interfaces at large. The paper first describes a theoretical framework recruited from...

  14. Organic modification of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The organic modification of carbon nanotubes is a novel research field being developed recently. In this article, the history and newest progress of organic modification of carbon nanotubes are reviewed from two aspects:organic covalent modification and organic noncovalent modification of carbon nanotubes. The preparation and properties of organic modified carbon nanotubes are discussed in detail. In addition, the prospective development of organic modification of carbon nanotubes is suggested.

  15. What about Global History? Dilemmas in the Selection of Content in the School Subject History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: It is a cliché, but also a fundamental fact that we live in a world where globalization and international challenges, opportunities and relationships play an increasing role. However, how have these changing conditions affected the content of school history? To what degree have curricula...... and experiment with practices for the selection and organization of the content of the history curriculum, with the aim of increasing the international and global dimensions in history teaching....... and textbooks addressed these challenges? Is the main focus in school history still on the history of the nation state, or has it successfully integrated topics and themes from world history? These are questions I discuss in this paper. In the main, my starting point is the situation in Denmark...

  16. History of mathematics and history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Tony

    2011-09-01

    This essay argues that the diversity of the history of mathematics community in the United Kingdom has influenced the development of the subject and is a significant factor behind the different concerns often evident in work on the history of mathematics when compared with that of historians of science. The heterogeneous nature of the community, which includes many who are not specialist historians, and the limited opportunities for academic careers open to practitioners have had a profound effect on the discipline, leading to a focus on elite mathematics and great mathematicians. More recently, reflecting earlier developments in the history of science, an increased interest in the context and culture of the practice of mathematics has become evident.

  17. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  18. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  19. Counting coalescent histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Noah A

    2007-04-01

    Given a species tree and a gene tree, a valid coalescent history is a list of the branches of the species tree on which coalescences in the gene tree take place. I develop a recursion for the number of valid coalescent histories that exist for an arbitrary gene tree/species tree pair, when one gene lineage is studied per species. The result is obtained by defining a concept of m-extended coalescent histories, enumerating and counting these histories, and taking the special case of m = 1. As a sum over valid coalescent histories appears in a formula for the probability that a random gene tree evolving along the branches of a fixed species tree has a specified labeled topology, the enumeration of valid coalescent histories can considerably reduce the effort required for evaluating this formula.

  20. Family Health History and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetes Diabetes Risk Test Family Health History Quiz Family Health History Quiz Family health history is an ... health problems. Four Questions You Should Ask Your Family About Diabetes & Family Health History Knowing your family ...

  1. Organizations in Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book brings together leading organization scholars and business historians to examine the opportunities and challenges of incorporating historical research into the study of firms and markets. It examines the reasons for the growing interest in historically grounded research in management...... of business history and organization studies, and orients readers to the ‘future of the past in management and organization studies.’...

  2. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  3. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  4. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  5. Public and popular history

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This interdisciplinary collection considers public and popular history within a global framework, seeking to understand considerations of local, domestic histories and the ways they interact with broader discourses. Grounded in particular local and national situations, the book addresses the issues associated with popular history in a globalised cultural world, such as: how the study of popular history might work in the future; new ways in which the terms 'popular' and 'public' might inform one another and nuance scholarship; transnational, intercultural models of 'pastness'; cultural translat

  6. Gender as an Organizing Force in the World of Mass-Circulation Magazines. Report from the Project on a Social History of the American Reading Public, 1880-1980. Program Report 86-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon-Moore, Helen

    Considering gender as an organizing force in the world of magazines is productive both because it allows historians to organize nineteenth and twentieth century magazines according to focus and because examining the relationship between gender targeting and actual audience response can reveal the validity of magazine makers' gender-role…

  7. Teaching Sport as History, History through Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate history course based on two themes: sport as a reflection of society and sport as a socializing agent affecting society. The course focuses on sports and industrialization, traditional and modern sports, political and economic aspects of sport, and inequality and discrimination in sports. (Author/JK)

  8. A history of the histories of econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Dupont-Kieffer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Econometricians have from the start considered historical knowledge of their own discipline as reflexive knowledge useful for delineating their discipline, that is, for setting its disciplinary boundaries with respect to its aims, its methods, and its scientific values. As such, the histories writte

  9. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  10. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  11. History of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  12. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  13. Aggersborg through history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages......Aggersborg's history from the time of the end of the circular fortress till the present day, with a focus on the late Viking Age and the Middle Ages...

  14. History of Mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard; Gray, Jeremy

    Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO.......Volume 1 in Theme on "History of Mathematics", in "Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), developed under the auspices of the UNESCO....

  15. [History of kidney transplantation surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M O; Kleinclauss, F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To perform a state of the art about the history of kidney transplantation. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords (MESH): kidney transplantation, history, vascular anastomosis. From the first vascular ligations to the discovery of ciclosporin, the history of organ transplantation was made of surgical bets and medical discoveries, such as blood group, HLA-system, immunity, etc. The audacity of some surgeons led to the onset of renal transplantation as the treatment of choice for end stage renal disease. This article aims to describe the first surgical methods for vascular anastomosis and renal transplantation. Through a comprehensive search within the archives of the French National Library, the authors provide a precise description of the first renal transplantations performed, the technique that have been used and their authors. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Exploring global history through the lens of history of Chemistry: Materials, identities and governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lissa

    2016-12-01

    As global history continues to take shape as an important field of research, its interactive relationships with the history of science, technology, and medicine are recognized and being investigated as significant areas of concern. Strangely, despite the fact that it is key to understanding so many of the subjects that are central to global history and would itself benefit from a broader geographical perspective, the history of chemistry has largely been left out of this process - particularly for the modern historical period. This article argues for the value of integrating the history of chemistry with global history, not only for understanding the past, but also for thinking about our shared present and future. Toward this end, it (1) explores the various ways in which 'chemistry' has and can be defined, with special attention to discussions of 'indigenous knowledge systems'; (2) examines the benefits of organizing historical inquiry around the evolving sociomaterial identities of substances; (3) considers ways in which the concepts of 'chemical governance' and 'chemical expertise' can be expanded to match the complexities of global history, especially in relation to environmental issues, climate change, and pollution; and (4) seeks to sketch the various geographies entailed in bringing the history of chemistry together with global histories.

  17. Parasite stress, ethnocentrism, and life history strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Gladden, Paul Robert; Black, Candace Jasmine

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a compelling argument that parasite stress underlies certain cultural practices promoting assortative sociality. However, we suggest that the theoretical framework proposed is limited in several ways, and that life history theory provides a more explanatory and inclusive framework, making more specific predictions about the trade-offs faced by organisms in the allocation of bioenergetic and material resources.

  18. A Bibliography of American Peace History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive annotated listing of resources for the study and teaching of "peace history." Resources are divided into nine categories: (1) finding aids and broad surveys; (2) archives; (3) secondary sources; (4) monographs; (5) international studies; (6) individual figures; (7) pacifist organizations; (8) insider accounts;…

  19. Climate history shapes contemporary leaf litter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael S. Strickland; Ashley D. Keiser; Mark A. Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Litter decomposition is mediated by multiple variables, of which climate is expected to be a dominant factor at global scales. However, like other organisms, traits of decomposers and their communities are shaped not just by the contemporary climate but also their climate history. Whether or not this affects decomposition rates is underexplored. Here we source...

  20. American Red Cross: A History And Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AMERICAN RED CROSS: A HISTORY AND ANALYSIS December......N/ A 6. AUTHOR(S) Timothy B. Egan and Thanousone Pravongviengkham 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School

  1. A Short History of the Bulletin of the History of Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available As my tenure as Editor of the Bulletin ofthe History of Archaeology (BHA draws to a close (31 December 2002,I think it useful to the readership that I provide a very brief history of the BRA covering its inception, early years, and my aspirations for its future. The BHA was just a passing idea in my mind in 1990 when I organized an Advanced Seminar held at the School of American Search (SAR in Santa Fe,New Mexico (14-18 July 1990, concerning the then current state of writing the history of archaeology for the Society for American Archaeology's Committee on theHistory.of Archaeology. To a great degree the SAR advanced seminar grew out of a seminal gathering (Visitor Scholar's Conference that Andrew Christenson had put together in 1987 at Southern Ilinois University at Carbondaie,Dlinois - a gathering of those working in the history of archaeology.

  2. A history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2011-01-01

    The updated new edition of the classic and comprehensive guide to the history of mathematics. For more than forty years, A History of Mathematics has been the reference of choice for those looking to learn about the fascinating history of humankind's relationship with numbers, shapes, and patterns. This revised edition features up-to-date coverage of topics such as Fermat's Last Theorem and the Poincaré Conjecture , in addition to recent advances in areas such as finite group theory and computer-aided proofs.: Distills thousands of years of mathematics into a single, approachable volume; Cover

  3. Science A history

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2002-01-01

    From award-winning science writer John Gribbin, "Science: A History" is the enthralling story of the men and women who changed the way we see the world, and the turbulent times they lived in. From Galileo, tried by the Inquisition for his ideas, to Newton, who wrote his rivals out of the history books; from Marie Curie, forced to work apart from male students for fear she might excite them, to Louis Agassiz, who marched his colleagues up a mountain to prove that the ice ages had occurred. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  4. The enigmatic Otway odd-clawed spider (Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997, Gradungulidae, Araneae: Natural history, first description of the female and micro-computed tomography of the male palpal organ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michalik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The recently described cribellate gradungulid Progradungula otwayensis Milledge, 1997 is endemic to the Great Otway National Park (Victoria, Australia and known from only one male and a few juvenile specimens. In a recent survey we recorded 47 specimens at several localities across the western part of the Great Otway National park. Our field data suggest that this species is dependant on the microclimate in the hollows of old myrtle beech trees since other hollow trees were very much less inhabited. Furthermore, we describe the female for the first time and study the male palpal organ by using X-ray microtomography. The female genitalia are characterized by eight spermathecae which are grouped in two quartets. The spermophor resembles the general organization of gradungulids, but is similar to Kaiya Gray, 1987 by a convoluted appearance within the embolus. The muscle 30 is located in the cymbium and resembles the organization of other non-entelegyne Araneomorphae.

  5. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  6. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  7. History and Legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2004-01-01

    The history of the computer usage in high school laboratories is discussed. Students learned scientific methods by acknowledging measurement errors, using significant digits, questioning their own results, and without doubts, they benefited from applying skill learned in mathematics classes.

  8. Brief history of dreams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosselli, D

    2000-01-01

    Throughout history dreams have played a crucial role. Dreams have inspired great works of art, solved scientific problems and, because of the premonitory value attached to them, have influenced transcendental decisions...

  9. Oral history database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Separately, each history provides an in depth view into the professional and personal lives of individual participants. Together, they have the power to illuminate...

  10. GBM Accreting Pulsar Histories

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For each source we plot the history of pulse frequency and pulsed flux measured using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) NaI detectors. For these measurements...

  11. Social Psychology as History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergen, Kenneth J.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of theory and research in social psychology reveals that while methods of research are scientific in character, theories of social behavior are primarily reflections of contemporary history. (Author)

  12. Life History Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2015-01-01

    as in everyday life. Life histories represent lived lives past, present and anticipated future. As such they are interpretations of individuals’ experiences of the way in which societal dynamics take place in the individual body and mind, either by the individual him/herself or by another biographer. The Life...... History approach was developing from interpreting autobiographical and later certain other forms of language interactive material as moments of life history, i.e. it is basically a hermeneutic approach. Talking about a psycho-societal approach indicates the ambition of attacking the dichotomy...... of the social and the psychic, both in the interpretation procedure and in some main theoretical understandings of language, body and mind. My article will present the reflections on the use of life history based methodology in learning and education research as a kind of learning story of research work....

  13. History of Lake Andes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Information about the history and management of Lake Andes is compiled in this report. It is intended to help future refuge managers become acquainted with the...

  14. History of Bioterrorism: Botulism

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Emergency Preparedness and You Video: "The History of Bioterrorism" Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir This video ... Note: Parts of this video were adapted from "Biological Warfare and Terrorism: The Military and Public Health ...

  15. Natural history of glaucoma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pan, Ying; Varma, Rohit

    2011-01-01

    .... This paper presents the natural history of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. We examine the glaucomatous progression in terms of changes in optic disk morphology and visual fields as well as the risk factors for progression...

  16. Teaching American Environmental History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1974-01-01

    Themes, issues, teaching approaches, and bibliographic references to sources for a course in environmental history, offered with the hope of preparing students to formulate principles to guide our further conduct toward the environment, are described. (JH)

  17. Personal history, beyond narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2017-01-01

    Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...

  18. The organization of thanatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doka, Kenneth J; Heflin-Wells, E Neil; Martin, Terry L; Redmond, Lula M; Schachter, Sherry R

    2011-01-01

    This article explores, using Wilensky's Model of Professionalization, the emergence of professional organizations within the thanatology. The authors review the history of four organizations--The Foundation of Thanatology, Ars Moriendi, The Forum for Death Education and Counseling (now the Association for Death Education and Counseling: A Thanatology Organization [ADEC]), and The International Work Group on Death, Dying, and Bereavement (IWG). The authors speculate on some of the reasons that the first two failed while IWG and ADEC remain viable-while noting challenges that these remaining thanatological organizations will experience as they seek to continue to stay relevant.

  19. Knowledge management and history

    OpenAIRE

    Ermine, Jean-Louis; Pauget, Bertrand; Beretti, Annie; Tortorici, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    International audience; Capitalisation of the history of a technology, a technique or a concept within an industrial company is relevant to historians. However it largely exceeds the historical problems from a Knowledge Management point of view. In this context, it can be the subject of specific approaches especially Knowledge Engineering. However, it faces two types of difficulties: - The techniques in History have few modelling tools, and are even rather reticent with the use of such tools....

  20. History Vs. Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Krugman

    1989-01-01

    In models with external economies, there are often two or more long run equilibria. Which equilibrium is chosen? Much of the literature presumes that "history" sets initial conditions which determine the outcome, but an alternative view stresses the role of "expectations", i.e. of self-fulfilling prophecy. This paper uses a simple trade model with both external economies and adjustment costs to show how the parameters of the economy determine the relative importance of history and expectation...

  1. A tale of histories

    OpenAIRE

    Van Weert, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) is an elegant, high-level programming language based on multi-headed, forward chaining rules. A distinguishing feature of CHR are propagation rules. To avoid trivial non-termination, CHR implementations ensure a CHR rule is applied at most once with the same combination of constraints by maintaining a so-called propagation history. The performance impact of this history is often significant. We introduce two optimizations to reduce or even eliminate this overhe...

  2. Transformation of History textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof.......Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof....

  3. Transformation of History textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof.......Artiklen omhandler danske og tyske lærebøger i historie over de seneste to århundreder med hensyn til deres vægtning af det nationale og det globale stof....

  4. Characterization of Interstellar Organic Molecules

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the origins of life has been one of the greatest dreams throughout history. It is now known that star-forming regions contain complex organic...

  5. History of American Communication Education: A Selected, Annotated Basic Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Gustav W.

    Noting that only a fraction of the articles in speech journals have been concerned with the history of speech education in the United States, this annotated bibliography provides a broad guide to the materials necessary for understanding that history. The 45 citations are organized in six sections concerned with: (1) historical background; (2)…

  6. New Wine in Old Bottles: Revitalizing the Traditional History Lecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackey, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Maintains that the lecture method in history can still function as an effective means of instruction if approached with a critical perspective. Outlines creative and engaging approaches for the history lecture and specific suggestions for organization, delivery, and content coverage. (MJP)

  7. Writing of Patient Case History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Junying

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the language features, structure and contents of case history. Good patient case history contributes to correct diagnosis and formulation of a treatment plan, therefore, it is important for physicians to learn how to write case history.

  8. From the "Eye of History" to "A Second Gaze": The Visual Archive and the Marginalized in the History of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This paper has several concerns. It is about both the stories we tell and the images we place with those stories; it is also about historical practice and the power of the image to generate new research approaches. The paper is organized into three sections: the "eye of history" and historians and the visual archive; histories of black…

  9. Unesco – to preserve Slovenian medical history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Soban

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The beginnings of university studies of medicine in Ljubljana, and wartime interruptions. – One hundred years of anesthesia on the European continent as part of the surgeon’s work and responsibility. – The organization of health service (1942–1945 within the partisan resistance struggle. – Clandestine partisan hospitals. The wounded, the staff, the physicians. – Wartime anesthesia: an overview and perspectives. – SVPB Franja: a description. The efforts invested so far for the recognition of this war memorial as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. – From the 1982 International Symposium on the History of Modern Anesthesia to ISHA – the international society for the history of anesthesia.

  10. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  11. AAS Oral History Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, Sanlyn; Holbrook, Jarita; AAS Oral History Team

    2016-06-01

    Now in its fourth year, the AAS Oral History Project has interviewed over 80 astronomers from all over the world. Led by the AAS Historical Astronomy Division (HAD) and partially funded by the American Institute of Physics Niels Bohr Library and ongoing support from the AAS, volunteers have collected oral histories from astronomers at professional meetings starting in 2015, including AAS, DPS, and the IAU general assembly. Each interview lasts one and a half to two hours and focuses on interviewees’ personal and professional lives. Questions include those about one’s family, childhood, strong influences on one’s scientific career, career path, successes and challenges, perspectives on how astronomy is changing as a field, and advice to the next generation. Each interview is audio recorded and transcribed, the content of which is checked with each interviewee. Once complete, interview transcripts are posted online as part of a larger oral history library at https://www.aip.org/history-programs/niels-bohr-library/oral-histories. Future analysis will reveal a rich story of astronomers and will help the community address issues of diversity, controversies, and the changing landscape of science. We are still recruiting individuals to be interviewed from all stages of career from undergraduate students to retired and emeritus astronomers. Contact Jarita Holbrook to schedule an interview or to find out more information about the project (astroholbrook@gmail.com). Also, contact Jarita Holbrook if you would like to become an interviewer for the project.

  12. A Brief History of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    CERN's fascinating history, from the period preceding its creation right up to the present day, has inspired many people to take up pen and paper over the years. Recently, Marie Mazzone, a 19-year old student at Geneva's Collège Sismondi, chose it as the subject for her "travail de maturité", which she presented in the form of a comic book.   Cover of "the Accelerator of Peace" comic book by Marie Mazonne. In her comic book, which she entitled "L’accélérateur de paix" (the Accelerator of Peace, see the full PDF), Marie traces CERN's history back to its creation, explaining how the needs of post-war Europe led to the construction of an international scientific laboratory. Marie's four grandparents are all former CERN employees, so the Organization has been part of her life ever since she was small. "I'd always been familiar with the word CERN," she tells us. "But I...

  13. [History of Oncology in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondruš, D; Kaušitz, J

    2016-01-01

    The history of oncology in Slovakia is closely linked to the history of St. Elizabeth Hospital, which was set up in the mid-18th century by nuns of the St. Elizabeth Order in Bratislava. In the first half of the 20th century, a unit was set up in the hospital dedicated to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Shortly after World War II, the unit was turned into the Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment. In 1950, St. Elizabeth Hospital was nationalized, and the Cancer Research Institute of the Slovak Academy of Science and the Institute of Clinical Oncology were located there as centers for oncological diagnosis and treatment. After the restitution of church property in the early 1990s, the hospital was returned to the Order of St. Elizabeth, which set up the St. Elisabeth Cancer Institute in the hospital premises in January of 1996. This year marks the 20th anniversary of this institute in its new premises and the 85th anniversary of the Institute of Radiumtherapy founded in Bratislava, and thus the establishment of institutional healthcare for cancer patients in Slovakia is the reason for balancing. We present a view of the consecutive changes in the organization, space and staff of the Institute and evaluate the impact of celebrities on medicine who developed oncology as a clinical, scientific and educational discipline in Bratislava and in other cities and regions of Slovakia.

  14. To betray art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Emerling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work of Donald Preziosi represents one of the most sustained and often brilliant attempts to betray the modern discipline of art history by exposing its skillful shell game: precisely how and why it substitutes artifice, poetry, and representational schemes for putative facticity and objectivity (that desirous and yet ever elusive Kunstwissenschaft that art historians prattle on about. This attempt is inseparable from a sinuous, witty, involutive writing style that meanders between steely insight and coy suggestions of how art history could be performed otherwise. Preziosi’s writes art history. In doing so he betrays its disciplinary desires. It is this event of betrayal that has made his work so exciting to some, so troubling to others.

  15. History of psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review examines recent contributions to the evolving field of historical writing in psychiatry. Recent findings Interest in the history of psychiatry continues to grow, with an increasing emphasis on topics of current interest such as the history of psychopharmacology, electroconvulsive therapy, and the interplay between psychiatry and society. The scope of historical writing in psychiatry as of 2007 is as broad and varied as the discipline itself. Summary More than in other medical specialties such as cardiology or nephrology, treatment and diagnosis in psychiatry are affected by trends in the surrounding culture and society. Studying the history of the discipline provides insights into possible alternatives to the current crop of patent-protected remedies and trend-driven diagnoses. PMID:18852567

  16. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  17. Tranquebar - Whose History?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    This thesis comprises an ethnography of the contemporary practices through which the town of Tranquebar emerges as a heritage town with a point of departure in a particular part of its colonial history. Formally declared as heritage by the government of Tamil Nadu due to its well-preserved townsc......This thesis comprises an ethnography of the contemporary practices through which the town of Tranquebar emerges as a heritage town with a point of departure in a particular part of its colonial history. Formally declared as heritage by the government of Tamil Nadu due to its well...

  18. Time, money, and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, David

    2012-06-01

    This essay argues that taking the economy seriously in histories of science could not only extend the range of activities studied but also change--often quite radically--our understanding of well-known cases and instances in twentieth-century science. It shows how scientific intellectuals and historians of science have followed the money as a means of critique of particular forms of science and of particular conceptions of science. It suggests the need to go further, to a much broader implicit definition of what constitutes science--one that implies a criticism of much history of twentieth-century science for defining it implicitly and inappropriately in very restrictive ways.

  19. History of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    The editor of History of Psychology discusses her plan to vary the journal's content and expand its scope in specific ways. The first is to introduce a "Spotlight" feature, a relatively brief, provocative thought piece that might take one of several forms. Along with this new feature, she hopes further to broaden the journal's coverage and its range of contributors. She encourages submissions on the history of the psy-sciences off the beaten path. Finally, she plans to continue the journal's tradition of special issues, special sections, and essay reviews of two or more important recently published books in the field. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. History, Memory and Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    In this paper I discuss history and memory from a theoretical and philosophical point of view and the non-fiction and fiction aspects of historical representation. I use Edgar Reitz’ monumental work Heimat 1-3 (and his recent film Die Andere Heimat) as examples of very different transformative...... historical narratives. In terms of narrative construction and aesthetic form the Heimat-project challenges the dominant forms of historical fiction. By combining personal memory, everyday life and collective memory and a more indirect way of representing factual history Reitz wants to transform our look...

  1. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  2. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  3. Ordering the discipline: classification in the history of science. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Stephen P

    2013-09-01

    Classification of the history of science has a long history, and the essays in this Focus section explore that history and its consequences from several different angles. Two of the papers deal with how classifying schemes in bibliography have evolved. A third looks at the way archival organization has changed over the years. Finally, the last essay explores the intersection of human and machine classifying systems. All four contributions look closely at the ramifications of the digital revolution for the way we organize the knowledge of the discipline.

  4. The hidden holes in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegelman, R K

    1981-09-01

    History taking can be viewed as a diagnostic test. Identification of the purpose, accuracy, reproducibility, and diagnostic discrimination of the history assists in reliable history taking. An appreciation of the strengths and limitations of history taking helps physicians effectively utilize this important diagnostic tool.

  5. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    CERN Document Server

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems (including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society) are islands of order within the increasingly disordered universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. This is global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across 14 billion years of time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, non-equilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. In particular, energy rate density is an objective metric suitable to gauge...

  6. "I Hate History": A Study of Student Engagement in Community College Undergraduate History Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Katherine Assante; Bohan, Chara Haeussler

    2013-01-01

    Many instructors seek to improve student engagement, but determining how to achieve student engagement can be complex and complicated. The authors sought to explore how the implementation of active-learning strategies in undergraduate history courses at a metropolitan community college using graphic organizers and group discussion impacted student…

  7. History of the World Federation of Societies for Laser Medicine and Surgery (WFSLMS) and its Non-Profit Organization (NPO-WFSLMS): Part 2: 2(nd) WFSLMS Meeting (2009) to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2015-03-31

    The first part of this historical overview, (see Laser Therapy, 2014; 23: 89-95), took the reader from the conception of the WFSLMS to its inception at the inaugural meeting in Tokyo, 2005 and events up to the 2009 2(nd) WFSLMS in Tokyo when the author was the congress president. The previous article also dealt with the necessity for founding a non-profit organization, NPO-WFSLMS, to handle the commercial and social responsibilities of the WFSLMS. For details, please refer to that previous article. Meetings: The 2(nd) WFSLMS congress was successfully held in 2009 in Japan, under the presidency of Professor Krishna Rau. The third WFSLMS meeting was planned for Paris in 2013 together with the 20(th) ISLSM congress under the Meeting Presidency of Dr Jean Abitbol, while the 19(th) ISLSM was to be held in Korea in 2011 under the Meeting Presidency of Prof. Jin-Wang Kim. Unforseen problems beyond the control of the organizers forced the cancellation of both the 19(th) and 20(th) meetings of the ISLSM, the latter also being the location of the planned third WFSLMS congress in Paris, but with the cooperation of the organizers of the 5(th) congress of the International Phototherapy Association (IPTA) the 3(rd) WFSLMS meeting was held in Lithuania, again under the presidency of Prof Rau concurrently with the 20(th) ISLSM, at which much was debated regarding the future course of NPO-WFSLMS and WFSLMS. The venue of the 2015 21(st) ISLSM Congress was set as Indore, India, and the 4(th) WFSLMS meeting was allocated to Florence, Italy, in tandem with the 22(nd) ISLSM congress. In the interim, NPO-WFSLMS effectively managed laser education programs in Japan for developing country doctors, and also handled the donation of laser systems to Vietnam and Thailand, the latter being under the auspices of the Greek Medical Laser Association, together with associated education programs. The laser-based Blood Saving Campaign (BSaC) has been actively promoted in Asian countries up to the

  8. A History of Multimedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Larry Kenneth

    The history of multimedia and descriptions of various multimedia events from 1900 to 1972 are presented. The development of multimedia events is described for four eras and four main classifications of events: multiscreen presentations, electronic media and performers, environmental theater, and environments. Five appendixes include a discussion…

  9. Writing History in Exile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar

  10. Freud and cultural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This article is concerned with three questions: Can historians make use of Freud's ideas? Have they done so in the past? Should they do so in the future? It begins with a personal encounter with Freud's ideas and then raises some general questions about the relation between psychoanalysis and history.

  11. Bengal Literature and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.

    The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…

  12. My English History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Outlines the author's history as an English teacher. Suggests that English teaching is not hermetic but profoundly influenced by educational trends outside the subject itself. Explains that the author's commitment to English combines a sense of engagement with a sense of liberation. (PM)

  13. Epistemology and history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    The essay reviews Hans-Jörg Rheinberger's intensive engagement with French epistemology that has remained a constant throughout his career. It focuses especially on a set of recent writings by Rheinberger that all revolve around the question: how has epistemology become historical? This question is discussed in the context of Rheinberger's own move from philosophy to an embracement of history.

  14. Access and History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Granly

    2012-01-01

    Like many other major European media corporations the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) has begun the digitisation of its audio-visual archives. This transformation from analogue to digital archives raises a number of questions regarding the archive specific character, history and content...

  15. [Brief history of dreams].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, D

    Throughout history dreams have played a crucial role. Dreams have inspired great works of art, solved scientific problems and, because of the premonitory value attached to them, have influenced transcendental decisions. This paper reviews some of the dreams that have been a part of the world's literature and historical tradition.

  16. History in the Flesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencard, Adam

    drevet af en historisering, en vilje til at placere historie hvor der før var biologi.   Denne afhandling undersøger denne interesse i kroppen gennem en analyse af hvad jeg kalder den historiserede krop som diskursiv figur. Den historiserede krop er ikke et klart aftegnet koncept eller en skarp afgrænset...

  17. CERN's Early History Revisited

    CERN Multimedia

    Schopper, Herwig Franz; Krige, Gerhard John

    2005-01-01

    As a member of the group of historians charged to write the history of the founding of CERN, John Krige particularly underlines the important role I.I. Rabi played. The first author, former Director General of CERN add a few comments. S.A. Khan gives precisions about the role played by E. Amaldi and P. Auger; then J. Krige replies

  18. American History (an introduction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    I et letforståeligt engelsk giver professor David Nye en fængende præsentation af amerikansk historie fra den tidlige kolonisationsperiode til præsident Obama. Bogen giver et helhedsportræt af perioderne og inkluderer til hver periode en kortfattet præsentation af kultur- og litteraturhistorien....

  19. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of un

  20. Psychology and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsterburg, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    This essay considers the discipline of psychology as distinct from history, defining it as a science within philosophy dedicated to the study of the causal structure of the human mind. Although Hugo Munsterburg was considered an important figure in applied psychology, this essay represents an earlier epistemology. (SLD)

  1. American History (an introduction)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David Edwin

    I et letforståeligt engelsk giver professor David Nye en fængende præsentation af amerikansk historie fra den tidlige kolonisationsperiode til præsident Obama. Bogen giver et helhedsportræt af perioderne og inkluderer til hver periode en kortfattet præsentation af kultur- og litteraturhistorien....

  2. Diving Into History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Three divers have made history at the 13th FINA World Championships held in Rome on July 17-August 2. Guo Jingjing, the Chinese diving queen who clinched the gold in the women’s 3-meter springboard on July 21, became the first

  3. History, Theory, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the question of theory as it may pertain to the history of education, with particular attention to the United States. Historians, like everyone else, have little choice regarding the use of theory; to one extent or another they must. The question is how much and to what end. The author aims to consider the…

  4. Taarnborg: Becoming History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchetti, Emanuela; Dai, Zheng; Omarsson, Olafur

    Focus of this project is an inquiry in the materialisation of the historical heritage of Taarnborg (Ribe, Denmark) once a place related to local religious authorities, now a private home and museum, where visitors attend to musical events and lectures about history and theology. Following...

  5. Didactics of History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    The book consits of five chapters about  formation and education in Denmark over the last two centuries. The developement of history teaching is especially stressed. The guiding concept for the upper secondary education has since 1850 been 'general character formation'. The book is an edited...

  6. Writing History in Exile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Berger, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    WRITING HISTORY IN EXILE * Stefan Berger and Antoon De Baets, Reflections on Exile Historiography 11 * Antoon De Baets, Plutarch’s Thesis : the Contribution of Refugee Historians to Historical Writing (1945-2015) 27 * Peter Burke, Silver Lining : on Some Intellectual Benefits of Exile 39 * Ragnar Bj

  7. Runaways in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz, Mark R.

    1977-01-01

    Although running away is a glorified part of American folk tradition, today's runaway runs afoul of a host of laws, including those which make the act itself illegal. This article examines the history of the social and legal status of youth and why they run away. (Author)

  8. Teaching Local History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alan, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This Social Science Docket theme issue focuses on teaching local history and included theme and non-themed articles, lesson plans, learning activities, and book, movie, and museum reviews designed for K-12 social studies teachers. Articles and materials in this issue are: "Editing Is Not Censorship" (Alan Singer); "Teachers Respond…

  9. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  10. Narrative History and Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Eileen H.

    2011-01-01

    While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…

  11. Didactics of History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haue, Harry

    The book consits of five chapters about  formation and education in Denmark over the last two centuries. The developement of history teaching is especially stressed. The guiding concept for the upper secondary education has since 1850 been 'general character formation'. The book is an edited...

  12. Ownership and Object History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  13. Walking Out of History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GARMARDORJE; CUIFENG

    2002-01-01

    EDITOR’S NOTE: Barkor Street around Jokhang Monastery has a history of 1,300 years. The age-old street, however, has found the fountain of youth and takes on a new outlook today. And the fountain of youth is none other than the ongoing reform and opening program.

  14. In a Word, History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  15. Big data in history

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Big Data in History introduces the project to create a world-historical archive, tracing the last four centuries of historical dynamics and change. Chapters address the archive's overall plan, how to interpret the past through a global archive, the missions of gathering records, linking local data into global patterns, and exploring the results.

  16. Natural history of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is usually described with a focus on change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) over time as this allows for exploration of risk factors for an accelerated decline-and thus of developing COPD. From epidemiological studies we...

  17. Atmospheric refraction : a history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehn, WH; van der Werf, S

    2005-01-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of

  18. Figuring Out Art History

    CERN Document Server

    Schich, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    World population and the number of cultural artifacts are growing exponentially or faster, while cultural interaction approaches the fidelity of a global nervous system. Every day hundreds of millions of images are loaded into social networks by users all over the world. As this myriad of new artifacts veils the view into the past, like city lights covering the night sky, it is easy to forget that there is more than one Starry Night, the painting by Van Gogh. Like in ecology, where saving rare species may help us in treating disease, art and architectural history can reveal insights into the past, which may hold keys to our own future. With humanism under threat, facing the challenge of understanding the structure and dynamics of art and culture, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is more crucial now than it ever was. The purpose of this article is to provide perspective in the aim of figuring out the process of art history - not art history as a discipline, but the actual history of all made things, in t...

  19. Testing History As Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R.; Hart, James

    1973-01-01

    Some obvious difficulties of teaching and testing history as inquiry are reviewed. Examples of test items that require students to utilize thought processes developed through inquiry teaching are presented together with a rationale for their use. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives is proposed as a useful tool in test construction. (SM)

  20. STATISTICAL METHODS IN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have given a critical analysis of statistical models and methods for processing text information in historical records to establish the times when there were certain events, ie, to build science-based chronology. There are three main kinds of sources of knowledge of ancient history: ancient texts, the remains of material culture and traditions. The specific date of the extracted by archaeologists objects in most cases can not be found. The group of Academician A.T. Fomenko has developed and applied new statistical methods for analysis of historical texts (Chronicle, based on the intensive use of computer technology. Two major scientific results were: the majority of historical records that we know now, are duplicated (in particular, chronicles, describing the so-called "Ancient Rome" and "Middle Ages", talking about the same events; the known historical chronicles tell us about real events, separated from the present time for not more than 1000 years. It was found that chronicles describing the history of "ancient times" and "Middle Ages" and the chronicle of Chinese history and the history of various European countries do not talk about different, but about the same events. We have the attempt of a new dating of historical events and restoring the true history of human society based on new data. From the standpoint of statistical methods of historical records and images of their fragments – they are special cases of non-numeric objects of nature. Therefore, developed by the group of A.T. Fomenko computer-statistical methods are the part of non-numerical statistics. We have considered some methods of statistical analysis of chronicles applied by the group of A.T. Fomenko: correlation method of maximums; dynasties method; the method of attenuation frequency; questionnaire method codes. New chronology allows us to understand much of the battle of ideas in modern science and mass consciousness. It becomes clear the root cause of cautious

  1. BRST Quantisation of Histories Electrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Noltingk, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the the history fields have \\emph{five} components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this paper we quantise the classical theory developed previously by two methods. Firstly we quantise the reduced classical history space, to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Secondly we qu...

  2. Organic Chemistry of Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the molecular structures and C,N,H-isotopic compositions of organic matter in meteorites reveal a complex history beginning in the parent interstellar cloud which spawned the solar system. Incorporation of interstellar dust and gas in the protosolar nebula followed by further thermal and aqueous processing on primordial parent bodies of carbonaceous, meteorites have produced an inventory of diverse organic compounds including classes now utilized in biochemistry. This inventory represents one possible set of reactants for chemical models for the origin of living systems on the early Earth. Evidence bearing on the history of meteoritic organic matter from astronomical observations and laboratory investigations will be reviewed and future research directions discussed.

  3. ILA/ACRL Organization Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Georgia, Ed.

    This organization manual of the Iowa Library Association chapter of the Association of College and Research Libraries (ILA/ACRL) responds to the need for specific information to implement the organization's strategic plan. The manual includes: (1) the bylaws; (2) strategic plan; (3) a history of the chapter and other introductory material; (4) a…

  4. SELF-ORGANIZING ABIOGENIC DISSIPATIVE STRUCTURES IN THE GEOLOGIC HISTORY OF THE EARTH%地球地质历史中非生物成因的自组织耗散结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.L.Shvartsev

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that since the appearance of water on the Earth, a stationary disequilibrium-equilibrium water-rock system came into existence. This system is internally inconsistent, which determines its ability to develop continuously in a spontaneous manner for a long geologic time, leading to the formation of principally new mineral phases and geochemical types of water. Within the Earth's crust, this system persistently develops in a nonlinear field of the thermodynamic branch under the conditions far from equilibrium; it is capable of accumulating the solar energy and forms abiogenic dissipative structures playing a special role in the progressive development of inert matter and then of living matter. The inclination of this system to the progressive self-organization defines it as one of the fundamental and basic system in the development of inorganic matter. From this system there was a set of others having inherited most of its properties. The evolution of the water-rock system led to the formation of secondary mineral phases and new geochemical types of water, and as these increased, the system gradually became more complex in composition and structure and formed new geochemical media which, in turn, control the formation of new mineral phases having effect on the characteristics of the media. This process is geologically perpetual. This is the essence of self-organization in mineral kingdom, including initiation, growth and spatial-temporal dispersal of new structural forms, mineral and geochemical media formations, and finally, the origination of new organic substances and life.%自从地球上有水出现,就持续存在水-岩体系的平衡-不平衡.这一体系内部是不协调的,这就决定了它在地质历史的长河中自发地连续发展的可能性,并导致完全新的矿物相和水的不同地球化学类型的生成.在地壳中这一体系持续在一个热力学分支的线性域中,远离平衡而发育.它积聚太阳能,形成非

  5. Your company's history as a leadership tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, John T; Smith, George David

    2012-12-01

    When the history of an organization comes up, it's usually in connection with an anniversary--just part of the "balloons and fireworks" (as one business leader characterized his company's bicentennial celebration, knowing that the investment of time and money would have little staying power). A fast-changing world leaves little time for nostalgia and irrelevant details--or, worse, strategies for winning the last war. But the authors, business historians at the Winthrop Group, assert that leaders with no patience for history are missing a vital truth: A sophisticated understanding of the past is one of the most powerful tools they have for shaping the future. The job of leaders, most would agree, is to inspire collective efforts and devise smart strategies for the future. History can be profitably employed on both fronts. As a leader strives to get people working together productively, communicating the history of the enterprise can instill a sense of identity and purpose and suggest the goals that will resonate. In its most familiar form, as a narrative about the past, history is a rich explanatory tool with which executives can make a case for change and motivate people to overcome challenges. Taken to a higher level, it also serves as a potent problem-solving tool, one that offers pragmatic insights, valid generalizations, and meaningful perspectives--a way to cut through management fads and the noise of the moment to what really matters.

  6. Searching for Ourselves: In the Horror and Hope of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Carol

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976, Facing History and Ourselves, a Massachusetts-based nonprofit organization, has devoted itself to guiding middle school and high school teachers in forming their own understandings of the Holocaust to teach their students to do the same. Goals and achievements of the organization are described. (SLD)

  7. Living in history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Norman R.; Lee, Peter J.; Krslak, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til samtidsbegi......Foreslår et paradigme - "Living in history" - til undersøgelse af forholdet mellem samtidshistorie og selvbiografisk hukommelse. Metoden spørger ikke direkte og altså ikke til den anknytning, man bevidst ville vælge at fremhæve, men undersøger indirekte, om der spontant associeres til...

  8. Tranquebar - Whose History?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle

    in which the townscape of Tranquebar has become subject to promotion as amaterial embodiment of transnational history, and thereby to explore the negotiations of historicity that come into play amongst the many stakeholders in this process, including residents, heritage and tourism developers, public......This thesis comprises an ethnography of the contemporary practices through which the town of Tranquebar emerges as a heritage town with a point of departure in a particular part of its colonial history. Formally declared as heritage by the government of Tamil Nadu due to its well......-preserved townscape from the Indo-Danish colonial period in 1620-1845, the town has for decades been subject to both Danish and Indian attempts at preserving and promoting it as a destination of heritage tourism. In this process claims are made on the town as an expression of cross-cultural heritage; but whose...

  9. What history tells us

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michel Morange

    2005-06-01

    The history of science was long considered to be something peripheral to science itself. By supplying interesting stories and gossip, it seemed, at best, to provide material for enlivening lectures. In general, it was deemed a suitable activity for retired scientists. This view has been revised considerably in the past years and indeed, today seems hopelessly out of date. History and philosophy of science are increasingly held to be an essential component of the education of scientists. By becoming acquainted with these areas, practicing scientists – and in particular biologists – can better appreciate the significance of the models and theories that underpin their research, especially with the accelerating succession of one idea by the next. The present series, of which the article that follows is the first, aims to give historical glimpses that bear on contemporary biology. The hope is that these glimpses will be both a source of inspiration and of help in resisting useless fashions.

  10. My brief history

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    My Brief History recounts Stephen Hawking’s improbable journey, from his postwar London boyhood to his years of international acclaim and celebrity. Lavishly illustrated with rarely seen photographs, this concise, witty, and candid account introduces readers to a Hawking rarely glimpsed in previous books: the inquisitive schoolboy whose classmates nicknamed him Einstein; the jokester who once placed a bet with a colleague over the existence of a particular black hole; and the young husband and father struggling to gain a foothold in the world of physics and cosmology. Writing with characteristic humility and humor, Hawking opens up about the challenges that confronted him following his diagnosis of ALS at age twenty-one. Tracing his development as a thinker, he explains how the prospect of an early death urged him onward through numerous intellectual breakthroughs, and talks about the genesis of his masterpiece A Brief History of Time—one of the iconic books of the twentieth century.

  11. [Arthritis and clinical history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lígia; Sampaio, Luzia; Pinto, José; Ventura, Francisco S

    2011-01-01

    In front of a patient with arthritis, clinical good-sense tells that the most probable diagnosis are the most prevalent ones. Nevertheless, we have to exclude a multiplicity of other aetiologies, less frequent, but with highest implications in the therapeutic conduct. Infections by Brucella and by Borrelia are rare causes of chronic arthritis, yet are diagnosis to consider, even when the clinical manifestations aren't the most typical, as there still exist endemic areas in Portugal. Here we report two clinical cases about patients with arthritis for more than one year, subject to ineffective exams ant treatments. Only the clinical history could put on evidence clinical-epidemiological data, suggestive of Brucellosis and Lyme Disease, namely the professional contact with infected animals, and the history of probable erythema migrans, that pointed toward the correct diagnosis. So, with directed therapeutic, there was complete resolution of the inflammatory symptoms.

  12. History of Korean Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-nam

    2015-08-01

    The year 2012 was the 50th anniversary of the Korean Neurosurgical Society, and in 2013, the 15th World Congress of Neurosurgery took place in Seoul, Korea. Thus, it is an appropriate occasion to introduce the world to the history of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and the foundation, development, and growth of Korean neurosurgery. Historical materials and pictures were collected and reviewed from the history book and photo albums of the Korean Neurosurgical Society. During the last 50 years, the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery have developed and grown enormously not only in quantity but also in quality. In every aspect, the turning point from the old to the new era of the Korean Neurosurgical Society and Korean neurosurgery was the year 1980. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. History of insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeste C. Quianzon

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The advancement of diabetes treatment has gone from crude extracts of insulin and accidental discovery of sulfa-like drugs in antibiotics to the development of drugs based on improved understanding of the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus. This article will review the history of the discovery and development of insulin. A companion focusing on non-insulin diabetes agents will follow in the next issue of JCHIMP.

  14. Wireless radio a history

    CERN Document Server

    Coe, Lewis

    2006-01-01

    ""Informative...recommended""--Choice; ""interesting...a good read...well worth reading""--Contact Magazine. This history first looks at Marconi's wireless communications system and then explores its many applications, including marine radio, cellular telephones, police and military uses, television and radar. Radio collecting is also discussed, and brief biographies are provided for the major figures in the development and use of the wireless.

  15. History of hadrontherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaldi, Ugo

    2015-05-01

    Hadrontherapy is today an established modality in cancer radiation therapy. Based on the superior ballistic and radiobiological properties of accelerated ions, this discipline experienced a remarkable growth in the last 20 years. This paper reviews the history of hadrontherapy, from the early days to the most recent developments. In particular, the evolution of proton and carbon ion therapy is presented together with a glance at future solutions such as single-room facilities.

  16. The Trouble with History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    regards, the post-structuralist theories of Michel Foucault, the deconstruc- tionist notions of Jacques Derrida , and Dominick LaCapra’s techniques of...is closer to fiction than nonfiction. Indeed, they have a point. Compare: Frank Ankersmit, “Historiography and Postmodernism ,” History and Theory, 28...Historiography in the Twentieth Century: From Scientific Objectivity to the Postmodern Challenge (Hanover, N.H.: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1997) and Evans

  17. A quantum of history

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, Peter

    2014-01-01

    With reference to primary sources it is shown that key claims made regarding the history of the pilot wave theory in Quantum Theory at the Crossroads are not supported by the historical record. It is also argued that the association of de Broglie with just a first-order law of particle motion, and Bohm with a second-order one, has no historical basis.

  18. Troubling Histories and Theories: Gender and the History of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Discusses gender influences and ways that history and theory have interacted in influencing women's contribution and recognition in educational history. Focuses on several historians' views and how some have eventually written women back into the historical picture of education. (KDR)

  19. History magazines in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Haydn, Terry

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores the phenomenon of popular history magazines as a facet of public history. The UK has seen a substantial increase in the number of popular history magazines available to the public, with some magazines reaching high levels of circulation. The paper looks at the range of magazines available – from ‘heritage’ and ‘family’ history, to special interest magazines, and more ‘serious’ and scholarly history magazines. What is it that makes history magazines sell, and what influence ...

  20. Cultural History and its Neighbours

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a kind of map of intellectual fields that are more or less close to cultural history. It is difficult to separate cultural history from intellectual, social and political history, from archaeology and from the histories of such activities as art, literature, language and religion, whether these histories are studied in departments of history or under the umbrella of “visual studies”, “religious studies” or “cultural studies”. All these neighbours form an “inner circle”, di...

  1. Natural History Education for Students Heading into the Century of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlynn, Terrance P.

    2008-01-01

    Undergraduate biology students receive little training in natural history or in organismal biology. Natural history allows students to visualize mechanisms of evolution and identify common themes in the structure and function of organisms. By emphasizing natural history in all aspects of biology instruction, we might become closer to achieving the…

  2. Contested Histories of Rhetoric: The Politics of Preservation, Progress, and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Carole

    1992-01-01

    Argues that the two principle modes of organizing rhetorical theories in histories of rhetoric (according to influence or systems) frequently mask or distort the particularity of rhetoric's history. Forwards an alternative critical history that privileges the notions of text, particularity, change, and criticism. (SR)

  3. "Life and Deaf": Language and the Myth of "Balance" in Public History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergey, Jean Lindquist

    2008-01-01

    This article chronicles the protest to draft plans for an exhibition on Deaf history organized by Gallaudet University. Jean Bergey, director of the History through Deaf Eyes project, analyzes documents from letters of concern and offers context on the politics of public presentation of Deaf community history. (Contains 1 note.)

  4. Organ Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs ... and bone marrow Cornea Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some ...

  5. Intelligent Design and Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    Intelligent Design (ID), the idea that the Earth's biota was intelligently designed and created, is not a new species recently evolved by allopatric speciation at the fringes of the creationist gene pool. In spite of its new veneer of sophistication, ID is a variant of an already extant species of religious polemics. In the western world, arguments about causative relationships between the complexity of nature and the supernatural can be traced from the fifth century St. Augustine, to the eighteenth century David Hume and the nineteenth century William Paley. Along this descent tree some argued from the existence of supernatural agencies to the creation of nature with its complexities, while others argued from the complexities of nature to the existence of supernatural agencies. Today, Phillip Johnson promotes ID by attacking evolution rather than by presenting evidence for ID. He argues that the evidence for macroevolution is either absent, misinterpreted or fraudulent. His "Wedge Strategy" attempts to separate his "objective science" from the "philosophical mechanistic naturalism" which he posits is responsible for the survival of Darwinism. To make his appeal as wide as possible he tries not to offend anyone (except evolutionists) by deliberately avoiding discussion of biblical literalism or the age of the Earth. Although in 1859 Darwin admitted that the geological evidence was "the most obvious and gravest objection which can be urged against my theory", subsequently geological evidence has become one of the chief supports of his theory. However, the fossil record is now seen to be not simply one of slow gradual descent with modification. Rates of divergence and disappearance of organisms have varied enormously through time. Repeated mass extinctions indicate a strong element of contingency in evolution. Accepting the postulate of an intelligent designer also requires the postulate of an intelligent destroyer. Darwin hinted at this when he referred to, "The

  6. Teacher Candidates' Attitudes to Using Oral History in History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Ebru

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine the views of history teacher candidates towards an oral history project carried out in the Special Teaching Method Course of the history pedagogy program of the Fatih Faculty of Education (FFE) at Karadeniz Technical University in Turkey. An open-ended questionnaire and semi-structured interview were the…

  7. The History of Secondary Education in History of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Gary

    2012-01-01

    "History of Education" has published a steady stream of papers on the history of secondary education over the first 40 years of its existence. This corpus of research has been generated in the context of renewed interest in the history of secondary education that has been stimulated by developments in social and historical inquiry as…

  8. Disciplinary History and the Situation of History Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A growing consensus in the history education community supports the idea that the discipline of history provides the best opportunity for moving beyond a "nation-building" or "skills-based" approach to teaching about the past. The social and temporal characteristics of the discipline of history mean such conclusions have…

  9. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  10. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, Marcelo; Laura, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories.

  11. Summary of The History Manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Noortje

    2016-06-01

    This essay provides a brief, impartial summary of some main points of The History Manifesto, of the debate among historians that it has engendered, and of its connection to previous debates in and about the history of the sciences.

  12. Inventing the History of Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molella, Arthur P.

    1988-01-01

    Selected are three pioneers who invented the history of technology: Abbott P. Usher, Lewis Mumford, and Sigfried Giedion. Their careers, publications, and contributions to the history of technology are described. (YP)

  13. Integrating Educational Theory and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James P.

    1977-01-01

    Recommends that history teachers incorporate educational theory into their courses. Describes and evaluates a history course at Brooklyn College constructed around Benjamin Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive educational objectives. (Author/DB)

  14. Effects of Cultivation History and Cropping System on Soil Organic Carbon and Its Components in Oasis Soils%耕作历史和种植制度对绿洲农田土壤有机碳及其组分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊华; 李国栋; 南忠仁; 肖洪浪; 赵丽萍

    2012-01-01

    Cultivation history and cropping system are the important influencing factors of SOC and its components in the Heihe oasis,the objective of this study is to identify the effects.Soil sampling pits are selected and the space positions are determined by using the GPS instrument.The soil sampling depth of 100 cm are divided into intervals of 0-20,20-40,40-60,60-80 and 80-100 cm.After soil sample preparation,total organic carbon(TOC) is measured by acid dichromate digestion and FeSO4 titration,active organic carbon(AOC) is measured by potassium permanganate oxygenation,nonactive organic carbon(NOC) is calculated as the difference between TOC and AOC.Biomass including root and crop straw is surveyed by using 1 m×1 m squares and the net weight is weighted.Cultivation history is obtained by field research.Results show the contents of TOC,AOC and NOC are increased with the extension of cultivation time,but to different degrees.AOC is faster than NOC in 0-5 years for easy transformation characters to agriculture activity after the low organic matter natural soil was converted to cotton field,then lower than NOC in 5-20 years,finally the extent of AOC is close to DOC in 100 years.This indicates NOC content significantly increased and extent of AOC and NOC is gradually close to the increase of TOC.In soil profile〉 100 years,the contents of TOC,AOC and NOC with the order from high to low is rape plot,general corn plot,corn plot for seed and wheat plot,respectively.Compared with annual variation of organic matter restitution in wheat and corn plots,corn plot for seed ranges between wheat plot and general corn plot.The analysis indicates planting of corn for seed causes change of TOC,AOC and NOC,and effective approach of enhancing SOC content is to increase organic matter return of straw and livestock dejection.%耕作历史和种植方式是影响黑河绿洲农田土壤总有机碳及其组成的重要因素。研究结果显示,随着耕作时间的延长,土

  15. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  16. Quantum histories without contrary inferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, Marcelo, E-mail: marcelolosada@yahoo.com [Instituto de Física Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Laura, Roberto, E-mail: rlaura@fceia.unr.edu.ar [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingeniería y Agrimensura and Instituto de Física Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2014-12-15

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory it was shown that it is possible to retrodict contrary properties. We show that this problem do not appear in our formalism of generalized contexts for quantum histories. - Highlights: • We prove ordinary quantum mechanics has no contrary properties. • Contrary properties in consistent histories are reviewed. • We prove generalized contexts for quantum histories have no contrary properties.

  17. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  18. Voices in History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Leudar

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of “hearing voices” nowadays usually count as verbal hallucinations and they indicate serious mental illness. Some are first rank symptoms of schizophrenia, and the mass media, at least in Britain, tend to present them as antecedents of impulsive violence. They are, however, also found in other psychiatric conditions and epidemiological surveys reveal that even individuals with no need of psychiatric help can hear voices, sometimes following bereavement or abuse, but sometimes for no discernible reason. So do these experiences necessarily mean insanity and violence, and must they be thought of as pathogenic hallucinations; or are there other ways to understand them and live with them, and with what consequences?One way to make our thinking more flexible is to turn to history. We find that hearing voices was always an enigmatic experience, and the people who had it were rare. The gallery of voice hearers is, though, distinguished and it includes Galilei, Bunyan and St Teresa. Socrates heard a daemon who guided his actions, but in his time this did not signify madness, nor was it described as a hallucination. Yet in 19th century French psychological medicine the daemon became a hallucination and Socrates was retrospectively diagnosed as mentally ill. This paper examines the controversies which surrounded the experience at different points in history as well as the practice of retrospective psychiatry. The conclusion reached on the basis of the historical materials is that the experience and the ontological status it is ascribed are not trans-cultural or trans-historic but situated both in history and in the contemporary conflicts.

  19. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  20. Build Skills by Doing History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte-Sano, Chauncey

    2012-01-01

    No Child Left Behind has profoundly limited the teaching of history over the past 10 years. Now, the Common Core State Standards offers an opportunity to reverse this decline by giving history a more prominent place in the school curriculum alongside literacy goals. Learning history and argumentative writing is key to developing analytical ways of…

  1. Treating Globalization in History Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Peter N.

    2003-01-01

    Globalization provides history teachers with an opportunity to link past to present in new ways and to test historical thinking. This is particularly true in world history surveys, but has relevance to Western civilization or United States history surveys as well. For globalization in turn, the historical perspective offers opportunities for more…

  2. Nationalist Histories and Multiethnic Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Timothy J.

    2002-01-01

    Canadians do not have a common history, despite the English-speaking Eurocentric narrative that passes for Canadian history. Rethinking the history curriculum, combined with innovative practices such as using primary historical documents, conducting heritage fairs, and encouraging students to research and produce their own heritage minutes, can…

  3. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  4. Cultural History and Cultural Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Ronald

    1990-01-01

    Historicism critiques cultural history and cultural materialism as a methodology for literary analysis. Questions the finality of interpretation, how original values change, and whether dramatic history implies actual history. Using Shakespearean plays, analyzes the power and politics of a play in relation to its audience; posits that cultural…

  5. History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

  6. History + Mystery = Inquiring Young Historians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Jana; Helm, Allison; Pierce, Kristin; Galloway, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While social studies content about communities, neighborhood jobs, and maybe even some state history is taught in the early elementary grades, often the upper elementary grades are the first time students learn about the larger progression of history. How do teachers begin to teach the progression of U.S. history and the themes and questions that…

  7. Book History and Ideological Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilevko, Juris; Dali, Keren

    2006-01-01

    The evolving field of Book History has had difficulty in integrating the experiences of immigrant culture. In explaining the origins of print culture in North America, Book History has a tendency to associate lowbrow with immigrants and their struggles to establish a foothold in a new land. Book History therefore symbolically defines immigrant…

  8. Opening the Doors of History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s Central Archives aspires to improve public access to information China is blessed with a long history,and for millenniums the people of China have used history as a mirror to learn from the past. An important part of the country’s history, all the archives of the Communist Party of China (CPC)

  9. Recasting History: The Public Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Beth

    2014-01-01

    If you ask Americans what is studied in history classrooms, many will answer "facts and dates." If you ask them what people can do with a history degree, they answer "teach." Yet those same Americans acknowledge the power and practical relevance of history as they flock to national parks, historic sites, museums, and cultural…

  10. History of Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Tomisaku; Naoe, Shiro

    2014-04-01

    We describe a short history of Kawasaki disease. In 1967, we published a paper entitled 'Infantile acute febrile mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome with specific desquamation of the fingers and toes. Clinical observation of 50 cases'; this was the first report on what is now called Kawasaki disease. Since then, many reports on cardiology, treatment, epidemiology, pathology and etiology of Kawasaki disease have been published. Furthermore, a recent Chapel Hill Consensus Statement on Kawasaki disease in the classification of vasculitis is given, along with a figure on the relationship and classification of childhood vasculitis by autopsy material.

  11. The history of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Sula

    2004-08-01

    Autism remains a fascinating condition, perhaps the most prolifically researched of all child psychiatric disorders. Its history yields many lessons: early accounts of possible autism are, with one exception, unclear; the greatest contributions to our understanding have come from individual clinicians and researchers; the concept and definition of the disorder have changed greatly over the years; some ideas once held with conviction, were later proved to be unfounded; and socio-political shifts as well as research findings have radically altered our understanding of the syndrome as well as the care and treatment offered to people with autism.

  12. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  13. History of rhinoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinfante, Louis S

    2012-02-01

    Man has considered the nose to be a key feature, if not the key feature, of facial appearance, beauty, and dynamics. However, because of its central facial location and weak cartilaginous support, the nose is susceptible to disfiguring infection, trauma, pathologic entities, and human-associated carnages. This article discusses the various methods (eg, endonasal approach, external approach, and osteoplastic operations) surgeons have tried throughout history to give their patients a more attractive face by altering the one physical anatomic structure that one usually notices first.

  14. Philosophy and its History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos B. Gutiérrez

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Socratic irony already stated that philosophy did not progress because it always devoted itself to the same matters; philosophical knowledge, besieged by the question of legitimacy, shows its regenerative capacity by always going back to its historical-conceptual foundations. Hence, whoever tried to define the essence of philosophy leaving history aside will be in danger of narrow dogmatism. In its factical situation philosophical reflection deals with issues referred to previous knowledge and opinions which determine the limits to the rationality claims of its knowledge. Philosophical truth is temporal, like any other human truth.

  15. Atmospheric refraction: a history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Waldemar H.; van der Werf, Siebren

    2005-09-01

    We trace the history of atmospheric refraction from the ancient Greeks up to the time of Kepler. The concept that the atmosphere could refract light entered Western science in the second century B.C. Ptolemy, 300 years later, produced the first clearly defined atmospheric model, containing air of uniform density up to a sharp upper transition to the ether, at which the refraction occurred. Alhazen and Witelo transmitted his knowledge to medieval Europe. The first accurate measurements were made by Tycho Brahe in the 16th century. Finally, Kepler, who was aware of unusually strong refractions, used the Ptolemaic model to explain the first documented and recognized mirage (the Novaya Zemlya effect).

  16. Critical Zen art history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory P. A. Levin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay sketches a history of the study of Zen art from the late nineteenth century to post-war reconsiderations, leading towards what I term “critical Zen art studies.” The latter, I suggest, has been undertaken by historians of art and others to challenge normative definitions of Zen art based on modern constructs, revise understanding of the types and functions of visual art important to Chan/Sŏn/Zen Buddhist monasteries, and study iconographies and forms not as a transparent aesthetic indices to Zen Mind or No Mind but as rhetorically, ritually, and socially complex, even unruly, events of representation.

  17. Thermal History Devices, Systems For Thermal History Detection, And Methods For Thermal History Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2015-05-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include nanowire field-effect transistors, systems for temperature history detection, methods for thermal history detection, a matrix of field effect transistors, and the like.

  18. Variability in the developmental life history of the genus Gorilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoinski, Tara S; Perdue, Bonnie; Breuer, Thomas; Hoff, Michael P

    2013-10-01

    Life history is influenced by factors both intrinsic (e.g., body and relative brain size) and extrinsic (e.g., diet, environmental instability) to organisms. In this study, we examine the prediction that energetic risk influences the life history of gorillas. Recent comparisons suggest that the more frugivorous western lowland gorilla shows increased infant dependence, and thus a slower life history, than the primarily folivorous mountain gorilla to buffer against the risk of starvation during periods of food unpredictability. We further tested this hypothesis by incorporating additional life history data from wild western lowland gorillas and captive western lowland gorillas with the assumption that the latter live under ecological conditions of energetic risk that more closely resemble those of mountain gorillas and thus should show faster life histories than wild members of the species. Overall, we found captive western lowland and wild mountain gorillas to have faster developmental life histories than wild western lowland gorillas, weaning their infants approximately a year earlier and thus reducing interbirth intervals by a year. These results provide support that energetic risk plays an important role in determining gorilla life history. Unlike previous assertions, gorillas do not have substantially faster life histories, at least at the genus level, than other great apes. This calls for a re-evaluation of theories concerning comparative ape life history and evolution and highlights the need for data from additional populations that vary in energetic risk.

  19. Healing History. Narrating History, Trauma and the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langwadt, Ann

    2003-01-01

    Trauma, history, reconciliation, South Africa, TRC, traume, historie, forsoning, Sydafrika, Sandhedskommission......Trauma, history, reconciliation, South Africa, TRC, traume, historie, forsoning, Sydafrika, Sandhedskommission...

  20. Zebra mussel life history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerman, J.D. [Univ. of Northern British Columbia, Prince George, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-06-01

    The success of introduced zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas) and Dreissena bugensis Andrusova) can be related in large parttot a life history that is unlike that of the indigenous freshwater fauna and yet is conserved with marine bivalves. Following external fertilization and embryological development, there is a brief trochophore stage. With the development of a velum and the secretion of a D-shaped larval shell, the larva becomes a D-shaped veliger, which is the first recognizable planktonic larva. Later, the secretion of a second larval shell leads to the last obligate free-swimming veliger stage known as the veliconcha. The last larval stage known as the pediveliger, however, can both swim using its velum or crawl using its fully-functional foot. Pediveligers actively select substrates on which they {open_quotes}settle{close_quotes} by secreting byssal threads and undergo metamorphosis to become plantigrade mussels. The secretion of the adult shell and concomitant changes in growth axis leads to the heteromyariant or mussel-like shape, which is convergent with marine mussels. Like a number of other bivalves, zebra mussels produce byssal threads as adults, but these attachments may be broken enabling their translocation to new areas. The recognition and examination of these life history traits will lead to a better understanding of zebra mussel biology.

  1. [Pierre Janet observes history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Homberger, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Janet, philosopher and physician, Freud's junior by three years, not only described traumatic dissociation and pathogenic subconscious ideas; he outlined a comprehensive system of psychology. Still, he considered his concepts to be mere linguistic tools, designed to grasp mental phenomena as precisely as possible. His prime interest was in observations - his own and those of others, whether his contemporaries at home and abroad or predecessors of all kinds. Janet never regarded himself as a historian, but his works as well as his way of thinking are most interesting from a historiographical point of view. His three-volume Médications psychologiques of 1919 contains a wealth of material about the history of psychotherapy. Furthermore, he dealt with his sources in a critical and historically reflexive manner. The later Janet considered any explanation and theory to be "inventions", more or less useful and basically open to change. By working with the notion of "narration", he described scientific statements as narratives, different from lies, fairy-tales or novels only in their claim to be verifiable. Every narration, however, is placed in a social context: narrators always wish to evoke a particular image of the real in their audience. Thus Janet established the link between scientific edifices and individual motivation, an unsettling link in terms of the history of science and certainly alien, if not positively abhorrent to Freud.

  2. A history of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    1989-01-01

    "Boyer and Merzbach distill thousands of years of mathematics into this fascinating chronicle. From the Greeks to Godel, the mathematics is brilliant; the cast of characters is distinguished; the ebb and flow of ideas is everywhere evident. And, while tracing the development of European mathematics, the authors do not overlook the contributions of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic civilizations. Without doubt, this is--and will long remain--a classic one-volume history of mathematics and mathematicians who create it." --William Dunham Author, Journey Through Genius, The Great Theorems of Mathematics "When we read a book like A History of Mathematics, we get the picture of a mounting structure, ever taller and broader and more beautiful and magnificent--and with a foundation, moreover, that is as untainted and as functional now as it was when Thales worked out the first geometrical theorems nearly 26 centuries ago." --From the Foreword by Isaac Asimov "One of the most useful and comprehensive general introductions t...

  3. Substance, History, and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace J. Black

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the relations between two approaches to the measurement of life history (LH strategies: A traditional approach, termed here the biodemographic approach, measures developmental characteristics like birthweight, gestation length, interbirth intervals, pubertal timing, and sexual debut, and a psychological approach measures a suite of cognitive and behavioral traits such as altruism, sociosexual orientation, personality, mutualism, familial relationships, and religiosity. The biodemographic approach also tends not to invoke latent variables, whereas the psychological approach typically relies heavily upon them. Although a large body of literature supports both approaches, they are largely separate. This review examines the history and relations between biodemographic and psychological measures of LH, which remain murky at best. In doing so, we consider basic questions about the nature of LH strategies: What constitutes LH strategy (or perhaps more importantly, what does not constitute LH strategy? What is gained or lost by including psychological measures in LH research? Must these measures remain independent or should they be used in conjunction as complementary tools to test tenets of LH theory? Although definitive answers will linger, we hope to catalyze an explicit discussion among LH researchers and to provoke novel research avenues that combine the strengths each approach brings to this burgeoning field.

  4. Travels in Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Deriu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Travel is a powerful force in shaping the perception of the modern world and plays an ever-growing role within architectural and urban cultures. Inextricably linked to political and ideological issues, travel redefines places and landscapes through new transport infrastructures and buildings. Architecture, in turn, is reconstructed through visual and textual narratives produced by scores of modern travellers — including writers and artists along with architects themselves. In the age of the camera, travel is bound up with new kinds of imaginaries; private records and recollections often mingle with official, stereotyped views, as the value of architectural heritage increasingly rests on the mechanical reproduction of its images. Whilst students often learn about architectural history through image collections, the place of the journey in the formation of the architect itself shifts. No longer a lone and passionate antiquarian or an itinerant designer, the modern architect eagerly hops on buses, trains, and planes in pursuit of personal as well as professional interests. Increasingly built on a presumption of mobility, architectural culture integrates travel into cultural debates and design experiments. By addressing such issues from a variety of perspectives, this collection, a special 'Architectural Histories' issue on travel, prompts us to rethink the mobile conditions in which architecture has historically been produced and received.

  5. History of acupuncture research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yi; Xing, Jing-jing; Li, Juan; Zeng, Bai-Yun; Liang, Fan-rong

    2013-01-01

    The acupuncture has been practiced in China for more than 3000 years and was spread to Europe and American from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. The history of acupuncture research was initiated in the eighteenth century and developed rapidly since then. In the past, physicians tried hard to apply acupuncture into clinical practice, while scientists were focused on the possible characteristics of acupoints and meridians. In the modern time, scientists have strived hard to evaluate the real effectiveness of acupuncture and the underlying physiological and biological mechanisms of acupuncture. Reviewing research history from past to present, we are delighted to witness this wonderful development. Accumulated evidences that acupuncture is beneficial in various conditions significantly enhanced our understanding the mechanisms of acupuncture treatment. However, there is still no conclusive evidence in acupuncture clinical studies. The clinical research still needs great improving, while the basic research results need to be appropriately transformed into clinical outcomes. Based on current achievements, we believe that although the challenges and difficulties exist, a more collaborative, innovative, and integrated approach will help us to achieve further progress in future acupuncture research.

  6. History of autostereoscopic cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Walter

    2012-03-01

    This paper covers the history of autostereoscopic cinema, from the beginnings of autostereoscopy in the 1800s, the development of motion capability and it's subsequent evolution to present techniques. Public viewings of autostereoscopic movies have occurred on a semi-ongoing basis since the early 1940s. In Moscow and other cities, theaters were constructed called stereokinos, for showing autostereoscopic films, with specially positioned seating for proper viewing. The Cyclostéréoscope was an autostereoscopic cinema system invented by François Savoye in France. It was based around a drum made of metal bars that revolve around a screen. For several years in the 1940s and 1950s, it was open to the public in Paris. Any film made in a dual film format could be shown. Besides dedicated theaters in Russia and France, exhibits of content have occurred outside devoted theaters. The paper focuses on the history of autostereoscopic technology developed for entertainment, public viewing of content, the individuals involved and the content itself.

  7. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  8. At the Interface: Academic History, School History and the Philosophy of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    How history is learnt and taught must to some extent be shaped by conceptions of what history is. Historians tend to conceptualize what something is by investigating what it has been and what it has meant in different contexts. This article explains how a debate in the philosophy of history between positivism and intentionalism provided the…

  9. The natural history of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, M

    1965-09-01

    The nuclear reactions occurring in the cores of stars which are believed to produce the element oxygen are first described. Evidence for the absence of free oxygen in the early atmosphere of the earth is reviewed. Mechanisms of creation of atmospheric oxygen by photochemical processes are then discussed in detail. Uncertainty regarding the rate of diffusion of water vapor through the cold trap at 70 km altitude in calculating the rate of the photochemical production of oxygen is avoided by using data for the concentration of hydrogen atoms at 90 km obtained from the Meinel OH absorption bands. It is estimated that the present atmospheric oxygen content could have been produced five to ten times during the earth's history. It is shown that the isotopic composition of atmospheric oxygen is not that of photosynthetic oxygen. The fractionation of oxygen isotopes by organic respiration and oxidation occurs in a direction to enhance the O(18) content of the atmosphere and compensates for the O(18) dilution resulting from photosynthetic oxygen. Thus, an oxygen isotope cycle exists in nature.

  10. History of Neurosurgery in Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwazeh, Rami; Darwazeh, Mazhar; Sun, Xiaochuan

    2017-08-01

    Palestinian neurosurgery started with Dr. Antone Tarazi as the first Palestinian neurosurgeon. Before that, there was no organized neurosurgery specialty, and general surgeons performed neurosurgical procedures. Here we review the history of neurosurgery and neurosurgical applications in Palestine, evaluate some limitations of the current system, and discuss major challenges to improving this system. We collected information from various sources in either English or Arabic. The development of neurosurgery and neurosurgical training in Palestine began in 1960 with the first center established in Jerusalem, which provided much-needed neurosurgical services and training in the fields of neurosurgery and neurology. Palestine has produced a number of its own neurosurgeons and has promoted further progress by establishing the Palestinian Neurosurgical Society in 2014. Today, there are 34 neurosurgeons (including 1 female neurosurgeon) and 17 residents providing expert care in 17 centers across Palestine, along with 1 neurosurgical residency program. Neurosurgery in Palestine has faced many challenges, some of which have been overcome. However, there remain many challenges, which will require much time and effort to surmount. Political stabilization is a significant factor in the progress of neurosurgery in Palestine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selected Natural Materials in History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian F.V.Vincent

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1 Technology of natural materials Early man used conveniently shaped stones as tools."Workshop" areas have been found with large numbers of stones, some showing signs of being worked[1].However, organic materials like wood will decay under normal wet conditions in the presence of oxygen, so we won't find the same sort of evidence for wooden tools. It is safe to assume that early man used sticks as probes and clubs, and maybe even for making some sort of nestlike protection against the elements and predators, since we see chimpanzees and other animals doing this sort of thing. So wood, and almost certainly other plant materials such as fibrous leaves, and bone and other materials gleaned from dead animals, would be used from the earliest times. We need to know this in order to establish the idea that Man can be expected to have a long history of the use and manipulation of natural materials. This needs skills in choosing materials for certain uses on the basis of their mechanical properties,whether those properties are to do with the ease of shaping the material or the effectiveness of that material in use. Occasionally the material was chosen simply because it was readily available. If we find that a particular material was always used for a certain job, it's reasonable to deduce that Man was exerting materials selection criteria through experience.

  12. The natural history of anencephaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Obeidi, Nidaa

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Early elective termination of pregnancy is the most common outcome of a diagnosis of anencephaly in developed countries. Experience and expertise with management of ongoing pregnancies is limited. We aimed to investigate the natural history of these pregnancies from diagnosis to delivery and to determine timing of death. METHOD: A retrospective review of cases of anencephaly diagnosed between 2003 and 2009 in tertiary-referral university teaching hospitals in Cork. RESULTS: The majority of cases (25\\/26; 96%) were diagnosed prenatally at a median gestation of 21(+2) weeks (range 13(+4)-32(+4)). The median maternal age was 30 years (range 17-41) and 50% were primigravidae. Seven pregnancies were complicated by polyhydramnios and four deliveries were complicated by shoulder dystocia. The median gestation at delivery was 35 weeks (range 22(+5)-42(+6)); 69% of labours were induced at a median gestation of 34 weeks. Six women (6\\/26; 23%) had a pre-labour intrauterine fetal death and nine women (9\\/26; 35%) had an intrapartum fetal death. Median neonatal survival time was 55 min (range 10 min to 8 days). Six parents donated neonatal organs for transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study provides useful information for health professionals caring for patients with a diagnosis of anencephaly. The majority of these infants die prior to delivery but short-term survival is possible.

  13. Semiconductors for organic transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Facchetti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecules/polymers with a π-conjugated (heteroaromatic backbone are capable of transporting charge and interact efficiently with light. Therefore, these systems can act as semiconductors in opto-electronic devices similar to inorganic materials. However, organic chemistry offers tools for tailoring materials' functional properties via modifications of the molecular/monomeric units, opening new possibilities for inexpensive device manufacturing. This article reviews the fundamental aspects behind the structural design/realization of p- (hole transporting and n-channel (electron-transporting semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors (OFETs. An introduction to OFET principles and history, as well as of the state-of-the-art organic semiconductor structure and performance of OFETs is provided.

  14. Opposites Attract: Organic Charge Transfer Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wouw, Heidi L.; Chamorro, Juan; Quintero, Michael; Klausen, Rebekka S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces second-year undergraduate organic chemistry students to organic electronic materials. The discovery of metallic conductivity in the charge transfer salt tetrathiafulvalene tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is a landmark result in the history of organic electronics. The charge transfer…

  15. Medicine, 1450-1620, and the history of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siraisi, Nancy G

    2012-09-01

    History of science and history of medicine are today largely organized as distinct disciplines, though ones widely recognized as interrelated. Attempts to evaluate the extent and nature of their relation have reached varying conclusions, depending in part on the historical period under consideration. This essay examines some characteristics of European medicine from the fifteenth to the early seventeenth century and considers their relevance for the history of science. Attention is given to the range of interests and activities of individuals trained in or practicing medicine, to the impact of changes in natural philosophy, to the role of observation, description, and accumulation of information, and to the exchange of knowledge among the medical community.

  16. At the Crossroads. Management and Business History in Entrepreneurship Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águeda Gil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent calls for a historic turn in organization studies offer the opportunity to relaunch dialogue between management and business history research. Focusing on the specific domain of entrepreneurship research, this article illustrates the potential of mutual contributions from management and business history. In doing so, it demonstrates how historical approaches strongly influenced the early theoretical developments within entrepreneurship and demonstrates the potential to contribute to future scholarly debates. In sum, this article brings closer together business history and management studies stressing that their different perspectives and approaches are very valuable to enriching entrepreneurship research.

  17. Histories of Hating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Shepherd

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This roundtable discussion presents a dialogue between digital culture scholars on the seemingly increased presence of hating and hate speech online. Revolving primarily around the recent #GamerGate campaign of intensely misogynistic discourse aimed at women in video games, the discussion suggests that the current moment for hate online needs to be situated historically. From the perspective of intersecting cultural histories of hate speech, discrimination, and networked communication, we interrogate the ontological specificity of online hating before going on to explore potential responses to the harmful consequences of hateful speech. Finally, a research agenda for furthering the historical understandings of contemporary online hating is suggested in order to address the urgent need for scholarly interventions into the exclusionary cultures of networked media.

  18. The history of COSPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmore, Peter

    The Space Age started with the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1958, during the International Geophysical Year and at the height of the Cold War. The International Geophysical Year showed the power and spirit of which international collaboration in science was capable in a world just emerging from the Second World War, which had now become again deeply riven by the Cold War. COSPAR was born out of a determination to harness the former in spite of the latter. By the 1980's, the moderation of the Cold War meant this was no longer a reason for COSPAR's continued existence and new forms and objectives needed to be formulated. That debate has continued right until the Paris Assembly of 2004 and we now see COSPAR revitalized and, by objective measures, once more growing. This history will be reviewed from, in the early years, a rather personal viewpoint.

  19. Historie og livsverden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevy, Carlo

    Historie og livsverden henvender sig til alle, der interesserer sig for undervisning, fx lærere, lærerstuderende og forældre til børn i folkeskolen. Bogen beskæftiger sig med folkeskolen generelt. Der er forslag til innovative måder at tilrettelægge undervisningen på. Historiefaget bruges som...... undervisningen, og det vises, hvordan dette muliggør demokratisk dannelse, og hvordan det kan gøre skolen til et rart og meningsfuldt sted at være. Forfatterens udgangspunkt er, at vi lever i det senmoderne, hvor børnene ikke ubetinget kan bruge erfaringer fra tidligere tider til at løse nye problemer og...

  20. Marketing History from Below

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzkopf, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to introduce the theme of this special issue. In doing so, the paper argues that marketing historical research is in need of a paradigmatic shift. Rather than privilege primary and secondary sources that preserve the perspectives and actions of corporate...... historical research. It also tests to what extent a stronger consumer focus might be able to enrich historical research in marketing. Findings – Although contemporary marketing historiography is characterized by a richness of themes and methodological approaches, there is still a marked difference between...... sources they discuss. This means that a genuine “People’s History of Marketing” has yet to be written. Research limitations/implications – Findings from the paper will be of value to marketing historians who wish to expand the scope and agenda of their research and help historical research move away from...

  1. Natural history of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ying

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present an overview of the recent observations and research that shed light on the understanding of open and closed angle glaucoma. Methods: Literature review. Results: Glaucoma is a major eye problem afflicting millions of people worldwide. As the population increases, the number of people with glaucoma also increases, with glaucoma becoming an increasing public health concern. This paper presents the natural history of open angle and angle closure glaucoma. We examine the glaucomatous progression in terms of changes in optic disk morphology and visual fi elds as well as the risk factors for progression. Conclusions: This present review highlights the magnitude of glaucoma globally and the need for a greater understanding of this disease and its natural progression.

  2. The History of Astrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Perryman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The history of astrometry, the branch of astronomy dealing with the positions of celestial objects, is a lengthy and complex chronicle, having its origins in the earliest records of astronomical observations more than two thousand years ago, and extending to the high accuracy observations being made from space today. Improved star positions progressively opened up and advanced fundamental fields of scientific enquiry, including our understanding of the scale of the solar system, the details of the Earth's motion through space, and the comprehension and acceptance of Newtonianism. They also proved crucial to the practical task of maritime navigation. Over the past 400 years, during which positional accuracy has improved roughly logarithmically with time, the distances to the nearest stars were triangulated, making use of the extended measurement baseline given by the Earth's orbit around the Sun. This led to quantifying the extravagantly vast scale of the Universe, to a determination of the physical properties...

  3. Life-history interviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2010-01-01

    across cultures and disciplines and for my work as a management consultant. Naturally, I would include the tool for my students in educational psychology when I began teaching a course on qualitative interviews last semester. Large was my surprise when I failed to find any references to the specific time...... line tool. I wondered where I had first read about this type of interview and looked through my old books on development research. While I was sure the inspiration came from Britha Mikkelsen’s Methods for Development Work and Research, I did not succeed in finding to find any instruction to the use......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...

  4. Access and History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Granly

    2012-01-01

    Like many other major European media corporations the Danish Broadcasting Corporation (DR) has begun the digitisation of its audio-visual archives. This transformation from analogue to digital archives raises a number of questions regarding the archive specific character, history and content...... will present the historical broadcast archive from a cultural historical and media policy perspective, suggesting that the cultural heritage of state owned audio-visual archives remains a contested area not only due to the existing copyright laws but to aspects of historical contextualisation as well...... of the broadcast material. Furthermore, the digitisation process renders visible a number of problems. This includes possible access for researchers, general availability of the content, permission to present archival material in the public domain, problems all related to intellectual property rights. The article...

  5. Cultural history and psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenberg, Peter

    2007-01-01

    There is a congruence of hermeneutic method between cultural history and psychoanalysis which includes a recognition of the subjectivity and self-reflexivity of interpretation and of the centrality of emotions in the structuring of historical motivation and action. Psychoanalysis is a humanistic discipline that offers tentative multi-causal conclusions, combining in its method both self-reflection and empiricism, but basing itself on a unique process of inquiry different from either the natural or the cultural sciences. Distinguished shapers of the historian's craft, including Dilthey, Collingwood, and Bloch, used the self as an instrument of research and insight. Freud was a cultural pessimist, as was Burckhardt whom he admired. Leading contemporary American historians, such as Williamson, foreground self-reflection as an acknowledged tool of historical discovery and cognition. The "Bauhaus," 1919-1939, is presented as a case study of creative group process utilizing Winnicott's concepts of transitional space.

  6. Fagets historie og fritagelsesparagraffen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Marlene Printz

    2016-01-01

    for folkeskolefaget kristendomskundskab. I bogens kapitel 1 til 8 fremlægges indledningsvist de grundlagsovervejelser, der udgør forståelsesrammen omkring faget og dets historie. Kapitel 9 til 21 behandler mere konkret undervisningens indholdsside, hvor hvert af kristendomskundskabsfagets fire kompetenceområder...... tematiseres, Livsfilosofi og etik, Bibelske fortællinger, Kristendom, Ikke-kristne religioner og andre livsopfattelser. Kapitel 22 til 25 behandler fagets metodiske aspekter. Som religionspædagogisk grundbog er værket rettet til lærerstuderende i undervisningsfaget „Kristendomskundskab/religion“ samt til...... folkeskolens lærere i den daglige forberedelse til undervisningen i faget og i forbindelse med efteruddannelse. Forfatterne til bogen er alle undervisere med tilknytning til Læreruddannelsen i Aalborg, UCN...

  7. Cultural history and aesthetics of nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles González, José; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen Solano

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of aesthetics in the organization and motivation of care through history. The guiding questions were: What values and aesthetic feelings have supported and motivated pre-professional and professional care? and Based on what structures has pre-professional and professional care been historically socialized? Primary and secondary sources were consulted, selected according to established criteria with a view to avoiding search and selection bias. Data analysis was guided by the categories: "habitus" and "logical conformism". It was found that the relation between social structures and pre-professionals (motherhood, religiosity) and professional aesthetic standards (professionalism, technologism) of care through history is evidenced in the caregiving activity of the functional unit, in the functional framework and the functional element. In conclusion, in social structures, through the socialization process, "logical conformism" and "habitus" constitute the aesthetic standards of care through feelings like motherhood, religiosity, professionalism, technologism and humanism.

  8. The history of examination of reflexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    In the late 1800s, Wilhelm Erb, Joseph Babinski, William Gowers, and others helped develop the neurologic examination as we know it today. Erb was one of the first to emphasize a detailed and systematic neurologic exam and was co-discoverer of the muscle stretch reflex, Gowers began studying the knee jerk shortly after it was described, and Babinski focused on finding reliable signs that could differentiate organic from hysterical paralysis. These physicians and others emphasized the bedside examination of reflexes, which have been an important part of the neurologic examination ever since. This review will focus on the history of the examination of the following muscle stretch and superficial/cutaneous reflexes: knee jerk, jaw jerk, deep abdominal reflexes, superficial abdominal reflexes, plantar reflex/Babinski sign, and palmomental reflex. The history of reflex grading will also be discussed.

  9. History or histories of socio-economic rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...... the history of socio-economic rights, I would propose thinking about the histories of socio-economic rights. There are three main reasons for this: the non-teleological histories of socioeconomic rights; the distinctiveness between different socio-economic rights; and the complexity (multiple variables......) at work in the histories and dynamics of socio-economic rights. More specifically, I propose a list of eight important variables that may help explain the dynamics of the histories of socio-economic rights - their failures as well as their successes....

  10. History or histories of socio-economic rights?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian O.

    2016-01-01

    (telos) – be it towards progress or decline – was inadequate for the multi-faceted geographies, rhythms and dynamics of life. In these reflections on a two-days research workshop in Paris, I argue that Koselleck’s point also applies to the field of the history of socio-economic rights. Instead of writing...... the history of socio-economic rights, I would propose thinking about the histories of socio-economic rights. There are three main reasons for this: the non-teleological histories of socioeconomic rights; the distinctiveness between different socio-economic rights; and the complexity (multiple variables......) at work in the histories and dynamics of socio-economic rights. More specifically, I propose a list of eight important variables that may help explain the dynamics of the histories of socio-economic rights - their failures as well as their successes....

  11. Organ Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Organ Facts Here you can find valuable information about organs ... Camps for kids Contacting my donor family Data Facts about living donation Financing a transplant Matching organs ...

  12. The History of Nature and the Nature of History: Stephen Jay Gould on Science, Philosophy, and History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Kent

    1999-01-01

    Considers Stephen Jay Gould's writings on the nature of history, specifically on the relationship between science and history. Addresses the scientific method, the foundations and procedures of historical explanation in science, history as contingency, and evolution as history. (CMK)

  13. Why the history of nephrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2016-01-01

    Nephrology is a relatively new discipline that emerged at a time when the writing of the history of medicine was changing drastically. While the merits of medical history were valued since antiquity, it was only in the 18th century that the actual historiography of medicine began. It was nurtured, matured and appreciated enough that by the late 19th and early 20th centuries, medical history was incorporated into the medical curriculum and presented at national meetings. Unfortunately, the merits of medical history and its inclusion in medical education have come under increasing scrutiny over the past few decades. Ironically, the erosion began at about the same time that scholarly work on the history of medicine was flourishing whilst that of scientific discovery and innovation in medicine was accelerating. The demands of rigorous research into the history of medicine gradually led to the emergence of medical history as an independent discipline within academic departments of history. Simultaneously, the exponential growth of new information generated by medical research led to an overflow of medical knowledge in which the inclusion of medical history was contested and dismissed. That is just about the time that nephrology emerged in the 1960s. Whereas initially the quest for origins led renal journals to publish historical articles, the more recent quest to increase impact factors has led to the exclusion of historical articles from consideration for publication. This manuscript examines the reasons that brought about the separation of nephrology from its history and proposes potential solutions to their rapprochement.

  14. Shortcomings in Information Sharing Facilitates Transnational Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Despite a long and successful history of dismantling criminal organizations and developing common international standards for cooperation against...affect national economic and security interests.184 The impacts of these powerful criminal organizations prevent the development of weak states...TOC organizationally differ? Both terrorist and TOC organizations are criminal organizations . These criminal organizations are only distinguishable

  15. A History of Disciplines and Curriculum as the Grounds for Writing the History of Highschool Teaching in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurize Caldas Pessanha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article falls into History of Education and focuses the history of school in its singularity, features, inner relations and practices. Some researchers have undertaken the task to write the history of curriculum practices in secondary education schools in Brazil. They have turned to many resources, being the richest ones nation and department laws that make up the prescribed curriculum, supplemented by the discussions that triggered, caused or altered them. Their analyses state that, for long decades, curriculum prescriptions and practices provided in that teaching level marked the tension between two proposals of schoolwork organization and curriculum, a humanist proposal versus a scientitic proposal.

  16. NSF Funding Rate History By State and Organization

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation — Contains FY 2006-FY 2015 National Science Foundation (NSF) funding rates for competitive research proposals by organizational unit. The funding rate is calculated by...

  17. The NASA Astrobiology Institute: early history and organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Baruch S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established as a means to advance the field of astrobiology by providing a multidisciplinary, multi-institution, science-directed program, executed by universities, research institutes, and NASA and other government laboratories. The scientific community and NASA defined the science content at several workshops as summarized in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Teams were chosen nationwide, following the recommendations of external review groups, and the research program began in 1998. There are now 16 national Teams and five international affiliated and associated astrobiology institutions. The NAI has attracted an outstanding group of scientific groups and individuals. The Institute facilitates the involvement of the scientists in its scientific and management vision. Its goal is to support basic research and allow the scientists the freedom to select their projects and alter them as indicated by new research. Additional missions include the education of the public, the involvement of students who will be the astrobiologists of future generations, and the development of a culture of collaboration in NAI, a "virtual institute," spread across many sites nationally and internationally.

  18. The Case for Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-03-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet, to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young people and their communities. We end by highlighting the ease by which natural history may be incorporated in learning opportunities both in and outside of the classroom.

  19. Decoherent Histories and Hydrodynamic Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Halliwell, J J

    1998-01-01

    For a system consisting of a large collection of particles, a set of variables that will generally become effectively classical are the local densities (number, momentum, energy). That is, in the context of the decoherent histories approach to quantum theory, it is expected that histories of these variables will be approximately decoherent, and that their probabilites will be strongly peaked about hydrodynamic equations. This possibility is explored for the case of the diffusion of the number density of a dilute concentration of foreign particles in a fluid. It is shown that, for certain physically reasonable initial states, the probabilities for histories of number density are strongly peaked about evolution according to the diffusion equation. Decoherence of these histories is also shown for a class of initial states which includes non-trivial superpositions of number density. Histories of phase space densities are also discussed. The case of histories of number, momentum and energy density for more general...

  20. Rhetoric and History in Brian Friel’s Making History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Bernardini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the rhetorical devices of representation and recording of history, investigated and deconstructed by the so-called "history play" Making History, written by Brian Friel and performed by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1988. The play tells of the heroic deeds of Hugh O’ Neill, a Sixteenth century Ulster gaelic Lord, intertwining his personal facts with the crucial events in Irish History.Friel rediscovers a paradigmatic figure in Irish history, using the theatrical performance in order to dissect and thoroughly scrutinize the basis for the nationalist rhetoric which is at the root of contemporary conflicts in Northern Ireland.Starting from the theoretical contributions of seminal authors such as Hayden White, Paul Ricoeur, Walter Benjamin, Michel De Certeau, the northern Irish playwright challenges the supposedly scientific nature of History, that would decidedly mark it as different from other forms of narrative, such as literature. Hence History’s metalinguistic nature, based on specific rhetorical strategies, is uncovered. Therefore, on the one hand Friel questions the theoretical foundations of History, of its “grand narratives”,  giving ‘stories’ the chance to be part of official History’s discourse. On the other hand, he lifts the veil on the rhetorical (and in some ways ideological mechanisms involved in the process of History writing, through the character of archbishop Peter Lombard - O’ Neill’s biographer, storyteller and master in elocutio - and sheds light on how History is a form of rhetorical narrative, almost a patchwork of events collected (inventio and assembled (dispositio by the historian according to specific criteria of representation.By taking us inside the very nucleus of the rhetorical devices used by storiography, Friel unmasks the delicate processes of making and unmaking history, the ones that help give birth to identity as well as History.

  1. Opening the Doors of History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG HAIRONG

    2011-01-01

    China is blessed with a long history,and for millenniums the people of China have used history as a mirror to learn from the past.An important part of the country's history,all the archives of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Central Government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) are housed in the Central Archives of China,also known as the State Archives Administration.

  2. History of Antibiotics Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Kathrin I

    2016-01-01

    For thousands of years people were delivered helplessly to various kinds of infections, which often reached epidemic proportions and have cost the lives of millions of people. This is precisely the age since mankind has been thinking of infectious diseases and the question of their causes. However, due to a lack of knowledge, the search for strategies to fight, heal, and prevent the spread of communicable diseases was unsuccessful for a long time. It was not until the discovery of the healing effects of (antibiotic producing) molds, the first microscopic observations of microorganisms in the seventeenth century, the refutation of the abiogenesis theory, and the dissolution of the question "What is the nature of infectious diseases?" that the first milestones within the history of antibiotics research were set. Then new discoveries accelerated rapidly: Bacteria could be isolated and cultured and were identified as possible agents of diseases as well as producers of bioactive metabolites. At the same time the first synthetic antibiotics were developed and shortly thereafter, thousands of synthetic substances as well as millions of soil borne bacteria and fungi were screened for bioactivity within numerous microbial laboratories of pharmaceutical companies. New antibiotic classes with different targets were discovered as on assembly line production. With the beginning of the twentieth century, many of the diseases which reached epidemic proportions at the time-e.g., cholera, syphilis, plague, tuberculosis, or typhoid fever, just to name a few, could be combatted with new discovered antibiotics. It should be considered that hundred years ago the market launch of new antibiotics was significantly faster and less complicated than today (where it takes 10-12 years in average between the discovery of a new antibiotic until the launch). After the first euphoria it was quickly realized that bacteria are able to develop, acquire, and spread numerous resistance mechanisms

  3. Sustainability and the Architectural History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Baweja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will address the challenges of incorporating the discourse of Sustainability into the architectural history curriculum and how Sustainability in the survey can be related to the Sustainability education the design studio. I argue that the inclusion of Sustainability into the architectural survey will necessitate the production of revisionist architectural histories that are written through an environmental paradigm and are able to establish a dialogue with Sustainability education in the design studio. These revisionist histories will occupy the disciplinary territory that is produced at the intersection of architectural and environmental histories

  4. Life History Research in Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亚平; 张燕

    2011-01-01

    Life history research,as one of the most powerful research methods in sociology,brings some re-freshened air into interpretive research.In this paper,the development of life history research,from modernism to postmodemism,from life story to life history,is firstly illustrated.Then the process of conducting life history research is analyzed specifically,which is followed by its unique strengths.Finally,its issues,its general issues and its special issues in Chinese context,are critically examined.

  5. Cheating and sports: history, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Danielle; Newmark, Thomas; Begel, Daniel; Glick, Ira D

    2016-12-01

    This paper focuses on "cheating" in modern day athletics from youth through professional sports. We briefly summarize a history of cheating in the sports world. We examine the current role cheating plays in sports as well as its causes including, psychodynamic issues, the development of personality disorders and how personality traits become pathological resulting in deception, dishonesty, and underhandedness. We describe management and treatment including psychotherapeutic intervention as well as medication. Finally we discuss a systems approach involving outreach to coaches, families, and related sports organizations (like FIFA, WADA, etc) or the professional leagues which have institutional control and partial influence on the athlete.

  6. Self-Organizing Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Murata, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    It is man’s ongoing hope that a machine could somehow adapt to its environment by reorganizing itself. This is what the notion of self-organizing robots is based on. The theme of this book is to examine the feasibility of creating such robots within the limitations of current mechanical engineering. The topics comprise the following aspects of such a pursuit: the philosophy of design of self-organizing mechanical systems; self-organization in biological systems; the history of self-organizing mechanical systems; a case study of a self-assembling/self-repairing system as an autonomous distributed system; a self-organizing robot that can create its own shape and robotic motion; implementation and instrumentation of self-organizing robots; and the future of self-organizing robots. All topics are illustrated with many up-to-date examples, including those from the authors’ own work. The book does not require advanced knowledge of mathematics to be understood, and will be of great benefit to students in the rob...

  7. Organization Descriptions from the National Archives Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The Organization Authority Files data set contains a highly detailed presentation of the evolution of names and administrative histories of Federal and non-Federal...

  8. Improving History Learning through Cultural Heritage, Local History and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Graça; de Carvalho, Joaquim Ramos; Marcelino, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    History learning is many times considered dull and demotivating by young students. Probably this is due because the learning process is disconnected from these students' reality and experience. One possible way to overcome this state of matters is to use technology like mobile devices with georeferencing software and local history and heritage…

  9. Doing Justice to History: Transforming Black History in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, Abdul; Whitburn, Robin

    2016-01-01

    "Doing Justice to History" challenges everyday racism in society and offers counter-stories to the singular narratives that still prevail among national historians and in school curricula. It will be a key resource for the annual Black History Month in both the UK and the US. But the book's key purpose is to argue for deeper and…

  10. Doing Justice to History: Transforming Black History in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamud, Abdul; Whitburn, Robin

    2016-01-01

    "Doing Justice to History" challenges everyday racism in society and offers counter-stories to the singular narratives that still prevail among national historians and in school curricula. It will be a key resource for the annual Black History Month in both the UK and the US. But the book's key purpose is to argue for deeper and…

  11. Parametrising Star Formation Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Simha, Vimal; Conroy, Charlie; Dave, Romeel; Fardal, Mark; Katz, Neal; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    We examine the star formation histories (SFHs) of galaxies in smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, compare them to parametric models that are commonly used in fitting observed galaxy spectral energy distributions, and examine the efficacy of these parametric models as practical tools for recovering the physical parameters of galaxies. The commonly used tau-model, with SFR ~ exp(-t/tau), provides a poor match to the SFH of our SPH galaxies, with a mismatch between early and late star formation that leads to systematic errors in predicting colours and stellar mass-to-light ratios. A one-parameter lin-exp model, with SFR ~ t*exp(-t/tau), is much more successful on average, but it fails to match the late-time behavior of the bluest, most actively star-forming galaxies and the passive, "red and dead" galaxies. We introduce a 4-parameter model, which transitions from lin-exp to a linear ramp after a transition time, which describes our simulated galaxies very well. We test the ability of these paramet...

  12. History of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and various milestones of rheumatology from ancient to modern times. The origin of rheumatology can be traced to ancient times. Diseases such as gout and osteoarthritis were prevalent in ancient people. Many ancient skeletons show signs of gout and osteoarthritis. The ancient book on Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita, gives a vivid description of many variants of arthritis. Charaka, an eminent Ayurvedic physician, described rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Charaka Samhitha as "Vishkantha," meaning painful joints. The word rheumatology has its origin in the word "rheuma," which means flowing, and is mentioned in Hippocratic corpus. Hippocrates made several observations about gout, popularly known as "aphorisms of gout." Many famous paintings in the medieval era depict joint diseases. Hand lesions resembling those of RA are found in paintings of the Flemish school. "The virgin with canon van der paele," a painting by Jan Van Eyck (1436, shows thickened arteries in the temple, suggestive of temporal arthritis. The famous portrait of Federigo de Montefeltre, thought to have been painted by Joos (Justus van Gent, shows arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger. Rheumatology developed as a well-recognized specialty of medicine in the 20th century. American Physicians Bernard Comroe and Joseph Lee Hollander coined the term rheumatologist in 1940. Rheumatology has rapidly advanced during the last 50 years due to improved diagnosis as a result of progress in immunology, molecular biology, genetics and imaging.

  13. Solar History An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vita-Finzi, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Beyond the four centuries of sunspot observation and the five decades during which artificial satellites have monitored the Sun – that is to say for 99.99999% of the Sun’s existence – our knowledge of solar history depends largely on analogy with kindred main sequence stars, on the outcome of various kinds of modelling, and on indirect measures of solar activity. They include the analysis of lunar rocks and meteorites for evidence of solar flares and other components of the solar cosmic-ray (SCR) flux, and the measurement of cosmogenic isotopes in wood, stratified ice and marine sediments to evaluate changes in the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) flux and thus infer changes in the sheltering magnetic fields of the solar wind. In addition, shifts in the global atmospheric circulation which appear to result from cyclic fluctuations in solar irradiance have left their mark in river sediments and in the isotopic composition of cave deposits. In this volume the results these sources have already produced have bee...

  14. The history of tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Thomas M

    2006-11-01

    Tuberculosis has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. It reached epidemic proportions in Europe and North America during the 18th and 19th centuries, earning the sobriquet, "Captain Among these Men of Death." Then it began to decline. Understanding of the pathogenesis of tuberculosis began with the work of Théophile Laennec at the beginning of the 19th century and was further advanced by the demonstration of the transmissibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by Jean-Antoine Villemin in 1865 and the identification of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent by Robert Koch in 1882. Clemens von Pirquet developed the tuberculin skin test in 1907 and 3 years later used it to demonstrate latent tuberculous infection in asymptomatic children. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries sanatoria developed for the treatment of patients with tuberculosis. The rest provided there was supplemented with pulmonary collapse procedures designed to rest infected parts of lungs and to close cavities. Public Health measures to combat the spread of tuberculosis emerged following the discovery of its bacterial cause. BCG vaccination was widely employed following World War I. The modern era of tuberculosis treatment and control was heralded by the discovery of streptomycin in 1944 and isoniazid in 1952.

  15. Human Life History Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine J. Chua

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human life history (LH strategies are theoretically regulated by developmental exposure to environmental cues that ancestrally predicted LH-relevant world states (e.g., risk of morbidity–mortality. Recent modeling work has raised the question of whether the association of childhood family factors with adult LH variation arises via (i direct sampling of external environmental cues during development and/or (ii calibration of LH strategies to internal somatic condition (i.e., health, which itself reflects exposure to variably favorable environments. The present research tested between these possibilities through three online surveys involving a total of over 26,000 participants. Participants completed questionnaires assessing components of self-reported environmental harshness (i.e., socioeconomic status, family neglect, and neighborhood crime, health status, and various LH-related psychological and behavioral phenotypes (e.g., mating strategies, paranoia, and anxiety, modeled as a unidimensional latent variable. Structural equation models suggested that exposure to harsh ecologies had direct effects on latent LH strategy as well as indirect effects on latent LH strategy mediated via health status. These findings suggest that human LH strategies may be calibrated to both external and internal cues and that such calibrational effects manifest in a wide range of psychological and behavioral phenotypes.

  16. MUSLIM LIBRARIES IN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdin Laugu

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Secara historis, perpustakaan Islam telah memberikan banyak kontribusi dalam sejarah perkembangan peradaban dan ilmu pengetahuan, khususnya di kalangan ummat Islam. Isu perpustakaan Islam yang sangat menarik dan bahkan kontroversial dalam perjalanan sejarah Islam adalah,  misalnya, eksistensi dan kejayaan perpustakaan Bayt al-Hikma di Baghdad pada abad II Hijriyyah. Selain itu, perlu dicatat bahwa fenomena semacam ini banyak ditemukan dalam literatur-literatur wacana perpustakaan Islam. Isu yang menarik pula adalah kemunculan perpustakaan Muslim telah berbasis dari awal pembentukan masyarakat Islam, misalnya penyediaan koleksi-koleksi al-Quran di masjid dan mushalla serta tempat ibadah lainnya. Tulisan ini mencoba menelusuri dan membangun tipologi perpustakaan Muslim dan menjajaki isu-isu kemunculan dan perkembangan sampai stagnasinya. Wacana pertama yang disodorkan adalah asal-usul perpustakaan Islam, yang bertujuan untuk melihat sejauh mana perpustakaan mengalami perkembangan dan kemajuan dalam masyarakat Islam. Pembahasan selanjutnya mengenai temuan-temuan dari beragam literatur tentang perpustakaan di kalangan masyarakat Islam untuk membangun tipologi perpustakaan Muslim yang dianggap merepresentasikan jenis-jenis perpustakaan Muslim dalam sejarah perkembangan Islam. Terakhir adalah wacana yang mencoba untuk mengeksplorasi proses stagnasi dan bahkan keruntuhan perpustakaan Islam.

  17. History at your fingertips

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Would you have liked to meet Victor Weisskopf, Niels Bohr or Robert Oppenheimer? Do you wish you had visited the famous Gargamelle or UA1 experiments? Well, you still can... at least on video. Thanks to the ETT Division's Document Handling (DH) Group, you now have access to the Audiovisual Service's amazing archives, where you can meet the leading figures and relive the main events in the Laboratory's history. All this without even having to leave your office. The DH Group has launched a new on-line catalogue comprising a selection of the Audiovisual Service's collection. These films were digitised from the original D3, Numatic or VHS tapes, and you can watch them from your work station. The desire to make the Laboratory's historical visual resources available to as many users as possible had already led to the creation in 1997 of an on-line catalogue of photographs covering the period from 1951 to the present day. (See http://weblib.cern.ch/Photos/). The new video catalogue provides you with the rare opport...

  18. History of animal bioacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N.; Dooling, Robert J.

    2002-11-01

    The earliest studies on animal bioacoustics dealt largely with descriptions of sounds. Only later did they address issues of detection, discrimination, and categorization of complex communication sounds. This literature grew substantially over the last century. Using the Journal of the Acoustical Society of America as an example, the number of papers that fall broadly within the realm of animal sound production, communication, and hearing rose from two in the partial first decade of the journal in the 1930's, to 20 in the 1970's, to 92 in the first 2 years of this millennium. During this time there has been a great increase in the diversity of species studied, the sophistication of the methods used, and the complexity of the questions addressed. As an example, the first papers in JASA focused on a guinea pig and a bird. In contrast, since the year 2000 studies are often highly comparative and include fish, birds, dolphins, dogs, ants, crickets, and snapping shrimp. This paper on the history of animal bioacoustics will consider trends in work over the decades and discuss the formative work of a number of investigators who have spurred the field by making critical theoretical and experimental observations.

  19. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  20. The history of leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverding, Dietmar

    2017-02-15

    In this review article the history of leishmaniasis is discussed regarding the origin of the genus Leishmania in the Mesozoic era and its subsequent geographical distribution, initial evidence of the disease in ancient times, first accounts of the infection in the Middle Ages, and the discovery of Leishmania parasites as causative agents of leishmaniasis in modern times. With respect to the origin and dispersal of Leishmania parasites, the three currently debated hypotheses (Palaearctic, Neotropical and supercontinental origin, respectively) are presented. Ancient documents and paleoparasitological data indicate that leishmaniasis was already widespread in antiquity. Identification of Leishmania parasites as etiological agents and sand flies as the transmission vectors of leishmaniasis started at the beginning of the 20(th) century and the discovery of new Leishmania and sand fly species continued well into the 21(st) century. Lately, the Syrian civil war and refugee crises have shown that leishmaniasis epidemics can happen any time in conflict areas and neighbouring regions where the disease was previously endemic.

  1. History and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Armesto, Felipe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an account on the idea of change in history, in particular, the possibility of change in such a peculiar object of inquiry for the historian as culture. This work will consider various elements associated with the development of non-human culture, taken from areas such as primatology and cultural zoology, before analysing the increasingly frantic pace of transformations experienced by contemporary culture.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una reflexión sobre el cambio en la historia, en particular, el cambio en un área de trabajo del historiador tan particular como es la cultura. Para ello se tendrán en cuenta, en primer lugar, aspectos relacionados con el desarrollo de la cultura no-humana, tomados de áreas como la primatología o la zoología cultural, para después analizar el ritmo cada vez más frenético de transformaciones que experimenta nuestra cultura contemporánea.

  2. NIF Gamma Reaction History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A. M.; Hoffman, N. M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Evans, S.; Batha, S. H.; Stoeffl, W.; Lee, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Miller, E. K.; Malone, R. M.; Kaufman, M. I.

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of the NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics is to provide bang time and burn width information based upon measurement of fusion gamma-rays. This is accomplished with energy-thresholded Gas Cherenkov detectors that convert MeV gamma-rays into UV/visible photons for high-bandwidth optical detection. In addition, the GRH detectors can perform γ-ray spectroscopy to explore other nuclear processes from which additional significant implosion parameters may be inferred (e.g., plastic ablator areal density). Implementation is occurring in 2 phases: 1) four PMT-based channels mounted to the outside of the NIF target chamber at ˜6 m from TCC (GRH-6m) for the 3e13-3e16 DT neutron yield range expected during the early ignition-tuning campaigns; and 2) several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at ˜15 m from TCC (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the wall into well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs for the 1e16-1e20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign. This suite of diagnostics will allow exploration of interesting γ-ray physics well beyond the ignition campaign. Recent data from OMEGA and NIF will be shown.

  3. a History of Emats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alers, George

    2008-02-01

    This paper was prepared for a Special Session in the 34th Annual Review of Quantitative NDE devoted to "Applications of EMATs". As such, it reviews the past history of electromagnetic induction of vibrations in metals with special attention to the application to nondestructive testing. The first patent describing the use of Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) to replace the commonly used piezoelectric transducer was in 1969 but their first appearance in the scientific literature was in 1939 when the principles were applied to exciting and detecting the longitudinal resonance modes of bars of brass. The first true application to nondestructive testing was an R&D program sponsored by the American Gas Association to develop a device for inspecting buried gas pipelines for stress corrosion cracks in the early 1970's. During this same time period, theoretical models to describe the transduction mechanism appeared and led to the engineering of solutions to NDT and NDE problems that could not be accomplished with piezoelectric devices. The papers in the session to follow this historical summary show how the field has developed over the past 30 years and expose an impressive array of applications to quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) practices.

  4. A History of Until

    CERN Document Server

    Masini, Andrea; Volpe, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Until is a notoriously difficult temporal operator as it is both existential and universal at the same time: A until B holds at the current time instant w iff either B holds at w or there exists a time instant w' in the future at which B holds and such that A holds in all the time instants between the current one and w'. This "ambivalent" nature poses a significant challenge when attempting to give deduction rules for until. In this paper, in contrast, we make explicit this duality of until to provide well-behaved natural deduction rules for linear-time logics by introducing a new temporal operator that allows us to formalize the "history" of until, i.e., the "internal" universal quantification over the time instants between the current one and w'. This approach provides the basis for formalizing deduction systems for temporal logics endowed with the until operator. For concreteness, we give here a labeled natural deduction system for a linear-time logic endowed with the new operator and show that, via a prop...

  5. Approaches and Methods of Periodization in Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N. Gh. Sarli

    Full Text Available One of the most fundamental acts of historiography is to classify historical information in diachronic axis. The method of this classification or periodization shows the theoretical approach of the historian and determines the structure and the form of his history. Because of multiple criteria of analysis and various literary genres, periodization in literary history is more complicated than that of general history. We can distinguish two approaches in periodization of literary history, although these can be used together: extrinsic or social-cultural approach (based on criteria extrinsic to literature and intrinsic or formalist approach (based on criteria intrinsic to literature. Then periodization in literary history can be formulated in different methods and may be based upon various criteria: chronological such as century, decade and year; organic patterns of evolution; great poets and writers; literary emblems and evaluations of every period; events, concepts and periods of general or political history; analogy of literary history and history of ideas or history of arts; approaches and styles of language; dominant literary norms. These methods actually are used together and everyone has adequacy in special kind of literary history. In periodization of Persian contemporary literature, some methods and models current in periodization of poetry have been applied identically to periodization of prose. Periodization based upon century, decade and year is the simplest and most mechanical method but sometimes certain centuries in some countries have symbolic and stylistic meaning, and decades were used often for subdivisions of literary history, especially nowadays with fast rhythm of literary change.Periodization according to organic patterns of evolution equates the changes of literary history with the life phases of an organism, and offers an account of birth, mature and death (and sometimes re-birth of literary genres, but this method have

  6. Approaches and Methods of Periodization in Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Gholi Sarli

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the most fundamental acts of historiography is to classify historical information in diachronic axis. The method of this classification or periodization shows the theoretical approach of the historian and determines the structure and the form of his history. Because of multiple criteria of analysis and various literary genres, periodization in literary history is more complicated than that of general history. We can distinguish two approaches in periodization of literary history, although these can be used together: extrinsic or social-cultural approach (based on criteria extrinsic to literature and intrinsic or formalist approach (based on criteria intrinsic to literature. Then periodization in literary history can be formulated in different methods and may be based upon various criteria: chronological such as century, decade and year organic patterns of evolution great poets and writers literary emblems and evaluations of every period events, concepts and periods of general or political history analogy of literary history and history of ideas or history of arts approaches and styles of language dominant literary norms. These methods actually are used together and everyone has adequacy in special kind of literary history. In periodization of Persian contemporary literature, some methods and models current in periodization of poetry have been applied identically to periodization of prose. Periodization based upon century, decade and year is the simplest and most mechanical method but sometimes certain centuries in some countries have symbolic and stylistic meaning, and decades were used often for subdivisions of literary history, especially nowadays with fast rhythm of literary change. Periodization according to organic patterns of evolution equates the changes of literary history with the life phases of an organism, and offers an account of birth, mature and death (and sometimes re-birth of literary genres, but this method have

  7. Organizations as real and ephemeral

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, Bente

    2017-01-01

    Currently a dilemma within organization studies seems to be represented by, on the one hand, proponents who argue for a retro-wave, to go back to the original ideas of organization studies, the core tasks of enterprises and importance of the relevance of organization studies to practitioners....... On the other hand, another contemporary movement may be observed within organization studies, which is to defend the use of general theories of the social sciences. This latter trend is represented through the language of organizations as processes and practices, sometimes termed the ‘process-’ and ‘practice......-turn’. Although I tend to subscribe to the latter position, I aim to illustrate the value of bridging the dilemma of a canon of history and tradition and the inclusion of more general social science theories within organization studies. I also argue that it is beneficial to hold the eye both on organizations...

  8. Francis Bacon's natural history and civil history: a comparative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer a comparative survey of Bacon's theory and practice of natural history and of civil history, particularly centered on their relationship to natural philosophy and human philosophy. I will try to show that the obvious differences concerning their subject matter encompass a number of less obvious methodological and philosophical assumptions which reveal a significant practical and conceptual convergence of the two fields. Causes or axioms are prescribed as the theoretical end-products of natural history, whereas precepts are envisaged as the speculative outcomes derived from perfect civil history. In spite of this difference, causes and precepts are thought to enable effective action in order to change the state of nature and of man, respectively. For that reason a number of common patterns are to be found in Bacon's theory and practice of natural and civil history.

  9. History as Modernity. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Schiera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction starts from the exhaustion of modernity, drawing the fundamental lines of its development inside Western historical experience. The end of the political nexus between theology and politics, the evanescence of nation-state sovereignty, the check of great historical interpretations reveal the necessity of new categories and new organizational models, able to make us answer to the violence that the ongoing processes are liberating. Schiera underlines in particular the relevance of the administrative apparatus because of its capacity to link the global government with global organization, human rights and the commons.

  10. History of Historical Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Schuyler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available On Sunday April 19, 1998 Jean Carl Harrington (known to the profession as J.C. or "Pinky" Harrington passed away at his home in Richmond, Virginia. At 96 Harrington's life almost spanned the 20th century and did encompass the rise and establishment of professional Historical Archaeology in North America. Many consider Harrington to be the founder or "father" of Americanist Historical Archaeology. In 1936 he took over the newly created NPS-CCC project at Jamestown, Virginia and that event is arguably the inception of Historical Archaeology as an organized, scholarly discipline.

  11. Brief Sexual Histories and Routine HIV/STD Testing by Medical Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Caine, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief, gender-neutral sexual history tool for clinical use. This pilot evaluation demonstrates that providers were willing to utilize a sexual history tool in clinical practice in support of HIV/STD prevention efforts. PMID:24564387

  12. - History, Technology, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, C. M.

    2002-12-01

    This paper begins with the history of electrochromism, first discovered in the 1880's. The physics, electrochemistry, device design and materials are covered. The science of electrochromism involves the coloration of a variety of metal oxides, organics and polymers. Dual ion and electron intercalation is used to color and bleach electrochromic materials. Considerable science has been undertaken to make devices that resemble thin film transparent batteries in their structure. A number of materials have been developed to make layers for electrochromic devices. Applications for electrochromics include low information content displays, such as banner displays, smart windows and mirrors for automotive applications. Several companies throughout the world are developing dynamic glazing. Switchable glazing for building and vehicle application is very attractive for energy and light management. From the standpoint of materials much research and development in electrochromics focuses on the development or improvement of materials with ionic and electronic properties. Much of the work on electrochromics draws on the vast knowledge developed for advanced batteries. National Laboratory and university groups are researching new materials and processes to improve electrochromic materials. Also, much industrial work is directed towards deposition and fabrication processes for glass and possibly plastic that can make electrochromics cost effective. Plastic can yield both flexibility and weight savings for many applications. Although plastics are permeable, outgas and require lower processing temperatures, they can be more universally applied. Some developments in plastics may come from OLED sealing technology. Comparisons are made between the properties of electrochromics and other switchable technologies. Technology comparisons are made between suspended particles, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, themotropics and gas-chromics.

  13. [On the history of barbiturates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of humanity, numerous therapeutic agents have been employed for their sedative and hypnotic properties such as opium, henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), but also alcohol and wine. In the 19th century potassium bromide was introduced as a sedative - and antiepileptic drug and chloral hydrate as sedative-hypnotics. A new era was reached by the introduction of barbiturates. The story started with the chemist Adolf von Baeyer. His breakthrough in the synthesis of new agents as barbituric acid and indigo and his education of young chemists was of great importance for the science of organic chemistry and the development of the dye and medicine industry in the late 19th century. The next important step was the development of barbiturates. The pioneers were Josef von Mering and Emil Fischer. Using the Grimaux-method they synthesized various barbiturates. It was von Mering who got the idea of introducing ethyl groups in the inactive barbituric acid to obtain sedatives, but the synthesis was succeeded by the chemist Emil Fischer. Experiments with dogs clearly showed sedative and hypnotic effect of the barbiturates and the oral administration of barbital (Veronal) confirmed the effect in humans. Barbital was commercialized in 1903 and in 1911 phenobarbital (Luminal) was introduced in the clinic, and this drug showed hypnotic and antiepileptic effects. Thereafter a lot of new barbiturates appeared. Dangerous properties of the drugs were recognized as abuse, addiction, and poisoning. An optimum treatment of acute barbiturate intoxication was obtained by the "Scandinavian method", which was developed in the Poison Centre of the Bispebjerg Hospital in Copenhagen. The centre was established by Carl Clemmesen in 1949 and the intensive care treatment reduced the mortality of the admitted persons from 20% to less than 2%. To-day only a few barbiturates are used in connection with anaesthesia and for the treatment of epilepsy

  14. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  15. History of the american college health association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Following Dr Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a national organization. As a result, the American Student Health Association was founded in 1920 to promote campus health care for students and advance the interests of college health. The name was changed to the American College Health Association in 1948. The past history of this organization has been well documented in the literature, so this review will focus more on ACHA's accomplishments over the past 20 years.(1)(,) (2)(,) (3)(,) (4).

  16. History of wildlife toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A

    2009-10-01

    The field of wildlife toxicology can be traced to the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Initial reports included unintentional poisoning of birds from ingestion of spent lead shot and predator control agents, alkali poisoning of waterbirds, and die-offs from maritime oil spills. With the advent of synthetic pesticides in the 1930s and 1940s, effects of DDT and other pesticides were investigated in free-ranging and captive wildlife. In response to research findings in the US and UK, and the publication of Silent Spring in 1962, public debate on the hazards of pollutants arose and national contaminant monitoring programs were initiated. Shortly thereafter, population-level effects of DDT on raptorial and fish-eating birds were documented, and effects on other species (e.g., bats) were suspected. Realization of the global nature of organochlorine pesticide contamination, and the discovery of PCBs in environmental samples, launched long-range studies in birds and mammals. With the birth of ecotoxicology in 1969 and the establishment of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry in 1979, an international infrastructure began to emerge. In the 1980s, heavy metal pollution related to mining and smelting, agrichemical practices and non-target effects, selenium toxicosis, and disasters such as Chernobyl and the Exxon Valdez dominated the field. Biomarker development, endocrine disruption, population modeling, and studies with amphibians and reptiles were major issues of the 1990s. With the turn of the century, there was interest in new and emerging compounds (pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, surfactants), and potential population-level effects of some compounds. Based upon its history, wildlife toxicology is driven by chemical use and misuse, ecological disasters, and pollution-related events affecting humans. Current challenges include the need to more thoroughly estimate and predict exposure and effects of chemical-related anthropogenic

  17. The history of LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Gobbe, Marine

    2012-04-01

    Keratomileusis, brainchild of Jose I. Barraquer Moner, was conceived and developed as the first stromal sculpting method to correct refractive error in 1948. The word "keratomileusis" literally means "sculpting" of the "cornea." Barraquer's first procedures involved freezing a disc of anterior corneal tissue before removing stromal tissue with a lathe. Over the years, the procedure continued to develop, first through the Barraquer-Krumeich-Swinger non-freeze technique where tissue was removed from the underside of the disc by a second pass of the microkeratome. In-situ keratomileusis was later developed by passing the microkeratome a second time directly on the stromal bed. The procedure became known as automated lamellar keratoplasty with the invention of an automated microkeratome and was further refined by replacing the disc without sutures and later by stopping the microkeratome before the end of the pass to create a hinged flap, as first demonstrated in 1989. The history of the excimer laser dates back to 1900 and the quantum theory, eventually leading to the discovery that 193-nm ultraviolet excimer laser pulses could photoablate tissue without thermal damage. Ultrastructural and wound healing studies confirmed that large area ablation could be performed in the central cornea. This was described as photorefractive keratectomy in 1986 and the first sighted eyes were treated in 1988. An excimer laser was first used to sculpt from the stromal bed under a hinged flap created manually using a trephine and scalpel in 1988. The incorporation of a microkeratome in 1990 finally led to laser in situ keratomileusis-LASIK-as we know it today.

  18. History of parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudrick, Stanley J

    2009-06-01

    The concept of feeding patients entirely parenterally by injecting nutrient substances or fluids intravenously was advocated and attempted long before the successful practical development of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) four decades ago. Realization of this 400 year old seemingly fanciful dream initially required centuries of fundamental investigation coupled with basic technological advances and judicious clinical applications. Most clinicians in the 1950's were aware of the negative impact of starvation on morbidity, mortality, and outcomes, but only few understood the necessity for providing adequate nutritional support to malnourished patients if optimal clinical results were to be achieved. The prevailing dogma in the 1960's was that, "Feeding entirely by vein is impossible; even if it were possible, it would be impractical; and even if it were practical, it would be unaffordable." Major challenges to the development of TPN included: (1) formulate complete parenteral nutrient solutions (did not exist), (2) concentrate substrate components to 5-6 times isotonicity without precipitation (not easily done), (3) demonstrate utility and safety of long-term central venous catheterization (not looked upon with favor by the medical hierarchy), (4) demonstrate efficacy and safety of long-term infusion of hypertonic nutrient solutions (contrary to clinical practices at the time), (5) maintain asepsis and antisepsis throughout solution preparation and delivery (required a major culture change), and (6) anticipate, avoid, and correct metabolic imbalances or derangements (a monumental challenge and undertaking). This presentation recounts approaches to, and solution of, some of the daunting problems as really occurred in a comprehensive, concise and candid history of parenteral nutrition.

  19. Statistical methods for history matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kent

    Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history m...... history matching metode. Den foreslåede metode forsøger at forbedre konvergensen af traditionel probability perturbation ved at inkludere kvalitativ gradient information.......Denne afhandling beskriver statistiske metoder til history matching af olieproduktion. History matching er en vigtig del af driften af et oliefelt og er ofte forbundet med problemer relateret til kompleksiteten af reservoiret og selve størrelsen af reservoirsimuleringsmodellen. Begrebet history...... matching dækker over arbejdsprocessen, hvor de fysiske parametre i en reservoirsimuleringsmodel bliver justeret således, at en simulering af olieproduktionen stemmer overens med egentlige målte produktionsdata. Mange history matching metoder er baseret på et geostatistisk fundament, hvilket også gør sig...

  20. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from one…

  1. The Florida Library History Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Catherine; McCook, Kathleen de la Pena

    The Florida Library History Project (FLHP) began in January 1998. Letters requesting histories were sent to all public libraries in Florida with follow-up letters sent after an initial response was received from the libraries. E-mail messages were sent out to FL-LIB listservs encouraging participation in the project. A poster session was presented…

  2. The Cultural History of Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Cultural History of Work is a multi-volume project on the history of work in the western world from Antiquity to the 21st century. The series will consist of six illustrated volumes, each devoted to an examination of work in one of six historical periods (Antiquity, The Medieval Age, The Early ...

  3. History Microcomputer Games: Update 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James E.

    1985-01-01

    Provides full narrative reviews of B-1 Nuclear Bomber (Avalon, 1982); American History Adventure (Social Science Microcomputer Review Software, 1985); Government Simulations (Prentice-Hall, 1985); and The Great War, FDR and the New Deal, and Hitler's War, all from New Worlds Software, 1985. Lists additional information on five other history and…

  4. History's Purpose: Becker or Ortega?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, John R., Jr.; Gulick, Barbara

    1972-01-01

    The transition from a functionally pragmatic interpretation of history to a humanistic existential one is explored by comparing the philosophy of the eminent intellectual historian, Carl Becker, with that of Jose Ortega y Gasset, who interprets history from a humanistic point of view. (Author/SM)

  5. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  6. History of American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Margaret Cain

    2011-01-01

    "History of American Higher Education" documents the fascinating evolution of American colleges and universities, touching on the historical events that shaped them, from the colonial era through the early twenty-first century. Throughout history, higher education has played an important role in the transmission of cultural identity from…

  7. Art History in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Students often have a hard time equating time spent on art history as time well spent in the art room. Likewise, art teachers struggle with how to keep interest in their classrooms high when the subject turns to history. Some teachers show endless videos, with the students nodding sleepily along to the narrator. Others try to incorporate small…

  8. Media History in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vree, Frank van

    2014-01-01

    abstractArticle published in 1993 in GBG-nieuws related to a seminar on Media History in the Netherlands. Republished in 2014 in Tijdschrift voor mediageschiedenis in the context of a seminar held in september 2014 at Sound and Vision on the past 25 years of Media History and its future.

  9. Introduction to Media Literacy History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Why is it important for us to consider the history of media literacy? Beyond forging connections of the past to the present, exploring the history of the field can deepen intellectual curiosity and understanding for those who work in media literacy education, ignite interest in others, and drive investigation into understanding the relationships…

  10. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  11. Teaching Black History after Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the teaching of black history after the Obama presidency and at the dawn of the Trump era. It is both an analysis of the state of the academic field and a primer on how to integrate the past few decades of scholarship in black history broadly across standard K-12 curriculum. It demonstrates the importance of…

  12. History's Purpose: Becker or Ortega?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, John R., Jr.; Gulick, Barbara

    1972-01-01

    The transition from a functionally pragmatic interpretation of history to a humanistic existential one is explored by comparing the philosophy of the eminent intellectual historian, Carl Becker, with that of Jose Ortega y Gasset, who interprets history from a humanistic point of view. (Author/SM)

  13. Writing histories of contemporary Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    2002-01-01

    This essay argues that historians need to engage with the history of contemporary Africa both as a way of throwing new light on Africa's more remote past and as a way of understanding the present. It considers how a new generation of works on Africa's contemporary history might be written. Most of

  14. Der er liv i historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Anette; Müller Glibstrup, Tine; Roj Søndergaard, Anja

    I denne antologi præsenteres de første konkrete bud på, hvordan en senmoderne og konstruktivistisk historieundervisning kan tage sig ud i praksis. Der tages udgangspunk i bl.a. Bernard Eric Jensen "Historie - livsverden og fag" og Carlo Grevy "Historie og livsverden - en historiedidaktik"...

  15. The Case for Natural History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Heather; Achiam, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of natural history is lacking in many western societies, as demonstrated by its absence in school science curricula. And yet to meet local and global challenges such as environmental degradation, biodiversity loss and climate change, we need to better understand the living...... and non-living parts of the natural world. Many have argued passionately for an increased understanding of natural history; others have developed successful pedagogical programmes for applying a knowledge of natural history in environmental initiatives. In joining wider calls, we choose here to focus...... on the educational value afforded by understanding the epistemological bases of natural history and its particular forms of reasoning. We also briefly discuss the ways in which an education in natural history provides the foundation for environmental and social justice efforts that directly affect the lives of young...

  16. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  17. The University as an Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, James A., Ed.

    This collection of studies by men and women who understand universities and have the experience and ability to view them in perspectives of history and international experience demonstrates that universities constitute a genus of institution that is unique in its totality and comparable to other organizations only in certain of its…

  18. The pre-history of urban scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortman, Scott G; Cabaniss, Andrew H F; Sturm, Jennie O; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2014-01-01

    Cities are increasingly the fundamental socio-economic units of human societies worldwide, but we still lack a unified characterization of urbanization that captures the social processes realized by cities across time and space. This is especially important for understanding the role of cities in the history of human civilization and for determining whether studies of ancient cities are relevant for contemporary science and policy. As a step in this direction, we develop a theory of settlement scaling in archaeology, deriving the relationship between population and settled area from a consideration of the interplay between social and infrastructural networks. We then test these models on settlement data from the Pre-Hispanic Basin of Mexico to show that this ancient settlement system displays spatial scaling properties analogous to those observed in modern cities. Our data derive from over 1,500 settlements occupied over two millennia and spanning four major cultural periods characterized by different levels of agricultural productivity, political centralization and market development. We show that, in agreement with theory, total settlement area increases with population size, on average, according to a scale invariant relation with an exponent in the range [Formula: see text]. As a consequence, we are able to infer aggregate socio-economic properties of ancient societies from archaeological measures of settlement organization. Our findings, from an urban settlement system that evolved independently from its old-world counterparts, suggest that principles of settlement organization are very general and may apply to the entire range of human history.

  19. Danish auroral science history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  20. Danish auroral science history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stauning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872 to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high

  1. History of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüthrich, Brunello

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we will first consider whether there is real evidence on the basis of literature for early descriptions in antiquity of pathogenic reactions after food intake that could be comparable to allergy, for instance in the scriptures of Hippocrates or Lucretius. On this topic we are skeptical, which is in agreement with the medical historian Hans Schadewaldt. We also assert that it is unlikely that King Richard III was the first food-allergic individual in medical literature. Most probably it was not a well-planned poisoning ('allergy') with strawberries, but rather a birth defect ('… his harm was ever such since his birth') that allowed the Lord Protector to bring Mylord of Ely to the scaffold in the Tower, as we can read in The History of King Richard III by Thomas More (1478-1535; published by his son-in-law, Rastell, in 1557). In 1912, the American pediatrician Oscar Menderson Schloss (1882-1952) was probably the first to describe scratch tests in the diagnosis of food allergy. Milestones in the practical diagnosis of food allergy are further discussed, including scratch tests, intradermal tests, modified prick tests and prick-to-prick tests. False-negative results can be attributed to the phenomenon of a 'catamnestic reaction' according to Max Werner (1911-1987), or to the fermentative degradation of food products. Prior to the discovery of immunoglobulin E, which marked a turning point in allergy diagnosis, and the introduction of the radioallergosorbent test in 1967, several more or less reliable techniques were used in the diagnosis of food allergy, such as pulse rate increase after food intake according to Coca, the leukopenic index, drop in basophils or drastic platelet decrease. The 'leukocytotoxic test' (Bryan's test), today called the 'ALCAT' test, shows no scientific evidence. The double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge test remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of food allergy. For the future, component-resolved diagnostics

  2. The Sierra Club--A History. Part 2: Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Douglas H.

    1977-01-01

    This second article on Sierra Club history brings the Club into the 1960s. It relates early conservation activities of the club, such as the efforts to save the Hetch Hetchy Valley. The campaign against construction of a dam in Dinosaur National Monument helped establish the club as a national organization. (MA)

  3. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  4. Heuristic Diagrams as a Tool to Teach History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    The graphic organizer called here heuristic diagram as an improvement of Gowin's Vee heuristic is proposed as a tool to teach history of science. Heuristic diagrams have the purpose of helping students (or teachers, or researchers) to understand their own research considering that asks and problem-solving are central to scientific activity. The…

  5. Rankings in education: history and critical analysis of rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebenina Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of rankings, mechanisms of their appearing and reasons of their popularity are little scrutinized yet although they are widely spread in the modern information flow, they are widely used during the evaluation for organizations of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia and the Russian Academy of Science as key indices.

  6. World History. A Program for Senior High School Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Patrick

    GRADES OR AGES: Senior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: World history. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide covers ten units: 1) Perspective--Man in Pre-historic and Ancient Times; 2) Feudalism and the Church in the Middle Ages; 3) Renaissance and Reformation; 4) The Emergence of Nationalism--Its Cause and Effects; 5) Revolutions of Rising…

  7. The History of Germany's Response to Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender, Jeannine; Jager, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Traces the history of the German climate change debate in the last 50 years and discusses the forces and events that shaped it. Examines the way in which scientists, the government, industry, nongovernmental organizations, and the media entered into and influenced the debate. (54 references) (MDH)

  8. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  9. 78 FR 21413 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Field Museum of Natural History.... History and Description of the Cultural Items The 90 cultural items consist of Western Apache ceremonial... History, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes or Native Hawaiian organizations,...

  10. History of avermectin and ivermectin, with notes on the history of other macrocyclic lactone antiparasitic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William C

    2012-05-01

    The macrocyclic lactones enjoy a position of prominence in the control of parasites, and their history may be of interest, and even of use, in an age in which the search for chemotherapeutic agents has been transformed by modern technology. Much of their history has been recorded piecemeal in a wide variety of publications. The present review provides additional detail, and offers a personal perspective on the history of ivermectin and related avermectins. Brief notes are included on the subsequent development of other macrocyclic lactones. Milbemycin preceded the avermectins as a macrocyclic lactone of agricultural importance, but was used for a different purpose. Development of the avermectins arose from the isolation, in the laboratories of the Kitasato Institute, of a novel soil-dwelling bacterium and its transmittal (in 1974) to the laboratories of Merck & Co., Inc. There it was found (in 1975) to produce a potent anthelmintic substance, which was then identified and transmuted by interdisciplinary research into an antiparasitic product. Initially the focus was on its applicability to veterinary science and animal husbandry; and after developmental research by many scientific teams, the product was introduced commercially (in 1981) for the control of endoparasitic nematodes and ectoparasitic arthropods in livestock. Subsequently, special applications in human medicine were developed, and were successfully implemented in partnership with World Health Organization and several non-governmental organizations (NGOs).

  11. Designing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Book Description The design of organizations has been an ongoing concern of management theory and practice over the past several decades. Over this time, there has been little change in the fundamental theory, principles and concepts of Organization Design (OD). Recently organizational life has...... is a benchmark publication in the field of organization design. By focusing on recent developments in organization design, this book will help to create more thoughtful research and stronger empirical analyses in this important area of management and organization........ The individual chapters are organized into five sections: (1) Putting Contingency Theory in its Place, (2) Focus on Individuals who make up the Organization, (3) Innovation Processes and Organization Design, (4) Adaptation and Technology, and (5) Design for Performance. Each chapter examines aspects of the books...

  12. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how...

  13. Genealogies of Czech Literary History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Rychterová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the most important and most influential narratives of the history of Czech medieval literature that were produced from the beginnings of modern historiography and literary history in the 19th century onwards. The question is how the character of individual narratives and their socio-historical contexts influenced the questions, topics and areas of interest in research on the history of medieval literatures in Bohemia. For Czech literature, such analysis is especially important, because it shows that the problems the history of Czech literature has had to fight from its modern beginnings are also the problems of any new approach that literary historiography may pursue in future, from whatever point of departure. The narratives on which the article focuses are built on an amalgamation of the history of society, language and literature, which a makes it difficult to supersede them and b makes any detailed research on transmitted texts look less important. Here lies one of the challenges for future research: the relation of language, text and social and political history has to be analysed in detail, because it is only via their conflation that a coherent narrative of the history of Czech literature has been maintained in the past.

  14. History repeats itself: the family medication history and pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas R; Kearney, Elizabeth; Hulick, Peter J; Kisor, David F

    2016-05-01

    Related to many drug gene-product interactions, application of pharmacogenomics can lead to improved medication efficacy while decreasing or avoiding adverse drug reactions. However, utilizing pharmacogenomics without other information does not allow for optimal medication therapy. Currently, there is a lack of documentation of family medication history, in other words, inefficacy and adverse reactions across family members throughout generations. The family medication history can serve as an impetus for pharmacogenomic testing to explain lack of medication efficacy or an adverse drug reaction and pre-emptive testing can drive recognition and documentation of medication response in family members. We propose combining the family medication history via pedigree construction with pharmacogenomics to further optimize medication therapy. We encourage clinicians to combine family medication history with pharmacogenomics.

  15. Organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-15

    This book with sixteen chapter explains organic chemistry on linkage isomerism such as alkane, cycloalkane, alkene, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, aromatic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic compounds, stereo selective isomerization, organic halogen compound, alcohol, ether, aldehyde and ketone, carboxylic acid, dicarboxylic acid, fat and detergent, amino, carbohydrate, amino acid and protein, nucleotide and nucleic acid and spectroscopy, a polymer and medical chemistry. Each chapter has introduction structure and characteristic and using of organic chemistry.

  16. [History of complementary feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Kawasaki disease: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J C; Kushner, H I; Bastian, J F; Shike, H; Shimizu, C; Matsubara, T; Turner, C L

    2000-08-01

    Tomisaku Kawasaki published the first English-language report of 50 patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) in 1974. Since that time, KD has become the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in North America and Japan. Although an infectious agent is suspected, the cause remains unknown. However, significant progress has been made toward understanding the natural history of the disease and therapeutic interventions have been developed that halt the immune-mediated destruction of the arterial wall. We present a brief history of KD, review progress in research on the disease, and suggest avenues for future study. Kawasaki saw his first case of KD in January 1961 and published his first report in Japanese in 1967. Whether cases existed in Japan before that time is currently under study. The most significant controversy in the 1960s in Japan was whether the rash and fever sign/symptom complex described by Kawasaki was connected to subsequent cardiac complications in a number of cases. Pathologist Noboru Tanaka and pediatrician Takajiro Yamamoto disputed the early assertion of Kawasaki that KD was a self-limited illness with no sequelae. This controversy was resolved in 1970 when the first Japanese nationwide survey of KD documented 10 autopsy cases of sudden cardiac death after KD. By the time of the first English-language publication by Kawasaki in 1974, the link between KD and coronary artery vasculitis was well-established. KD was independently recognized as a new and distinct condition in the early 1970s by pediatricians Marian Melish and Raquel Hicks at the University of Hawaii. In 1973, at the same Hawaiian hospital, pathologist Eunice Larson, in consultation with Benjamin Landing at Los Angeles Children's Hospital, retrospectively diagnosed a 1971 autopsy case as KD. The similarity between KD and infantile periarteritis nodosa (IPN) was apparent to these pathologists, as it had been to Tanaka earlier. What remains unknown is the reason for the

  18. An introduction to European intergovernmental organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cogen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    An Introduction to European Intergovernmental Organizations provides an up-to-date and accessible reference to European intergovernmental organizations other than the European Union. The EU is so dominant that people often overlook the multitude of older and newer, smaller and larger intergovernmental organizations rooted in the history of contemporary Europe which continue to help shape its future. The specialized character of these organizations adds value to cooperation in Europe as a whole, creates permanent channels of communication regardless of EU membership and allows the possibility for non-European involvement through organizations such as the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and NATO. It also allows sub regional groups of states, such as the Nordic countries or the Benelux countries to exist and express their own identity via their own organizations. This book looks at the history of Non-EU organizations, their decision-making characteristics, membership policies, legal powers actio...

  19. Oral History and the Special Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Rebecca S.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between oral history and libraries notes the character of oral history (both auditory and visual); types of oral history interviews (focused or subject-oriented, life review); forming an oral history collection (audiotapes, videotapes, transcripts); legal agreements and oral history; and collecting versus creating…

  20. Evaluation and history: a traditional tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guillermo Ortíz Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It shows which interactions between the educative evaluations are in History and these discipline developments. It points out that the first history tests of the State Examinations were sustained in the homeland History proposal supported by the Colombian History Academy. An analysis of the tests allows grouping the questions in traditional working lines of this History version

  1. Nomenclature and Terminology of Organic Chemistry. I. Sixty Years of Croatian Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapić, V; Varga-Defterdarović, L

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the history and development of the Croatian nomenclature of organic chemistry from the publication of the first translation of international nomenclature recommendations to the present age...

  2. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  3. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  4. Impostor Syndrome, a Reparative History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Simmons

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an attempt to insert the stories we tell about fear and shame into a history of twentieth-century psychology and its obsession with achievement and modernization. It is an attempt to write an affective history of achievement at the turn of the millennium - and to make this feeling history. Impostor Syndrome is a pop-psychological diagnosis, employed to explain the low presence of women in STEM fields, business and academic administration and ’thought leadership’ in the pubic sphere. The article follows the intellectual lineage of two precursors of Impostor Syndrome, Fear of Success and the Impostor Phenomenon. It argues that the grouping of gender/ race/ success/ affect was a keystone of twentieth-century American psychology and development theory. The history of this feeling has consequences for thinking about situated knowledge, realism and epistemic justice.

  5. Diet History Questionnaire: International Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARP staff adapted the Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) for use by Canadian populations in collaboration with the Alberta Cancer Board. This questionnaire takes into account the different food fortification polices of the U.S. and Canada.

  6. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  7. Consistent Histories in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, David A; 10.1007/s10701-010-9422-6

    2010-01-01

    We illustrate the crucial role played by decoherence (consistency of quantum histories) in extracting consistent quantum probabilities for alternative histories in quantum cosmology. Specifically, within a Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model sourced with a free massless scalar field, we calculate the probability that the univese is singular in the sense that it assumes zero volume. Classical solutions of this model are a disjoint set of expanding and contracting singular branches. A naive assessment of the behavior of quantum states which are superpositions of expanding and contracting universes may suggest that a "quantum bounce" is possible i.e. that the wave function of the universe may remain peaked on a non-singular classical solution throughout its history. However, a more careful consistent histories analysis shows that for arbitrary states in the physical Hilbert space the probability of this Wheeler-DeWitt quantum universe encountering the big bang/crun...

  8. Marine archeology: The hidden history

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.

    Chandore, Gopakapattana, and Ela, which were the port capitals at different times of the long history. Four stone anchors from Goa waters indicate an active maritime activity during the pre-Portuguese period. An important aspect of marine archaeology...

  9. Teaching Personality Through Life Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert W.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of life histories as case material requiring disciplined observation and objectivity and exemplifying basic principles and theories of behavior is described as a teaching technique for a course in the psychology of personality. (JH)

  10. Wire Jewelry/Black History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Robert A.; Robinson, Charles C.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a project which made the study of Black history more real to fifth graders by having them make wire jewelry, smaller versions of the ornate filigreed ironwork produced by slave blacksmiths. (RM)

  11. History Kern National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Details the location, physiography, relief, and drainage, vegetation, settlement and population, transportation and markets, climate, soils, acquisition history, and...

  12. Diet History Questionnaire: Suggested Citations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of the Diet History Questionnaire and Diet*Calc Analysis Software for publication purposes should contain a citation which includes version information for the software, questionnaire, and nutrient database.

  13. History of early atomic clocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, N.F. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Lyman Lab. of Physics

    2005-06-01

    This review of the history of early atomic clocks includes early atomic beam magnetic resonance, methods of separated and successive oscillatory fields, microwave absorption, optical pumping and atomic masers. (author)

  14. Geoethics: history and further development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2013-04-01

    Problems of ethics and morality can be retrospectively followed in the history of human kind to its earliest phases. The new scientific discipline of GEOETHICS since 1991 has brought to the attention various topics of Earth sciences needed to be discussed from new specific ethical points of view (e.g. prudent consumption of mineral resources). The present frequency of natural disasters all over the world gives serious signals for intensifying an appropriate geoethical discussion. Significant events in the development of geoethics during the last 20 years include: international meetings organized since 1992 usually in 2 years terms as part of the Mining Pribram Symposia (Czech Republic), regular forums at all International Geological Congresses since 1996 (individual papers already in 1992) and formation of the Working Group on Geoethics in 2004 under the umbrella of the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID) as well as establishing AGID National Chapters in several states (e.g. in Spain web pages http://tierra.rediris.es/Geoethics_Planetary_Protection/ with all GEOETHICS NEWS issued since 2007). - Geoethical principles and geological factors are to be considered in any scenario of a "sustainable development". At any responsible level of state authorities and self-governments as well as in any context of international co-operation, geoethics might be able to help in paving a better way for the needed understanding of nature by human kind. Geoethical principles (the planet Earth = absolute value of the life; principles of respect, interdependence, harmony and balance of interests, responsibility to future generations, prognosticating, precaution, reversibility, integration, frugality etc.) should be incorporated in the optimal way into the consciousness and life of the contemporaneous global society. In October 2011 at Pribram the future main trends were agreed in the INTERNATIONAL DECLARATION ON GEOETHICS: 1) significance of geoethics in

  15. Historie filmové postprodukce

    OpenAIRE

    Mencl, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the history of post production in film. The theoretical section describes the development of sound, recording, cutting and general film editing worldwide. It deals with both technological and methodological development. It provides a clear overview of the history of film which is relevant to the whole world and analyzes it with regards to the events that affected it. The practical section then describes the process of realizing videos reporting on int...

  16. Two books History of Cartography

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Two valuable books were published under the title History of Cartography in the group Lecture Notes and the subgroup Publications of the International Cartographic Association. The books were published as a result of collaboration between International Cartographic Association (ICA) and the Springer-Verlag publishing company and contain most papers from the following symposia:3rd International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography at University of Texas in Arlington, O...

  17. Business history and economic globalisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ekberg, Espen; Lange, Even

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviewers of the current state and future direction of business history have complained that, despite the growth of business history as a distinct academic discipline in recent decades, the field has tended to become side-lined in a number of debates which traditionally have been of major concern to business and economic historians. The paper discusses this issue by focusing on one of the major fields of research among economic historians and social scientists in recent years, namely t...

  18. History Gets a Modern Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Learning about history has never been so trendy as new TV programs and contemporary textbooks make the past pleasurable The past is catching up with China and it’s now cool to learn history. Public demand for the who,why and when of events and people in ancient times is seeing a new craze in a country with 5,000 years worth of resources to delve into. While popular TV soaps about China’s

  19. A categorization of the 'whys' and 'hows' of using history in mathematics education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This is a theoretical article proposing a way of organizing and structuring the discussion of why and how to use the history of mathematics in the teaching and learning of mathematics, as well as the interrelations between the arguments for using history and the approaches to doing so. The way of...

  20. Studies in the History of Astronomy. Issue 32 %t Istoriko-Astronomicheskie Issledovaniya. Vypusk XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idlis, G. M.

    This collection contains papers covering a wide scope of problems in the history of astronomy. Its basic headlines are: Cosmology and cosmogony of the 20th century; History of observations and astronomical organizations; Scientists and their works; Astronomy and society; Publications and memoirs; Astronomy and astrology; Memory of scientists

  1. Making a Difference: Maryland Women and Social Reform. Maryland Women's History Resource Packet, 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Barbara, Comp.

    Produced to help Maryland schools and community organizations commemorate National Women's History Month, this resource unit may also be used throughout the year to teach about women's history. Part 1 contains general information about women's contributions to social reform and an overview of the women's rights movement. Part 2 includes…

  2. The main features of the enlightened philosophy of history by A. R. Turgot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hussein

    2014-03-01

    The most important historical achievement A. R. Turgot in the development of philosophy of history was that he related a story of mental activity of man with a history of his employment, economic activity and the development of forms of social organization.

  3. "Sisters Are Doin' It for Themselves" The Feminization of American History Through Popular Culture as Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    In considering the historical contributions of women in a high school history course, a series of projects were developed that were activity oriented, created student involvement in historial research, and organized to feature the roles women have played in the development of the United States. Classroom procedures are introduced based on early…

  4. [The practice of research in history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Michel

    2013-11-01

    History is a discipline whose research methods present similarities with those of other human and social sciences, with certain specificities. The nursing profession can use these methods to showcase its history and the history of nursing care.

  5. Transnational Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lasse Folke; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    should be treated and governed by organizations. Using network and career sequences methods, we provide a case of transnational organizing through professionals who attempt issue control and network management on transnational environmental sustainability certification. The article questions how......An ongoing question for institutional theory is how organizing occurs transnationally, where institution building occurs in a highly ambiguous environment. This article suggests that at the core of transnational organizing is competition and coordination within professional and organizational...... networks over who controls issues. Transnational issues are commonly organized through professional battles over how issues are treated and what tasks are involved. These professional struggles are often more important than what organization has a formal mandate over an issue. We highlight how ‘issue...

  6. Organic optoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Wenping; Gong, Xiong; Zhan, Xiaowei; Fu, Hongbing; Bjornholm, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Written by internationally recognized experts in the field with academic as well as industrial experience, this book concisely yet systematically covers all aspects of the topic.The monograph focuses on the optoelectronic behavior of organic solids and their application in new optoelectronic devices. It covers organic electroluminescent materials and devices, organic photonics, materials and devices, as well as organic solids in photo absorption and energy conversion. Much emphasis is laid on the preparation of functional materials and the fabrication of devices, from materials synthesis a

  7. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium......The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices...

  8. History of mathematics and history of science reunited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jeremy

    2011-09-01

    For some years now, the history of modern mathematics and the history of modern science have developed independently. A step toward a reunification that would benefit both disciplines could come about through a revived appreciation of mathematical practice. Detailed studies of what mathematicians actually do, whether local or broadly based, have often led in recent work to examinations of the social, cultural, and national contexts, and more can be done. Another recent approach toward a historical understanding of the abstractness of modern mathematics has been to see it as a species of modernism, and this thesis will be tested by the raft of works on the history of modern applied mathematics currently under way.

  9. La influencia social de la división histórica de lo rural y de lo urbano en la organización de la educación boliviana - The social influence of the history in the division of rural and urban in the organization of the bolivian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Marcela Villafuerte Bittencourt, Bolivia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A INFLUÊNCIA SOCIAL DA DIVISÃO HISTÓRICA DO RURAL E DO URBANO NA ORGANIZAÇÃO DA EDUCAÇÃO BOLIVIANAResumoA organização da educação na Bolívia está marcada, historicamente, pela divisão entre o rural e o urbano. Essa divisão é uma explicação para a profunda segregação social na sociedade boliviana. Este artigo analisa essa dualidade ao longo século 20 e descreve como o sistema educativo boliviano foi estruturado de forma a distinguir entre educação urbana e educação rural, sintetizando as relações étnico-separatistas no desenvolvimento social, econômico e cultural. O método utilizado é bibliográfico e documental. O estudo tem como objetivo discutir como as opções de organização da educação respondem às posições políticas e econômicas, à fragmentação social e à possibilidade de emergência de uma sociedade mais coesa.Palavras-chave: educação boliviana, história da educação rural, rural e urbano. THE SOCIAL INFLUENCE OF THE HISTORY IN THE DIVISION OF RURAL AND URBAN IN THE ORGANIZATION OF THE BOLIVIAN EDUCATION AbstractThe organization of education in Bolivia is historically marked the division between rural and urban. This division is one explanation for the profound social segregation in Bolivian society. This article analyzes this historical duality of the long twentieth Century showing how the Bolivian educational system is structured to distinguish between urban education and rural education, synthesizes the separatist-ethnic social relations of social, economic and cultural development. The method used is bibliographic and documentary. The article aims to discuss how the options for school organization respond to political and economic positions, social fragmentation and the possible emergence of a more cohesive society.Keywords: education in Bolivia, history of rural education, rural and urban. LA INFLUENCIA SOCIAL DE LA DIVISIÓN HISTÓRICA DE LO RURAL Y DE LO URBANO EN LA ORGANIZACI

  10. Life history theory predicts fish assemblage response to hydrologic regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mims, Meryl C; Olden, Julian D

    2012-01-01

    The hydrologic regime is regarded as the primary driver of freshwater ecosystems, structuring the physical habitat template, providing connectivity, framing biotic interactions, and ultimately selecting for specific life histories of aquatic organisms. In the present study, we tested ecological theory predicting directional relationships between major dimensions of the flow regime and life history composition of fish assemblages in perennial free-flowing rivers throughout the continental United States. Using long-term discharge records and fish trait and survey data for 109 stream locations, we found that 11 out of 18 relationships (61%) tested between the three life history strategies (opportunistic, periodic, and equilibrium) and six hydrologic metrics (two each describing flow variability, predictability, and seasonality) were statistically significant (P history strategies, with 82% of all significant relationships observed supporting predictions from life history theory. Specifically, we found that (1) opportunistic strategists were positively related to measures of flow variability and negatively related to predictability and seasonality, (2) periodic strategists were positively related to high flow seasonality and negatively related to variability, and (3) the equilibrium strategists were negatively related to flow variability and positively related to predictability. Our study provides important empirical evidence illustrating the value of using life history theory to understand both the patterns and processes by which fish assemblage structure is shaped by adaptation to natural regimes of variability, predictability, and seasonality of critical flow events over broad biogeographic scales.

  11. Dutch voices: exploring the role of oral history in Dutch secondary history teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; Trškan, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Oral history may enhance students’ historical content knowledge, historical reasoning competencies, and motivation to learn history. However, little is known regarding the role of oral history in Dutch history education. This study therefore explores the role of oral history in Dutch history

  12. Dutch voices: exploring the role of oral history in Dutch secondary history teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; Trškan, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    Oral history may enhance students’ historical content knowledge, historical reasoning competencies, and motivation to learn history. However, little is known regarding the role of oral history in Dutch history education. This study therefore explores the role of oral history in Dutch history educati

  13. History of physical culture as a reflection of social history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tymoshenko Y.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The basic of the article consists of the letters of the USSR citizens, which are dedicated to some aspects of physical culture development in the years after the World War II. In particular, the situation concerning renewing air sports, airclubs and in general the situation in sport field is described. The author, within the framework of historical hermeneutics, analyses letters and describes the social history of soviet Ukraine through the view of physical culture. In this context physical culture shows as a part of every day history.

  14. Evolutionary biology and life histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, C. R.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The demographic processes that drive the spread of populations through environments and in turn determine the abundance of organisms are the same demographic processes that drive the spread of genes through populations and in turn determine gene frequencies and fitness. Conceptually, marked similarities exist in the dynamic processes underlying population ecology and those underlying evolutionary biology. Central to an understanding of both disciplines is life history and its component demographic rates, such as survival, fecundity, and age of first breeding, and biologists from both fields have a vested interest in good analytical machinery for the estimation and analysis of these demographic rates. In the EURING conferences, we have been striving since the mid 1980s to promote a quantitative understanding of demographic rates through interdisciplinary collaboration between ecologists and statisticians. From the ecological side, the principal impetus has come from population biology, and in particular from wildlife biology, but the importance of good quantitative insights into demographic processes has long been recognized by a number of evolutionary biologists (e.g., Nichols & Kendall, 1995; Clobert, 1995; Cooch et al., 2002. In organizing this session, we have aimed to create a forum for those committed to gaining the best possible understanding of evolutionary processes through the application of modern quantitative methods for the collection and interpretation of data on marked animal populations. Here we present a short overview of the material presented in the session on evolutionary biology and life histories. In a plenary talk, Brown & Brown (2004 explored how mark–recapture methods have allowed a better understanding of the evolution of group–living and alternative reproductive tactics in colonial cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota. By estimating the number of transient birds passing through colonies of different sizes, they

  15. The Natural Science Underlying Big History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Chaisson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature’s many varied complex systems—including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society—are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics is needed to describe cosmic evolution’s major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density—contrasting with information content or entropy production—is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  16. The natural science underlying big history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Nature's many varied complex systems-including galaxies, stars, planets, life, and society-are islands of order within the increasingly disordered Universe. All organized systems are subject to physical, biological, or cultural evolution, which together comprise the grander interdisciplinary subject of cosmic evolution. A wealth of observational data supports the hypothesis that increasingly complex systems evolve unceasingly, uncaringly, and unpredictably from big bang to humankind. These are global history greatly extended, big history with a scientific basis, and natural history broadly portrayed across ∼14 billion years of time. Human beings and our cultural inventions are not special, unique, or apart from Nature; rather, we are an integral part of a universal evolutionary process connecting all such complex systems throughout space and time. Such evolution writ large has significant potential to unify the natural sciences into a holistic understanding of who we are and whence we came. No new science (beyond frontier, nonequilibrium thermodynamics) is needed to describe cosmic evolution's major milestones at a deep and empirical level. Quantitative models and experimental tests imply that a remarkable simplicity underlies the emergence and growth of complexity for a wide spectrum of known and diverse systems. Energy is a principal facilitator of the rising complexity of ordered systems within the expanding Universe; energy flows are as central to life and society as they are to stars and galaxies. In particular, energy rate density-contrasting with information content or entropy production-is an objective metric suitable to gauge relative degrees of complexity among a hierarchy of widely assorted systems observed throughout the material Universe. Operationally, those systems capable of utilizing optimum amounts of energy tend to survive, and those that cannot are nonrandomly eliminated.

  17. Organic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Romea, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Organic Synthesis is a one-semester course of the fourth year of the Chemistry Degree at the Universitat de Barcelona. This course covers the most important transformations in Organic Chemistry, including a short introduction to the Retrosynthetic Analysis. The aim is to provide a solid knowledge of the main reactions and their mechanism, which could later be improved during Master studies.

  18. Organic spintronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, W.J.M.; Faez, S.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard

    2007-01-01

    We review the emerging field of organic spintronics, where organic materials are applied as a medium to transport and control spin-polarized signals. The contacts for injecting and detecting spins are formed by ferromagnetic metals, oxides, or inorganic semiconductors. First, the basic concepts of

  19. Government Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Salskov-Iversen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    , with clearly defined boundaries between the public and private; and in terms of polycentrism, where power and authority are seen as dispersed among state and nonstate organizations, including business and civil society organizations. Globalization and new media technologies imply changes in the relationship...... democracy and the public sphere; and discourse approaches to studying the intersections of government, organizational change, and information and communication technology....

  20. The History of Soil Science in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, J. M.; Ventura, E., Jr.; Castellanos, J. Z.; Brevik, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    There is a lack of information concerning the history of soil science in developing countries such as Mexico. Soil knowledge in the pre-Colombian era was a notable attribute of indigenous people in Mexico. Mayas and Aztecs classified soils based on properties and land use and developed a terminology still used by locals. International organizations and institutions advocating modern agricultural practices have played an important role in the development of soil science in Mexico, in conjunction with the Green Revolution in which the use of fertilizers for crop production was implemented. Soil fertility, as an area of study, has developed significantly in the country. One of the most significant impacts of the Green Revolution on the development of soil science in Mexico was through academic exchange, in which Mexican soil scientists obtained graduate-level degrees in the United States and later returned to Mexico to conduct research programs. Although Mexico has a long history of soil knowledge, soil scientists are facing several challenges today, including a lack of communication between farmers and scientists, soil erosion, soil contamination, and water usage. Some researchers have suggested that ethnopedological knowledge should be incorporated into modern Mexican soil science.

  1. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  2. Astrobiology in Brazil: early history and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Fabio; Galante, Douglas; Paulino-Lima, Ivan G.; Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Friaça, Amancio C. S.; Lage, Claudia; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; Teixeira, Ramachrisna; Horvath, Jorge E.

    2012-10-01

    This review reports the Brazilian history in astrobiology, as well as the first delineation of a vision of the future development of the field in the country, exploring its abundant biodiversity, highly capable human resources and state-of-the-art facilities, reflecting the last few years of stable governmental investments in science, technology and education, all conditions providing good perspectives on continued and steadily growing funding for astrobiology-related research. Brazil is growing steadily and fast in terms of its worldwide economic power, an effect being reflected in different areas of the Brazilian society, including industry, technology, education, social care and scientific production. In the field of astrobiology, the country has had some important landmarks, more intensely after the First Brazilian Workshop on Astrobiology in 2006. The history of astrobiology in Brazil, however, is not so recent and had its first occurrence in 1958. Since then, researchers carried out many individual initiatives across the country in astrobiology-related fields, resulting in an ever growing and expressive scientific production. The number of publications, including articles and theses, has particularly increased in the last decade, but still counting with the effort of researchers working individually. That scenario started to change in 2009, when a formal group of Brazilian researchers working with astrobiology was organized, aiming at congregating the scientific community interested in the subject and to promote the necessary interactions to achieve a multidisciplinary work, receiving facilities and funding from the University de Sao Paulo and other funding agencies.

  3. [Psychiatric case history of Vincent van Gogh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meekeren, E

    2000-12-23

    Much has been written about Vincent van Gogh's pathological condition. Most authors base their various diagnoses on the symptoms he exhibited in the last years of his life. However, Van Gogh during a much longer part of his life displayed symptoms best consistent with a borderline (personality) disorder: impulsivity, variable moods, self-destructive behaviour, fear of abandonment, an unbalanced self-image, authority conflicts and other complicated relationships. The precipitating element disturbing Vincent's psychic balance--delicate in any case due to a positive family history, malnutrition, intoxication and exhaustion and the borderline disorder--may have been his being deserted by his friend Gauguin. He (also) developed an organic psychosyndrome with psychotic and epileptic elements. The stress (due to social isolation, by his being a psychiatric patient, and by poor prospects), the intoxication going on outside the hospitals and especially also the problems relating to his brother Theo caused a downward spiral culminating in suicide.

  4. [History of psychiatric legislation in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Ester; Dario, Claudia; Piazzi, Gioia; Fiori Nastro, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The different models of mental illness which have followed one another in Italian psychiatry have been linked to the history of psychiatric legislation and its various attempts at reform. The first law of the newly United State which unified legislations and former procedures, whose prevalent psychiatric theories were those that referred to degeneration, was the law 36/1904 that set up the asylums. Accordingly psychiatric praxis was focused on social protection and custody, given that the mentally ill was seen as incurable; Fascism added the inmate's obligation to be enrolled in the judicial register. Afterwards numerous attempts to reform the psychiatric legislation were made that eventually gave rise to law 431/1968 which paved the way to territorial psychiatry. Law 180/1978 changed the organization of Italian psychiatry abolishing asylums and the concept of dangerousness, including psychiatry in the National Health Service but adopting an idea of mental illness as simply social unease.

  5. Neurofibromatosis: chronological history and current issues*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, João Roberto; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Trídico, Lívia Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis, which was first described in 1882 by Von Recklinghausen, is a genetic disease characterized by a neuroectodermal abnormality and by clinical manifestations of systemic and progressive involvement which mainly affect the skin, nervous system, bones, eyes and possibly other organs. The disease may manifest in several ways and it can vary from individual to individual. Given the wealth of information about neurofibromatosis, we attempted to present this information in different ways. In the first part of this work, we present a chronological history, which describes the evolution of the disease since the early publications about the disorder until the conclusion of this work, focusing on relevant aspects which can be used by those wishing to investigate this disease. In the second part, we present an update on the various aspects that constitute this disease. PMID:23793209

  6. Neurofibromatosis: chronological history and current issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, João Roberto; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Trídico, Lívia Arroyo

    2013-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis, which was first described in 1882 by Von Recklinghausen, is a genetic disease characterized by a neuroectodermal abnormality and by clinical manifestations of systemic and progressive involvement which mainly affect the skin, nervous system, bones, eyes and possibly other organs. The disease may manifest in several ways and it can vary from individual to individual. Given the wealth of information about neurofibromatosis, we attempted to present this information in different ways. In the first part of this work, we present a chronological history, which describes the evolution of the disease since the early publications about the disorder until the conclusion of this work, focusing on relevant aspects which can be used by those wishing to investigate this disease. In the second part, we present an update on the various aspects that constitute this disease.

  7. The history of a lesson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    2003-01-01

    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson is thus...... one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western conception...... of what defines peace and security even in the 'war against terrorism'....

  8. Two books History of Cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Husak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two valuable books were published under the title History of Cartography in the group Lecture Notes and the subgroup Publications of the International Cartographic Association. The books were published as a result of collaboration between International Cartographic Association (ICA and the Springer-Verlag publishing company and contain most papers from the following symposia:3rd International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography at University of Texas in Arlington, October 11–12, (URL 1 with the theme Charting the Cartography of Chartered Companies and4th International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography, at Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, Hungary, June 28–29, 2012 (URL 2 with the theme Exploration – Discovery – Cartography.

  9. A brief history of videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Belli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The following text contains a brief journey through a short and yet intense adventure, the history of videogames. Since its beginnings in the 1950's decade to the present time, videogames have progressively changed from a hobby for ingeneering studens to the most powerfull leisure industry. In order to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon it is necessary to look over the path of its transformation from a retrospecive point of view. Such a look has necessarily to focus on those devices and games that had made a landmark in the history of videogames, taking them to their current position. Besides, it is crucial to address their implications in contemporary visual culture, along with current prejudices against them. This is a short account about a great history.

  10. BRS `Symmetry’, prehistory and history

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carlo M Becchi

    2012-06-01

    Prehistory – Starting from ’t Hooft’s (1971) we have a short look at Taylor’s and Slavnov’s works (1971–72) and at the lectures given by Rouet and Stora in Lausanne (1973) which determine the transition from pre-history to history. History – We give a brief account of the main analyses and results of the BRS collaboration concerning the renormalized gauge theories, in particular the method of the regularization-independent, algebraic renormalization, the algebraic proof of S-matrix unitarity and that of gauge choice independence of the renormalized physics. We conclude this report with a suggestion to the crucial question: what could remain of BRS invariance beyond perturbation theory.

  11. Quantum Histories and their Implications

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1996-01-01

    It was recently pointed out that, using two different sets in the consistent histories formalism, one can conclude that the system state is definitely in a given subspace $A$ of the state space at a given time and that the system state is definitely not in a larger subspace $B \\supset A$. This raises the question as to whether, if standard quantum theory applies to the macroscopic realm, we should necessarily expect the quasiclassical physics we actually observe to respect subspace implications. I give here a new criterion, ordered consistency, with the property that inferences made by ordered consistent sets do not violate subspace relations. The criterion allows a precise version of the question to be formulated: do the operators defining our observations form an ordered consistent history? It also defines a version of quantum theory which has greater predictive power than the standard consistent histories formalism.

  12. Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli; Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2009-01-01

    generate dynamic heterogeneity: life-history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov chain: the entropy, which describes the extent of heterogeneity, and the subdominant eigenvalue, which...... distributions of lifetime reproductive success. Dynamic heterogeneity contrasts with fixed heterogeneity: unobserved differences that generate variation between life histories. We show by an example that observed distributions of lifetime reproductive success are often consistent with the claim that little...... or no fixed heterogeneity influences this trait. We propose that dynamic heterogeneity provides a 'neutral' model for assessing the possible role of unobserved 'quality' differences between individuals. We discuss fitness for dynamic life histories, and the implications of dynamic heterogeneity...

  13. Beyond Cultural History? The Material Turn, Praxiography, and Body History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruberg, Willemijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/183926587; Clever, Iris

    2014-01-01

    The body came to be taken seriously as a topic of cultural history during the “corporeal” or “bodily” turn in the 1980s and 1990s. Soon, however, critique was raised against these studies’ conceptualization of the body as discursively shaped and socially disciplined: individual bodily agency and

  14. History without time: Buffon's natural history as a nonmathematical physique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    While "natural history" is practically synonymous with the name of Buffon, the term itself has been otherwise overlooked by historians of science. This essay attempts to address this omission by investigating the meanings of "physique," "natural philosophy," and "history," among other terms, with the purpose of understanding Buffon's actual objectives. It also shows that Buffon never claimed to be a Newtonian and should not be considered as such; the goal is to provide a historical analysis that resituates Buffon's thought within his own era. This is done, primarily, by eschewing the often-studied question of time in Buffon. Instead, this study examines the nontemporal meanings of the word "history" within the naturalist's theory and method. The title of his Natural History is examined both as an indicator of the kind of science that Buffon was hoping to achieve and as a source of great misinterpretation among his peers. Unlike Buffon, many of his contemporaries actually envisioned the study of nature from a Baconian perspective where history was restricted to the mere collection of facts and where philosophy, which was the implicit and ultimate goal of studying nature, was seen, at least for the present, as unrealizable. Buffon confronts this tendency insofar as his Histoire naturelle claims to be the real physique that, along with describing nature, also sought to identify general laws and provide clear insight into what true knowledge of nature is or should be. According to Buffon, history (both natural and civil) is not analogous to mathematics; it is a nonmathematical method whose scope encompasses both nature and society. This methodological stance gives rise to the "physicization" of certain moral concepts--a gesture that was interpreted by his contemporaries as Epicurean and atheist. In addition, Buffon reduces a number of metaphysically tainted historical concepts (e.g., antediluvian monuments) to objects of physical analysis, thereby confronting the very

  15. Time, history and international law

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, Matthew; Vogiatzi, Maria

    2006-01-01

    This book examines theoretical and practical issues concerning the relationship between international law, time and history. Problems relating to time and history are ever-present in the work of international lawyers, whether understood in terms of the role of historic practice in the doctrine of sources, the application of the principle of inter-temporal law in dispute settlement, or in gaining a coherent insight into the role that was played by international law in past events. But very little has been written about the various different ways in which international lawyers approach or unders

  16. HISTORY BASED PROBABILISTIC BACKOFF ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendran Rajagopalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance of Wireless LAN can be improved at each layer of the protocol stack with respect to energy efficiency. The Media Access Control layer is responsible for the key functions like access control and flow control. During contention, Backoff algorithm is used to gain access to the medium with minimum probability of collision. After studying different variations of back off algorithms that have been proposed, a new variant called History based Probabilistic Backoff Algorithm is proposed. Through mathematical analysis and simulation results using NS-2, it is seen that proposed History based Probabilistic Backoff algorithm performs better than Binary Exponential Backoff algorithm.

  17. History and science of knots

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, J C

    1996-01-01

    This book brings together twenty essays on diverse topics in the history and science of knots. It is divided into five parts, which deal respectively with knots in prehistory and antiquity, non-European traditions, working knots, the developing science of knots, and decorative and other aspects of knots.Its authors include archaeologists who write on knots found in digs of ancient sites (one describes the knots used by the recently discovered Ice Man); practical knotters who have studied the history and uses of knots at sea, for fishing and for various life support activities; a historian of l

  18. Dvije knjige History of Cartography

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Zahvaljujući suradnji International Cartographic Association (ICA) i izdavačke kuće Springer-Verlag u skupini Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography i podskupini Publications of the International Cartographic Association objavljene su dvije vrijedne knjige pod naslovom History of Cartography koje sadrže većinu radova sa simpozija: 3rd International Symposium of the ICA Commission on the History of Cartography na University of Texas u Arlingtonu, 11–12. listopada 2010. (URL 1) s o...

  19. Does labor market history matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2014-01-01

    This paper finds that labor market history plays an important role in the Danish labor market both by directly affecting the transitions between labor market states and indirectly through the wage. When comparing the relative importance of different types of state dependence, it is found...... that occurrence dependence from non-employment states seems to have the strongest effect on the employment rate, while employment history is the main driver of state dependence in the wage. Predictions based on the estimated model reveal potential negative long-term effects from external employment shocks...... and potential positive benefits from employment programs for long-term unemployed....

  20. Design Paradigms in Car History

    OpenAIRE

    Dowlen, CMC

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research into Design Paradigms in Car History is to evaluate how production car design has changed over the last hundred and twenty-five years or so, using numerical analyses of specific cars, which act as exemplars. This evaluation should lead to a better understanding of car design history and how car designers think. Design thinking can be evidenced from how products have changed over the course of time. Design paradigms have been used to produce a structured analysis o...