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Sample records for group-average gdt z-score

  1. The Mystery of the Z-Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alexander E; Smith, Tanya A; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-08-01

    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use.

  2. A pediatric echocardiographic Z-score nomogram for a developing country: Indian pediatric echocardiography study – The Z-score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhroo, Rajendra Kumar; Anantharaj, Avinash; Bisht, Devendra; Kishor, Kamal; Plakkal, Nishad; Aghoram, Rajeswari; Mondal, Nivedita; Pandey, Shashi K; Roy, Ramsagar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Almost all presently available pediatric echocardiography Z-score nomograms are based on Western data. They may not be a suitable reference standard for assessing the sizes of cardiac structures of children from developing countries. Objective: This study's objective was to collect normative data of 21 commonly measured cardiovascular structures using M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography in Indian children aged between 4 and 15 years and to derive Z-score nomograms for each. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at two centers in India - Ajmer, Rajasthan, and Mohali, Punjab. We studied a community-based sample involving healthy school going children. After excluding children with cardiovascular abnormalities on the screening echocardiogram, 746 children were included in the final analysis. Echocardiographic assessment was performed using a Philips iE33 system. Results and Analysis: For each parameter measured, seven models were evaluated to assess the relationship of that parameter with the body surface area and the one with the best fit was used to plot the Z-score chart for that parameter. Z score charts were thus derived. Conclusions: The Z-score nomograms derived by this study may be better alternatives to the Western nomograms for use in India and other developing countries for preprocedural decision making in the pediatric population. However, they will require validation in large-scale studies before they can become clinically applicable. PMID:28163426

  3. Illustration of SSMD, z score, SSMD*, z* score, and t statistic for hit selection in RNAi high-throughput screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2011-08-01

    Hit selection is the ultimate goal in many high-throughput screens. Various analytic methods are available for this purpose. Some commonly used ones are z score, z* score, strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD), SSMD*, and t statistic. It is critical to know how to use them correctly because the misusage of them can readily produce misleading results. Here, the author presents basic concepts, elaborates their commonality and difference, describes some common misusage that people should avoid, and uses simulated simple examples to illustrate how to use them correctly.

  4. 27. New echocardiogram index alternatives to MAPSE and TAPSE z-scores in children

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    Ziad Issa

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: LSI obviates need for-MAPSE z scores. RSI offers an additional non TAPSE z-score method to evaluate RV function, but does not nullify age effect. RSI, especially in the first two months is decreased.

  5. Gdt2 regulates the transition of Dictyostelium cells from growth to differentiation

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    Anjard Christophe

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dictyostelium life cycle consists of two distinct phases – growth and development. The control of growth-differentiation transition in Dictyostelium is not completely understood, and only few genes involved in this process are known. Results We have isolated a REMI (restriction enzyme-mediated integration mutant, which prematurely initiates multicellular development. When grown on a bacterial lawn, these cells aggregate before the bacteria are completely cleared. In bacterial suspension, mutant cells express the developmental marker discoidin Iγ even at low cell densities and high concentrations of bacteria. In the absence of nutrients, mutant cells aggregate more rapidly than wild type, but the rest of development is unaffected and normal fruiting bodies are formed. The disrupted gene shows substantial homology to the recently described gdt1 gene, and therefore was named gdt2. While GDT1 and GDT2 are similar in many ways, there are intriguing differences. GDT2 contains a well conserved protein kinase domain, unlike GDT1, whose kinase domain is probably non-functional. The gdt2 and gdt1 mRNAs are regulated differently, with gdt2 but not gdt1 expressed throughout development. The phenotypes of gdt2- and gdt1- mutants are related but not identical. While both initiate development early, gdt2- cells grow at a normal rate, unlike gdt1- mutants. Protein kinase A levels and activity are essentially normal in growing gdt2- mutants, implying that GDT2 regulates a pathway that acts separately from PKA. Gdt1 and gdt2 are the first identified members of a family containing at least eight closely related genes. Conclusions We have isolated and characterised a new gene, gdt2, which acts to restrain development until conditions are appropriate. We also described a family of related genes in the Dictyostelium genome. We hypothesise that different family members might control similar cellular processes, but respond to different

  6. Z-Score-Based Modularity for Community Detection in Networks.

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    Miyauchi, Atsushi; Kawase, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Identifying community structure in networks is an issue of particular interest in network science. The modularity introduced by Newman and Girvan is the most popular quality function for community detection in networks. In this study, we identify a problem in the concept of modularity and suggest a solution to overcome this problem. Specifically, we obtain a new quality function for community detection. We refer to the function as Z-modularity because it measures the Z-score of a given partition with respect to the fraction of the number of edges within communities. Our theoretical analysis shows that Z-modularity mitigates the resolution limit of the original modularity in certain cases. Computational experiments using both artificial networks and well-known real-world networks demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed quality function.

  7. Measuring malnutrition -The role of Z scores and the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF)

    OpenAIRE

    Seetharaman N; Chacko T; Shankar SLR; Mathew A

    2007-01-01

    Background : The current WHO recommendation is to use the Z-Score or SD system to grade undernutrition which allows us to measure all the three indices and express the results in terms of Z scores or standard deviation units from the median of the international reference population. Objectives : To estimate the prevalence of undernutrition among under-five children in Coimbatore slums, using the Z-Score system of classification and the recently constructed Composite Index of Anthropometric...

  8. Mid-upper-arm-circumference and mid-upper-arm circumference z-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Andersen, A; Fisker, A B

    2012-01-01

    Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is a simple method of assessing nutritional status in children above 6 months of age. In 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a MUAC z-score for children above 3 months of age. We evaluated whether MUAC or MUAC z-score had the best ability to identify...

  9. The Z - Score Model for Predicting Periods o f Financial I nstability. Z - Score Estimation for the Banks Listed o n Bucharest Stock Exchange

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    Irina – Raluca Badea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Financial stability is an ongoing concern for practitioners, policy makers, but also for banks, especially in terms of quantifying it. Therefore, this paper consists of a theoretical approach in conjunction with an applicative study based on an alternative measure of financial stability, namely the Z-score model proposed by Altman. The Z-score model, although originally designed for manufacturing companies, has been repeatedly adjusted, depending on the activity of the company which applies the model and the development of the operating market. Thus, from a sample of banks listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange, we determined the Z-score function for the period 2012-2014, outlining the evolution of their financial stability according to the classification results.

  10. Z-Score LORETA Neurofeedback as a Potential Therapy in Cognitive Dysfunction and Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Koberda J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction of QEEG/LORETA electrical brain imaging has improved our diagnostic ability in neuropsychiatric practice by enhancing identification of dysregulated cortical areas implicated in patient symptoms. Additional use of LORETA Z-score neuro feedback (NFB) enables us to directly target these areas of dysregulation in order to improve associated symptoms. Based on the review of 250 patients treated in our clinic suffering from neuropsychiatric illness and treated with Z-score LORETA NFB,...

  11. Screening for recombinant human erythropoietin using [Hb], reticulocytes, the OFF(hr score), OFF(z score) and Hb(z score): status of the Blood Passport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornø, Andreas; Aachmann-Andersen, Niels J; Munch-Andersen, Thor; Hulston, Carl J; Lundby, Carsten

    2010-06-01

    Haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), reticulocyte percentage (retic%) and OFF(hr score) are well-implemented screening tools to determine potential recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) abuse in athletes. Recently, the International Cycling Union implemented the OFF(z score) and the Hb(z score) in their anti-doping testing programme. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of these indirect screening methods. Twenty-four human subjects divided into three groups with eight subjects each (G1; G2 and G3) were injected with rHuEpo. G1 and G2 received rHuEpo for a 4-week period with 2 weeks of "boosting" followed by 2 weeks of "maintenance" and a wash-out period of 3 weeks. G3 received rHuEpo for a 10-week period (boost = 3 weeks; maintenance = 7 weeks; wash out = 1 week). Three, seven and eight of the 24 volunteers exceeded the cut-off limits for OFF(hr score), [Hb] and retic%, respectively. One subject from G1, nobody from G2, and seven subjects from G3 exceeded the cut-off limit for Hb(z score.) In total, ten subjects exceeded the cut-off limit for the OFF(z score); two subjects from G1, two subjects from G2 and six subjects from G3. In total, indirect screening methods were able to indicate rHuEpo injections in 58% of subjects. However, 42% of our rHuEpo-injected subjects were not detected. It should be emphasised that the test frequency in real world anti-doping is far less than the present study, and hence the detection rate will be lower.

  12. Neurofeedback for insomnia: a pilot study of Z-score SMR and individualized protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Barbara U; Colbert, Agatha P; Brown, Kimberly A; Ilioi, Elena C

    2011-12-01

    Insomnia is an epidemic in the US. Neurofeedback (NFB) is a little used, psychophysiological treatment with demonstrated usefulness for treating insomnia. Our objective was to assess whether two distinct Z-Score NFB protocols, a modified sensorimotor (SMR) protocol and a sequential, quantitative EEG (sQEEG)-guided, individually designed (IND) protocol, would alleviate sleep and associated daytime dysfunctions of participants with insomnia. Both protocols used instantaneous Z scores to determine reward condition administered when awake. Twelve adults with insomnia, free of other mental and uncontrolled physical illnesses, were randomly assigned to the SMR or IND group. Eight completed this randomized, parallel group, single-blind study. Both groups received fifteen 20-min sessions of Z-Score NFB. Pre-post assessments included sQEEG, mental health, quality of life, and insomnia status. ANOVA yielded significant post-treatment improvement for the combined group on all primary insomnia scores: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI pz-tests pZ-Score NFB groups improved in sleep and daytime functioning. Post-treatment, all participants were normal sleepers. Because there were no significant differences in the findings between the two groups, our future large scale studies will utilize the less burdensome to administer Z-Score SMR protocol.

  13. Electron cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, D. V.; Shalashov, A. G.; Gospodchikov, E. D.; Solomakhin, A. L.; Savkin, V. Ya.; Bagryansky, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new plasma startup scenario in the gas dynamic trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target (‘seed plasma’), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition of approximately 1 ms the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. This paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECRH, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of the consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences from the conventional scenario are discussed. A theoretical model describing the ECR breakdown and the seed plasma accumulation in a large-scale mirror trap is developed on the basis of the GDT experiment.

  14. Analisis Potensi Kebangkrutan PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. dengan Menggunakan Altman’s Z Score

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    Iswandi Iswandi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available PT. Berlian Laju Tanker, Tbk. (BLTA is a company engaged in the ocean transportation services listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and the Singapore Stock Exchange. In 2009 and 2010 BLTA experienced a net loss. At the end of 2011 the company rocked the financial markets in Indonesia and Singapore being unable to meet financial obligations to financial institutions and corporate bondholders. Given such conditions until the end of August 2012 BLTA can not submit audited financial statement of year 2011 to the authorities of stock exchange and public. By using the 2007 to 2010 audited financial statements and June 2011 inhouse financial statement were analyzed using Altman's Z score model can be known that since 2007 BLTA produce a Z score were classified bankruptcy. Investors should analyze the financial condition by using Z Score in order to minimized shareholders and bondholders potential losses.

  15. WQbZS: Wavelet Quantization by Z-Scores for JPEG2000

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    Jesus Jaime Moreno-Escobar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this document we present a methodology to quantize wavelet coefficients for any wavelet-base entropy coder, we apply it in the particular case of JPEG2000. Any compression system have three main steps: Transformation in terms of fre-quency, Quantization and Entropy Coding. The only responsible for reducing or maintaining precision is the second element, Quantization, since it is the element of lossy compression that reduces the precision of dequantized pixels in order to make quantized pixels more compressible. We modify the well-known dead zone scalar Quantization introducing Z-Scores in the pro-cess. Thus, Z-scores are expressed in terms of standard deviations from their means. Resultantly, these z-scores have a distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1, in this way we increase redundancies into the image, which produces a lower compression ratio.

  16. ANALISIS KEBANGKRUTAN MENGUNAKAN MODEL Z-SCORE PADA PERUSAHAAN PERTAMBANGAN YANG TERDAFTAR DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    -, RESTMENROMPON

    2013-01-01

    2013 The purpose of this study was to determine and predict the potential for bankruptcy based on the analysis of Z-Scor e. From the analysis of the Z-Score can be used to detect potential bankruptcy. Z-Score value is the value of Z mempuyai to classify whether financially healthy company that had kebangkrutan.Penelitian detected using descriptive method to the type of case study research, where the object of research is that mining companies PT Antam Tbk, PT Bumi R...

  17. Z-Score LORETA Neurofeedback as a Potential Therapy in Cognitive Dysfunction and Dementia

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    Lucas Koberda J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of QEEG/LORETA electrical brain imaging has improved our diagnostic ability in neuropsychiatric practice by enhancing identification of dysregulated cortical areas implicated in patient symptoms. Additional use of LORETA Z-score neuro feedback (NFB enables us to directly target these areas of dysregulation in order to improve associated symptoms. Based on the review of 250 patients treated in our clinic suffering from neuropsychiatric illness and treated with Z-score LORETA NFB, analysis of cases of cognitive dysfunction and dementia are presented. Specific areas of dysregulation attributed to particular conditions identified by LORETA are discussed. Follow up findings of QEEG/LORETA electrical imaging after NFB therapy (including computerized cognitive testing results are shown. This paper summarizes my experience with LORETA Z-score NFB as a tool for therapy of cognitive dysfunction. In addition, this form of NFB is able to improve cognitive functions of individuals suffering from memory, information processing and other cognitive dysfunctions. Extensive presentations of selected cases are used for demonstration of results from my practice. Twenty five out of 35 patients (71% who suffered from static cognitive dysfunction were identified as having an objective improvement (on average 10 points through cognitive testing with NFB therapy. In addition, the subjective cognitive improvement and an objective reduction of QEEG abnormalities with NFB were also achieved in most of the patients. These results are very promising and indicate good effectiveness of LORETA Z-score NFB as cognitive enhancement tool.

  18. Z-Score Demystified: A Critical Analysis of the Sri Lankan University Admission Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnapala, Yajni; Silva, Karishma

    2011-01-01

    In the year 2001, the University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka successfully appealed to change the method of determining the cut-off scores for university admissions from raw scores to standardized z-scores. This standardization allegedly eliminated the discrepancy caused due to the assumption of equal difficulty levels across all subjects. This…

  19. Optimal Z-Score Use in Surgical Decision-Making in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awori, Mark Nelson; Mehta, Nikita P; Mitema, Frederick O; Kebba, Naomi

    2017-05-01

    In the surgical treatment of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, the size of the tricuspid valve annulus (as measured by z-scores) has emerged as a significant factor in deciding which repair to perform. Various tricuspid valve annulus z-scores are reported as "cutoffs" for successful biventricular repair. We aimed to determine whether the use of different z-score data sets contributed to the gross variation in "cutoffs" for successful biventricular repair reported in the literature. A single search was made of PubMed using the "advanced" setting with the following search terms: pulmonary, atresia, intact, septum, z, and score. The filters "title" and "title/abstract" were used for the first four and last two terms, respectively; the instruction "AND" combined all terms. Articles that identified which z-score data set was used in patients with biventricular repairs were included. From 13 articles, 1,392 patients were studied, 410 (29.5%) of which achieved biventricular repair. Three z-score data sets were quoted; mean tricuspid valve annulus z-scores in biventricular repair patients ranged between -0.53 and -5.1. After correcting for discrepancies between z-score data sets, no study reported a mean tricuspid valve annulus z-score -1.7. The use of varied tricuspid valve annuli z-score data sets may have contributed to gross variations in reported "cutoffs" for successful biventricular repair. This could lead to inappropriate surgical pathway allocation.

  20. [Neurological diseases and SPECT--analysis using easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    We developed a method for automated diagnosis of brain perfusion SPECT and designated this method as an easy Z-score imaging system (eZIS). In this software program, voxel-by-voxel Z-score analysis after voxel normalization to global mean or cerebellar values; Z-score = ( [control mean] - [individual value] )/ (control SD) is performed. These Z-score maps are displayed by overlay on tomographic sections and by projection with averaged Z-score of 14mm thickness to surface rendering of the anatomically standardized MRI template. Anatomical standardization of SPECT images into a stereotactic space is performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 2. This program has an advantage of capability of incorporation of SPM results into automated analysis of Z-score values as a volume of interest (VOI). A specific VOI can be determined by group comparison of SPECT images for patients with a neuropsychiatric disease with those for healthy volunteers using SPM. Even if a center can construct a normal database with good quality comprising a large number of healthy volunteers, other centers have not been able to use this normal database because of differences between the used gamma cameras, collimators and physical correction algorithms. Since SPECT exhibits greater variations in image quality among different centers than PET, conversion of SPECT images may be necessary for sharing a normal database. In this eZIS software, we incorporated a newly developed program for making it possible to share a normal database in SPECT studies. A Hoffman 3-dimensional brain phantom experiment was conducted to determine systematic differences between SPECT scanners. SPECT images for the brain phantom were obtained using two different scanners. Dividing these two phantom images after anatomical standardization by SPM created a 3-dimensional conversion map. The use of a conversion map obtained from SPECT images of the same phantom provided very similar SPECT data despite extreme differences

  1. Z-score linear discriminant analysis for EEG based brain-computer interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhang

    Full Text Available Linear discriminant analysis (LDA is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA, which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy.

  2. Evidential Value That Exercise Improves BMI z-Score in Overweight and Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2015-01-01

    Background. Given the cardiovascular disease (CVD) related importance of understanding the true effects of exercise on adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents, this study examined whether there is evidential value to rule out excessive and inappropriate reporting of statistically significant results, a major problem in the published literature, with respect to exercise-induced improvements in BMI z-score among overweight and obese children and adolescents. Methods. Using data from a previous meta-analysis of 10 published studies that included 835 overweight and obese children and adolescents, a novel, recently developed approach (p-curve) was used to test for evidential value and rule out selective reporting of findings. Chi-squared tests (χ (2)) were used to test for statistical significance with alpha (p) values z-score in overweight and obese children and adolescents, an important therapeutic strategy for treating and preventing CVD.

  3. Z-score linear discriminant analysis for EEG based brain-computer interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Xu, Peng; Guo, Lanjin; Zhang, Yangsong; Li, Peiyang; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is one of the most popular classification algorithms for brain-computer interfaces (BCI). LDA assumes Gaussian distribution of the data, with equal covariance matrices for the concerned classes, however, the assumption is not usually held in actual BCI applications, where the heteroscedastic class distributions are usually observed. This paper proposes an enhanced version of LDA, namely z-score linear discriminant analysis (Z-LDA), which introduces a new decision boundary definition strategy to handle with the heteroscedastic class distributions. Z-LDA defines decision boundary through z-score utilizing both mean and standard deviation information of the projected data, which can adaptively adjust the decision boundary to fit for heteroscedastic distribution situation. Results derived from both simulation dataset and two actual BCI datasets consistently show that Z-LDA achieves significantly higher average classification accuracies than conventional LDA, indicating the superiority of the new proposed decision boundary definition strategy.

  4. Identification of Outliers in Grace Data for Indo-Gangetic Plain Using Various Methods (Z-Score, Modified Z-score and Adjusted Boxplot) and Its Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.

    2015-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data are widely used for the hydrological studies for large scale basins (≥100,000 sq km). GRACE data (Stokes Coefficients or Equivalent Water Height) used for hydrological studies are not direct observations but result from high level processing of raw data from the GRACE mission. Different partner agencies like CSR, GFZ and JPL implement their own methodology and their processing methods are independent from each other. The primary source of errors in GRACE data are due to measurement and modeling errors and the processing strategy of these agencies. Because of different processing methods, the final data from all the partner agencies are inconsistent with each other at some epoch. GRACE data provide spatio-temporal variations in Earth's gravity which is mainly attributed to the seasonal fluctuations in water level on Earth surfaces and subsurface. During the quantification of error/uncertainties, several high positive and negative peaks were observed which do not correspond to any hydrological processes but may emanate from a combination of primary error sources, or some other geophysical processes (e.g. Earthquakes, landslide, etc.) resulting in redistribution of earth's mass. Such peaks can be considered as outliers for hydrological studies. In this work, an algorithm has been designed to extract outliers from the GRACE data for Indo-Gangetic plain, which considers the seasonal variations and the trend in data. Different outlier detection methods have been used such as Z-score, modified Z-score and adjusted boxplot. For verification, assimilated hydrological (GLDAS) and hydro-meteorological data are used as the reference. The results have shown that the consistency amongst all data sets improved significantly after the removal of outliers.

  5. Blood lipid profile and BMI-Z-score in adolescents with hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, M J; Wasilewska, N; Wicklund-Liland, L I; Wasilewska, A

    2015-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that elevated serum uric acid concentration (SUA) is correlated with lipid profile in hypertensive or obese patients. However, the relationship between serum uric acid levels and lipid profile in non-obese late adolescent population was not examined before. In this study we decided to assess the potential relationship between SUA and lipid profile, according to gender in adolescents with HU. The study group comprises 607 Polish adolescents (474 males, 133 females) with HU. Retrospective analysis included demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Lipid profile was assessed including total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol to HDL-C ratio (TC/HDL-C). In the examined group 187/607 (31%) of teenagers were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Median BMI-Z-score was 1.11 Q1-Q3: (-0.02-2.03) and both females and males in the upper tertile of SUA had statistically significant higher BMI-Z-score. The males in the upper tertile of serum uric acid levels also had higher values of TG and lower of HDL-C. In females, we have not found significant differences in lipid profile. Multiple regression analyses indicated that male gender, BMI-Z-score, and presence of hypertension correlated significantly with serum uric acid concentration. In summary, the results of our study confirm higher prevalence of hyperuricemia in males when compared to females and a stronger association of HU with BMI-Z-score and lipid profile in male adolescents. Nevertheless, multiple regression does not confirm the independent association of SUA with lipid profile.

  6. Use of Z-scores to select a fetal biometric reference curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sananes, N; Guigue, V; Kohler, M; Bouffet, N; Cancellier, M; Hornecker, F; Hunsinger, M C; Kohler, A; Mager, C; Neumann, M; Schmerber, E; Tanghe, M; Nisand, I; Favre, R

    2009-10-01

    Fetal biometric data are a major part of prenatal ultrasound screening in the general population. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of choice of reference curve on the quality of screening for growth abnormalities, using a statistical tool based on Z-scores. The biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC) and femur length (FL) were measured in 9699 ultrasound scans during the second trimester (20-24 weeks of gestation) and 8100 scans during the third trimester (30-34 weeks of gestation). These biometric data were all transformed retrospectively into Z-scores, calculated using five reference curves: those published by Snijders and Nicolaides (1994), Chitty et al. (1994), Kurmanavicius et al. (1999) and Salomon et al. (2006), and curves used at our ultrasound unit generated from a sample of the local population. The Z-score distribution was compared with the expected normal distribution by calculation of the mean and SD, and using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The sensitivity and specificity of each reference curve were calculated to determine the capacity of these curves to identify fetuses with measurements 95(th) percentile for each parameter. Most of the distribution curves determined from the Z-scores of the measurements taken differed significantly from a non-skewed standard normal curve (mean of 0 and SD of 1). In our population, the Chitty reference curves gave the best results for identifying fetuses with abnormal ( 95(th) percentile) BPD (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 97.24%), HC (sensitivity, 96.07%; specificity, 98.89%) and FL (sensitivity, 96.46%; specificity, 98.80%). The best reference for AC was the Salomon curve (sensitivity, 72.25%; specificity, 99.64%). Checking for good concordance between the study population and chosen reference data is a key initial step in quality control. Z-scores are a simple tool for evaluating the performance of each reference curve for a given population in order to

  7. Electron-cyclotron plasma startup in the GDT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, D V; Gospodchikov, E D; Solomakhin, A L; Savkin, V Ya; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on a new plasma startup scenario in the Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) magnetic mirror device. The primary 5 MW neutral beam injection (NBI) plasma heating system fires into a sufficiently dense plasma target ("seed plasma"), which is commonly supplied by an arc plasma generator. In the reported experiments, a different approach to seed plasma generation is explored. One of the channels of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) heating system is used to ionize the neutral gas and build up the density of plasma to a level suitable for NBI capture. After a short transition (about 1 ms) the discharge becomes essentially similar to a standard one initiated by the plasma gun. The paper presents the discharge scenario and experimental data on the seed plasma evolution during ECR heating, along with the dependencies on incident microwave power, magnetic configuration and pressure of a neutral gas. The characteristics of consequent high-power NBI discharge are studied and differences to the conventional sce...

  8. PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR MODELING THE ALTMAN Z-SCORE FINANCIAL DISTRESS STATUS OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Literature shows some bankruptcy methods for determining the financial distress status of companies and based on this information we chosen Altman statistical model because it has been used a lot in the past and like that it has become a benchmark for other methods. Based on this financial analysis flowchart, programming software was developed that allows the calculation and determination of the bankruptcy probability for a certain rate of failure Z-score, corresponding to a given interval that is equal to the ratio of the number of bankrupt companies and the total number of companies (bankrupt and healthy interval.

  9. Classroom Note: Computational and Conceptual Understanding of the Connections among Standard Deviations, Z-Scores, and Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Melissa Lopez

    2003-01-01

    A structure for learning the connections among standard deviations, z-scores, and normal distributions is presented. The components of this structure are classified into intuitive or previously learned conceptual knowledge, computational knowledge, and formalized conceptual knowledge. (Contains 1 figure.)

  10. Classroom Note: Computational and Conceptual Understanding of the Connections among Standard Deviations, Z-Scores, and Normal Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Melissa Lopez

    2003-01-01

    A structure for learning the connections among standard deviations, z-scores, and normal distributions is presented. The components of this structure are classified into intuitive or previously learned conceptual knowledge, computational knowledge, and formalized conceptual knowledge. (Contains 1 figure.)

  11. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry diagnostic discordance between Z-scores and T-scores in young adults.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carey, John J

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic criteria for postmenopausal osteoporosis using central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) T-scores have been widely accepted. The validity of these criteria for other populations, including premenopausal women and young men, has not been established. The International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) recommends using DXA Z-scores, not T-scores, for diagnosis in premenopausal women and men aged 20-49 yr, though studies supporting this position have not been published. We examined diagnostic agreement between DXA-generated T-scores and Z-scores in a cohort of men and women aged 20-49 yr, using 1994 World Health Organization and 2005 ISCD DXA criteria. Four thousand two hundred and seventy-five unique subjects were available for analysis. The agreement between DXA T-scores and Z-scores was moderate (Cohen\\'s kappa: 0.53-0.75). The use of Z-scores resulted in significantly fewer (McNemar\\'s p<0.001) subjects diagnosed with "osteopenia," "low bone mass for age," or "osteoporosis." Thirty-nine percent of Hologic (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA) subjects and 30% of Lunar (GE Lunar, GE Madison, WI) subjects diagnosed with "osteoporosis" by T-score were reclassified as either "normal" or "osteopenia" when their Z-score was used. Substitution of DXA Z-scores for T-scores results in significant diagnostic disagreement and significantly fewer persons being diagnosed with low bone mineral density.

  12. EuPaGDT: a web tool tailored to design CRISPR guide RNAs for eukaryotic pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Duo; Tarleton, Rick

    2015-10-01

    Recent development of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing has enabled highly efficient and versatile manipulation of a variety of organisms and adaptation of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to eukaryotic pathogens has opened new avenues for studying these otherwise hard to manipulate organisms. Here we describe a webtool, Eukaryotic Pathogen gRNA Design Tool (EuPaGDT; available at http://grna.ctegd.uga.edu), which identifies guide RNA (gRNA) in input gene(s) to guide users in arriving at well-informed and appropriate gRNA design for many eukaryotic pathogens. Flexibility in gRNA design, accommodating unique eukaryotic pathogen (gene and genome) attributes and high-throughput gRNA design are the main features that distinguish EuPaGDT from other gRNA design tools. In addition to employing an array of known principles to score and rank gRNAs, EuPaGDT implements an effective on-target search algorithm to identify gRNA targeting multi-gene families, which are highly represented in these pathogens and play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. EuPaGDT also identifies and scores microhomology sequences flanking each gRNA targeted cut-site; these sites are often essential for the microhomology-mediated end joining process used for double-stranded break repair in these organisms. EuPaGDT also assists users in designing single-stranded oligonucleotides for homology directed repair. In batch processing mode, EuPaGDT is able to process genome-scale sequences, enabling preparation of gRNA libraries for large-scale screening projects.

  13. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan Ck; Girma, Tsinuel;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well...... understood. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. DESIGN: We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy...... composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly tissue masses and length. This trial was registered at www...

  14. Z-score biological significance of binding hot spots of protein interfaces by using crystal packing as the reference state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Wong, Limsoon; Li, Jinyan

    2012-12-01

    Characterization of binding hot spots of protein interfaces is a fundamental study in molecular biology. Many computational methods have been proposed to identify binding hot spots. However, there are few studies to assess the biological significance of binding hot spots. We introduce the notion of biological significance of a contact residue for capturing the probability of the residue occurring in or contributing to protein binding interfaces. We take a statistical Z-score approach to the assessment of the biological significance. The method has three main steps. First, the potential score of a residue is defined by using a knowledge-based potential function with relative accessible surface area calculations. A null distribution of this potential score is then generated from artifact crystal packing contacts. Finally, the Z-score significance of a contact residue with a specific potential score is determined according to this null distribution. We hypothesize that residues at binding hot spots have big absolute values of Z-score as they contribute greatly to binding free energy. Thus, we propose to use Z-score to predict whether a contact residue is a hot spot residue. Comparison with previously reported methods on two benchmark datasets shows that this Z-score method is mostly superior to earlier methods. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Computational Methods for Protein Interaction and Structural Prediction.

  15. Potential role of IGF-1 z score to predict permanent linear growth impairment in children with IBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica J; Mitchell, Paul D; Hood, Helen C; Grand, Richard J; Cohen, Laurie E

    2014-04-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)- and IGF-binding protein-3-for-age z scores from 54 inflammatory bowel disease children with no, temporary, or permanent growth impairment. Although our findings did not reach statistical significance, patients with permanent linear growth impairment had lower IGF-1-for-age z scores (-1.76 [-2.25 to -0.43]) compared with those with no or temporary growth impairment (-0.84 [-1.49 to -0.3]) and -1.16 [-1.59 to -1.51], respectively). IGF-binding protein-3 levels were similar across the 3 groups. In the absence of significant inflammation and malnutrition, lower IGF-1-for-age z scores may help distinguish patients likely to have permanent growth impairment from those whose growth impairment is likely to be temporary.

  16. DETERMINAN PROFITABILITAS BANK MELALUI Z-SCORE, STRUKTUR MODAL, SIZE, RISIKO KREDIT DAN PERMODALAN PADA INDUSTRI PERBANKAN NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ferry Ananda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the influence of the value of the Z-Score, capital structure, size, credit risk and capital as measured by CAR on bank profitability. The object of this study is on the national banking industry. The sampling technique used in this research is purposive sampling. The sample in this study is a bank which went public on the Stock Exchange prior to the year 2013 and to publish financial statements in 2013 and 2014. The samples were 27 banks. Period study in 2013 and 2014. The analysis technique used multiple linear regression. The results showed that simultaneous Z-Score, capital structure, size, credit risk and capital effect on profitability. Partially value of the Z-Score, size, risk and CAR effect on profitability, while the capital structure policy has no effect on profitability.

  17. Regression and Complications of z-score-Based Giant Aneurysms in a Dutch Cohort of Kawasaki Disease Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, S.M.; I.M. Kuipers (Irene); Koole, J.C.D.; J.M.P.J. Breur (Johannes M.P.J.); Fejzic, Z.; Frerich, S.; M. Dalinghaus (Michiel); A.A. Roest; Hutten, B.A.; T.W. Kuijpers (Taco W.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractKawasaki disease (KD) is a pediatric vasculitis. Its main complication is the development of coronary artery aneurysms (CAA), with giant CAA at the end of the spectrum. We evaluated regression and event-free rates in a non-Asian cohort of patients with giant CAA using the current z-score

  18. ANALISIS METODE ALTMAN Z-SCORE DALAM MEMPREDIKSI KEBANGKRUTAN PERUSAHAAN PERTAMBANGAN BATUBARA YANG TERDAFTAR DI BURSA EFEK INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    ARISKA, NUR

    2016-01-01

    2016 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui klasifikasi prediksi kebangkrutan perusahaan pertambangan batubara yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) selama tahun 2012-2014 melalui penerapan analisis Altman Z-Score. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif kuantitatif. Objek penelitiannya adalah sebanyak dua puluh perusahaan pertambangan batubara. Data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah ringkasan laporan keuangan tahunan perusahaan yang d...

  19. The association between glucocorticoid therapy and BMI z-score changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpe, Marie-Louise Hyre; Rørvig, Sascha; Kok, Karin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Few studies have addressed the common issue of weight gain in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) during early phases of treatment, and even fewer have used the appropriate measure for weight fluctuation in children, BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZs). The purpose of this study...

  20. Height-for-age z scores increase despite increasing height deficits among children in 5 developing countries123

    OpenAIRE

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A.; Aryeh D. Stein; Adair, Linda S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Dearden, Kirk A; Gigante,Denise; Norris, Shane A; Richter, Linda M.; Fall, Caroline HD; Martorell, Reynaldo; Sachdev, Harshpal Singh; Victora, Cesar G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Growth failure remains a persistent challenge in many countries, and understanding child growth patterns is critical to the development of appropriate interventions and their evaluation. The interpretation of changes in mean height-for-age z scores (HAZs) over time to define catch-up growth has been a subject of debate. Most studies of child growth have been cross-sectional or have focused on children through age 5 y.

  1. Z-score-based semi-quantitative analysis of the volume of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle on brain CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Noriyuki; Kinoshita, Toshibumi; Ohmura, Tomomi; Lee, Yongbum; Matsuyama, Eri; Toyoshima, Hideto; Tsai, Du-Yih

    2016-01-01

    The volume of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle (THLV) on brain computed tomography (CT) images is important for neurologic diagnosis. Our purpose in this study was to develop a z-score-based semi-quantitative analysis for estimation of the THLV volume by using voxel-based morphometry. The THLV volume was estimated by use of a z-score mapping method that consisted of four main steps: anatomic standardization, construction of a normal reference database, calculation of the z score, and calculation of the mean z score in a volume of interest (VOI). A mean z score of the CT value obtained from a VOI around the THLV was used as an index for the THLV volume. CT scans from 50 subjects were evaluated. For evaluation of the accuracy of this method for estimating the THLV volume, the THLV volume was determined manually by neuroradiologists (serving as the reference volume). A mean z score was calculated from the VOI for each THLV of the 50 subjects by use of the proposed method. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by use of the relationship between the mean z score and the reference volume. The quadratic polynomial regression equation demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the mean z score and the reference volume of the THLV (R (2) = 0.94; P z score captured the reference volume of the THLV. The z-score-based semi-quantitative analysis has the potential quantitatively to estimate the THLV volume on CT images.

  2. First results of electron cyclotron emission measurements at the GDT magnetic mirror

    CERN Document Server

    Shalashov, A G; Gospodchikov, E D; Lubyako, L V; Yakovlev, D V; Bagryansky, P A

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of experiments on electron cyclotron emission (ECE) measurements at the fundamental harmonic recently performed at the axially symmetric magnetic mirror device GDT (Budker Institute, Novosibirsk). New ECE diagnostics is installed to facilitate the successful electron cyclotron resonance heating experiment and operates in the vicinity of the heating frequency of 54.5 GHz. Besides expected emission of thermal electrons, a clearly resolved non-thermal ECE is observed indicating the presence of suprathermal electrons driven by high-power microwave heating. The particulars of plasma emission are studied experimentally in a broad range of discharge scenarios.

  3. Correlation of body mass index Z-scores with glucose and lipid profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-de-Almeida, Carlos Alberto; Mello, Elza Daniel de

    2017-09-04

    To evaluate the prevalence of abnormalities in plasma lipid and glucose profiles among overweight and obese children and adolescents, and to assess the presence of a correlation between body mass index Z-scores and indicators of comorbidities related to both profiles. This was a multicenter cross-sectional study conducted at two outpatient clinics. The study included all 417 comers for the first visit from 2008 to 2012, aged between 7 and 18 years, with BMI above the Z-score +1. Anthropometry and blood sampling were obtained. The prevalence of dyslipidemias, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance were evaluated, together with the correlations of these variables with the increase of Z-BMI. Dyslipidemia was observed in 43.4% of the boys and 66.1% of the girls, with no difference between genders. High glucose levels were detected in 6.2% of the individuals. Insulin resistance was present in 32.3% and 41.7% of the cases, with no statistical significance between boys and girls. Correlations between the Z-BMI were noted for triglycerides in the entire group and among girls; for HDL-c, only among girls; for glucose, a correlation was observed for the entire group, but not when stratified by gender. The indicators of insulin resistance were all correlated with Z-BMI, even when corrected for age. Overweight and obesity give origin to a high prevalence of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. BMI Z-scores showed a weak positive correlation with glucose and triglyceride, and negative with HDL-c. In turn, the strongest positive correlation was found with insulin resistance indicators. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediksi Kebangkrutan Perusahaan Berdasarkan Analisa Model Z-Score Altman Studi Kasus Pada Pt. Telekomunikasi Selular (Telkomsel)

    OpenAIRE

    Andoko

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether the PT. Telkomsel Tbk. predicted to be bankrupt according to Z-score model analysis of the 2010-2012 annual report. Population of this research consists of 7 companies, namely: 6 companies listed on the Stock Exchange add up with PT. Telkomsel Tbk., with 6 companies taken as sample by purposive sampling method Data used in this study is secondary data in the form of financial statements of each sample, which is published in www.telkomsel.com ,...

  5. Z-Score 模型对科技型上市公司财务风险预警的适用性检验%Compatibility Inspects of Z-score Model to Financial Risk of Quoted Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蔚虹; 朱海霞

    2012-01-01

    This paper chooses 20 ST companies which was declared special transactions in 2011 and 20 matched non -ST sized listed companies as samples, By Z - score model, it analyzes the financial data of ST companies and non - ST companies three years before special treat and has the Z - values. By the Z - values, the paper finds that the financing risk warning of Z - score model for the technology enterprise is valid-%选取2011年宣布特别处理的科技型上市公司中的20家ST公司,以及与其同行业、资产总额基本相同的20家非ST公司作为研究样本,利用Z—Score模型分析了ST公司宣布特别处理前三年度非ST公司相对应年度的财务数据,计算得出Z值.通过对Z值的分析,认为Z-Score模型对我国科技型上市公司财务风险的预警是有效的.

  6. Framework for Automated GD&T Inspection Using 3D Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Vimal Kumar; Singh, Amit Kumar; Sivadasan, M.; Singh, N. K.

    2016-08-01

    Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T) is a typical dialect that helps designers, production faculty and quality monitors to convey design specifications in an effective and efficient manner. GD&T has been practiced since the start of machine component assembly but without overly naming it. However, in recent times industries have started increasingly emphasizing on it. One prominent area where most of the industries struggle with is quality inspection. Complete inspection process is mostly human intensive. Also, the use of conventional gauges and templates for inspection purpose highly depends on skill of workers and quality inspectors. In industries, the concept of 3D scanning is not new but is used only for creating 3D drawings or modelling of physical parts. However, the potential of 3D scanning as a powerful inspection tool is hardly explored. This study is centred on designing a procedure for automated inspection using 3D scanner. Linear, geometric and dimensional inspection of the most popular test bar-stepped bar, as a simple example was also carried out as per the new framework. The new generation engineering industries would definitely welcome this automated inspection procedure being quick and reliable with reduced human intervention.

  7. "Z-Score"模型在企业财务预警分析中应用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤娇

    2006-01-01

    文章在系统阐述奥特曼的"Z-Score"模型的基础上,有针对性地选取沪、深两地证券市场共80家企业A股作为样本,对上市公司财务风险进行了实证分析.并且,验证了"Z-Socre"模型在财务风险监测与危机预警中的应用.最后,文章简要分析、研究了财务失败的原因、预防措施以及财务失败后所采取的措施.研究结果表明,"Z-Score"模型时某个行业或某类企业经营风险的整体性分析的指导作用较强,并且随着会计准则与国际接轨、会计信息真实性的提高,其在国内的适用前景将更加广泛.

  8. Weight and height z-scores improve after initiating ART among HIV-infected children in rural Zambia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinywimaanzi Pamela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deficits in growth observed in HIV-infected children in resource-poor settings can be reversed with antiretroviral treatment (ART. However, many of the studies have been conducted in urban areas with older pediatric populations. This study was undertaken to evaluate growth patterns after ART initiation in a young pediatric population in rural Zambia with a high prevalence of undernutrition. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, 193 HIV-infected children were enrolled in a cohort study in Macha, Zambia. Children were evaluated every 3 months, at which time a questionnaire was administered, height and weight were measured, and blood specimens were collected. Weight- and height-for-age z-scores were constructed from WHO growth standards. All children receiving ART at enrollment or initiating ART during the study were included in this analysis. Linear mixed effects models were used to model trajectories of weight and height-for-age z-scores. Results A high proportion of study children were underweight (59% and stunted (72% at treatment initiation. Improvements in both weight- and height-for-age z-scores were observed, with weight-for-age z-scores increasing during the first 6 months of treatment and then stabilizing, and height-for-age z-scores increasing consistently over time. Trajectories of weight-for-age z-scores differed by underweight status at treatment initiation, with children who were underweight experiencing greater increases in z-scores in the first 6 months of treatment. Trajectories of height-for-age z-scores differed by age, with children older than 5 years of age experiencing smaller increases over time. Conclusions Some of the effects of HIV on growth were reversed with ART initiation, although a high proportion of children remained underweight and stunted after two years of treatment. Partnerships between treatment and nutrition programs should be explored so that HIV-infected children can receive optimal nutritional

  9. 运用"Z-Score"预警模型对我国上市公司进行财务分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔莉莉

    2007-01-01

    文章在系统阐述的Altman"Z-Score"模型的基础上,有针对性地选取沪市共10家上市公司作为样本,对上市公司财务风险进行了实证分析.并且,验证了"Z-Score"模型在财务危机预警中的应用.

  10. 78 FR 40541 - GDT Tek, Inc., Gemini Explorations, Inc., Genetic Vectors, Inc., and Global Gate Property Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GDT Tek, Inc., Gemini Explorations, Inc., Genetic Vectors, Inc., and Global Gate Property Corp... accurate information concerning the securities of Genetic Vectors, Inc. because it has not filed...

  11. An SPSS implementation of the nonrecursive outlier deletion procedure with shifting z score criterion (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Glenn L

    2006-05-01

    Sophisticated univariate outlier screening procedures are not yet available in widely used statistical packages such as SPSS. However, SPSS can accept user-supplied programs for executing these procedures. Failing this, researchers tend to rely on simplistic alternatives that can distort data because they do not adjust to cell-specific characteristics. Despite their popularity, these simple procedures may be especially ill suited for some applications (e.g., data from reaction time experiments). A user friendly SPSS Production Facility implementation of the shifting z score criterion procedure (Van Selst & Jolicoeur, 1994) is presented in an attempt to make it easier to use. In addition to outlier screening, optional syntax modules can be added that will perform tedious database management tasks (e.g., restructuring or computing means).

  12. 基于GDT的14MeV中子源初步设计研究%Preliminary design of GDT-based 14 MeV neutron source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜红飞; 陈德鸿; 蒋洁琼; 汪晖; 王福琼; 陈一平; 吴宜灿; FDS团队

    2012-01-01

    To meet the need of D-T fusion neutron source for fusion material testing, design goals were presented in this paper according to the international requirements of neutron source for fusion material testing. A preliminary design scheme of GDT-based 14 MeV neutron source was proposed, and a physics model of the neutron source was built based on progress of GDT experiments. Two preliminary design schemes (i. e. FDS-GDT1, FDS-GDT2) were designed; among which FDS-GDT2 can be used for fusion material testing with neutron first wall loading of 2 MW/m2.%为满足聚变材料测试对D-T聚变中子源的需要,本文首先根据国际上对用于聚变材料测试的中子源的要求给出设计目标,然后基于Gas Dynamic Trap(GDT)装置的实验进展,提出了基于GDT装置的14 MeV中子源的设计初步方案,并建立了GDT中子源的物理模型.计算分析给出了两套中子源参数初步方案,其中FDS-GDT2中子壁负载为2 MW/m2,可用于聚变材料的测试.

  13. [Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in 362 preschool children in Yantai City, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhu-Mei; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Wang, Ai-Hua; Wang, Ai-Li

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in preschool children in Yantai City, China, and to provide scientific evidence for health care in children. A total of 362 children aged 3 to 4 years, whose data were recorded in the National Physical Fitness Survey in Yantai in 2010, were included in the study. Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated. The relationship between Z scores and physical fitness was determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. The mean Z scores were all positive numbers. The prevalence rates of underweight and growth retardation were very low, but that of obesity was relatively high (up to 16.5% in 4-year-old boys). There were differences in physical fitness between children of different ages and between boys and girls (Pdevelopment remain at relatively high levels in preschool children in Yantai. The physical fitness is associated with age and gender in these children. There are weak correlations between Z scores and some physical fitness indices. Effective measures should be taken to adjust dietary habits and promote exercise for children, thus preventing obesity and improving physical fitness.

  14. Účetní výkazy dle IFRS a bankrotní model Z-score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubíčková Dana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Finanční výkazy sestavené dle IFRS podávají jinou výpověď o finanční situaci a výkonnosti firmy ve srovnání s finančními výkazy sestavenými dle českých účetních standardů. Bankrotní model Z-score určený pro predikci vývoje finanční situace, je založen na datech poskytovaných finančními výkazy, lze tedy předpokládat, že jeho hodnota a tedy i predikce dalšího vývoje může být využitím IFRS ovlivněna. Ověření této hypotézy bylo provedeno na vybraném souboru firem. Na základě dat dvou souborů finančních výkazů za stejné období, sestavených dle Českých a dle mezinárodních účetních standardů byly zjištěny hodnoty Z-score a jeho dílčích prvků. Výsledky srovnání předpoklad potvrdily, u většiny firem došlo ke snížení hodnoty Z-score, u jedné pětiny firem ke snížení výsledného hodnocení. Výsledky srovnání jsou obsahem tohoto příspěvku, který vznikl jako jeden z výstupů výzkumného projektu registrovaného u Grantové agentury ČR pod evidenčním číslem č. j. 402/09/0225 „Užití IAS/IFRS v malých a středních podnicích a vliv na měření jejich výkonnosti“, který je řešen na Ústavu financí a účetnictví na FAME UTB Zlín.

  15. Laboratory assessment by combined z score values in proficiency tests: experience gained through the European Union proficiency tests for pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Pastor, P; Mezcua, M; Rodríguez-Torreblanca, C; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2010-08-01

    The obligation for accredited laboratories to participate in proficiency tests under ISO 17025, performing multiresidue methods (MRMs) for pesticide residues, involves the reporting of a large number of individual z scores making the evaluation of the overall performance of the laboratories difficult. It entails, time and again, the need for ways to summarise the laboratory's overall assessment into a unique combined index. In addition, the need for ways to continually evaluate the performance of the laboratory over the years is equally acknowledged. For these reasons, following 14 years of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables (EUPT-FV), useful formulas have been designed to globally evaluate the assessment of the participating laboratories. The aim is to achieve a formula which is easy to understand, which can be applied and which fits the purposes of long-term evaluation detecting positive and negative trends. Moreover, consideration is needed for a fair compensation of bad results in MRM, taking into account the large number of compounds that are covered. It is therefore important to be aware of the difficulties in getting satisfactory values from a wide range of compounds. This work presents an evaluation of the main well-established combined z score formulas together with those new ones developed here which have been applied to the European proficiency test results (EUPTs) over the years. Previous formulas such as the rescaled sum of z score (RSZ), the sum squared of z score (SSZ) and the relative laboratory performance (RLP) are compared with the newer ones: the sum of weighted z scores (SWZ) and the sum of squared z scores (SZ2). By means of formula comparisons, conclusions on the advantages, drawbacks and the most fit-for-purpose approach are achieved.

  16. 基于人群搜索算法的上市公司的 Z-Score 模型财务预警研究%The Z-Score Model Financial Early Warning for Listed Companies Based on Seeker Optimization Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵海蕾; 周方召; 金德环

    2015-01-01

    针对传统的 Z-Score 财务预警模型预警能力的不足,导致无法准确判定上市公司的财务风险状况,将 SOA 算法的良好寻优能力和 Z-Score 财务预警模型结合起来,提出一种改进的 Z-Score 财务预警模型,构建出 SOA 算法优化 Z-Score 财务预警模型的适应度函数。仿真对比发现,改进的 Z-Score 财务预警模型其平均识别率高达96.33%,远远高于 SVM 算法和 AdaBoost 算法的平均识别率,改进的算法极大地提升了 Z-Score 财务预警模型的预测能力,使其更具适应性。%The conventional Z-Score model financial early warning lacks predicative power, making it impossible to accurately determine the financial risk profile of listed companies.It needs to be further optimized to enhance its power.This article combines the optimization ability of SOA with Z-Score financial early warning model algorithms,and proposes an improved Z-Score financial early warning model to construct a SOA algorithm optimization fitness function for the new early warning model.Our simulation result show that the improved Z-Score financial early warning model increases the average recognition rate up to 96.33%,much higher than the aver-age recognition rate of SVM algorithm and AdaBoost algorithm;and the improved algorithm greatly enhances the ability of the Z-Score Financial Early Warning Model by making it more a-daptable.

  17. To Study The Z-Score Model Application Of Listed Companies' Financial Warning In Small & Medium Enterprises In Our Country%"Z-Score"模型在我国中小企业板上市公司财务预警中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡磊

    2008-01-01

    文章在运用Altman 的 "Z-Score" 模型基础上,有针对性地选取我国中小企业板上市公司作为样本,对上市公司财务风险进行了实证分析,验证了"Z-Score"模型在财务危机预警中的应用.

  18. Blood levels related to the Z-score of bone mineral density in young males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Min-Tae; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Lee, Hae-Kag; Ahn, Jae-Ouk

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the blood levels related to the bone mineral density by using the dual energy X-ray absorption for females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old. [Subjects and Methods] Between August 1, and September 15, 2013, the Z-score was measured in females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old using a bone mineral density measuring instrument. After the measurement, the subjects were classified into two groups, that is, the below expectations and within expectations groups. Next, we analyzed and compared the differences in age, body mass index, and blood levels between the 2 groups. [Results] The results showed a correlation of 0.212 for total protein, -0.317 for alanine aminotransferase, -0.199 for gamma-glutamyl transferase, -0.358 for alkaline phosphatase, 0.266 for uric acid, -0.313 for lactate dehydrogenase, 0.244 for creatinine, -0.234 for the red blood cell count, and -0.230 for the red cell distribution width in patients with less than expected level for their age. [Conclusion] In conclusion, osteoporosis may occur in females before menopause and males younger than 50 years old, and aggressive attention is required for prevention and treatment.

  19. Exchange interaction in GdT2 (T=Fe,Co,Ni) from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. B.; Altounian, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The intersites exchange coupling parameters Jij of the Heisenberg model have been studied from a first-principles density functional plus Hubbard U approach calculation and a linear-response method for GdT2 Laves phase with T=Co, Fe, and Ni. The calculated magnetic moments of Gd are well localized and range from 7.3μB to 7.8μB, while the moments of Fe, Co, and Ni are -1.96μB, -1.19μB, and -0.11μB, respectively. The calculated effective exchange interaction parameters J0 of Gd sublattices are 2.62, 1.95, and 1.00 mRy, while those of T sublattices are 6.92, 4.37, and 0.00 mRy for T=Fe, Co, and Ni, respectively. The calculation results indicate that the magnetic ordering is dominated by the Gd sublattice in GdNi2, while the magnetic ordering is mainly determined by the Fe-sublattice in GdFe2.

  20. 探讨Z值诊断股骨近端骨质疏松的意义%The Diagnostic Significance of Z Score in Proximal Femur Osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季志民; 马亚红; 李杰

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨应用Z值(Z-score)诊断绝经前妇女和小于50岁男性股骨近端骨质疏松症(Osteoporosis,OP)的意义.方法 在北京城区2744例正常人群中选择受检者,以股骨近端为测量点进行骨密度(Bone mineral density,BMD)测量观察在受试者中应用Z值对OP的诊断意义并与T值诊断OP的患病率比较.结果 受试者应用Z值诊断OP患病率较应用T值诊断明显降低,但男性在50岁以后出现患病率加速趋势.结论 应用Z值诊断绝经前妇女和小于50岁男性股骨近端OP可以避免过早的诊断OP,但其与骨折风险的相关性将有待于进一步研究.%Objective Aim To explore the diagnostic significance of Z score in proximal femur osteoporosis to pre-menopause women and men younger than 50 years old. Methods Proximal femur was chosen to determine bone mineral density in the cohort of 2744 normal residents in urban area. Z score was obtained and compared with T value in the subjects. Results The incidence rate of osteoporosis diagnosed by Z score was significantly lower than those by T value. However, the incidence becomes increasing for men older than 50 years old. Conclusion Application of Z score for diagnosis of osteoporosis to pre-menopause women and men before 50 could reduce misdiagnosis of osteoporosis at early age, but the relationship to the risk of fracture remains to be determined.

  1. The Application of GDT Based on Android Platform%基于Android平台的GDT应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹燕飞; 胡泽江

    2012-01-01

    随着智能手机的普及,Android手机操作系统平台以其开放性为开发人员提供了免费的SDK软件开发工具包而备受欢迎.Android平台的应用开发逐渐普及.随着人们生活节奏的提高,时间管理显得尤为重要.以GDT时间管理法为理论依据,实现了一款基于Android手机平台的时间管理软件.详细介绍了该软件查询功能模块、收集功能模块、里程碑功能模块,并对软件实现的数据库和系统类结构图进行了说明.初步测试表明,该系统具有友好的用户界面,较高的性能,满足手机用户使用.%With the popularity of smart phone,Android operating system platform with its openness is popular for providing the developers with a free SDK software development kit.The application development of Android platform is gradually popularized.With a faster tempo of life,time management is of a crucial importance.Adopting the GDT time management method,we have developed an Android-based mobile phone platform time management software.The paper gives a detailed introduction to the software inquiry function module,the collecting function module,the landmark function module and also describes the database of software realization and the system structure.Preliminary tests show that the system has a friendly user interface and higher performance and can meet the use of mobile phone users.

  2. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan PT. Indonesia Asahan Aluminium (Persero) Dengan Menggunakan Metode Z-Score Model Altman, Springate, dan Zmijewski Serta Economic Value Added (EVA) Periode 2010-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Pakpahan, Yuliantri Solideo

    2015-01-01

    Methods Z-score Altman models, Springate models and Zmijewski models are the method of analysis to determine whether the financial performance at PT. Indonesia Asahan Aluminium (Persero) leads to bankruptcy or not to obtain data to support and assist in responding to problems that occur in the company and to determine the development of the company's financial performance in 2010-2014. Economic Value Added (EVA) as a method that takes into account the cost of capital as a substitute for th...

  3. The effect of a physical activity consultation on body mass index z-score of overweight adolescents: results from a pediatric outpatient obesity clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira-Silva, A; Fonseca, H

    2017-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) is recognized as having many health benefits. Despite of all the efforts, the majority of the overweight adolescents still present low levels of PA. PA consultation can be a cost-effective way of enhancing PA and improve weight status among overweight adolescents. The main aim of this study was to analyze whether adolescents attending a PA consultation in a clinical setting show more therapeutic success at 6 months, based on body mass index (BMI) z-score and waist circumference (WC), compared to those only followed by the pediatrician and nutritionist. Clinical records from 396 patients were analyzed: PA consultation (PAc) group, n = 198; standard consultation (STc) group, n = 198. Baseline differences between groups were analyzed using chi-square and independent sample t tests. Changes within groups and between groups were analyzed using paired sample t tests and independent sample t tests, respectively. Patients in both groups decreased their BMI z-score. The PAc has shown a higher decrease in the BMI z-score (PAc -0.12, p pediatric and nutrition interventions may further improve the BMI z-score outcome at 6 months. What is Known: • Physical activity (PA) plays an important role in weight management. However, most adolescents, in particular those who are overweight, present low levels of PA. • There is no consensus whether PA counseling influences PA behavior. What is New: • A PA consultation (a structured form of PA counseling) as part of a multidisciplinary team may further be useful for weight management of overweight adolescents followed at the clinical setting, compared to the traditional approach including only the pediatric and nutrition consultations. • Waist-to-height ratio may be more suitable than waist circumference per se to track changes in abdominal adiposity among adolescents who are still growing.

  4. Differences in body mass index z-scores and weight status in a Dutch pediatric psychiatric population with and without use of second-generation antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogd, Sjoerd; Overbeek, Wieske A; Heerdink, Eibert R; Correll, Christoph U; de Graeff, Elisabeth R; Staal, Wouter G

    2012-04-01

    Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. In a chart review study of psychiatric outpatients aged ≤ 18 years treated with SGAs and psychiatric controls without lifetime SGA, use body mass index (BMI) z-scores between patients and controls were compared in the entire sample, patients without co-medications, diagnostic subgroups, and age subgroups. In patients with follow-up data, weight z-score change was calculated. Altogether, 592 Caucasian patients aged 4-18 (mean: 10.0) years with a psychiatric diagnosis were included. BMI z-scores in 96 youth treated with SGAs for 9.0 ± 6.1 months were significantly higher than in 496 patients without lifetime SGA use (0.81 ± 1.1 vs. 0.05 ± 1.2; pz-score differences remained significant in all age groups z-score increased significantly from -0.17 ± 1.5 to 0.25 ± 1.4 (p<0.0001) with 12.5% transitioning to overweight or obese status. These data show robust and significant differences in sex- and age-adjusted body weight and weight status in young pediatric Caucasian samples with and without use of SGAs independent of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (American Psychiatric Association 2000 ) diagnosis and nonantipsychotic medications. Weight status and metabolic effects of SGAs require careful attention, especially in youth.

  5. How you look versus how you feel: Associations between BMI z-score, body dissatisfaction, peer victimization, and self-worth for African American and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Fibbi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1–17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s', early diastole (e', and late diastole (a' was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e' was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s' (β=0.491, p<0.0001 and the strongest determinant of e' (β=0.334, p<0.0001 and E/e' (β=-0.369, p<0.0001. Heart rate was the main determinant of a' (β=0.265, p<0.0001. Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s', suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations.

  7. Reference values of tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity in healthy pediatric patients, calculation of z score, and comparison to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestenberger, Martin; Nagel, Bert; Ravekes, William; Avian, Alexander; Heinzl, Bernd; Cvirn, Gerhard; Fritsch, Peter; Fandl, Andrea; Rehak, Thomas; Gamillscheg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (TAPSV) is an echocardiographic measurement assessing right ventricular systolic function in children and adults. We determined the growth-related changes of the TAPSV to establish the references values for the entire pediatric age group. A prospective study was conducted of a group of 860 healthy pediatric patients (age 1 day to 18 years; body surface area [BSA] 0.14 to 2.30 m(2)). We determined the effects of age, gender, and BSA on the TAPSV values. Stepwise linear multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the TAPSV from the age, BSA, and gender. A correlation of normal TAPSV with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values was performed. The TAPSV ranged from a mean of 7.2 cm/s (z score ± 2: 4.8 to 9.5 cm/s) in the newborn to 14.3 cm/s (z score ± 2: 10.6 to 18.6 cm/s) in the 18-year-old adolescent. The TAPSV values showed a positive correlation with age and BSA, with a nonlinear course. No significant difference was found in the TAPSV values according to gender. A significant correlation was found between the TAPSV and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values in our pediatric population. In conclusion, the z scores of the TAPSV values were calculated, and percentile charts were established to serve as reference data for patients with congenital heart disease.

  8. A Methodology of Analysis for Monitoring Treatment Progression with 19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) in a Single-Subject Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krigbaum, Genomary; Wigton, Nancy L

    2015-09-01

    19-Channel Z-Score Neurofeedback (19ZNF) is a modality using 19-electrodes with real-time normative database z-scores, suggesting effective clinical outcomes in fewer sessions than traditional neurofeedback. Thus, monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome is necessary. The area of focus in this study was a methodology of quantitative analysis for monitoring treatment progression and clinical outcome with 19ZNF. This methodology is noted as the Sites-of-Interest, which included repeated measures analyses of variance (rANOVA) and t-tests for z-scores; it was conducted on 10 cases in a single subject design. To avoid selection bias, the 10 sample cases were randomly selected from a pool of 17 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Available client outcome measures (including self-report) are briefly discussed. The results showed 90% of the pre-post comparisons moved in the targeted direction (z = 0) and of those, 96% (80% Bonferroni corrected) of the t-tests and 96% (91% Bonferroni corrected) of the rANOVAs were statistically significant; thus indicating a progression towards the mean in 15 or fewer 19ZNF sessions. All cases showed and reported improvement in all outcome measures (including quantitative electroencephalography assessment) at case termination.

  9. Genetic interactions between the Golgi Ca2+/H+ exchanger Gdt1 and the plasma membrane calcium channel Cch1/Mid1 in the regulation of calcium homeostasis, stress response and virulence in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Wang, Junjun; Cheng, Jianqing; Xu, Dayong; Jiang, Linghuo

    2015-11-01

    The Golgi-localized Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScGdt1 is a member of the cation/Ca(2+) exchanger superfamily. We show here that Candida albicans CaGdt1 is the functional homolog of ScGdt1 in calcium sensitivity, and shows genetic interactions with CaCch1 or CaMid1 in response to ER stresses. In addition, similar to ScCCH1 and ScMID1, deletion of either CaCCH1 or CaMID1 leads to a growth sensitivity of cells to cold stress, which can be suppressed by deletion of CaGDT1. Furthermore, deletion of CaCCH1 leads to a severe delay in filamentation of C. albicans cells, and this defect is abolished by deletion of CaGDT1. In contrast, CaGDT1 does not show genetic interaction with CaMID1 in filamentation. Interestingly, C. albicans cells lacking both CaMID1 and CaGDT1 exhibit an intermediate virulence between C. albicans cells lacking CaCCH1 (non-virulent) and C. albicans cells lacking CaGDT1 (partially virulent), while C. albicans cells lacking both CaCCH1 and CaGDT1 are not virulent in a mouse model of systemic candidiasis. Therefore, CaGdt1 genetically interacts with the plasma membrane calcium channel, CaCch1/CaMid1, in the response of C. albicans cells to cold and ER stresses and antifungal drug challenge as well as in filamentation and virulence.

  10. Evaluation of the performance of 57 Japanese participating laboratories by two types of z-scores in proficiency test for the quantification of pesticide residues in brown rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Numata, Masahiko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2014-11-01

    A proficiency test for the analysis of pesticide residues in brown rice was carried out to support upgrading in analytical skills of participant laboratories. Brown rice containing three target pesticides (etofenprox, fenitrothion, and isoprothiolane) was used as the test samples. The test samples were distributed to the 57 participants and analyzed by appropriate analytical methods chosen by each participant. It was shown that there was no significant difference among the reported values obtained by different types of analytical method. The analytical results obtained by National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) were 3 % to 10 % greater than those obtained by participants. The results reported by the participant were evaluated by using two types of z-scores, that is, one was the score based on the consensus values calculated from the analytical results of participants, and the other one was the score based on the reference values obtained by NMIJ with high reliability. Acceptable z-scores based on the consensus values and NMIJ reference values were achieved by 87 % to 89 % and 79 % to 94 % of the participants, respectively.

  11. Bankruptcy Prediction Using the Altman Z-score Model in Oman: A Case Study of Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shariq Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial health is of great concern for a business firm. For measuring the financial health of a business firm, there are lots of techniques available. However, Altman’s Z-score has been proven to be a reliable tool. This model envisages predicting the possibilities of bankruptcy of manufacturing organization. Multiple discriminate analyses (MDA are useful tools in such situations. The use of MDA helps to consolidate the effect of all ratios. Keeping the above view in mind, the “Z score” analysis has been adopted to monitor the financial health of the company. The current study has been conducted to assess the financial health of a firm namely Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries in Oman. This study was based on the secondary data which was obtained from the published sources i.e. Annual report for the period of 8 years (2007 to 2014. The study revealed that the Company Raysut Cement Company SAOG and its subsidiaries are financially sound as they have higher Z score than the benchmark (2.99 except in some years of study. The findings of the study may be useful for the managers to take financial decision, the stockholders to choose investment options and others to look after their interest in the concerned cement manufacturers of the country.

  12. Application of Z-scores in the diagnosis of fetal aortic stenosis%Z-评分在胎儿主动脉狭窄诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童小贞; 赵博文; 王蓓; 潘美; 彭晓慧; 陆红妤; 陈剑

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the difference in Z-score reference range for aorta measurements, and pulmonary artery(PA)/aortic(AO)valve annular diameter ratio(PA/AO ratio)between normal and aortic stenosis(AS)fetuses and to evaluate the diagnostic value of Z-score of aorta in fetuses with AS. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study of fetal color Doppler echocardiograms were undertook from 300 singleton normal fetuses with gestational age ranged from 16 to 40 weeks.Standardized fetal echocardiographic measurements included AO valve annular diameter and PA valve annular diameter at end-systole,and PA/AO ratio were obtained.With statistical analysis,best model was established for predicting AO and PA using biparietal diameter (BPD)and femoral length (FL)as independent variables.The correlations between standard deviation (SD)and two independent variables (BPD,FL)were analyzed,and the AO Z-score and PA Z-score of normal fetuses were calculated.One hundred and six singleton fetuses with AS were studied whose gestational age ranged from 1 5 to 40 weeks.The AO Z-score and PA Z-score of AS fetuses obtained by using above regression equation and PA/AO ratio were subsequently calculated.The AO and PA Z-scores and PA/AO ratio between normal fetuses and AS fetuses were compared.And the detection rate of AS according to AO Z-score,PA/AO ratio and AO percentile range were assessed.Results Compared with normal fetuses,the Z-score of AO and the PA/AO ratio in AS fetuses were statistically different (P 0.05).AO Z-score in 96.2% of AS fetuses were found 0.05)。AS 组96.2%胎儿的 AO Z-评分1.4)相结合,在 AS 的诊断中具有重要的临床应用价值,较百分范围更能准确地定量评估 AS 胎儿心脏结构的生长发育。

  13. Use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for diagnosis and fracture risk assessment; WHO-criteria, T- and Z-score, and reference databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimai, Hans P

    2017-11-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a two-dimensional imaging technology developed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) of the entire human skeleton and also specifically of skeletal sites known to be most vulnerable to fracture. In order to simplify interpretation of BMD measurement results and allow comparability among different DXA-devices, the T-score concept was introduced. This concept involves an individual's BMD which is then compared with the mean value of a young healthy reference population, with the difference expressed as a standard deviation (SD). Since the early nineties of the past century, the diagnostic categories "normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis", as recommended by a WHO working Group, are based on this concept. Thus, DXA is still the globally accepted "gold-standard" method for the noninvasive diagnosis of osteoporosis. Another score obtained from DXA measurement, termed Z-score, describes the number of SDs by which the BMD in an individual differs from the mean value expected for age and sex. Although not intended for diagnosis of osteoporosis in adults, it nevertheless provides information about an individual's fracture risk compared to peers. DXA measurement can either be used as a "stand-alone" means in the assessment of an individual's fracture risk, or incorporated into one of the available fracture risk assessment tools such as FRAX® or Garvan, thus improving the predictive power of such tools. The issue which reference databases should be used by DXA-device manufacturers for T-score reference standards has been recently addressed by an expert group, who recommended use National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (NHANES III) databases for the hip reference standard but own databases for the lumbar spine. Furthermore, in men it is recommended use female reference databases for calculation of the T-score and use male reference databases for calculation of Z-score. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving the Design Process for Auto-body GD&T Based on Computer-Aided Design%车身GD&T设计流程改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾思铭; 沈利冰; 金隼; 储国平

    2011-01-01

    According to the needs of vehicle manufacturers'product design department, and in light to the defects in the traditional design process of GD&T, computer-aided design tools are used to optimize the design process of GD&T: analyzing and classifying the related auto-body parts feature data, positioning benchmarks, and setting up an auto-body GD&T knowledge database integrated with industry rules and expert knowledge.Based on this database, the Computer Aided Optimization Design System for auto-body GD&T is designed with UG secondary development tools.The System can reduce the reduplicated work in the design process, so as to shorten the design cycle and enhance the design efficiency.%根据汽车制造企业产品设计部门的需求,针对传统GD&T设计流程中存在的一些不足,运用计算机辅助设计工具来对其进行优化:运用数据库知识分析和归类车身零部件相关特征信息和基准信息等资料,并结合工程设计规则和专家知识搭建一个车身尺寸公差信息的知识数据库,在此基础上运用UG二次开发工具设计一个优化车身GD&T设计流程的计算机辅助设计系统,可用于减少GD&T设计流程中大量的重复性工作,以缩短设计周期,提高设计效率.

  15. Midupper arm circumference and weight-for-length z scores have different associations with body composition: evidence from a cohort of Ethiopian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Wells, Jonathan C K; Girma, Tsinuel; Kæstel, Pernille; Admassu, Bitiya; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Gregers S

    2015-09-01

    A midupper arm circumference (MUAC) <115 mm and weight-for-height z score (WHZ) or weight-for-length z score (WLZ) less than -3, all of which are recommended to identify severe wasting in children, often identify different children. The reasons behind this poor agreement are not well understood. We investigated the association between these 2 anthropometric indexes and body composition to help understand why they identify different children as wasted. We analyzed weight, length, MUAC, fat-mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) data from 2470 measurements from 595 healthy Ethiopian infants obtained at birth and at 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 6 mo of age. We derived WLZs by using 2006 WHO growth standards. We derived length-adjusted FM and FFM values as unexplained residuals after regressing each FM and FFM against length. We used a correlation analysis to assess associations between length, FFM, and FM (adjusted and nonadjusted for length) and the MUAC and WLZ and a multivariable regression analysis to assess the independent variability of length and length-adjusted FM and FFM with either the MUAC or the WLZ as the outcome. At all ages, length showed consistently strong positive correlations with the MUAC but not with the WLZ. Adjustment for length reduced observed correlation coefficients of FM and FFM with the MUAC but increased those for the WLZ. At all ages, both length-adjusted FM and FFM showed an independent association with the WLZ and MUAC with higher regression coefficients for the WLZ. Conversely, length showed greater regression coefficients for the MUAC. At all ages, the MUAC was shown to be more influenced than was the WLZ by the FM variability relative to the FFM variability. The MUAC and WLZ have different associations with body composition, and length influences these associations differently. Our results suggest that the WLZ is a good marker of tissue masses independent of length. The MUAC acts more as a composite index of poor growth indexing jointly

  16. Development of a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion method for planning water resources systems with a trading mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X T; Huang, G H; Li, Y P; Zhang, J L; Cai, Y P; Liu, Z P; Liu, L R

    2016-12-01

    This study developed a fuzzy-stochastic programming with Green Z-score criterion (FSGZ) method for water resources allocation and water quality management with a trading-mechanism (WAQT) under uncertainties. FSGZ can handle uncertainties expressed as probability distributions, and it can also quantify objective/subjective fuzziness in the decision-making process. Risk-averse attitudes and robustness coefficient are joined to express the relationship between the expected target and outcome under various risk preferences of decision makers and systemic robustness. The developed method is applied to a real-world case of WAQT in the Kaidu-Kongque River Basin in northwest China, where an effective mechanism (e.g., market trading) to simultaneously confront severely diminished water availability and degraded water quality is required. Results of water transaction amounts, water allocation patterns, pollution mitigation schemes, and system benefits under various scenarios are analyzed, which indicate that a trading-mechanism is a more sustainable method to manage water-environment crisis in the study region. Additionally, consideration of anthropogenic (e.g., a risk-averse attitude) and systemic factors (e.g., the robustness coefficient) can support the generation of a robust plan associated with risk control for WAQT when uncertainty is present. These findings assist local policy and decision makers to gain insights into water-environment capacity planning to balance the basin's social and economic growth with protecting the region's ecosystems.

  17. ANALISIS PENGGUNAAN METODE ALTMAN Z-SCORE DAN METODE SPRINGATE UNTUK MENGETAHUI POTENSI TERJADINYA FINANCIAL DISTRESS PADA PERUSAHAAN MANUFAKTUR SEKTOR INDUSTRI DASAR DAN KIMIA SUB SEKTOR SEMEN PERIODE 2009-2013

    OpenAIRE

    BURHANUDDIN, RIZKY AMALIA

    2015-01-01

    2015 Analisis Penggunaan Metode Altman Z-Score Dan Metode Springate Untuk Mengetahui Potensi Terjadinya Financial Distress Pada Perusahaan Manufaktur Sektor Industri Dasar Dan Kimia Sub Sektor Semen Di Indonesia Periode 2009-2013 Rizky Amalia Burhanuddin Musran Munizu Nur Alamzah Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui bagaimanakah kinerja keuangan Perusahaan Manufaktur Sektor Industri Dasar dan Kimia sub sektor semen. de...

  18. Cardiometabolic Risk Assessments by Body Mass Index z-Score or Waist-to-Height Ratio in a Multiethnic Sample of Sixth-Graders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry S. Kahn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabolic risk. Among 5,482 sixth-grade students from 42 middle schools, we estimated explanatory variations (R2 and standardized beta coefficients of BMIz or WHtR for cardiometabolic risk factors: insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, lipids, blood pressures, and glucose. For each risk outcome variable, we prepared adjusted regression models for four subpopulations stratified by sex and high versus lower fatness. For HOMA-IR, R2 attributed to BMIz or WHtR was 19%–28% among high-fatness and 8%–13% among lower-fatness students. R2 for lipid variables was 4%–9% among high-fatness and 2%–7% among lower-fatness students. In the lower-fatness subpopulations, the standardized coefficients for total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol and triglycerides tended to be weaker for BMIz (0.13–0.20 than for WHtR (0.17–0.28. Among high-fatness students, BMIz and WHtR correlated with blood pressures for Hispanics and whites, but not black boys (systolic or girls (systolic and diastolic. In 11-12 year olds, assessments by WHtR can provide cardiometabolic risk estimates similar to conventional BMIz without requiring reference to a normative growth chart.

  19. Investigation of the value of Z score in the diagnosis of senile osteoporosis%对老年性骨质疏松诊断中Z值价值的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振毅

    2014-01-01

    Objective By changing the age of tested subjects, to understand the T score and Z score along with the change of age, and to investigate this effect on quantitative measurement of bone mineral density ( BMD).Methods A total of 155 patients, who received CT quantitative measurement of BMD from August 2012 to December 2012, were selected.According to different age groups, the analysis of the change in bone mass was performed.Twenty female patients were extracted from patients between 30 and 40 years old.By manually changing their ages, the changes of T and Z score were analyzed.Results According to the different definition of T and Z score, T score was closely related to BMD, showing no change along with age.Z score was the comparison with population at the same age.The change of Z score was obvious at the same BMD.Conclusion In CT quantitative measurement of BMD, age is one of the important factors to affect the evaluation results.The usage of Z score in the evaluation of BMD and the diagnosis of osteoporosis is more valuable.%目的:通过更改受检者年龄的方法,了解T值和Z值随年龄变化,对定量骨密度测量最终结果评价的影响。方法选取2012年8月~2012年12月间155例接受CT骨密度定量测量的患者的结果,按年龄段分析其骨量的变化;抽取30~40岁之间的20例女性病例,通过手工更改患者年龄的方法,了解T值和Z值的变化。结果由于T值和Z值定义的不同, T值与BMD密切相关,不随年龄变化,而Z值是与相同年龄段人群的比较,故在BMD相同的情况下,Z值变化明显。结论 CT定量骨密度测量中,年龄是决定评价结果的重要影响因素,用Z值评价骨密度和诊断骨质疏松更有价值。

  20. Height for age z score and cognitive function are associated with Academic performance among school children aged 8-11 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Demewoz; Nigatu, Dabere; Gashaw, Ketema; Demelash, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Academic achievement of school age children can be affected by several factors such as nutritional status, demographics, and socioeconomic factors. Though evidence about the magnitude of malnutrition is well established in Ethiopia, there is a paucity of evidence about the association of nutritional status with academic performance among the nation's school age children. Hence, this study aimed to determine how nutritional status and cognitive function are associated with academic performance of school children in Goba town, South East Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 131 school age students from primary schools in Goba town enrolled during the 2013/2014 academic year. The nutritional status of students was assessed by anthropometric measurement, while the cognitive assessment was measured by the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (KABC-II) and Ravens colored progressive matrices (Raven's CPM) tests. The academic performance of the school children was measured by collecting the preceding semester academic result from the school record. Descriptive statistics, bivariate and multivariable linear regression were used in the statistical analysis. This study found a statistically significant positive association between all cognitive test scores and average academic performance except for number recall (p = 0.12) and hand movements (p = 0.08). The correlation between all cognitive test scores and mathematics score was found positive and statistically significant (p academic subjects among school age children (ß = 0.53; 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95). A single unit change of age resulted 3.23 unit change in average score of all academic subjects among school age children (ß = 3.23; 95 % CI: 1.20-5.27). Nutritional status (height for age Z score) and wealth could be modifiable factors to improve academic performance of school age children. Moreover, interventions to improve nutrition for mothers and children may be

  1. Application of Z score in evaluating the growth of biliary atresia patients after Kasai procedure%胆道闭锁Kasai术后自肝生存患儿体格发育Z评分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 陈亚军; 张廷冲; 冯欣; 彭春辉; 庞文博; 王增萌; 沈秋龙

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the physical growth of biliary atresia (BA) patients after Kasai procedure by using Z score and compare the data among different groups.Methods Using a cross section method,96 children with postoperative BA were evaluated for height/length and weight.WHO AnthroPlus 2007 was used for calculating Z score.Analysis of variance or t test were used for comparing Z scores among different groups.Results The prevalence of stunting (height for age Z-score,HAZ<-2),underweight (weight for age Z-score,WAZ<-2) and wasting (weight for height Z-score,WHZ<-2) were 14.58%(14/96),5.21%(5/96) and 3.13%(3/96);overall mean Z scores of HAZ,WAZ,WHZ-0.38 ± 0.17,0.33 ± 0.17 and 0.88 ± 0.17;mean Z scores of HAZ,WAZ,WHZ of <12 months group-0.27 ± 0.12,-0.55 ± 0.37 and-0.30 ± 0.25 respectively.According to age,WHZ of <60 days,60~90 days and >90 days were 1.08 ± 0.27,0.85 ± 0.25 and-0.26 ±0.24 respectively.Conclusions After Kasai operation,BA patients suffer from malnutrition.And the problem of stunting is more serious.Poor nutritional status is more frequent for those aged < 12months.Thus nutritional status of infants is particularly worrisome.As for operative age,>90 days group has more serious nutritional problems so that early Kasai operation helps improve nutritional status.%目的 本研究旨在对胆道闭锁Kasai术后自肝生存患儿的体格发育进行评价,了解胆道闭锁Kasai术后自肝生存患儿营养状况.方法 本研究采用横断面调查方式,于2014年10月至2015年1月对首都医科大学附属北京儿童医院普外科胆道闭锁Kasai术后自肝生存定期门诊复查的96例患儿进行体格测量(身高/身长、体重).采用WHO Anthro Plus 2007软件,计算年龄别身高/身长Z评分(Height for Age Z-score,HAZ)、年龄别体重Z评分(Weight for Age Z-score,WAZ)、身高别体重Z评分(Weight for Height Z-score,WHZ).统计我中心Ksasi术后自肝生存患儿生长迟缓、低体重、消

  2. 应用三维超声建立正常胎儿心功能指标z-score数据模型%Development of Z-scores for Normal Fetal Cardiac Functional Indices with Three-dimensional Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林美芳; 谢红宁; 郑菊; 朱云晓; 李丽娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop z-scores for normal fetal cardiac functional indices measured by three dimensional ultrasonography, and so to assess the fetal cardiac function quantificationally. Methods Spatio-temporal Image Correlation (STIC) technology combined with Virtual Organ Computed-Aided Analysis (VOCAL) was applied to measure the left and right ventricular end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volume as well as to calculate stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) calculation subsequently, z-score models for these cardiac functional indices were then developed by regression analysis using gestation age (GA) as independent variable. Results A total of 293 STIC volume datasets were included. Left and right ventricular EDV, ESV, SV, CO were all increased exponentially with GA. Based on the predict mean and SD related to GA, z-score for specific cardiac functional index could be calculated from knowledge of the GA. Conclusions By using STIC combining VOCAL, this study established z-score models for fetus at gestation age 17 ~ 32 weeks of cardiac left and right ventricular EDV, ESV, SV and CO. Through computing the z-score, fetal cardiac functional indices could be evaluated quantificationally.%目的 建立正常胎儿心功能指标随孕周变化的z-score数据模型,定量评估胎儿心功能.方法 应用三维超声时间空间关联成像技术(STIC)联合虚拟器官计算机辅助分析法(VOCAL)测量和计算胎儿心功能指标,包括左、右心室舒张末期(EDV)、收缩末期(ESV)容积、心搏出量(SV)及心输出量(CO).以孕周(GA)为自变量对所测的心功能指标进行回归分析,并校正标准差(SD),建立各心功能指标的z-score模型.结果 共获293例17~32孕周正常胎儿心脏STIC容积数据以建立模型,胎儿左、右心室EDV、 ESV、 SV、 CO随GA的增加呈指数增长.由各心功能指标的预测平均值及SD,计算出心功能指标任一测值的z-score.结论 运用三维超声STIC技术

  3. Motexafin gadolinium: gadolinium (III) texaphyrin, gadolinium texaphyrin, Gd-Tex, GdT2B2, PCI 0120.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Motexafin gadolinium [gadolinium (III) texaphyrin, gadolinium texaphyrin, Gd-Tex, GdT2B2, PCI 0120] is a radiosensitising agent developed for use in cancer therapy. It is cytotoxic in haematological malignancies by selectively localising in cancer cells that have high rates of metabolism. Motexafin gadolinium inhibits cellular respiration resulting in the production of reactive oxygen species and inducing apoptosis. It is being developed by Pharmacyclics in the US. Bulk motexafin gadolinium is supplied to Pharmacyclics by the US company, Celanese, through a manufacturing and supply agreement between the two companies. In June 2003, at the 39th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO-2003), the importance of having an agent for the treatment of brain metastases from lung cancer was highlighted. Results of a phase III study were presented that showed that motexafin gadolinium treatment was associated with a delay in time to neurological and neurocognitive progression in lung cancer patients. This was an important finding, as 46.6% of lung cancer patients already have brain metastases at the time of initial diagnosis, compared with only 2.7% of breast cancer patients. Brain metastases are also often the only site of metastatic disease in patients with lung cancer. In December 2002, Pharmacyclics began a phase III trial of motexafin gadolinium in patients with brain metastases (brain cancer in phase table) from lung cancer in the US, Europe, Canada and Australia. The trial is known as the Study of neurologic progression with Motexafin gadolinium And Radiation Therapy (SMART) and will compare whole-brain irradiation with whole-brain irradiation plus motexafin gadolinium in 550 patients. The primary efficacy endpoint is time to neurological progression and the secondary endpoints are survival and neurocognitive function. In January 2003, the US FDA completed its Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) of the SMART trial with a positive result and by

  4. The Z scores value of cardiac structure by preoperative echocardiography in children with tetralogy of Fallot%法洛四联症患儿手术前超声心动图Z值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟玲; 夏焙; 于红奎; 许娜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value and clinical application of cardiac structure Z scores in children with preoperative tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) by echocardiography. Methods Considering the result of 31 patients who underwent echocardiography in Shenzhen Children’s Hospital before TOF repair from January 2011 to September 2013, the median age was 10 months (range:3 days to 14 years). Other 31 normal children were selected as normal control group with age-and sex-matched, the median age was 10 months (range: 6 days to 13 years). Echocardiographic measurements included the diameter of right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT), pulmonary valve diameter (PVD), left pulmonary artery diameter (LPAD), right pulmonary artery diameter (RPAD), pulmonary valve peak velocity (PV-Vmax), tricuspid annulus diameter (TVD), mitral annulus diameter (MAD), left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular mass (LVmass). Shenzhen Children’s Hospital pediatric echocardiography normal reference values and the regression equation are applied to obtain the forecast average, and using the Z-score formula into the standard value (Z=[M-y]/ MSE ). Results There was no significant difference in body surface area between the TOF group and control group (P>0.05). Compared with control group, the true value of RVOT reduced significantly in TOF group, its Z-score showed negative values increase (-4.87±1.86 vs 0.33±0.93, t=-13.90, P0.05), but the Z scores of TOF were significantly reduced than the control group (0.25±0.78 vs 0.76±0.65, t=-2.75;-0.92±1.94 vs 0.03±1.01, t=-2.41;-0.83±1.59 vs 0.67±0.69, t=-4.71; all P0.05). For the Z scores of PV-Vmax, there were no significant difference between transannular patch surgery and pulmonary valve-sparing repair (8.58±1.20 vs 8.12±1.16, t=1.07, P>0.05). Conclusions The Z scores value of cardiac structure can be used in quantitative analysis of RVOT obstruction and development of left ventricular backward of TOF. The Z score of

  5. Ultrasound assessment of the closure time and Z scores of neonatal ductus venosus%超声评估新生儿静脉导管闭合时间及Z值分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志勇; 瞿国萍; 罗伟权; 吴浩堂; 纪宗萍; 梁键锋

    2016-01-01

    目的 研究新生儿静脉导管闭合时间及其Z值回归方程,探讨新生儿静脉导管闭合时间随胎龄的变化规律.方法 应用彩色多普勒超声探测不同胎龄新生儿静脉导管闭合的具体时间,以胎龄为自变量(X)对所测的静脉导管闭合时间(Y)进行相关性回归分析,建立新生儿静脉导管闭合时间的Z值回归方程(lnY=a+bX+cX2),根据公式Z=(M-Y)/Sx(M为观察值,Y为预测平均值),计算出不同胎龄新生儿静脉导管闭合时间的Z值.结果 共获得432例新生儿静脉导管闭合时间,其随胎龄增加而缩短(r=-0.938,P<0.001),胎龄31~41周新生儿静脉导管闭合时间参考值分别为28.5、26.3、23.7、20.9、18.0、15.2、12.5、10.1、7.9、6.2、4.6天.所获得非线性回归方程式为lnY=-5.228+0.089X-0.000228X2,R2=0.854,Sx=0.214(P<0.001),由各胎龄新生儿静脉导管闭合时间的预测平均值及Sx可计算静脉导管闭合时间任一测定值的Z值,Z=(M-Y)/Sx(其中M为观察值,Y为预测平均值);Z值呈正态分布,无随胎龄变化趋势.结论新生儿静脉导管闭合时间与胎龄存在相关性,采用非线性回归方程可用于计算预测平均值,所获得的Z值呈正态分布.%Objective To study the closure time of neonatal ductus venosus and the Z score regression equation, and to explore the variation of closure time of neonatal ductus venosus with gestationalage.Methods Color doppler ultrasound was applied to detect the closure time of neonatal ductus venosus in normal newborns, Z score regression equation ( lnY =a +bX +cX2 ) for the closure time of neonatal ductus venosus ( Y ) was developed by regression analysis which used gestational age ( X) as an independent variable. The Z scores of the closure time of neonatal ductus venosus in different gestational age were calculated by the formula [ Z = ( M - Y )/S x , M for observation value, Y for predictivevalue].Results There were 432 cases in our study.The closure time of neonatal ductus

  6. 年龄别体质量Z评分法动态评估早产儿宫外生长发育迟缓%Variation of weight for age Z scores in preterm infants with extrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文英; 胡金绘; 岳虹霓; 张丽; 王玉美; 武荣

    2016-01-01

    乳累积使用剂量(r =-2.221)与出院时 WZ 评分均呈负相关(P 均<0.05)。每周的 WZ 评分预测 EUGR 的曲线下面积随着出生后时间的延长而逐渐增大;每周 WZ 评分值用于诊断 EUGR 均有统计学意义(P 均=0.000),均具有较高的敏感性和特异性。结论动态监测早产儿 WZ 评分可直观地显示早产儿营养和生长情况,且可早期对早产儿发生 EUGR 进行预警。%Objective To understand variation of weight for age Z scores in premature infants with extrauterine growth restriction(EUGR).Methods Retrospective analysis was adopted with the data of very -low -gestational age (VLGA)preterm infants who met with the following criteria:admitted to Neonatal Medical Center of Huai′an Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital from January 201 1 to December 201 3,gestational age <32 weeks,more than 4 weeks of hospital stay and survived when discharged.All VLGA premature infants were divided into non -EUGR group and EUGR group according to whether the standard weight on hospital discharge was below the 1 0th percentile of body weight at corrected age.The weight for age Z scores of preterm infants were calculated at each time point.The differences and trends between 2 groups were compared.The receiver operating characteristic (ROC)curve in diagnosing EUGR by weight for age Z scores was drawn.Results A total of 1 77 VLGA premature infants were enrolled,and among them there were was 1 04 cases of EUGR and the incidence amounted to 58.8%.The weight for age Z scores curve of EUGR group was under that of all preterm infants,and the curve of non -EUGR group was above that of all preterm infants. The weight for age Z scores of all preterm infants and EUGR group showed overall downward trend along with prolonged hospitalization.However,the weight for age Z scores of non -EUGR group did not change significantly at each week point except for the first week.The weight for age Z scores of EUGR group was lower than that of

  7. 利用稳健Z比分数评价肌酐能力验证的数据%Use of robust Z-score to assess creatinine proficiency testing data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周琦; 谢伟; 徐建平; 李少男; 李小鹏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate creatinine proficiency testing data by robust Z-score analysis.Methods The data were collected from three proficiency surveys of routine biochemical test in 2009,to which 1 179,1 169 and 1 168 laboratories participated respectively.Creatinine data were divided into Jaffe group and enzymatic group based on the analytical method used.The results tested by both methods were compared using Mann-Whitney test.The outliers were deleted using the TUKEY fence established by quartile values.The normality of raw data and trimmed data was tested using one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.The performance of the laboratories was assessed using robust Z-score,whose values were considered satisfactory when | Z-score| ≤2,questionable when 2 < | Z-score | < 3 and unsatisfactory when | Z-score | ≥3.Results 86.7% results tested using Jaffe and enzymatic methods were not comparable.The raw data in all research groups were not normally distributed.After deletion of outliers,73.3% trimmed data in most research groups were normally distributed.For the three proficiency tests in 2009,in Jaffe group,the satisfactory rates were 89.8% ( 495/551 ),87.2% ( 468/537 ) and 89.5% ( 476/532 ) respectively,unsatisfactory rates were 3.3% ( 18/551 ),6.5% (35/537) and 4.5% (24/532) respectively; while in enzymatic group,the satisfactory rates were 88.8% (558/628),89.3% (564/632) and 88.1% (560/636) respectively,unsatisfactory rates were 5.6% ( 35/628 ),5.2% (33/632) and 6.6% (42/636) respectively.Conclusion It is reasonable to choose robust Z-score as a proficiency testing assessment index,because it avoids the influence of the outliers on evaluation results.%目的 利用稳健Z比分数评价肌酐能力验证的数据.方法 肌酐数据来自2009年卫生部临床检验中心3次能力验证常规化学检测项目,分别有1 179、1169和1 168家实验室参加.按照检测方法的不同将肌酐能力验证的数据分为苦味

  8. Alternative Class Ranks Using Z-Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip H.; Van Niel, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in…

  9. Efficacy of a first course of Ibuprofen for patent ductus arteriosus closure in extremely preterm newborns according to their gestational age-specific Z-score for birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriane Madeleneau

    Full Text Available Therapeutic strategies for patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very preterm infants remain controversial. To identify infants likely to benefit from treatment, we analysed the efficacy of a first course of ibuprofen in small-for-gestational age (SGA newborns.This single-centre retrospective study included 185 infants born at 24+0-27+6 weeks of gestation with haemodynamically significant PDA, who were treated by intravenous ibuprofen (Pedea: 10 mg/kg on day one and 5 mg/kg on days two and three. Birth weight and gestational age (GA were analysed with reference to the standard deviations from the Olsen growth curve to define GA-specific Z-scores for birth weights. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated by echocardiography 48 hours after the last dose of ibuprofen. The primary outcome was failure of the first course of ibuprofen associated in a composite criterion with the most severe outcomes.The risk of treatment failure increased according to a continuous gradient in SGA neonates. A higher risk was observed on multiple regression analysis (crude OR: 3.8; 95% CI [1.2-12.3] p = 0.02; adjusted OR: 12.8; 95% CI [2.3-70.5] p=0.003.There is a linear relationship between infant birth weight and PDA treatment: the failure rate of a first course of ibuprofen increases with increasing degree of growth restriction.

  10. Comparison between the aorta and pulmonary artery dimensions z-score in fetus with tetralogy of Fallot and normal fetus%正常与法洛四联症胎儿心脏主、肺动脉径线z-score值的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴利红; 谢红宁; 李岚; 汪南; 郑菊; 朱云晓

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish z-score model for fetal aorta (Ao) and pulmonary artery (PA) dimensions base on fetal femur length (FL),then to evaluate them in prenatal diagnosis of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).Methods Three hundred twenty-nine normal fetuses and 43 fetuses with TOF were involved,Ao and PA dimensions were measured for all cases offline after cardio-spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC) volume acquisition,and PA to Ao ratio (PA/Ao) was calculated.Normal Ao and PA dimensions z-score models were constructed by using first standard regression analysis using FL as independent variable.Subsequently,the three parameters between normal and TOF fetuses were compared.Results The models use to calculate z-score for Ao and PA dimensions were constructed,FL had close correlation with fetal Ao and PA dimensions.Compared with normal fetuses,the mean z-scores of Ao,PA and PA/Ao ratio were statistical different in TOF fetuses.All Ao z-scores were > + 2 z-scores and all the PA/Ao ratio were < the 95% CI in TOF group,however,only 48.84% (21/43) PA z-scores of TOF cases were <-2 z-scores.Conclusions The Ao and PA dimensions z-score can provide quantitative evidence in prenatal diagnosis of TOF.Aortic dilatation and abnormal PA/Ao ratio are the main performances in fetal TOF and would be markers for prenatal diagnosis of TOF.%目的 超声探讨正常与法洛四联症(tetralogy of Fallot,TOF)胎儿主、肺动脉径线的差异.方法 应用时间-空间关联成像技术测量329例正常胎儿和43例TOF胎儿主动脉内径(Ao)及主肺动脉内径(PA),建立正常胎儿Ao、PAz-score模型,比较两组Ao、PAz-score值及PA/Ao值差异.结果 两组Ao、PAz-score值及PA/Ao值差异有统计学意义(P<0.0001),TOF组Ao z-score值均>+2 z-scores,PA/Ao值均分布于95% CI之外,48.84% PA z-score值<-2 z-scores.结论 胎儿时期TOF大血管径线改变以Ao增宽及PA/Ao比值减小为主要表现,有望成为产前超声诊断指标.

  11. 基于GDT的聚变裂变混合堆堆芯参数初步设计研究%Preliminary design of core plasma parameters for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor based on GDT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德鸿; 杜红飞; 蒋洁琼; 汪晖; 王福琼; 陈一平; 吴宜灿; FDS团队

    2012-01-01

    Based on the recent experiment progress of Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT), a core plasma physics conceptual design for driving fission blanket was proposed The 0-D physical model was built and the core plasma parameters with 50 MW fusion power were preliminarily designed The reliability of the physical model and design was demonstrated by comparison between the calculation and the experiment results.%基于Gas Dynamic Trap(GDT)装置的实验进展,提出了用于驱动聚变裂变混合堆包层的聚变堆芯参数设计.基于零维堆芯物理模型,计算分析给出了一套聚变功率为50 MW的初步堆芯参数方案.利用GDT装置的实验结果对该物理模型进行计算对比校验,显示该物理模型和设计参数的可靠性.

  12. Substrain and light regime effects on integrated anxiety-related behavioral z-scores in male C57BL/6 mice-Hypomagnesaemia has only a small effect on avoidance behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labots, M; Zheng, X; Moattari, G; Lozeman-Van't Klooster, J G; Baars, J M; Hesseling, P; Lavrijsen, M; Kirchhoff, S; Ohl, F; van Lith, H A

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) has been described to possess an anxiolytic function, but a number of studies present inconsistent results on this matter. In this study the effect of Mg deficiency on anxiety-related behavior, brain and blood plasma Mg in young adult male C57BL/6JOlaHsd and C57BL/6NCrl mice was studied. The animals were put on a control or Mg deficient diet from day 0 and significant hypomagnesaemia was evident from day 12 onwards in the test animals. Housing and test conditions were under either conventional light regime (white light behavioral test conditions) or reverse light regime (red light behavioral test conditions). The animals were tested in three tests for unconditioned anxiety: the modified Hole Board (day 14), the light-dark test (day 21) and the elevated plus maze (day 28). Overall integrated behavioral z-scores were calculated over these three behavioral tests. Mg showed a structure dependent distribution at the level of the brain, that differed between C57BL/6 substrain and light regime (conventional versus reverse), respectively. Likewise, total brain Mg did differ between substrain and light regime, but was not affected by the diet. Animals on the Mg deficient diet housed under conventional light regime had a higher final (day 28) blood plasma corticosterone level as compared to controls. Animals housed under reverse light regime exhibited no diet effect of plasma corticosterone levels. The significant hypomagnesaemia at blood plasma level resulted in an effect of Mg deficiency on avoidance, but not overall anxiety-related behavior. Significant differences regarding avoidance behavior were found between the two substrains and light regimes, respectively.

  13. [The Development of a Normal Database of Elderly People for Use with the Statistical Analysis Software Easy Z-score Imaging System with 99mTc-ECD SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Hirobumi; Iwasaka, Akemi; Hashimoto, Shingo; Hara, Tadashi; Nemoto, Kiyotaka; Asada, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    We created a new normal database of elderly individuals (Tsukuba-NDB) for easy Z-score Imaging System (eZIS), a statistical imaging analysis software, comprised of 44 healthy individuals aged 75 to 89 years. The Tsukuba-NDB was compared with a conventional NDB (Musashi-NDB) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8), eZIS analysis, mean images, standard deviation (SD) images, SD values, specific volume of interest analysis (SVA). Furthermore, the association of the mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) with various clinical indicators was statistically analyzed. A group comparison using SPM8 indicated that the t-value of the Tsukuba-NDB was lower in the frontoparietal region but tended to be higher in the bilateral temporal lobes and the base of the brain than that of the Musashi-NDB. The results of eZIS analysis by Musashi-NDB in 48 subjects indicated the presence of mild decreases in cerebral blood flow in the bilateral frontoparietal lobes of 9 subjects, precuneus and posterior cingulate gyrus of 5 subjects, lingual gyrus of 4 subjects, and near the left frontal gyrus, temporal lobe, superior temporal gyrus, and lenticular nucleus of 12 subjects. The mean images showed that there were no visual differences between both NDBs. The SD images intensities and SD values were lower in Tsukuba-NDB. Clinical case comparison and visual evaluation demonstrated that the sites of decrease in blood flow were more clearly indicated by the Tsukuba-NDB. Furthermore, mCBF was 40.87 ± 0.52 ml/100 g/min (mean ± SE), and tended to decrease with age. The tendency was stronger in male subjects than female subjects. Among various clinical indicators, the platelet count was statistically significantly correlated with CBF. In conclusion, our results suggest that Tsukuba-NDB, which is incorporated into a statistical imaging analysis software, eZIS, is sensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow caused by Cranial nerve disease, dementia and cerebrovascular accidents, and can provide precise

  14. The reference values and Z scores regression equations of normal newborns undergoing echocardiography%新生儿超声心动图正常参考值及Z值回归方程式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洲; 谢燕华; 夏焙; 许娜; 李姝娜; 何学智; 王娟; 刘磊; 欧福祥; 陈伟玲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the reference values and Z scores regression equations of newborn undergoing echocardiography. Methods Two hundred and eighty-eight newborns (aged 0-28 days) of Shenzhen Children′s Hospital underwent echocardiography examination, including M-mode, two-dimensional (2D) and real-time three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography, color Doppler lfow imaging (CDFI) and tissue Doppler imaging. The correlation between echocardiography results and weight were analyzed and Z scores were calculated. Results The normal values of right ventricular diameter (RV) and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) measured by M-mode, the mitral annulus diameter in four chamber view (MV-D1), mitral annulus diameter in two chamber view (MV-D2), mitral annulus diameter in longitudinal view (MV-D3), aortic ring diameter (ARD), aortic sinus diameter (ASD), ascending aorta diameter (AAO), transverse aorta diameter (TA), aortic isthmus diameter (AI), aorta diaphragm diameter (AO-Dia), tricuspid annulus diameter in four chamber view (TV-D1), tricuspid annulus diameter in right ventricular inlfow tract view (TV-D2), right ventricular outlfow tract diameter (RVOT), pulmonary valve diameter (PVD) and main pulmonary artery diameter (PA) measured by 2D echocardiography and the normal values of mitral valve inflow Doppler component during early diastole (MV-E), mitral valve inlfow Doppler component during atrial contraction (MV-A), tricuspid valve inlfow Doppler component during early diastole (TV-E), tricuspid valve inflow Doppler component during atrial contraction (TV-A), aortic valve peak velocity (AV-max), aortic valve velocity-time integral (AV-VTI), pulmonary valve peak velocity (PV-max), pulmonary valve velocity-time integral (PV-VTI) measured by pulse Doppler, the mitral annular tissue Doppler component during systole (MV-s′), mitral annular tissue Doppler component during early diastole (MV-e′), mitral annular tissue Doppler component during atrial

  15. 烟台市362例学龄前儿童生长发育Z评分与身体素质现状及其相互关系%Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in 362 preschool children in Yantai City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史祝梅; 周君华; 王爱华; 汪爱丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Z scores for growth and development, physical fitness, and the relationship between them in preschool children in Yantai City, China, and to provide scientific evidence for health care in children. Methods A total of 362 children aged 3 to 4 years, whose data were recorded in the National Physical Fitness Survey in Yantai in 2010, were included in the study. Z scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age and body mass index-for-age were calculated. The relationship between Z scores and physical fitness was determined by Pearson's correlation analysis. Results The mean Z scores were all positive numbers. The prevalence rates of underweight and growth retardation were very low, but that of obesity was relatively high (up to 16.5% in 4-year-old boys). There were differences in physical fitness between children of different ages and between boys and girls ( P < 0. 05 ). The Z scores showed correlation with some physical fitness indices (P<0.05) , but they were not closely correlated as the value of r was not more than 0.30. Conclusions Z scores for growth and development remain at relatively high levels in preschool children in Yantai. The physical fitness is associated with age and gender in these children. There are weak correlations between Z scores and some physical fitness indices. Effective measures should be taken to adjust dietary habits and promote exercise for children, thus preventing obesity and improving physical fitness.%目的 探讨烟台市学龄前儿童生长发育Z评分、身体素质状况以及Z评分与身体素质间的关系,为儿童保健工作提供科学依据.方法 以2010年国民体质监测烟台地区幼儿组资料中3~4岁儿童362人为研究对象,计算年龄别体重、年龄别身高、年龄别体重指数三项Z评分,及Z评分与身体素质间进行Pearson相关分析.结果 Z评分均值均为正值,低体重、生长迟缓的发生率极低,但肥胖发生率较高(4岁男童高达16.5%)

  16. Growth Assessment with Z Score of Weight for Very Low Birth Weight Infant During Hospital Stay%胎龄别体重Z评分法评价早产极低出生体重儿生后早期营养状况的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乔红; 邹永蓉; 谭学蓉; 唐文秀; 高月; 陈伟; 王一

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrition status in very low birth weight at reture birth weight and discharge with Z score of weight for correct age( CA) . Methods 141 appropriate for gestational age( GA) premature infants with hospital stay ex-ceeding 2 weeks but no major congenital diseases were included. Z scores of weight for age were calculated at birth and reture birth weight and discharge. Their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. Results At all the subgroups( categorized by GA at birth or by nutrition support method or by nutrition status at discharge) ,The Z scores at reture birth weight and discharge were positively related with Z scores at birth(P<0. 001);Different nutrition support method were significantly related with Z score at reture birth weight and discharge(P<0. 001). The lower Z scores at birth, the time of reture birth weight and discharge were longer. Conclu-sion Very low birth weight infants occurred growth retardation during admission. Nutritional support strategy is helpful for nutri-tion condition in premature infants.%目的:采用纠正胎龄别体重Z评分法评估极低出生体重儿入院时、恢复出生体重时与出院时营养状况,探讨其与出生时营养状况、生后营养支持方式、恢复出生体重时间及住院时间之间的关系。方法选择出生胎龄28~33+6周,出生体重<1500g,生后24h内入院,住院时间≥2周新生儿,分别按出生胎龄和营养支持方式、出院时营养状况分组,比较每组出生时、恢复出生体重时和出院时的Z评分,以及恢复出生体重所需时间和住院时间的关系。结果每组患儿出院时Z评分均低于入院时;小出生胎龄组恢复出生体重时和出院时Z评分均高于大胎龄组;营养支持滞后组,恢复出生体重时及出院时Z评分均较积极组更低,滞后组恢复出生体重所需时间和住院时间也均更长;出生时Z评分越低,恢复出生体重时Z评分和出院时Z评分越低,恢复出

  17. A comparative study of two methods to quantify Z scores of aortic root diameters measured in children by echocardiography%两种方法计算超声心动图Z值定量儿童主动脉根部内径的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 夏焙; 陈伟玲; 于红奎; 周蔚

    2014-01-01

    scores in the aortic root diameters measured by echocardiography in children. Methods A total of 105 children with median age 19 months, who came to Shenzhen Children′s Hospital from March 2012 to October 2012 were included. The diameters of aortic ring (ARD) and aortic sinus (ASD) were measured by two dimension echocardiography, Z scores of ARD and ASD were calculated using two different normal reference values regression equation and mean square error derived from Shenzhen children′s hospital (C method) and Pettersen et al (P method). The regression equation from C method and body surface area (BSA) formula from P method were adopted to calculate Z scores of ARD and ASD (ZH method). The Z results of ARD and ASD calculated by those three methods were compared and were analyzed for their normality probability distributions. Results Z scores of ARD and ASD derived from C method were all showed as normal distribution (P=0.067 and 0.650). Z scores of ARD and ASD derived from P method were all showed as normal distribution (P=0.208 and 0.970). Z score of ARD derived from ZH method was showed as non-normal distribution (P=0.027), but Z score of ASD was normal distribution (P=0.430). There were no significant differences in ARD-Z calculated by C method (0.41±0.89), P method (0.23±0.85) and ZH method (0.36±0.94) (F=1.117, P=0.309). There were signiifcant differences in the Z scores of ASD calculated by C method (0.38±0.89), P method (0.58±0.71) and ZH method (0.36±0.84) (F=5.443, P=0.005). Z scores of ARD (r=0.917, P=0.000) and ASD (r=0.900, P=0.000) calculated by C method correlated well with that by P method. Conclusions Calculation method of BSA and normal reference values regression equation were the main influencing factors of Z score value in quantifying children aortic root diameters by echocardiography. For the clinical applications. The normal reference value should be used which is suitable for the Chinese children.

  18. Nutritional assessment of hospitalized HIV-infected patients by the phase angle z-score measurement Evaluación nutricional de los pacientes hospitalizados infectados por el VIH mediante la medición de la puntuación z del ángulo de fase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Araujo Antunes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study analyzed the phase-angle (PA values of hospitalized HVI-infected patients by comparing them with those reported for a healthy population and investigated their relation with nutritional parameters. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including 101 hospitalized patients diagnosed with HIV infection and evaluated by bioimpedance, anthropometry and biochemical tests. The phase angle values, weight loss percentage (%WL, body mass index (BMI, arm muscle circumference (AMC, tricipital skinfold (TSF, body fat percentage (%BF and albumin were considered. In order to compare with values for the healthy population, the PA z-score of the patients under study was calculated. Spearman's correlation and the multiple linear regression model were used to identify nutritional parameters associated with the PA z-score. Results: The patients showed a mean PA z-score of -2.6 ± 1.5, and only 6.6% of them with a positive value. The PA z-score values correlated with %WL (r = -0.51; p Antecedentes: Este estudio analizaba los valores del ángulo de fase (AF de pacientes hospitalizados e infectados por el VIH al compararlos con los notificados para un población sana e investigaba su relación con los parámetros nutricionales. Métodos: Se trataba de un estudio transversal que incluyó a 101 pacientes hospitalizados diagnosticados de infección por el VIH y en los que se evaluó la bioimpedancia, la antropometría y parámetros bioquímicos. Se consideraron los valores del ángulo de fase, el porcentaje de pérdida de peso (%PP, el índice de masa corporal (IMC, la circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB, el pliegue tricipital (PT, el porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC y la albúmina. Para compararlos con los de una población sana, se calcularon las puntuaciones z del AF de los pacientes estudiados. Se emplearon la correlación de Spearman y el modelo de regresión linear múltiple para identificar los parámetros nutricionales asociados con

  19. Z-score analysis of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion in normal fetuses with fetal echocardiography%超声心动图建立正常胎儿三尖瓣环位移Z评分数据模型的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭显峰; 赵博文; 李益林

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨正常胎儿三尖瓣环位移(TAPSE)与其生物学生长参数的相互关系,从而定量TAPSE的Z评分实际参考范围.方法 应用超声心动图对1012例孕龄为19~41周的胎儿进行检测,获得胎儿的双顶径(BPD)、股骨长径(FL)等正常胎儿的生长参数,并根据停经史计算胎儿的孕周(GA),通过解剖M型超声心动图技术测量TAPSE.以GA、BPD及FL作为自变量,TAPSE作为因变量建立最佳模型,再分析标准差(SD)与自变量BPD、FL及GA的相关关系,通过以上统计数据,运用公式计算得到Z评分的参考范围.结果 统计分析显示,直线回归方程能够很好地反映胎儿非心血管参数BPD、FL、GA与心脏功能参数TAPSE之间的相关性.SD随自变量增大而增大,也呈线性关系,运用绝对残差的加权回归消除SD的异方差性,建立直线回归模型,根据这些方程,TAPSE的Z评分值=(实际测量的TAPSE-预测的TAPSE)/预测TAPSE的SD.结论 运用统计学方法,建立了通过胎儿GA、BPD、FL计算TAPSE的Z评分正常参考范围,为胎儿右心功能的评估提供了更加精准的参考标准.%Objective To develop Z-score reference ranges for tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion(TAPSE) in normal fetuses from the measurements of gestational age(GA),biparietal diameter (BPD) or femur length(FL) using fetal echocardiography.Methods A retrospective cross sectional study of 1012 singleton normal fetuses were performed.The gestation age ranged from 20 to 41 weeks.Non-cardiac fetal biometric parameters included GA and BPD and FL were measured and calculated GA based on menstrual age.TAPSE was measured in a standard apical four-chamber view by free angle M-mode echocardiography.Normal Z-score ranges were developed for TAPSE using GA,BPD and FL as independent variables.These were accomplished by using first standard regression analysis and then weighted regression of absolute residual values for each parameter in order to adjust for

  20. Z比分数-模糊AHP评价模型在卷烟成品实验室检测能力评价中的应用%Application of Z Score-Fuzzy AHP Model to Evaluation of Testing Capability of Cigarette Laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永峰; 张胜华; 李文璟; 王琼; 沈军; 米芳芳; 贾洋

    2015-01-01

    A Z score-fuzzy AHP model was established by combining Z score, AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The evaluation process involved eight steps: establishing a cigarette laboratory evaluation index system, determining the weight of each index with AHP, converting the test results of each index for each sample into Z score (Z, ZB, ZW), establishing a set of evaluation term and a score set with fuzzy evaluation, taking the proportion of Z score of each index for each sample in the evaluating term set as membership degree, forming fuzzy judgment matrix, and finally obtaining the score and rank of cigarette laboratories in terms of physical property testing, smoke analysis and overall testing capability. The established model was verified by taking ten cigarette laboratories as examples. The results showed that this method was suitable for evaluating the testing capability of a cigarette laboratory concerning multi-sample and multi-factor, it could evaluate the physical testing, smoke analysis and overall testing capabilities of a laboratory and find out the indexes which might be problematic, to provide a reference for optimizing and improving the testing capability of the laboratory.%为解决Z比分数法只能对卷烟成品实验室单个指标进行分析评价问题,将Z比分数、层次分析法(Analytic Hierarchy Process)与模糊综合评价法相结合,建立了Z比分数-模糊AHP评价模型。评价分为8个步骤:构建卷烟成品实验室评价指标体系,利用AHP确定各指标权重,将实验室每个样品的指标检测值转化为Z比分数(Z,ZB,ZW),利用模糊评价方法建立评语集和对应的分数集,把每个指标各样品Z比分数在评语集各等级所占比例作为隶属度,形成模糊判断矩阵,最终得到实验室物测、烟气以及综合检测能力评价得分及排序。以10个实验室为例验证了该模型的综合评价能力。结果表明,

  1. IEC 61643-311气体放电管新旧版本标准的比较和分析%Comparison and Analysis of the Newly-Published IEC 61643-311 for Lightning Protective Component GDT to the Previous Version

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洋; 行鸿彦; 刘非凡

    2014-01-01

    国际电工委员会(简称IEC)于2013年4月发布了IEC 61643-311:2013“低压电涌保护器元件第311部分:气体放电管的性能要求和测试回路”,该标准取代了IEC于2001年10月发布的原IEC 61643-311.通过对新旧版本标准的比较,对气体放电管性能要求和测试方法进行深入分析,认为新版标准扩展了气体放电管(GDT)应用领域,强化了气体放电管(GDT)技术安全性能,有利于提高开关型电涌保护器的安全性和可靠性.

  2. Empirical Analysis of Financial Risk of China's Real Estate Companies based on Z-Score Model%基于Z-Score模型的我国房地产业上市公司财务风险的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严碧红; 马广奇

    2011-01-01

    在宏观经济紧缩和严厉调控政策的影响下,我国房地产企业已经出现了显著的财务风险。本文运用Z—Score财务风险预警模型,对在深市A股上市的61家房地产企业财务风险进行了实证研究,并在此基础上针对性地提出了房地产企业加强财务管理和风险防范的建议。%Under the impact of macroeconomic tightening and drastic control policies, there have been significant financial risk of real estate enterprises in China. Through using Z-Score financial risk early-warning model, this article conducted an empirical study of financial risk of 61 real estate enterprises in the listed Shenzhen A-share board, on the basis of the analysis, this paper puts forward recommendations for strengthening the financial management and risk prevention in real estate enterprises.

  3. Decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata determined by an easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images in a case of MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yuichi; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshikura, Nobuaki; Asano, Takahiko; Hatano, Taku; Tatsumi, Shinsui; Satoh, Katsuya; Kimura, Akio; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2015-11-15

    We report a case of autopsy-verified MM2-thalamic-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) in a 46-year-old patient with a 16-month history of abnormal behavior, progressive dementia, insomnia, and speech disturbances without family history. Neurological examination revealed progressive dementia, frontal signs, insomnia, speech disturbance, gait disturbance and bilaterally exaggerated tendon reflexes. Both brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid examinations, including 14-3-3 protein, yielded normal results. An easy Z-score (eZIS) analysis for (99m)Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer-single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT) revealed decreased regional cerebral blood flow in the bilateral thalami and medulla oblongata. PRNP gene analysis revealed methionine homozygosity at codon 129 without mutation. Neuropathological examinations revealed severe neuronal loss, gliosis, and hypertrophic astrocytosis in the medial thalamus and inferior olivary nucleus. A slight depletion of Purkinje cells was observed. PrP immunostaining showed no obvious PrP deposits in the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, or brainstem; however, mild synaptic-type PrP deposits with some smaller plaque-like structures were only partially observed in the localized region of the frontal lobe with the spongiform change. Western blot analyses of protease-resistant PrP showed a type 2 pattern. In conclusion, eZIS analysis of (99m)Tc-ECD-SPECT images is useful for detecting both thalamic and medullary lesions. This is the first case of medullary lesions detected in a live patient with MM2-thalamic-type sCJD using SPECT.

  4. Nutritional intake and weight z-scores in very low birth weight infants in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Proaño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS Determinar las ingestas nutricionales en los recién nacidos de muy bajo peso al nacer y su respectivo crecimiento en el primer mes de vida. Adicionalmente, identificar factores para un desenlace negativo en el periodo neonatal de esta población. METODOS Estudio de serie de casos desarrollado en un hospital de tercer nivel en Lima, Perú desde 2011 a 2012. La información se obtuvo de las historias médicas. No se utilizó un protocolo de nutrición durante el estudio. La ingesta diaria del volumen, la energía y las proteínas fue registrada al igual que el puntaje z del peso de manera semanal. Se utilizó regresión logística para identificar factores asociados a un desenlace adverso, que se define como mortalidad neonatal o restricción de crecimiento extrauterino en los primeros 28 días de vida. RESULTADOS Luego del criterio de selección, se incluyeron a 76 participantes. Las ingestas nutricionales fueron similares a los valores descritos en la literatura, pero la ingesta proteica fue sub óptima durante las cuatro semanas. El puntaje z del peso al nacer se asocia con un desenlace adverso (p=0,035. Se determinó que un puntaje z menor de 1,09 predice un desenlace negativo con un área bajo la curva ROC de 96,8% (93,5%, 100%, con un intervalo de confianza del 95%. CONCLUSIÓN Las ingestas proteicas fueron sumamente deficientes en este estudio. Sin embargo, un desenlace adverso se asocia más a un pobre puntaje z al nacer que a factores relacionados a la nutrición.

  5. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77

  6. Cushing's syndrome and bone mineral density: lowest Z scores in young patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, A.W.A.; Heijer, M. den; Oyen, W.J.G.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have a high prevalence of osteoporotic fractures. Little is known about factors determining bone mineral density (BMD) in these patients. Objective: To evaluate which factors influence BMD at the time of diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Methods: In 77 con

  7. 基于"Z-Score"模型的上市公司财务困境预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦斌

    2010-01-01

    本文以2009年新被上交所ST处理的5家制造业公司为样本,选取了样本公司在2007~2008年的年报披露的财务指标,运用Altman的Z-Score模型,分析样本公司被ST处理前2年内的Z值特征,并对验证结果进行了分析、总结和评价.

  8. Monitoring modifiable cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes care in general practice: the use of an aggregated z-score.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, G.; Borgermans, L.D.A.; Heyrman, J.; Broeke, C. Van Den; Carbonez, A.; Mathieu, C.; Verbeke, G.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because many patients in usual care reach the diabetes treatment goals, it may be more efficacious to focus quality improvement efforts on those general practice populations requiring additional support. We therefore developed a tool based on a composite end point considering blood press

  9. 实验室Z比分数统计的辨析%Laboratory Analysis of Z-Score statistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志清

    2010-01-01

    Z比分数法是当前国际上实验室能力验证对结果进行评价的常用方法,它常用于多试验者完成同一试验所产生检测数据满意度的评估.Z比分数虽然在实验室能力评价中应用广、效果好,但仍存在着不足,对此本文进行了分析和总结,以供大家参考.

  10. Final adult height of children with inflammatory bowel disease is predicted by parental height and patient minimum height Z-score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Lee (Jessica); J.C. Escher (Johanna); M.J. Shuman (Melissa); P.W. Forbes (Peter); L.C. Delemarre (Luçan); B.W. Harr (Brian); M. Kruijer (Marjan); M. Moret (Marlous); S. Allende-Richter (Sophie); R.J. Grand (Richard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This study was designed to elucidate the contribution of parental height to the stature of children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), who often exhibit growth impairment. Accordingly, we compared patients' final adult heights and target heights based on measured parental

  11. Independent effects of age-related changes in waist circumference and BMI z scores in predicting cardiovascular disease risk factors in a prospective cohort of adolescent females

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Cross-sectional data indicate that central adiposity is associated with cardiovascular disease risk, independent of total adiposity. The use of longitudinal data to investigate the relation between changes in fat distribution and the emergence of risk factors is limited. OBJECTIVE: We ...

  12. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  13. Differences in body mass index z-scores and weight status in a Dutch pediatric psychiatric population with and without use of second-generation antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogd, S. de; Overbeek, W.A.; Heerdink, E.R.; Correll, C.U.; Graeff, E.R. de; Staal, W.G.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Weight gain and metabolic adverse effects of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have become a major concern, particularly in youth. However, the specific contribution of SGAs versus other medications or the underlying illness is unclear. METHODS: In a chart review study of psychiatri

  14. Kamp K’aana, a 2-week residential weight management summer camp, shows long-term improvement in body mass index z scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n=38) or extracted from medical record (n=33). Compared with basel...

  15. Application of the Z-score Model and Its Limitations%Z记分模型的应用及其局限性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小舟

    2005-01-01

    公司的破产与很多因素关联,从定量的角度测算公司破产的可能性大小具有重大的理论价值和实践意义.Z记分模型是专门用来测算公司破产几率的重要工具.重点介绍了Z记分模型,Z记分模型的应用领域以及应用该模型解决实际问题存在的局限性.

  16. Z-score预警模型的研究与分析%The New Researches of Z-score early-warning Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永生; 李洁

    2006-01-01

    本文对Z-score预警模型进行了新的研究,将模型中各财务比率的权数及常数项进行调查;并对各模型预测概率进行比较,以获得其预测准确率;然后在此基础上提出P模型(百分数模型),同时用ST公司和非ST公司的财务数据对P模型进行实证检测分析.

  17. Research on New Z-score Model Based on Corporate Finance%基于公司财务的新 Z-score模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟小璐; 何畔

    2016-01-01

    Z-score模型在财务困境方面的应用一直都具有很重要的作用. 本文借鉴国内外学者的研究成果,基于公司的财务,利用Fisher逐步判别分析法进行指标筛选,消除变量间多重共线性问题,通过筛选后得到的财务指标建立了一个新Z-score模型. 然后通过原始样本的回判检验和交互检验以及预测样本的检验,验证了该模型的有效性和判别能力.

  18. Healthy Buddies[TM] Reduces Body Mass Index Z-Score and Waist Circumference in Aboriginal Children Living in Remote Coastal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsley, Rebecca; Lee, Andrew S.; Kuzeljevic, Boris; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aboriginal children are at increased risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Healthy Buddies [TM]-First Nations (HB) is a curriculum-based, peer-led program promoting healthy eating, physical activity, and self-esteem. Methods: Although originally designed as a pilot pre-/post-analysis of 3 remote Aboriginal schools that requested and…

  19. The association between physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep, and body mass index z-scores in different settings among toddlers and preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzik, Nicholas; Carson, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep are all movement behaviors that range on a continuum from no or low movement, to high movement. Consistent associations between movement behaviors and adiposity indicators have been observed in school-age children. However, limited information exists in younger children. Since approximately 50 % of Canadian children ≤5 years of age attend non-parental care, movement behaviors within and outside of the child care setting are important...

  20. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    , and body weight change over 3 years among Danish children. METHODS: Multiple regression analyses were performed using anthropometric and dietary data of 398 boys and girls (8-10 years) who were enrolled in 1997/1998 and followed up in 2000/2001. Validated 24-hour recall interviews were conducted in order......, there was a direct association with excess weight gain. A high energy intake was associated with a higher weight gain among overweight than among normal-weight boys. No significant association between dietary energy density and subsequent excess weight change was seen. The prevalence of overweight increased from 27......OBJECTIVE: Results from short-term studies demonstrate that energy density influences energy intake, but in children and adolescents the long-term effects of energy density and obesity development are sparse. We examined the longitudinal relationship between dietary energy density, fiber intake...

  1. Gdt2 regulates the transition of Dictyostelium cells from growth to differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Anjard Christophe; Chibalina Margarita V; Insall Robert H

    2004-01-01

    RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are. Abstract Backgrou...

  2. A Shift in Task Routines during the Learning of a Motor Skill: Group-Averaged Data May Mask Critical Phases in the Individuals' Acquisition of Skilled Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adi-Japha, Esther; Karni, Avi; Parnes, Ariel; Loewenschuss, Iris; Vakil, Eli

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe a transient phase during training on a movement sequence wherein, after an initial improvement in speed and decrease in variability, individual participants' performance showed a significant increase in variability without change in mean performance speed. Subsequent to this phase, as practice continued, variability again…

  3. A Micronutrient Powder with Low Doses of Highly Absorbable Iron and Zinc Reduces Iron and Zinc Deficiency and Improves Weight-For-Age Z-Scores in South African Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troesch, B.; Stuijvenberg, van M.E.; Smuts, C.M.; Salome Kruger, H.; Biebinger, R.; Hurrell, R.F.; Baumgartner, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in

  4. 财务预警的Z-计分模型检出力实证研究%he demonstration research of the adaptability test of financial early warning Z-scoring model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高春霞; 闭乐华

    2006-01-01

    介绍了财务预警的Z计分模型,并以沪市的PT企业为例来验证Z计分模型的检出力,用深市中小企业板的所有企业作为对照,说明Z计分模型对中国上市公司财务预警的适用性.最后提出Z计分模型的一些不足及改进意见.

  5. Empirical Study on Financial Risk of Listed Companies by Making Use of Altman's Z-scores Model%运用Z计分模型对上市公司财务风险的实证研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳云

    2005-01-01

    本文在介绍Altman的Z计分模型的基础上,以2003年山东上市公司67只A股作样本,对上市公司财务风险进行了实证研究.研究结果表明,Z计分模型在评价企业财务风险方面具有较强的有效性.

  6. Altman's Z-Score模型在企业风险管理中的应用研究%A Research of the Application of Altman's Z-Score Model in Enterprise Risk Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀渠

    2010-01-01

    随着市场竞争的加剧,信息化、高科技化进程的加快,企业决策难度、经营成本和收益的波动增大,企业风险管理彰显出重要性.笔者通过对沪、深证券交易所2007年~2009年暂停上市或终止上市的32家公司的Z值分析,认为用Altman's Z-Score模型预测企业风险是有效的.根据对Altman's Z-Score模型组成变量的比较分析,笔者提出了企业防范风险的有关措施.

  7. 基于Z-score模型的国有公司财务分析%Analysis of the State-owned Enterprise's Financial Situation Based on the Z-score Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张楚堂; 杨志强

    2009-01-01

    随着央企从分拆上市到整体上市的政策转变,对牵涉到的国有企业进行财务分析变得异常重要.文中从探讨Z-score模型对我国国有上市公司的适用性出发,通过主成分分析重新萃取更合适的指标对模型进行修正,并在此基础上,通过一个虚拟变量,构建了一个多元线形回归模型,以更深入地分析国有企业财务状况.

  8. A Micronutrient Powder with Low Doses of Highly Absorbable Iron and Zinc Reduces Iron and Zinc Deficiency and Improves Weight-For-Age Z-Scores in South African Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troesch, B.; Stuijvenberg, van M.E.; Smuts, C.M.; Salome Kruger, H.; Biebinger, R.; Hurrell, R.F.; Baumgartner, J.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrient powders (MNP) are often added to complementary foods high in inhibitors of iron and zinc absorption. Most MNP therefore include high amounts of iron and zinc, but it is no longer recommended in malarial areas to use untargeted MNP that contain the Reference Nutrient Intake for iron in

  9. 福建省贫困山区0~5岁儿童体格发育Z评分现状分析%Anlysis on Z-score of Physique Growth among children Aged 0~5Years in Rural Areas, Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少娟; 王明; 金乐君

    2000-01-01

    [目的] 了解福建省农村儿童体格发育Z评分现状,为今后的工作提供依据. [方法] 随机抽取上杭、屏南两县0~5岁儿童1 006名,对其测量身高、体重,以WHO推荐标准值计算Z评分值. [结果] 两县儿童身高/年龄Z评分、体重/年龄Z评分和体重/身高Z评分均值均为负值;三种Z评分值在6个月前高于或接近0,1周岁后均为负值;发育迟缓和体重不足儿童比例较高,超重和超胖儿童比例较低. [结论] 我省两县农村儿童身高体重距WHO推荐标准尚有较大的差距.

  10. Financial Early-warning and Improving of the List Company Based on Z-Score Model——Taking "Xiangli Stock" as an Example%上市公司财务预警Z-Score模型应用及修正——以"香梨股份"为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘开瑞; 弥莹

    2010-01-01

    以香梨股份有限公司为例,通过Z-Score模型构建了财务预警模型,同时,建立了F分数模型作为修正.提出了更多可以借鉴的定量财务预警模型,引入非财务指标,作为财务预警模型的发展趋势,使财务预警模型更加完善.

  11. Z-score模型最优分割点的确定方法比较——基于违约风险预测能力的分析%Predicting Default Risk of Z-score Model: The Weighted Average Method VS.The ZETAc Model Approach to Determine Optimal Cut-off Score

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱艳敏; 陈超

    2013-01-01

    Z-score模型在对企业进行财务困境和违约风险判别方面具有重要的应用价值,最优分割点的确定方法对于提高模型的违约风险判别能力至关重要.本文以医药生物行业上市公司为样本,运用Fisher逐步判别法从15类财务比率中筛选出判别能力较强的7个指标构建了Z-score模型,并尝试采用加权平均法和考虑先验概率及误判成本的ZETAc模型法分别确定最优分割点.研究发现,ZETAc模型法预测企业违约风险的能力明显优于加权平均法.

  12. Research on the Early Warning of Financial Risk in Chinese Paper Making Enterprises——Based on the Theory of Z-Score Model%我国造纸企业财务风险预警研究——基于Z-Score模型理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨梦琳

    2016-01-01

    造纸业在国民经济中具有不可或缺的战略性基础产业地位.因此,基于Z-Score模型理论,选取2012-2014年我国沪深两市20家造纸企业作为研究样本,并利用Excel统计软件对样本企业的财务数据进行Z值计算和分析.结果发现:Z-Score模型对我国造纸行业的财务风险预警有一定效果,但也存在一定的局限性,为此,针对我国造纸行业的财务风险提出了相应的预防措施.

  13. 基于Z值模型的上市公司财务预警分析——以北京市为例%The Analysis of Listed Companies'Financial Crisis Warning Based on the"Z-Score"Model——as Beijing city for example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩正元

    2008-01-01

    如何运用财务预警系统揭示企业面临的财务危机,是国内外财务研究的一大难题.从Z值模型角度,从北京市A股上市公司中选取8家ST、★ST和13家经营良好的公司作为样本,进行实证分析,Z值模型对北京市上市公司财务预警具有一定的有效性,在我国具体运用Z值模型时还应注意我国会计制度与国际惯例的距离,样本指标的畸变,财务报表真实客观性,企业政策等因素.

  14. An Empirical Study of Financial Distress Prediction of Chinese Listed Companies Based on the Z-score Model%我国上市公司财务预警实证研究——基于Z-score模型的探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金婷婷

    2009-01-01

    建立预警系统对企业财务运营进行预测预报,是十分必要而重要的.以我国上市公司中的72家企业为样本,采用实证分析方法,可以建立基于Z-score模型的上市公司财务线性判别预警模型.研究表明,该模型适用于多种行业,具有较高的准确率,会对我国企业的财务危机预测、防范发挥一定作用.

  15. Growth assessment with z score of weight for age in premature infants during hospital stay%以年龄别体重z评分方法评价早产儿住院期间生长情况的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀静; 余欣庭; 王丹华; 全国早产儿营养调查协作组

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过研究早产儿住院期间年龄别体重z评分,评估早产儿住院期间生长情况并探讨可能的影响因素.方法 采用回顾性调查的方法,收集住院2周以上、出生胎龄在28~33周之间早产儿的临床资料,计算其住院期间年龄别体重z评分的动态变化,z评分=(实测体重-该性别该胎龄体重平均值)/该性别该胎龄体重的标准差.结果 共有438例早产儿入选,男293例,女145例;出生胎龄(31.3±1.4)周,出生体重(1638±345)g,出生时z评分(-0.60±0.68),住院时间(30.3±13.9)d,出院时矫正胎龄(35.6±1.8)周,体重(2058±300)g,出院时z评分(-1.44±0.95).不同胎龄组、适于胎龄儿及小于胎龄儿组住院期间z评分随日龄增长均呈下降趋势,出生时体重(r=0.56,P<0.01)、出生时z评分(r=0.55,P<0.01)和出院时z评分呈正相关,而开始肠内营养日龄(r=-0.33,P<0.01)、肠内营养热卡达100 kcal·kg-1·d-1的时间(r=-0.32,P<0.01)、总热卡达120 kcal·kg-1·d-1的时间(r=-0.30,P<0.01)与出院时z评分呈负相关,败血症与出院时z评分显著相关(x2=7.42,P<0.01).结论 年龄别体重z评分法是早产儿生长状态评估的一个较好指标.早产儿住院期间z评分总体呈下降趋势,适宜的宫内发育及生后积极的胃肠内外营养支持均可提高早产儿z评分,并改善其生长状况.

  16. Empirical Analysis of Financial Risk of China's Real Estate Companies based on Z-Score Model%基于Z-Score模型的我国房地产业上市公司财务风险的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严碧红; 马广奇

    2011-01-01

    在宏观经济紧缩和严厉调控政策的影响下,我国房地产企业已经出现了显著的财务风险.本文运用Z-Score财务风险预警模型,对在深市A股上市的61家房地产企业财务风险进行了实证研究,并在此基础上针对性地提出了房地产企业加强财务管理和风险防范的建议.

  17. Decision making with and without feedback: the role of intelligence, strategies, executive functions, and cognitive styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2009-11-01

    We investigated the effects of intelligence, decision-making strategies, and general cognitive styles on the role of feedback in making decisions under risk. A total of 100 healthy volunteers were assessed with the Game of Dice Task (GDT). A total of 50 participants performed the original GDT, and 50 participants performed a modified GDT in which no feedback was provided. A neuropsychological test battery and questionnaires assessing strategy application and cognitive styles were administered to all participants. Participants who performed the original GDT had higher net scores than those who performed the modified GDT. The benefit of feedback was moderated by participants' intelligence and strategy application.

  18. Performing a secondary executive task with affective stimuli interferes with decision making under risk conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathmann, Bettina; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that executive functions are crucial for advantageous decision making under risk and that therefore decision making is disrupted when working memory capacity is demanded while working on a decision task. While some studies also showed that emotions can affect decision making under risk, it is unclear how affective processing and executive functions predict decision-making performance in interaction. The current experimental study used a between-subjects design to examine whether affective pictures (positive and negative pictures compared to neutral pictures), included in a parallel executive task (working memory 2-back task), have an impact on decision making under risk as assessed by the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Moreover, the performance GDT plus 2-back task was compared to the performance in the GDT without any additional task (GDT solely). The results show that the performance in the GDT differed between groups (positive, negative, neutral, and GDT solely). The groups with affective pictures, especially those with positive pictures in the 2-back task, showed more disadvantageous decisions in the GDT than the groups with neutral pictures and the group performing the GDT without any additional task. However, executive functions moderated the effect of the affective pictures. Regardless of affective influence, subjects with good executive functions performed advantageously in the GDT. These findings support the assumption that executive functions and emotional processing interact in predicting decision making under risk.

  19. Evaluation of Internet-based dengue query data: Google Dengue Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tave Gluskin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a common and growing problem worldwide, with an estimated 70-140 million cases per year. Traditional, healthcare-based, government-implemented dengue surveillance is resource intensive and slow. As global Internet use has increased, novel, Internet-based disease monitoring tools have emerged. Google Dengue Trends (GDT uses near real-time search query data to create an index of dengue incidence that is a linear proxy for traditional surveillance. Studies have shown that GDT correlates highly with dengue incidence in multiple countries on a large spatial scale. This study addresses the heterogeneity of GDT at smaller spatial scales, assessing its accuracy at the state-level in Mexico and identifying factors that are associated with its accuracy. We used Pearson correlation to estimate the association between GDT and traditional dengue surveillance data for Mexico at the national level and for 17 Mexican states. Nationally, GDT captured approximately 83% of the variability in reported cases over the 9 study years. The correlation between GDT and reported cases varied from state to state, capturing anywhere from 1% of the variability in Baja California to 88% in Chiapas, with higher accuracy in states with higher dengue average annual incidence. A model including annual average maximum temperature, precipitation, and their interaction accounted for 81% of the variability in GDT accuracy between states. This climate model was the best indicator of GDT accuracy, suggesting that GDT works best in areas with intense transmission, particularly where local climate is well suited for transmission. Internet accessibility (average ∼ 36% did not appear to affect GDT accuracy. While GDT seems to be a less robust indicator of local transmission in areas of low incidence and unfavorable climate, it may indicate cases among travelers in those areas. Identifying the strengths and limitations of novel surveillance is critical for these types of data to

  20. Evaluation of Internet-based dengue query data: Google Dengue Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluskin, Rebecca Tave; Johansson, Michael A; Santillana, Mauricio; Brownstein, John S

    2014-02-01

    Dengue is a common and growing problem worldwide, with an estimated 70-140 million cases per year. Traditional, healthcare-based, government-implemented dengue surveillance is resource intensive and slow. As global Internet use has increased, novel, Internet-based disease monitoring tools have emerged. Google Dengue Trends (GDT) uses near real-time search query data to create an index of dengue incidence that is a linear proxy for traditional surveillance. Studies have shown that GDT correlates highly with dengue incidence in multiple countries on a large spatial scale. This study addresses the heterogeneity of GDT at smaller spatial scales, assessing its accuracy at the state-level in Mexico and identifying factors that are associated with its accuracy. We used Pearson correlation to estimate the association between GDT and traditional dengue surveillance data for Mexico at the national level and for 17 Mexican states. Nationally, GDT captured approximately 83% of the variability in reported cases over the 9 study years. The correlation between GDT and reported cases varied from state to state, capturing anywhere from 1% of the variability in Baja California to 88% in Chiapas, with higher accuracy in states with higher dengue average annual incidence. A model including annual average maximum temperature, precipitation, and their interaction accounted for 81% of the variability in GDT accuracy between states. This climate model was the best indicator of GDT accuracy, suggesting that GDT works best in areas with intense transmission, particularly where local climate is well suited for transmission. Internet accessibility (average ∼ 36%) did not appear to affect GDT accuracy. While GDT seems to be a less robust indicator of local transmission in areas of low incidence and unfavorable climate, it may indicate cases among travelers in those areas. Identifying the strengths and limitations of novel surveillance is critical for these types of data to be used to make

  1. Supplement data for conformation changes by some binding - ConfC | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ed, and the Z score of distance is computed.The information about a regions of st...h residues are calculated, and the Z score of distance is computed. Finally, the regions of structural chang

  2. The Effects of Age, Priming, and Working Memory on Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meagan Wood

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we examined the effects of priming and personality on risky decision-making while playing the Game of Dice Task (GDT. In the GDT, participants decide how risky they wish to be on each trial. In this particular study prior to playing the GDT, participants were randomly assigned to one of three priming conditions: Risk-Aversive, Risk-Seeking, or Control. In the Risk-Seeking condition, a fictional character benefitted from risky behavior while in the Risk-Aversive condition, a fictional character benefitted from exercising caution. Although not explicitly stated in the instructions, participants need to make “safe” rather than risky choices to optimize performance on the GDT. Participants were also given Daneman and Carpenter’s assessment of working memory task. Interestingly, although older adults self-reported being more cautious than younger adults on the Domain Specific Risk Attitude scale (DOSPERT, older adults made riskier decisions than younger adults on the GDT. However, after controlling for working memory, the age differences on the GDT became insignificant, indicating that working memory mediated the relation between age and risky decisions on the GDT.

  3. Predictor of Severe Gastroduodenal Toxicity After Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Abdominopelvic Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sun Hyun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mi-Sook, E-mail: mskim@kcch.re.kr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Chul Koo; Kang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Sang Yeob; Lee, Kyung-Nam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Han [CyberKnife Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Chul Ju; Yang, Ki Young [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Bum [Department of General Surgery, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To identify the predictors for the development of severe gastroduodenal toxicity (GDT) in patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. Methods and Materials: From 2001 to 2011, 202 patients with abdominopelvic malignancies were treated with curative-intent SBRT. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 40 patients with the eligibility criteria as follows: 3 fractionations, follow-up period {>=}1 year, absence of previous radiation therapy (RT) history or combination of external-beam RT and the presence of gastroduodenum (GD) that received a dose higher than 20% of prescribed dose. The median SBRT dose was 45 Gy (range, 33-60 Gy) with 3 fractions. We analyzed the clinical and dosimetric parameters, including multiple dose-volume histogram endpoints: V{sub 20} (volume of GD that received 20 Gy), V{sub 25}, V{sub 30}, V{sub 35}, and D{sub max} (the maximum point dose). The grade of GDT was defined by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria version 4.0, and GDT {>=}grade 3 was defined as severe GDT. Results: The median time to the development of severe GDT was 6 months (range, 3-12 months). Severe GDT was found in 6 patients (15%). D{sub max} was the best dosimetric predictor for severe GDT. D{sub max} of 35 Gy and 38 Gy were respectively associated with a 5% and 10% probability of the development of severe GDT. A history of ulcer before SBRT was the best clinical predictor on univariate analysis (P=.0001). Conclusions: We suggest that D{sub max} is a valuable predictor of severe GDT after SBRT using 3 fractionations for abdominopelvic malignancies. A history of ulcer before SBRT should be carefully considered as a clinical predictor, especially in patients who receive a high dose to GD.

  4. In vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective effect of ganodermanontriol against t-BHP-induced oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ha, Do Thi; Oh, Joonseok; Khoi, Nguyen Minh

    2013-01-01

    -inflammatory reaction in the hepatic cell lines and murine hepatic tissue examined. Western blot and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to estimate the expression of ganodermanontriol (GDT)-induced proteins, including heme oxidase-1 (HO-1) and mitogen-activated protein...... were monitored to assess whether GDT protected the cells from the t-BHP-mediated oxidative stimuli. RESULTS: GDT induced HO-1 expression via the activation of Nrf-2 nuclear translocation and the subsequent transcription of the HO-1 gene in vitro and in vivo, which seemed to be regulated...

  5. Outcome of intraoperative goal-directed therapy using Vigileo/FloTrac in high-risk patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Elgendy

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: The applied protocol for intraoperative GDT provided significant reduction of PO morbidities, ICU and hospital LOS but couldn‘t significantly reduce mortality rates in high risk patients scheduled for major abdominal surgeries.

  6. Tourism Areas - MDC_GolfCourse

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A polygon feature class of all known Golf Courses within Miami-Dade County. Data was extracted from U.S. GDT Large Area Landmarks dataset, which represents common...

  7. Tourism Areas - MDC_GolfCourse

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of all known Golf Courses within Miami-Dade County. Data was extracted from U.S. GDT Large Area Landmarks dataset, which represents common...

  8. Trends in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children from 2006 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyu Xiao

    Full Text Available To examine the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children from 2006 to 2014.A total of 145,078 children aged 3-6 years from 46 kindergartens finished the annual health examination in Tianjin, China. Height, weight and other information were obtained using standardized methods. Z-scores for weight, height, and BMI were calculated based on the standards for the World Health Organization (WHO child growth standards.From 2006 to 2014, mean values of height z-scores significantly increased from 0.34 to 0.54, mean values of weight z-scores kept constant, and mean values of BMI z-scores significantly decreased from 0.40 to 0.23. Mean values of height z-scores, weight z-scores, and BMI z-scores slightly decreased among children from 3 to 4 years old, and then increased among children from 4 to 6 years old. Between 2006 and 2014, there were no significant changes in prevalence of overweight (BMI z-scores >2 SD and obesity (BMI z-scores >3 SD among 3-4 years children. However, prevalence of obesity (BMI z-scores >2 SD increased from 8.8% in 2006 to 10.1% in 2010, and then kept stable until 2014 among 5-6 years children. Boys had higher prevalence of obesity than girls.Mean values of BMI z-scores decreased from 2006 to 2014 among Chinese children aged 3-6 years old due to the significant increase of height z-scores. Prevalence of obesity increased from 2006 to 2010, and then kept stable until 2014 among children aged 5-6 years. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than in girls.

  9. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    CAMARGO,Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi; Marín-León, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score) and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score). To addres...

  10. Weight-for-age standard score - distribution and effect on in-hospital mortality: A retrospective analysis in pediatric cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Antony George; Pushpa Jagannath; Joshi, Shreedhar S.; A M Jagadeesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of weight for age standard score (Z score) in pediatric cardiac surgery and its effect on in-hospital mortality. Introduction: WHO recommends Standard Score (Z score) to quantify and describe anthropometric data. The distribution of weight for age Z score and its effect on mortality in congenital heart surgery has not been studied. Methods: All patients of younger than 5 years who underwent cardiac surgery from July 2007 to June 2013, under single surgical...

  11. Trends in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Chinese Preschool Children from 2006 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanyu; Qiao, Yijuan; Pan, Lei; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Tao; Li, Nan; Liu, Enqing; Wang, Yue; Liu, Hongyan; Liu, Gongshu; Huang, Guowei; Hu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To examine the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among preschool children from 2006 to 2014. A total of 145,078 children aged 3-6 years from 46 kindergartens finished the annual health examination in Tianjin, China. Height, weight and other information were obtained using standardized methods. Z-scores for weight, height, and BMI were calculated based on the standards for the World Health Organization (WHO) child growth standards. From 2006 to 2014, mean values of height z-scores significantly increased from 0.34 to 0.54, mean values of weight z-scores kept constant, and mean values of BMI z-scores significantly decreased from 0.40 to 0.23. Mean values of height z-scores, weight z-scores, and BMI z-scores slightly decreased among children from 3 to 4 years old, and then increased among children from 4 to 6 years old. Between 2006 and 2014, there were no significant changes in prevalence of overweight (BMI z-scores >2 SD) and obesity (BMI z-scores >3 SD) among 3-4 years children. However, prevalence of obesity (BMI z-scores >2 SD) increased from 8.8% in 2006 to 10.1% in 2010, and then kept stable until 2014 among 5-6 years children. Boys had higher prevalence of obesity than girls. Mean values of BMI z-scores decreased from 2006 to 2014 among Chinese children aged 3-6 years old due to the significant increase of height z-scores. Prevalence of obesity increased from 2006 to 2010, and then kept stable until 2014 among children aged 5-6 years. The prevalence of obesity was higher in boys than in girls.

  12. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi CAMARGO; Leticia MARÍN-LEÓN

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score) and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score). To addres...

  13. Goal-directed therapy improves the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Malhotra Kapoor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been a constant emphasis on developing management strategies to improve the outcome of high-risk cardiac patients undergoing surgical revascularization. The performance of coronary artery bypass surgery on an off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB avoids the risks associated with extra-corporeal circulation. The preliminary results of goal-directed therapy (GDT for hemodynamic management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients are encouraging. The present study was conducted to study the outcome benefits with the combined use of GDT with OPCAB as compared to the conventional hemodynamic management. Material and Method: Patients with the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation ≥3 scheduled for OPCAB were randomly divided into two groups; the control and GDT groups. The GDT group included the monitoring and optimization of advanced parameters, including cardiac index (CI, systemic vascular resistance index, oxygen delivery index, stroke volume variation; continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO 2 , global end-diastolic volume, and extravascular lung water (EVLW, using FloTrac™ , PreSep™ , and EV-1000 ® monitoring panels, in addition to the conventional hemodynamic management in the control group. The hemodynamic parameters were continuously monitored for 48 h in Intensive Care Unit (ICU and corrected according to GDT protocol. A total of 163 patients consented for the study. Result: Seventy-five patients were assigned to the GDT group and 88 patients were in the control group. In view of 9 exclusions from the GDT group and 12 exclusions from control group, 66 patients in the GDT group and 76 patients in control group completed the study. Conclusion: The length of stay in hospital (LOS-H (7.42 ± 1.48 vs. 5.61 ± 1.11 days, P < 0.001 and ICU stay (4.2 ± 0.82 vs. 2.53 ± 0.56 days, P < 0.001 were significantly lower in the GDT group as compared to control group. The duration of inotropes (3.24 ± 0

  14. The Rare-Variant Generalized Disequilibrium Test for Association Analysis of Nuclear and Extended Pedigrees with Application to Alzheimer Disease WGS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zongxiao; Zhang, Di; Renton, Alan E; Li, Biao; Zhao, Linhai; Wang, Gao T; Goate, Alison M; Mayeux, Richard; Leal, Suzanne M

    2017-02-02

    Whole-genome and exome sequence data can be cost-effectively generated for the detection of rare-variant (RV) associations in families. Causal variants that aggregate in families usually have larger effect sizes than those found in sporadic cases, so family-based designs can be a more powerful approach than population-based designs. Moreover, some family-based designs are robust to confounding due to population admixture or substructure. We developed a RV extension of the generalized disequilibrium test (GDT) to analyze sequence data obtained from nuclear and extended families. The GDT utilizes genotype differences of all discordant relative pairs to assess associations within a family, and the RV extension combines the single-variant GDT statistic over a genomic region of interest. The RV-GDT has increased power by efficiently incorporating information beyond first-degree relatives and allows for the inclusion of covariates. Using simulated genetic data, we demonstrated that the RV-GDT method has well-controlled type I error rates, even when applied to admixed populations and populations with substructure. It is more powerful than existing family-based RV association methods, particularly for the analysis of extended pedigrees and pedigrees with missing data. We analyzed whole-genome sequence data from families affected by Alzheimer disease to illustrate the application of the RV-GDT. Given the capability of the RV-GDT to adequately control for population admixture or substructure and analyze pedigrees with missing genotype data and its superior power over other family-based methods, it is an effective tool for elucidating the involvement of RVs in the etiology of complex traits.

  15. The non-steroidal antiandrogen, bicalutamide ('Casodex'), may preserve bone mineral density as compared with castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrrell, C J; Blake, G M; Iversen, P;

    2003-01-01

    ) for a median of 287 weeks. In 38% of castration compared with 17% of bicalutamide patients, femoral neck Z-scores were risk of fracture) and T-scores were ... females). Total hip Z-scores were lumbar spine BMD was affected by degenerative disease. These preliminary data suggest that there may be an advantage in terms of BMD in using bicalutamide monotherapy compared...

  16. Small Size at Birth or Abnormal Intrauterine Growth Trajectory: Which Matters More for Child Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Geir W; Kramer, Michael S; Martinussen, Marit; Platt, Robert W

    2016-06-15

    Small size at birth is linked with lifelong adverse health implications. However, small size is only a proxy for the pathological process of interest, intrauterine growth restriction. We examined the extent to which information on intrauterine growth patterns improved prediction of childhood anthropometry, above and beyond birth weight alone. We obtained fetal weights estimated via serial ultrasound for 478 children in the Scandinavian Successive Small-for-Gestational-Age Births Study (1986-1988). Size at birth was classified using birth weight-for-gestational-age z scores and conditional fetal growth z scores (reflecting growth between 25 weeks' gestation and birth) using internal references. Conditional z scores were also expressed as residuals of birth weight z scores. Growth measures were linked with age-5-years anthropometric characteristics using linear regression. In univariable analyses, conditional fetal growth z scores were positively associated with z scores for child height, body mass index, total skinfold thickness, and head circumference (β = 0.24 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.31), β = 0.16 (95% CI: 0.09, 0.23), β = 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.16), and β = 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22, 0.52), respectively). However, conditional z scores were highly correlated with birth weight z scores (r = 0.9), and residuals explained minimal additional variation in anthropometric factors (null coefficients; adjusted R(2) increases child growth beyond that obtained from absolute size at birth.

  17. Tracking of clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors from childhood to adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; McMurray, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    samples were analyzed for CVD risk factors. A clustered risk-score (z-score) was constructed by adding sex-specific z-scores for blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, skinfolds and negative values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and VO(2peak...

  18. Performance Persistence of Dutch Pension Funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Mahieu, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the investment performance of pension funds with a focus on their ability in implementing the investment strategy. We use a sample of Dutch industry-wide pension funds, which are obliged by law to report their investment performance according to the so-called z-score. The z-score

  19. Urban Park Development and Pediatric Obesity Rates: A Quasi-Experiment Using Electronic Health Record Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TaShauna U. Goldsby

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Childhood obesity affects ~20% of children in the United States. Environmental influences, such as parks, are linked with increased physical activity (PA. Objective: To examine whether changes in Body Mass Index (BMI z-score were associated with construction of a new park. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to determine whether living in proximity of a park was associated with a reduction in BMI z-score. Children were selected from health clinics within an 11 mile radius of the park. A repeated-measure ANOVA was employed for analysis of the relationship between exposure (new park and BMI z-score. Results: Participants were 1443 (median age 10.3 range (2–17.9 years, BMI: z-score 0.84 ± 1.09 African American (77.4% adolescents. Change in BMI z-score was not statistically different for children living at different distances from the park after controlling for age, gender, race, ethnicity, or payer type (p = 0.4482. We did observe a small 0.03 increase in BMI z-score from pre- to post-park (p = 0.0007. There was a significant positive association between child’s baseline age and BMI z-score (p < 0.001. Conclusions: This study found proximity to a park was not associated with reductions in BMI z-score. Additional efforts to understand the complex relationship between park proximity, access, and PA are warranted.

  20. MRI and suspected acute pyelonephritis in children: comparison of diffusion-weighted imaging with gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivier, Pierre-Hugues [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de radiopediatrie, Rouen, Cedex (France); Universite de Rouen, INSERM U1096, Rouen, Cedex (France); CHU Charles Nicolle, Service d' imagerie pediatrique et foetale, INSERM U1096, Rouen CEDEX (France); Sallem, Asmaa [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de radiopediatrie, Rouen, Cedex (France); Beurdeley, Marion; Leroux, Julien; Liard, Agnes [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de chirurgie pediatrique, Rouen, Cedex (France); Lim, Ruth P. [Austin Health, Radiology Department, Heidelberg, Victoria (Australia); Caudron, Jerome; Dacher, Jean-Nicolas [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de radiopediatrie, Rouen, Cedex (France); Universite de Rouen, INSERM U1096, Rouen, Cedex (France); Coudray, Cyril [G. E. Healthcare, Velizy Villacoublay Cedex (France); Michelet, Isabelle [Rouen University Hospital, CHU C. Nicolle, Service de pediatrie, Rouen, Cedex (France)

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate the performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) against the reference standard of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (Gd-T1-WI) in children. Thirty-nine consecutive patients (mean age 5.7 years) with suspected acute pyelonephritis underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including DWI and (the reference standard) Gd-T1-WI. Each study was read in double-blinded fashion by two radiologists. Each kidney was graded as normal or abnormal. Sensitivity and specificity of DWI were computed. Agreement between sequences and interobserver reproducibility were calculated (Cohen κ statistic and the McNemar tests). Thirty-two kidneys (41 %) had hypo-enhancing areas on Gd-T1-W images. The sensitivity and specificity of DWI were 100 % (32/32) and 93.5 % (43/46). DWI demonstrated excellent agreement (κ = 0.92,) with Gd-T1-W, with no significant difference (P = 0.25) in detection of abnormal lesions. Interobserver reproducibility was excellent with DWI (κ = 0.79). DWI enabled similar detection of abnormal areas to Gd-T1-WI and may provide an injection-free means of evaluation of acute pyelonephritis. (orig.)

  1. 猪Torque teno病毒广东株的PCR检测和序列分析%PCR detection and sequence analysis of Guangdong strains of Torque teno sus virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄元; 徐敏; 陈少勤; 王晓虎; 向华; 张健?

    2012-01-01

    目的 Torque teno病毒(Torque teno virus,TTV)是近年来才发现的一种单股负链DNA病毒.猪Torque teno病毒(Torque teno sus virus,TTsuV)在猪群中大量流行,被认为与猪的断奶后多系统衰竭综合征(post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome,PMWS)等疾病有关.本文旨在为广东TTsuV的流行病学提供数据.方法 本文根据TTsuV的非编码区(UTR)合成引物,对来自广东2个猪场的14份猪血清进行了PCR检测.将2个猪场的TTsuV1和TTsuV2 PCR产物各取1份,共4份PCR产物,进行克隆,测序并分析.结果 PCR共获得10份TTsuV1阳性(71%),8份TTsuV2阳性(57%),其中TTsuV1和TTsuV2双重阳性的为5份(36%).PCR产物与参考毒株相应序列的分析证实,GDT1-1和GDT1-2的UTR片段均与TTsuV1参考毒株高度相似,GDT2-1和GDT2-2的UTR片段与TTsuV2参考毒株高度相似.结论 广东至少存在两种血清型的TTsuV,在一些猪场有较高的检出率.TTsuV可能具有潜在的致病性,其公共卫生意义不容忽视.%Human TT virus (TTV), a novel virus with negative single strand DNA, is ubiquitous and nonpathogenic. Viruses related to human TTV have since been identified in non human primates, bovine, ovine, porcine, feline, and canine. Torque teno sus virus (TTsuV) was found widely prevalent in pig herds, and considered to involve with some diseases such as post weaning multi sys temic wasting syndrome (PMWS). The objective of this study was to characterize TTsuV from pigs in Guangdong Province in South China. PCR primers were synthesized based on untranslated region (UTR) segment of TTsuV genome. PCR was performed by 50 cy cles to detect 14 swine serum samples which came from two farms in Guangdong Province, following the method previously reported by Segales et al in 1999. Two of theTTsuVl PCR products, GDT1 1 and GDT1 2, and two of the TTsuV2 PCR products, GDT2 1 and GDT2 2, were cloned, sequenced and analyzed. PCR showed 71% (10/14) TTsuVl positive, 57. 1% (8/14) TTsuV2 positive, and

  2. Infant Nutritional Status and Markers of Environmental Enteric Dysfunction are Associated with Midchildhood Anthropometry and Blood Pressure in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locks, Lindsey M; Mwiru, Ramadhani S; Mtisi, Expeditho; Manji, Karim P; McDonald, Christine M; Liu, Enju; Kupka, Roland; Kisenge, Rodrick; Aboud, Said; Gosselin, Kerri; Gillman, Matthew; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    To assess whether growth and biomarkers of environmental enteric dysfunction in infancy are related to health outcomes in midchildhood in Tanzania. Children who participated in 2 randomized trials of micronutrient supplements in infancy were followed up in midchildhood (4.6-9.8 years of age). Anthropometry was measured at age 6 and 52 weeks in both trials, and blood samples were available from children at 6 weeks and 6 months from 1 trial. Linear regression was used for height-for-age z-score, body mass index-for-age z-score, and weight for age z-score, and blood pressure analyses; log-binomial models were used to estimate risk of overweight, obesity, and stunting in midchildhood. One hundred thirteen children were followed-up. Length-for-age z-score at 6 weeks and delta length-for-age z-score from 6 to 52 weeks were associated independently and positively with height-for-age z-score and inversely associated with stunting in midchildhood. Delta weight-for-length and weight-for-age z-score were also positively associated with midchildhood height-for-age z-score. The 6-week and delta weight-for-length z-scores were associated independently and positively with midchildhood body mass index-for-age z-score and overweight, as was the 6-week and delta weight-for-age z-score. Delta length-for-age z-score was also associated with an increased risk of overweight in midchildhood. Body mass index-for-age z-score in midchildhood was associated positively with systolic blood pressure. Serum anti-flagellin IgA concentration at 6 weeks was also associated with increased blood pressure in midchildhood. Anthropometry at 6 weeks and growth in infancy independently predict size in midchildhood, while anti-flagellin IgA, a biomarker of environmental enteric dysfunction, in early infancy is associated with increased blood pressure in midchildhood. Interventions in early life should focus on optimizing linear growth while minimizing excess weight gain and environmental enteric

  3. Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES) for quantitative magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis: intra- and inter-observer agreement variability: a comparison with manual contouring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Roberto C; Sardanelli, Francesco; Renzetti, Paolo; Rosso, Elisabetta; Losacco, Caterina; Ferrari, Alessandra; Levrero, Fabrizio; Pilot, Alberto; Inglese, Matilde; Mancardi, Giovanni L

    2002-04-01

    Lesion area measurement in multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the key points in evaluating the natural history and in monitoring the efficacy of treatments. This study was performed to check the intra- and inter-observer agreement variability of a locally developed Growing Region Segmentation Software (GRES), comparing them to those obtained using manual contouring (MC). From routine 1.5-T MRI study of clinically definite multiple sclerosis patients, 36 lesions seen on proton-density-weighted images (PDWI) and 36 enhancing lesion on Gd-DTPA-BMA-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WI) were randomly chosen and were evaluated by three observers. The mean range of lesion size was 9.9-536.0 mm(2) on PDWI and 3.6-57.2 mm(2) on Gd-T1WI. The median intra- and inter-observer agreement were, respectively, 97.1 and 90.0% using GRES on PDWI, 81.0 and 70.0% using MC on PDWI, 88.8 and 80.0% using GRES on Gd-T1WI, and 85.8 and 70.0% using MC on Gd-T1WI. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were significantly greater for GRES compared with MC ( PGRES an MC for Gd-T1WI. The intra-observer variability for GRES was significantly lower on both PDWI ( P=0.0001) and Gd-T1WI ( P=0.0067), whereas for MC the same result was found only for PDWI ( P=0.0147). These data indicate that GRES reduces both the intra- and the inter-observer variability in assessing the area of MS lesions on PDWI and may prove useful in multicentre studies.

  4. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, Karen B; Herrin, Jeph; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2011-06-01

    We determined whether overweight and obese children performed less combined moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), less vigorous physical activity (VPA) alone, and had distinct patterns of sustained MVPA or VPA compared with non-overweight children. We monitored 106 children (aged 8 to 10 years) for 7 consecutive days using accelerometers. Differences in mean daily MVPA and VPA were assessed by comparing non-overweight (NOW) with overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We used an algorithm to identify periods of consecutive minutes where MVPA or VPA was continuous, called bouts. We then compared the bouts performed by NOW versus OW and OB participants with respect to the mean of the counts·minute(-1) for the minutes included in the bout, their mean length in minutes, and the number of MVPA bouts performed in sequence. The non-overweight group averaged 143 minutes of MVPA per day versus 120 minutes among the OW/OB (p=0.004). The OW/OB group had fewer MVPA bouts per day compared with the NOW (11.6 versus17.6, p=0.012). Fewer VPA bouts were associated with greater body mass index z-score (pchildren had more intense body motion during MVPA bouts and performed a greater proportion of MVPA bouts in sequences of five or more consecutive bouts, compared with the OW/OB (p=0.05 and p=0.002, respectively). In addition to performing less physical activity, we found that obese and overweight children had distinct patterns of MVPA and VPA bouts compared with non-overweight peers.

  5. Patterns of moderate and vigorous physical activity in obese and overweight compared with non-overweight children

    Science.gov (United States)

    DORSEY, KAREN B.; HERRIN, JEPH; KRUMHOLZ, HARLAN M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We determined whether overweight and obese children performed less combined moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), less vigorous physical activity (VPA) alone, and had distinct patterns of sustained MVPA or VPA compared with non-overweight children. Methods We monitored 106 children (aged 8 to 10 years) for 7 consecutive days using accelerometers. Differences in mean daily MVPA and VPA were assessed by comparing non-overweight (NOW) with overweight and obese (OW/OB) participants using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. We used an algorithm to identify periods of consecutive minutes where MVPA or VPA was continuous, called bouts. We then compared the bouts performed by NOW versus OW and OB participants with respect to the mean of the counts·minute−1 for the minutes included in the bout, their mean length in minutes, and the number of MVPA bouts performed in sequence. Results The non-overweight group averaged 143 minutes of MVPA per day versus 120 minutes among the OW/OB (p=0.004). The OW/OB group had fewer MVPA bouts per day compared with the NOW (11.6 versus 17.6, p=0.012). Fewer VPA bouts were associated with greater body mass index z-score (p children had more intense body motion during MVPA bouts and performed a greater proportion of MVPA bouts in sequences of five or more consecutive bouts, compared with the OW/OB (p=0.05 and p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions In addition to performing less physical activity, we found that obese and overweight children had distinct patterns of MVPA and VPA bouts compared with non-overweight peers. PMID:20883127

  6. Usefulness of insulin like growth factor 1 as a marker of heart failure in children and young adults after the Fontan palliation procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Catherine M; Leonard, Mary B; Brodsky, Jill L; Whitehead, Kevin K; Ravishankar, Chitra; Cohen, Meryl S; Gaynor, J William; Rychik, Jack; Goldberg, David J

    2015-03-15

    Growth hormone and its mediator, insulinlike growth factor 1 (IGF-1), are key determinants of growth in children and young adults. As patients with Fontan physiology often experience diminished longitudinal growth, we sought to describe IGF-1 levels in this population and to identify factors associated with IGF-1 deficiency. Forty-one Fontan subjects ≥5 years were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. Age- and gender-specific height Z scores were generated using national data. Laboratory testing included IGF-1 and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels. IGF-1 levels were converted to age-, gender-, and Tanner stage-specific Z scores. BNP levels were log transformed to achieve a normal distribution (log-BNP). Medical records were reviewed for pertinent clinical variables. Predictors of IGF-1 Z score were assessed through the Student t test and Pearson's correlation. Median age was 11.1 years (range 5.1 to 33.5 years), and time from Fontan was 8.2 years (1.1 to 26.7). Mean height Z score was -0.2 ± 0.9 with a mean IGF-1 Z score of -0.1 ± 1.3. There was no association between IGF-1 Z score and height Z score. Longer interval since Fontan (R = -0.32, p = 0.04), higher log-BNP (R = -0.40; p = 0.01), and lower indexed systemic flow on cardiac magnetic resonance (R = 0.55, p = 0.02) were associated with lower IGF-1 Z scores. In conclusion, in this cohort with Fontan physiology, higher BNP and lower systemic flow were associated with lower IGF-1 Z score. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if these relations represent a mechanistic explanation for diminished growth in children with this physiology and with other forms of congenital heart disease.

  7. Quantification of EUGR as a Measure of the Quality of Nutritional Care of Premature Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenlang Lin

    Full Text Available To develop an index of the quality of nutritional care of premature infants based on the change in weight Z score from birth to discharge and to illustrate the use of this index in comparing the performance of different NICUs.Retrospective data analysis was performed to compare the growth of premature infants born in three perinatal centers. Infants with gestational age ≤ 32 weeks who survived to discharge from 2006 to 2010 were included. Weight Z scores at birth and discharge were calculated by the method of Fenton. Using data from one NICU as the reference, a multivariable linear regression model of change in weight Z score from birth to discharge was developed. Employing this model, a benchmark value of change in weight Z score was calculated for each baby. The difference between this calculated benchmark value and the baby's observed change in weight Z score was defined as the performance gap for that infant. The average value of the performance gaps in a NICU serves as its quality care index.1,714 infants were included for analysis. Change in weight Z score is influenced by birth weight Z score and completed weeks of gestation; thus the model for calculating the benchmark change in weight Z score was adjusted for these two variables. We found statistically significant differences in the average performance gaps for the three units.A quality care index was developed based on change in weight Z score from birth to discharge adjusted for two initial risk factors. This objective, easily calculated index may be used as a measurement of the quality of nutritional care to rank the performance of different NICUs.

  8. Bank regulation and financial fragility in developing countries: Does bank structure matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Klomp

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks’ Z-scores depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the banks’ Z-scores. Notably capital requirements and supervisory control diminish banking risk. However, the effectiveness of other dimensions of regulation and supervision depends on the organizational structure of banks. Notably activity restrictions reduce risk of large and foreign owned banks, while liquidity restrictions have most effect on the Z-scores of unlisted and commercial banks.

  9. JACKSON‘S THEOREM FOR COMPACT GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Vaezi; S.F.Rzaev

    2002-01-01

    In this article we consider the generalized shift operator defined by (Shuf)(g)=∫Gf(tut-1g)dt on compact group G and by help of this operator we define “Spherical” modulus of continuity.So we prove Stechkin and Jackson type theorems.

  10. Executive functions and risky decision-making in patients with opiate dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Roth-Bauer, Martina; Driessen, Martin; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that individuals with opiate dependence may have cognitive dysfunctions particularly within the spectrum of executive functioning and emotional processing. Such dysfunctions can also compromise daily decisions associated with risk-taking behaviors. However, it remains unclear whether patients addicted to opiates show impaired decision-making on gambling tasks that specify explicit rules for rewards and punishments and provide information about probabilities associated with different long-term outcomes. In this study, we examined 18 individuals with opiate dependence and 18 healthy comparison subjects, matched for age, gender, and education with the Game of Dice Task (GDT). The GDT is a gambling task with explicit rules for gains and losses and fix winning probabilities. In addition, all subjects completed a neuropsychological test battery that primarily focused on executive functions and a personality questionnaire. On the GDT, patients chose the risky alternatives more frequently than the control group. Patients' GDT performance was related to executive functioning but not to other neuropsychological constructs, personality or dependence specific variables with one exception that is the number of days of abstinence. Thus, patients with opiate dependence demonstrate abnormalities in decision-making that might be neuropsychologically associated with dysfunctional behavior in patients' daily lives. Decision-making and other neuropsychological functioning should be considered in the treatment of opiate dependence.

  11. Modulus of smoothness and theorems concerning approximation on compact groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vaezi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the generalized shift operator defined by (Shuf(g=∫Gf(tut−1gdt on a compact group G, and by using this operator, we define “spherical” modulus of smoothness. So, we prove Stechkin and Jackson-type theorems.

  12. Reasoning and mathematical skills contribute to normatively superior decision making under risk: evidence from the game of dice task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Marie-Theres; Zamarian, Laura; Delazer, Margarete

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we assessed to what extent reasoning improves performance in decision making under risk in a laboratory gambling task (Game of Dice Task-Double, GDT-D). We also investigated to what degree individuals with above average mathematical competence decide better than those with average mathematical competence. Eighty-five participants performed the GDT-D and several numerical tasks. Forty-two individuals were asked to calculate the probabilities and the outcomes associated with the different options of the GDT-D before performing it. The other 43 individuals performed the GDT-D at the beginning of the test session. Both reasoning and mathematical competence had a positive effect on decision making. Different measures of mathematical competence correlated with advantageous performance in decision making. Results suggest that decision making under explicit risk conditions improves when individuals are encouraged to reflect about the contingencies of a decision situation. Interventions based on numerical reasoning may also be useful for patients with difficulties in decision making.

  13. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth deviations (Z -— scores) were ... the mean Z - scores of the children for above and below average .... urban consumers because it is easily converted into food or it can be eaten ... generation: A situation analysis for Oyo State - Nigeria.

  14. Risk of Debt-Based Financing in Indonesian Islamic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharisya Ayu Effendi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to know the risk of debt-based financing in Islamic banking in Indonesia by using an accounting based calculation, those are NPF analysis, Credit risk Z-score and Altman Z-score. This study is telling about the risk of debt-based finacing on Indonesian Islamic banking using an accounting based measurement, those are NPF analysis, Credit Risk Z-score analysis and Altman Z-score analysis. The data was obtained from 2011 to 2015 from the website of each bank. The result is a risk on debt-based financing on Indonesian Islamic is low. The measurement using 3 accounting based measurement tool gives a consistent result, that is Indonesian Islamic banking use a debt-based financing have a high financial stability and a low risk.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i2.4821

  15. EAMJ Characteristic August.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-08

    Aug 8, 2009 ... CHARACTERISTICS OF HIV-INFECTED CHILDREN SEEN IN WESTERN KENYA ... weight-for-Age Z scores (WAZ)> -1 and 21% had WAZ scores < 3. Orphaned ...... to families to facilitate income generation, and free drugs ...

  16. Tuck-shop purchasing practices of Grade 4 learners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-07-26

    Jul 26, 2012 ... “this generation of obese children will have a shorter lifespan than their parents”. ... determine the anthropometric characteristics of learners, their tuck- .... based on the World Health Organization (WHO) z-score, as normal,.

  17. EAMJ Child Malnutrition 2010.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-06

    Jun 6, 2010 ... the under five children were below -2 Z-scores for height for age, weight .... maternal characteristics, access to social services, complementary foods ..... consumption but for income generation destined for purposes other than ...

  18. Elevated progesterone and its impact on birth weight after fresh embryo transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yetunde Ibrahim; Miriam J Haviland; Michele R Hacker; Alan S Penzias; Kim L Thornton; Denny Sakkas

    2017-01-01

    .... Generalized linear models were used to calculate mean birth weight and z-scores. Results We analyzed 817 fresh IVF embryo transfers in which birth weight, gestational age, and progesterone (ng/mL...

  19. Childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections in Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... the first 12months of life, malnutrition of weight -for - age- z -score ≤ 2, lack ... mental, while constitutional determinants would include gender, atopic ... ated risk factors for ALRTI among hospitalized Nigerian children. Subjects ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    study aimed at determining the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines among healthy .... and weight for height <80% (Z-Scores) who were finally put on a starter (F-75) (for phase 1 treatment ..... (1997) Enhanced generation of interleukins 1.

  1. Tibia and radius bone geometry and volumetric density in obese compared to non-obese adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Klieger, Sarah B.; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A.; Stettler, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with biologic and behavioral characteristics that may impact bone mineral density (BMD) and structure. The objective was to determine the association between obesity and bone outcomes, independent of sexual and skeletal maturity, muscle area and strength, physical activity, calcium intake, bio-markers of inflammation, and vitamin D status. Tibia and radius peripheral quantitative CT scans were obtained in 91 obese (BMI > 97th percentile) and 51 non-obese adolescents (BMI > 5th and <85th percentiles). Results were converted to sex- and race-specific Z-scores relative to age. Cortical structure, muscle area and muscle strength (by dynamometry) Z-scores were further adjusted for bone length. Obese participants had greater height Z-scores (p < 0.001), and advanced skeletal maturity (p < 0.0001), compared with non-obese participants. Tibia cortical section modulus and calf muscle area Z-scores were greater in obese participants (1.07 and 1.63, respectively, both p < 0.0001). Tibia and radius trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced skeletal maturity, and physical activity (by accelerometry) were positively associated with tibia cortical section modulus Z-scores (all p < 0.01). Adjustment for muscle area Z-score attenuated differences in tibia section modulus Z-scores between obese and non-obese participants from 1.07 to 0.28. After multivariate adjustment for greater calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced maturity, and less moderate to vigorous physical activity, tibia section modulus Z-scores were 0.32 (95% CI −0.18, 0.43, p = 0.06) greater in obese, vs. non-obese participants. Radius cortical section modulus Z-scores were 0.45 greater (p = 0.08) in obese vs. non-obese participants; this difference was attenuated to 0.14 with adjustment for advanced maturity. These findings suggest that greater tibia cortical section modulus in obese

  2. On Clustering Time Series Using Euclidean Distance and Pearson Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold, Michael R.; Höppner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    For time series comparisons, it has often been observed that z-score normalized Euclidean distances far outperform the unnormalized variant. In this paper we show that a z-score normalized, squared Euclidean Distance is, in fact, equal to a distance based on Pearson Correlation. This has profound impact on many distance-based classification or clustering methods. In addition to this theoretically sound result we also show that the often used k-Means algorithm formally needs a mod ification to...

  3. Associations of LEP, CRH, ICAM-1, and LINE-1 methylation, measured in saliva, with waist circumference, body mass index, and percent body fat in mid-childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Dunstan, Jocelyn; Bressler, Joseph P.; Moran, Timothy H.; Pollak, Jonathan S.; Hirsch, Annemarie G.; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Glass, Thomas A.; Schwartz, Brian S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Genetics explains a small proportion of variance in body mass index at the population level. Epigenetics, commonly measured by gene methylation, holds promise for understanding obesity risk factors and mechanisms. Methods Participants were 431 adolescents aged 10?15?years. BMI z-score, waist circumference z-score, and percent body fat were measured. Saliva samples were collected and methylation of promoter regions of four candidate genes or sequences (LEP, ICAM-1, CRH, and LINE-1) ...

  4. Rapid Anomaly Detection and Tracking via Compressive Time-Spectra Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    includes the data, the MMD and Z -score and the combined detection metric in four separate graphs for each measurement, we have generated receiver...distributions. 4. The product of Z -score and MMD score generates our change detection score. 5. The change detection scores are also a time series... characteristic and precision recall curves. New 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION

  5. Longitudinal Changes in Body Mass and Composition in Survivors of Childhood Hematologic Malignancies After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroto; Yang, Jie; Kaste, Sue C.; Hartford, Christine M.; Motosue, Megan S.; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Triplett, Brandon M.; Shook, David R.; Pui, Ching-Hon; Leung, Wing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To measure longitudinal changes in body mass and composition in survivors of childhood hematologic malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients and Methods Body mass index (BMI) was analyzed in 179 survivors by category (underweight, healthy-weight, overweight, and obese) and by z score. Fat and lean body mass measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was analyzed as z scores. Results Over a median 6.6 years of follow-up, BMI z scores diminished significantly (0.32 pre-HSCT v −0.60 at 10 years post-HSCT; P < .001). Mean z scores for fat mass stayed within population norms, but those for lean mass remained below normal levels and diminished significantly over time (P = .018). Pre-HSCT BMI category and/or z score were strongly predictive of post-HSCT BMI (P < .001) and of fat and lean mass z scores (both P < .001). Survivors with extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease were more likely than others to have low BMI (P = .004) and low lean mass (P < .001) post-HSCT. Older age at HSCT (P = .015) and T-cell–depleted graft (P = .018) were predictive of lower post-HSCT BMI. Female patients had higher body fat (P = .002) and lower lean mass (P = .013) z scores than male patients, and black patients had higher fat mass z scores than white patients (P = .026). Conclusion BMI declines significantly after allogeneic HSCT for childhood hematologic malignancies, reflecting primarily a substantial decrease in lean mass but not fat mass. Monitoring and preservation of BMI and lean mass are vital, especially in those with the identified risk factors. PMID:23032628

  6. Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery: Development of an Adaptive Item Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    values, and logarithms . Also included were items requiring knowledge of the correct order of operations, rounding and place values, and the...0- for a sphere and the conic sections (circle, parabola, hyperbola , ellipse). The plane geometry items required an examinee to compute the...43 shows normal curve z-score equivalents corresponding to the percentile midpoints of each of the intervals. Using these z-scores and the raw category

  7. A prospective study of LINE-1DNA methylation and development of adiposity in school-age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Perng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repetitive element DNA methylation is related to prominent obesity-related chronic diseases including cancer and cardiovascular disease; yet, little is known of its relation with weight status. We examined associations of LINE-1 DNA methylation with changes in adiposity and linear growth in a longitudinal study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. METHODS: We quantified methylation of LINE-1 elements from peripheral leukocytes of 553 children aged 5-12 years at baseline using pyrosequencing technology. Anthropometric characteristics were measured periodically for a median of 30 months. We estimated mean change in three age-and sex-standardized indicators of adiposity: body mass index (BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference Z-score, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold thickness ratio Z-score according to quartiles of LINE-1 methylation using mixed effects regression models. We also examined associations with height-for-age Z-score. RESULTS: There were non-linear, inverse relations of LINE-1 methylation with BMI-for-age Z-score and the skinfold thickness ratio Z-score. After adjustment for baseline age and socioeconomic status, boys in the lowest quartile of LINE-1 methylation experienced annual gains in BMI-for-age Z-score and skinfold thickness ratio Z-score that were 0.06 Z/year (P = 0.04 and 0.07 Z/year (P = 0.03, respectively, higher than those in the upper three quartiles. The relation of LINE-1 methylation and annual change in waist circumference followed a decreasing monotonic trend across the four quartiles (P trend = 0.02. DNA methylation was not related to any of the adiposity indicators in girls. There were no associations between LINE-1 methylation and linear growth in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: Lower LINE-1 DNA methylation is related to development of adiposity in boys.

  8. 基于Z-SCORE模型的上市公司财务风险预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭素欣

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、Z-score模型基本理论 "Z-score"模型是一种多变量预测财务风险的模型.它不同于常采用的单变量分析法,"Z-score"模型是将多个财务指标综合起来加以分析判断,从而得出结论.

  9. MRI-derived Restriction Spectrum Imaging Cellularity Index is Associated with High Grade Prostate Cancer on Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Andre Liss; White, Nathan S.; J. Kellogg Parsons; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Rebecca eRakow-Penner; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Hauke eBartsch; Choi, Hyung W.; Mattrey, Robert F.; Bradley, William G.; Ahmed eShabaik; Jiaoti eHuang; Daniel J. A. Margolis; Raman, Steven S.; Marks, Leonard S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to improve detection of aggressive prostate cancer. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of presurgical prostate MRI scans using an advanced diffusion weighted imaging technique called Restriction Spectrum Imaging (RSI), which can be presented as a normalized z-score statistic (RSI z-score). Scans were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy. Prostatectomy specimens were processed using whole mount sectioning...

  10. Food environments and childhood weight status: effects of neighborhood median income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechtner, Lauren; Sharifi, Mona; Sequist, Thomas; Block, Jason; Duncan, Dustin T; Melly, Steven J; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Taveras, Elsie M

    2015-06-01

    A key aspect of any intervention to improve obesity is to better understand the environment in which decisions are being made related to health behaviors, including the food environment. Our aim was to examine the extent to which proximity to six types of food establishments is associated with BMI z-score and explore potential effect modification of this relationship. We used geographical information software to determine proximity from 49,770 pediatric patients' residences to six types of food establishments. BMI z-score obtained from the electronic health record was the primary outcome. In multivariable analyses, living in closest proximity to large (β, -0.09 units; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.13, -0.05) and small supermarkets (-0.08 units; 95% CI, -0.11, -0.04) was associated with lower BMI z-score; living in closest proximity to fast food (0.09 units; 95% CI, 0.03, 0.15) and full-service restaurants (0.07 units; 95% CI, 0.01, 0.14) was associated with a higher BMI z-score versus those living farthest away. Neighborhood median income was an effect modifier of the relationships of convenience stores and full-service restaurants with BMI z-score. In both cases, closest proximity to these establishments had more of an adverse effect on BMI z-score in lower-income neighborhoods. Living closer to supermarkets and farther from fast food and full-service restaurants was associated with lower BMI z-score. Neighborhood median income was an effect modifier; convenience stores and full-service restaurants had a stronger adverse effect on BMI z-score in lower-income neighborhoods.

  11. Study on T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells in patients with Graves' disease combined with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Feng; Du Jing; Su Xiulan; Wu Lan; Wang Jinjing; Huo Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells in patients with simple Graves' disease (GD)and Graves' disease combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus (GD/T2DM). Methods Fifteen cases of GD/ T2DM were selected from our hospital from November 2001 to November 2004. Before and after therapy thyroid function, thyroglobulin antibody (TGA), thyroid microsomal antibody (TMA) and blood glucose level were measured, and T lymphocyte subsets (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8) and NK cells (CD56) were measured by immunofluorescence double labeling monoclonal antibody and flow cytometry, respectively. At the same time, comparison was made with simple GD (15 cases), T2DM (15 cases) and healthy control (20 cases). Results Before therapy, CD4/CD8, CD4 and NK cells in GD/T2DM were less than normal, and there was no significant difference in comparison with simple GD (P<0.05). In T2DM group, only CD4/CD8 and CD4 were less than those of healthy controls (P<0.05). When thyroid function recovered after 1 to 3 months of methimazole treatment in both GD/T2DM and simple GD groups, various indexes recovered, which were more obvious in simple GD. Conclusion Immune hypofunction of GD may be the key to the immune abnormality of GD/T2DM, which is more significant than that of simple GD or T2DM. The recovery of thyroid function and immune abnormality is not consistent, and the recovery of GD is more significant than that of GD/T2DM.

  12. Association between childhood obesity, cognitive development, physical fitness and social-emotional wellbeing in a transitional economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that obese children have lower cognitive function, demonstrate poorer physical performance and are more susceptible to social-emotional problems. To describe associations between human physical growth, cognitive development, physical fitness and social-emotional characteristics of obese and non-obese children and to verify the predictors of intellectual coefficient by socioeconomic status (SES). A sample of 107 non-obese (N-Ob) children [-1 z-score body mass index (BMI) ≤1 z-score] and 108 obese (Ob) children [2 z-score ≤BMI ≤5 z-score] from a larger cohort was evaluated. Intellectual coefficient (IQ), social-emotional wellbeing (SEW), 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and SES (mid-low, low and very low) were assessed. Ob children were taller, heavier and present more height for age and BMI than N-Ob children (p < 0.001). A significant correlation between IQ and SEW (r = 0.14), 6MWT and BMI z-score (r = -0.18) and 6MWT and SEW (r = 0.15) was found. Multiple regression analysis revealed that BMI z-score had a negative impact on IQ in the mid-low SES sub-group and that SEW had a positive effect on IQ in the very-low SES sub-group. In Chilean pre-school children from low-income families cognitive ability varied according to SES.

  13. Exploring the complex pathways among specific types of technology, self-reported sleep duration and body mass index in UK adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, T; Hussain, S; Hubert Lam, K-B; Lily Yao, G; Neil Thomas, G; Taheri, S

    2013-09-01

    To examine the independent associations between sleep duration, four technology types (computer use, mobile telephones, TV viewing and video gaming) and body mass index (BMI) z-score. We propose a theoretical path model showing direct effects of four technology types on BMI z-score and sleep duration as well as the indirect effects of each technology on BMI z-score while considering sleep duration as a mediator. Consenting adolescents (n=632; 63.9% girls, aged 11-18 years) were recruited to the Midlands Adolescent Schools sleep Education Study. The School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and Technology Use Questionnaire (TUQ) were administered. Objective measures of height (cm) and weight (kg) were obtained for BMI z-score calculation. Weekday use of all technology types was significantly associated with reduced weekday sleep duration after adjustment (β (computer use)=-0.38, Ptechnology types, with the exception of mobile telephones, was significantly associated with increased BMI z-score after adjustment (β (computer use)=0.26, Ptechnologies on BMI z-score. If confirmed, improving sleep through better management of technology use could be an achievable intervention for attenuating obesity.

  14. Fasting serum leptin levels in the analysis of body mass index cut-off values: are they useful for overweight screening in children and adolescents? A school population-based survey in three provinces of central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falorni, A; Galmacci, G; Bini, V; Papi, F; Molinari, D; De Giorgi, G; Faraoni, F; Celi, F; Di Stefano, G; Berioli, M G; Contessa, G; Bacosi, M L

    1998-12-01

    Body mass index (BMI) was determined in a population of school students from three provinces of central Italy. Fasting serum leptin concentrations were assayed in a large number of subjects from the same area, to determine their distribution as plotted against the standard deviation score (z-score) of BMI. Height and weight were recorded from 31170 subjects (16175 male and 14995 female), aged 3-18 y, to construct BMI charts of children and adolescents from central Italy. Percentiles and z-score were calculated using the LMS method of Cole. Serum leptin concentrations were assayed in 1929 subjects (996 male and 933 female) after overnight fasting. BMI percentiles of central Italy were higher than those from standards of other European and USA populations. When plotted against the z-score of BMI, serum leptin values were distributed according to an exponential curve, showing a steep pattern and a wide distribution, as BMI values increased. The hypothesis of the existence of two subgroups, based on a different relation between leptin and BMI, was verified and a separation point between the two subgroups was identified using cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and a novel method developed by our group, hereafter referred to as 'regression clustering'. This method allows identification of the value of the independent variable (z-score of BMI) which can be taken as a separation point. This analysis provided the best results and indicated the following separation points: central Italy standard, z-score = 0.72 (76.4th percentile) for males and z-score = 0.69 (75.5th percentile) for females; French standard (the one suggested for a European population by the European Childhood Obesity Group, ECOG), z-score = 1.46 (92.8th percentile) for males and z-score = 1.96 (97.5th percentile) for females. Similar but variable results were obtained when the same analysis was performed on serum leptin concentration, subdivided according to pubertal development (stage I, stage II

  15. Perioperative utility of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: “A clinical outcome and biomarker-based study”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Magoon, Rohan; Rawat, Rajinder; Mehta, Yatin

    2016-01-01

    Goal-directed therapy (GDT) encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV) fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into the control and GDT group. All the participants received standardized care; arterial pressure monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure (CVP) through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour, and frequent arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. In addition, cardiac index (CI) monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2) using PreSep™ were used in patients in the GDT group. Our aim was to maintain the CI at 2.5–4.2 L/min/m2, stroke volume index 30–65 ml/beat/m2, systemic vascular resistance index 1500–2500 dynes/s/cm5/m2, oxygen delivery index 450–600 ml/min/m2, continuous ScVO2 >70%, and stroke volume variation 30%, and urine output >1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of IV fluids and doses of inotropes or vasodilators. The data of sixty patients in each group were analyzed in view of ten exclusions. The average duration of ventilation (19.89 ± 3.96 vs. 18.05 ± 4.53 h, P = 0.025), hospital stay (7.94 ± 1.64 vs. 7.17 ± 1.93 days, P = 0.025), and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (3.74 ± 0.59 vs. 3.41 ± 0.75 days, P = 0.012) was significantly less in the GDT group, compared to the control group. The extra volume added and the number of inotropic dose adjustments were

  16. Using Google Dengue Trends to Estimate Climate Effects in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluskin, Rebecca T.; Santillana, Mauricio; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between Dengue Fever (DF) and climate in Mexico with real-time data from Google Dengue Trends (GDT) and climate data from NASA Earth observing systems. Introduction The incidence of dengue fever (DF) has increased 30 fold between 1960 and 2010 [1]. The literature suggests that temperature plays a major role in the life cycle of the mosquito vector and in turn, the timing of DF outbreaks [2]. We use real-time data from GDT and real-time temperature estimates from NASA Earth observing systems to examine the relationship between dengue and climate in 17 Mexican states from 2003–2011. For the majority of states, we predict that a warming climate will increase the number of days the minimum temperature is within the risk range for dengue. Methods The GDT estimates are derived from internet search queries and use similar methods as those developed for Google Flu Trends [3]. To validate GDT data, we ran a correlation between GDT and dengue data from the Mexican Secretariat of Health (2003–2010). To analyze the relationship between GDT and varying lags of temperature, we constructed a time series meta-analysis. The mean, max and min of temperature were tested at lags 0 –12 weeks using data from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications. Finally, we built a binomial model to identify the minimum 5° C temperature range associated with a 50% or higher Dengue activity threshold as predicted by GDT. Results The time series plot of GDT data and the Mexican Secretariat of Health data (2003– 2010) (Figure 1) produced a correlation coefficient of 0.87. The time series meta-analysis results for 17 states showed an increase in minimum temperature at lag week 8 had the greatest odds of dengue incidence, 1.12 Odds Ratio (1.09–1.16, 95% Confidence Interval). The comparison of dengue activity above 50% in each state to the minimum temperature at lag week 8 showed 14/17 states had an association with warmest 5

  17. Perioperative utility of goal-directed therapy in high-risk cardiac patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting: “A clinical outcome and biomarker-based study”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Malhotra Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed therapy (GDT encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were randomly divided into the control and GDT group. All the participants received standardized care; arterial pressure monitored through radial artery, central venous pressure (CVP through a triple lumen in the right internal jugular vein, electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation, temperature, urine output per hour, and frequent arterial blood gas (ABG analysis. In addition, cardiac index (CI monitoring using FloTrac™ and continuous central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2 using PreSep™ were used in patients in the GDT group. Our aim was to maintain the CI at 2.5–4.2 L/min/m2, stroke volume index 30–65 ml/beat/m2, systemic vascular resistance index 1500–2500 dynes/s/cm5/m2, oxygen delivery index 450–600 ml/min/m2, continuous ScVO2 >70%, and stroke volume variation 30%, and urine output >1 ml/kg/h. The aims were achieved by altering the administration of IV fluids and doses of inotropes or vasodilators. The data of sixty patients in each group were analyzed in view of ten exclusions. The average duration of ventilation (19.89 ± 3.96 vs. 18.05 ± 4.53 h, P = 0.025, hospital stay (7.94 ± 1.64 vs. 7.17 ± 1.93 days, P = 0.025, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU stay (3.74 ± 0.59 vs. 3.41 ± 0.75 days, P = 0.012 was significantly less in the GDT group, compared to the control group. The extra volume added and the number of inotropic dose adjustments were

  18. Assessment of Sex Differences in Body Composition Among Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Golden, Neville H; Peebles, Rebecka; Long, Jin; Murray, Stuart B; Leonard, Mary B; Carlson, Jennifer L

    2017-04-01

    To compare deficits in fat mass (FM) and lean body mass (LM) among male and female adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) and to identify other covariates associated with body composition. We retrospectively reviewed electronic medical records of all subjects aged 9-20 years with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition diagnosis of AN and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans after initial evaluation at Stanford between March 1997 and February 2011. From the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans, LM and FM results were converted to age-, height-, sex-, and race-specific Z-scores for age using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reference data. A total of 16 boys and 119 girls with AN met eligibility criteria. The FM Z-score in girls with AN (-3.24 ± 1.50) was significantly lower than that in boys with AN (-2.41 ± .96) in unadjusted models (p = .007). LM was reduced in both girls and boys with AN, but there was no significant sex difference in LM Z-scores. In multivariate models, lower percentage median body mass index was significantly associated with lower FM Z-scores (β = .08, p < .0001) and lower LM Z-score (β = .03, p = .0002), whereas lower whole body bone mineral content Z-score was significantly associated with lower LM Z-score (β = .21, p = .0006). FM deficits in girls were significantly greater than those in boys with AN in unadjusted models; however, the degree of malnutrition appeared to be the primary factor accounting for this difference. There were no significant sex differences in FM or LM in adjusted models. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tibia and radius bone geometry and volumetric density in obese compared to non-obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mary B; Zemel, Babette S; Wrotniak, Brian H; Klieger, Sarah B; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with biologic and behavioral characteristics that may impact bone mineral density (BMD) and structure. The objective was to determine the association between obesity and bone outcomes, independent of sexual and skeletal maturity, muscle area and strength, physical activity, calcium intake, biomarkers of inflammation, and vitamin D status. Tibia and radius peripheral quantitative CT scans were obtained in 91 obese (BMI>97th percentile) and 51 non-obese adolescents (BMI>5th and Tibia cortical section modulus and calf muscle area Z-scores were greater in obese participants (1.07 and 1.63, respectively, both pTibia and radius trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced skeletal maturity, and physical activity (by accelerometry) were positively associated with tibia cortical section modulus Z-scores (all ptibia section modulus Z-scores between obese and non-obese participants from 1.07 to 0.28. After multivariate adjustment for greater calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced maturity, and less moderate to vigorous physical activity, tibia section modulus Z-scores were 0.32 (95% CI -0.18, 0.43, p=0.06) greater in obese, vs. non-obese participants. Radius cortical section modulus Z-scores were 0.45 greater (p=0.08) in obese vs. non-obese participants; this difference was attenuated to 0.14 with adjustment for advanced maturity. These findings suggest that greater tibia cortical section modulus in obese adolescents is attributable to advanced skeletal maturation and greater muscle area and strength, while less moderate to vigorous physical activities offset the positive effects of these covariates. The impact of obesity on cortical structure was greater at weight bearing sites.

  20. What can providers learn from childhood body mass index trajectories: a study of a large, safety-net clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Emily V; Dickinson, L Miriam; Haemer, Matthew A; Knierim, Shanna D; Hambidge, Simon J; Davidson, Arthur J

    2014-01-01

    To describe childhood weight gain using body mass index (BMI) z-score trajectories in a low-income urban safety-net population and identify among gender- and race/ethnicity-specific groups any trends for increased risk. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 2- to 12-year-old patients (2006-2013) visiting a safety-net provider. BMI z-score trajectories were calculated overall, for gender- and race/ethnicity-specific groups, and for peak BMI percentile subgroups to describe weight gain longitudinally. From 2006 to 2013, a total of 26,234 eligible children were followed for an average of 3.7 years. At baseline (mean age, 4.2 years), 74% of patients were at a normal weight compared to 65% at most recent observation (mean age, 7.8 years). All gender and race/ethnicity subgroups showed increasing average BMI z-scores during childhood. Children consistently under the 50th percentile and those of white race had the most stable BMI z-score trajectories. BMI z-score increased with increasing age in all subgroups. Hispanic boys and black girls had the most significant increase in BMI z-score during this observation period. Children observed in early childhood and whose BMI exceeded the 95th percentile at any time were often already overweight (20%) or obese (36%) by 3 years of age. The entire population demonstrated an upward trend in BMI z-score trajectory. This trend was most notable among black girls and Hispanic boys. Many obese children were already overweight by age 3, and persistence of obesity after 3 years of age was high, suggesting that intervention before age 3 may be essential to curbing unhealthy weight trajectories. Copyright © 2014 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating the effect of energy-dense foods consumption on preschool children's body mass index: a prospective analysis from 2 to 4 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durão, Catarina; Severo, Milton; Oliveira, Andreia; Moreira, Pedro; Guerra, António; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to study the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years and body mass index (BMI) at 4 years, using a cross-lagged panel design. The present study included 589 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the birth cohort generation XXI. Information was obtained by face-to-face interviews. Consumption of energy-dense foods (salty snacks, soft drinks, cakes, and sweets) was measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Children's weight and height were measured by standard procedures, and BMI standard deviation scores (BMI z-scores) were calculated according to the World Health Organization. Linear regression and cross-lagged panel design models were fitted to estimate the associations between the consumption of energy-dense foods and BMI z-scores (controlled for maternal age, education and prepregnancy BMI, and children's exact age at 2 years). The consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years was significantly associated with their consumption at 4 years (β = 0.522, 95% CI 0.432-0.612). Children's BMI z-scores at 2 years were associated with posterior BMI z-scores (β = 0.747, 95% CI 0.688-0.806). In the cross-lagged analysis, consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years had no effect on subsequent BMI z-scores (β = -0.030, 95% CI -0.095 to 0.035) and BMI z-scores at 2 years were not significantly associated with the consumption of energy-dense foods at 4 years (β = -0.012, 95% CI -0.086 to 0.062). Consumption of energy-dense foods and BMI tracked over time, but the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years was not associated with BMI z-scores at 4 years.

  2. Individual, family, and community predictors of overweight and obesity among colombian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Pratt, Michael; Gazmararian, Julie A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Cunningham, Solveig A; Stein, Aryeh

    2014-08-07

    Information from high-income countries is often used to design childhood obesity prevention interventions in low- and middle-income countries, even though determinants may differ greatly between settings. We examined the associations of individual, family (household), and community (municipality) characteristics with body mass index (BMI) z scores and likelihood of overweight among children aged 5 to 18 years measured for the Colombian National Nutrition surveys of 2005 (n = 9,119) and 2010 (n = 21,520). We used 3-level hierarchical linear models with child as level 1, household as level 2, and municipality as level 3. The prevalence of combined overweight and obesity among Colombian children and adolescents was 15.7% in 2005 and 16.6% in 2010. The household level explained 40% in 2005 and 31% in 2010 of the variability in BMI z scores. Wealth was positively associated with BMI in 2005 (0.09 increase in z score per wealth quintile) and 2010 (0.13 increase in z score per wealth quintile) (P families had higher BMI z scores than those from nuclear families; BMI z scores were inversely associated with the number of family members living in the same household. The municipality level explained only between 2% and 3% of the variability in BMI. Income inequality was positively associated with BMI z scores in 2010. These patterns differ from those commonly described in high-income countries and suggest more appropriate opportunities for interventions to prevent child and adolescent obesity in Colombia and other Latin American settings and populations.

  3. Associations between family-related factors, breakfast consumption and BMI among 10- to 12-year-old European children: the cross-sectional ENERGY-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Van Lippevelde

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations of family-related factors with children's breakfast consumption and BMI-z-score and to examine whether children's breakfast consumption mediates associations between family-related factors and children's BMI-z-score. SUBJECTS: Ten- to twelve-year-old children (n = 6374; mean age = 11.6 ± 0.7 years, 53.2% girls, mean BMI-z-score = 0.4 ± 1.2 and one of their parents (n = 6374; mean age = 41.4 ± 5.3 years, 82.7% female, mean BMI = 24.5 ± 4.2 kg/m(2 were recruited from schools in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain, and Switzerland. The children self-reported their breakfast frequency per week. The body weight and height of the children were objectively measured. The parents responded to items on family factors related to breakfast (automaticity, availability, encouragement, paying attention, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, parental self-efficacy to address children's nagging, praising, and family breakfast frequency. Mediation analyses were performed using multi-level regression analyses (child-school-country. RESULTS: Three of the eleven family-related variables were significantly associated with children's BMI-z-score. The family breakfast frequency was negatively associated with the BMI-z-score; permissiveness concerning skipping breakfast and negotiating about breakfast were positively associated with the BMI-z-score. Children's breakfast consumption was found to be a mediator of the two associations. All family-related variables except for negotiating, praising and communicating health beliefs, were significantly associated with children's breakfast consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Future breakfast promotion and obesity prevention interventions should focus on family-related factors including the physical home environment and parenting practices. Nevertheless, more longitudinal research and intervention studies to support

  4. Effects of a 2-year healthy eating and physical activity intervention for 3-6-year-olds in communities of high and low socio-economic status: the POP (Prevention of Overweight among Pre-school and school children) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Coen, Valerie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Vereecken, Carine; Verbestel, Vera; Haerens, Leen; Huybrechts, Inge; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Maes, Lea

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a school-based, 2-year, multi-component intervention on BMI, eating and physical activity behaviour in Flanders, Belgium, targeting children aged 3-6 years in communities of high and low socio-economic status (SES). Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one pre-primary and primary schools in three different intervention communities and three paired-matched (on SES profile) control communities in Flanders, Belgium. BMI Z-scores at baseline and follow-up were calculated for 1102 children. Questionnaires with sociodemographic data and FFQ were available from 694 of these 1102 children. No significant effects were found on BMI Z-scores for the total sample. However, there was a significant decrease in BMI Z-score of 0·11 in the low-SES intervention community compared with the low-SES control community, where the BMI Z-score increased by 0·04 (F = 6·26, P = 0·01). No significant intervention effects could be found for eating behaviour, physical activity or screen-time. There were no significant interaction effects of age and gender of the children on the outcome variables. Although no significant effects were found for BMI Z-scores in the total sample, this intervention had a promising effect in the low-SES community of reducing excess weight gain among young children.

  5. Predicting low bone density in children and young adults with quadriplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Richard C; Kairalla, John; Abbas, Almas; Stevenson, Richard D

    2004-06-01

    Many children and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP) have diminished bone mineral density (BMD) and a propensity to fracture with minimal trauma. The aim of this study was to identify variables which are routinely assessed as part of standard clinical care and that might be used to identify those individuals with CP who are most likely to have low BMD. One hundred and seven participants (ages 2 years 1 month to 21 years 1 month; mean age 10 years 11 months, SD 4 years 2 months) with moderate to severe spastic CP were assessed in detail. This included gathering clinical data, taking anthropometric measures of growth and nutrition, as well as dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of BMD. Seventeen participants were ambulatory with assistance (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] level III), and 90 were capable of little or no ambulation even with assistance (26 GMFCS level IV and 64 GMFCS level V). Weight z score proved to be the best predictor of BMD z score. Declining BMD z scores also correlated with increasing age and greater severity of involvement. It can be predicted, with reasonable reliability, that a 10-year-old non-ambulatory child with quadriplegic CP and a 'typical' weight z score of -2 will have a BMD z score that is at best -2. Prior fractures, use of anticonvulsants, and feeding difficulties further reduce predicted BMD.

  6. Bone Mineral Density in Gravida: Effect of Pregnancies and Breast-Feeding in Women of Differing Ages and Parity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Lebel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes of bone during pregnancy and during lactation evaluated by bone mineral density (BMD may have implications for risk of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied BMD in women of differing ages, parity, and lactation histories immediately postpartum for BMD, T-scores, and Z-scores. Institutional Review Board approval was received. All women while still in hospital postpartum were asked to participate. BMD was performed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA machine at femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS by a single technician. Of 132 participants, 73 (55.3% were ≤30 years; 27 (20.5% were primiparous; 36 (27.3% were grand multiparous; 35 (26.5% never breast fed. Mean FN T-scores and Z-scores were higher than respective mean LS scores, but all means were within the normal limits. Mean LS T-scores and Z-scores were highest in the grand multiparas. There were only 2 (1.5% outliers with low Z-scores. We conclude that, in a large cohort of Israeli women with BMD parameters assessed by DXA within two days postpartum, mean T-scores and Z-scores at both the LS and FN were within normal limits regardless of age (20–46 years, parity (1–13 viable births, and history of either no or prolonged months of lactation (up to 11.25 years.

  7. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl O. Hughes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children’s weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children’s weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  8. Oxandrolone Improves Height Velocity and BMI in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seffrood ErinE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of oxandrolone in improving the nutritional status and linear growth of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Methods. Medical records of patients with CF treated with oxandrolone were reviewed for height z score, height velocity (HV, BMI z score, weight velocity (WV, Tanner stage, pulmonary function, liver enzyme levels, and any reported adverse events. Data were compared before (pre-Ox and after (Ox oxandrolone using a paired t-test. Results. 5 subjects (ages 8.5–14.5 years were treated with oxandrolone 2.5 mg daily for 8–38 months. After 8–12 months of treatment, there was a statistically significant improvement in HV (  cm/yr,  cm/yr, and BMI z score ( , , . Both height z score ( , , and WV (  kg/yr, Ox  kg/yr, showed beneficial trends that did not reach statistical significance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. In this brief clinical report, oxandrolone improved the HV and BMI z score in patients with CF. Larger studies are needed to determine if oxandrolone is an effective, safe, and affordable option to stimulate appetite, improve weight gain, and promote linear growth in patients with CF.

  9. Prevalence of Malnutrition in a Rural Residential Sanskrit School in Baglung, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, B; Shrestha, N

    2017-01-01

    Under-nutrition is a condition in which there is inadequate consumption, poor absorption or excessive loss of nutrients. Nepal still faces high chronic as well as acute under-nutrition in children. The following study was conducted a Sanskrit school in rural Baglung to find the prevalence of malnutrition among the children which could reflect the nutritional status of the community. Out of 60 students admitted to the school, only 43 were present at the time when we collected our data. Weight was measured with a standard weighing scale and standing height with a measuring tape attached to the wall. Data were filled up in proforma, entered in Microsoft Excel 2013 and were analyzed and indicators calculated with SPSS version 20 using WHO Child Growth Reference data for 5-19 years and macros. Stunting (Z score < -2) was found in 53.5% of the study group and severe stunting (Z score < -3) was found in 25.6%. 12.5% of the 8 children under 10 years in our study had weight-for-age < -2 Z score which indicates underweight. No one was severely underweight. In our study, 2.3% had severe thinness (Z-score < -3), 14% had thinness (Z-score < -2). No one was overweight or obese. The prevalence of malnutrition was high among the students of the rural Sanskrit school where the study was conducted.

  10. Clinical effectiveness of the massachusetts childhood obesity research demonstration initiative among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; Perkins, Meghan; Anand, Shikha; Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Nelson, Candace C; Kamdar, Neil; Kwass, Jo-Ann; Gortmaker, Steven L; Barrett, Jessica L; Davison, Kirsten K; Land, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    To examine the extent to which a clinical intervention resulted in reduced BMI z scores among 2- to 12-year-old children compared to routine practice (treatment as usual [TAU]). The Massachusetts Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration (MA-CORD) project is a multifaceted initiative to prevent childhood obesity among low-income children. At the federally qualified community health centers (FQHCs) of two communities (Intervention Site #1 and #2), the following were implemented: (1) pediatric weight management training, (2) electronic decision supports for clinicians, (3) on-site Healthy Weight Clinics, (4) community health worker integration, and (5) healthful clinical environment changes. One FQHC in a demographically matched community served as the TAU site. Using electronic health records, we assessed BMI z scores and used linear mixed models to examine BMI z score change over 2 years in each intervention site compared to a TAU site. Compared to children in the TAU site (n = 2,286), children in Intervention Site #2 (n = 1,368) had a significant decline in BMI z scores following the start of the intervention (-0.16 units/y; 95% confidence interval: -0.21 to -0.12). No evidence of an effect was found in Intervention Site #1 (n = 111). The MA-CORD clinical interventions were associated with modest improvement in BMI z scores in one of two intervention communities compared to a TAU community. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  11. Maternal Feeding Styles and Food Parenting Practices as Predictors of Longitudinal Changes in Weight Status in Hispanic Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Power, Thomas G; O'Connor, Teresia M; Orlet Fisher, Jennifer; Chen, Tzu-An

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim was to investigate the influence of feeding styles and food parenting practices on low-income children's weight status over time. Method. Participants were 129 Latina parents and their Head Start children participating in a longitudinal study. Children were assessed at baseline (4 to 5 years old) and again eighteen months later. At each time point, parents completed questionnaires and height and weight measures were taken on the child. Results. The indulgent feeding style (parent-report at baseline) was associated with increased child BMI z-score eighteen months later compared to other feeding styles. Authoritative, authoritarian, and uninvolved feeding styles were not significantly associated with increased child BMI z-score. Child BMI z-score at Time 1 (strongest) and maternal acculturation were positive predictors of child BMI z-score at Time 2. Maternal use of restriction positively predicted and maternal monitoring negatively predicted Time 2 BMI z-score, but only when accounting for feeding styles. Conclusion. This is the first study to investigate the impact of feeding styles on child weight status over time. Results suggest that indulgent feeding predicts later increases in children's weight status. The interplay between feeding styles and food parenting practices in influencing child weight status needs to be further explored.

  12. Impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident on obesity of children in Japan (2008-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2016-05-01

    This study used prefecture-level panel data from Japan for the period 2008-2014 to investigate the influence of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident on the body mass index (BMI) z-score and obesity rates of children over time. I adopted a difference-in-differences approach and found the following: (1) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the BMI z-score and obesity rates in disaster-affected areas were higher than in other areas, although this was not observed for the other cohorts; (2) for the cohort aged 5-7 years in 2010, the influence of the accident persisted even after 3 years; and (3) the differences in the BMI z-score and obesity rate before and after the accident were greater for Fukushima Prefecture than for the other affected areas (Iwate and Miyagi prefectures). I infer that health-conscious parents, whose children had lower BMIs, may have moved from Fukushima, thereby increasing the BMI z-score of the child population living in Fukushima by around 0.05 for the cohort aged 5-7 years. The enforced reduction in physical activity increased the BMI z-score of children living in Fukushima by around 0.19 for that cohort.

  13. Achievement of a record electron temperature for a magnetic mirror device

    CERN Document Server

    Bagryansky, P A; Lizunov, A A; Maximov, V V; Prikhodko, V V; Shalashov, A G; Soldatkina, E I; Solomakhin, A L; Yakovlev, D V

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate plasma discharges with extremely high temperature of bulk electrons at the large axially symmetric magnetic mirror device GDT (Budker Institute, Novosibirsk). According to Thomson scattering measurements, the on-axis electron temperature averaged over several sequential shots is 660 $\\pm$ 50 eV with peak values exceeding 900 eV in few shots. This corresponds to at least threefold increase as compared to previous experiments both at the GDT and at other comparable machines, thus demonstrating the maximum quasi-stationary (~1 ms) electron temperature achieved in open traps. The breakthrough is made possible with application of sophisticated electron cyclotron resonance heating in addition to standard heating by neutral beams. The reported increase of the electron temperature along with previous experiments, which demonstrated high-density plasma confinement with $\\beta\\approx$ 60%, provide a firm basis for extrapolating to fusion relevant applications of open magnetic systems.

  14. Efficiency of Pumping of the Active Medium of Metal Vapor Lasers: Gas-Discharge Tubes with Electrodes in the Hot Zone of the Discharge Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, N. A.; Yudin, N. N.

    2016-10-01

    The electrophysical approach is used to estimate conditions for effective pumping of the active medium of lasers on self-terminating metal atom transitions in gas-discharge tubes (GDT) with electrodes located in the hot zone of the discharge channel. It is demonstrated that in the laser discharge contour there are processes limiting the frequency and energy characteristics (FEC) of radiation. The mechanism of influence of these processes on the FEC of radiation, and technical methods of their neutralization are considered. It is demonstrated that the practical efficiency of a copper vapor laser can reach 10% under conditions of neutralization of these processes. Conditions for forming the distributed GDT impedance when the active medium is pumped on the front of the fast ionization wave are determined.

  15. Extension of the Generalized Disequilibrium Test to polytomous phenotypes and two-locus models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eBureau

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We extend the usual logistic model between a dichotomous phenotype and an allele count in two ways: a polytomous phenotype with K > 2 levels, and modelling of allele counts at two unlinked marker loci. Inference is based on within-family information to guard against potential bias due to population genetic structure. Score tests of the model coefficients taking into account the correlation between relatives in entire pedigrees are derived as an extension of the Generalized Disequilibrium Test (GDT. Simulations confirm that the tests have the expected statistical properties, and that their power exceeds that of the GDT under a favorable scenario. The score tests are illustrated with candidate genetic markers, a major psychosis phenotype and a cognitive endophenotype in large kindreds from Eastern Quebec.

  16. Fast neutron flux analyzer with real-time digital pulse shape discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A. A.; Zubarev, P. V.; Ivanenko, S. V.; Khilchenko, A. D.; Kotelnikov, A. I.; Polosatkin, S. V.; Puryga, E. A.; Shvyrev, V. G.; Sulyaev, Yu. S.

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of subthermonuclear plasma confinement and heating in magnetic fusion devices such as GOL-3 and GDT at the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk, Russia) requires sophisticated equipment for neutron-, gamma- diagnostics and upgrading data acquisition systems with online data processing. Measurement of fast neutron flux with stilbene scintillation detectors raised the problem of discrimination of the neutrons (n) from background cosmic particles (muons) and neutron-induced gamma rays (γ). This paper describes a fast neutron flux analyzer with real-time digital pulse-shape discrimination (DPSD) algorithm FPGA-implemented for the GOL-3 and GDT devices. This analyzer was tested and calibrated with the help of 137Cs and 252Cf radiation sources. The Figures of Merit (FOM) calculated for different energy cuts are presented.

  17. High-efficiency real-time waveform modulator for free space waves based on dispersion engineering of spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoluo; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Wang, Xin; Meng, Yueyu; Zhang, Jieqiu; Zhao, Yaodong; Qu, Shaobo

    2017-06-01

    Limited by causality, strong dispersion is always accompanied by a high loss for natural materials, so it is very hard to obtain strong dispersion simultaneously with low loss in a narrow band. The nonlinear dispersion curve of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) provides rich potential for dispersion engineering. By tailoring the asymptotic region of the SSPP dispersion curve, a good compromise can be made between strong dispersion and low loss to obtain a dispersive group delay time (GDT). With a delicate GDT design, signals in the free space can be modulated intentionally with high efficiency. As an example, we demonstrated a waveform modulator operating in an X band. Both the simulation and experiment show that the modulator can produce time delays that are linearly dependent on frequency in a 50 MHz frequency band. Our finding may have applications in radar invisibility, analog signal processing, etc.

  18. Effect of Additions of Ceramic Nanoparticles and Gas-Dynamic Treatment on Al Casting Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Borodianskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, improving the mechanical properties of metals has become the main challenge in the modern materials and metallurgical industry. An alloying process is usually used to achieve advanced performance of metals. This paper, however, describes an alternative approach. Modification with ceramic nanoparticles, gas-dynamic treatment (GDT and a combined treatment were investigated on a hypoeutectic Al-Si A356 alloy. Microstructural studies revealed the refinement of coarse α-Al grains and the formation of distributed eutectic Si particles. Subsequent testing of the mechanical properties revealed improvement after applying each of the treatments. The best results were obtained after modification with TiCN nanoparticles followed by GDT; the tensile strength and elongation of the A356 alloys increased by 18% and 19%, respectively.

  19. Fluid therapy in the perioperative setting-a clinical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldby, Anders Winther; Brandstrup, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative hypovolemia and fluid overload have effects on both complications following surgery and on patient survival. Therefore, the administration of intravenous fluids before, during, and after surgery at the right time and in the right amounts is of great importance. This review...... compromising tissue healing. During major abdominal surgery a "zero-balance" intraoperative fluid strategy aims at avoiding fluid overload (and comparable to the so-called restrictive approach) as well as goal-directed fluid therapy (GDT). Both proved to significantly reduce postoperative complications when...... for most patients. It is less expensive and simpler than the zero-balance GDT approach and therefore recommended in this review. In outpatient surgery, 1-2 L of balanced crystalloids reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting and improves well-being....

  20. Implementation of a tolerance model in a computer aided design and inspection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hunter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is present a detailed framework to integrate the Computer Aided Design (CAD and Inspection (CAI systems through the integration of the Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T with the inspection process in coordinate measuring machines (CMMs.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used to develop a prototype of a Knowledge Based System (KBS applied to inspection process establishes a new methodology for integrate the geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T. The integration is achieved through the definition of the knowledge units for functional properties of GD&T, inspection resources and inspection operations in a common knowledge model. The manufacturing and processing applications are the main topics approach of this paper.Findings: The findings are focused in modeling the features and interactions between knowledge units associated to topology, geometry and tolerances with the inspection process activities. The implementation of the product knowledge model is presented in a computer platform that extracts and represents the GD&T information in a CAI system.Research limitations/implications: The implications are focused on the automation of the inspection process in a KBS application. The future research is focused on the use of artificial intelligent technique, such as genetic algorithms and neural networks, to optimize the time to execute the inspection process.Practical implications: The main outcomes and implication of the KBS prototype application are focused on the reduction of the time spend to develop the inspection process. This KBS application provides the needed information to elaborate this process without the human interface.Originality/value: The original value of this paper is the integration of the design and inspection specification in a unique prototype application. The knowledge model has been defined in a common modeling language (UML and can be implemented in different

  1. Peri-operative troponin monitoring using a prototype high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay: comparisons with hs-cTnT and contemporary cTnI assays.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Graham R

    2013-09-18

    Non-cardiac surgery is associated with major vascular complications and higher incidences of elevated plasma troponin (cTn) concentration. Goal-directed therapy (GDT) is a stroke volume (SV)-guided approach to intravenous (IV) fluid therapy that improves tissue perfusion, oxygenation and reduces post-operative complications. In patients undergoing major gastro-intestinal surgery, we compared high sensitive and contemporary troponin assays and correlated results with patient outcome.

  2. Human-Assisted-Manufacturing Model Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    example of the GD&T feature control frame, which indicates the type of geometric control for the machining feature , the tolerance for the control, and...the tolerance zone of the each machining feature . Section 3.2.3.2 discusses the mapping relationship between different types of machining features and...encountered in manufacturing consist of hole, pocket, slot, step, fillet, and chamfer [11]. 3.2.3.2.1 Machining feature and tolerances For a machining

  3. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O' HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  4. Magnetic resonance images of ameloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To classify and describe the characteristic features of MRI of some ameloblastoma variants. The MR images, CT images, and panoramic radiographs in 5 cases were retrospectively examined as follows. First, the contents of ameloblastomas were divided into two portions of either solid or cystic components on the basis of MR signal intensities. The signal intensity within the solid or cystic portions was classified as homogeneous or heterogenous. Next, the characteristic internal feature of the lesion in T1W1 or T2W1 was described. The signal intensities were classified into low, intermediate, slightly high, high, and strong high signal intensity. Uni cystic lesion showed homogeneous high signal intensity (SI) on T2W2 and the rim enhancement of the surrounding area including the mural nodule and the thick wall except the central portion on Gd-T1W1. Solid type revealed heterogeneous and high SI area with strong high SI area on T2W2. On Gd-T1W1, the area corresponding to the low signal spot on T1W1 and the strong high signal spot on T2W1 showed low SI. Hybrid type showed slightly enhanced capsular structures and low SI for the round bony septa and the areas connecting the mixed and cystic lesions on T2W1 and Gd-T1W1. MRI could easily assess the relationship between the mixed and cystic findings in ameloblastoma.

  5. Compare local pocket and global protein structure models by small structure patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Cui, Xuefeng

    2015-09-09

    Researchers proposed several criteria to assess the quality of predicted protein structures because it is one of the essential tasks in the Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction (CASP) competitions. Popular criteria include root mean squared deviation (RMSD), MaxSub score, TM-score, GDT-TS and GDT-HA scores. All these criteria require calculation of rigid transformations to superimpose the the predicted protein structure to the native protein structure. Yet, how to obtain the rigid transformations is unknown or with high time complexity, and, hence, heuristic algorithms were proposed. In this work, we carefully design various small structure patterns, including the ones specifically tuned for local pockets. Such structure patterns are biologically meaningful, and address the issue of relying on a sufficient number of backbone residue fragments for existing methods. We sample the rigid transformations from these small structure patterns; and the optimal superpositions yield by these small structures are refined and reported. As a result, among 11; 669 pairs of predicted and native local protein pocket models from the CASP10 dataset, the GDT-TS scores calculated by our method are significantly higher than those calculated by LGA. Moreover, our program is computationally much more efficient. Source codes and executables are publicly available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/prosta/

  6. A Knowledge-Navigation System for Dimensional Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Howard T

    2002-01-01

    Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing (GD&T) is a method to specify the dimensions and form of a part so that it will meet its design intent. GD&T is difficult to master for two main reasons. First, it is based on complex 3D geometric entities and relationships. Second, the geometry is associated with a large, diverse knowledge base of dimensional metrology with many interconnections. This paper describes an approach to create a dimensional metrology knowledge base that is organized around a set of key concepts and to represent those concepts as virtual objects that can be navigated with interactive, computer visualization techniques to access the associated knowledge. The approach can enable several applications. First is the application to convey the definition and meaning of GD&T over a broad range of tolerance types. Second is the application to provide a visualization of dimensional metrology knowledge within a control hierarchy of the inspection process. Third is the application to show the coverage of interoperability standards to enable industry to make decisions on standards development and harmonization efforts. A prototype system has been implemented to demonstrate the principles involved in the approach.

  7. A Stochastic Point Cloud Sampling Method for Multi-Template Protein Comparative Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jilong; Cheng, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Generating tertiary structural models for a target protein from the known structure of its homologous template proteins and their pairwise sequence alignment is a key step in protein comparative modeling. Here, we developed a new stochastic point cloud sampling method, called MTMG, for multi-template protein model generation. The method first superposes the backbones of template structures, and the Cα atoms of the superposed templates form a point cloud for each position of a target protein, which are represented by a three-dimensional multivariate normal distribution. MTMG stochastically resamples the positions for Cα atoms of the residues whose positions are uncertain from the distribution, and accepts or rejects new position according to a simulated annealing protocol, which effectively removes atomic clashes commonly encountered in multi-template comparative modeling. We benchmarked MTMG on 1,033 sequence alignments generated for CASP9, CASP10 and CASP11 targets, respectively. Using multiple templates with MTMG improves the GDT-TS score and TM-score of structural models by 2.96–6.37% and 2.42–5.19% on the three datasets over using single templates. MTMG’s performance was comparable to Modeller in terms of GDT-TS score, TM-score, and GDT-HA score, while the average RMSD was improved by a new sampling approach. The MTMG software is freely available at: http://sysbio.rnet.missouri.edu/multicom_toolbox/mtmg.html. PMID:27161489

  8. Youth screen-time behaviour is associated with cardiovascular risk in young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Møller, Niels Christian;

    2014-01-01

    = 435) followed for up to 12 years. Adiposity, blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, insulin, and self-reported TV viewing and computer use were obtained in adolescence and in young adulthood. A continuous metabolic syndrome z-score was calculated as the sum...... of standardized values of each risk factor (inverse of HDL). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, TV viewing and total screen time in adolescence were positively associated with adiposity, triglycerides, and metabolic syndrome z-score in young adulthood (p ... or decreased their viewing time. Insulin and metabolic syndrome z-scores were also higher among individuals who increased their TV viewing, computer use, or total screen time more than 2 hours/day compared with individuals who remained stable or decreased their viewing time (p

  9. Child behavioural problems and body size among 2-6 year old children predisposed to overweight. results from the "healthy start" study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nanna J; Pedersen, Jeanett; Händel, Mina N

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Psychological adversities among young children may be associated with childhood overweight and obesity. We examined if an increased level of child behavioural problems was associated with body size among a selected group of 2-6 year old children, who were all predisposed to develop...... overweight. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted using baseline data from the "Healthy Start" intervention study. A total of 3058 children were invited to participate, and data from 583 children who were all predisposed for obesity was analyzed. The Danish version of the Strengths......, and family stress level. CONCLUSION: The results suggested a threshold effect between SDQ-TD score and BMI z-score, where BMI z-score was associated with childhood behavioural problems only for those with the highest scores of SDQ-TD. No significant association between PSB score and BMI z-score was found....

  10. Self-esteem in a clinical sample of morbidly obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, P; Höglund, P; Birgerstam, P

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study self-esteem in clinical sample of obese children and adolescents. METHODS: Obese children and adolescents aged 8-19 years (n = 107, mean age 13.2 years, mean BMI 32.5 [range 22.3-50.6], mean BMI z-score 3.22 [range 2.19-4.79]; 50 boys and 57 girls) were referred for treatment...... of primary obesity. Self-esteem was measured with a validated psychological test with five subscales: physical characteristics, talents and skills, psychological well-being, relations with the family and relations with others. A linear mixed effect model used the factors gender and adolescence group......, and the continuous covariates: BMI z-scores, and BMI for the parents as fixed effects and subjects as random effects. RESULTS: Age and gender, but neither the child's BMI z-score nor the BMI of the parents were significant covariates. Self-esteem decreased (p

  11. Lack of sensitivity of weight targets compared with body cell mass for determining recovery from malnutrition in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocki, O; Theodoros, M T; Shepherd, R W

    1998-03-01

    Using body weight targets to assess recovery from malnutrition in adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) may lead to premature discontinuation of refeeding programs. We examined body cell mass (BCM) to determine nutritional recovery, comparing with conventional indices based on weight. Body mass index (BMI), Z-score, percentage of ideal body weight (IBW), and BCM (by total body potassium) were studied in adolescent females with AN (n = 92). Fourteen percent had "normal" weights (> 85% of IBW), 24% had "acceptable" BMI values (> 16), and 15% had "acceptable" Z-score values (> -1) when their BCM was not fully restored. The use of percentage of IBW, Z-scores, or BMI lacks sensitivity in determining adequacy of nutritional rehabilitation. Body compartmental analysis particularly of BCM and body fat is recommended, and the use of BMI particularly should be discarded.

  12. A six-month intervention with two different types of micronutrient-fortified complementary foods had distinct short- and long-term effects on linear and ponderal growth of vietnamese infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phu, Pham V.; Hoan, Nguyen V.; Salvignol, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    though the HAZ in the FF group was 0.17 greater than that in the C group (P = 0.18). In contrast, the weight-for-height Z-score and BMI Z-score, indices of ponderal growth, were greater in the FF group (-0.49 and -0.26, respectively) than in the FC group (-0.73 and -0.49, respectively), with Z......-scores in the C group intermediate and not significantly different from the others. This study shows that regular provision of locally produced CF fortified with micronutrients partly stopped growth faltering in Vietnamese infants, with differential effects on long-term length and ponderal growth. Providing only...

  13. Leveraging Genomic Annotations and Pleiotropic Enrichment for Improved Replication Rates in Schizophrenia GWAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Thompson, Wesley K; Schork, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    , pleiotropy) for each single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) to enable more accurate estimation of replication probabilities, conditional on the observed test statistic ("z-score") of the SNP. We use a multiple logistic regression on z-scores to combine information from auxiliary information to derive...... a "relative enrichment score" for each SNP. For each stratum of these relative enrichment scores, we obtain nonparametric estimates of posterior expected test statistics and replication probabilities as a function of discovery z-scores, using a resampling-based approach that repeatedly and randomly partitions...... meta-analysis sub-studies into training and replication samples. We fit a scale mixture of two Gaussians model to each stratum, obtaining parameter estimates that minimize the sum of squared differences of the scale-mixture model with the stratified nonparametric estimates. We apply this approach...

  14. Physical activity and 3-year BMI change in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Andrew; Campbell, Michele; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Gerner, Bibi; Wake, Melissa

    2013-02-01

    Targeting physical activity (PA) is a mainstay in obesity treatment, but its BMI benefits are poorly quantified. We studied long-term predictive PA-BMI relationships in overweight/obese children presenting to primary care. Three-year follow-up of 182 overweight/obese 5- to 10-year-olds recruited from 45 Melbourne general practices. 7-day accelerometry (counts per minute, cpm). change in BMI z score, BMI category, and clinically significant BMI improvement (z score change ≥0.5). Linear and logistic regression. Mean (SD) baseline and 3-year BMI z scores were 1.8 (0.6) and 1.8 (0.7), and mean (SD) activity scores 334 (111) and 284 (104) cpm, respectively. Baseline activity did not predict BMI change. However, for every 100 cpm increase in change in activity over 3 years, BMI z score fell by 0.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.03-0.20; P = .006). There were also trends toward greater odds of staying in the same, versus moving to a higher, BMI category (odds ratio 1.85, 95% CI 0.99-3.46) and clinically significant BMI improvement (odds ratio 1.96, 95% CI 0.90-4.27; P = .09). Change in percentage time spent in moderate-vigorous (P = .01), but not sedentary (P = .39) or light (P = .59), activity predicted reduced BMI z score. Sustained increase in moderate-vigorous PA predicts reducing BMI z score over 3 years in overweight/obese children presenting to primary care. However, the small BMI change associated with even the largest activity changes may explain disappointing BMI outcomes of brief primary care interventions targeting PA.

  15. Risk factors for obesity: further evidence for stronger effects on overweight children and adolescents compared to normal-weight subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Beyerlein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently showed that in preschoolers risk factors for overweight show stronger associations with BMI in children with high BMI values. However, it is unclear whether these findings might also pertain to adolescents. METHODS: We extracted data on 3-10 year-old (n = 7,237 and 11-17 year-old (n = 5,986 children from a representative cross-sectional German health survey (KiGGS conducted between 2003 and 2006 and calculated quantile regression models for each age group. We used z-scores of children's body mass index (BMI as outcome variable and maternal BMI, maternal smoking in pregnancy, low parental socioeconomic status, exclusive formula-feeding and high TV viewing time as explanatory variables. RESULTS: In both age groups, the estimated effects of all risk factors except formula-feeding on BMI z-score were greatest for children with the highest BMI z-score. The median BMI z-score of 11-17 year-old children with high TV viewing time, for example, was 0.11 [95% CI: 0.03, 0.19] units higher than the median BMI z-score of teenage children with low TV viewing time. This risk factor was associated with an average difference of 0.18 [0.06, 0.30] units at the 90(th percentile of BMI z-score and of 0.20 [0.07, 0.33] units at the 97(th percentile. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that risk factors for childhood overweight are associated with greater shifts in the upper parts of the children's BMI distribution than in the middle and lower parts. These findings pertain also to teenagers and might possibly help to explain the secular shift in the upper BMI percentiles in children and adolescents.

  16. Performance of different adiposity measures for predicting cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Min; Bovet, Pascal; Ma, Chuanwei; Xi, Bo

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to compare the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR) to predict the presence of at least 3 main CV risk factors in US adolescents. A total of 3621 adolescents (boys: 49.9%) aged 12–17 years from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2012) were included in this study. Measured CV risk factors included systolic/diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose. The AUC of BMI-z score, WC-z score and WHtR-z score to predict at least three CV risk factors were similar (~0.85), irrespective of criteria used to define abnormal levels of CV risk factors. A 1-SD increase in any of three indices to predict CV risk was also similar for the three adiposity scores. For instance, a 1-SD increase risk in BMI-z score, WC-z score and WHtR-z score was 3.32 (95%CI 2.53–4.36), 3.43 (95%CI 2.64–4.46), and 3.45 (95%CI 2.64–4.52), respectively, in the total population using the International Diabetes Federation definition. In addition, the most efficient WHtR cut-off for screening CV risk was ~0.50 in US adolescents. In summary, BMI, WC and WHtR performed similarly well to predict the presence of at least 3 main CV risk factors among US adolescents. PMID:28262726

  17. Assessing Statistically Significant Heavy-Metal Concentrations in Abandoned Mine Areas via Hot Spot Analysis of Portable XRF Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Min Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To develop appropriate measures to prevent soil contamination in abandoned mining areas, an understanding of the spatial variation of the potentially toxic trace elements (PTEs in the soil is necessary. For the purpose of effective soil sampling, this study uses hot spot analysis, which calculates a z-score based on the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic to identify a statistically significant hot spot sample. To constitute a statistically significant hot spot, a feature with a high value should also be surrounded by other features with high values. Using relatively cost- and time-effective portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF analysis, sufficient input data are acquired from the Busan abandoned mine and used for hot spot analysis. To calibrate the PXRF data, which have a relatively low accuracy, the PXRF analysis data are transformed using the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES data. The transformed PXRF data of the Busan abandoned mine are classified into four groups according to their normalized content and z-scores: high content with a high z-score (HH, high content with a low z-score (HL, low content with a high z-score (LH, and low content with a low z-score (LL. The HL and LH cases may be due to measurement errors. Additional or complementary surveys are required for the areas surrounding these suspect samples or for significant hot spot areas. The soil sampling is conducted according to a four-phase procedure in which the hot spot analysis and proposed group classification method are employed to support the development of a sampling plan for the following phase. Overall, 30, 50, 80, and 100 samples are investigated and analyzed in phases 1–4, respectively. The method implemented in this case study may be utilized in the field for the assessment of statistically significant soil contamination and the identification of areas for which an additional survey is required.

  18. Impairment of heart rate recovery after peak exercise predicts poor outcome after pediatric heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Alessandro; Fenton, Matthew; Derrick, Graham; Burch, Michael

    2013-09-10

    A blunted heart rate recovery (HRR) from peak exercise is associated with adverse outcome in adults with ischemic heart disease. We assessed HRR after pediatric heart transplantation (HTx) and its prognostic use. Between 2004 and 2010 we performed 360 maximal exercise tests (median, 2 tests/patient; range, 1-7) in 128 children (66 men; age at test, 14 ± 3 years) who received HTx (age, 8.5 ± 5.1 years) because of cardiomyopathy (66%) or congenital heart defects (34%). The change in heart rate from peak exercise to 1 minute of recovery was measured as HRR and was expressed as Z score calculated from reference data obtained in 160 healthy children. HRR was impaired soon after HTx (average in first 2 years Z=-1.9 ± 3.5) but improved afterward (Z=+0.52/y), such that HRR Z score normalized in most patients by 6 years after HTx (average, 0.6 ± 1.8). A subsequent decline in HRR Z score was noted from 6 years after HTx (rate of Z=-0.11/y). After 27 ± 15 months from the most recent exercise test, 19 patients died or were re-heart transplantation. For the follow-up after 6 years, HRR Z score was the only predictor of death/re-heart transplantation (P=0.003). Patients in the lowest quartile of HRR Z score had a much higher 5-year event rate (event-free rate, 29% versus 84%; hazard ratio, 7.0; P=0.0013). HRR is blunted soon after HTx but normalizes at ≈ 6 years, potentially as a result of parasympathetic reinnervation of the graft, but then declines. This late decline in HRR Z score is associated with worse outcome.

  19. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development.

  20. White matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex E Jung

    Full Text Available Patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus have similar levels of neuropsychological dysfunction (i.e., 20-50% as those with Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NPSLE. We hypothesized a gradient between cognition and white matter integrity, such that strongest brain-behavior relationships would emerge in NPSLE, intermediate in non-NPSLE, and minimal in controls. We studied thirty-one patients (16 non-NPSLE; 15 NPSLE, ranging in age from 18 to 59 years old (100% female, and eighteen age and gender matched healthy controls. DTI examinations were performed on a 1.5T scanner. A broad neuropsychological battery was administered, tapping attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning. The Total z-score consisted of the combined sum of all neuropsychological measures. In control subjects, we found no significant FA-Total z-score correlations. NPSLE, non-NPSLE, and control subjects differed significantly in terms of Total z-score (NPSLE = -2.25+/-1.77, non-NPSLE = -1.22+/-1.03, Controls = -0.10+/-.57; F = 13.2, p<.001. In non-NPSLE subjects, FA within the right external capsule was significantly correlated with Total z-score. In NPSLE subjects, the largest FA-Total z-score clusters were observed within the left anterior thalamic radiation and right superior longitudinal fasciculus. In subsequent analyses the largest number of significant voxels linked FA with the Processing Speed z-score in NPSLE. The current results reflect objective white matter correlates of neuropsychological dysfunction in both NPSLE and (to a lesser degree in non-NPSLE. non-NPSLE and NPSLE subjects did not differ significantly in terms of depression, as measured by the GDI; thus, previous hypotheses suggesting moderating effects of depression upon neuropsychological performance do not impact the current FA results.

  1. Post-term growth and cognitive development at 5 years of age in preterm children: Evidence from a prospective population-based cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Laure; Nusinovici, Simon; Flamant, Cyril; Cariou, Bertrand; Rouger, Valérie; Gascoin, Géraldine; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    While the effects of growth from birth to expected term on the subsequent development of preterm children has attracted plentiful attention, less is known about the effects of post-term growth. We aimed to delineate distinct patterns of post-term growth and to determine their association with the cognitive development of preterm children. Data from a prospective population-based cohort of 3,850 surviving infants born at less than 35 weeks of gestational age were used. Growth was assessed as the Body Mass Index (BMI) Z-scores at 3, 9, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months. Cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated by the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). Latent class analysis was implemented to identify distinct growth patterns and logistic regressions based on propensity matching were used to evaluate the relationship between identified growth trajectories and cognitive development. Four patterns of post-term growth were identified: a normal group with a Z-score consistently around zero during childhood (n = 2,469; 64%); a group with an early rapid rise in the BMI Z-score, but only up to 2 years of age (n = 195; 5%); a group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score during childhood (n = 510; 13%); and a group with a negative Z-score growth until 3 years of age (n = 676; 18%). The group with a slow yet steady rise in the BMI Z-score was significantly associated with low GSA scores. Our findings indicate heterogeneous post-term growth of preterm children, with potential for association with their cognitive development. PMID:28350831

  2. Relationship of insulin-like growth factor 1 and bone parameters in 7–15 years old apparently, healthy Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena H Ekbote

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Growth hormone through insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 plays an important role in both bone growth and mineralization. This cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentrations and dual energy X-ray (DXA measured whole body less head bone area (BA, lean body mass (LBM, and bone mineral content (BMC. Methods: One hundred and nineteen children (boys = 70, age = 7.3–15.6 years were studied for their anthropometric parameters by standard methods and bone and body composition by DXA. Their fasting serum IGF-1 concentrations were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Z-scores were calculated using available reference data. Bone and body composition parameter Z-scores were calculated using ethnic reference data. Results: Mean age of the boys and girls was similar (11.5 ± 1.8 years. The mean serum IGF-1concentrations and IGF-1 Z-scores were similar (P > 0.1 between boys and girls and were of the order of (302.3 ± 140.0 and − 1.4 ± 1.1, respectively. The LBM for age and BA for age Z-score was greater in children with IGF-1 Z-score > median than children with IGF-1 Z-score 0.1. Conclusion: Serum IGF-1 levels were more strongly associated with BA and LBM, suggesting that its effect on bone is greater with respect to periosteal bone acquisition and through its effect on muscle mass.

  3. Assessment and validation of bronchodilation using the interrupter technique in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, Laura; Sly, Peter D; Calogero, Claudia; Bernardini, Roberto; Novembre, Elio; Azzari, Chiara; de Martino, Maurizio; Lombardi, Enrico

    2010-07-01

    To determine and validate a cut-off value for bronchodilation using the interrupter resistance (Rint) in preschool children. Rint was measured in 60 healthy children (age range 2.7-6.4 years) before and after salbutamol inhalation (200 microg). Four potential methods for assessing BDR were evaluated: percent change from baseline, percent change of predicted values, absolute change in Rint, and change in Z-score. These cut-off values, determined as the fifth percentile of the healthy group, were applied to children referred for the assessment of recurrent wheezing, classified on the basis of acute symptoms and/or abnormal chest examination into symptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.9-6.1 years) and asymptomatic (n = 60, age range 2.5-5.7 years) groups. The cut-off values for bronchodilation calculated in healthy children were: -32% baseline; -33% predicted; -0.26 kPa L(-1) sec; and -1.25 Z-scores. Assessing BDR in children with a history of wheezing by either a decrease in absolute Rint or a decrease in Z-score gave sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value all >80% for detecting children with current respiratory symptoms. Both a decrease in Rint > or =0.26 kPa L(-1) sec and a decrease in Z-score of > or =1.25 are appropriate for assessing BDR in preschool children with a history of recurrent wheezing. As Z-score is a more general solution, we recommend using a change in Z-score to determine BDR in preschool children. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine the clinical utility of measuring BDR in managing lung disease in such children.

  4. Maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices: relationship with the BMI of Chilean children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uauy Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile has experienced the nutritional transition due to both social and economic progress. As a consequence, higher rates of overweight and obesity have been observed in children. In western countries, researchers have tried to determine pathways by which parents influence their children's eating behavior; up to now findings have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional and retrospective relationship between maternal attitudes and child-feeding practices and children's weight status in children who had been subject of an obesity prevention intervention for two years. Methods In 2006, for a cross-sectional study, a random sample of 232 children (125 girls, mean age 11.91 ± 1.56 y and 107 boys mean age 11.98 ± 1.51 y was selected from three primary schools from a small city called Casablanca. Weight and height were determined to assess their nutritional status, using body mass index (BMI z scores. Child-feeding practices and attitudes were determined cross-sectionally in 2006, using the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ. To analyze the relationship between trends in weight change and child-feeding practices and attitudes, BMI z scores of all the 232 children in 2003 were used. Results Cross-sectionally, mothers of overweight children were significantly more concerned (P z score was positively correlated with concern for child's weight (r = 0.28, P z score between age 9 and 12 was positively correlated with concern for child's weight, but only in boys (r = 0.21, P z score at age 12. Conclusion Mothers of overweight children were more concerned with their children's weight; this indicated the Western negative attitude towards childhood overweight. None of the child-feeding practices were significantly correlated with a change in BMI z score.

  5. Aerobic fitness related to cardiovascular risk factors in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    ) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled by body mass (milliliters per minute per kilogram). Total body fat mass (TBF) and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Total body fat was expressed as a percentage of total body mass (BF...... ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z scores (value for the individual - mean value for group)/SD were calculated by sex. The sum of z scores for DBP, SDP, PP, MAP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT, BF%, AFM and AFM/TBF were calculated in boys and girls, separately, and used...

  6. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  7. Corporate Failure Prediction of Public Listed Companies in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Qaiser Rafique Yasser; Abdullah Al Mamun

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to extent the prediction model of financial distress among Malaysian public listed companies from period 2006 to 2010. Altman Z-Score Models was used to identify classification on three main zones which are safe, grey or distress zone. The results specify that 56 % of listed companies were classified as ‘distress zone’, 24 % are known as ‘grey zone’ while 20 % are classified in ‘safe zone’. Two likely to fail companies was correctly predict at distress zone which Z-Score was l...

  8. Change in body weight and body image in young adults: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintem, Gicele Costa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2015-03-06

    The goal of this study was to identify the effect of the change in body mass index (BMI) from childhood to adulthood on body image satisfaction at 23 years of age in members of the 1982 Pelotas Birth Cohort in Pelotas, RS, Brazil. The study used data from the 1986 and 2004-5 follow-up studies. Body shape satisfaction was evaluated using the Stunkard scale. Body shape dissatisfaction was defined as the difference between the figures chosen for the current and ideal body size. BMI z-score changes were calculated as the difference between z-score values at 4 and 23 years of age, using the population internal z-score as standard. The analysis was stratified by sex, and multinomial logistic regression was used in crude and adjusted analyses. A total of 1963 men and 1739 women were analyzed. The mean age of the participants in 2004-5 was 22.7 years. Of the participants exhibiting increased BMI z-scores, 17% perceived themselves as thinner than ideal, whereas 48% perceived themselves as fatter than ideal. The prevalence of dissatisfaction was higher in women because they perceived themselves as fatter than ideal on the three categories of z-score change (≥ + 0.5 sd; -0.49 to + 0.49 sd and ≤ -0.5 sd); 81% of women exhibiting an increased BMI z-score reported dissatisfaction. The analysis adjusted for confounding factors revealed that women with increased BMI z-scores were less prone to feel thinner than ideal. Additionally, the increased risk of dissatisfaction due to perceiving oneself as fatter than ideal was similar between men and women (RRR = 3.52 95% CI: 2.17 to 4.56 and RRR = 4.08 95% CI: 3.00 to 5.56, respectively) using -0.49 to +0.49 sd as the reference category. Individuals exhibiting increased BMI z-scores between 4 and 23 years of age reported higher risks of body dissatisfaction at 23 years of age. This finding is important because body dissatisfaction can cause psychological, social, self-esteem problems, and well-being.

  9. The impact of investments and changes in the production regime on the results of creditworthiness assessment and bankruptcy prediction models: Case study: Company Bulgari Filati d.o.o.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muminović Saša

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although they can be a subject of criticism and have been challenged from its beginnings, bankruptcy prediction models have often been used in practice for more than four decades. The following models for predicting bankruptcy are applied in this issue: Altman's Z'-Score, Zmijewski model, Taffler's model and Sandin and Porporato model. Out of the creditworthiness assessment models (solvency analysis, the following models have been applied: Z''-Score (Altman, Hartzell and Peck and the BEX model. A significant shortcoming of the observed models is their failure to take investment into account. Beside, some models have inadequately assessed the transition of operations to lohn production, while others have not.

  10. Transformation of equations in analysis of proportionality through referent models

    CERN Document Server

    Romay, E O

    2006-01-01

    In proportionality of objects, samples or populations, usually we work with Z score of proportionality calculated through referent models, instead directly with the variables of the objects in itself. In these studies we have the necessity to transform, the equations that use the variables of the object, in equations that directly use like variables Z score. In the present work a method is developed to transform the parametric equations, in equations in variables Z using like example the studies of human proportionality from the Phantom stratagem of Ross and Wilson.

  11. THE EFFECT OF 2008 GLOBAL FINANCIAL CRISES ON THE FINANCIAL RATIOS: AN APPLICATION ON İSTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE (ISE MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer İSKENDEROĞLU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study researches the effect of 2008 crisis on the financial ratios of Istanbul StockExchange (ISE manufacturing firms. On this respect several key financial ratios andAltman Z-Score is calculated for 158 ISE firms which has adequate data spanning from2007 to 2011 on a quarterly basis. The results of the analysis indicate that during the crisisperiod, is decreased with the profit. Besides Altman Z-score value reveals that there is anincrease in bankruptcy risk starting from first quarter of 2008 to end of 2009.

  12. 尺寸工程技术在控制车身精度方面的应用与分析%Application and analysis of dimension engineering technology in controlling body precision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩彦博; 张浩; 段宏艳; 李博; 刘妍

    2016-01-01

    The precision of body in white is an important indicator of auto appearance and assembly ability, how to improve our market competitive capability which is GD&T engineer have to face. So the main goal of GD&T engineer is to improve the product precision and shorten developing periods and meet the demands of automobile styling. GD&T engineer have to take part in the whole development process of BIW, from design phase to the stage of industrialization. First, during the design phase, we should provide range positioning system (RPS), design drawing of geometric dimensioning &tolerancing (GD&T) and reasonable dimension chain; in the stage of industrialization, we should use the method of statistical analysis to formulate the monitoring plan of process stability, which can be used to analyze the fluctuation trend of the measured results, based on the measured results we can give a solution to the size defects quickly.%白车身精度是影响整车外观美学及可装配性的重要指标,如何利用尺寸工程技术提高我国自主品牌车型的竞争力,是目前国内尺寸工程师面临的重要问题。合理的运用尺寸工程技术可以有效提高产品精度、缩短开发周期、满足造型提出的外观要求。尺寸工程贯穿于整个开发过程,从指定尺寸目标开始介入直至工业化阶段的尺寸控制。通过制定零部件的基准系建立定位系统、编制 GD&T 图纸、分析优化尺寸链以提供合理的公差尺寸;在工业化阶段,应运用统计学的方法制定工艺稳定性监控计划,可以通过分析实测结果的波动趋势,对尺寸缺陷迅速应对给出解决方案。

  13. Grid-based Visualization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiebaux, M.; Tangmunarunkit, H.; Kesselman, C.

    2003-12-01

    Advances in science and engineering have put high demands on tools for high-performance large-scale visual data exploration and analysis. For example, earthquake scientists can now study earthquake phenomena from first principle physics-based simulations. These simulations can generate large amounts of data, possibly high spatial resolution, and long time series. Single-system visualization software running on commodity machines cannot scale up to the large amounts of data generated by these simulations. To address this problem, we propose a flexible and extensible Grid-based visualization framework for time-critical, interactively controlled visual browsing of spatially and temporally large datasets in a Grid environment. Our framework leverages Grid resources for scalable computation and data storage to maintain performance and interactivity with large visualization jobs. Our framework utilizes Globus Toolkit 2.4 components for security (i.e., GSI), resource allocation and management (i.e., DUROC, GRAM) and communication (i.e., Globus-IO) to couple commodity desktops with remote, scalable storage and computational resources in a Grid for interactive data exploration. There are two major components in this framework---Grid Data Transport (GDT) and the Grid Visualization Utility (GVU). GDT provides libraries for performing parallel data filtering and parallel data exchange among Grid resources. GDT allows arbitrary data filtering to be integrated into the system. It also facilitates multi-tiered pipeline topology construction of compute resources and displays. In addition to scientific visualization applications, GDT can be used to support other applications that require parallel processing and parallel transfer of partial ordered independent files, such as file-set transfer. On top of GDT, we have developed the Grid Visualization Utility (GVU), which is designed to assist visualization dataset management, including file formatting, data transport and automatic

  14. Long-term effects of severe acute malnutrition on lung function in Malawian children: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelijveld, Natasha; Kerac, Marko; Seal, Andrew; Chimwezi, Emmanuel; Wells, Jonathan C; Heyderman, Robert S; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Stocks, Janet; Kirkby, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Early nutritional insults may increase risk of adult lung disease. We aimed to quantify the impact of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) on spirometric outcomes 7 years post-treatment and explore predictors of impaired lung function.Spirometry and pulse oximetry were assessed in 237 Malawian children (median age: 9.3 years) who had been treated for SAM and compared with sibling and age/sex-matched community controls. Spirometry results were expressed as z-scores based on Global Lung Function Initiative reference data for the African-American population.Forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were low in all groups (mean FEV1 z-score: -0.47 for cases, -0.48 for siblings, -0.34 for community controls; mean FVC z-score: -0.32, -0.38, and -0.15 respectively). There were no differences in spirometric or oximetry outcomes between SAM survivors and controls. Leg length was shorter in SAM survivors but inter-group sitting heights were similar. HIV positive status or female sex was associated with poorer FEV1, by 0.55 and 0.31 z-scores, respectively.SAM in early childhood was not associated with subsequent reduced lung function compared to local controls. Preservation of sitting height and compromised leg length suggest "thrifty" or "lung-sparing" growth. Female sex and HIV positive status were identified as potentially high-risk groups.

  15. Longitudinal Growth during the First Years of Life : What Is Normal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touwslager, R. N. H.; Gerver, W. J. M.; Mulder, A. L. M.; Jansen, A. J. G. M. Gerver; de Bruin, R.

    2008-01-01

    The anthropometric data of a longitudinal growth study on healthy infants, followed from birth until the age of 4 years and performed during 1995-1999 in The Netherlands, were used to analyze the general growth patterns in terms of height, weight and head circumference, based on z-scores, during the

  16. Maternal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, Self-Esteem, Body Dissatisfaction and Preschooler Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…

  17. 1st and 2nd Trimester Headsize in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease: A Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Høj; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vestergaard, Else Marie

    2014-01-01

    208 fetuses (75%) with presumed non-syndromic CHD were included, 85 (41%) with minor and 123 (59%) with major CHD. Z-scores for head size were analysed. Conclusions: Our preliminary results suggest that Bi-parietal-diameter in children with CHD is within the normal range in the 1st trimester...

  18. On the Relationship between Individual Creativity and Time Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Bouranta, Nancy; Moustakis, Vassilis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article investigates the relationship between time management behaviours and attitudes with measures of creativity, as assessed by self-rated creativity and a measure of creative personality. Additionally, total creativity is examined, as the sum of the two creativity constructs when z-scored. Using data from a survey of 186 participants,…

  19. Outcomes of bone density measurements in coeliac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Rowbotham, David S

    2016-01-29

    Some guidelines recommend that patients with newly diagnosed coeliac disease undergo bone density scanning. We assessed the bone density results in a cohort of patients with coeliac disease. We searched bone density reports over two 5-year periods in all patients from Auckland District Health Board (2008-12) and in patients under 65 years from Counties Manukau District Health Board (2009-13) for the term 'coeliac.' Reports for 137 adults listed coeliac disease as an indication for bone densitometry. The average age was 47 years, body mass index (BMI) 25 kg/m(2), and 77% were female. The median time between coeliac disease diagnosis and bone densitometry was 261 days. The average bone density Z-score was slightly lower than expected (Z-score -0.3 to 0.4) at the lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck, but 88-93% of Z-scores at each site lay within the normal range. Low bone density was strongly related to BMI: the proportions with Z-score 30 kg/m(2) were 28%, 15%, 6% and 0% respectively. Average bone density was normal, suggesting that bone density measurement is not indicated routinely in coeliac disease, but could be considered on a case-by-case basis for individuals with strong risk factors for fracture.

  20. Body composition at birth and height at 2 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Admassu, Bitiya; Wells, Jonathan C; Girma, Tsinuel

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is associated with childhood stunting, but equivalent associations for birth body composition (BC) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess associations of BC with height-for-age Z score (HAZ) at 2 years of age. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, fat mass (FM) and fa...... article preview online, 19 April 2017. doi:10.1038/pr.2017.59....

  1. Effect of conditioned pain modulation on trigeminal somatosensory function evaluated by quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oono, Yuka; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Wang, Kelun; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Svensson, Peter

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to systematically investigate the effect of craniofacially evoked conditioned pain modulation on somatosensory function using a quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol applied to the trigeminal area in healthy humans. Pressure pain evoked by a mechanical compressive device was applied as conditioning stimulus (CS) in the craniofacial region, with a pain intensity of 5 on a visual analogue scale (VAS: 0-10 cm) (painful session) or with VAS score of 0 (control session). A full QST battery of 13 parameters was performed as test stimuli on the dominant-side cheek. The individual QST data from 11 men and 12 women were transformed into z scores, and the QST data and z scores were tested using analyses of variance. Analyses of variance of pressure pain threshold (PPT) data (log-transformed values and z scores) indicated significant session (P ≤ .003) and time (P painful session were associated with significantly higher log-transformed PPT values and significantly lower z scores compared with the control session at the time point during CS (hypoalgesia) (P pain inhibitory mechanisms.

  2. Effects of a 3-year intervention: The Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca; Dencker, Magnus

    2012-01-01

    risk score was computed from z-scores of SBP, triglycerides, ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoproteins cholesterol, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-score), skinfolds, and inverse VO2peak. RESULTS: The HOMA-score of intervention group boys had a smaller increase from baseline to post...

  3. Growth in Total Height and Its Components and Cardiometabolic Health in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Line Klingen; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Perng, Wei;

    2016-01-01

    was a cardiometabolic risk score based on sex-specific internal z-scores for systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. RESULTS: Mean (SD) total height was 97.9 (4.5) cm in boys and 97.1 (4.7) cm in girls...

  4. Predicting success: factors associated with weight change in obese youth undertaking a weight management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Kimberley A; Ware, Robert S; Batch, Jennifer A; Truby, Helen

    2013-01-01

    To explore which baseline physiological and psychosocial variables predict change in body mass index (BMI) z-score in obese youth after 12 weeks of a dietary weight management study. Participants were obese young people participating in a dietary intervention trial in Brisbane Australia. The outcome variable was change in BMI z-score. Potential predictors considered included demographic, physiological and psychosocial parameters of the young person, and demographic characteristics of their parents. A multivariable regression model was constructed to examine the effect of potential predictive variables. Participants (n = 88) were predominantly female (69.3%), and had a mean(standard deviation) age of 13.1(1.9) years and BMI z-score of 2.2(0.4) on presentation. Lower BMI z-score (p resistance (p = 0.04) at baseline, referral from a paediatrician (p = 0.02) and being more socially advantaged (p = 0.046) were significantly associated with weight loss. Macronutrient distribution of diet and physical activity level did not contribute. Early intervention in obesity treatment in young people improves likelihood of success. Other factors such as degree of insulin resistance, social advantage and referral source also appear to play a role. Assessing presenting characteristics and factors associated with treatment outcome may allow practicing clinicians to individualise a weight management program or determine the 'best-fit' treatment for an obese adolescent. © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does competition improve financial stability of the banking sector in ASEAN countries? An empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noman, Abu Hanifa Md; Gee, Chan Sok; Isa, Che Ruhana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of competition on the financial stability of the commercial banks of Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) over the 1990 to 2014 period. Panzar-Rosse H-statistic, Lerner index and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) are used as measures of competition, while Z-score, non-performing loan (NPL) ratio and equity ratio are used as measures of financial stability. Two-step system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimates demonstrate that competition measured by H-statistic is positively related to Z-score and equity ratio, and negatively related to non-performing loan ratio. Conversely, market power measured by Lerner index is negatively related to Z-score and equity ratio and positively related to NPL ratio. These results strongly support the competition-stability view for ASEAN banks. We also capture the non-linear relationship between competition and financial stability by incorporating a quadratic term of competition in our models. The results show that the coefficient of the quadratic term of H-statistic is negative for the Z-score model given a positive coefficient of the linear term in the same model. These results support the non-linear relationship between competition and financial stability of the banking sector. The study contains significant policy implications for improving the financial stability of the commercial banks.

  6. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  7. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink...... intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results...... of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity...

  8. A PERSISTING SECULAR TREND FOR BODY MEASUREMENTS IN DUTCH CHILDREN - THE OOSTERWOLDE-II STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERVER, WJM; DEBRUIN, R; DRAYER, NM

    1994-01-01

    To investigate whether the secular trend for growth in Dutch children still exists, the Oosterwolde I study of 1980 was repeated in 1989. A persisting secular trend was visible for height while the z scores of body proportions show no change during the past 10 years, which suggests that there is no

  9. Reverse ventricular remodeling and improved ventricular compliance after heart transplantation in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lopez, Leo; Pass, Robert H; Hsu, Daphne T; Lamour, Jacqueline M

    2014-08-01

    After heart transplantation (HT) in infants and young children, environmental and intrinsic factors may lead to changes in the geometry and compliance of the donor heart. Serial demographic, clinical, hemodynamic, and echocardiographic data were obtained from HT recipients younger than 4 years of age. Echocardiographic chamber measurement z-scores were compared using recipient body surface area from the time of HT to 1 week, 3 months, and last follow-up visit. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) z-scores were correlated with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) at each time point. Heart transplantation was performed for 13 children between March 2009 and December 2012, 9 of whom (69%) were boys. The median age at HT was 8 months (range, 4-43 months), and the mean follow-up period was 13 ± 7 months. Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension z-scores decreased significantly (p = 0.03) between HT and 1 week, then increased from 1 week to 3 and 12 months. (-1.32 ± 1.7, -0.71 ± 1.8, 0.41 ± 2.1, 0.79 ± 2.3, respectively). A positive relationship (R(2) = 0.48) between the LVEDV z-score and PCPW was present at the last follow-up visit. For infants and young children, the allograft demonstrates appropriate growth by 1 year after HT. Left ventricular compliance improves over time.

  10. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Helen C; Marsh, Julie A; Rath, Shoshana R; Kotecha, Rishi S; Gough, Hazel; Taylor, Mandy; Walwyn, Thomas; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Cole, Catherine H; Choong, Catherine S

    2015-01-01

    Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and treated with modern COG protocols (n = 80) to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5%) were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P < 0.004) for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P = 0.7). Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P = 0.0005), disease risk (P < 0.0001), age (P = 0.0001), and BMI z-score (P < 0.0001) at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P = 0.01). Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  11. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen C. Atkinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and treated with modern COG protocols (n=80 to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5% were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P<0.004 for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P=0.7. Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P=0.0005, disease risk (P<0.0001, age (P=0.0001, and BMI z-score (P<0.0001 at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P=0.01. Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  12. Bank regulation and financial fragility in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Haan, de Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks' Z-scores) depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the bank

  13. Development of nutritionally at-risk young children is predicted by malaria, anemia, and stunting in Pemba, Zanzibar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutritionally at-risk children suffer delays in physical growth and motor and language development. Infectious diseases such as malaria pose an additional risk. We examined the cross-sectional relationships among malaria infection, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), motor ...

  14. Assessing body composition in infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to compare different body composition techniques in infants and toddlers. Anthropometric measures including mid-upper arm circumference (MAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and weight-for-height or -length Z-scores (WHZ), and measures of body fat mass assessed wit...

  15. Various scoring systems for predicting mortality in Intensive Care Unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-07

    Dec 7, 2015 ... characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine a cut‑off value for mortality and .... present study aimed to compare the third generation scoring systems .... Doganay Z. Scoring systems for intensive care unit. In: Şahinoğlu ...

  16. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio...

  17. Factors that Hinder Parents from the Communicating of Sexual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adolescents is one of the strategies that could encourage ... testing and the most discouraging issue is that most parents don't want ... variability) at the 95% confidence level of Z-score of 1.96 ..... from teachers, radio and peers, hence they were informed .... Mpairwe A. Factors affecting Parent-Child Communication on.

  18. Functional Outcomes at Age 7 Years of Moderate Preterm and Full Term Children Born Small for Gestational Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, Jozien C; van Braeckel, Koenraad N J A; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Bos, Arend F

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare functional outcomes of 7-year-old (school-age) children born small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight z score ≤ -1 SD), with appropriate for gestational age (AGA) peers, born moderately preterm or full term. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected as part of the Longitudina

  19. Young Children's Screen Activities, Sweet Drink Consumption and Anthropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, Steingerdur; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Siani, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    (SSB) and increased BMI, BMI z-score and waist to height ratio (WHtR) two years later. A second hypothesis was that SSB consumption mediates the association between the screen activities and changes in the anthropometric measures. Subjects/Methods: The study is a part of the prospective cohort study...

  20. Effect of a child care center-based obesity prevention program on body mass index and nutrition practices among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby A; Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela; Uhlhorn, Susan B; Asfour, Lila; Messiah, Sarah E

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effect of an early childhood obesity prevention program on changes in Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score and nutrition practices. Eight child care centers were randomly assigned to an intervention or attention control arm. Participants were a multiethnic sample of children aged 2 to 5 years old (N = 307). Intervention centers received healthy menu changes and family-based education focused on increased physical activity and fresh produce intake, decreased intake of simple carbohydrate snacks, and decreased screen time. Control centers received an attention control program. Height, weight, and nutrition data were collected at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Analysis examined height, weight, and BMI z-score change by intervention condition (at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months). Pearson correlation analysis examined relationships among BMI z-scores and home activities and nutrition patterns in the intervention group. Child BMI z-score was significantly negatively correlated with the number of home activities completed at 6-month post intervention among intervention participants. Similarly, intervention children consumed less junk food, ate more fresh fruits and vegetables, drank less juice, and drank more 1% milk compared to children at control sites at 6 months post baseline. Ninety-seven percent of those children who were normal weight at baseline were still normal weight 12 months later. Findings support child care centers as a promising setting to implement childhood obesity prevention programs in this age group. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  1. Obesity in youth with type 1 diabetes in Germany, Austria, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To examine the current extent of the obesity problem in 2 large pediatric clinical registries in the US and Europe and to examine the hypotheses that increased body mass index (BMI) z-scores (BMIz) are associated with greater hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and increased frequency of severe hypoglycemia in y...

  2. Risperidone-Induced Weight Gain in Referred Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated with a Common Polymorphism in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Troost, Pieter W.; Lahuis, Bertine E.; Mulder, Hans; Mulder, Erik J.; Franke, Barbara; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Anderson, George M.; Scahill, Lawrence; Minderaa, Ruud B.

    2010-01-01

    Weight gain is an important adverse effect of risperidone, but predictors of significant weight gain have yet to be identified in pediatric patients. Here, we investigated differences between age-and gender-normed body mass index-standardized z scores at baseline and after 8 weeks of open-label, fle

  3. Risperidone-Induced Weight Gain in Referred Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Associated with a Common Polymorphism in the 5-Hydroxytryptamine 2C Receptor Gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, P.J.; Troost, P.W.; Lahuis, B.E.; Mulder, H.; Mulder, E.J.H.; Franke, B.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Anderson, G.M.; Scahill, L.; Minderaa, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Weight gain is an important adverse effect of risperidone, but predictors of significant weight gain have yet to be identified in pediatric patients. Here, we investigated differences between age- and gender-normed body mass index-standardized z scores at baseline and after 8 weeks of open-

  4. Multicenter European Prevalence Study of Neurocognitive Impairment and Associated Factors in HIV Positive Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddow, Lewis J; Laverick, Rosanna; Daskalopoulou, Marina

    2017-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 448 HIV positive patients attending five European outpatient clinics to determine prevalence of and factors associated with neurocognitive impairment (NCI) using computerized and pen-and-paper neuropsychological tests. NCI was defined as a normalized Z score...

  5. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Katzmarzyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing and diet (artificially sweetened soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD. Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049, but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002 and %BF (p = 0.0001. Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  6. Research Article (New England Journal of Medicine) Severe anemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-02-28

    Feb 28, 2008 ... recruitment if their hemoglobin level was at least 5.0 g per deciliter and they were ... Weight-for-height, height-for-age, and weight-for-age z scores of less than −2 ... (Becton Dickinson). Serum vitamin A (retinol) and soluble.

  7. Scoring inflammatory activity of the spine by magnetic resonance imaging in ankylosing spondylitis: a multireader experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, C; Braun, J; van der Heijde, D;

    2007-01-01

    ) assessed by Z-scores was good and comparable among methods. CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrates the feasibility of multiple-reader MRI scoring exercises for method comparison, provides evidence for the feasibility, reliability, sensitivity to change, and discriminatory capacity of all 3 tested scoring...

  8. Is it time to rethink how neuropsychological tests are used to diagnose mild forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders? Impact of false-positive rates on prevalence and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Ana-Claire L; Boscardin, W John; Kwasa, Judith K; Price, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Between 0 and 48% of normal HIV-uninfected individuals score below threshold neuropsychological test scores for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) or are false positives. There has been little effort to understand the effect of varied interpretations of research criteria for HAND on false-positive frequencies, prevalence and analytic estimates. The proportion of normal individuals scoring below Z score thresholds drawn from research criteria for HAND, or false-positive frequencies, was estimated in a normal Kenyan population and a simulated normal population using varied interpretations of research criteria for HAND. We calculated the impact of false-positive frequencies on prevalence estimates and statistical power. False-positive frequencies of 2-74% were observed for asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment/mild neurocognitive disorder and 0-8% for HIV-associated dementia. False-positive frequencies depended on the definition of an abnormal cognitive domain, Z score thresholds and neuropsychological battery size. Misclassification led to clinically important overestimation of prevalence and dramatic decreases in power. Minimizing false-positive frequencies is critical to decrease bias in prevalence estimates and minimize reductions in power in studies of association, particularly for mild forms of HAND. We recommend changing the Z score threshold to ≤-1.5 for mild impairment, limiting analysis to 3-5 cognitive domains and using the average Z score to define an abnormal domain. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Social Capitals and English Language Achievement within a Specific Grade and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadady, Ebrahim; Pishghadam, Reza; Alaee, Farnaz Farokh

    2012-01-01

    An achievement test based on schema theory (S-Test) was developed on the passages comprising the English textbook taught at grade three in state high schools in Iran and administered concurrently with a validated and reliable Social Capital Scale (SCS) to four hundred seventy seven male and female participants. The Z-scores obtained on the S-Test…

  10. Body mass index in young school-age children in relation to organochlorine compounds in early life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer, B B; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Henriksen, T B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between maternal pregnancy and estimated postnatal serum concentrations of the organochlorines 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in 5- to 9-year...

  11. Coping with climate change uncertainty for adaptation planning: An improved criterion for decision making under uncertainty using UKCP09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Green

    2014-01-01

    Analyses using sub-samples of the complete probabilistic dataset showed that the Green Z-score had comparable reproducibility to Laplace and improved reproducibility compared to other current decision criteria, and unlike Laplace is able to accommodate different risk attitudes.

  12. Agrosearch 1 Vol. 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    negative effects of the green revolution in Asia became more apparent, such as .... effects are only slightly diminished by the presence of globalization, and that various ... When the z - score or p-value indicates statistical significance, a positive ...

  13. NT-proBNP and diastolic left ventricular function in patients with Marfan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Gehle

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: MFS patients presenting with normal ejection fraction show disturbed diastolic function and higher NT-proBNP levels, which is partly explained by aortic Z-score. Assessment of diastolic function and NT-proBNP levels may therefore detect early abnormalities and guide surveillance and prevention management of patients with MFS.

  14. Maternal mental health and nutritional status of six-month-old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Kulik Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if maternal mental health is associated with infant nutritional status at six month of age. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 228 six-month-old infants who used primary health care units of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Mean weight-for-length and mean weight-for-age were expressed in z-scores considering the 2006 World Health Organization reference curves. Maternal mental health was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. The following cutoff points were used: ≥ 3 for common mental disorders, ≥ 5 for more severe mental disorders, and ≥ 9 for depression. The statistical analysis employed adjusted linear regression models. RESULTS The prevalence of common mental disorders, more severe mental disorders and depression was 39.9%, 23.7%, and 8.3%, respectively. Children of women with more severe mental disorders had, on average, a weight-for-length 0.37 z-scores lower than children of women without this health harm (p = 0.026. We also observed that the weight-for-length indicator of children of depressed mothers was, on average, 0.67 z-scores lower than that of children of nondepressed women (p = 0.010. Maternal depression was associated with lower mean values of weight-for-age z-scores (p = 0.041. CONCLUSIONS Maternal mental health is positively related to the inadequacy of the nutritional status of infants at six months.

  15. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  16. Supplementary feeding with fortified spreads results in higher recovery rates than with a corn/soy blend in moderately wasted children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderate childhood wasting is defined as having a weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) or = -3. These children are typically given fortified corn/soy blended flour (CSB), but this intervention has shown limited effectiveness. Fortified spreads (FS) can be used as supplementary foods instead; ...

  17. Pediatrics: Measuring pediatric BMD-the bar raised but the glass half full.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Craig B

    2011-11-22

    Extensive reference data sets of pediatric bone density measurements are now available, together with equations to translate BMD into relevant Z-scores and correct for abnormal stature. So now is the right time to ask: are you thinking about bone density in children correctly?

  18. Malnutrition among Preschool-Aged Autistic Children in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Farsi, Yahya M.; Al-Sharbati, Marwan M.; Waly, Mostafa I.; Al-Farsi, Omar A.; Al Shafaee, Mohammed A.; Deth, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess prevalence of malnutrition indicators among preschool children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) a cross-sectional study was conducted among 128 Omani autistic children 3-5 years of age. Based on standardized z-scores, the overall prevalence of malnutrition was 9.2 per 100 preschool ASD children (95% CI 4.1, 11.6). The most common type…

  19. Volume 9 No. 2 2009 March 2009 728 DIETARY DETERMINANTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    households reported a stunting rate (height-for-age z-score <-2.0) of 23.9% among children under the ... when the haemoglobin count is abnormally below the threshold value. ... nutritional status and growth in particular have mainly involved pre-school-age ..... not considered a statistical dependant variable in this study.

  20. Does competition improve financial stability of the banking sector in ASEAN countries? An empirical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Chan Sok; Isa, Che Ruhana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of competition on the financial stability of the commercial banks of Association of Southeast Asian Nation (ASEAN) over the 1990 to 2014 period. Panzar-Rosse H-statistic, Lerner index and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) are used as measures of competition, while Z-score, non-performing loan (NPL) ratio and equity ratio are used as measures of financial stability. Two-step system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimates demonstrate that competition measured by H-statistic is positively related to Z-score and equity ratio, and negatively related to non-performing loan ratio. Conversely, market power measured by Lerner index is negatively related to Z-score and equity ratio and positively related to NPL ratio. These results strongly support the competition-stability view for ASEAN banks. We also capture the non-linear relationship between competition and financial stability by incorporating a quadratic term of competition in our models. The results show that the coefficient of the quadratic term of H-statistic is negative for the Z-score model given a positive coefficient of the linear term in the same model. These results support the non-linear relationship between competition and financial stability of the banking sector. The study contains significant policy implications for improving the financial stability of the commercial banks. PMID:28486548

  1. Allelic variants of melanocortin 3 receptor gene (MC3R) and weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Santos, José; De la Cruz, Rolando; Holst, Claus;

    2011-01-01

    receptor gene (MC3R) have been associated with childhood obesity, higher BMI Z-score and elevated body fat percentage compared to non-carriers. The aim of this study is to assess the association in adults between allelic variants of MC3R with weight loss induced by energy-restricted diets....

  2. Composite MRI scores improve correlation with EDSS in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonawalla, A H; Datta, S; Juneja, V; Nelson, F; Wolinsky, J S; Cutter, G; Narayana, P A

    2010-09-01

    Quantitative measures derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been widely investigated as non-invasive biomarkers in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the correlation of single measures with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) is poor, especially for studies with large population samples. To explore the correlation of MRI-derived measures with EDSS through composite MRI scores. Magnetic resonance images of 126 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were segmented into white and gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid, T2-hyperintense lesions, gadolinium contrast-enhancing lesions, T1-hypointense lesions ('black holes': BH). The volumes and average T2 values for each of these tissues and lesions were calculated and converted to a z-score (in units of standard deviation from the mean). These z-scores were combined to construct composite z-scores, and evaluated against individual z-scores for correlation with EDSS. Composite scores including relaxation times of different tissues and/or volumetric measures generally correlated more strongly with EDSS than individual measures. The maximum observed correlation of a composite with EDSS was r = 0.344 (p EDSS.

  3. An innovative summer camp program improves weight and self-esteem in obese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the potential benefits of a residential summer camp to treat childhood obesity, 21 obese, multiethnic children (aged 11.4 +/- 1.4 years; body mass index [BMI] percentile 98.5 +/- 1.4; BMI z score 2.30 +/- 0.33) from a diverse socioeconomic background were enrolled in a 2-week summer cam...

  4. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    in body mass index (BMI) z-score in order to compare the results, independent of gender- and age-related changes over time. RESULTS: A total of 80 children were recruited with 35 and 45 children allocated to Model 1 and Model 2, respectively. No significant differences were found in the change in BMI z-score...... (SDS) between the two groups. A decrease in the mean BMI z-score from baseline to study end of -0.20 (95%CI -0.38 to -0.01) in Model 1 and -0.26 (95%CI -0.44 to -0.09) in Model 2, respectively, was detected. The majority of the participants (2/3) continued in the study for more than one year in both...... models, with a mean of 12 consultations in general practice. CONCLUSION: In this particular setting the two intervention strategies against overweight and obesity did not differ significantly with regard to change in BMI z-scores....

  5. Declining and stabilising trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Dutch Turkish, Moroccanand South Asian children 3-16 years of age between 1999 and 2011 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Verkerk, P.H.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In many developed countries, overweight and obesity prevalence seems to stabilise. The aim of this study was to determine trends between 1999 and 2011 in overweight and obesity prevalence, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score in Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese South Asian

  6. PENGARUH DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID (DHA PADA TUMBUH KEMBANG ANAK BALITA GIZI BURUK YANG DIRAWAT JALAN [The effect of DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA on growth and development of outpatient rehabilitation of children under-five with severe malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Lamid1, , , , dan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of DocosaHexaenoic Acid (DHA on growth and development of outpatient rehabilitation of children under five with severe malnutrition. Sample was children whose age from 6 to 24 months suffering from severe malnutrition with weight /age index of WHO standard of Z score 0,05.

  7. Maternal Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms, Self-Esteem, Body Dissatisfaction and Preschooler Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Pree; Skouteris, Helen; Hayden, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to cross-sectionally examine the associations between maternal psychosocial variables, child feeding practices, and preschooler body mass index z-score (BMI-z) in children (aged 2-4 years). A secondary aim was to examine differences in child weight outcomes between mothers scoring above and below specified…

  8. On the Relationship between Individual Creativity and Time Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampetakis, Leonidas A.; Bouranta, Nancy; Moustakis, Vassilis S.

    2010-01-01

    The article investigates the relationship between time management behaviours and attitudes with measures of creativity, as assessed by self-rated creativity and a measure of creative personality. Additionally, total creativity is examined, as the sum of the two creativity constructs when z-scored. Using data from a survey of 186 participants,…

  9. Should Tricuspid Annuloplasty be Performed With Pulmonary Valve Replacement for Pulmonary Regurgitation in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkluoglu, Mustafa; John, Anitha S; Cross, Russell; Chung, David; Yerebakan, Can; Zurakowski, David; Jonas, Richard A; Sinha, Pranava

    2015-01-01

    Indications for prophylactic tricuspid annuloplasty in patients with pulmonary regurgitation (PR) after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair are unclear and often extrapolated from acquired functional tricuspid regurgitation (TR) data in adults, where despite correction of primary left heart pathology, progressive tricuspid annular dilation is noted beyond a threshold diameter >4 cm (21 mm/m(2)). We hypothesized that unlike in adult functional TR, in pure volume-overload conditions such as patients with PR after TOF, the tricuspid valve size is likely to regress after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR). A total of 43 consecutive patients who underwent PVR from 2005 until 2012 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Absolute and indexed tricuspid annulus diameters (TADs), tricuspid annulus Z-scores, grade of TR along with right ventricular size, and function indices were recorded before and after PVR. Preoperative and postoperative echocardiographic data were available in all patients. A higher tricuspid valve Z-score correlated with greater TR both preoperatively (P = 0.005) and postoperatively (P = 0.02). Overall reductions in the absolute and indexed TAD and tricuspid valve Z-scores were seen postoperatively, with greater absolute as well as percentage reduction seen with larger preoperative TAD index (P = 0.007) and higher tricuspid annulus Z-scores (P = 0.06). In pure volume-overload conditions such as patients with PR after TOF, reduction in the tricuspid valve size is seen after PVR. Concomitant tricuspid annuloplasty should not be considered based on tricuspid annular dilation alone.

  10. (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2, 2010 24 ANTHROPOMETRIC INDICES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    than non-alcoholic students between the height and weight indices, energy ... more calories to be burned rather than stored in the body as fat (Alatola et al, 2008). ... cirrhosis of the liver and of the motor vehicle accidents (Alatola et al, 2008). ... Z-Score = Actual Child's Measurement – Median value of reference population.

  11. Early Growth and Neurologic Outcomes of Infants with Probable Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jucelia Sousa Santos; Sousa, Patricia da Silva; Doriqui, Maria Juliana Rodvalho; Ribeiro, Marizelia Rodrigues Costa; Branco, Maria dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa; Pacheco, Maria de Jesus Torres; Vieira da Costa, Flavia Regina; Silva, Francelena de Sousa; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Pacheco, Marcos Antonio Barbosa; Lamy-Filho, Fernando; Lamy, Zeni Carvalho; Soares de Britto e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra

    2016-01-01

    We report the early growth and neurologic findings of 48 infants in Brazil diagnosed with probable congenital Zika virus syndrome and followed to age 1–8 months. Most of these infants had microcephaly (86.7%) and craniofacial disproportion (95.8%). The clinical pattern included poor head growth with increasingly negative z-scores, pyramidal/extrapyramidal symptoms, and epilepsy. PMID:27767931

  12. Relationship between raised BMI and sugar sweetened beverage and high fat food consumption among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Lynne; Rowland, Bosco; Nichols, Melanie; Swinburn, Boyd; Bennett, Catherine; Skouteris, Helen; Allender, Steven

    2014-05-01

    Longitudinal evidence of relationships between unhealthy diets and BMI in children is crucial for appropriately targeting obesity prevention activities. The objective was to determine the relationship between frequency of consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and high fat foods (HFFs) and body weight in Australian children aged from 4 to 10 years. Data from 4,164 children participating in four waves (wave 1, 2004; wave 2, 2006; wave 3, 2008; and wave 4, 2010) of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were analyzed. A multi-level growth model tested relationships between consumption of SSB and HFF and BMI z-scores. BMI z-scores were associated with daily consumption of HFF, SSB and maternal BMI independent of BMI z-scores at wave 1 (baseline); with each additional occurrence of SSB and HFF consumption intake per day, BMI z-score increased by 0.015 U (P consumption of SSBs and HFFs. Future efforts to prevent obesity should consider urgent action to address the impact of the consumption of SSBs and HFFs in childhood. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  13. Sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain in 2- to 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Mark D; Scharf, Rebecca J; Demmer, Ryan T

    2013-09-01

    Although sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption has been tightly linked to weight status among older children, the data regarding these relationships in children aged 2 to 5 years have been mixed. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal and cross-sectional relationships between SSB consumption and weight status among children aged 2 to 5 years. We assessed SSB consumption and BMI z scores among 9600 children followed in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey--Birth Cohort, using linear and logistic regression and adjusting for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, mother's BMI, and television viewing. Higher rates of SSB consumption were associated with higher BMI z scores among children age 4 (P Children aged 5 years who drank SSB regularly (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a higher odds ratio for being obese (1.43, confidence interval 1.10-1.85, P children drinking SSB at 2 years (compared with infrequent/nondrinkers) had a greater subsequent increase in BMI z score over the ensuing 2 years (P children, children aged 2 to 5 years drinking SSB demonstrate both prospective and cross-sectional correlations with higher BMI z score. Pediatricians and parents should discourage SSB consumption to help avoid potential unhealthy weight gain in young children. From a public health standpoint, strong consideration should be made toward policy changes leading to decreases in SSB consumption among children.

  14. Government Expenditures on Education as the Percentage of GDP in the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galetic, Fran

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the government expenditures as the percentage of gross domestic product across countries of the European Union. There is a statistical model based on Z-score, whose aim is to calculate how much each EU country deviates from the average value. The model shows that government expenditures on education vary significantly between…

  15. Improved Body Mass Index Measures Following a Middle School-Based Obesity Intervention--The MATCH Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazorick, Suzanne; Fang, Xiangming; Hardison, George T.; Crawford, Yancey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Motivating Adolescents with Technology to CHOOSE Health™ (MATCH) is an educational and behavioral intervention in seventh grade. Methods: Teachers in 2 schools delivered the MATCH curriculum, with 1 control school. Using a quasi-experimental design, outcome measures included lessons completed, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score (zBMI),…

  16. Young Zanzibari Children with Iron Deficiency, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Stunting, or Malaria Have Lower Motor Activity Scores and Spend Less Time in Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor activity improves cognitive and social-emotional development through a child’s exploration of his or her physical and social environment. This study assessed anemia, iron deficiency, hemoglobin (Hb), length-for-age Z-score (LAZ), and malaria infection as predictors of motor activity in 771 chi...

  17. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9-11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Broyles, Stephanie T; Champagne, Catherine M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  18. Diagnosis of prostate cancer by quantitative analysis of 3DMRSI data: A new model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Hong; WANG Xiaoying; BAO Shanglian; WANG Huiliang; LI Feiyu; HUANG Rong

    2005-01-01

    Three-dimensional magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3DMRSI) is helpful to identify prostate cancer (PC)from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and to show the distribution of tumor infiltration. Combined with the (Cho + Cre)/Cit ratio, the z-score model can effectively discriminate prostate cancer from stromal benign prostate hyperplasia (sBPH) and detect small malignant lesions (SML).

  19. Relationship between zinc and the growth and development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, S; Tu, D N; Li, H; Cao, X; Jiang, J X; Shi, Y; Zhou, X Q; You, J B

    2015-08-19

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between zinc and the growth and development of young children. The parents of 8102 young children were surveyed in person by a trained surveyor using structured questionnaires. The hair zinc concentration of the children was determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The height, weight, sitting height, and head circumference of the children were measured at follow-up visits. There was a positive correlation between hair zinc concentration and adaptive developmental quotient (ADQ; r = 0.3164, P = 0.0272) while no correlation was found between hair zinc concentration and body measurement Z scores or intelligence quotient (IQ). There was a strong positive correlation between hair zinc concentration and weight-for-age Z scores (r = 0.3618, P = 0.0416) and ADQ (r = 0.2761, P = 0.0387) in boys; there was no correlation between hair zinc concentration and body measurement Z scores, IQ, and ADQ in girls. In boys with normal hair zinc levels, ADQ was 9.58 (P = 0.0392), higher than in boys who had zinc-deficient hair. In girls with normal hair zinc levels, ADQ was 2.52 (P = 0.0296), lower than in girls with zinc-deficient hair. In conclusion, there is no significant correlation between hair zinc levels and IQ or Z scores for all body measurements in young children.

  20. Child obesity and motor development delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity has been associated with delays in motor development using weight-for-length z-scores and subcutaneous fat. To study this further, percent body fat and motor development were assessed in children ages 3 to 24 months. Included were 455 children with a total of 1882 longitudinal obse...

  1. Child-care use and the association with body mass index and overweight in children from 7 months to 2 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Stafleu, A.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Vries, N.K. de; Buuren, S. van; Thijs, C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives:Studies regarding the association of child-care use with body mass index (BMI), overweight or obesity development show contradictory results. This study examined the relationship between child-care use and BMI z-scores and overweight, as well as associates of child-care use in children up

  2. Declining and stabilising trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in Dutch Turkish, Moroccanand South Asian children 3-16 years of age between 1999 and 2011 in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Verkerk, P.H.; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: In many developed countries, overweight and obesity prevalence seems to stabilise. The aim of this study was to determine trends between 1999 and 2011 in overweight and obesity prevalence, and mean Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score in Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan and Surinamese South Asian childr

  3. Friends and social contexts as unshared environments: A discordant sibling analysis of obesity- and health-related behaviors in young adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective. This study uses a weight-discordant sibling design to examine the relationships between best friend’s body mass index z-score (zBMI) and siblings’ zBMI and obesity-related health behaviors (energy intake, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages [SSB], physical activity and sedentary time...

  4. Developments in Undernutrition in Indian Children Under Five

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Peng; Rammohan, Anu; Gwozdz, Wencke;

    combines three types of decomposition: Blinder-Oaxaca, non-linear, and unconditional quantile. Child undernutrition is measured by z-scores for height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and for the Composite Index of Anthropometric Failure (CIAF). Although our results show modest...

  5. Apolipoprotein E4 influences growth and cognitive responses to micronutrient supplementation in shantytown children from northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet S Mitter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E4 may benefit children during early periods of life when the body is challenged by infection and nutritional decline. We examined whether apolipoprotein E4 affects intestinal barrier function, improving short-term growth and long-term cognitive outcomes in Brazilian shantytown children. METHODS: A total of 213 Brazilian shantytown children with below-median height-for-age z-scores (HAZ received 200,000 IU of retinol (every four months, zinc (40 mg twice weekly, or both for one year, with half of each group receiving glutamine supplementation for 10 days. Height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, weight-forheight z-scores, and lactulose:mannitol ratios were assessed during the initial four months of treatment. An average of four years (range 1.4-6.6 later, the children underwent cognitive testing to evaluate non-verbal intelligence, coding, verbal fluency, verbal learning, and delayed verbal learning. Apolipoprotein E4 carriage was determined by PCR analysis for 144 children. RESULTS: Thirty-seven children were apolipoprotein E4(+, with an allele frequency of 13.9%. Significant associations were found for vitamin A and glutamine with intestinal barrier function. Apolipoprotein E4(+ children receiving glutamine presented significant positive Pearson correlations between the change in height-for-age z-scores over four months and delayed verbal learning, along with correlated changes over the same period in weight-for-age z-scores and weight-for-height z-scores associated with non-verbal intelligence quotients. There was a significant correlation between vitamin A supplementation of apolipoprotein E4(+ children and improved delta lactulose/mannitol. Apolipoprotein E4(- children, regardless of intervention, exhibited negative Pearson correlations between the change in lactulose-to-mannitol ratio over four months and verbal learning and non-verbal intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: During development, apolipoprotein E4 may

  6. Socioeconomic disparities in birth weight and body mass index during infancy through age 7 years: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Howe, Laura D; Rasmussen, Mette; Due, Pernille; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic inequalities in birth weight and in body mass index (BMI) later in childhood are in opposite directions, which raises questions about when during childhood the change in direction happens. We examined how maternal and paternal education and household income were associated with birthweight z-scores and with BMI z-scores at age 5 and 12 months and 7 years, and we examined the socioeconomic differences in the tracking of these z-scores across infancy and childhood. Methods The associations were studied in a cohort of children in the Danish National Birth Cohort, single born between 1997 and 2003, for whom information on body size from at least 1 of 4 time points (n=85 062) was recorded. We examined the associations using linear mixed-effects modelling. Results Children from families with a low maternal and paternal educational level changed their body size z-scores upwards between birth and age 7 years. At age 5 and 12 months, there were no educational gradient. A low maternal educational level was associated with lower birth weight for gestational age z-scores at birth for boys (−0.199; 95% CI −0.230 to −0.169) and girls (−0.198; 95% CI −0.229 to −0.167) and higher BMI z-scores at age 7 for boys (0.198; 95% CI 0.154 to 0.242) and girls (0.218; 95% CI 0.173 to 0.264). There was not a similarly clear pattern in the tracking between different household income groups. However, a low household income level was associated with higher z-scores of both birth weight and BMI at age 7 years, but with a much weaker gradient at 5 and 12 months. Conclusions The educational gradient shifts from positive with birth weight, to none during infancy to inverse with BMI at age 7 years. In contrast, the income gradient was positive at birth and at 7 years and much weaker during infancy. PMID:28110282

  7. Intervention in overweight children improves body mass index (BMI) and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwik, Violet; Kutob, Randa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Cruz, Luis; Senf, Janet; Aickin, Mikel; Going, Scott; Shatte, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic in family medicine with few clinical treatment options. We implemented and evaluated a group office-visit intervention by family physicians for overweight children and their parents, emphasizing nutrition and physical activity within a resiliency psychosocial model. The intervention lasted for 3 months, with half of the children crossing over to intervention after 6 months in the study. Participants included 35 children who met eligibility criteria of being in third through fifth grades and having a body mass index (BMI) above the 85th percentile. The 3-month, 12-session intervention, "Choices," included topics on nutrition, physical activity, and resiliency. The sessions were developed for delivery by a family physician and a nutritionist who received training in positive psychology and resilience skills. Main outcome measures were BMI z scores for age and sex and z scores for weight by age and sex, as well as qualitative interviews to understand individual and family processes. The intervention resulted in a significant effect on one primary outcome, BMI z score (-0.138 per 9 months [P = .017]) and a trend toward significance on the weight for age z score (-0.87 per 9 months [P = .09]). The net shift of activity from the low metabolic equivalents (METs) to the high METs had an intervention effect of 2.84 METs (P = .037). Families reported lasting changes in behaviors and attitudes. The innovative approach used in this study demonstrated modest efficacy in reducing BMI z score, changing physical activity levels, and possibly shifting family dynamics.

  8. Low-dose hydrocortisone (HC) replacement therapy is associated with improved bone remodeling balance in hypopituitary subjects

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, L A

    2011-06-01

    The effect of commonly used glucocorticoid replacement regimens on bone health in hypopituitary subjects is not well known. We aimed to assess the effect of 3 hydrocortisone (HC) replacement dose regimens on bone turnover in this group.10 hypopituitary men with severe ACTH deficiency were randomised in a crossover design to 3 HC dose regimens, Dose A (20mg mane, 10mg tarde), Dose B (10mg twice daily) and Dose C (10mg mane, 5mg tarde). Following 6 weeks of each regimen participants underwent fasting sampling of bone turnover markers.Data from matched controls were used to produce a Z score for subject bone formation and resorption markers and to calculate the bone remodeling balance (formation Z score-resorption Z score) and turnover index ((formation Z + resorption Z)\\/2). A positive bone remodeling balance with increased turnover is consistent with a favourable bone cycle. Data are expressed as median (range).The Pro Collagen Type 1 Peptide (PINP) bone formation Z-score was significantly increased in Dose C, (1.805 (-0.6-10.24)) compared to Dose A (0.035 (-1.0-8.1)) p<0.05 while there was no difference in the C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide (CTx) resorption Z score. The bone remodeling balance was significantly lower for dose A -0.02 (-1.05-4.12) compared to dose C 1.13 (0.13-6.4) (p<0.05). Although there was a trend to an increased bone turnover index with the lower dose regimen, this was not statistically significant.Low dose HC replacement (10mg mane\\/5 mg tarde) was associated with increased bone formation and improved bone remodeling balance which is associated with a more favourable bone cycle. This may have a long term beneficial effect on bone health.

  9. Ratio of weight to height gain: a useful tool for identifying children at risk of becoming overweight or obese at preschool age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane G. Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the usefulness of the weight gain/height gain ratio from birth to two and three years of age as a predictive risk indicator of excess weight at preschool age. METHODS: The weight and height/length of 409 preschool children at daycare centers were measured according to internationally recommended rules. The weight values and body mass indices of the children were transformed into a z-score per the standard method described by the World Health Organization. The Pearson correlation coefficients (rP and the linear regressions between the anthropometric parameters and the body mass index z-scores of preschool children were statistically analyzed (alpha = 0.05. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 3.2 years (± 0.3 years. The prevalence of excess weight was 28.8%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 8.8%. The correlation coefficients between the body mass index z-scores of the preschool children and the birth weights or body mass indices at birth were low (0.09 and 0.10, respectively. There was a high correlation coefficient (rP = 0.79 between the mean monthly gain of weight and the body mass index z-score of preschool children. A higher coefficient (rP = 0.93 was observed between the ratio of the mean weight gain per height gain (g/cm and the preschool children body mass index z-score. The coefficients and their differences were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Regardless of weight or length at birth, the mean ratio between the weight gain per g/cm of height growth from birth presented a strong correlation with the body mass index of preschool children. These results suggest that this ratio may be a good indicator of the risk of excess weight and obesity in preschool-aged children.

  10. Replacing sugary drinks with milk is inversely associated with weight gain among young obesity-predisposed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Miaobing; Rangan, Anna; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret; Rohde, Jeanett Friis; Olsen, Nanna Julie; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal

    2015-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of sugary drink consumption and its substitution with alternative beverages with body weight gain among young children predisposed to future weight gain. Secondary analysis of the Healthy Start Study, a 1·5-year randomised controlled trial designed to prevent overweight among Danish children aged 2-6 years (n 366), was carried out. Multivariate linear regression models were used to investigate the associations of beverage consumption with change in body weight (Δweight) or BMI(ΔBMI) z-score. Substitution models were used to extrapolate the influence of replacing sugary drinks with alternative beverages (water, milk and diet drinks) on Δweight or ΔBMI z-score. Sugary drink intake at baseline and substitution of sugary drinks with milk were associated with both Δweight and ΔBMI z-score. Every 100 g/d increase in sugary drink intake was associated with 0·10 kg and 0·06 unit increases in body weight (P=0·048) and BMI z-score (P=0·04), respectively. Substitution of 100 g/d sugary drinks with 100 g/d milk was inversely associated with Δweight (β=-0·16 kg; P=0·045) and ΔBMI z-score (β=-0·07 units; P=0·04). The results of this study suggest that sugary drink consumption was associated with body weight gain among young children with high predisposition for future overweight. In line with the current recommendations, sugary drinks, whether high in added or natural sugar, should be discouraged to help prevent childhood obesity. Milk may be a good alternative to sugary drinks with regard to weight management among young obesity-predisposed children.

  11. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN BINGE EATING AND ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD) IN TWO PEDIATRIC COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CLINICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinblatt, Shauna P.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Mahone, E. Mark; Forrester, Sarah; Wilcox, Holly C.; Riddle, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has been linked with obesity; however its relationship with binge eating (BE) is less clear. We aimed to explore the associations among ADHD, weight and BE in pediatric mental health clinics. Method We retrospectively reviewed consecutive intakes in two pediatric mental health clinics (N=252). BE was assessed using the C-BEDS scale. Associations between ADHD, BE, and BMI-z score were assessed via regression. Results Mean age was 10.8 (3.7 SD) years. Twelve percent (n= 31) had BE. The association between ADHD and BE was statistically significant (OR 16.1, p < 0.001), and persisted after adjusting for comorbid diagnoses, medications, demographic variables and clinic. There was a statistically significant association between ADHD and BMI z-scores (β=0.54, p < 0.001). After adjusting for BE, the relationship between ADHD and BMI z-scores was attenuated (β=0.35, p=0.025), and the coefficient for BE was decreased (β=0.75, p=0.001). Although stimulant use was associated with a three-fold increase in odds of BE (OR 3.16, p=0.006), stimulants were not associated with greater BMI-z scores (β=0.18, p=0.32). Discussion There was a significant association between ADHD and BE in two pediatric mental health clinics. Although these data are cross-sectional, and cannot be used to make causal inferences, these findings are compatible with the hypothesis that BE partially mediates the association between ADHD and BMI z-scores. In mental health clinics, children with ADHD may present as overweight or obese. Further, children with ADHD may exhibit BE. Future prospective studies should elucidate the complex relationships among ADHD, weight, stimulants and BE. PMID:25130278

  12. An Individual, Community-Based Treatment for Obese Children and Their Families: The Solution-Focused Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kreier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluates an individual, community-based treatment for obese children and their families. In this program, a treatment team applied solution-focused techniques to develop a custom-made treatment plan in collaboration with the participants. The treatment plan consisted of community-based lifestyle activities. Methods: 559 obese children with an average BMI z-score of 2.76 ± 0.54 took part in the 12-month study, and 372 children with an average BMI z-score of 2.75 ± 0.52 took part in the 24-month study. At the start of the study, ethnicity and special school needs were recorded. Before, after 12 months, and after 24 months of the treatment, body weight and height were measured. The effect of the treatment on body weight was evaluated using BMI z-scores. Results: 291 children (52% completed 12 months of treatment, whereas 22 children (4% were dismissed earlier due to a good response. After 12 months, the children showed a significant decrease in BMI z-score by 0.16 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.11-0.20; p Conclusions: Children showed a significant decrease in BMI z-score after the treatment. We found a negative correlation of age and weight loss. Special attention to patients with a high risk of drop-out might further improve these results. We advise a referral to obesity treatment as early as possible since a ‘wait and see' policy might have adverse results in obese children.

  13. GDM Women's Pre-Pregnancy Overweight/Obesity and Gestational Weight Gain on Offspring Overweight Status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Leng

    Full Text Available To examine the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG with anthropometry in the offspring of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 GDM mother-child pairs. General linear models and Logistic regression models were used to assess the single and joint associations of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI (normal weight, overweight, and obesity and GWG (inadequate, adequate and excessive GWG with anthropometry and overweight status in the offspring from birth to 1-5 years old.Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG were positively associated with birth weight for gestational age Z score and birth weight for length for gestational age Z score at birth, and weight for age Z score, length/height for age Z score, and weight for length/height Z score at of 1-5 years old offspring. Maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, obesity, and excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age [ORs 95% CIs = 1.87 (1.37-2.55, 2.98 (1.89-4.69, and 2.93 (2.07-4.13, respectively] and macrosomia [ORs 95% CIs = 2.06 (1.50-2.84, 2.89 (1.78-4.70, and 2.84 (1.98-4.06, respectively] at birth and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old [ORs 95% CIs = 1.26 (0.92-1.73, 1.96 (1.24-3.09, and 1.59 (1.15-2.21, respectively].Offspring born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity or excessive GWG were associated with increased risks of large for gestational age and macrosomia at birth, and childhood overweight at 1-5 years old, compared with those born to GDM mothers with pre-pregnancy normal weight and adequate GWG.

  14. School Performance: A Matter of Health or Socio-Economic Background? Findings from the PIAMA Birth Cohort Study.

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    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    Full Text Available Performance in primary school is a determinant of children's educational attainment and their socio-economic position and health inequalities in adulthood. We examined the relationship between five common childhood health conditions (asthma symptoms, eczema, general health, frequent respiratory infections, and overweight, health related school absence and family socio-economic status on children's school performance.We used data from 1,865 children in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. School performance was measured as the teacher's assessment of a suitable secondary school level for the child, and the child's score on a standardized achievement test (Cito Test. Both school performance indicators were standardised using Z-scores. Childhood health was indicated by eczema, asthma symptoms, general health, frequent respiratory infections, overweight, and health related school absence. Children's health conditions were reported repeatedly between the age of one to eleven. School absenteeism was reported at age eleven. Highest attained educational level of the mother and father indicated family socio-economic status. We used linear regression models with heteroskedasticity-robust standard errors for our analyses with adjustment for sex of the child.The health indicators used in our study were not associated with children's school performance, independently from parental educational level, with the exception of asthma symptoms (-0.03 z-score / -0.04 z-score with Cito Test score after adjusting for respectively maternal and paternal education and missing more than 5 schooldays due to illness (-0.18 z-score with Cito Test score and -0.17 z-score with school level assessment after adjustment for paternal education. The effect estimates for these health indicators were much smaller though than the effect estimates for parental education, which was strongly associated with children's school performance.Children's school performance was affected only

  15. Associations of plasma uric acid and purine metabolites with blood pressure in children: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Lieke E J M; Boonen, Annelies; Pijnenburg, Wieke; Bierau, Jörgen; Staessen, Jan A; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Thijs, Carel; Arts, Ilja C W

    2017-05-01

    Elevated serum uric acid concentration has been associated with high blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. A putative underlying mechanism is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species when uric acid is generated by an increased enzyme activity of xanthine oxidase (XO). The aims of the present study were to investigate the associations between plasma uric acid concentration, purine metabolite ratios, as proxies for increased XO activity, and SBP and DBP in school-age children. Cross-sectional analyses were performed in 246 children (46% boys; mean age 7.1 years) from the Dutch KOALA Birth Cohort Study. Purine metabolites were determined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. During a home visit, a nurse collected a blood sample and measured BP three times; in addition, parents measured their child's BP on three consecutive days, in the morning and evening. Generalized estimating equations were used for analyses while controlling for variables such as sex, age, BMI, physical activity, and dietary intake. In multivariable analysis, uric acid (per SD of 38 μmol/l) was associated with DBP z-scores [sβ 0.07; confidence interval (CI), 0.01-1.14], but not with SBP z-scores. Higher ratios of uric acid/xanthine (per SD of 138) (sβ 0.09; CI, 0.01-0.17) and xanthine/hypoxanthine (per SD of 321) (sβ 0.08; CI, 0.02-0.17) were associated with higher DBP z-scores, but not with SBP z-scores. In school-age children, uric acid and the ratios of uric acid/xanthine and xanthine/hypoxanthine were significantly associated with DBP z-scores. Suggesting that, both uric acid concentration and increased XO activity are associated with BP.

  16. Migrant background and weight gain in early infancy: results from the German study sample of the IDEFICS study.

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    Anna Reeske

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine variations in infant weight gain between children of parents with and without migrant background and to investigate how these differences are explained by pre- and perinatal factors. METHODS: We used data on birth weight and weight at six months from well-child check-up books that were collected from a population-based German sample of children in the IDEFICS study (n = 1,287. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted means for weight z-scores at birth and six months later. We applied linear regression for change in weight z-score and we calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI for rapid weight gain by logistic regression, adjusted for biological, social and behavioural factors. RESULTS: Weight z-scores for migrants and Germans differed slightly at birth, but were markedly increased for Turkish and Eastern European infants at age six months. Turkish infants showed the highest change in weight z-score during the first 6 months (ß = 0.35; 95% CI 0.14-0.56 and an increased probability of rapid weight gain compared with German infants. Examination of the joint effect of migrant and socioeconomic status (SES showed the greatest change in weight z-scores in Turkish infants from middle SES families (ß = 0.77; 95% CI 0.40-1.14 and infants of parents from Eastern European countries with high SES (ß = 0.72; 95% CI 0.13-1.32. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the hypothesis that migrant background is an independent risk factor for infant weight gain and suggest that the onset of health inequalities in overweight starts in early infancy.

  17. Resting-state functional MRI in an intraoperative MRI setting: proof of feasibility and correlation to clinical outcome of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, Constantin; Charyasz-Leks, Edyta; Breitkopf, Martin; Decker, Karlheinz; Ernemann, Ulrike; Klose, Uwe; Tatagiba, Marcos; Bisdas, Sotirios

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE The authors' aim in this paper is to prove the feasibility of resting-state (RS) functional MRI (fMRI) in an intraoperative setting (iRS-fMRI) and to correlate findings with the clinical condition of patients pre- and postoperatively. METHODS Twelve patients underwent intraoperative MRI-guided resection of lesions in or directly adjacent to the central region and/or pyramidal tract. Intraoperative RS (iRS)-fMRI was performed pre- and intraoperatively and was correlated with patients' postoperative clinical condition, as well as with intraoperative monitoring results. Independent component analysis (ICA) was used to postprocess the RS-fMRI data concerning the sensorimotor networks, and the mean z-scores were statistically analyzed. RESULTS iRS-fMRI in anesthetized patients proved to be feasible and analysis revealed no significant differences in preoperative z-scores between the sensorimotor areas ipsi- and contralateral to the tumor. A significant decrease in z-score (p < 0.01) was seen in patients with new neurological deficits postoperatively. The intraoperative z-score in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the tumor had a significant negative correlation with the degree of paresis immediately after the operation (r = -0.67, p < 0.001) and on the day of discharge from the hospital (r = -0.65, p < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated moderate prognostic value of the intraoperative z-score (area under the curve 0.84) for the paresis score at patient discharge. CONCLUSIONS The use of iRS-fMRI with ICA-based postprocessing and functional activity mapping is feasible and the results may correlate with clinical parameters, demonstrating a significant negative correlation between the intensity of the iRS-fMRI signal and the postoperative neurological changes.

  18. Utilization of Benchtop Next Generation Sequencing Platforms Ion Torrent PGM and MiSeq in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing for Chromosome 21 Trisomy and Testing of Impact of In Silico and Physical Size Selection on Its Analytical Performance.

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    Gabriel Minarik

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to test the utility of benchtop NGS platforms for NIPT for trisomy 21 using previously published z score calculation methods and to optimize the sample preparation and data analysis with use of in silico and physical size selection methods.Samples from 130 pregnant women were analyzed by whole genome sequencing on benchtop NGS systems Ion Torrent PGM and MiSeq. The targeted yield of 3 million raw reads on each platform was used for z score calculation. The impact of in silico and physical size selection on analytical performance of the test was studied.Using a z score value of 3 as the cut-off, 98.11%-100% (104-106/106 specificity and 100% (24/24 sensitivity and 99.06%-100% (105-106/106 specificity and 100% (24/24 sensitivity were observed for Ion Torrent PGM and MiSeq, respectively. After in silico based size selection both platforms reached 100% specificity and sensitivity. Following the physical size selection z scores of tested trisomic samples increased significantly--p = 0.0141 and p = 0.025 for Ion Torrent PGM and MiSeq, respectively.Noninvasive prenatal testing for chromosome 21 trisomy with the utilization of benchtop NGS systems led to results equivalent to previously published studies performed on high-to-ultrahigh throughput NGS systems. The in silico size selection led to higher specificity of the test. Physical size selection performed on isolated DNA led to significant increase in z scores. The observed results could represent a basis for increasing of cost effectiveness of the test and thus help with its penetration worldwide.

  19. Higher adiposity in infancy associated with recurrent wheeze in a prospective cohort of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Camargo, Carlos A.; Gold, Diane R.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Oken, Emily; Weiss, Scott T.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Few prospective data link early childhood adiposity with asthma-related symptoms. Objective We sought to examine the associations of weight-for-length (WFL) at age 6 months with incidence of wheezing by age 3 years. Methods We studied 932 children in a prospective cohort of children. The main outcome was recurrent wheezing, which was defined as parents’ report of wheezing between 2 and 3 years of age plus wheezing in either year 1 or 2 of life. Secondary outcomes included any wheezing from 6 months to 3 years and current asthma. We used multiple logistic regression to examine associations of 6-month WFL z scores with these outcomes. Results At 6 months, the infants’ mean WFL z score was 0.68 (SD, 0.94; range −2.96 to 3.24). By age 3 years, 14% of children had recurrent wheezing. After adjustment for a variety of potential confounders, we found that each 1-unit increment in 6-month WFL z score was associated with greater odds of recurrent wheezing (odds ratio [OR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11–1.91) and any wheezing (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03–1.48). We observed a weaker association between 6-month WFL z score and current asthma (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.94–1.59). Conclusion Infants with higher WFL z scores at 6 months of age had a greater risk of recurrent wheezing by age 3 years. It is unclear whether the relationship of infant adiposity and early-life wheeze extends to allergic asthma or wheeze that can persist into later childhood. Our findings suggest that early interventions to prevent excess infant adiposity might help reduce children’s risk of asthma-related symptoms. PMID:18466784

  20. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  1. Oxandrolone Improves Height Velocity and BMI in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

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    Todd Varness

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of oxandrolone in improving the nutritional status and linear growth of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Methods. Medical records of patients with CF treated with oxandrolone were reviewed for height z score, height velocity (HV, BMI z score, weight velocity (WV, Tanner stage, pulmonary function, liver enzyme levels, and any reported adverse events. Data were compared before (pre-Ox and after (Ox oxandrolone using a paired t-test. Results. 5 subjects (ages 8.5–14.5 years were treated with oxandrolone 2.5 mg daily for 8–38 months. After 8–12 months of treatment, there was a statistically significant improvement in HV (pre-Ox=5.3±1.4 cm/yr, Ox=8.3±1.2 cm/yr, P<.01 and BMI z score (pre-Ox=−0.61±1.04, Ox=−0.30±0.86, P=.02. Both height z score (pre-Ox=−1.64±0.63, Ox=−1.30±0.49, P=.057 and WV (pre-Ox=4.2±3.7 kg/yr, Ox =6.8±1.0 kg/yr, P=.072 showed beneficial trends that did not reach statistical significance. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions. In this brief clinical report, oxandrolone improved the HV and BMI z score in patients with CF. Larger studies are needed to determine if oxandrolone is an effective, safe, and affordable option to stimulate appetite, improve weight gain, and promote linear growth in patients with CF.

  2. Birth weight, infant growth, and adolescent blood pressure using twin status as an instrumental variable in a Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Au Yeung, Shiu Lun; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the credibility of twin status as an instrumental variable for birth weight and infant growth and to obtain less-confounded estimates of the associations of birth weight or infant growth with adolescent blood pressure (BP). Prospective population-based "Children of 1997" birth cohort of all surviving infants born in Hong Kong, China, from April to May 1997 with sex-, age-, and height-specific BP z-score at approximately 11 years (n = 6276) and approximately 13 years (n = 5305). In instrumental variable analyses, birth weight-for-gestational age z-score was not associated with z-score for systolic BP (0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.22 to 0.25) or diastolic BP (0.04; 95% CI, -0.09 to 0.18) at approximately 11 years adjusted for maternal age and migrant status (F = 38.6). Change in weight z-score at 0 to 12 months was not associated with z-score for systolic BP (-0.003; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.15) or diastolic BP (-0.02; 95% CI, -0.10 to 0.07) at approximately 11 years (F = 54.4). Estimates were similar for BP at approximately 13 years, although the F-statistic was lower. Birth weight and infant growth may make little contribution to adolescent BP. Extending consideration of the effects of early life to other growth periods, such as puberty, on BP might yield public health benefits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Long-Term Changes of Subcutaneous Fat Mass in HIV-Infected Children on Antiretroviral Therapy: A Retrospective Analysis of Longitudinal Data from Two Pediatric HIV-Cohorts.

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    Sophie Cohen

    Full Text Available Longitudinal studies objectively evaluating changes in regional fat distribution of HIV-infected children assessed by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA are scarce, whilst this long-term effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (cART is an important issue in infected children in need for lifelong treatment.We assessed regional fat distribution over time, measured with sequential DEXA-scans in HIV-infected children on cART in cohorts from South Africa (SA and the Netherlands (NL, and in healthy controls (SA. Limb and trunk fat Z-scores were calculated with the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS method. Multivariable linear regression models with mixed effects were used to investigate the effect of cART compounds on body fat distribution over time.In total, 218 children underwent 445 DEXA assessments with a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Fat mass in all limbs was decreased in HIV-infected children compared to controls (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4813; P = 0.006, leg fat Z-score: coefficient -0.4345; P = 0.013. In the HIV-infected group, stavudine treatment was associated with lower subcutaneous fat mass (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.5838; P = 0.001, with an additional cumulative exposure effect (arm fat Z-score: coefficient -0.0867; P = 0.003.Our study shows that subcutaneous fat loss is still prevalent in HIV-infected children on cART, and is strongly associated with cumulative stavudine exposure. These results underline the need for early detection of subcutaneous fat loss and alternative treatment options for HIV-infected children globally.

  4. Recent trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children.

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    Rodd, Celia; Sharma, Atul K

    2016-09-20

    Previous studies have shown an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Canadian children from 23.3% to 34.7% during 1978-2004. We examined the most recent trends by applying current definitions of overweight and obesity based on World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index (BMI) thresholds and recently validated norms for waist circumference and waist:height ratio. We examined directly measured height and weight data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2004-2005) and the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2009-2013). We calculated z scores for BMI, height and weight based on the 2014 WHO growth charts for Canada, including the new extension of weight-for-age beyond 10 years. To calculate z scores for waist circumference and waist:height ratios, we used new charts from the reference population in the US NHANES III (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994). Data were available for 14 014 children aged 3-19 years for the period 2004-2013. We observed a decline in the prevalence of overweight or obesity, from 30.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 29.7% to 31.6%) to 27.0% (95% CI 25.3% to 28.7%) (p obesity at about 13%. These trends persisted after we adjusted for age, sex and race/ethnicity. Although they declined, the median z scores for BMI, weight and height were positive and higher than those in the WHO reference population. The z scores for waist circumference and waist:height ratio were negative, which indicated that the Canadian children had less central adiposity than American children in historic or contemporary NHANES cohorts. After a period of dramatic growth, BMI z scores and the prevalence of overweight or obesity among Canadian children decreased from 2004 to 2013, which attests to progress against this important public health challenge. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  5. [Results of nutritional intervention in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Maria Cristina A; Chiba, Sônia M; Gomes, Clóvis E T; Juliano, Yara; Novo, Neil F; Ancona-Lopez, Fabio

    2002-01-01

    Few studies have verified longitudinally the evolution of the nutritional status of patients with cystic fibrosis. The objective of this study is to follow the evolution of the nutritional status, body composition and energy consumption, macronutrients and micronutrients ingested by children and adolescents by means of nutritional interventions at the Clinic of Cystic Fibrosis/Pediatric Pneumology of the Department of Pediatrics of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. 18 patients were involved in this study, thirteen males and five females with ages ranging from 0.3 to 18.4 years. We performed three evaluations: evaluation 1 (M1--prenutritional intervention), M2 after 6 months, and M3 after 12 months. In these three instances we verified: the z score for weight/age, weight/height and height/age and the calculation of a 3-day diet record. We verified the body composition (anthropometry) in M1 and M3. The nutritional interventions were hypercaloric, hyperproteic, with adequate amount of ingested macronutrients and micronutrients. We observed an increase in the z score for height/age (M1=-1.07; M2=-0.69; M3=-0.50) and fat-free mass after the nutritional interventions, without improvement in the z score for weight/height and fat mass. We verified an increase in the energy intake during M2 (139%) and M3 (132%) compared to M1 (106%). Remarkable increase in the intake of protein, calcium, iron and vitamin C by the patients was found. The occurrence of anemia was found in 44% (8/18) of the patients. The improvement of the z score in height/age and fat-free mass was probably due to the increase in energy consumption after the nutritional intervention. A significant improvement in the z score for weight/height and fat mass was not found, probably due to a gain in height and fat-free mass.

  6. Dietary Carbohydrate and Nocturnal Sleep Duration in Relation to Children’s BMI: Findings from the IDEFICS Study in Eight European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; Mehlig, Kirsten; Börnhorst, Claudia; Hebestreit, Antje; Moreno, Luis; Veidebaum, Toomas; Kourides, Yiannis; Siani, Alfonso; Molnar, Dénes; Sioen, Isabelle; Lissner, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found an association between being overweight and short sleep duration. We hypothesized that this association could be modified by a high carbohydrate (HC) diet and that the timing and type (starch or sugar) of intake may be an important factor in this context. Participants in the prospective, eight-country European study IDEFICS were recruited from September 2007 to June 2008, when they were aged two to nine years. Data on lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected on two occasions. This study included 5944 children at baseline and 4301 at two-year follow-up. For each meal occasion (morning, midday, and evening), starch in grams and sugar in grams were divided by total energy intake (EI), and quartiles calculated. HC-starch and HC-sugar intake categories were defined as the highest quartile for each meal occasion. In a mutually adjusted linear regression model, short sleep duration as well as HC-starch in the morning were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores at baseline. HC-starch at midday was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in children with short sleep duration, and negatively associated with BMI z-scores in those with normal sleep. After adjustment for baseline BMI z-scores, associations between total HC from starch or sugar and high BMI z-scores at two-year follow-up did not persist. Our observations offer a perspective on optimal timing for macronutrient consumption, which is known to be influenced by circadian rhythms. Reduced carbohydrate intake, especially during morning and midday meals, and following nocturnal sleep duration recommendations are two modifiable factors that may protect children from being overweight in the future. PMID:26670249

  7. Healthy lifestyle and leukocyte telomere length in U.S. women.

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    Qi Sun

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Whether a healthy lifestyle may be associated with longer telomere length is largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To examine healthy lifestyle practices, which are primary prevention measures against major age-related chronic diseases, in relation to leukocyte telomere length. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analysis in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS. PARTICIPANTS: The population consisted of 5,862 women who participated in multiple prospective case-control studies within the NHS cohort. Z scores of leukocyte telomere length were derived within each case-control study. Based on prior work, we defined low-risk or healthy categories for five major modifiable factors assessed in 1988 or 1990: non-current smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight (body mass index in 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2, engaging in regular moderate or vigorous physical activities (≥150 minutes/week, drinking alcohol in moderation (1 drink/week to <2 drinks/day, and eating a healthy diet (Alternate Healthy Eating Index score in top 50%. We calculated difference (% of the z scores contrasting low-risk groups with reference groups to evaluate the association of interest. RESULTS: Although none of the individual low-risk factors was significantly associated with larger leukocyte telomere length z scores, we observed a significant, positive relationship between the number of low-risk factors and the z scores. In comparison with women who had zero low-risk factors (1.9% of the total population and were, therefore, considered the least healthy group, the leukocyte telomere length z scores were 16.4%, 22.1%, 28.7%, 22.6%, and 31.2% (P for trend = 0.015 higher for women who had 1 to 5 low-risk factors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a healthy lifestyle, defined by major modifiable risk factors, was associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes.

  8. Dietary Carbohydrate and Nocturnal Sleep Duration in Relation to Children’s BMI: Findings from the IDEFICS Study in Eight European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Hunsberger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found an association between being overweight and short sleep duration. We hypothesized that this association could be modified by a high carbohydrate (HC diet and that the timing and type (starch or sugar of intake may be an important factor in this context. Participants in the prospective, eight-country European study IDEFICS were recruited from September 2007 to June 2008, when they were aged two to nine years. Data on lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected on two occasions. This study included 5944 children at baseline and 4301 at two-year follow-up. For each meal occasion (morning, midday, and evening, starch in grams and sugar in grams were divided by total energy intake (EI, and quartiles calculated. HC-starch and HC-sugar intake categories were defined as the highest quartile for each meal occasion. In a mutually adjusted linear regression model, short sleep duration as well as HC-starch in the morning were positively associated with body mass index (BMI z-scores at baseline. HC-starch at midday was positively associated with body mass index (BMI z-scores in children with short sleep duration, and negatively associated with BMI z-scores in those with normal sleep. After adjustment for baseline BMI z-scores, associations between total HC from starch or sugar and high BMI z-scores at two-year follow-up did not persist. Our observations offer a perspective on optimal timing for macronutrient consumption, which is known to be influenced by circadian rhythms. Reduced carbohydrate intake, especially during morning and midday meals, and following nocturnal sleep duration recommendations are two modifiable factors that may protect children from being overweight in the future.

  9. The Status of Research Regarding Magnetic Mirrors as a Fusion Neutron Source or Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T

    2008-12-23

    Experimental results, theory and innovative ideas now point with increased confidence to the possibility of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) neutron source which would be on the path to an attractively simple Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror (ATM) power plant. Although magnetic mirror research was terminated in the US 20 years ago, experiments continued in Japan (Gamma 10) and Russia (GDT), with a very small US effort. This research has now yielded data, increased understanding, and generated ideas resulting in the new concepts described here. Early mirror research was carried out with circular axisymmetric magnets. These plasmas were MHD unstable due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature near the mid-plane. Then the minimum-B concept emerged in which the field line curvature was everywhere favorable and the plasma was situated in a MHD stable magnetic well (70% average beta in 2XII-B). The Ioffe-bar or baseball-coil became the standard for over 40 years. In the 1980's, driven by success with minimum-B stabilization and the control of ion cyclotron instabilities in PR6 and 2XII-B, mirrors were viewed as a potentially attractive concept with near-term advantages as a lower Q neutron source for applications such as a hybrid fission fuel factory or toxic waste burner. However there are down sides to the minimum-B geometry: coil construction is complex; restraining magnetic forces limit field strength and mirror ratios. Furthermore, the magnetic field lines have geodesic curvature which introduces resonant and neoclassical radial transport as observed in early tandem mirror experiments. So what now leads us to think that simple axisymmetric mirror plasmas can be stable? The Russian GDT experiment achieves on-axis 60% beta by peaking of the kinetic plasma pressure near the mirror throat (where the curvature is favorable) to counter-balance the average unfavorable mid-plane curvature. Then a modest augmentation of plasma pressure in the expander results in stability. The GDT

  10. The Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror: A Magnetic Mirror Concept Game Changer Magnet Mirror Status Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T; Cohen, R; Correll, D; Fowler, K; Post, D; Berk, H; Horton, W; Hooper, E B; Fisch, N; Hassam, A; Baldwin, D; Pearlstein, D; Logan, G; Turner, B; Moir, R; Molvik, A; Ryutov, D; Ivanov, A A; Kesner, J; Cohen, B; McLean, H; Tamano, T; Tang, X Z; Imai, T

    2008-10-24

    Experimental results, theory and innovative ideas now point with increased confidence to the possibility of a Gas Dynamic Trap (GDT) neutron source which would be on the path to an attractively simple Axisymmetric Tandem Mirror (ATM) power plant. Although magnetic mirror research was terminated in the US 20 years ago, experiments continued in Japan (Gamma 10) and Russia (GDT), with a very small US effort. This research has now yielded data, increased understanding, and generated ideas resulting in the new concepts described here. Early mirror research was carried out with circular axisymmetric magnets. These plasmas were MHD unstable due to the unfavorable magnetic curvature near the mid-plane. Then the minimum-B concept emerged in which the field line curvature was everywhere favorable and the plasma was situated in a MHD stable magnetic well (70% average beta in 2XII-B). The Ioffe-bar or baseball-coil became the standard for over 40 years. In the 1980's, driven by success with minimum-B stabilization and the control of ion cyclotron instabilities in PR6 and 2XII-B, mirrors were viewed as a potentially attractive concept with near-term advantages as a lower Q neutron source for applications such as a hybrid fission fuel factory or toxic waste burner. However there are down sides to the minimum-B geometry: coil construction is complex; restraining magnetic forces limit field strength and mirror ratios. Furthermore, the magnetic field lines have geodesic curvature which introduces resonant and neoclassical radial transport as observed in early tandem mirror experiments. So what now leads us to think that simple axisymmetric mirror plasmas can be stable? The Russian GDT experiment achieves on-axis 60% beta by peaking of the kinetic plasma pressure near the mirror throat (where the curvature is favorable) to counter-balance the average unfavorable mid-plane curvature. Then a modest augmentation of plasma pressure in the expander results in stability. The GDT

  11. Dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk: a neurocognitive endophenotype candidate for obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Dong, Yi; Ji, Yifu; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Ma, Huijuan; Chen, Xingui; Wang, Kai

    2015-03-03

    Evidence in the literature suggests that executive dysfunction is regarded as an endophenotype candidate for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Decision making is an important domain of executive function. However, few studies that have investigated whether decision making is a potential endophenotype for OCD have produced inconsistent results. Differences in the findings across these studies may be attributed to several factors: different study materials, comorbidity, medication, etc. There are at least two types of decision making that differ mainly in the degree of uncertainty and how much useful information about consequences and their probabilities are provided to the decision maker: decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk. The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine decision making under ambiguity as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and decision making under risk as measured by the Game of Dice Task (GDT) in OCD patients and their unaffected first-degree relative (UFDR) for the first time. The study analyzed 55 medication-naïve, non-depressed OCD patient probands, 55 UFDRs of the OCD patients and 55 healthy matched comparison subjects (CS) without a family history of OCD with the IGT, the GDT and a neuropsychological test battery. While the OCD patients and the UFDRs performed worse than the CS on the IGT, they were unimpaired on the GDT. Our study supports the claim that decision making under ambiguity differs from decision making under risk and suggests that dissociation of decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may qualify to be a neurocognitive endophenotypes for OCD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Moderate Deviation Principles for Stochastic Differential Equations with Jumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-15

    random measure and an in�nite dimensional Brownian motion) was derived. As in the Brownian motion case, the representation is motivated in part by...deviations of a smaller order than in large deviation theory . Consider for example an independent and identically distributed (iid) sequence fYigi1 of...8217") " E " 1 2 Z X[0;T ] ( ")21fj "jB"gdT + F G "("N " 1’") # " 1 2 3M 2(1); (3.6) where the last inequality follows from (3.5) on

  13. Tomography finds waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Geophysical diffraction tomography (GDT), a remote sensing method, is being developed for hazardous waste site characterization by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tenn., with the support of the U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.More accurate assessment of hazardous sites translates into more efficient and less costly cleanup efforts by defining parameters such as waste site boundaries, geophysical site characteristics, buried container leakage, and hazardous material migration. Remote sensing devices eliminate the potential for environmental damage, safety hazards, or high costs associated with intrusive site characterization techniques.

  14. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2011-01-01

    Use Tolerance Analysis Techniques to Avoid Design, Quality, and Manufacturing Problems Before They Happen Often overlooked and misunderstood, tolerance analysis is a critical part of improving products and their design processes. Because all manufactured products are subject to variation, it is crucial that designers predict and understand how these changes can affect form, fit, and function of parts and assemblies--and then communicate their findings effectively. Written by one of the developers of ASME Y14.5 and other geometric dimension and tolerancing (GD&T) standards, Mechanical Tolerance

  15. AcEST: DK948988 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LSDIKKQQKSRAAERDSSNGASPAPGPSAS 637 >sp|Q5F464|LPP_CHICK Lipoma-preferred partner homolog OS=Gallus gallus GN...urus GN=FAM149B1... 31 6.8 sp|A7E8B6|SLA1_SCLS1 Actin cytoskeleton-regulatory complex prote... 30 8.8 sp|Q5F464|LPP_CHICK Lipoma-pref...erred partner homolog OS=Gallus g... 30 8.8 sp|Q55CY9|GDT8_DICDI Probable serine/th

  16. Study on T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells in patients with Graves disease combined with type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏枫; 杜婧; 苏秀兰; 乌兰; 王津京; 霍晓静

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in T lymphocyte subsets and NK cells in patients with simple Graves' disease(GD)and Graves' disease combined with type 2 diabetes mellitus(GD/T2DM).Methods Fifteen cases of GD/T2DM were selected from our hospital from November 2001 to November 2004.Before and after therapy thyroid function,thyroglobulin antibody(TGA),thyroid microsomal antibody(TMA)and blood glucose level were measured,and T lymphocyte subsets(CD3,CD4,CD8,CD4/CD8)and NK cells(CD56)were measured by immunofluo...

  17. Low initial aspect-ratio direct-drive target designs for shock- or self-ignition in the context of the laser Megajoule

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of low initial aspect ratio direct-drive target designs is carried out by varying the implosion velocity and the fuel mass. Starting from two different spherical targets with a given 300?g-DT mass, optimization of laser pulse and drive power allows to obtain a set of target seeds referenced by their peak implosion velocities and initial aspect ratio (A = 3 and A = 5). Self-ignition is achieved with higher implosion velocity for A = 5-design than for A = 3-design. Then, rescaling is d...

  18. First measurements of Dα spectrum produced by anisotropic fast ions in the gas dynamic trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizunov, A.; Anikeev, A.

    2014-11-01

    Angled injection of eight deuterium beams in gas dynamic trap (GDT) plasmas builds up the population of fast ions with the distribution function, which conserves a high degree of initial anisotropy in space, energy, and pitch angle. Unlike the Maxwellian distribution case, the fast ion plasma component in GDT cannot be exhaustively characterized by the temperature and density. The instrumentation complex to study of fast ions is comprised of motional Stark effect diagnostic, analyzers of charge exchange atoms, and others. The set of numerical codes using for equilibrium modeling is also an important tool of analysis. In the recent campaign of summer 2014, we recorded first signals from the new fast ion D-alpha diagnostic on GDT. This paper presents the diagnostic description and results of pilot measurements. The diagnostic has four lines of sight, distributed across the radius of an axially symmetric plasma column in GDT. In the present setup, a line-integrated optical signal is measured in each channel. In the transverse direction, the spatial resolution is 18 mm. Collected light comes to the grating spectrometer with the low-noise detector based on a charge-coupled device matrix. In the regime of four spectra stacked vertically on the sensor, the effective spectral resolution of measurements is approximately 0.015 nm. Exposure timing is provided by the fast optical ferroelectric crystal shutter, allowing frames of duration down to 70 μs. This number represents the time resolution of measurements. A large dynamic range of the camera permits for a measurement of relatively small light signals produced by fast ions on top of the bright background emission from the bulk plasma. The fast ion emission has a non-Gaussian spectrum featuring the characteristic width of approximately 4 nm, which can be separated from relatively narrow Gaussian lines of D-alpha and H-alpha coming from the plasma periphery, and diagnostic beam emission. The signal to noise ratio varies

  19. Local-global alignment for finding 3D similarities in protein structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemla, Adam T.

    2011-09-20

    A method of finding 3D similarities in protein structures of a first molecule and a second molecule. The method comprises providing preselected information regarding the first molecule and the second molecule. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Longest Continuous Segments (LCS) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Global Distance Test (GDT) analysis. Comparing the first molecule and the second molecule using Local Global Alignment Scoring function (LGA_S) analysis. Verifying constructed alignment and repeating the steps to find the regions of 3D similarities in protein structures.

  20. First measurements of D(α) spectrum produced by anisotropic fast ions in the gas dynamic trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizunov, A; Anikeev, A

    2014-11-01

    Angled injection of eight deuterium beams in gas dynamic trap (GDT) plasmas builds up the population of fast ions with the distribution function, which conserves a high degree of initial anisotropy in space, energy, and pitch angle. Unlike the Maxwellian distribution case, the fast ion plasma component in GDT cannot be exhaustively characterized by the temperature and density. The instrumentation complex to study of fast ions is comprised of motional Stark effect diagnostic, analyzers of charge exchange atoms, and others. The set of numerical codes using for equilibrium modeling is also an important tool of analysis. In the recent campaign of summer 2014, we recorded first signals from the new fast ion D-alpha diagnostic on GDT. This paper presents the diagnostic description and results of pilot measurements. The diagnostic has four lines of sight, distributed across the radius of an axially symmetric plasma column in GDT. In the present setup, a line-integrated optical signal is measured in each channel. In the transverse direction, the spatial resolution is 18 mm. Collected light comes to the grating spectrometer with the low-noise detector based on a charge-coupled device matrix. In the regime of four spectra stacked vertically on the sensor, the effective spectral resolution of measurements is approximately 0.015 nm. Exposure timing is provided by the fast optical ferroelectric crystal shutter, allowing frames of duration down to 70 μs. This number represents the time resolution of measurements. A large dynamic range of the camera permits for a measurement of relatively small light signals produced by fast ions on top of the bright background emission from the bulk plasma. The fast ion emission has a non-Gaussian spectrum featuring the characteristic width of approximately 4 nm, which can be separated from relatively narrow Gaussian lines of D-alpha and H-alpha coming from the plasma periphery, and diagnostic beam emission. The signal to noise ratio varies

  1. First measurements of D{sub α} spectrum produced by anisotropic fast ions in the gas dynamic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizunov, A.; Anikeev, A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15

    Angled injection of eight deuterium beams in gas dynamic trap (GDT) plasmas builds up the population of fast ions with the distribution function, which conserves a high degree of initial anisotropy in space, energy, and pitch angle. Unlike the Maxwellian distribution case, the fast ion plasma component in GDT cannot be exhaustively characterized by the temperature and density. The instrumentation complex to study of fast ions is comprised of motional Stark effect diagnostic, analyzers of charge exchange atoms, and others. The set of numerical codes using for equilibrium modeling is also an important tool of analysis. In the recent campaign of summer 2014, we recorded first signals from the new fast ion D-alpha diagnostic on GDT. This paper presents the diagnostic description and results of pilot measurements. The diagnostic has four lines of sight, distributed across the radius of an axially symmetric plasma column in GDT. In the present setup, a line-integrated optical signal is measured in each channel. In the transverse direction, the spatial resolution is 18 mm. Collected light comes to the grating spectrometer with the low-noise detector based on a charge-coupled device matrix. In the regime of four spectra stacked vertically on the sensor, the effective spectral resolution of measurements is approximately 0.015 nm. Exposure timing is provided by the fast optical ferroelectric crystal shutter, allowing frames of duration down to 70 μs. This number represents the time resolution of measurements. A large dynamic range of the camera permits for a measurement of relatively small light signals produced by fast ions on top of the bright background emission from the bulk plasma. The fast ion emission has a non-Gaussian spectrum featuring the characteristic width of approximately 4 nm, which can be separated from relatively narrow Gaussian lines of D-alpha and H-alpha coming from the plasma periphery, and diagnostic beam emission. The signal to noise ratio varies

  2. Crescimento de prematuros de extremo baixo peso nos primeiros dois anos de vida Growth of extremely low birth weight infants during the first two years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria S. S. Rugolo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão de crescimento de prematuros de extremo baixo peso (EBP até 24 meses de idade corrigida, a influência da displasia broncopulmonar (DBP e os fatores de risco para falha de crescimento. MÉTODOS: Coorte de prematuros OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth pattern of extremely low birth weight infants(ELBW from birth to 24 months of adjusted gestational age (AA, the influence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and risk factors associated to growth failure. METHODS: This cohort study included all singleton inborn infants with birthweight <1,000g, admitted in the follow-up clinic of a level III Perinatal Center. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth, 40 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months AA, and Z-scores were calculated. Out of the 82 survivors, 70 were studied and classified in two groups: BPD (n=41 and no-BPD (n=29. Statistical analysis included t-test or Mann-Withney, chi-square or Fisher Exact test, and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: In both groups, weight z-score decreased significantly between birth and 40 weeks AA. A peak incremental change in weight, length and head circumference z-scores occurred between 40 weeks and three months. Z-scores for the no-BPD group were close to the expected values by the age of six months and remained at these levels at 24 months AA. Children with BPD had lower z-scores for weight and head circumference in the first year of life, but no difference was found between BPD and no-BPD children in the second year of life. Regression analysis showed that catch-down in weight z-score at 40 weeks was a risk factor for failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants experienced early catch-up growth during the first two years of life. ELBW with BPD had poor weight gain. Post-natal growth restriction predicts failure to thrive in infancy.

  3. Bone mineral density in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sušić Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is well known that juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA as a chronic inflammatory disease with onset during the childhood, beside other complication, can lead to bone metabolism disturbance and osteoporosis. Objective. To assess bone mineral density (BMD in children with JIA and to identify factors playing role in bone mineral disturbance. Methods. Seventy-five patients (26 male and 49 female average disease duration 7.2 (2.4-16.8 years, and 73 age matched healthy control subjects (29 male and 44 female participated in the study. Mean age of the groups was about 14.5 years. BMD was determined by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA of the lumbar spine (L2-L4. For further analysis we used the absolute value of BMD, expressed as g/cm2, Z score expressed as SD (relative value as standard deviation decline of normal BMD values of referent Italian population with identical age and gender, bone mineral content (BMC as g/cm, and corrected BMD - BMDv as g/cm3. Results. Z score in the group of patients was significantly lower (-1.02±1.6 in comparison to the control group (-0.09±1.4; p<0.001. BMD, BMDv and BMC were also statistically lower in patients with JIA. The lowest Z score was found in patients with systemic onset (-2.63 SD. Z score showed a statistically significant positive correlation with arthritis course (polyarticular course had lower Z score, body mass index and standard deviation score for height and weight. Statistically significant negative correlation was detected in regard to Z score and glucocorticoid (GC treatment duration, GC cumulative dose, number of joints with limited range of motion, radiological stage and functional class. Conclusion. The results showed a decreased BMD in patients with JIA in comparison to the control group. Systemic onset, polyarthritis, longer treatment with GC and higher cumulative dosage, as well as higher damage level (functional status and radiological stage are factors playing negative role

  4. Associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity indicators in children from 12 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J K; Gillison, F B; Cumming, S; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Broyles, S T; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Denstel, K D; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Mire, E F; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Standage, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Reports of inverse associations between breakfast frequency and indices of obesity are predominantly based on samples of children from high-income countries with limited socioeconomic diversity. Using data from the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE), the present study examined associations between breakfast frequency and adiposity in a sample of 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries representing a wide range of geographic and socio-cultural variability. METHODS: Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between breakfast frequency (independent variable) and adiposity indicators (dependent variables: body mass index (BMI) z-score and body fat percentage (BF%)), adjusting for age, sex, and parental education in 6941 children from 12 ISCOLE study sites. Associations were also adjusted for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns and sleep time in a sub-sample (n=5710). Where interactions with site were significant, results were stratified by site. RESULTS: Adjusted mean BMI z-score and BF% for frequent breakfast consumers were 0.45 and 20.5%, respectively. Frequent breakfast consumption was associated with lower BMI z-scores compared with occasional (P<0.0001, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.10–0.29) and rare (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 0.18–0.46) consumption, as well as lower BF% compared with occasional (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 0.86–1.99) and rare (P<0.0001, 95% CI: 1.07–2.76). Associations with BMI z-score varied by site (breakfast by site interaction; P=0.033): associations were non-significant in three sites (Australia, Finland and Kenya), and occasional (not rare) consumption was associated with higher BMI z-scores compared with frequent consumption in three sites (Canada, Portugal and South Africa). Sub-sample analyses adjusting for additional covariates showed similar associations between breakfast and adiposity indicators, but lacked site

  5. Evaluation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczak, Melissa; Rosenthal, Jamie; Milla, Sarah; Liu, Ying-Hua; Shah, Bina

    2014-12-01

    Patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) often suffer from comorbidities associated with chronic inflammation characterized by elevations in pro-inflammatory cytokines. There is limited data on markers of chronic inflammation, in particular Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), in adolescents with PCOS. To compare serum levels of TNF-α in overweight or obese adolescents with PCOS and obese controls. In the PCOS group, to correlate serum TNF-α levels with body mass index (BMI) z-score, severity of hyperandrogenism, degree of insulin resistance, and ovarian ultrasonographic characteristics. We performed a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of clinical and biochemical findings in 23 overweight or obese adolescent females with PCOS (mean BMI z-score 2, mean age 15.2 yrs) and 12 obese age- and sex-matched controls (mean BMI z-score 2, mean age 14.1 y). All subjects were post-menarchal. Serum TNF-α levels were compared between groups. In the PCOS group, cytokine levels were correlated with BMI z-score, androgen levels, fasting insulin and glucose levels as well as ovarian ultrasonographic features. Both groups were comparable in age, BMI z-score, fasting glucose, and fasting insulin. Mean free testosterone was 9.76 ± 5.13 pg/mL in the PCOS group versus 5 ± 2.02 pg/mL in the control group (P = .0092). Serum TNF-α was 7.4 ± 4 pg/mL in the PCOS group versus 4.8 ± 3.16 pg/mL in the control group (P = .0468). There was no significant correlation between serum TNF-α and BMI z-score, free testosterone, fasting insulin, or fasting glucose. No correlation existed between serum TNF-α and ovarian follicle number, distribution, or volume. Serum TNF-α is elevated in overweight/obese adolescents with PCOS. Chronic inflammation in adolescents with PCOS render them at a potential increased risk for the development of atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, cancer, infertility, and other comorbidities. Every effort should be made to identify adolescents with PCOS early and

  6. Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, James L; Hediger, Mary L; Molloy, Cynthia A; Chrousos, George P; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Yu, Kai F; Brasington, Mark; England, Lucinda J

    2007-08-01

    Children with autism are known to have larger head circumferences; whether they are above average in height and weight is less clear. Moreover, little is known about growth-related hormone levels in children with autism. We investigated whether children with autism were taller and heavier, and whether they had higher levels of growth-related hormones than control children did. A case-control study design was employed. Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autism (n = 71) and age-matched control boys (n = 59) were evaluated at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Height, weight and head circumference were measured. Blood samples were assayed for IGF-1 and 2, IGFBP-3, growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) and for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS). Subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.03) greater head circumferences (mean z-score 1.24, SD 1.35) than controls (mean z-score 0.78, SD 0.93). Subjects with autism also had significantly (P = 0.01) greater weights (mean z-score 0.91, SD 1.13) than controls (mean z-score 0.41, SD 1.11). Height did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.65); subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.003) higher body mass indices (BMI) (mean z-score 0.85, SD 1.19) than controls (mean z-score 0.24, SD 1.17). Levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP in the group with autism/ASD were all significantly higher (all P < or = 0.0001) than in controls. Children with autism/ASD had significantly higher levels of many growth-related hormones: IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP. These findings could help explain the significantly larger head circumferences and higher weights and BMIs seen in these subjects. Future studies should examine the potential role of growth-related hormones in the pathophysiology of autism.

  7. Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia and Growth to 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuwen, Lisette; Mous, Daphne S; van Rosmalen, Joost; Olieman, Joanne F; Andriessen, Laura; Gischler, Saskia J; Joosten, Koen F M; Wijnen, Rene M H; Tibboel, Dick; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; Spoel, Marjolein

    2017-08-01

    Growth problems are reported in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia during the first years of life. However, it is unknown if poor growth persists during childhood. We therefore evaluated growth of patients longitudinally until 12 years of age. This prospective study included 172 patients (43 treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO]) born from 1999 to 2014. Z scores of height-for-age (HFA), weight-for-height, and distance-to-target height were calculated at 6 months of age and at 1, 2, 5, 8, and 12 years of age. Data were analyzed by using general linear models. At 1 year of age, the mean weight-for-height z score had declined in ECMO (-1.30, 95% confidence interval: -1.62 to -0.97) and non-ECMO patients (-0.72, 95% confidence interval: -0.91 to -0.54; P < .05). Thereafter in ECMO patients, the mean HFA z score deteriorated between 1 (-0.43, 95% confidence interval: -0.73 to -0.13) and 5 years of age (-1.08, 95% confidence interval: -1.38 to -0.78; P < .01). In non-ECMO patients, the mean HFA z score deteriorated between 2 (-0.35, 95% confidence interval: -0.53 to -0.17) and 5 years of age (-0.56, 95% confidence interval: -0.75 to -0.37; P = .002). At 12 years of age, the mean HFA z score was still less than the norm in both groups: ECMO (-0.67, 95% confidence interval: -1.01 to -0.33) versus non-ECMO (-0.49, 95% confidence interval: -0.77 to -0.20; P < .01). Adjusting for target height improved the mean height z scores but did not bring them to normal range. Poor linear growth persisted at 12 years of age. The pattern of early deterioration of weight gain followed by a decline in linear growth is suggestive of inadequate nutrition during infancy. Therefore, nutritional assessment and intervention should be started early and should be continued during childhood. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  8. Quantitative Analysis of Torso FDG-PET Scans by Using Anatomical Standardization of Normal Cases from Thorough Physical Examinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hara

    Full Text Available Understanding of standardized uptake value (SUV of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET depends on the background accumulations of glucose because the SUV often varies the status of patients. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method for quantitative analysis of SUV of FDG-PET scan images. The method included an anatomical standardization and a statistical comparison with normal cases by using Z-score that are often used in SPM or 3D-SSP approach for brain function analysis. Our scheme consisted of two approaches, which included the construction of a normal model and the determination of the SUV scores as Z-score index for measuring the abnormality of an FDG-PET scan image. To construct the normal torso model, all of the normal images were registered into one shape, which indicated the normal range of SUV at all voxels. The image deformation process consisted of a whole body rigid registration of shoulder to bladder region and liver registration and a non-linear registration of body surface by using the thin-plate spline technique. In order to validate usefulness of our method, we segment suspicious regions on FDG-PET images manually, and obtained the Z-scores of the regions based on the corresponding voxels that stores the mean and the standard deviations from the normal model. We collected 243 (143 males and 100 females normal cases to construct the normal model. We also extracted 432 abnormal spots from 63 abnormal cases (73 cancer lesions to validate the Z-scores. The Z-scores of 417 out of 432 abnormal spots were higher than 2.0, which statistically indicated the severity of the spots. In conclusions, the Z-scores obtained by our computerized scheme with anatomical standardization of torso region would be useful for visualization and detection of subtle lesions on FDG-PET scan images even when the SUV may not clearly show an abnormality.

  9. Child mental health in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts: risk and protective factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Simões Matsukuraa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to identify and compare different situations of risk or protection in the socio-emotional development of children living in socioeconomically disadvantaged contexts. Seven (7 children aged eight to ten and their respective parents participated in the present survey. The children were 2nd to 5th grade students at an elementary public school in the countryside of Sao Paulo state. The subjects involved in this survey were divided into two different groups: one composed of children evaluated by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ – with clinical symptoms (Group with Clinical Symptoms of Mental Health - GSC; the other group was composed of children that did not present clinical symptoms (Group with Typical Development - GDT and their parents. Two different interview scripts were used for data collection: one answered by the children and the other responded by the parents. Data analysis was based on the technique of Collective Subject Discourse (CSD. The results showed similarities and differences between the GSC and GDT groups. Regarding the similarities, all the children have rules and responsibilities, and all the parents seek assistance in the care of their children by means of social, health and educational services. Concerning the differences, children in the GSC group refer to school in a negative way and have less support from their parents in school activities. It is worth mentioning that studies of this nature can contribute to the debate on public policies and practices aimed at this population.

  10. Developmental changes in decision making under risk: The role of executive functions and reasoning abilities in 8- to 19-year-old decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; García-Arias, María; García-Villamisar, Domingo; Cabanyes-Truffino, Javier; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents often tend toward risky decisions despite explicit knowledge about the potential negative consequences. This phenomenon has been suggested to be associated with the immaturity of brain areas involved in cognitive control functions. Particularly, "frontal lobe functions," such as executive functions and reasoning, mature until young adulthood and are thought to be involved in age-related changes in decision making under explicit risk conditions. We investigated 112 participants, aged 8-19 years, with a frequently used task assessing decisions under risk, the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Additionally, we administered the Modified Card Sorting Test assessing executive functioning (categorization, cognitive flexibility, and strategy maintenance) as well as the Ravens Progressive Matrices assessing reasoning. The results showed that risk taking in the GDT decreased with increasing age and this effect was not moderated by reasoning but by executive functions: Particularly, young persons with weak executive functioning showed very risky decision making. Thus, the individual maturation of executive functions, associated with areas in the prefrontal cortex, seems to be an important factor in young peoples' behavior in risky decision-making situations.

  11. Trait Anxiety Has Effect on Decision Making under Ambiguity but Not Decision Making under Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Chunyan; Yu, Fengqiong; Chen, Xingui

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that trait anxiety (TA) affects decision making. However, results remain largely inconsistent across studies. The aim of the current study was to further address the interaction between TA and decision making. 304 subjects without depression from a sample consisting of 642 participants were grouped into high TA (HTA), medium TA (MTA) and low TA (LTA) groups based on their TA scores from State Trait Anxiety Inventory. All subjects were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) that measures decision making under ambiguity and the Game of Dice Task (GDT) that measures decision making under risk. While the HTA and LTA groups performed worse on the IGT compared to the MTA group, performances on the GDT between the three groups did not differ. Furthermore, the LTA and HTA groups showed different individual deck level preferences in the IGT: the former showed a preference for deck B indicating that these subjects focused more on the magnitude of rewards, and the latter showed a preference for deck A indicating significant decision making impairment. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety has effect on decision making under ambiguity but not decision making under risk and different levels of trait anxiety related differently to individual deck level preferences in the IGT.

  12. Protein structural model selection by combining consensus and single scoring methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan He

    Full Text Available Quality assessment (QA for predicted protein structural models is an important and challenging research problem in protein structure prediction. Consensus Global Distance Test (CGDT methods assess each decoy (predicted structural model based on its structural similarity to all others in a decoy set and has been proved to work well when good decoys are in a majority cluster. Scoring functions evaluate each single decoy based on its structural properties. Both methods have their merits and limitations. In this paper, we present a novel method called PWCom, which consists of two neural networks sequentially to combine CGDT and single model scoring methods such as RW, DDFire and OPUS-Ca. Specifically, for every pair of decoys, the difference of the corresponding feature vectors is input to the first neural network which enables one to predict whether the decoy-pair are significantly different in terms of their GDT scores to the native. If yes, the second neural network is used to decide which one of the two is closer to the native structure. The quality score for each decoy in the pool is based on the number of winning times during the pairwise comparisons. Test results on three benchmark datasets from different model generation methods showed that PWCom significantly improves over consensus GDT and single scoring methods. The QA server (MUFOLD-Server applying this method in CASP 10 QA category was ranked the second place in terms of Pearson and Spearman correlation performance.

  13. Fast neutron flux analyzer with real-time digital pulse shape discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, A.A., E-mail: a.a.ivanova@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Zubarev, P.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Ivanenko, S.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Khilchenko, A.D. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kotelnikov, A.I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Polosatkin, S.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Puryga, E.A.; Shvyrev, V.G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sulyaev, Yu.S. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-11

    Investigation of subthermonuclear plasma confinement and heating in magnetic fusion devices such as GOL–3 and GDT at the Budker Institute (Novosibirsk, Russia) requires sophisticated equipment for neutron-, gamma- diagnostics and upgrading data acquisition systems with online data processing. Measurement of fast neutron flux with stilbene scintillation detectors raised the problem of discrimination of the neutrons (n) from background cosmic particles (muons) and neutron-induced gamma rays (γ). This paper describes a fast neutron flux analyzer with real-time digital pulse-shape discrimination (DPSD) algorithm FPGA-implemented for the GOL–3 and GDT devices. This analyzer was tested and calibrated with the help of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 252}Cf radiation sources. The Figures of Merit (FOM) calculated for different energy cuts are presented. - Highlights: • Electronic equipment for measurement of fast neutron flux with stilbene scintillator is presented. • FPGA-implemented digital pulse-shape discrimination algorithm by charge comparison method is shown. • Calibration of analyzer was carried out with {sup 137}Cs and {sup 252}Cf. • Figures of Merit (FOM) values for energy cuts from 1/8 Cs to 2 Cs are from 1.264 to 2.34 respectively.

  14. Excessive Internet gaming and decision making: do excessive World of Warcraft players have problems in decision making under risky conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2011-08-15

    The dysfunctional behavior of excessive Internet gamers, such as preferring the immediate reward (to play World of Warcraft) despite the negative long-term consequences may be comparable with the dysfunctional behavior in substance abusers or individuals with behavioral addictions, e.g. pathological gambling. In these disorders, general decision-making deficits have been demonstrated. Hence, the aim of the present work was to examine decision-making competences of excessive World of Warcraft players. Nineteen excessive Internet gamers (EIG) and a control group (CG) consisting of 19 non-gamers were compared with respect to decision-making abilities. The Game of Dice Task (GDT) was applied to measure decision-making under risky conditions. Furthermore psychological-psychiatric symptoms were assessed in both groups. The EIG showed a reduced decision-making ability in the GDT. Furthermore the EIG group showed a higher psychological-psychiatric symptomatology in contrast to the CG. The results indicate that the reduced decision-making ability of EIG is comparable with patients with other forms of behavioral addiction (e.g. pathological gambling), impulse control disorders or substance abusers. Thus, these results suggest that excessive Internet gaming may be based on a myopia for the future, meaning that EIG prefer to play World of Warcraft despite the negative long-term consequences in social or work domains of life. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Trait Anxiety Has Effect on Decision Making under Ambiguity but Not Decision Making under Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    Full Text Available Previous studies have reported that trait anxiety (TA affects decision making. However, results remain largely inconsistent across studies. The aim of the current study was to further address the interaction between TA and decision making. 304 subjects without depression from a sample consisting of 642 participants were grouped into high TA (HTA, medium TA (MTA and low TA (LTA groups based on their TA scores from State Trait Anxiety Inventory. All subjects were assessed with the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT that measures decision making under ambiguity and the Game of Dice Task (GDT that measures decision making under risk. While the HTA and LTA groups performed worse on the IGT compared to the MTA group, performances on the GDT between the three groups did not differ. Furthermore, the LTA and HTA groups showed different individual deck level preferences in the IGT: the former showed a preference for deck B indicating that these subjects focused more on the magnitude of rewards, and the latter showed a preference for deck A indicating significant decision making impairment. Our findings suggest that trait anxiety has effect on decision making under ambiguity but not decision making under risk and different levels of trait anxiety related differently to individual deck level preferences in the IGT.

  16. Thermoplasmonics modeling: A Green's function approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffou, Guillaume; Quidant, Romain; Girard, Christian

    2010-10-01

    We extend the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) and the Green’s dyadic tensor (GDT) methods—previously dedicated to all-optical simulations—to investigate the thermodynamics of illuminated plasmonic nanostructures. This extension is based on the use of the thermal Green’s function and a original algorithm that we named Laplace matrix inversion. It allows for the computation of the steady-state temperature distribution throughout plasmonic systems. This hybrid photothermal numerical method is suited to investigate arbitrarily complex structures. It can take into account the presence of a dielectric planar substrate and is simple to implement in any DDA or GDT code. Using this numerical framework, different applications are discussed such as thermal collective effects in nanoparticles assembly, the influence of a substrate on the temperature distribution and the heat generation in a plasmonic nanoantenna. This numerical approach appears particularly suited for new applications in physics, chemistry, and biology such as plasmon-induced nanochemistry and catalysis, nanofluidics, photothermal cancer therapy, or phase-transition control at the nanoscale.

  17. Abnormal glow discharge as a variable capacitor for tunable RF systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheret, Sergey; Semnani, Abbas; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2016-09-01

    For frequency-tunable resonators and filters in high-power applications, conventional semiconductor devices are easily damaged, while mechanically-tunable systems are bulky and slow. In this regard, weakly ionized plasmas can offer an attractive solution. In this work, an LC resonator circuit where a commercial gas discharge tube (GDT) serves as a variable capacitor was studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments show continuous decrease of the resonant frequency by up to 50 percent with increase in the DC current through the GDT. Analysis of the current-voltage characteristic and the breakdown parameters, combined with lumped-parameter equivalent-circuit RF simulations, allowed us to determine the gas pressure, the electrode coating material and the secondary emission coefficient, and to achieve a very good agreement between the calculated and measured transmittance values. The analysis reveals that reduction in the cathode sheath thickness with increase in the DC current in the abnormal glow discharge regime is the key factor responsible for the experimentally observed tunability.

  18. Theory of mind and decision-making processes are impaired in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Chunhua; Zhu, Youling; Mu, Yanfang; Chen, Bing; Dong, Bin; Cheng, Huaidong; Hu, Panpan; Zhu, Chunyan; Wang, Kai

    2015-02-15

    Prefrontal cortex plays a vital role in the theory of mind (ToM) and decision making, as shown in functional brain imaging and lesion studies. Considering the primary neuropathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) involving the frontal lobe system, patients with PD are expected to exhibit deficits in ToM and social decision making. The aim of this study was to investigate affective ToM and decision making in patients with PD and healthy controls (HC) in a task assessing affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes, RME) and two decision-making tasks (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT; Game of Dice Task, GDT). Consistent with previous findings, patients with PD were impaired in the affective ToM task, and when making decisions under ambiguity and in risk situations. The score of emotion recognition in the RME task was negatively correlated with the severity of the disease and positively correlated with the total number of advantageous cards chosen in the IGT. However, the final capital in the GDT was correlated with memory impairment. The present study implies that affective ToM and decision making under ambiguity may share similar neural mechanisms, while decision making under ambiguity and decision making under risk may involve processing within different neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monitoring supports performance in a dual-task paradigm involving a risky decision-making task and a working memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina eGathmann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performing two cognitively demanding tasks at the same time is known to decrease performance. The current study investigates the underlying executive functions of a dual-tasking situation involving the simultaneous performance of decision making under explicit risk and a working memory task. It is suggested that making a decision and performing a working memory task at the same time should particularly require monitoring - an executive control process supervising behavior and the state of processing on two tasks. To test the role of a supervisory/monitoring function in such a dual-tasking situation we investigated 122 participants with the Game of Dice Task plus 2-back task (GDT plus 2-back task. This dual task requires participants to make decisions under risk and to perform a 2-back working memory task at the same time. Furthermore, a task measuring a set of several executive functions gathered in the term concept formation (Modified Card Sorting Test, MCST and the newly developed Balanced Switching Task (BST, measuring monitoring in particular, were used. The results demonstrate that concept formation and monitoring are involved in the simultaneous performance of decision making under risk and a working memory task. In particular, the mediation analysis revealed that BST performance partially mediates the influence of MCST performance on the GDT plus 2-back task. These findings suggest that monitoring is one important subfunction for superior performance in a dual-tasking situation including decision making under risk and a working memory task.

  20. Anchor effects in decision making can be reduced by the interaction between goal monitoring and the level of the decision maker's executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; Wegmann, Elisa; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    Models of decision making postulate that interactions between contextual conditions and characteristics of the decision maker determine decision-making performance. We tested this assumption by using a possible positive contextual influence (goals) and a possible negative contextual influence (anchor) in a risky decision-making task (Game of Dice Task, GDT). In this task, making advantageous choices is well known to be closely related to a specific decision maker variable: the individual level of executive functions. One hundred subjects played the GDT in one of four conditions: with self-set goal for final balance (n = 25), with presentation of an anchor (a fictitious Top 10 list, showing high gains of other participants; n = 25), with anchor and goal definition (n = 25), and with neither anchor nor goal setting (n = 25). Subjects in the conditions with anchor made more risky decisions irrespective of the negative feedback, but this anchor effect was influenced by goal monitoring and moderated by the level of the subjects' executive functions. The findings imply that impacts of situational influences on decision making as they frequently occur in real life depend upon the individual's cognitive abilities. Anchor effects can be overcome by subjects with good cognitive abilities.

  1. Parameters optimization in a fission-fusion system with a mirror machine based neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurov, D. V.; Anikeev, A. V.; Bagryansky, P. A.; Brednikhin, S. A.; Frolov, S. A.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Prikhodko, V. V.

    2012-06-01

    Long-lived fission products utilization is a problem of high importance for the modern nuclear reactor technology. BINP jointly with NSI RAS develops a conceptual design of a hybrid sub-critical minor actinides burner with a neutron source based on the gas dynamic mirror machine (GDT) to resolve the stated task. A number of modelling tools was created to calculate the main parameters of the device. First of the codes, GENESYS, is a zero-dimensional code, designed for plasma dynamics numerical investigation in a GDT-based neutron source. The code contains a Monte-Carlo module for the determination of linear neutron emission intensity along the machine axis. Fuel blanket characteristics calculation was implemented by means of a static Monte-Carlo code NMC. Subcritical core, which has been previously analyzed by OECD-NEA, was used as a template for the fuel blanket of the modelled device. This article represents the codes used and recent results of the described system parameters optimization. Particularly, optimum emission zone length of the source and core multiplicity dependence on buffer zone thickness were defined.

  2. Generalized drought assessment in Dongliao river basin based on water resources system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, B. S.; Yan, D. H.; Wang, H.; Qin, T. L.; Yin, J.

    2014-11-01

    Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it transforms into a disaster issue. The occurrences of drought events usually feature determinacy and randomness. Drought issue has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable economic and social development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI) based on water resources system for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao river basin (DRB) in the northeast China. The results simulated by the GDAI are then compared to observed drought disaster records in DRB. As second, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approach (i.e. the SPI, the PDSI, and the RWD). Then, generalized drought times (GDT), generalized drought duration (GDD), and generalized drought severity (GDS) were calculated by theory of runs. Application of the GDT, the GDD, and the GDS of various drought levels (i.e. mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought) to the period 1960-2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them are all distributed in the middle reached of DRB, and change with time. The proposed methodology helps water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, consequently, to make decisions regarding coping with drought issue.

  3. Generalized drought assessment in Dongliao river basin based on water resources system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Weng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is firstly a resource issue, and with its development it transforms into a disaster issue. The occurrences of drought events usually feature determinacy and randomness. Drought issue has become one of the major factors to affect sustainable economic and social development. In this paper, we propose the generalized drought assessment index (GDAI based on water resources system for assessing drought events. The GDAI considers water supply and water demand using a distributed hydrological model. We demonstrate the use of the proposed index in the Dongliao river basin (DRB in the northeast China. The results simulated by the GDAI are then compared to observed drought disaster records in DRB. As second, the temporal distribution of drought events and the spatial distribution of drought frequency from the GDAI are compared with the traditional approach (i.e. the SPI, the PDSI, and the RWD. Then, generalized drought times (GDT, generalized drought duration (GDD, and generalized drought severity (GDS were calculated by theory of runs. Application of the GDT, the GDD, and the GDS of various drought levels (i.e. mild drought, moderate drought, severe drought, and extreme drought to the period 1960–2010 shows that the centers of gravity of them are all distributed in the middle reached of DRB, and change with time. The proposed methodology helps water managers in water-stressed regions to quantify the impact of drought, consequently, to make decisions regarding coping with drought issue.

  4. A Business Intelligence Model to Predict Bankruptcy using Financial Domain Ontology with Association Rule Mining Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A; Venkatesan, Dr V Prasanna

    2011-01-01

    Today in every organization financial analysis provides the basis for understanding and evaluating the results of business operations and delivering how well a business is doing. This means that the organizations can control the operational activities primarily related to corporate finance. One way that doing this is by analysis of bankruptcy prediction. This paper develops an ontological model from financial information of an organization by analyzing the Semantics of the financial statement of a business. One of the best bankruptcy prediction models is Altman Z-score model. Altman Z-score method uses financial rations to predict bankruptcy. From the financial ontological model the relation between financial data is discovered by using data mining algorithm. By combining financial domain ontological model with association rule mining algorithm and Zscore model a new business intelligence model is developed to predict the bankruptcy.

  5. Visualisation of Proficiency Test Exercise by Means of Kiri Plots. Informatics Application; Metodo de Visualizacion de los Resultados de las Pruebas de Capacitacion por medio de la Grafica de Kiri. Aplicacion Informatica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Trinidad, J. A.

    2012-09-13

    This report describes the visualisation procedure of the proficiency tests by means of Kiri Plots, based on three tests: z-score, zeta-score and the relative uncertainty outlier. The results assessment of the intercomparison exercises and proficiency tests among Spanish environmental radioactivity laboratories and Spanish Nuclear Power Plants Laboratories is performed by Environmental Radioactivity and Radiological Surveillance Unit following the ISO-43 e ISO/ IUPAC standards and applying the z-score test. The application of new graphics methods and tests to a better evaluation of uncertainties reported by Labs is described in this paper. An informatics programme has been developed in Visual Basic for applications that allows the graphic representation of Tables and Figures automatically in an excel-sheet and later statistical simulations changing the ratios between the reference value uncertainties and the concentration activities values from the participants laboratories. (Author) 26 refs.

  6. Association between socioeconomic vulnerability and height with obesity in low-income Chilean children in the transition from preschool to first grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Juliana; Orellana, Yasna; Leyton, Bárbara; Taibo, Marcela; Vio, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the percentage of obesity among lower-income Chilean children 4-6 years of age, by socioeconomic vulnerability (family score assessing the children's risk of becoming poor) and height. The sample included 17,080 children with anthropometry at 4, 5, and 6 years of age, and three categories of socioeconomic vulnerability. Body mass index Z-score (BMI Z), % obesity, height/age Z-score (HAZ) by socioeconomic vulnerability/sex, the effect of socioeconomic vulnerability on BMI Z and HAZ by age/sex, and BMI Z and % obesity at 4-6 years, according to initial height, were determined. Between 4-6 years, % obesity is very high, especially among the less-vulnerable and taller children. Preventive measures should prioritize this group.

  7. Energy, protein, and zinc nutriture of rural African children in relation to some anthropometric indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, E.L.; Gibson, R.S.; Osei-Opare, F.; Opare-Obisaw, C.; Thompson, L.U. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Ghana, Legon (Ghana) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1991-03-11

    Heights, weights, arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold thicknesses of 66 Malawian and 148 Ghanaian preschool children were measured during 3 seasons. Their seasonal energy, protein, Ca, Zn, dietary fiber and phytate intakes were estimated from 3-day weighed records, using analyzed and literature food composition values. Seasonal hair Zn concentrations were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses, The mean annual intakes for Malawian compared to Ghanaian children were higher for energy protein, and Zn. Cereals contributed a higher proportion of the total energy intake in the Malawian compared to the Ghanaian diets. A higher percentage of the Malawian children had height-for-age Z-scores below {minus}2SD, but a lower percentage had weight-for-height Z-scores below {minus}1SD compared to their Ghanaian counterparts. These differences may, in part be related to the high cereal intakes of the Malawian children.

  8. Influence of Parental Overweight on the Association of Birth Weight and Fat Distribution Later in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2012-01-01

    skinfold, and subscapular-to-triceps skinfold ratio. Analyses were stratified by parental overweight status (none vs. ≥1 overweight parent) for each dependent variable, expressed as z-scores. Results: Birth weight z-score was negatively associated with waist circumference (β -0.08 SD; 95% CI -0.15, -0...... in the group with ≥1 overweight parent. Birth weight was negatively associated with subscapular skinfold in groups with (β -0.16 SD; 95% CI -0.24, -0.06) and without overweight parents (β -0.09 SD; 95% CI -0.16, -0.02), but the magnitude of the association was greater in the former group. Conclusion...

  9. Endothelial dysfunction and inflammation predict development of diabetic nephropathy in the Irbesartan in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Microalbuminuria (IRMA 2) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, F.; Rossing, P.; Hovind, P.

    2008-01-01

    E-selectin) and for biomarkers of inflammation (hs-CRP, IL-6, fibrinogen), endothelial dysfunction (hazard ratio for a 28 % increase ( = 1 SD) in Z-score) 3.20 (1.56 to 6.56), p = 0.001) and UAER (HR for a 75 % increase ( = 1 SD) in UAER) 2.61 (1.30 to 5.23), p = 0.007) were found as independent predictors. Independently, IL-6...... and vWf predicted the end-point. In addition, endothelial Z-score was associated with progression of albuminuria (p = 0.038). CONCLUSION: Endothelial dysfunction and possibly inflammation are novel predictors of progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria...

  10. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F.;

    2015-01-01

    ) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...... towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking...... responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score...

  11. An innovative summer camp program improves weight and self-esteem in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, William W; Abrams, Stephanie H; Mikhail, Carmen; Terrazas, Norma L; Wilson, Theresa A; Arceo, Diana; Mrowczynski, Paula K; King, Kristi L; Stansel, Amanda D; Albright, Ashley N; Barlow, Sarah E; Brown, Kimberly O; Brown, Jason D; Klish, William J

    2009-10-01

    To determine the potential benefits of a residential summer camp to treat childhood obesity, 21 obese, multiethnic children (aged 11.4+/-1.4 years; body mass index [BMI] percentile 98.5+/-1.4; BMI z score 2.30+/-0.33) from a diverse socioeconomic background were enrolled in a 2-week summer camp program. Significant improvements (P<0.04) were observed in self-esteem (+0.27+/-0.33 point), body weight (-3.7+/-1.2 kg), BMI (-1.60+/-0.48 kg/m), BMI z score (-0.12+/-0.06), number of curl ups (+10.9+/-21.5), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-10.8+/-13.4 and -9.4+/-5.5 mmHg, respectively), and heart rate (-8.2+/-12.7 bpm).

  12. Optimal screening of children with acute malnutrition requires a change in current WHO guidelines as MUAC and WHZ identify different patient groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laillou, Arnaud; Prak, Sophonneary; de Groot, Richard

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Timely treatment of acute malnutrition in children 500,000 deaths annually. Screening at community level is essential to identify children with malnutrition. Current WHO guidelines for community screening for malnutrition recommend a Mid Upper Arm...... Circumference (MUAC) of malnutrition (SAM). However, it is currently unclear how MUAC relates to the other indicator used to define acute malnutrition: weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ). METHODS: Secondary data from >11,000 Cambodian children, obtained by different surveys between...... 2010 and 2012, was used to calculate sensitivity and ROC curves for MUAC and WHZ. FINDINGS: The secondary analysis showed that using the current WHO cut-off of 115 mm for screening for severe acute malnutrition over 90% of children with a weight-for-height z-score (WHZ)

  13. Målrettede virkemidler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Hoffmann, Carl Christian

    2016-01-01

    using linear regression for BMI z-scores and logistic regression for risk of childhood overweight, adjusting for socioeconomic position, maternal BMI, maternal smoking, maternal age, parity and degree of urbanization. Results: We found both pregnancy and childhood exposure to road traffic noise...... to be associated with a higher risk for childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR)= 1.06 per 10 dB, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00–1.12 for exposure during pregnancy and OR = 1.06 per 10 dB, 95% CI: 0.99–1.12 for childhood exposure). There were no associations between road traffic noise and BMI z-scores. We found...... no associations between railway noise and adiposity. Conclusions: We found suggestions of a positive association between road traffic noise and risk of overweight in 7-years old children....

  14. Host and disease factors are associated with cognitive function in European HIV-infected adults prior to initiation of antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winston, A; Stöhr, W; Antinori, A;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Deficits in cognitive function remain prevalent in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this European multicentre study was to assess factors associated with cognitive function in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve HIV-infected subjects at the time of enrolment in the NEAT 001/Agence...... Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA (ANRS) 143 study. METHODS: Prior to starting ART, seven cognitive tests exploring domains including episodic memory, verbal fluency, executive function and psychomotor speed were administered with scores standardized to z-score using the study population sample mean...... and standard deviation. The primary measure was overall z-score average (NPZ). We assessed associations between baseline factors and test results using multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Of 283 subjects with baseline cognitive assessments, 90% were male and 12% of black ethnicity. Median (interquartile...

  15. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHILDREN WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS AGED 9–19 YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoff, Suzanne M.; Tluczek, Audrey; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M.; Lai, HuiChuan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The impact of improved nutritional status on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods Associations between nutritional status and HRQOL were examined over 2 years in 95 children, aged 9–19 years, who were followed in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. HRQOL was assessed using the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ). Associations between height z-score (HtZ), BMI z-score (BMIZ) and seven CFQ dimensions were evaluated. Results Mean values of at least 80 were observed for all CFQ dimensions except respiratory symptoms and treatment burden. Treatment burden was significantly worse in patients with meconium ileus (57) compared to pancreatic insufficient (65) and sufficient (78) subjects, pnutritional status was associated with increased HRQOL scores. Early diagnosis through newborn screening and improved nutrition provides an opportunity to enhance quality of life and body image perception. PMID:23410621

  16. Nutritional status is associated with health-related quality of life in children with cystic fibrosis aged 9-19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoff, Suzanne M; Tluczek, Audrey; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M; Lai, HuiChuan J

    2013-12-01

    The impact of improved nutritional status on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is unknown for children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Associations between nutritional status and HRQOL were examined over 2 years in 95 children, aged 9-19 years, who were followed in the Wisconsin Newborn Screening Project. HRQOL was assessed using the Cystic Fibrosis Questionnaire (CFQ). Associations between height z-score (HtZ), BMI z-score (BMIZ) and seven CFQ dimensions were evaluated. Mean values of at least 80 were observed for all CFQ dimensions except respiratory symptoms and treatment burden. Treatment burden was significantly worse in patients with meconium ileus (57) compared to pancreatic insufficient (65) and sufficient (78) subjects, pnutritional status was associated with increased HRQOL scores. Early diagnosis through newborn screening and improved nutrition provides an opportunity to enhance quality of life and body image perception. Copyright © 2013 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Restricted joint range of motion in patients with MPS II: correlation with height, age and functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucha, Jolanta; Jurecka, Agnieszka; Syczewska, Małgorzata; Różdżyńska-Świątkowska, Agnieszka; Tylki-Szymańska, Anna

    2012-04-01

    The aims of the study were to assess shoulder range of motion (ROM) in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS II) and to correlate joint mobility with patients' height, age and functional status. Passive ROM and Z-score of height were followed in 29 patients with MPS II (mean age 11.5 years, range 2-29 years) between the years 2005 and 2010. Passive ROM was measured by a goniometer, and height, by a stadiometer. Functional status was assessed by an age-appropriate health assessment questionnaire (HAQ). (i) A strong correlation was observed between patients' age and Z-score of patients' height (R = 0.78, p MPS II. Range of motion limitations in patients with MPS II correlate with patients' height, increase with patients' age and are more pronounced in a severe form of MPS II. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Fetal growth restriction is associated with malaria in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briand, Valérie; Saal, Jessica; Ghafari, Caline

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the effect of malaria on intrauterine growth restriction on the basis of the fetal growth rate, rather than just the small-for-gestational age z score. Here, we assessed the impact of malaria on IUGR, using data from a longitudinal, ultrasonography-based fol...... and late pregnancy on fetal growth. This stresses the importance of starting preventive measures against malaria as early as possible during pregnancy....... infections tended to have lower z scores than uninfected women. Malaria both in early and late pregnancy was associated with a reduction in fetal growth velocity, which occurred either immediately or with a delay after infection. DISCUSSIONS: We confirmed the deleterious effect of malaria during both early...

  19. Quantitative EEG and Current Source Density Analysis of Combined Antiepileptic Drugs and Dopaminergic Agents in Genetic Epilepsy: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, Hamlin; Wells, Christopher; Mizrahi, Neptune

    2015-07-01

    Two adolescent females with absence epilepsy were classified, one as attention deficit and the other as bipolar disorder. Physical and cognitive exams identified hypotension, bradycardia, and cognitive dysfunction. Their initial electroencephalograms (EEGs) were considered slightly slow, but within normal limits. Quantitative EEG (QEEG) data included relative theta excess and low alpha mean frequencies. A combined treatment of antiepileptic drugs with a catecholamine agonist/reuptake inhibitor was sequentially used. Both patients' physical and cognitive functions improved and they have remained seizure free. The clinical outcomes were correlated with statistically significant changes in QEEG measures toward normal Z-scores in both anterior and posterior regions. In addition, low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) Z-scored source correlation analyses of the initial and treated QEEG data showed normalized patterns, supporting a neuroanatomic resolution. This study presents preliminary evidence for a neurophysiologic approach to patients with absence epilepsy and comorbid disorders and may provide a method for further research.

  20. Association between nutritional status and severity of dengue infection in children in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marón, Gabriela M; Clará, A Wilfrido; Diddle, John Wesley; Pleités, Ernesto B; Miller, Laura; Macdonald, Gene; Adderson, Elisabeth E

    2010-02-01

    Clinical observations and some studies suggest that dengue virus infection is more severe among children with better nutritional status. We examined the nutritional status of children in El Salvador and its relationship between this and the severity of dengue infection. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age of children with dengue fever (66), dengue hemorrhagic fever (62), and healthy controls (74) were compared. There were no differences in weight-for-age or BMI-for-age Z-scores between the three groups. Children with dengue fever had a greater height-for-age than healthy controls but no significant differences in rates of stunting. There was no difference in height between children with dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Excess nutrition does not appear to be a risk factor for severe forms of dengue infection in El Salvador, nor does malnutrition appear to be predictive of good outcomes.

  1. Effects of extra school-based physical education on overall physical fitness development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rexen, C T; Ersbøll, A K; Møller, N C

    2015-01-01

    First, this study aimed to investigate if four extra physical education (PE) lessons per week improved children's development in physical fitness. Second, to investigate if the extra PE lessons improved development in physical fitness for children with lower levels of fitness at baseline. This st......First, this study aimed to investigate if four extra physical education (PE) lessons per week improved children's development in physical fitness. Second, to investigate if the extra PE lessons improved development in physical fitness for children with lower levels of fitness at baseline...... = 536, extra PE = 711). Development in fitness was analyzed using a composite z-score from six fitness tests. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression was used to examine the association between school type and development in fitness. Extra PE increased the total development of composite z-score units...

  2. Timeliness “at a glance”: assessing the turnaround time through the six sigma metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Bernardini, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Almost thirty years of systematic analysis have proven the turnaround time to be a fundamental dimension for the clinical laboratory. Several indicators are to date available to assess and report quality with respect to timeliness, but they sometimes lack the communicative immediacy and accuracy. The six sigma is a paradigm developed within the industrial domain for assessing quality and addressing goal and issues. The sigma level computed through the Z-score method is a simple and straightforward tool which delivers quality by a universal dimensionless scale and allows to handle non-normal data. Herein we report our preliminary experience in using the sigma level to assess the change in urgent (STAT) test turnaround time due to the implementation of total automation. We found that the Z-score method is a valuable and easy to use method for assessing and communicating the quality level of laboratory timeliness, providing a good correspondence with the actual change in efficiency which was retrospectively observed.

  3. Effect of changes in BMI and waist circumference on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Kristian Nebelin; Olsen, Michael Hecht; Ibsen, Hans

    2014-01-01

    circumference was indexed by height [waist/height ratio (WHR)]. RESULTS: Patients experienced a reduction at follow-up in the degree of obesity [ΔBMI z score: -0.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.32 to -0.10, P = 0.0003; and ΔWHR: -0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to -0.004, P = 0.009]. Δ24-h, Δdaytime and Δnight-time SBP......: Sixty-one severely obese patients aged 10-18 years underwent lifestyle intervention at the Children's Obesity Clinic. Patients were examined with ABP monitoring at baseline and after 1 year of treatment (follow-up). To account for growth, BP and BMI were standardized into z scores, whereas waist...

  4. Impact of a nutrition intervention program on the growth and nutritional status of Nicaraguan adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Moore, Jean Burley

    2007-06-01

    This research examines the impact of a nutrition education intervention program on the nutritional status and knowledge of Nicaraguan adolescent girls. Anthropometric measurements, hemoglobin values, and data concerning nutritional knowledge were collected from adolescent girls living in Managua, Nicaragua. Using a pre-test/post-test design, data are compared prior to and after the nutrition intervention program. When using Mexican American reference data, statistically significant differences in height-for-age z-scores and weight-for-age z-scores were found when comparing the entire sample of baseline data with data collected after three years of the nutrition intervention program (p nutrition intervention programs in Nicaragua, and examines the possibility that catch-up growth occurs during adolescence.

  5. Early Weight Gain, Linear Growth, and Mid-Childhood Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perng, Wei; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Kramer, Michael S;

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the prevalence of hypertension and prehypertension increased markedly among children and adolescents, highlighting the importance of identifying determinants of elevated blood pressure early in life. Low birth weight and rapid early childhood weight gain are associated with higher...... future blood pressure. However, few studies have examined the timing of postnatal weight gain in relation to later blood pressure, and little is known regarding the contribution of linear growth. We studied 957 participants in Project Viva, an ongoing US prebirth cohort. We examined the relations...... of gains in body mass index z-score and length/height z-score during 4 early life age intervals (birth to 6 months, 6 months to 1 year, 1 to 2 years, and 2 to 3 years) with blood pressure during mid-childhood (6-10 years) and evaluated whether these relations differed by birth size. After accounting...

  6. Indicators of dietary patterns in Danish infants at 9 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B B; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F;

    2015-01-01

    towards the family's food. Infants, who were younger at diet registration and had higher body mass index (BMI) z-scores at 9 months, had lower Family Food pattern scores. A lower Family Food pattern score was also observed for infants with immigrant/descendant parents, parents who shared cooking...... responsibilities and fathers in the labour market compared to being a student, A lower Health-Conscious Food pattern score indicates a less healthy diet. A lower infant Health-Conscious Food pattern score was associated with a higher maternal BMI, a greater number of children in the household, a higher BMI z-score......) of two comparable observational cohorts, SKOT I and SKOT II. These cohorts comprised infants with mainly non-obese mothers versus infants with obese mothers, respectively. RESULTS: A lower Family Food score indicates a higher intake of liquid baby food, as this pattern shows transition from baby food...

  7. 'Mommy, I miss daddy'. The effect of family structure on children's health in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Sara; Ferreira-Batista, Natalia N

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the relationship between single motherhood and children's height-for-age z-scores in Brazil. In order to isolate the causal effect between family structure and children's condition, we estimate an econometric model that uses male preference for firstborn sons and local sex ratios to instrument the probability of a woman becoming a single mother. Our results have a local average treatment effect interpretation (LATE). We find that children being raised by a single mother (whose marital status is affected by a firstborn girl and a low sex ratio) have a height-for-age z-score that is lower than that of children of similar characteristics that cohabit with both progenitors. We claim that the increasing trend of single motherhood in Brazil should be of concern in health policy design.

  8. "Vanishing" pulmonary valve stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofil I Arain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both spontaneous resolution and progression of mild pulmonary valve stenosis (PS have been reported. We reviewed characteristics of the pulmonary valve (PV to determine factors that could influence resolution of mild PS. Methods: Fifteen asymptomatic pediatric patients with spontaneous resolution of isolated mild PS were retrospectively reviewed. Results: There was no correlation between the PV gradient, clinical presentation, age at diagnosis, or PV morphology. The PV annulus was small at initial presentation, which normalized at follow up. When corrected for the body surface area (z-score, the PV annulus was normal in all patients, including at initial evaluation. Conclusions: Based on our observation, neither age at diagnosis, nor PV-morphology-influenced resolution of mild PS. The variable clinical presentation makes it difficult to categorize and observe mild PS by auscultation alone. The PV annulus z-score could be a useful adjunct to determine the course and serial observation of mild PS.

  9. Relation between body composition and biochemical markers of bone turnover among early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hla, M M; Davis, J W; Ross, P D

    2000-01-01

    , the mean levels of osteocalcin decreased by 3% and 13%, respectively; NTX decreased by 5 and 21%. Fat mass and whole-body BMC were also significantly associated with decreases in the average of osteocalcin and NTX Z-scores. By contrast, the mean levels of serum osteocalcin increased by 2 and 11......%, respectively, per IQR increase in muscle strength and height; NTX increased by 4 (not significant) and 14%, respectively. Both muscle strength and height were significantly associated with increases in the average Z-scores. These exploratory analyses suggest that fat mass and whole-body BMC were associated...... with decreased bone turnover, while muscle strength and height were associated with increased bone turnover....

  10. Geography and culture matter for malnutrition in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rolando; Aguilar, Ana María; Calzadilla, Alvaro

    2004-12-01

    The prevalence of health problems and malnutrition in Bolivia is exceptionally high, even in comparison to other underdeveloped countries. This study analyzes the relationship between a two measures of child health--height-for-age and weight-for-age z-scores--and a set of physical and cultural determinants of child nutrition, including mother's characteristics, household assets and access to public services. The ultimate aim is to identify the most important determinants of child health and to measure the relative impact of each factor on the height and weight z-scores. A sequential strategy was adopted in order to estimate a two-equation linear model with correlated error terms. A major finding points to geographical and cultural variables as main causes of nutritional status and highlights the role of mother's anthropometrical characteristics. This study uses data on over 3000 children gathered from a Demographic and Health Survey (DHS).

  11. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    -methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted...... results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending......A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos...

  12. Assortative marriages by body mass index have increased simultaneously with the obesity epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Ängquist, Lars Henrik; Silventoinen, Karri;

    2012-01-01

    Background: The genetic predisposition to obesity may have contributed to the obesity epidemic through assortative mating. We investigated whether spouses were positively assorted by body mass index (BMI; = kg/m(2)) in late childhood, and whether changes in assorted marriage by upper BMI......-percentiles occurred during the obesity epidemic. Methods: In the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) boys and girls with measures of BMI at age 13 years later became 37,792 spousal-pairs who married between 1945 and 2010. Trends in the spousal BMI correlations using sex-, age-, and birth cohort......-specific BMI z-scores across time were investigated. Odds ratios (ORs) of marriage among spouses both with BMI z-scores >90th or >95th percentile compared with marriage among spouses ≤90th percentile were analyzed for marriages entered during the years prior to (1945-1970), and during the obesity epidemic...

  13. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a one-year weight-loss intervention program for children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian Traberg

    about ethnicity, health, income, and education. The most relevant outcomes in the present thesis were BMI, BMI z-score, clustered cardiovascular risk z-score, body composition, overweight status, physical fitness, motor skills, costs, and cost-effectiveness. Results: Overall lost to follow up was 25...... components, and measurements of the OOIS were presented in the study protocol and throughout parts of the thesis. Furthermore, the study outcomes were stated prior to data collection, thus, minimising publication- and reporting bias. The day-camp intervention was superior to the standard intervention...... Intervention Study (OOIS). The aim of the present thesis is to report the effectiveness of the day-camp weight-loss programme with a sub-sequent family-based intervention compared to a minimum intensive intervention. Through the presentation of four studies, the specific objectives of the thesis are to: 1...

  14. Delirium is associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, J.L.; Marcantonio, E.R.; Culley, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine if postoperative delirium was associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 7 days) and long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (at 3 months). The International Study of Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction recruited 1218 subjects......). Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was defined as a composite Z-score > 2 across tests or at least two individual test Z-scores > 2. Subjects with delirium were significantly less likely to participate in postoperative testing. Delirium was associated with an increased incidence of early postoperative...... cognitive dysfunction (adjusted risk ratio 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.1), but not long-term postoperative cognitive dysfunction (adjusted risk ratio 1.3, 95% CI 0.6-2.4). Delirium was associated with early postoperative cognitive dysfunction, but the relationship of delirium to long-term postoperative cognitive...

  15. Corporate Failure Prediction of Public Listed Companies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaiser Rafique Yasser

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to extent the prediction model of financial distress among Malaysian public listed companies from period 2006 to 2010. Altman Z-Score Models was used to identify classification on three main zones which are safe, grey or distress zone. The results specify that 56 % of listed companies were classified as ‘distress zone’, 24 % are known as ‘grey zone’ while 20 % are classified in ‘safe zone’. Two likely to fail companies was correctly predict at distress zone which Z-Score was lower than 1.81. Moreover, the findings show most of the companies were facing financial distress during global financial crisis on 2008. Industrial transportation and industrial engineering sectors are generally classified as ‘safe zone’ while food and staplers retailing, real estate investment and services and industrial metals and mining sectors are classified as ‘distress zone’.

  16. Family Weight School treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nowicka, Paulina; Höglund, Peter; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of a Family Weight School treatment based on family therapy in group meetings with adolescents with a high degree of obesity. METHODS: Seventy-two obese adolescents aged 12-19 years old were referred to a childhood obesity center by pediatricians...... and school nurses and offered a Family Weight School therapy program in group meetings given by a multidisciplinary team. Intervention was compared with an untreated waiting list control group. Body mass index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were calculated before and after intervention. RESULTS: Ninety percent...... group with initial BMI z-score 3.5. CONCLUSIONS: Family Weight School treatment model might be suitable for adolescents with BMI z...

  17. Multicomponent school-initiated obesity intervention in a high-risk, Hispanic elementary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klish, William J; Karavias, Kellie E; White, Katie S; Balch, Angela J; Fraley, J Kennard; Mikhail, Carmen; Abrams, Stephanie H; Terrazas, Norma L; Smith, E O'Brian; Wong, William W

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a school-initiated cognitive and behavioral program to reduce childhood obesity. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI z scores were obtained at the beginning and end of the school year at an intervention school (n = 1022) and at a control school (n = 692). The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 18.9% and 30.4% versus 19% and 30.2%, respectively, in the intervention and control schools. The incidence of overweight increased in the control school, but the incidence of obesity, weight, and BMI z scores increased significantly in the intervention school, suggesting that implementation of any school-based obesity intervention programs requires careful planning to achieve goals.

  18. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  19. Early Life Predictors of Increased Body Mass Index among Indigenous Australian Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Thurber

    Full Text Available Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians are more likely than non-Indigenous Australians to be obese and experience chronic disease in adulthood--conditions linked to being overweight in childhood. Birthweight and prenatal exposures are associated with increased Body Mass Index (BMI in other populations, but the relationship is unclear for Indigenous children. The Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children is an ongoing cohort study of up to 1,759 children across Australia. We used a multilevel model to examine the association between children's birthweight and BMI z-score in 2011, at age 3-9 years, adjusted for sociodemographic and maternal factors. Complete data were available for 682 of the 1,264 children participating in the 2011 survey; we repeated the analyses in the full sample with BMI recorded (n=1,152 after multilevel multiple imputation. One in ten children were born large for gestational age, and 17% were born small for gestational age. Increasing birthweight predicted increasing BMI; a 1-unit increase in birthweight z-score was associated with a 0.22-unit (95% CI:0.13, 0.31 increase in childhood BMI z-score. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a significant increase (0.25; 95% CI:0.05, 0.45 in BMI z-score. The multiple imputation analysis indicated that our findings were not distorted by biases in the missing data. High birthweight may be a risk indicator for overweight and obesity among Indigenous children. National targets to reduce the incidence of low birthweight which measure progress by an increase in the population's average birthweight may be ignoring a significant health risk; both ends of the spectrum must be considered. Interventions to improve maternal health during pregnancy are the first step to decreasing the prevalence of high BMI among the next generation of Indigenous children.

  20. High adiposity is associated cross-sectionally with low self-concept and body size dissatisfaction among indigenous Cree schoolchildren in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Willows, Noreen Dianne; Ridley, Denise; Raine, Kim D.; Maximova, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity and mental health problems are prevalent among indigenous children in Canada and the United States. In this cross-sectional study the associations between adiposity and body size satisfaction, body image and self-concept were examined in indigenous children in grades four to six living in Cree communities in the Province of Quebec (Canada). Methods Weight status and body mass index (BMI) z-scores were derived from children’s measured height and weight using the World Health...

  1. Compromised Diet Quality is Associated with Decreased Renal Function in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyerang; Lim, Hyunjung; Choue, Ryowon

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional status of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is important since it affects growth and development. This study was to investigate overall diet quality measured by nutrient intake adequacy, nutrient density, and several dietary habits in children with CKD and its relationship with clinical parameters according to glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Assessment of nutritional status and diet quality was conducted in nineteen children with CKD. Average Z-scores of height, weight ...

  2. Ability to Taste 6-n-propylthiouracil and Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C.; Cardinal, Tiffany M.; Sitto, Jacinta R.; Kannan, Srimathi

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is genetically mediated. Sensitivity to PROP has been associated with weight status in both adults and children. Objective To determine whether there is an association between PROP sensitivity and body mass index (BMI) in low-income children of diverse race/ethnicity, among whom there is a high prevalence of obesity. Methods 81 preschool-aged children attending Head Start tasted a solution of 560 μmol/L PROP and reported whether it tasted “like water” or “like something else”. Mothers reported child race, age, maternal education, maternal weight and height, child’s reluctance to sample new foods via the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and child’s dietary intake via a food frequency questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated and for children, expressed in z-scores. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between child PROP taster status and BMI z-score, testing covariates child age, gender, race, maternal education and BMI, and child’s FNS score. Children’s dietary intake was compared by PROP taster status. Results PROP tasters, compared to non-tasters, had significantly higher BMI z-scores (0.99 (SD 1.24) v. 0.03 (1.12), p = .004) and had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (31.8% v. 5.6%, p = .025), but demonstrated no differences in reported dietary intake. The most parsimonious model predicting the child’s BMI z-score included only maternal BMI and the child’s PROP taster status (R2 = 22.3%). Discussion A genetically-mediated ability to taste bitter may contribute to obesity risk in low-income, preschool-aged children. PMID:18421272

  3. Ability to taste 6-n-propylthiouracil and BMI in low-income preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeng, Julie C; Cardinal, Tiffany M; Sitto, Jacinta R; Kannan, Srimathi

    2008-07-01

    Sensitivity to the bitter compound 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is genetically mediated. Sensitivity to PROP has been associated with weight status in both adults and children. To determine whether there is an association between PROP sensitivity and BMI in low-income children of diverse race/ethnicity, among whom there is a high prevalence of obesity. Eighty-one preschool-aged children attending Head Start tasted a solution of 560 micromol/l PROP and reported whether it tasted "like water" or "like something else". Mothers reported child's race, age, maternal education, maternal weight and height, child's reluctance to sample new foods via the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and child's dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire. Child weight and height were measured. BMI was calculated and for children, expressed in z-scores. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between child's PROP taster status and BMI z-score, testing covariates child's age, gender, race, maternal education and BMI, and child's FNS score. Children's dietary intake was compared by PROP taster status. PROP tasters, compared with nontasters, had significantly higher BMI z-scores (0.99 (s.d. 1.24) vs. 0.03 (1.12), P=0.004) and had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight (31.8% vs. 5.6%, P=0.025), but demonstrated no differences in reported dietary intake. The most parsimonious model predicting the child's BMI z-score included only maternal BMI and the child's PROP taster status (R(2)=22.3%). A genetically mediated ability to taste bitter may contribute to obesity risk in low-income, preschool-aged children.

  4. Scaling-Up Access to Family Planning May Improve Linear Growth and Child Development in Low and Middle Income Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Günther Fink; Sudfeld, Christopher R.; Goodarz Danaei; Majid Ezzati; Wafaie W Fawzi

    2014-01-01

    Background: A large literature has indicated a robust association between birth spacing and child survival, but evidence on the association of birth timing with physical growth in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains limited. Methods and Results: Data from 153 cross-sectional Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) across 61 LMICs conducted between 1990 and 2011 were combined to assess the association of birth timing with child stunting (height-for-age z-score

  5. Infants with recurrent lower respiratory tract symptoms – who benefits of extensive investigations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kotaniemi-Syrjänen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is limited information on lung function and exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO in infants with recurrent lower respiratory tract symptoms. In 2000–2003, 201 recurrently symptomatic infants were referred to a tertiary center for further investigation. As part of the clinical investigation, whole-body plethysmography, tidal FeNO measurements, and skin prick tests were performed. In addition, 77 (38% of the children underwent bronchoscopy. Increased work of breathing in clinical examination (in 22%, and abnormal chest radiograph (in 30%, were associated with decreased airway conductance (sGaw z-score –1.65 (p<0.001 and p = 0.048, respectively and hyperinflation of the lungs (FRC z-score 1.65(p = 0.004 and p = 0.038, respectively. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS was associated with FeNO 40 ppb (p = 0.009. Increased work of breathing, sGaw z-score –1.65, and FRC z-score 1.65, were associated with low FeNO (p = 0.002, p = 0.005, p = 0.026, respectively. A definitive diagnosis was made in 184 (92% children; asthma was diagnosed in 149 (74%, infection in 23 (11%, and a structural abnormality in 12 (6%. Abnormal findings in clinical examination predicted the diagnosis of asthma or a structural abnormality in 96% of cases, whereas in children with underlying respiratory infection or no definitive diagnosis, clinical examination was normal in 92% (p<0.001. In conclusion, clinical findings of bronchial obstruction predict well lung function and the diagnosis of asthma in recurrently symptomatic infants. FeNO is affected by ETS exposure, clinical state of the child, and the used methods, and the information obtained should be interpreted with care.

  6. Accounting Ratios and Bankruptcy Prediction: Woolworths Geoup PLC as A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Okuguni, Anthony I

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research attempts to ascertain the predictive ability of accounting ratios using Woolworths Group plc. This was achieved by carrying out Financial Ratio Analysis, Altman Z-score, Robertson R-ratio and Trend Analysis of Woolworths Group plc. In addition, the causes of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc would be ascertained. Finally the research would use mathematical models to ascertain the predictability of bankruptcy at Woolworths Group plc. The main findings of this re...

  7. Malnutrition in acutely ill children at the paediatric emergency unit in a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac E Ocheke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many developing countries, malnutrition remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in under-five children. The factors responsible for malnutrition could be immediate, underlying or basic, acting either alone or together. It has been shown that children who are malnourished have poorer outcomes from other illnesses than well-nourished children. It is important therefore to periodically describe the extent and pattern of childhood malnutrition so that effective preventive measures can be put in place. Objective: To describe the prevalence and pattern of malnutrition in children presenting with acute illnesses at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study in children aged 6 to 59 months seen at the paediatric emergency unit from April to October 2012. The subjects were recruited consecutively. Each child had both clinical assessment and appropriate laboratory evaluations done alongside anthropometric measurements. The nutritional/dietary and socio-demographic histories were also obtained. Results: Of the 379 children, 224 (59.1% were males and 155 (40.9% females. The median age was 17 months, range (6-57. Wasting (WFH z-scores ≤−3 to <−1SD was evident in one hundred children, giving an overall prevalence of 26.9%. Severe wasting (WFH z-score <−3, was present in 22 (5.9% children indicating the prevalence of marasmus, whereas only two children (0.53% had oedematous malnutrition (kwashiorkor. Stunting or chronic malnutrition, (HFA z-scores ≤−3 to <−1SD was present in 67 children (18.0%. Seventeen (4.6% were severely stunted (HFA z-score <−3. Conclusions: Wasting was the most common form of malnutrition in the study.

  8. Statistical analysis of DOE EML QAP data from 1982 to 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizanur Rahman, G M; Isenhour, T L; Larget, B; Greenlaw, P D

    2001-01-01

    The historical database from the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's Quality Assessment Program from 1982 to 1998 has been analyzed to determine control limits for future performance evaluations of the different laboratories contracted to the U.S. Department of Energy. Seventy-three radionuclides in four different matrices (air filter, soil, vegetation, and water) were analyzed. The evaluation criteria were established based on a z-score calculation.

  9. Bender-Gestalt Test correlates of prognosis in Unipolar Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Anand Prakash MPhil

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Bender-Gestalt test (B-G test was administered to examine its prognostic implications in an Ethiopian sample with unipolar depression. Total 30 patients with moderate level of depression were included in study and their time taken was compared against the performance on the B-G test. Finally, a significant difference was found between time taken and Z-scores of the test supporting the prognostic value of this test in unipolar depression.

  10. Conservation of Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Residues in Four-Helix Bundle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦猛; 王骏; 王炜

    2003-01-01

    The conservation of the hydrophobic and the hydrophilic residue sites obtained from 1000 designed sequences with the Z-score method for a four-helix bundle has been studied. The folding dynamic and thermodynamic features of the designed sequences and their different mutations are also studied. It is found that this conservation is related to the stability and the fast folding of the model proteins. Our results are consistent with the experimental results.

  11. Iron in tubewell water and linear growth in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briend, A; Hoque, B A; Aziz, K M

    1990-02-01

    The growth of 694 children from rural Bangladesh was studied. Children drinking water containing greater than 1 mg iron/l (n = 628) were significantly taller than those drinking less than 1 mg iron/l (n = 66): their mean (SD) height for age Z score was -2.10 (1.34) compared with -2.45 (1.24), p less than 0.05. This suggests that iron deficiency may contribute to growth retardation in poor communities.

  12. The Evaluation of Efficacy of Calcitriol on Bone Mineral Density, Pain and Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Patients With or Without Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Koyuncu

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether depression was affect on bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporotic (PMO women and response to calcitriol treatment in this patients. Seventy two females (mean age 65 ± 6.9 were included in this study. Out of these patients, 27 (37.5% had depression, 45 (62.5% were normal. All cases were evaluated by DXA, Hamilton depression scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36 scale and visual analog scale. In the patients with depression, L1-L4 t-score (-3.29 ± 1.07, femur total t-score (-2.60 ± 1.00 and z-score (-0.97 ± 0.82 were significantly lower than PMO patients without depression (respectively; -2.71 ± 0.83, -1.86 ± 1.16 and –0.50 ± 0.91. Improvement of t- and z- scores in both groups were statistically significant after calcitriol treatment. Improvement of L1-L4 t- and z-scores and femur neck t-score were higher in patients with depression. SF-36 scores (75.9 ± 19.8 were lower in patients with depression than patients without depression (86.5 ± 14.4 (p=0.041. Negative correlations between Hamilton score and L1-L4 z-score (R=-0.432, p=0.024, femur neck t-score (R=-0.528, p=0.005 were found before treatment. Improvement of pain in both groups were similar. In conclusion, postmenopausal bone loss was higher and the response to calcitriol treatment was better in patients with depression.

  13. Children with spina bifida are at risk for low bone density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Elizabeth A; Cheema, Asad

    2011-05-01

    Patients with spina bifida frequently sustain lower extremity fractures which may be difficult to diagnose because they feel little or no pain, although the relative contributions of low bone density to pain insensitivity are unclear. Routine dual-energy xray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning is unreliable because these patients lack bony elements in the spine, and many have joint contractures and/or implanted hardware. We asked (1) if the lateral distal femoral scan is useful in spina bifida; (2) whether nonambulatory children with spina bifida exhibit differences in bone mineral density (BMD) compared with an age-and-sex-matched population; and (3) whether Z-scores were related to extremity fracture incidence. We retrospectively reviewed 37 patients with spina bifida who had DXA scans and sufficient data. Z-scores were correlated with functional level, ambulatory status, body mass index, and fracture history. The distal femoral scan could be performed in subjects for whom total body and/or lumbar scans could not be performed accurately. Twenty-four of 37 had Z-scores below -2 SD, defined as "low bone density for age." Ten of 35 patients (29%) with fracture information had experienced one or more fractures. Our sample size was too small to correlate Z-score with fracture. We believe BMD should be monitored in patients with spina bifida; nonambulatory patients with spina bifida and those with other risk factors are more likely to have low bone density for age than unaffected individuals. The LDF scan was useful in this population in whom lumbar and total body scans are often invalidated by contracture or artifact. Although lower extremity fractures occur regardless of ambulation or bone density, knowing an individual's bone health status may lead to interventions to improve bone health.

  14. Short-term practice effects and variability in cognitive testing in a healthy elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, L.; Rasmussen, L.S.; Siersma, V.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive decline in the elderly is a subject of intense focus. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding definition of significant decline in connection with repeated testing and the interpretation of cognitive tests results must take into account the practice effect and variab...... was evaluated on 7 neuropsychological measures and reference values of clinically important changes were calculated according to z-scores above 1.96. RESULTS: Test scores improved significantly (p...

  15. The Health Initiative Program for Kids (HIP Kids): effects of a 1-year multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention on adiposity and quality of life in obese children and adolescents - a longitudinal pilot intervention study

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Dirk E; Robinson, Tracy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Rombeek, Meghan; Norozi, Kambiz; Filler, Guido; Rauch, Ralf; Clarson, Cheril L

    2014-01-01

    Background Though recent data suggest that multidisciplinary outpatient interventions can have a positive effect on childhood obesity, it is still unclear which program components are most beneficial and how they affect quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to determine if a 1-year multidisciplinary, family-centered outpatient intervention based on social cognitive theory would be effective in (i) preventing further increases in BMI and BMI z-score, and (ii) improving QoL in obese ...

  16. A new method with flexible and balanced control of false negatives and false positives for hit selection in RNA interference high-throughput screening assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohua Douglas

    2007-08-01

    The z-score method and its variants for testing mean difference are commonly used for hit selection in high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. Strictly standardized mean difference (SSMD) offers a way to measure and classify the short interfering RNA (siRNA) effects. In this article, based on SSMD, the authors propose a new testing method for hit selection in RNA interference (RNAi) HTS assays. This SSMD-based method allows the differentiation between siRNAs with large and small effects on the assay output and maintains flexible and balanced control of both the false-negative rate, in which the siRNAs with strong effects are not selected as hits, and the restricted false-positive rate, in which the siRNAs with weak or no effects are selected as hits. This method directly addresses the size of siRNA effects represented by the strength of difference between an siRNA and a negative reference, whereas the classic z-score method and t-test of testing no mean difference address whether the mean of an siRNA is exactly the same as the mean of a negative reference. This method can readily control the false-negative rate, whereas it is nontrivial for the classic z-score method and t-test to control the false-negative rate. Therefore, theoretically, the SSMD-based method offers better control of the sizes of siRNA effects and the associated false-positive and false-negative rates than the commonly used z-score method and t-test for hit selection in HTS assays. The SSMD-based method should generally be applicable to any assay in which the end point is a difference in signal compared to a reference sample, including those for RNAi, receptor, enzyme, and cellular function.

  17. Greater access to fast food outlets is associated with poorer bone health in young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Christina; Parsons, Camille; Godfrey, Keith; Robinson, Sian; Harvey, Nicholas C; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Identifying factors that contribute to optimal childhood bone development could help pinpoint strategies to improve long term bone health. A healthy diet positively influences bone health from before birth and during childhood. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between residential neighbourhood food environment and bone mass in infants and children. Methods 1107 children participating in the Southampton Women’s Survey, United Kingdom, underwent measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at birth and four and/or six years by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Cross-sectional observational data describing food outlets within the boundary of each participant’s neighbourhood were used to derive three measures of the food environment: the counts of fast food outlets, healthy speciality stores and supermarkets. Results Neighbourhood exposure to fast food outlets was associated with lower BMD in infancy (β=−0.23(z-score): 95% CI −0.38, −0.08), and lower BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables (β=−0.17(z-score): 95% CI −0.32, −0.02). Increasing neighbourhood exposure to healthy speciality stores was associated with higher BMD at four and six years (β=0.16(z-score): 95% CI 0.00, 0.32 and β=0.13(z-score): 95% CI −0.01, 0.26 respectively). The relationship with BMC after adjustment for bone area and confounding variables was statistically significant at four years but not at six years. Conclusions The neighbourhood food environment pregnant mothers and young children are exposed to may effect bone development during early childhood. If confirmed in future studies, action to reduce access to fast food outlets could have benefits for childhood development and long term bone health. PMID:26458387

  18. AN EMPIRICAL EXPLORATION IN ASSESSING THE DIGITAL SKILLS FOR ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela BORISOV; FRATILA Laurentiu; Adrian TANTAU

    2012-01-01

    The idea of the paper was inspired by link between the process of digital skills` acquiring and the evolving digital divide. There are referred some evaluations on the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as related to different facets of computer and internet skills. Some methods are involved to make a picture of the current situation on Romania in this domain: comparative statistical analysis, and the decile approach and z-scores. The countries of interest were Sweden and Finland ...

  19. Bankruptcy and Financial Distress Prediction in the Mobile Telecom Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kpodoh, Bright

    2010-01-01

    Background and Problem Discussion: Signs of eminent business failure are usually evident long before official bankruptcy of any form, be it re-organization or liquidation. A number of methods have been developed over the years to assess the financial health of corporations, either using financial ratios directly or using bankruptcy prediction models based on grounded financial theories and ratios. Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to test Altman’s Z-score prediction model using sample da...

  20. Proportion of children meeting recommendations for 24-hour movement guidelines and associations with adiposity in a 12-country study

    OpenAIRE

    Roman-Viñas, Blanca; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Peter T. Katzmarzyk; Fogelholm, Mikael; Estelle V. Lambert; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Tremblay, Mark S; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background The Canadian 24-h movement guidelines were developed with the hope of improving health and future health outcomes in children and youth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate adherence to the 3 recommendations most strongly associated with health outcomes in new 24-h movement guidelines and their relationship with adiposity (obesity and body mass index z-score) across countries participating in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE)...

  1. [Impact of an intervention on diet and physical activity on obesity prevalence in schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratner G, Rinat; Durán A, Samuel; Garrido L, María Jesús; Balmaceda H, Sebastián; Jadue H, Liliana; Atalah S, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In Chile childhood obesity is a growing public health problem. Intervention programs within schools have shown variable results, with better impacts when multiple aspects are involved and included the entire educational community. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect on the nutritional status of children in intervention schools within 2 years of duration (Healthy Living Program). The sample included 2,527 students first through fourth grade of 3 counties of Santiago. The students were intervened and followed for a period of two years in their food and nutrition habits, physical activity and self-care practices, by a team of nutritionists and physical education teachers. Weight and height were measured at start of program, end of the first and second years of intervention, under standardized conditions and calculated the Z score of BMI and nutritional status according to the WHO reference 2007. At the end of the second year 1,453 children were reassessed. There was a significant decrease in BMI Z score in obese children (-0.3 SD) and obesity decreased from 21.8% to 18.4% at the end of the intervention. 75% of schoolchildren obese and 60.5% overweight decreased their BMI Z score, reduction that was greater in men and students in the upper grades. 51.9% of normal weight children increased their BMI Z-score age, although most less than 0.5 SD. The intervention in education, nutrition and physical activity among schoolchildren in three communes of Greater Santiago was effective in reducing the prevalence of obesity (-3.4 percentage points). The big challenge is to find mechanisms to give continuity to the program and evaluate long-term effects. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased Body Mass Index in Schoolchildren After Yearlong Information Sessions With Parents Reinforced With Web and Mobile Phone Resources: Community Trial

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background The obesity pandemic has now reached children, and households should change their lifestyles to prevent it. Objective The objective was to assess the effect of a comprehensive intervention on body mass index z-score (BMIZ) in schoolchildren. Methods A yearlong study was conducted at 4 elementary schools in Mexico City. Intervention group (IG) and control group (CG) were split equally between governmental and private schools. Three educational in-person parents and children sessions...

  3. The feasibility study of non-invasive fetal trisomy 18 and 21 detection with semiconductor sequencing platform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Jeon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT technologies are based on next-generation sequencing (NGS. NGS allows rapid and effective clinical diagnoses to be determined with two common sequencing systems: Illumina and Ion Torrent platforms. The majority of NIPT technology is associated with Illumina platform. We investigated whether fetal trisomy 18 and 21 were sensitively and specifically detectable by semiconductor sequencer: Ion Proton. METHODS: From March 2012 to October 2013, we enrolled 155 pregnant women with fetuses who were diagnosed as high risk of fetal defects at Xiamen Maternal & Child Health Care Hospital (Xiamen, Fujian, China. Adapter-ligated DNA libraries were analyzed by the Ion Proton™ System (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY, USA with an average 0.3× sequencing coverage per nucleotide. Average total raw reads per sample was 6.5 million and mean rate of uniquely mapped reads was 59.0%. The results of this study were derived from BWA mapping. Z-score was used for fetal trisomy 18 and 21 detection. RESULTS: Interactive dot diagrams showed the minimal z-score values to discriminate negative versus positive cases of fetal trisomy 18 and 21. For fetal trisomy 18, the minimal z-score value of 2.459 showed 100% positive predictive and negative predictive values. The minimal z-score of 2.566 was used to classify negative versus positive cases of fetal trisomy 21. CONCLUSION: These results provide the evidence that fetal trisomy 18 and 21 detection can be performed with semiconductor sequencer. Our data also suggest that a prospective study should be performed with a larger cohort of clinically diverse obstetrics patients.

  4. Adipokines: A Possible Contribution to Vascular and Bone Remodeling in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, Evgenia A; Ugai, Ludmila G; Maistrovskaia, Yuliya V; Nevzorova, Vera A

    2017-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a major comorbidity of cardio-respiratory diseases, but the mechanistic links between pulmonary arterial hypertension and bone remain elusive. The purpose of the stud was to evaluate serum adipokines and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels in the patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) NYHA class III-IV and to determine its associations with bone mineral density (BMD). Pulmonary and hemodynamic parameters, BMD Z-scores at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN), serum leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and endothelin-1 (ET-1), were evaluated in 32 patients with IPAH NYHA class III-IV and 30 healthy volunteers. Leptin, adiponectin and ET-1 were higher in the patients with IPAH than in healthy subjects. Visfatin level showed a tendency to increase compared to that of healthy subjects (p = 0.076). The univariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between BMD Z-scores at both sites and 6-min walk test, and inverse relation with pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). Adiponectin and visfatin showed positive correlations with PVR (p = 0.009 and p = 0.006). Serum adiponectin, visfatin and leptin were inversely associated with Z-scores. After adjusting for BMI and FMI, such associations persisted between visfatin and adiponectin levels and Z-scores at both sites. ET-1 related to mPAP, cardiac index and PVR. Negative correlation was observed between ET-1 and FN BMD (p = 0.01). Positive correlations have revealed between ET-1 and adiponectin (p = 0.02), visfatin (p = 0.004) in IPAH patients. These results provide further evidence that adipokine and endothelial dysregulation may cause not only a decrease in BMD, but also an increase in hemodynamic disorders of IPAH.

  5. Spleen volume and clinical disease manifestations of severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria in African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Simon; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Akech, Samuel O; Moore, Christopher L; Maitland, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is common in African children. Severe disease manifestations include severe malarial anemia (SMA) and cerebral malaria (CM). In vitro studies suggest that splenic sequestration is associated with SMA and protective against CM. We sought to characterize the relationship between ultrasonographically derived spleen volume (SV), clinical manifestations and outcome. We conducted a prospective observational study of severe malaria and SV in children aged 3 months to 12 years in Eastern Uganda. An SV normogram was generated from 186 healthy controls and adjusted for total body surface area (TBSA). Children with severe P. falciparum malaria were classified according to disease phenotype, and SV z-scores were compared for cases and controls to assess the degree of spleen enlargement. One hundred and four children with severe malaria, median age 19.2 months, were enrolled; 54 were classified as having SMA and 15 with CM. Mortality was 27% in the CM group vs 1.9% in the SMA group. TBSA-adjusted SV z-scores were lower in children with CM compared to SMA (1.98 [95% CI 1.38-2.57] vs 2.73 [95% CI 2.41-3.04]; p=0.028). Mean SV z-scores were lower in children who died (1.20 [95% CI 0.14-2.25]) compared to survivors (2.58 [95% CI 2.35-2.81]); p=0.004. SV is lower in CM compared to SMA. Severe malaria with no increase in SV z-score may be associated with mortality.

  6. Additional Protein Fortification Is Necessary in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants Fed Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Houeto, Nellie; Buffin, Rachel; Loys, Claire-Marie; Godbert, Isabelle; Haÿs, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, approximately one in three (49/152, 32.2%) extremely low-birth-weight infants were demonstrated to require additional protein intake to supplement the standard fortification to achieve satisfactory weight gain. This additional protein fortification also resulted in a rapid increase in length-for-age (P < 0.001) and head circumference-for-age (P = 0.02) z scores.

  7. A Web-Accessible Protein Structure Prediction Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    procedure described previously. Finally, the top-scoring models from this round are structurally compared against the SCOP [18] using the combinatorial...confidence rank, SCOP template ID, % identity to template, SCOP fold family ID, and SCOP fold description. Finally, the ab initio component (not...shown) lists Z-score rank, SCOP template ID, model score, SCOP fold family ID, and SCOP fold description. Scaling: Different components of the

  8. Neither a zinc supplement nor phytate-reduced maize nor their combination enhance growth of 6- to 12-month-old Guatemalan infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K Michael; Westcott, Jamie E; Solomons, Noel W; Raboy, Victor; Das, Abhik; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L; Krebs, Nancy F

    2010-05-01

    After age 6 mo, the combination of breast-feeding and unfortified plant-based complementary feeding provides inadequate zinc (Zn). Additionally, high phytate intakes compromise the bioavailability of zinc. Our principal objective in this randomized controlled, doubly masked trial was to determine the effect of substituting low-phytate maize, a daily 5-mg zinc supplement, or both, in infants between ages 6-12 mo on impaired linear growth velocity, a common feature of zinc deficiency. In the Western Highlands of Guatemala, 412 infants were randomized to receive low-phytate or control maize. Within each maize group, infants were further randomized to receive a zinc supplement or placebo. Length, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. There were no significant differences between the 2 maize groups or between the Zn supplement and placebo groups and no treatment interaction was observed for length-for-age (LAZ), weight-for-length (WLZ) or head circumference Z-scores. Overall mean (+/- SD) Z-scores at 6 mo for combined treatment groups were: LAZ, -2.1 +/- 1.1; WLZ, 0.7 +/- 1.0; and head circumference Z-score, -0.7.0 +/- 1.0. At 12 mo, these had declined further to: LAZ, -2.5 +/- 1.1; WLZ, -0.0 +/- 0.9; and head circumference Z-score, -0.9 +/- 1.1; 83.3% were stunted and 2% were wasted. Low linear growth in older Guatemalan infants was not improved with either low-phytate maize or a daily 5-mg zinc supplement. Low contribution of maize to the complementary food of the infants negated any potential advantage of feeding low-phytate maize.

  9. Bone mineral density in children and young adults with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Dagalakis, Urania; Sinaii, Ninet; Bornstein, Ethan; Kim, Aerang; Lokie, Kelsey B; Baldwin, Andrea M; Reynolds, James C; Dombi, Eva; Stratakis, Constantine A; Widemann, Brigitte C

    2012-12-01

    Concern for impaired bone health in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) has led to increased interest in bone densitometry in this population. Our study assessed bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) and whole-body bone mineral content (BMC)/height in pediatric patients with NF-1 with a high plexiform neurofibroma burden. Sixty-nine patients with NF-1 (age range 5.2-24.8; mean 13.7 ± 4.8 years) were studied. Hologic dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans (Hologic, Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) were performed on all patients. BMD was normalized to derive a reference volume by correcting for height through the use of the BMAD, as well as the BMC. BMAD of the lumbar spine (LS 2-4), femoral neck (FN), and total body BMC/height were measured and Z-scores were calculated. Impaired bone mineral density was defined as a Z-score ≤-2. Forty-seven percent of patients exhibited impaired bone mineral density at any bone site, with 36% at the LS, 18% at the FN, and 20% total BMC/height. BMAD Z-scores of the LS (-1.60 ± 1.26) were more impaired compared with both the FN (-0.54 ± 1.58; P=0.0003) and the whole-body BMC/height Z-scores (-1.16 ± 0.90; P=0.036). Plexiform neurofibroma burden was negatively correlated with LS BMAD (r(s)=-0.36, P=0.01). In pediatric and young adult patients with NF-1, LS BMAD was more severely affected than the FN BMAD or whole-body BMC/height.

  10. APOE ε4 allele modifies the association of lead exposure with age-related cognitive decline in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Diddier; Colicino, Elena; Power, Melinda C; Weisskopf, Marc G; Zhong, Jia; Hou, Lifang; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel; Brenan, Kasey; Herrera, Luis A; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2016-11-01

    Continuing chronic and sporadic high-level of lead exposure in some regions in the U.S. has directed public attention to the effects of lead on human health. Long-term lead exposure has been associated with faster cognitive decline in older individuals; however, genetic susceptibility to lead-related cognitive decline during aging has been poorly studied. We determined the interaction of APOE-epsilon variants and environmental lead exposure in relation to age-related cognitive decline. We measured tibia bone lead by K-shell-x-ray fluorescence, APOE-epsilon variants by multiplex PCR and global cognitive z-scores in 489 men from the VA-Normative Aging Study. To determine global cognitive z-scores we incorporated multiple cognitive assessments, including word list memory task, digit span backwards, verbal fluency test, sum of drawings, and pattern comparison task, which were assessed at multiple visits. We used linear mixed-effect models with random intercepts for individual and for cognitive test. An interquartile range (IQR:14.23μg/g) increase in tibia lead concentration was associated with a 0.06 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: -0.11 to -0.01) lower global cognition z-score. In the presence of both ε4 alleles, one IQR increase in tibia lead was associated with 0.57 (95%CI: -0.97 to -0.16; p-value for interaction: 0.03) lower total cognition z-score. A borderline association was observed in presence of one ε4 allele (Estimate-effect per 1-IQR increase: -0.11, 95%CI: -0.22, 0.01) as well as lack of association in individuals without APOE ε4 allele. Our findings suggest that individuals carrying both ε4 alleles are more susceptible to lead impact on global cognitive decline during aging. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Comparison of Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry and Quantitative Ultrasonography Measurements in Osteoporotic Patients - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule Tütün

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteoporosis (OP is a skelatal disease of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deteriotarion and decreased bone mass. There are many studies in literature that show high sensibility and specifity of quantitative ultrasonography (QUS. Recently many comparatives studies of QUS and dual energy X-ray absorbtiometry (DEXA have been made. In this study we aimed to investigate correlation of QUS and DEXA measurments in 53 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis were enrolled in this study. Material and Method: Fifty three postmenopausal women with osteoporosis were studied: Ultrasound parameters were measured by the DTU-one imaging ultrasonometer in the calcaneus. BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter. QUS measurements of the postmenopausal women was compared with DEXA measurements. Results: There was a significant correlation between QUS T scores and DEXA L2-L4 T scores (r =0.463 p=0.000 p<0.005, there was a significant correlation between QUS Z scores and DEXA L2-L4 Z scores (r =0.589 p=0.000 p<0.005 , there was a significant correlation between QUS T scores and DEXA femur neck T scores (r =0.463 p=0.000 p<0.005 , there was a significant correlation between QUS Z scores and DEXA femur Z scores (r =0.418 p=0.000 p<0.005. Conclusion: Consequently QUS results were correlated with DEXA results in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2008;14:26-8

  12. SOCIOECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC VARIATION IN NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF UNDER-FIVE BANGLADESHI CHILDREN AND TREND OVER THE TWELVE-YEAR PERIOD 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsena, Masuda; Goto, Rie; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas

    2017-03-01

    The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country's health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996-2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban-rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty

  13. Assessing Children’s Time-Use in Relation to Physical Fitness and Risks of Obesity and Diabetes: Development of a New Physical Activity Self-Report Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Guo, J; Santiago-Torres, M; Schoeller, D; Esmond, S; Allen, D; Henderson, M; Rendon, A; Carrel, A

    2016-01-01

    Background This study introduces a novel self-report instrument to measure children’s time-use in physical and sedentary activities and examines the relationships between children’s time-use and physical fitness and risks of obesity and diabetes. Methods The new instrument utilizes a series of timelines, each representing an activity type. 188 children (53% girls) aged 10 to 14 year-old participated in the study. Their time-use data for two weekdays and one weekend day were collected. Anthropometrics and cardiovascular fitness were measured and children’s BMI z-score and PACER z-score were computed. One-time blood draw for fasting glucose and insulin were used to calculate insulin resistance using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR). Results The reliability assessment of this instrument indicated a moderately reproducible procedure (ICC > 0.6) for six activity types. The validity correlation for motorized travel time was high (r = 0.226, P < 0.05) between self-report instrument and GPS tracks. PACER z-score was positively correlated with time-uses of play (r = 0.159, P < 0.05), and organized sports (r = 0.198, P < 0.05); and was highly inversely correlated with BMI z-score (r = −0.441, P < 0.0001) and HOMAIR (r = −0.472, P < 0.0001). Overall, only 14% of the children had physical activity for more than 60 minutes daily over three observation days. Conclusions This instrument is particularly useful in assessing children’s activity patterns, especially for specific physical activities. The new instrument provides a reproducible measure of children’s perception of their activities. Our results emphasize the temporal context which is critical to formulating effective interventions targeting physical activity increase in children. Further efforts are needed to understand the differences between activity time obtained by the new self-report instrument and GPS tracks.

  14. Validation of Global Lung Function Initiative and All Ages Reference Equations for Forced Spirometry in Healthy Spanish Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín de Vicente, Carlos; de Mir Messa, Inés; Rovira Amigo, Sandra; Torrent Vernetta, Alba; Gartner, Silvia; Iglesias Serrano, Ignacio; Carrascosa Lezcano, Antonio; Moreno Galdó, Antonio

    2017-09-18

    Recent publication of multi-ethnic spirometry reference equations for subjects aged from 3-95 years aim to avoid age-related discontinuities and provide a worldwide standard for interpreting spirometric test results. To assess the agreement of the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI-2012) and All ages (FEV0.5) reference equations with the Spanish preschool lung function data. To verify the appropriateness of these reference values for clinical use in Spanish preschool children. Spirometric measurements were obtained from children aged 3 to 6 years attending 10 randomly selected schools in Barcelona (Spain). Stanojevic's quality control criteria were applied. Z-scores were calculated for the spirometry outcomes based on the GLI equations. If the z-score (mean) of each parameter was close to 0, with a maximum variance of ± 0.5 from the mean and a standard deviation of 1, the GLI-2012 equations would be applicable in our population. Of 543 children recruited, 405 (74.6%) were 'healthy', and of these, 380 were Caucasians. Of these 380, 81.6% (169 females, 141 males) performed technically acceptable and reproducible maneuvers to assess FEVt, and 69.5% achieved a clear end-expiratory plateau. Z-scores for FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, FEV0.75, FEV0.75/FVC, FEV0.5, FEF75 and FEF25-75 all fell within ± 0.5, except for FEV1/FVC (0.53 z-scores). GLI equations are appropriate for Spanish preschool children. These data provide further evidence to support widespread application of the GLI reference equations. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Hospital malnutrition and inflammatory response in critically ill children and adolescents admitted to a tertiary intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Critical illness has a major impact on the nutritional status of both children and adults. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of hospital malnutrition at a pediatric tertiary intensive care unit (PICU). Serum concentrations of IL-6 in subgroups of well-nourished and malnourished patients were also evaluated in an attempt to identify those with a potential nutritional risk. METHODS: A total of 1077 patients were enrolled. Nutritional status was evaluated by Z-score (...

  16. Conditional cash transfers and the double burden of malnutrition among children in Colombia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arana, Sandra; Avendano, Mauricio; Forde, Ian; van Lenthe, Frank J; Burdorf, Alex

    2016-05-28

    Conditional cash-transfer (CCT) programmes have been shown to improve the nutritional and health status of children from poor families. However, CCT programmes may have unintended and not fully known consequences by increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. We examined the impact of Familias en Acción (FA), a large CCT programme in Colombia, on the double burden of malnutrition among pre-school and school-aged children. Height and weight were measured before programme enrolment and during follow-ups in 1290 children from thirty-one treatment municipalities, being compared with 1584 children from sixty-two matched control municipalities. We used a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate the effect of FA on children's stunting, BMI z-scores, thinness, overweight and obesity, controlling for individual and municipality-level confounders. At baseline, the prevalences of stunting and overweight were 30·3 and 15·4 %, respectively, in treatment municipalities and 27·9 and 17·4 % in control municipalities. FA was associated with reduced odds of thinness (OR 0·26; 95 % CI 0·09, 0·75) and higher BMI-for-age z-scores (BMI z-scores) (β 0·14; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·27; Peffect of FA on these outcomes was not significant. The CCT programme in Colombia reduced the odds of thinness, but had no effect on stunting, a more prevalent outcome. The FA programme had no effect on overweight or obesity, although BMI z-scores were higher for children under treatment, raising the possibility of an increase of small clinical significance on BMI among pre-school and school-aged children.

  17. Childhood Malnutrition In China: Change Of Inequality In A Decade

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    A concentration index methodology to analyze the inequality in childhood malnutrition in China is outlined. Height-for-age z score is used as a measure of childhood malnutrition. Using household survey data from nine Chinese provinces, it is found that per-capita household income, household head's education, urban residence and access to a bus stop reduced malnutrition. Child's age had a nonlinear effect on the malnutrition status. Income growth and access to public transportation reduced the...

  18. Genetic and environmental factors in associations between infant growth and adult cardiometabolic risk profile in twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touwslager, Robbert N H; Gielen, Marij; Mulder, Antonius L M; Gerver, Willem J M; Zimmermann, Luc J; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Houben, Alfons J H M; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Derom, Catherine; Vlietinck, Robert; Loos, Ruth J F; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2013-10-01

    Accelerated infant growth is associated with an altered, mostly adverse adult cardiometabolic risk profile. The importance of genetic and environmental factors to these associations is unclear. The objective was to examine the importance of genetic and environmental factors in the associations between infant growth and adult cardiometabolic risk factors (anthropometric characteristics, lipids, insulin sensitivity, leptin, blood pressure, and fibrinogen) in twins. Cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed in 240 twin pairs (aged 18-34 y) from the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey. Infant growth was defined as change in weight z score. We regressed intrapair differences in growth during 4 growth windows (0-1, 1-6, 6-12, and 12-24 mo) against intrapair differences in the risk factors in monozygotic and dizygotic twins separately. Within monozygotic twin pairs only, associations between infant growth and most adult lipids, glucose, leptin, and blood pressure (eg, systolic blood pressure: b = 5.95 mm Hg per change in z score, P = 0.01 in monozygotic twins; b = -1.64, P = 0.82 in dizygotic twins from 12 to 24 mo) were found. Within dizygotic twin pairs only, associations between growth and triglycerides and fibrinogen (eg, fibrinogen: b = 0.07 ln mg/dL per change in z score, P = 0.31 in monozygotic twins; b = 0.79, P = 0.01 in dizygotic twins from 0 to 1 mo) were identified. Most associations showed a detrimental effect of accelerated growth, but beneficial associations were also identified (eg, total-to-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol ratio: b = -0.22 per change in z score from 1 to 6 mo, P = 0.008 in monozygotic twins). Our data showed that environmental factors play a role in the associations between infant growth and most adult lipids, glucose, leptin, and blood pressure, whereas genetic factors are involved regarding triglycerides and fibrinogen.

  19. Chronic infection with Achromobacter xylosoxidans in cystic fibrosis patients; a retrospective case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne Hansen, Christine; Pressler, Tacjana; Høiby, Niels

    2006-01-01

    patients (6 males) with chronic A. xylosoxidans infection were matched by age, FEV(1) and body mass index z-score to 15 controls (7 males) at the time of establishment of chronic infection. Clinical parameters of the groups were compared from the time of establishment of chronic infection until spring 2006...... to a decline in lung function in a subgroup of chronically infected CF patients characterised by a rapid increase in specific precipitating antibodies. Cross-infection may possibly occur....

  20. Evaluation of cardiac function in a group of small for gestational age school-age children treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurensanz Clemente, Esther; Ayerza Casas, Ariadna; Samper Villagrasa, Pilar; Ruiz Frontera, Pablo; Bueno Lozano, Gloria

    2017-02-09

    Small for gestational age (SGA) patients have an increased risk of developing a cardiovascular pathology, as well as a metabolic syndrome. Our objective is to evaluate the cardiac morphology and function of SGA children treated with growth hormone (GH), identifying changes that could potentially have long-term consequences. We selected 23 SGA school-age patients and 23 healthy children. We measured their weight, height, blood pressure and heart rate. Using transthoracic echocardiography, we evaluated cardiac chamber size, ascending and abdominal aortic diameter as well as the systolic and diastolic function of both ventricles. SGA children have a higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P<.05) without significant changes in their heart rate. They also have a thicker interventricular septum (SGA Z-score 1.57 vs. 0.89; P=.026) and a worse right ventricular systolic function, with a lower TAPSE (SGA Z-score -0.98 vs. 0.95; P=.000), as well as a lower blood flow rate in the pulmonary artery (SGA 0.85m/s vs. 0.97m/s; P=.045). No significant difference was observed in the patients' left ventricular function. SGA patients' ascending aortic diameter was greater (SGA Z-score -1.09 vs. -1.93; P=.026), whereas the systolic abdominal aortic diameter was smaller (SGA Z-score-0.89 vs. -0.19; P=.015). We found functional and morphological cardiac changes in SGA school-age patients treated with GH. It is important to follow-up this patient group in order to determine if these changes contribute to an increased cardiac morbidity in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Longitudinal relationship of parental hypertension with body mass index, blood pressure, and cardiovascular reactivity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rongling; Alpert, Bruce S; Walker, Sammie S; Somes, Grant W

    2007-05-01

    To investigate whether parental hypertension (HTN) affects children's body mass index (BMI) and cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) over time. A longitudinal study of 315 students (black: 23 females, 19 males; white: 142 females, 131 males) was conducted in the public schools of Obion County, Tennessee, between 1987 and 1992. BMI and BMI z scores were calculated. The CVR task was a series of video games (taking approximately 10 minutes to play) given to the same students in their third-, fourth-, fifth-, seventh-, and eighth-grade years. CVR was defined as the change in blood pressure (delta_BP) or heart rate (delta_HR) between before playing and while playing the video game. Positive parental history of HTN (27.6%) was defined as at least 1 parent with HTN. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to estimate the effects of parental HTN on children's BMI and CVR over time. Children with parental HTN had significant higher BMI, BMI z score, and R_BP than did children without parental HTN (BMI: 21.6 vs 19.9, P = .001; BMI z score: 1.6 vs 1.1, P = .003; R_SBP: 112.6 vs 110.4 mm Hg, P = .01; R_DBP 62.7 vs 60.6 mm Hg, P = .003) after adjustment for covariates. Increased CVR was observed in children with parental HTN compared with children without parental HTN but was statistically significant only for SBP (delta_SBP: 17.2 vs 14.9 mm Hg; P = .01) after adjustment for covariates. Parental HTN independently predicted children's BMI, BMI z score, resting BP, and BP reactivity.

  2. Using of Ratio Analysis for Identification of Opportunities within the Early Notification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ordys

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the use of ratio analysis as a part of early warning and notification systems to identify potential opportunities. The basic issues related to ratio analysis and early notification systems are introduced. In order to exemplify the problem the article presents the analysis of 19 food sector companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange basing on the Altmans classic Z-score model.

  3. Hydroelectric reservoir inundation (Rio Madeira Basin, Amazon) and changes in traditional lifestyle: impact on growth and neurodevelopment of pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; McManus, Concepta; Leão, Renata S; Brandão, Katiane G; Marques, Rayson C; Vieira, Igor H Ito; Guimarães, Jean-Remy D; Malm, Olaf

    2011-04-01

    To assess the dependence on fish consumption of families and its impact on nutritional status and neurodevelopment of pre-school children. Cross-sectional study that measured children's hair mercury (HHg) as an indicator of family fish consumption, growth (anthropometric Z-scores, WHO standards) and neurological (Gesell developmental scores (GDS)) development. Traditional living conditions among families residing in the area adjacent to the Samuel Dam (Western Amazon) hydroelectric reservoir. Two hundred and forty-nine pre-school children (1-59 months of age) from families transitioning from the traditional Amazonian lifestyle. Family fish consumption was significantly correlated with children's HHg concentration (Spearman's r=0.246, Pmalnutrition, i.e. stunting (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ)≤-3), underweight (weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ)≤-3) and wasting (weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ)≤-3) was 5.2% (n 13), 0% and 0.8% (n 2), respectively. The prevalence of moderate stunting (HAZ≥-3 to ≤-2), underweight (WAZ≥-3 to ≤-2) and wasting (WHZ≥-3 to ≤-2) was 8.8% (n 22), 2.4% (n 6) and 4.8% (n 12), respectively. Although 76% of the children showed adequate GDS (>85), multiple regression analysis showed that fish consumption (as HHg) had no impact on GDS, but that some variables did interact significantly with specific domains (motor and language development). The study showed that the families' shift in fish consumption had no negative impact on the growth of young children and that ensuing methylmercury exposure has not been a noticeable neurodevelopmental hindrance.

  4. Caesarean section and adiposity at 6, 18 and 30 years of age: results from three Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Aluisio J D; Santos, Leonardo Pozza; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Motta, Janaina Vieira Dos Santos; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Ina S; Menezes, Ana M B; Gonçalves, Helen; Assunção, Maria Cecília Formoso; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Fernando C

    2017-03-14

    Association between caesarian section (C-section) and obesity is controversial and mostly based on body mass index (BMI), which has inherent limitations. Using direct estimates of body fat mass, we aimed to assess the association between C-section and adiposity using fat mass index and BMI z-score in three birth cohort studies from Pelotas, Brazil. We measured weight, height and fat mass (using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) at ages 6, 18 and 30 years among participants in the 2004, 1993 and 1982 population-based Pelotas Birth Cohort Studies, respectively. We used multiple linear regression analysis to examine the crude and adjusted association between C-section and the body composition indicators. We also modelled height as an outcome to explore the presence of residual confounding. We observed that fat mass index and BMI z-score were strongly and positively associated with C-section in the crude analysis. However, when we adjusted for socioeconomic characteristics, maternal BMI, parity, age and smoking during pregnancy, effect estimates were attenuated towards the null, except for 30-year-old women. In those women from the 1982 cohort, C-section remained associated with fat mass index (β = 0.82; CI95% 0.32;1.32) and BMI z-score (β = 0.15; CI95% 0.03;0.28), even after adjusting for all potential confounders, suggesting an increase in fat mass index and BMI at 30 years among those born by C-section. We found no consistent association of C-section with fat mass index measured by DXA and BMI z-score in individuals aged 6, 18 and 30 years, except for women in the latter group, which might be explained by residual confounding. Confounding by socioeconomic and maternal characteristics accounted for all the other associations.

  5. Pre-training perceived wellness impacts training output in Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Tania F; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Lorenzen, Christian H

    2016-08-01

    The impact of perceived wellness on a range of external load parameters, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and external load:RPE ratios, was explored during skill-based training in Australian footballers. Fifteen training sessions involving 36 participants were analysed. Each morning before any physical training, players completed a customised perceived wellness questionnaire (sleep quality, fatigue, stress, mood and muscle soreness). Microtechnology devices provided external load (average speed, high-speed running distance, player load and player load slow). Players provided RPE using the modified Borg category-ratio 10 RPE scale. Mixed-effect linear models revealed significant effects of wellness Z-score on player load and player load slow. Effects are reported with 95% confidence limits. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a -4.9 ± 3.1 and -8.6 ± 3.9% reduction in player load and player load slow, respectively, compared to those without reduced wellness. Small significant effects were also seen in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE models. A wellness Z-score of -1 corresponded to a 0.43 ± 0.38 m·min(-1) and -0.02 ± 0.01 au·min(-1) change in the average speed:RPE and player load slow:RPE ratios, respectively. Magnitude-based analysis revealed that the practical size of the effect of a pre-training perceived wellness Z-score of -1 would have on player load slow was likely negative. The results of this study suggests that monitoring pre-training perceived wellness may provide coaches with information about the intensity of output that can be expected from individual players during a training session.

  6. 福建省上市公司财务风险的分析及其防范和控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卓林全

    2007-01-01

    本文通过采用美国学者奥特曼于1968年提出的"Z值模型(Z-Score Mode1)",以2004、2005年报数据为基础,对福建省45家上市公司的财务风险程度进行分析,以此有针对性地提出防范和控制财务风险的对策.

  7. MRI-Derived Restriction Spectrum Imaging Cellularity Index is Associated with High Grade Prostate Cancer on Radical Prostatectomy Specimens

    OpenAIRE

    Liss, Michael A.; White, Nathan S.; Parsons, J. Kellogg; Schenker-Ahmed, Natalie M.; Rakow-Penner, Rebecca; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Bartsch, Hauke; Choi, Hyung W.; Mattrey, Robert F.; Bradley, William G.; Shabaik, Ahmed; Huang, Jiaoti; Daniel J. A. Margolis; Raman, Steven S.; Marks, Leonard S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluate a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to improve detection of aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of pre-surgical prostate MRI scans using an advanced diffusion-weighted imaging technique called restriction spectrum imaging (RSI), which can be presented as a normalized z-score statistic. Scans were acquired prior to radical prostatectomy. Prostatectomy specimens were processed using whole-mount sec...

  8. Child malnutrition in Mexico in the last two decades: prevalence using the new WHO 2006 growth standards Malnutrición preescolar en México en las últimas dos décadas: prevalencias usando los estándares de la OMS-2006

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa González-de Cossío; Rivera, Juan A.; Dinorah González-Castell; Mishel Unar-Munguía; Monterrubio, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe preschool malnutrition prevalence and trends in Mexican children for the 1988, 1999 and 2006 Mexican National Nutrition Surveys using WHO-2006 standards and National Center for Health Statistics/WHO (NCHS/WHO) references. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prevalence of undernutrition ( plus 2 z-score for weight/height) were calculated. RESULTS: Height/age and weight/height have increased over time (p< ...

  9. The Influence of Indenter Rotation Angle on The Quality of Vicker Tester Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Jozef Petrík

    2011-01-01

    The object of submitted work is to analyze the influence of the rotation of the indenter (diamond pyramid) and test force on the result of Vickers hardness tester calibration using uncertainty analysis, Measurement systems analysis (MSA), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Z-score.  The rotation anmgle of  indenter affects the values of hardness, repeatability rrel, maximal error Erel and relative expanded uncertainty Urel. The significance of the angle of indenter on the hardness and observed ...

  10. Reconciled Rat and Human Metabolic Networks for Comparative Toxicogenomics and Biomarker Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-08

    Cholesterol- ester Inositol Steroid Nucleotide Cys Met Eicosanoid Arachadonic acid Phe Tyr Trp Pymidine Vitamin E PPP Bile acid Glycan Sphingolipid...organism using a z -score transformation (Fig. 4e). With this method, positive or negative production scores could be interpreted as the increased or...hepatotoxicity. Comput. Struct. Biotechnol. J. 10, 78–89 (2014). 4. Lin, Z . et al. Joint MS-based platforms for comprehensive comparison of rat plasma and

  11. Excessive adiposity at low BMI levels among women in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Saijuddin; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Schulze, Kerry; Ali, Hasmot; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Mehra, Sucheta; Labrique, Alain; Klemm, Rolf; Wu, Lee; Rashid, Mahbubur; West, Keith P

    2016-01-01

    Asian populations have a higher percentage body fat (%BF) and are at higher risk for CVD and related complications at a given BMI compared with those of European descent. We explored whether %BF was disproportionately elevated in rural Bangladeshi women with low BMI. Height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were measured in 1555 women at 3 months postpartum. %BF was assessed by skinfolds and by BIA. BMI was calculated in adults and BMI Z-scores were calculated for females BMI and BMI Z-score cut-offs that optimally classified women as having moderately excessive adipose tissue (defined as >30 % body fat). Linear regressions estimated the association between BMI and BMI Z-score (among adolescents) and %BF. Mean BMI was 19·2 (sd 2·2) kg/m(2), and mean %BF was calculated as 23·7 (sd 4·8) % by skinfolds and 23·3 (sd 4·9) % by BIA. ROC analyses indicated that a BMI value of approximately 21 kg/m(2) optimised sensitivity (83·6 %) and specificity (84·2 %) for classifying subjects with >30 % body fat according to BIA among adults. This BMI level is substantially lower than the WHO recommended standard cut-off point of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2). The equivalent cut-off among adolescents was a BMI Z-score of -0·36, with a sensitivity of 81·3 % and specificity of 80·9 %. These findings suggest that Bangladeshi women exhibit excess adipose tissue at substantially lower BMI compared with non-South Asian populations. This is important for the identification and prevention of obesity-related metabolic diseases.

  12. Parental and child genetic contributions to obesity traits in early life based on 83 loci validated in adults: the FAMILY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A; Robiou-du-Pont, S; Anand, S S; Morrison, K M; McDonald, S D; Atkinson, S A; Teo, K K; Meyre, D

    2016-12-23

    The genetic influence on child obesity has not been fully elucidated. This study investigated the parental and child contributions of 83 adult body mass index (BMI)-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to obesity-related traits in children from birth to 5 years old. A total of 1402 individuals were genotyped for 83 SNPs. An unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) was generated by the sum of BMI-increasing alleles. Repeated weight and length/height were measured at birth, 1, 2, 3 and 5 years of age, and age-specific and sex-specific weight and BMI Z-scores were computed. The GRS was significantly associated with birthweight Z-score (P = 0.03). It was also associated with weight/BMI Z-score gain between birth and 5 years old (P = 0.02 and 6.77 × 10(-3) , respectively). In longitudinal analyses, the GRS was associated with weight and BMI Z-score from birth to 5 years (P = 5.91 × 10(-3) and 5.08 × 10(-3) , respectively). The maternal effects of rs3736485 in DMXL2 on weight and BMI variation from birth to 5 years were significantly greater compared with the paternal effects by Z test (P = 1.53 × 10(-6) and 3.75 × 10(-5) , respectively). SNPs contributing to adult BMI exert their effect at birth and in early childhood. Parent-of-origin effects may occur in a limited subset of obesity predisposing SNPs. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Genome-wide prediction of transcriptional regulatory elements of human promoters using gene expression and promoter analysis data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Seon-Young

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A complete understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of gene expression is the next important issue of genomics. Many bioinformaticians have developed methods and algorithms for predicting transcriptional regulatory mechanisms from sequence, gene expression, and binding data. However, most of these studies involved the use of yeast which has much simpler regulatory networks than human and has many genome wide binding data and gene expression data under diverse conditions. Studies of genome wide transcriptional networks of human genomes currently lag behind those of yeast. Results We report herein a new method that combines gene expression data analysis with promoter analysis to infer transcriptional regulatory elements of human genes. The Z scores from the application of gene set analysis with gene sets of transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs were successfully used to represent the activity of TFBSs in a given microarray data set. A significant correlation between the Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs and individual genes across multiple conditions permitted successful identification of many known human transcriptional regulatory elements of genes as well as the prediction of numerous putative TFBSs of many genes which will constitute a good starting point for further experiments. Using Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs produced better predictions than the use of mRNA levels of a transcription factor itself, suggesting that the Z scores of gene sets of TFBSs better represent diverse mechanisms for changing the activity of transcription factors in the cell. In addition, cis-regulatory modules, combinations of co-acting TFBSs, were readily identified by our analysis. Conclusion By a strategic combination of gene set level analysis of gene expression data sets and promoter analysis, we were able to identify and predict many transcriptional regulatory elements of human genes. We conclude that this approach will aid in decoding

  14. Application of ordinal logistic regression analysis in determining risk factors of child malnutrition in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Das Sumonkanti; Rahman Rajwanur M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The study attempts to develop an ordinal logistic regression (OLR) model to identify the determinants of child malnutrition instead of developing traditional binary logistic regression (BLR) model using the data of Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2004. Methods Based on weight-for-age anthropometric index (Z-score) child nutrition status is categorized into three groups-severely undernourished (< -3.0), moderately undernourished (-3.0 to -2.01) and nourished (≥-2.0...

  15. Comparison of imaging biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: amyloid imaging with [18F]florbetapir positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based analysis for entorhinal cortex atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Amane; Sakayori, Takeshi; Kawashima, Yoshitaka; Higuchi, Makoto; Suhara, Tetsuya; Mizumura, Sunao; Mintun, Mark A; Skovronsky, Daniel M; Honjo, Kazuyoshi; Ishihara, Keiichi; Kumita, Shinichiro; Suzuki, Hidenori; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2015-05-01

    We compared amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in subjects clinically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and older healthy controls (OHC) in order to test how these imaging biomarkers represent cognitive decline in AD. Fifteen OHC, 19 patients with MCI, and 19 patients with AD were examined by [(18)F]florbetapir PET to quantify the standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) as the degree of amyloid accumulation, by MRI and the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for AD to calculate z-score as the degree of entorhinal cortex atrophy, and by mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive component--Japanese version (ADAS-Jcog) for cognitive functions. Both cutoff values for measuring AD-like levels of amyloid (1.099 for SUVR) and entorhinal cortex atrophy (1.60 for z-score) were well differentially diagnosed and clinically defined AD from OHC (84.2% for SUVR and 86.7% for z-score). Subgroup analysis based on beta-amyloid positivity revealed that z-score significantly correlated with MMSE (r = -0.626, p atrophy for AD. Both [(18)F]florbetapir PET and MRI detected changes in AD compared with OHC. Considering that entorhinal cortex atrophy correlated well with cognitive decline only among subjects with beta-amyloid, [18F]florbetapir PET makes it possible to detect AD pathology in the early stage, whereas MRI morphometry for subjects with beta-amyloid provides a good biomarker to assess the severity of AD in the later stage. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Is infant body mass index associated with adulthood body composition trajectories? An exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Lee, M; Towne, B; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2017-02-01

    Infant body mass index (BMI) is increasingly used as a marker of obesity risk based on its association with young-adulthood BMI. The aim of this study is to test the association of infant BMI with young-adulthood fat mass and fat-free mass, and how this association changes during advancing adulthood. Body mass index Z-score at age 9 months was measured in 350 White, non-Hispanic Fels Longitudinal Study participants. This exposure was entered into multilevel models to test its association with trajectories describing 2665 BMI observations and 1388 observations of fat mass index (FMI, kg m(-2) ) and fat-free mass index (FFMI, kg m(-2) ) between ages 20 and 60 years. Partitioning young-adulthood BMI into its fat and fat-free components, infant BMI Z-score was associated with FFMI (β = 0.745; 95% confidence interval = 0.367 to 1.124) but not FMI (0.528; -0.055 to 1.110) at age 20 years. Greater infant BMI Z-score was associated with slower age-related increases in all outcomes, such that (looking at 10-year intervals) only FFMI at age 30 years was related to infant BMI Z-score (0.338; 0.119, 0.557). Focus on infant BMI reduction for adulthood obesity prevention warrants caution as high infant BMI values are associated with greater lean mass, which is protective against ageing changes. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  17. The effects of body mass index on the hereditary influences that determine peak bone mass in mother-daughter pairs (KNHANES V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K M; Kim, Y J; Choi, S H; Lim, S; Moon, J H; Kim, J H; Kim, S W; Jang, H C; Shin, C S

    2016-06-01

    A daughter's bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly correlated with her mother's BMD, but the daughter's body mass index (BMI) could modulate this association. Maternal inheritance dominantly affects daughters with a lower BMI, but BMI could compensate for hereditary influences in daughters with a higher BMI in terms of daughter's BMD. Achieving optimal peak bone mass at a young age is the best way to protect against future osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. Although environmental components influence bone mass accrual, but peak bone mass is largely programmed by inheritance. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of maternal inheritance on the daughter's bone mass and to assess whether these influences differ according to the daughter's body mass index (BMI). We used data obtained from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V and included 187 mother-daughter pairs. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femur neck (FN), and total hip (TH) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The daughter group was stratified into two groups according to the mean BMI (21.4 kg/m(2)). The daughters' BMD correlated significantly with both their BMI and their mothers' Z-score for each skeletal site. In the daughters with a lower BMI (≤21.4 kg/m(2)), the BMDs at the FN and TH were affected more by the mothers' Z-score than by the daughters' BMI. Meanwhile, the influence of the daughters' BMI on their BMD was higher than that of their mothers' Z-score in daughters with a higher BMI (>21.4 kg/m(2)). Moreover, the mothers' Z-scores were a significant predictor of their daughters having Z-scores BMI. This study suggests that maternal inheritance is an important determinant of the daughters' bone mass, but that this hereditary factor may vary according to the daughters' BMI.

  18. Quantifying Human Performance of a Dynamic Military Target Detection Task: An Application of the Theory of Signal Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    applied to analyze numerous experimental tasks (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991). One of these tasks, target detection, is the subject research. In...between each associated pair of false alarm rate and hit rate z-scores is d’ for the bias level associated with the pairing (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991...unequal variance in normal distributions (Macmillan and Creelman , 1991). 61 1966). It is described in detail for the interested reader by Green and

  19. Association of early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body mass index at 4 to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeskowiak, L E; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Morrison, J L; Clifton, V L

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring body mass index (BMI). We undertook a retrospective cohort study using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia. Among a cohort of women delivering a singleton, live-born infants between January 2000 and December 2005 (n=7658), 5961 reported not smoking during pregnancy, 297 reported quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 1400 reported continued smoking throughout pregnancy. Trained nurses measured the height and weight of the children at preschool visits in a state-wide surveillance programme. The main outcome measure was age- and sex-specific BMI z-score. At 4 to 5 years, mean (s.d.) BMI z-score was 0.40 (1.05), 0.60 (1.07) and 0.65 (1.18) in children of mothers who reported never smoking, quitting smoking and continued smoking during pregnancy, respectively. Compared with the group of non-smokers, both quitting smoking and continued smoking were associated with an increase in child BMI z-score of 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.29) and 0.21 (0.13-0.29), respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was also observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average during the second half of pregnancy and the increase in offspring BMI z-score (Psmoking in pregnancy, even if mothers quit, is associated with an increase in offspring BMI at 4 to 5 years of age.

  20. Early intervention for childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Mølgaard, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of two intervention modalities concerning overweight and obesity among children in general practice. DESIGN: Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING: A total of 60 general practices in the former County of Funen, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Overweight children...... models, with a mean of 12 consultations in general practice. CONCLUSION: In this particular setting the two intervention strategies against overweight and obesity did not differ significantly with regard to change in BMI z-scores....

  1. Genetic Analysis of High Bone Mass Cases from the BARCOS Cohort of Spanish Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urreizti, Roser; Civit, Sergi; Cols, Neus; García-Giralt, Natàlia; Yoskovitz, Guy; Aranguren, Alvaro; Malouf, Jorge; Di Gregorio, Silvana; Río, Luís Del; Güerri, Roberto; Nogués, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Grinberg, Daniel; Balcells, Susana

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the study were to establish the prevalence of high bone mass (HBM) in a cohort of Spanish postmenopausal women (BARCOS) and to assess the contribution of LRP5 and DKK1 mutations and of common bone mineral density (BMD) variants to a HBM phenotype. Furthermore, we describe the expression of several osteoblast-specific and Wnt-pathway genes in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases. A 0.6% of individuals (10/1600) displayed Z-scores in the HBM range (sum Z-score >4). While no mutation in the relevant exons of LRP5 was detected, a rare missense change in DKK1 was found (p.Y74F), which cosegregated with the phenotype in a small pedigree. Fifty-five BMD SNPs from Estrada et al. [NatGenet 44:491-501,2012] were genotyped in the HBM cases to obtain risk scores for each individual. In this small group of samples, Z-scores were found inversely related to risk scores, suggestive of a polygenic etiology. There was a single exception, which may be explained by a rare penetrant genetic variant, counterbalancing the additive effect of the risk alleles. The expression analysis in primary osteoblasts from two HBM cases and five controls suggested that IL6R, DLX3, TWIST1 and PPARG are negatively related to Z-score. One HBM case presented with high levels of RUNX2, while the other displayed very low SOX6. In conclusion, we provide evidence of lack of LRP5 mutations and of a putative HBM-causing mutation in DKK1. Additionally, we present SNP genotyping and expression results that suggest additive effects of several genes for HBM. PMID:24736728

  2. Obesity and Aerobic Fitness among Urban Public School Students in Elementary, Middle, and High School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Ruth Clark

    Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk among urban public school students through a collaborative school district and university partnership.Children and adolescents in grades K-12 from 24 urban public schools participated in measurements of height, weight, and other health metrics during the 2009-2010 school year. Body mass index (BMI percentiles and z-scores were computed for 4673 students. President's Challenge 1-mile endurance run was completed by 1075 students ages 9-19 years. Maximal oxygen consumption (⩒O2max was predicted using an age-, sex-, and BMI-specific formula to determine health-related fitness. Resting blood pressure (BP was assessed in 1467 students. Regression analyses were used to compare BMI z-scores, fitness, and age- and sex-specific BP percentiles across grade levels. Chi-square tests were used to explore the effect of sex and grade-level on health-related outcomes.Based on BMI, 19.8% were categorized as overweight and 24.4% were obese. Included in the obese category were 454 students (9.7% of sample classified with severe obesity. Using FITNESSGRAM criteria, 50.2% of students did not achieve the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ; the proportion of students in the Needs Improvement categories increased from elementary to middle school to high school. Male students demonstrated higher fitness than female students, with 61.4% of boys and only 35.4% of girls meeting HFZ standards. Elevated BP was observed among 24% of 1467 students assessed. Systolic and diastolic BP z-scores revealed low correlation with BMI z-scores.A community-university collaboration identified obesity, severe obesity, overweight, and low aerobic fitness to be common risk factors among urban public school students.

  3. Association of eating behaviors and BMI among elementary school students from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Munguía-Lizárraga; Montserrat Bacardí-Gascón; Ana Armendáriz-Anguiano; Arturo Jiménez-Cruz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the association of cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE), and emotional eating (EE) with body max index (BMI) among elementary schools children in Mexico. 5th and 6th grade students were recruited from two schools. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured and BMI was calculated. Overweight and obese children were classified according to the World Health Organizations (WHO) BMI z-score. The TFEQ -R18 questionnaire was applied to as...

  4. Change in body mass index and insulin resistance after 1-year treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in girls with central precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jina; Kim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) is used as a therapeutic agent for central precocious puberty (CPP); however, increased obesity may subsequently occur. This study compared body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance during the first year of GnRHa treatment for CPP. Patient group included 83 girls (aged 7.0-8.9 years) with developed breasts and a peak luteinizing hormone level of ≥5 IU/L after GnRH stimulation. Control group included 48 prepubertal girls. BMI and insulin resistance-related indices (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR] and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index [QUICKI]) were used to compare the groups before treatment, and among the patient group before and after GnRHa treatment. No statistical difference in BMI z-score was detected between the 2 groups before treatment. Fasting insulin and HOMA-IR were increased in the patient group; fasting glucose-to-insulin ratio and QUICKI were increased in the control group (all Presistance compared to the control group. During GnRHa treatment, normal-weight individuals showed increased BMI z-scores without increased insulin resistance; the overweight group demonstrated increased insulin resistance without significantly altered BMI z-scores. Long-term follow-up of BMI and insulin resistance changes in patients with CPP is required.

  5. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 36 months of life was not associated with impaired growth in Nepalese children: An extension of the MAL-ED study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Husan; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Binob; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Tu, Yu-Kang; Gong, Yun-Yun; Egner, Patricia A.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Groopman, John D.; Wu, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct. The aflatoxin exposures in the study participants were compared to anthropometrics at each time period (length-for-age [LAZ], weight-for-age [WAZ], and weight-for-length [WLZ] z-scores), growth trajectories over time, age, and breastfeeding status. Results demonstrated chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort of children, with a geometric mean of 3.62 pg AFB1-lysine/mg albumin. However, the chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort was not significantly associated with anthropometric z-scores, growth trajectories, age, or feeding status, based on the available time points to assess aflatoxin exposure. Low mean levels of aflatoxin exposure and infrequent occurrence of stunting, wasting, or underweight z-score values in this cohort are possible contributing factors to a lack of evidence for an association. Further research is needed to examine whether a threshold dose of aflatoxin exists that could induce child growth impairment. PMID:28212415

  6. Relationship between impulsivity, snack consumption and children's weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline W M Scholten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood overweight is a public health problem associated with psychosocial and physical problems. Personality traits, such as impulsivity, may contribute to the development of overweight. OBJECTIVE: This study examines 1 the association between general impulsivity traits (reward sensitivity and disinhibition and children's weight, 2 the association between impulsivity traits and unhealthy snack consumption, and 3 the potential mediating role of unhealthy snack consumption in the relationship between impulsivity traits and children's weight. METHODS: Included were 1,377 parent-child dyads participating in the IVO Nutrition and Physical Activity Child cohorT (INPACT. Children had a mean age of 10 years. Parents completed a questionnaire to measure children's unhealthy snack consumption. Children completed a door-opening task to assess reward sensitivity and completed a questionnaire to measure disinhibition. Children's height and weight were measured to calculate their BMI z-scores. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses were performed to test the associations. RESULTS: Disinhibition was positively associated with unhealthy snack consumption but not with BMI z-scores. Reward sensitivity was not related to unhealthy snack consumption or to BMI z-scores. CONCLUSIONS: No evidence was found for a mediating effect of unhealthy snack consumption in the relation between impulsivity traits and children's weight. However, disinhibition appears to have a negative influence on children's unhealthy snack consumption. Future research focusing on food-related impulsivity in addition to general impulsivity will provide additional insight into factors that influence children's unhealthy snack consumption and weight.

  7. Effect of nutritional support in children with spastic quadriplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Ozlem Bekem; Unalp, Aycan; Uran, Nedret; Dizdarer, Gülsen; Ozgonul, Figen Oksel; Conku, Aliye; Ataman, Hamide; Ozturk, Aysel Aydogan

    2008-11-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in patients with cerebral palsy. We evaluated the effect of nutritional support on clinical findings in children with spastic quadriplegia. Feeding history, numbers of lower respiratory tract infections, and gastrointestinal and neurologic findings were evaluated via questionnaire. Weight, height, head circumference, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Height for age, weight for age, weight for height, body mass index, and weight and height z-scores were calculated. Clinical findings and anthropometric parameters were re-evaluated after nutritional support for 6 months. Forty-five patients were enrolled. No difference was evident between the first and the last height z-scores of 31 patients who completed the follow-up. Weight, height, weight z-scores, weight for age, weight for height, body mass index, midarm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness exhibited improvement. Moreover, a significant decrease in number of infections was evident. Frequency of seizures and Gross Motor Function Classification System status did not change. Constipation decreased significantly. Nutritional therapy revealed improvements in some anthropometric findings and a decrease in number of infections. Although there was no difference regarding motor development or seizure frequency, further studies with a longer follow-up are required.

  8. Inflammatory Biomarkers Predict Domain-Specific Cognitive Decline in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Gloria C; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Sharma, Monisha; Jenny, Nancy S; Lopez, Oscar L; DeKosky, Steven T

    2017-06-01

    Vascular risk factors, including inflammation, may contribute to dementia development. We investigated the associations between peripheral inflammatory biomarkers and cognitive decline in five domains (memory, construction, language, psychomotor speed, and executive function). Community-dwelling older adults from the Ginkgo Evaluation of Memory Study (n = 1,159, aged 75 or older) free of dementia at baseline were included and followed for up to 7 years. Ten biomarkers were measured at baseline representing different sources of inflammation: vascular inflammation (pentraxin 3 and serum amyloid P), endothelial function (endothelin-1), metabolic function (adiponectin, resistin, and plasminogen activating inhibitor-1), oxidative stress (receptor for advanced glycation end products), and general inflammation (interleukin-6, interleukin-2, and interleukin-10). A combined z-score was created from these biomarkers to represent total inflammation across these sources. We utilized generalized estimating equations that included an interaction term between z-scores and time to assess effect of inflammation on cognitive decline, adjusting for demographics (such as age, race/ethnicity, and sex), cardiovascular risk factors, and apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status. A Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of .01 was used. We explored associations between individual biomarkers and cognitive decline without adjustment for multiplicity. The combined inflammation z-score was significantly associated with memory and psychomotor speed (p cognitive domain (p cognitive decline of nondemented individuals.

  9. Sedentary behavior and physical activity are independently related to functional fitness in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Diana A; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Santos, Rute; Vale, Susana; Mota, Jorge; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-12-01

    The last decades of life have been traditionally viewed as a time of inevitable disease and frailty. Sedentary living and physical activity may influence capacity to perform activities that are needed to maintain physical independence in daily living. A total of 117 males and 195 females, aged 65-103years, were assessed for physical activity and sedentary time with accelerometers and for functional fitness with the Senior Fitness Test battery. Based on the individual scores for each fitness item, a Z-score was created. Associations between functional fitness with sedentary time and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analyzed. A negative association was found between the composite Z-score for functional fitness and the sedentary time, even adjusting for MVPA and other confounders. On the other hand, MVPA was positively associated with the composite Z-score for functional fitness, independently of the sedentary time. In conclusion elderly who spend more time in physical activity or less time in sedentary behaviors exhibit improved functional fitness and other confounders. The results reinforce the importance of promoting both the reduction of sedentary behaviors and the increase of MVPA in this age group, as it may interfere at older ages in order to preserve functional fitness and performance of daily functioning tasks.

  10. Bone mineral density in cystic fibrosis: benefit of exercise capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Jonathan D; Barry, Sinead C; Barry, Rupert B M; Cawood, Tom J; McKenna, Malachi J; Gallagher, Charles G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and objective maximal exercise measurements in adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Twenty-five CF patients (19 males, 6 females, mean age 25.5 yr, range: 17-52) underwent BMD assessment and maximal-cycle ergometer exercise testing. We examined the relationship between gas exchange (% peak-predicted O(2) uptake, CO(2) output, O(2) saturation), exercise performance (maximum power, exercise duration), and respiratory mechanics (tidal volume, rate) with lumbar spine and total proximal femur BMD. The strongest clinical correlate with BMD was forced expiratory volume at 1s (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.36; total proximal femur Z-score, r=0.68, pexercise correlate was % peak-predicted O(2) uptake (lumbar spine Z-score, r=0.44, pexercise parameters and total proximal femur BMD (r=0.43-0.60) than with lumbar spine BMD (r=0.04-0.45). Multiple regression analysis revealed VO(2) to be the strongest independent predictor of BMD (R(2)=0.86, pExercise appears to influence total proximal femur BMD more than lumbar spine BMD in CF. Exercise rehabilitation programs focusing on peripheral strength training may benefit those CF patients with low total proximal femur BMD.

  11. Influence of Malnutrition on Adverse Outcome in Children with Confirmed or Probable Viral Encephalitis: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital from August 2008 to August 2009 to explore the independent predictors of adverse outcome in the patients with confirmed/probable viral encephalitis. The primary outcome variable was the incidence of adverse outcomes defined as death or severe neurological deficit such as loss of speech, motor deficits, behavioural problems, blindness, and cognitive impairment. Patients with confirmed or probable viral encephalitis were classified into two groups based on their Z-score of weight-for-age as per WHO growth charts. Group I. Patients with confirmed or probable viral encephalitis with weight-for-age (W/A Z-scores below −2SD were classified as undernourished. Group II. Patients with confirmed or probable viral encephalitis were classified as having normal nutritional status (weight-for-age Z-score >−2SD. A total of 114 patients were classified as confirmed or probable viral encephalitis based on detailed investigations. On multivariate logistic regression, undernutrition (adjusted OR: 5.05; 95% CI: 1.92 to 13.44 and requirement of ventilation (adjusted OR: 6.75; 95% CI: 3.63 to 77.34 were independent predictors of adverse outcomes in these patients. Thus, the results from our study highlight that the association between undernutrition and adverse outcome could be extended to the patients with confirmed/probable viral encephalitis.

  12. Significant effects of birth-related biological factors on pre-adolescent nutritional status among rural Sundanese in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2005-07-01

    The Sundanese inhabiting West Java, the second largest ethnic group in Indonesia, are characterized by a high prevalence of child malnutrition, together with high fertility. Based on an anthropometric measurement and interview survey of 310 children aged 5-12 years in a rural Sundanese village, this study examined the relative significance of the effects of eight biological, eight socioeconomic status (SES) and four health behavioural factors on their Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) in particular. Three biological factors, i.e. birth interval, birth weight and mother's body weight, and one SES factor, i.e. mother's occupation, were selected as the predictors of the two Z scores by regression analysis, indicating more significant effects of the biological factors than the other factors. This pattern is judged to occur in less-developed and high-fertility populations. Since these two Z scores were worse in the subject children than in the under-5-year-old children from the same village, more attention should be paid to the long-lasting effects of birth-related biological factors up to pre-adolescent ages, as an insufficient nutritional status tends to damage growth and health in adolescence and adulthood.

  13. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 36 months of life was not associated with impaired growth in Nepalese children: An extension of the MAL-ED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Hsu, Hui-Husan; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Binob; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Tu, Yu-Kang; Gong, Yun-Yun; Egner, Patricia A; Ulak, Manjeswori; Groopman, John D; Wu, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct. The aflatoxin exposures in the study participants were compared to anthropometrics at each time period (length-for-age [LAZ], weight-for-age [WAZ], and weight-for-length [WLZ] z-scores), growth trajectories over time, age, and breastfeeding status. Results demonstrated chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort of children, with a geometric mean of 3.62 pg AFB1-lysine/mg albumin. However, the chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort was not significantly associated with anthropometric z-scores, growth trajectories, age, or feeding status, based on the available time points to assess aflatoxin exposure. Low mean levels of aflatoxin exposure and infrequent occurrence of stunting, wasting, or underweight z-score values in this cohort are possible contributing factors to a lack of evidence for an association. Further research is needed to examine whether a threshold dose of aflatoxin exists that could induce child growth impairment.

  14. Average acceleration and deceleration capacity of fetal heart rate in normal pregnancy and in pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graatsma, E M; Mulder, E J H; Vasak, B; Lobmaier, S M; Pildner von Steinburg, S; Schneider, K T M; Schmidt, G; Visser, G H A

    2012-12-01

    To study fetal heart rate (FHR), its short term variability (STV), average acceleration capacity (AAC), and average deceleration capacity (ADC) throughout uncomplicated gestation, and to perform a preliminary comparison of these FHR parameters between small-for dates (SFD) and control fetuses. Prospective observational study of 7 h FHR-recordings obtained with a fetal-ECG monitor in the second half of uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 90) and pregnancies complicated by fetal SFD (n = 30). FHR and STV were calculated according to established analysis. True beat-to-beat FHR, recorded at 1 ms accuracy, was used to calculate AAC and ADC using Phase Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA). Mean values of FHR, STV, AAC, and ADC derived from recordings in SFD fetuses were compared with the reference curves. Compared with the control group the mean z-scores for STV, AAC, and ADC in SFD fetuses were lower by 1.0 SD, 1.5 SD, and 1.7 SD, respectively (p < 0.0001 for all comparisons). In SFD fetuses, both the AAC and ADC z-scores were lower than the STV z-scores (p < 0.02 and p < 0.002, respectively). Analysis of the AAC and ADC as recorded with a high resolution fECG recorder may differentiate better between normal and SFD fetuses than STV.

  15. Aspects of birth history and outcome in diplegics attending specialised educational facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Faith; Rothberg, Alan; Ratcliffe, Ingrid

    2012-03-21

    We aimed to study functional mobility and visual performance in spastic diplegic children and adolescents attending specialised schools. Spastic diplegia (SD) was confirmed by clinical examination. Birth and related history were added to explore relationships between SD, birth weight (BW) and duration of pregnancy. Place of birth, BW, gestational age (GA) and length of hospital stay were obtained by means of parental recall. Outcome measures included the functional mobility scale (FMS) and Beery tests of visuomotor integration (VMI) and visual perception (VIS). Forty participants were included (age 7 years 5 months - 19 years 6 months). Term and preterm births were almost equally represented. Functional mobility assessments showed that 20 were walking independently in school and community settings and the remainder used walking aids or wheelchairs. There were no significant correlations between BW or GA and outcomes (FMS, VIS-Z scores or VMI-Z scores) and Z scores were low. VIS scores correlated significantly with chronological age (p=0.024). There were also significant correlations between VIS and VMI scores and school grade appropriateness (p=0.004;p=0.027 respectively). Both term and preterm births were represented, and outcomes were similar regardless of GA. VIS and VMI were affected in both groups. Half of the group used assistive mobility devices and three-fifths were delayed in terms of their educational level. These problems require specialised teaching strategies, appropriate resources and a school environment that caters for mobility limitations.

  16. Self-esteem in a clinical sample of morbidly obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, P; Höglund, P; Birgerstam, P; Lissau, I; Pietrobelli, A; Flodmark, C-E

    2009-01-01

    To study self-esteem in clinical sample of obese children and adolescents. Obese children and adolescents aged 8-19 years (n = 107, mean age 13.2 years, mean BMI 32.5 [range 22.3-50.6], mean BMI z-score 3.22 [range 2.19-4.79]; 50 boys and 57 girls) were referred for treatment of primary obesity. Self-esteem was measured with a validated psychological test with five subscales: physical characteristics, talents and skills, psychological well-being, relations with the family and relations with others. A linear mixed effect model used the factors gender and adolescence group, and the continuous covariates: BMI z-scores, and BMI for the parents as fixed effects and subjects as random effects. Age and gender, but neither the child's BMI z-score nor the BMI of the parents were significant covariates. Self-esteem decreased (p self-esteem on the global scale (p = 0.04) and on the two subscales physical characteristics (p Self-esteem is lower in girls and decreases with age. In treatment settings special attention should be paid to adolescent girls.

  17. Pediatric dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: interpretation and clinical and research application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sub Lim

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Peak bone mass is established predominately during childhood and adolescence. It is an important determinant of future resistance to osteoporosis and fractures to gain bone mass during growth. The issue of low bone density in children and adolescents has recently attracted much attention and the use of pediatric dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is increasing. The process of interpretation of pediatric DXA results is different from that of adults because normal bone mineral density (BMD of children varies by age, body size, pubertal stage, skeletal maturation, sex, and ethnicity. Thus, an appropriate normal BMD Z-score reference value with Z-score should be used to detect and manage low BMD. Z-scores below -2.0 are generally considered a low BMD to pediatrician even though diagnoses of osteoporosis in children and adolescents are usually only made in the presence of at least one fragility fracture. This article will review the basic knowledge and practical guidelines on pediatric DXA based on the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD Pediatric Official Positions. Also discussed are the characteristics of normal Korean children and adolescents with respect to BMD development. The objective of this review is to help pediatricians to understand when DXA will be useful and how to interpret pediatric DXA reports in the clinical practice for management of children with the potential to develop osteoporosis in adulthood.

  18. Quantitative characterization of brain β-amyloid in 718 normal subjects using a joint PiB/FDG PET image histogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jon J.; Hanson, Dennis P.; Lowe, Val J.; Kemp, Bradley J.; Senjem, Matthew L.; Murray, Melissa E.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Parisi, Joseph E.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Robb, Richard A.; Holmes, David R.

    2016-03-01

    We have previously described an automated system for the co-registration of PiB and FDG PET images with structural MRI and a neurological anatomy atlas to produce region-specific quantization of cortical activity and amyloid burden. We also reported a global joint PiB/FDG histogram-based measure (FDG-Associated PiB Uptake Ratio - FAPUR) that performed as well as regional PiB ratio in stratifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Lewy Body Dementia (LBD) patients from normal subjects in an autopsy-verified cohort of 31. In this paper we examine results of this analysis on a clinically-verified cohort of 718 normal volunteers. We found that the global FDG ratio correlated negatively with age (r2 = 0.044) and global PiB ratio correlated positively with age (r2=0.038). FAPUR also correlated negatively with age (r2-.025), and in addition, we introduce a new metric - the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r2) of the joint PiB/FDG histogram which correlates positively (r2=0.014) with age. We then used these measurements to construct age-weighted Z-scores for all measurements made on the original autopsy cohort. We found similar stratification using Z-scores compared to raw values; however, the joint PiB/FDG r2 Z-score showed the greatest stratification ability.

  19. Reliable Prediction of Insulin Resistance by a School-Based Fitness Test in Middle-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen DavidB

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 Determine the predictive value of a school-based test of cardiovascular fitness (CVF for insulin resistance (IR; (2 compare a "school-based" prediction of IR to a "laboratory-based" prediction, using various measures of fitness and body composition. Methods. Middle school children ( performed the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER, a school-based CVF test, and underwent evaluation of maximal oxygen consumption treadmill testing ( max, body composition (percent body fat and BMI z score, and IR (derived homeostasis model assessment index []. Results. PACER showed a strong correlation with max/kg ( = 0.83, and with ( = , . Multivariate regression analysis revealed that a school-based model (using PACER and BMI z score predicted IR similar to a laboratory-based model (using max/kg of lean body mass and percent body fat. Conclusions. The PACER is a valid school-based test of CVF, is predictive of IR, and has a similar relationship to IR when compared to complex laboratory-based testing. Simple school-based measures of childhood fitness (PACER and fatness (BMI z score could be used to identify childhood risk for IR and evaluate interventions.

  20. Potensi Kebangkrutan Pada Sektor Perbankan Syariah Untuk Menghadapi Perubahan Lingkungan Bisnis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Nuraini Ihsan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential Bankruptcy On Islamic Banking Sector Facing Business Environmental Changes This research aims is to evaluate the soundness of Islamic banks and to predict the bankruptcy potency from the Islamic banks. The methods that used on this paper are RGEC method and the modified altman z-score analysis. The RGEC is represents by NPF, LR, risk profile, ROA, NCOM, and CAR. The altman z-score is represents by the ratio of networking capital to total asset, retained earning to total asset, earning before interest and tax to total asset, and book value of equity to book value of debt. The result shown that the Islamic bank’s soundness used RGEC methods is fit into healthy category in 2010-2014 periods.  The altman z-score also show that the Islamic banks fit into safe zone in 2010-2014 periods.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v14i2.2268