WorldWideScience

Sample records for group-administered silent reading

  1. Uninterrupted Sustained Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Rick

    A study investigated the effect Sustained Silent Reading (SSR) has had on literacy at Estancia High School in California which recently implemented an SSR program. It also examined the role SSR has on language development, comprehension, vocabulary, student attitudes, and its corollary consequence on the development of reading habits. A survey of…

  2. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Madelon; van Bergen, Elsje; de Jong, Peter F

    2014-12-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in diagnosis of reading impairments. More important, insights gained through examinations of oral reading tend to be generalized to silent reading. In the current study, we examined whether such generalizations are justified. We directly compared oral and silent reading fluency by examining whether these reading modes relate to the same underlying skills. In total, 132 fourth graders read words, sentences, and text orally, and 123 classmates read the same material silently. As underlying skills, we considered phonological awareness, rapid naming, and visual attention span. All skills correlated significantly with both reading modes. Phonological awareness contributed equally to oral and silent reading. Rapid naming, however, correlated more strongly with oral reading than with silent reading. Visual attention span correlated equally strongly with both reading modes but showed a significant unique contribution only to silent reading. In short, we showed that oral and silent reading indeed are fairly similar reading modes, based on the relations with reading-related cognitive skills. However, we also found differences that warrant caution in generalizing findings across reading modes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Underlying skills of oral and silent reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boer, M.; van Bergen, E.; de Jong, P.F.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined reading and reading development. The majority of these studies, however, focused on oral reading rather than on the more dominant silent reading mode. Similarly, it is common practice to assess oral reading abilities rather than silent reading abilities in schools and in d

  4. The Effects of Oral and Silent Reading on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Naomi; Ness, Molly

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reading mode (oral and silent) and text genre (narrative and expository) on fourth graders' reading comprehension. While controlling for prior reading ability of 48 participants, we measured comprehension. Using a repeated measured design, data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, paired t-tests, and…

  5. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  6. Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Soonhwa; DaCosta, Boaventura

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students…

  7. Using Vocal and Silent Reading Approaches for the Enhancement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    of teaching reading skills in English Language through the use of vocal and silent reading ... Performance, English Language, Effective Teaching and Learning. Introduction. Language ..... Reflections on Nigeria's literacy culture. The. Guardian ...

  8. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  9. The Contributions of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Katherine W.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Louwerse, Max M.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Silent reading fluency has received limited attention in the school-based literatures across the past decade. We fill this gap by examining both oral and silent reading fluency and their relation to overall abilities in reading comprehension in fourth-grade students. Lower-level reading skills (word reading, rapid automatic naming) and vocabulary…

  10. Relations Among Oral Reading Fluency, Silent Reading Fluency, and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Variable Study of First-Grade Readers

    OpenAIRE

    Y. S. Kim; Wagner, Richard K.; Foster, E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined oral and silent reading fluency and their relations with reading comprehension. In a series of structural equation models (SEM) with latent variables using data from 316 first-grade students, (1) silent and oral reading fluency were found to be related yet distinct forms of reading fluency; (2) silent reading fluency predicted reading comprehension better for skilled readers than for average readers; (3) list reading fluency predicted reading compr...

  11. The Relations Among Oral and Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Middle School: Implications for Identification and Instruction of Students With Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Carolyn A; Barth, Amy E; Fletcher, Jack M; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Sharon; Cirino, Paul T; Romain, Melissa; Francis, David J

    2011-01-13

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations among oral and silent reading fluency and reading comprehension for students in Grades 6 to 8 (n = 1,421) and the use of fluency scores to identify middle school students who are at risk for failure on a high-stakes reading test. Results indicated moderate positive relations between measures of fluency and comprehension. Oral reading fluency (ORF) on passages was more strongly related to reading comprehension than ORF on word lists. A group-administered silent reading sentence verification test approximated the classification accuracy of individually administered ORF passages. The correlation between a maze task and comprehension was weaker than has been reported for elementary students. The best predictor of a high-stakes reading comprehension test was the previous year's administration of the grade-appropriate test; fluency and verbal knowledge measures accounted for only small amounts of unique variance beyond that accounted for by the previous year's administration.

  12. The Competency of Rational Silent Reading, Its Synthesized Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Šernas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Board documents [6] approved by the Ministry of Education [7, 8] orient the European countries, teachers to ensure a very good, masterful acquisition of three languages (Vantage B2. This attitude is related to an individual’s acquired level of the rational silent reading. The author has been interested in the problem of rational silent reading for 35 years. In the empirical research and experiments there took part more than 500 pupils, students, teachers, employees of different spheres, secondary schools graduates. From the point of view of rational silent reading Lithuania is significantly lagging behind other countries. There are many reasons for that. In order to highlight them there has been briefly studied the content of the rational silent reading according to B2 level; touched on the most significant dimensions of this competency, reviewed the consistent patterns and content of the teaching and learning process of the rational silent reading as well as the norms of such reading in Lithuanian, English, Russian, French. Some research results are presented. At the end there has been given the whole mosaic of recommendations, based on the research, different glottoeducological, psychological, psycholinguistic, physiological, linguistic, etc literature. The aim of the article is to invite teachers, scientists to participate actively in this problem solution under the new Lithuanian conditions.

  13. Stress Matters: Effects of Anticipated Lexical Stress on Silent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Mara; Clifton, Charles, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents findings from two eye-tracking studies designed to investigate the role of metrical prosody in silent reading. In Experiment 1, participants read stress-alternating noun-verb or noun-adjective homographs (e.g. "PREsent", "preSENT") embedded in limericks, such that the lexical stress of the homograph, as determined by context,…

  14. Beyond Decoding: Phonological Processing during Silent Reading in Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Hazel I.; Pagán, Ascensión; Dodd, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, the extent to which beginning readers process phonology during lexical identification in silent sentence reading was investigated. The eye movements of children aged seven to nine years and adults were recorded as they read sentences containing either a correctly spelled target word (e.g., girl), a pseudohomophone (e.g., gerl),…

  15. Assessing reading fluency in Kenya: Oral or silent assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Benjamin; Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the Education for All movement has focused more intensely on the quality of education, rather than simply provision. Many recent and current education quality interventions focus on literacy, which is the core skill required for further academic success. Despite this focus on the quality of literacy instruction in developing countries, little rigorous research has been conducted on critical issues of assessment. This analysis, which uses data from the Primary Math and Reading Initiative (PRIMR) in Kenya, aims to begin filling this gap by addressing a key assessment issue - should literacy assessments in Kenya be administered orally or silently? The authors compared second-grade students' scores on oral and silent reading tasks of the Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA) in Kiswahili and English, and found no statistically significant differences in either language. They did, however, find oral reading rates to be more strongly related to reading comprehension scores. Oral assessment has another benefit for programme evaluators - it allows for the collection of data on student errors, and therefore the calculation of words read correctly per minute, as opposed to simply words read per minute. The authors therefore recommend that, in Kenya and in similar contexts, student reading fluency be assessed via oral rather than silent assessment.

  16. Vowel Processing During Silent Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Jane; Treiman, Rebecca; Kessler, Brett; Rayner, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Two eye movement experiments examined whether skilled readers include vowels in the early phonological representations used in word recognition during silent reading. Target words were presented in sentences preceded by parafoveal previews in which the vowel phoneme was concordant or discordant with the vowel phoneme in the target word. In…

  17. Silent Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Beth A.; Wallot, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reading fluency by bilingual primary school students, and the relation of text fluency to their reading comprehension. Group differences were examined in a cross-sectional design across the age range when fluency is posed to shift from word-level to text-level. One hundred five bilingual children from primary grades 3, 4, and 5 were assessed for English word reading and decoding fluency, phonological awareness, rapid symbol naming, and oral language proficiency with standardized measures. These skills were correlated with their silent reading fluency on a self-paced story reading task. Text fluency was quantified using non-linear analytic methods: recurrence quantification and fractal analyses. Findings indicate that more fluent text reading appeared by grade 4, similar to monolingual findings, and that different aspects of fluency characterized passage reading performance at different grade levels. Text fluency and oral language proficiency emerged as significant predictors of reading comprehension. PMID:27630590

  18. Inner speech during silent reading reflects the reader's regional accent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Filik

    Full Text Available While reading silently, we often have the subjective experience of inner speech. However, there is currently little evidence regarding whether this inner voice resembles our own voice while we are speaking out loud. To investigate this issue, we compared reading behaviour of Northern and Southern English participants who have differing pronunciations for words like 'glass', in which the vowel duration is short in a Northern accent and long in a Southern accent. Participants' eye movements were monitored while they silently read limericks in which the end words of the first two lines (e.g., glass/class would be pronounced differently by Northern and Southern participants. The final word of the limerick (e.g., mass/sparse then either did or did not rhyme, depending on the reader's accent. Results showed disruption to eye movement behaviour when the final word did not rhyme, determined by the reader's accent, suggesting that inner speech resembles our own voice.

  19. Parafoveal Processing in Silent and Oral Reading: Reading Mode Influences the Relative Weighting of Phonological and Semantic Information in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinger; Laubrock, Jochen; Yan, Ming

    2016-01-01

    We examined how reading mode (i.e., silent vs. oral reading) influences parafoveal semantic and phonological processing during the reading of Chinese sentences, using the gaze-contingent boundary paradigm. In silent reading, we found in 2 experiments that reading times on target words were shortened with semantic previews in early and late…

  20. Abjection in nursing: silently reading the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Sheila Ray

    2014-01-01

    Throughout their careers, nurses must deal with patients that may invoke feelings of dejection, repulsion, or distress. This abjection of the patient is a real issue already established within the literature. This article seeks to enlighten what continues to be silenced in nursing practice. This article will present a paradigm of the nurse, patient's body, and professional caring through the lens of abjection as theoretically defined by Julia Kristeva, using body hair in women as a forum for discussion. Abjection is linked, by its very nature, to the definitions of professional caring. The ability to read a body through the abjection of one's own self is a rite of passage for most nurses.

  1. The Effect of Background Music While Silent Reading on EFL Learners’ Reading Comprehension

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    sakineh sahebdel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to determine the effect of background music while silent reading on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The participants were 57 Iranian EFL learners between the ages of 14 and 16 in two 3rd grade high schoolclasses at pre-intermediate proficiency level. Before treatment,both experimental and control groups took a reading comprehension pretest. In the experimental group, the researchers played Mozart sonatas as background music and asked them to read the passage silently and then answer the reading comprehension questions. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but no music was played while silent reading by the students. After ten sessions, the students of both groups were asked to answer another independent but parallel form of reading section of PET as their post-test. The independent samples t-testresultsindicated that the experimental group outperformed the control group in reading comprehension posttest, and listening to background music while silent reading had a significantly positive effect on Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. The results of the present study have implications for EFL students, teachers, and teacher educators as well as syllabus designers and materials developers.

  2. A Comparison of Reading Rates, Comprehension, and Stamina in Oral and Silent Reading of Fourth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainin, Guy; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Wilson, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between silent and oral reading fluency and comprehension. Findings indicated that fourth grade students had consistent levels of comprehension in both reading modes. Students of all reading levels showed a similar pattern across the segments of a text set in both oral and silent reading--a gradual increase in…

  3. Cue System Usage of Students with and without Learning Disabilities in Oral and Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Jeanne Shay; Arguelles, Maria Elena; Bessell, Ann; Giambo, Debra; Shimizu, Ward; Valle-Riestra, Diana; Zhang, Zhigang

    1998-01-01

    Compares how third- and fifth-grade learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled students use orthographic cues and contextual information during oral and silent reading. Finds that reliance on orthographic cues was consistently more pronounced in the oral than in the silent condition for all groups. Finds differences for students with and without…

  4. Underlying Skills of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency in Chinese: Perspective of Visual Rapid Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K. W.; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These

  5. Underlying Skills of Oral and Silent Reading Fluency in Chinese: Perspective of Visual Rapid Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Kwok, Rosa K W; Liu, Menglian; Liu, Hanlong; Huang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Reading fluency is a critical skill to improve the quality of our daily life and working efficiency. The majority of previous studies focused on oral reading fluency rather than silent reading fluency, which is a much more dominant reading mode that is used in middle and high school and for leisure reading. It is still unclear whether the oral and silent reading fluency involved the same underlying skills. To address this issue, the present study examined the relationship between the visual rapid processing and Chinese reading fluency in different modes. Fifty-eight undergraduate students took part in the experiment. The phantom contour paradigm and the visual 1-back task were adopted to measure the visual rapid temporal and simultaneous processing respectively. These two tasks reflected the temporal and spatial dimensions of visual rapid processing separately. We recorded the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task, as well as reaction time and accuracy in the visual 1-back task. Reading fluency was measured in both single-character and sentence levels. Fluent reading of single characters was assessed with a paper-and-pencil lexical decision task, and a sentence verification task was developed to examine reading fluency on a sentence level. The reading fluency test in each level was conducted twice (i.e., oral reading and silent reading). Reading speed and accuracy were recorded. The correlation analysis showed that the temporal threshold in the phantom contour task did not correlate with the scores of the reading fluency tests. Although, the reaction time in visual 1-back task correlated with the reading speed of both oral and silent reading fluency, the comparison of the correlation coefficients revealed a closer relationship between the visual rapid simultaneous processing and silent reading. Furthermore, the visual rapid simultaneous processing exhibited a significant contribution to reading fluency in silent mode but not in oral reading mode. These

  6. A Comparison of Perceptual Motor Skill with Auditory Comprehension as Correlates of Word Recognition, Oral Reading, and Silent Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Chester E.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship of perceptual motor skills as measured by the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test to word recognition, oral reading, and silent reading. In addition, perceptual motor skill and auditory comprehension were compared as correlates of the three reading variables. Subjects were 60 primary grade students in…

  7. The Effects of the Sustained Silent Reading Program on Cultivating Students' Habits and Attitudes in Reading Books for Leisure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Siah Poh

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the effects of the sustained silent reading program on cultivating students' habits and attitudes in reading books for leisure. The author used a time-series design and measured students' reading habits and attitudes three times in twelve months. It was expected that if the program created positive effects on cultivating…

  8. Is There Any Benefit in Trying to Obtain Rate of Oral or Silent Reading Measures? (Questions and Answers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikulski, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using oral or silent reading rates to evaluate reading ability. Argues that although there are potential problems with measuring reading rates, it can be a useful way of documenting students' progress. (MM)

  9. Differences in Literal and Inferential Comprehension after Reading Orally and Silently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Samuel D.; Smith, Donald E. P.

    To test the assumption that questions measuring literal comprehension and those measuring inferential comprehension are equally valid indices for both oral and silent reading tests at all skill levels, questions from the Analytic Reading Inventory were classified as either literal or inferential. Subjects, 94 children in grades two to five, read…

  10. What Are the Underlying Skills of Silent Reading Acquisition? A Developmental Study from Kindergarten to the 2nd Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Kochva, Irit

    2013-01-01

    Research on reading acquisition and on the processes underlying it usually examined reading orally, while silent reading, which is the more common mode of reading, has been rather neglected. As accumulated data suggests that these two modes of reading only partially overlap, our understanding of the natural mode of reading may still be limited.…

  11. Eye Movements during Silent and Oral Reading in a Regular Orthography: Basic Characteristics and Correlations with Childhood Cognitive Abilities and Adolescent Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pokorny, Florian B.; Zhang, Dajie; Landerl, Karin; Körner, Christof; Pernkopf, Franz; Pock, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants’ age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants’ reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6–12). The results show that (i) reading mode significantly influenced both spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movement patterns; (ii) articulation decreased the consistency of intraindividual reading performances with regard to a significant number of eye movement parameters; (iii) reading skills predicted the majority of eye movement parameters during silent reading, but influenced only a restricted number of eye movement parameters when reading orally; (iv) differences with respect to a subset of eye movement parameters increased with reading skills; (v) an overall preschool cognitive performance score predicted reading skills at the age of 13;6 (years;months), but not eye movement patterns during either silent or oral reading. However, we found a few significant correlations between preschool performances on subscales of sequential and simultaneous processing and eye movement parameters for both reading modes. Overall, the findings suggest that eye movement patterns depend on the reading mode. Preschool cognitive abilities were more closely related to eye movement patterns of oral than silent reading, while reading skills predicted eye movement patterns during silent reading, but less so during oral reading. PMID:28151950

  12. Eye Movements during Silent and Oral Reading in a Regular Orthography: Basic Characteristics and Correlations with Childhood Cognitive Abilities and Adolescent Reading Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Pokorny, Florian B; Zhang, Dajie; Landerl, Karin; Körner, Christof; Pernkopf, Franz; Pock, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa; Marschik, Peter B

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to define differences between silent and oral reading with respect to spatial and temporal eye movement parameters. Eye movements of 22 German-speaking adolescents (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were recorded while reading an age-appropriate text silently and orally. Preschool cognitive abilities were assessed at the participants' age of 5;7 (years;months) using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The participants' reading speed and reading comprehension at the age of 13;6 (years;months) were determined using a standardized inventory to evaluate silent reading skills in German readers (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12). The results show that (i) reading mode significantly influenced both spatial and temporal characteristics of eye movement patterns; (ii) articulation decreased the consistency of intraindividual reading performances with regard to a significant number of eye movement parameters; (iii) reading skills predicted the majority of eye movement parameters during silent reading, but influenced only a restricted number of eye movement parameters when reading orally; (iv) differences with respect to a subset of eye movement parameters increased with reading skills; (v) an overall preschool cognitive performance score predicted reading skills at the age of 13;6 (years;months), but not eye movement patterns during either silent or oral reading. However, we found a few significant correlations between preschool performances on subscales of sequential and simultaneous processing and eye movement parameters for both reading modes. Overall, the findings suggest that eye movement patterns depend on the reading mode. Preschool cognitive abilities were more closely related to eye movement patterns of oral than silent reading, while reading skills predicted eye movement patterns during silent reading, but less so during oral reading.

  13. Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading.

  14. Evaluating Silent Reading Performance with an Eye Tracking System in Patients with Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Noriaki; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between silent reading performance and visual field defects in patients with glaucoma using an eye tracking system. Methods Fifty glaucoma patients (Group G; mean age, 52.2 years, standard deviation: 11.4 years) and 20 normal controls (Group N; mean age, 46.9 years; standard deviation: 17.2 years) were included in the study. All participants in Group G had early to advanced glaucomatous visual field defects but better than 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes. Participants silently read Japanese articles written horizontally while the eye tracking system monitored and calculated reading duration per 100 characters, number of fixations per 100 characters, and mean fixation duration, which were compared with mean deviation and visual field index values from Humphrey visual field testing (24–2 and 10–2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard) of the right versus left eye and the better versus worse eye. Results There was a statistically significant difference between Groups G and N in mean fixation duration (G, 233.4 msec; N, 215.7 msec; P = 0.010). Within Group G, significant correlations were observed between reading duration and 24–2 right mean deviation (rs = -0.280, P = 0.049), 24–2 right visual field index (rs = -0.306, P = 0.030), 24–2 worse visual field index (rs = -0.304, P = 0.032), and 10–2 worse mean deviation (rs = -0.326, P = 0.025). Significant correlations were observed between mean fixation duration and 10–2 left mean deviation (rs = -0.294, P = 0.045) and 10–2 worse mean deviation (rs = -0.306, P = 0.037), respectively. Conclusions The severity of visual field defects may influence some aspects of reading performance. At least concerning silent reading, the visual field of the worse eye is an essential element of smoothness of reading. PMID:28095478

  15. The Unique Relation of Silent Reading Fluency to End-of-Year Reading Comprehension: Understanding Individual Differences at the Student, Classroom, School, and District Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Despite many previous studies on reading fluency (measured by a maze task) as a screening measure, our understanding is limited about the utility of silent reading fluency in predicting later reading comprehension and contextual influences (e.g., schools and districts) on reading comprehension achievement. In the present study we examined: (1) How…

  16. The Unique Relation of Silent Reading Fluency to End-of-Year Reading Comprehension: Understanding Individual Differences at the Student, Classroom, School, and District Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Petscher, Yaacov; Foorman, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Despite many previous studies on reading fluency (measured by a maze task) as a screening measure, our understanding is limited about the utility of silent reading fluency in predicting later reading comprehension and contextual influences (e.g., schools and districts) on reading comprehension achievement. In the present study we examined: (1) How…

  17. Punctuation and implicit prosody in silent reading: An ERP study investigating English garden-path sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Drury

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first two ERP reading studies of comma-induced effects of covert (implicit prosody on syntactic parsing decisions in English. The first experiment used a balanced 2 x 2 design in which the presence/absence of commas determined plausibility (e.g., John, said Mary, was the nicest boy at the party versus John said Mary was the nicest boy at the party. The second reading experiment replicated a previous auditory study investigating the role of overt prosodic boundaries in closure ambiguities (Pauker et al., 2011. In both experiments, commas reliably elicited CPS components and generally played a dominant role in determining parsing decisions in the face of input ambiguity. The combined set of findings provides further evidence supporting the claim that mechanisms subserving speech processing play an active role during silent reading.

  18. Punctuation and Implicit Prosody in Silent Reading: An ERP Study Investigating English Garden-Path Sentences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, John E.; Baum, Shari R.; Valeriote, Hope; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first two ERP reading studies of comma-induced effects of covert (implicit) prosody on syntactic parsing decisions in English. The first experiment used a balanced 2 × 2 design in which the presence/absence of commas determined plausibility (e.g., John, said Mary, was the nicest boy at the party vs. John said Mary was the nicest boy at the party). The second reading experiment replicated a previous auditory study investigating the role of overt prosodic boundaries in closure ambiguities (Pauker et al., 2011). In both experiments, commas reliably elicited CPS components and generally played a dominant role in determining parsing decisions in the face of input ambiguity. The combined set of findings provides further evidence supporting the claim that mechanisms subserving speech processing play an active role during silent reading. PMID:27695428

  19. Is Syllable Segmentation Developmentally Constrained by Consonant Sonority within Syllable Boundaries in Silent Reading? Evidence in French Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïonchi-Pino, Norbert; de Cara, Bruno; Écalle, Jean; Magnan, Annie

    2015-01-01

    There is agreement that French typically reading children use syllable-sized units to segment words. Although the statistical properties of the initial syllables or the clusters within syllable boundaries seem to be crucial for syllable segmentation, little is known about the role of consonant sonority in silent reading. In two experiments that…

  20. Does Silent Reading Speed in Normal Adult Readers Depend on Early Visual Processes? Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Sommer, Werner; Breznitz, Zvia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship of reading speed and early visual processes in normal readers. Here we examined the association of the early P1, N170 and late N1 component in visual event-related potentials (ERPs) with silent reading speed and a number of additional cognitive skills in a sample of 52 adult German readers utilizing a Lexical…

  1. Chinese College Students' English Reading Comprehension in Silent and Loud Reading-Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In language teaching, emphasis is usually placed on students' reading comprehension, because reading comprehension remains one of the main important factors for their English language learning. Research shows, however, that reading comprehension is a sophisticated process and many students have met difficulties in constructing meaning from writing…

  2. Becoming the Reading Mentors Our Adolescents Deserve: Developing a Successful Sustained Silent Reading Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valarie

    2011-01-01

    Today's adolescents must meet increasing demands for high levels of literacy. However, low self-efficacy and motivation for reading often prohibit adolescents from developing and sustaining positive reading habits. Consequently, educators must provide opportunities for students to experience reading as a rewarding and useful endeavor. Research…

  3. Silent music reading: auditory imagery and visuotonal modality transfer in singers and non-singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Christian; Splittstößer, Christoph; Fliessbach, Klaus; Trautner, Peter; Elger, Christian E; Weber, Bernd

    2014-11-01

    In daily life, responses are often facilitated by anticipatory imagery of expected targets which are announced by associated stimuli from different sensory modalities. Silent music reading represents an intriguing case of visuotonal modality transfer in working memory as it induces highly defined auditory imagery on the basis of presented visuospatial information (i.e. musical notes). Using functional MRI and a delayed sequence matching-to-sample paradigm, we compared brain activations during retention intervals (10s) of visual (VV) or tonal (TT) unimodal maintenance versus visuospatial-to-tonal modality transfer (VT) tasks. Visual or tonal sequences were comprised of six elements, white squares or tones, which were low, middle, or high regarding vertical screen position or pitch, respectively (presentation duration: 1.5s). For the cross-modal condition (VT, session 3), the visuospatial elements from condition VV (session 1) were re-defined as low, middle or high "notes" indicating low, middle or high tones from condition TT (session 2), respectively, and subjects had to match tonal sequences (probe) to previously presented note sequences. Tasks alternately had low or high cognitive load. To evaluate possible effects of music reading expertise, 15 singers and 15 non-musicians were included. Scanner task performance was excellent in both groups. Despite identity of applied visuospatial stimuli, visuotonal modality transfer versus visual maintenance (VT>VV) induced "inhibition" of visual brain areas and activation of primary and higher auditory brain areas which exceeded auditory activation elicited by tonal stimulation (VT>TT). This transfer-related visual-to-auditory activation shift occurred in both groups but was more pronounced in experts. Frontoparietal areas were activated by higher cognitive load but not by modality transfer. The auditory brain showed a potential to anticipate expected auditory target stimuli on the basis of non-auditory information and

  4. Action Verbs and the Primary Motor Cortex: A Comparative TMS Study of Silent Reading, Frequency Judgments, and Motor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasino, Barbara; Fink, Gereon R.; Sparing, Roland; Dafotakis, Manuel; Weiss, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    Single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the hand area of the left primary motor cortex or, as a control, to the vertex (STIMULATION: TMS[subscript M1] vs. TMS[subscript vertex]) while right-handed volunteers silently read verbs related to hand actions. We examined three different tasks and time points for stimulation…

  5. Effective cerebral connectivity during silent speech reading revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Chu

    Full Text Available Seeing the articulatory gestures of the speaker ("speech reading" enhances speech perception especially in noisy conditions. Recent neuroimaging studies tentatively suggest that speech reading activates speech motor system, which then influences superior-posterior temporal lobe auditory areas via an efference copy. Here, nineteen healthy volunteers were presented with silent videoclips of a person articulating Finnish vowels /a/, /i/ (non-targets, and /o/ (targets during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Speech reading significantly activated visual cortex, posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG, posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (pSTG/S, and the speech motor areas, including premotor cortex, parts of the inferior (IFG and middle (MFG frontal gyri extending into frontal polar (FP structures, somatosensory areas, and supramarginal gyrus (SMG. Structural equation modelling (SEM of these data suggested that information flows first from extrastriate visual cortex to pFS, and from there, in parallel, to pSTG/S and MFG/FP. From pSTG/S information flow continues to IFG or SMG and eventually somatosensory areas. Feedback connectivity was estimated to run from MFG/FP to IFG, and pSTG/S. The direct functional connection from pFG to MFG/FP and feedback connection from MFG/FP to pSTG/S and IFG support the hypothesis of prefrontal speech motor areas influencing auditory speech processing in pSTG/S via an efference copy.

  6. Effective cerebral connectivity during silent speech reading revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ying-Hua; Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Chou, Yu-Jen; Tsai, Kevin W-K; Kuo, Wen-Jui; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P

    2013-01-01

    Seeing the articulatory gestures of the speaker ("speech reading") enhances speech perception especially in noisy conditions. Recent neuroimaging studies tentatively suggest that speech reading activates speech motor system, which then influences superior-posterior temporal lobe auditory areas via an efference copy. Here, nineteen healthy volunteers were presented with silent videoclips of a person articulating Finnish vowels /a/, /i/ (non-targets), and /o/ (targets) during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Speech reading significantly activated visual cortex, posterior fusiform gyrus (pFG), posterior superior temporal gyrus and sulcus (pSTG/S), and the speech motor areas, including premotor cortex, parts of the inferior (IFG) and middle (MFG) frontal gyri extending into frontal polar (FP) structures, somatosensory areas, and supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Structural equation modelling (SEM) of these data suggested that information flows first from extrastriate visual cortex to pFS, and from there, in parallel, to pSTG/S and MFG/FP. From pSTG/S information flow continues to IFG or SMG and eventually somatosensory areas. Feedback connectivity was estimated to run from MFG/FP to IFG, and pSTG/S. The direct functional connection from pFG to MFG/FP and feedback connection from MFG/FP to pSTG/S and IFG support the hypothesis of prefrontal speech motor areas influencing auditory speech processing in pSTG/S via an efference copy.

  7. Prosodic Focus Marking in Silent Reading: Effects of Discourse Context and Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, Gerrit; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding a sentence and integrating it into the discourse depends upon the identification of its focus, which, in spoken German, is marked by accentuation. In the case of written language, which lacks explicit cues to accent, readers have to draw on other kinds of information to determine the focus. We study the joint or interactive effects of two kinds of information that have no direct representation in print but have each been shown to be influential in the reader's text comprehension: (i) the (low-level) rhythmic-prosodic structure that is based on the distribution of lexically stressed syllables, and (ii) the (high-level) discourse context that is grounded in the memory of previous linguistic content. Systematically manipulating these factors, we examine the way readers resolve a syntactic ambiguity involving the scopally ambiguous focus operator auch (engl. “too”) in both oral (Experiment 1) and silent reading (Experiment 2). The results of both experiments attest that discourse context and local linguistic rhythm conspire to guide the syntactic and, concomitantly, the focus-structural analysis of ambiguous sentences. We argue that reading comprehension requires the (implicit) assignment of accents according to the focus structure and that, by establishing a prominence profile, the implicit prosodic rhythm directly affects accent assignment. PMID:27014131

  8. Prosodic Focus Marking in Silent Reading: Effects of Discourse Context and Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, Gerrit; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding a sentence and integrating it into the discourse depends upon the identification of its focus, which, in spoken German, is marked by accentuation. In the case of written language, which lacks explicit cues to accent, readers have to draw on other kinds of information to determine the focus. We study the joint or interactive effects of two kinds of information that have no direct representation in print but have each been shown to be influential in the reader's text comprehension: (i) the (low-level) rhythmic-prosodic structure that is based on the distribution of lexically stressed syllables, and (ii) the (high-level) discourse context that is grounded in the memory of previous linguistic content. Systematically manipulating these factors, we examine the way readers resolve a syntactic ambiguity involving the scopally ambiguous focus operator auch (engl. "too") in both oral (Experiment 1) and silent reading (Experiment 2). The results of both experiments attest that discourse context and local linguistic rhythm conspire to guide the syntactic and, concomitantly, the focus-structural analysis of ambiguous sentences. We argue that reading comprehension requires the (implicit) assignment of accents according to the focus structure and that, by establishing a prominence profile, the implicit prosodic rhythm directly affects accent assignment.

  9. The Use of Silent Reading in Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension and Their Achievement in TOEFL Score at a Private English Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapid Ali

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze the use of silent reading in improving students’ reading comprehension and their achievement in TOEFL Score at a Private English Course. The methodology used in the study is quantitative model of analysis base by using inferential statistics analysis; the measurement of correlation coefficient and t-test. The respondents used are students of Private English Course, and the sampling technique used is random stratified sampling with 55 people as the respondents. The result of the research shows that the use of silent reading has a significant and positive influence toward improving students’ reading comprehension and their achievement in TOEFL Score on the study object.

  10. The Use of Silent Reading in Improving Students’ Reading Comprehension and Their Achievement in TOEFL Score at a Private English Course

    OpenAIRE

    Hapid Ali

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the use of silent reading in improving students’ reading comprehension and their achievement in TOEFL Score at a Private English Course. The methodology used in the study is quantitative model of analysis base by using inferential statistics analysis; the measurement of correlation coefficient and t-test. The respondents used are students of Private English Course, and the sampling technique used is random stratified sampling with 55 people as the respo...

  11. Determining the role of phonology in silent reading using event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Randy Lynn; Connolly, John F

    2004-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to delineate phonology's role in silent reading using event-related brain potential (ERP) techniques. Terminal endings of high cloze sentences were manipulated in four conditions in which the terminal word was: (1) the high cloze ending and thus orthographically, phonologically and semantically congruent (e.g., The gambler had a streak of bad luck.); (2) a pseudohomophone that was orthographically incongruent, but was phonologically congruent to the anticipated ending (e.g., The ship disappeared into the thick phog [fog].); (3) a word that was orthographically, phonologically and semantically incongruent to expectations (e.g., The dog chased the cat up the Queen [tree].); or (4) a nonword and consequently orthographically, phonologically and semantically incongruent to expectations (e.g., The gas station is about two miles down the bole [road].). A N270 was elicited by orthographically incongruent words and nonwords (conditions 2, 3 and 4), likely reflecting violations of orthographic form expectations, while the presence of the N400 to semantically incongruent words and nonwords (conditions 3 and 4) reflected violations of semantic expectations. The relative absence of the N400 response to pseudohomophones (condition 3) indicates that integrating word meaning with sentential context is influenced by the phonological representation of the presented letter string. The implication of these results for theories of word recognition is discussed.

  12. The Decline of Comprehension-Based Silent Reading Efficiency in the United States: A Comparison of Current Data with Performance in 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichtig, Alexandra N.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Vorstius, Christian; Pascoe, Jeffrey P.; Pearson, P. David; Radach, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    The present study measured the comprehension-based silent reading efficiency of U.S. students in grades 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Students read standardized grade-level passages while an eye movement recording system was used to measure reading rate, fixations (eye stops) per word, fixation durations, and regressions (right-to-left eye movements)…

  13. The group administered interactive questionnaire: An alternative to individual interviews

    CERN Document Server

    Yerushalmi, Edit; Mamudi, William; Singh, Chandralekha; Lin, Shih-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Individual interviews are often considered to be the gold standard for researchers to understand how people think about phenomena. However, conducting and analyzing interviews is very time consuming. This paper presents the Group Administered Interactive Questionnaire (GAIQ) as an alternative to individual interviews and discusses the pros and cons of each data collection method. Use of GAIQ will be discussed in the context of a study that seeks to understand teaching assistants' reasons for the design of problem solutions for introductory physics.

  14. Silent thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reaction of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located ... lymphocytic thyroiditis; Painless thyroiditis; Postpartum thyroiditis; Thyroiditis - silent; Hyperthyroidism - silent thyroiditis

  15. Silent Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... silent ischemia: An exercise stress test can show blood flow through your coronary arteries in response to exercise. Holter monitoring records your heart rate and rhythm over a 24-hour period (or ...

  16. Becoming a written word: eye movements reveal order of acquisition effects following incidental exposure to new words during silent reading

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Holly S. S. L.; Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Forbes, Paul; Nation, Kate

    2014-01-01

    We know that from mid-childhood onwards most new words are learned implicitly via reading; however, most word learning studies have taught novel items explicitly. We examined incidental word learning during reading by focusing on the well-documented finding that words which are acquired early in life are processed more quickly than those acquired later. Novel words were embedded in meaningful sentences and were presented to adult readers early (day 1) or later (day 2) during a five-day exposu...

  17. On the Interchangeability of Individually Administered and Group Administered Ability Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Baruch; Sela, Roni

    2003-01-01

    This research studied the interchangeability of individually administered and group administered cognitive tests. Seventy undergraduate students took the Hebrew version of the WAIS-R (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised), and their IQs were measured. They also took the IPET (Israeli Psychometric Entrance Test) and their IPET scores were…

  18. Silent myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutterman, David D

    2009-05-01

    Although much progress has been made in reducing mortality from ischemic cardiovascular disease, this condition remains the leading cause of death throughout the world. This might in part be due to the fact that over half of patients have a catastrophic event (heart attack or sudden death) as their initial manifestation of coronary disease. Contributing to this statistic is the observation that the majority of myocardial ischemic episodes are silent, indicating an inability or failure to sense ischemic damage or stress on the heart. This review examines the clinical characteristics of silent myocardial ischemia, and explores mechanisms involved in the generation of angina pectoris. Possible mechanisms for the more common manifestation of injurious reductions in coronary flow; namely, silent ischemia, are also explored. A new theory for the mechanism of silent ischemia is proposed. Finally, the prognostic importance of silent ischemia and potential future directions for research are discussed.

  19. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade two, but not in grade one, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in grade one whereas in grade two, silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency. PMID:22726256

  20. O Lugar da Leitura Silenciosa e da Leitura Oral na vida de Ambrósio, Bispo de Milão (Século IV d. C. * The Place of Silent Reading and Oral Reading in the Life of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (Fourth-Century A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JANIRA FELICIANO POHLMANN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Neste artigo nos propomos a relacionar elementos próprios da leitura silenciosa e da leitura oral na vida de Aurélio Ambrósio, bispo da cidade de Milão entre os anos de 374 e 397. Também aproveitamos a oportunidade para esclarecer algumas funções episcopais assinaladas por Ambrósio, especialmente a tarefa de ensinar. Para tanto, entre as obras examinadas para a execução deste trabalho, ressaltamos De Officiis Ministrorum Libri Tres e Exameron, de autoria do próprio bispo milanês, e o livro Confessionis de Agostinho, discípulo de Ambrósio.Palavras-chave: Ambrósio – Bispo – Leitura silenciosa. Abstract: In this article we propose to relate elements own of silent reading and reading oral in the life of Aurelius Ambrosius, bishop of the city of Milan between the years of 374 and 397. Also took the opportunity to clarify some episcopal functions signaled by Ambrosius, specially the task of teaching. For the achievement of our goals, we mainly examined De Officiis Ministrorum Libri Tres and Exameron, authored by own bishop milanese, and the book Confessionis of Augustinus, disciple of Ambrosius.Keywords: Ambrosius – Bishop – Silent reading.

  1. Examining the Effects of Skill Level and Reading Modality on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…

  2. Examining the Effects of Skill Level and Reading Modality on Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Rachel H.; Meisinger, Elizabeth B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reading skill and reading modality (oral versus silent) on reading comprehension. A normative sample of sixth-grade students (N = 74) read texts aloud and silently and then answered questions about what they read. Skill in word reading fluency was assessed by the Test of Word Reading…

  3. Silent screen: book review.

    OpenAIRE

    Ó Drisceoil, Donal

    2007-01-01

    Book Review. Kevin Rockett, Irish film censorship: a cultural journey from silent cinema to internet pornography (Dublin, 2004) and Mary Corcoran and Mark O'Brien (eds), Political censorship and the democratic state: the Irish broadcasting ban (Dublin, 2005)

  4. A Silent Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) referred 8 times to the NASA "Silent Safety Program." This term, "Silent Safety Program" was not an original observation but first appeared in the Rogers Commission's Investigation of the Challenger Mishap. The CAIB on page 183 of its report in the paragraph titled 'Encouraging Minority Opinion,' stated "The Naval Reactor Program encourages minority opinions and "bad news." Leaders continually emphasize that when no minority opinions are present, the responsibility for a thorough and critical examination falls to management. . . Board interviews revealed that it is difficult for minority and dissenting opinions to percolate up through the agency's hierarchy. . ." The first question and perhaps the only question is - what is a silent safety program? Well, a silent safety program may be the same as the dog that didn't bark in Sherlock Holmes' "Adventure of the Silver Blaze" because system safety should behave as a devil's advocate for the program barking on every occasion to insure a critical review inclusion. This paper evaluates the NASA safety program and provides suggestions to prevent the recurrence of the silent safety program alluded to in the Challenger Mishap Investigation. Specifically targeted in the CAM report, "The checks and balances the safety system was meant to provide were not working." A silent system safety program is not unique to NASA but could emerge in any and every organization. Principles developed by Irving Janis in his book, Groupthink, listed criteria used to evaluate an organization's cultural attributes that allows a silent safety program to evolve. If evidence validates Jams's criteria, then Jams's recommendations for preventing groupthink can also be used to improve a critical evaluation and thus prevent the development of a silent safety program.

  5. The Nature of the Phonological Processing in French Dyslexic Children: Evidence for the Phonological Syllable and Linguistic Features' Role in Silent Reading and Speech Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maionchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable's role and on the impact of French linguistic features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that…

  6. Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students' progress: group-administered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeltova, Ida; Birney, Damian; Fredine, Nancy; Jarvin, Linda; Sternberg, Robert J; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2011-01-01

    This study entailed a 3 (instructional intervention) × 2 (assessment-type) between-subjects experimental design employing a pretest-intervention-posttest methodology. The instructional interventions were administered between subjects in three conditions: (a) dynamic instruction, (b) triarchic or theory of successful intelligence-control instruction, and (c) standard-control instruction. The assessment-type consisted between subjects of either (a) a group-administered dynamic posttest or (b) the same group-administered posttest interspersed with a control filler activity. Performance in different mathematics content areas taught in fourth grade was investigated. In total, 1,332 students and 63 classroom teachers in 24 schools across six school districts participated in the study. The results indicate the advantages of using dynamic instruction and assessment in regular classrooms while teaching mathematics, especially when the student body is highly ethnically diverse.

  7. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: a longitudinal study from Grade 1 to Grade 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-09-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 1, but not in Grade 2, after accounting for text reading fluency (oral or silent) and listening comprehension. In contrast, text reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in Grade 2, but not in Grade 1, after accounting for list reading fluency and listening comprehension. When oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were compared, oral reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for silent reading fluency in Grade 1, whereas silent reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension after accounting for oral reading fluency in Grade 2. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Reading Plus[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Reading Plus[R] is a web-based reading intervention that uses technology to provide individualized scaffolded silent reading practice for students in grade 3 and higher. Reading Plus[R] aims to develop and improve students' silent reading fluency, comprehension, and vocabulary. Reading Plus[R] is designed to adjust the difficulty of the content…

  9. The nature of the phonological processing in French dyslexic children: evidence for the phonological syllable and linguistic features' role in silent reading and speech discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïonchi-Pino, Norbert; Magnan, Annie; Ecalle, Jean

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the status of phonological representations in French dyslexic children (DY) compared with reading level- (RL) and chronological age-matched (CA) controls. We focused on the syllable's role and on the impact of French linguistic features. In Experiment 1, we assessed oral discrimination abilities of pairs of syllables that varied as a function of voicing, mode or place of articulation, or syllable structure. Results suggest that DY children underperform controls with a 'speed-accuracy' deficit. However, DY children exhibit some similar processing than those highlighted in controls. As in CA and RL controls, DY children have difficulties in processing two sounds that only differ in voicing, and preferentially process obstruent rather than fricative sounds, and more efficiently process CV than CCV syllables. In Experiment 2, we used a modified version of the Colé, Magnan, and Grainger's (Applied Psycholinguistics 20:507-532, 1999) paradigm. Results show that DY children underperform CA controls but outperform RL controls. However, as in CA and RL controls, data reveal that DY children are able to use phonological procedures influenced by initial syllable frequency. Thus, DY children process syllabically high-frequency syllables but phonemically process low-frequency syllables. They also exhibit lexical and syllable frequency effects. Consequently, results provide evidence that DY children performances can be accounted for by laborious phonological syllable-based procedures and also degraded phonological representations.

  10. The Silent Giant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necek, Magdalena; Biskup, Ewelina

    2015-11-25

    SFT is a rare spindle cell neoplasm arising mostly at pleural and in rare cases at extrapleural sites. Histology and immunohistology are diagnostic tools. It is crucial to consider SFT as differential diagnosis in pulmonary nodules since they often remain clinically silent until they reach large dimension and to proceed with curative resection without delay. It is essential to follow up patients for a long period of time as recurrence may occur.

  11. Silent pain sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Emmeline; Wollan, Peter C; Melton, L Joseph; Yawn, Barbara P

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the proportion and characteristics of patients with chronic pain who do not seek treatment and assess whether these patients have unmet pain care needs. We performed a cross-sectional survey of residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, from March through June 2004, with additional visit and diagnosis data from the Rochester Epidemiology Project database. Study participants were a random, population-based sample of eligible adult (>30 years) residents of Olmsted County with at least 1 visit to a local health care facility in the past 3 years. Of the 5897 eligible participants, 3575 people (60.6%) responded. Of the respondents who reported pain of more than 3 months' duration, 497 (22.4%) of the 2211 patients stated that they had not informed their physician about their pain. Of these silent sufferers, 70.6% (351/497) reported having moderate or severe pain, 49.2% (243/497) reported having frequent pain (>8 days per month), and 40.6% (202/497) met both criteria. Silent sufferers also reported that pain interfered with their general activity and sleep to a level only slightly less than the chronic pain sufferers who reported discussing their pain with a physician. Silent sufferers made an average of 5.2 ambulatory physician visits per year, which was less than those who sought physician help for their pain (8.6 ambulatory visits per year; P < .001). Men and younger participants were more likely to be silent about their pain (P < .001). More than 1 in 5 people with chronic pain did not seek physician care for their pain. This group is unknown to physicians and therefore represents an unreported patient group with an unmet need for pain care.

  12. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2017-03-07

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  13. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2017-03-14

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  14. Silent store detection and recording in memory storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Pradip; Cher, Chen-Yong; Nair, Ravi

    2016-09-20

    An aspect includes receiving a write request that includes a memory address and write data. Stored data is read from a memory location at the memory address. Based on determining that the memory location was not previously modified, the stored data is compared to the write data. Based on the stored data matching the write data, the write request is completed without writing the write data to the memory and a corresponding silent store bit, in a silent store bitmap is set. Based on the stored data not matching the write data, the write data is written to the memory location, the silent store bit is reset and a corresponding modified bit is set. At least one of an application and an operating system is provided access to the silent store bitmap.

  15. Internet-versus group-administered cognitive behaviour therapy for panic disorder in a psychiatric setting: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Andreas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internet administered cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT is a promising new way to deliver psychological treatment, but its effectiveness in regular care settings and in relation to more traditional CBT group treatment has not yet been determined. The primary aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Internet-and group administered CBT for panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia in a randomised trial within a regular psychiatric care setting. The second aim of the study was to establish the cost-effectiveness of these interventions. Methods Patients referred for treatment by their physician, or self-referred, were telephone-screened by a psychiatric nurse. Patients fulfilling screening criteria underwent an in-person structured clinical interview carried out by a psychiatrist. A total of 113 consecutive patients were then randomly assigned to 10 weeks of either guided Internet delivered CBT (n = 53 or group CBT (n = 60. After treatment, and at a 6-month follow-up, patients were again assessed by the psychiatrist, blind to treatment condition. Results Immediately after randomization 9 patients dropped out, leaving 104 patients who started treatment. Patients in both treatment conditions showed significant improvement on the main outcome measure, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS after treatment. For the Internet treatment the within-group effect size (pre-post on the PDSS was Cohen's d = 1.73, and for the group treatment it was d = 1.63. Between group effect sizes were low and treatment effects were maintained at 6-months follow-up. We found no statistically significant differences between the two treatment conditions using a mixed models approach to account for missing data. Group CBT utilised considerably more therapist time than did Internet CBT. Defining effect as proportion of PDSS responders, the cost-effectiveness analysis concerning therapist time showed that Internet treatment had superior cost

  16. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  17. Assisted Reading with Digital Audiobooks for Students with Reading Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Kelli J.; Whitten, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of assisted reading with digital audiobooks with the traditional practice of sustained silent reading (SSR) in terms of reading fluency and reading attitude with upper elementary students with reading disabilities. Treatment group participants selected authentic children's literature and engaged…

  18. The threat of silent earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervelli, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Not all earthquakes shake the ground. The so-called silent types are forcing scientists to rethink their understanding of the way quake-prone faults behave. In rare instances, silent earthquakes that occur along the flakes of seaside volcanoes may cascade into monstrous landslides that crash into the sea and trigger towering tsunamis. Silent earthquakes that take place within fault zones created by one tectonic plate diving under another may increase the chance of ground-shaking shocks. In other locations, however, silent slip may decrease the likelihood of destructive quakes, because they release stress along faults that might otherwise seem ready to snap.

  19. Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1992-01-01

    Explores what is meant by reading, noting that to read is to respond appropriately to a specific consensus centered on certain values and that the consensus is achieved among persons whose paths through life have come together with members of dominant discourses in society. (SLD)

  20. The silent sinus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monos, Tova; Levy, Jaime; Lifshitz, Tova; Puterman, Moshe

    2005-05-01

    Patients with silent sinus syndrome typically present for investigation of facial asymmetry. Unilateral, spontaneous enophthalmos and hypoglobus are the prominent findings at examination. Imaging of the orbit and sinuses characteristically show unilateral maxillary sinus opacification and collapse with inferior bowing of the orbital floor. It has been suggested that SSS is due to hypoventilation of the maxillary sinus secondary to ostial obstruction and sinus atelectasis with chronic negative pressure within the sinus. Treatment involves functional endoscopic sinus surgery for reestablishing a functional drainage passage, and a reconstructive procedure of the floor of the orbit for repairing the hypoglobus and cosmetic deformity. Ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and radiologists must be familiarized with this relatively newly reported disease.

  1. Reading under the Skin: Physiological Activation during Reading in Children with Dyslexia and Typical Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n =…

  2. Experiences in Reading Instruction as the Road to Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Donna Jean

    1988-01-01

    Describes a model self-improvement reading course for teachers incorporating the communications model, the skills model, and the sustained silent reading model. Concludes that basic reading skills instruction led to improvement in reading skills and that lesson plans incorporating course objectives were produced. (RS)

  3. Elementary Students' Motivation to Read. Reading Research Report No. 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    This study explored 330 third- and fifth-grade Maryland students' motivation to read using the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP). The first part of the MRP, a Likert-type, self-report, group-administered questionnaire, was completed by all students. The second part of the MRP, the Conversational Interview, was individually administered to a random…

  4. Síndrome del seno silente Silent sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trueba

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos un caso de síndrome del seno silente. Se trata de una entidad infrecuente caracterizada por enoftalmos provocada por atelectasia homolateral del seno maxilar sin síntomas nasales ni paranasales. Si bien el diagnostico es clínico, la confirmación se logra mediante las imágenes.We present a case of silent sinus syndrome. It is an uncommon entity characterized by enoftalmos caused by homolateral atelectasia of the maxillary sinus without nasal nor paranasal symptoms. Although the diagnoses is clinical, the confirmation is achieved by images.

  5. Síndrome del seno silente Silent sinus syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Presentamos un caso de síndrome del seno silente. Se trata de una entidad infrecuente caracterizada por enoftalmos provocada por atelectasia homolateral del seno maxilar sin síntomas nasales ni paranasales. Si bien el diagnostico es clínico, la confirmación se logra mediante las imágenes.We present a case of silent sinus syndrome. It is an uncommon entity characterized by enoftalmos caused by homolateral atelectasia of the maxillary sinus without nasal nor paranasal symptoms. Although the dia...

  6. From Silent to Talkative Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard; Olsén, Peter; Nielsen, Birger Steen

    1996-01-01

    are sceptical as to the ability of this tradition to explain the fact that workers are silent participants in negotiations. In an account of a project called 'Industry and Happiness' the authors argue that attention must be paid to workers' life situation and not only to their work experience. They further...

  7. I "hear" what you're "saying": Auditory perceptual simulation, reading speed, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peiyun; Christianson, Kiel

    2016-01-01

    Auditory perceptual simulation (APS) during silent reading refers to situations in which the reader actively simulates the voice of a character or other person depicted in a text. In three eye-tracking experiments, APS effects were investigated as people read utterances attributed to a native English speaker, a non-native English speaker, or no speaker at all. APS effects were measured via online eye movements and offline comprehension probes. Results demonstrated that inducing APS during silent reading resulted in observable differences in reading speed when readers simulated the speech of faster compared to slower speakers and compared to silent reading without APS. Social attitude survey results indicated that readers' attitudes towards the native and non-native speech did not consistently influence APS-related effects. APS of both native speech and non-native speech increased reading speed, facilitated deeper, less good-enough sentence processing, and improved comprehension compared to normal silent reading.

  8. A FOUR STEP APPROACH IN TEACHING READING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction "I…am…a…stu…de…nt…of…Eng…li…sh." This is the way my students read silently in English and it is only one of the problems they have. They are confusing reading aloud and silent reading. It will be difficult for them to use English efficiently after graduation unless they can read in different ways. This article aims to present some suggestions for discussion about teaching reading. The article will be presented in three sections: firstly, the students’ difficulties in reading; secondly, the present teaching work in colleges; thirdly, some possible suggestions for improvement. The third section is divided into four steps, each focusing on a different technique.

  9. Measuring College Students' Reading Comprehension Ability Using Cloze Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rihana Shiri; Ari, Omer; Santamaria, Carmen Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations challenge the construct validity of sustained silent reading tests. Performance of two groups of post-secondary students (e.g. struggling and non-struggling) on a sustained silent reading test and two types of cloze test (i.e. maze and open-ended) was compared in order to identify the test format that contributes greater…

  10. Enhancing the reading fluency and comprehension of children with reading disabilities in an orthographically transparent language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellings, P.; van der Leij, A.; de Jong, P.F.; Blok, H.

    2009-01-01

    Breznitz (2006) demonstrated that Hebrew-speaking adults with reading disabilities benefited from a training in which reading rate was experimentally manipulated. In the present study, the authors examine whether silent reading training enhances the sentence reading rate and comprehension of

  11. The cancer, a silent epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith María Beltrán Molina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with some very interesting aspects related to cancer the first cause of death in many countries with a high prevalence in Cuba so it is necessary to increase prevention and education to reduce risk factors and prevalence of malignancy. Taking into account the importance of cancer awareness as well as the social therapeutic and technological resources available to Cuba for its treatment it is propose with this work to exemplify the Cuban scientific treatment of cancer as a silent epidemic of the XXI century.

  12. Developmental relations between reading fluency and reading comprehension: A longitudinal study from grade one to two

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children’s reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first- and second-grade students. Results showed that list reading fluency was uniquely related to reading comprehension in grade one, but not in grade two after accounting fo...

  13. Building Fluency through the Repeated Reading Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    For the last two years the author has used Repeated Reading (RR) to teach reading fluency in English as a Foreign Language classrooms in colleges and universities in Japan. RR is a method where the student reads and rereads a text silently or aloud from two to four times to reach a predetermined level of speed, accuracy, and comprehension. RR…

  14. Sweet silent thought: alliteration and resonance in poetry comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, R Brooke; Rapp, David N; Elfenbein, Andrew; Mitchel, Aaron D; Romine, Russell Swinburne

    2008-07-01

    Poetic devices like alliteration can heighten readers' aesthetic experiences and enhance poets' recall of their epic pieces. The effects of such devices on memory for and appreciation of poetry are well known; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not yet understood. We used current theories of language comprehension as a framework for understanding how alliteration affects comprehension processes. Across three experiments, alliterative cues reactivated readers' memories for previous information when it was phonologically similar to the cue. These effects were obtained when participants read aloud and when they read silently, and with poetry and prose. The results support everyday intuitions about the effects of poetry and aesthetics, and explain the nature of such effects. These findings extend the scope of general memory models by indicating their capacity to explain the influence of nonsemantic discourse features.

  15. Unusual ocular manifestations of silent sinus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Lopes da Fonseca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silent sinus syndrome is an acquired condition in which there is a gradual collapse of the orbital floor and inward retraction of the maxillary sinus (atelectasis of the maxillary sinus. This in turn may cause associated ocular occurrences of enophthalmos and hypotropia. This is a report of an 8 year-old boy with silent sinus syndrome and associated ocular motility disorders. The association between silent sinus syndrome and ocular motility disturbance has been recently described in the literature. However, this is an infrequent association, mainly in childhood.

  16. Controversies in cardiovascular care: silent myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenberg, N. K.

    1987-01-01

    The objective evidence of silent myocardial ischemia--ischemia in the absence of classical chest pain--includes ST-segment shifts (usually depression), momentary left ventricular failure, and perfusion defects on scintigraphic studies. Assessment of angina patients with 24-hour ambulatory monitoring may uncover episodes of silent ischemia, the existence of which may give important information regarding prognosis and may help structure a more effective therapeutic regimen. The emerging recognition of silent ischemia as a significant clinical entity may eventually result in an expansion of current therapy--not only to ameliorate chest pain, but to minimize or eliminate ischemia in the absence of chest pain.

  17. Characteristics of silent countingin synchronized swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Leonov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the temporal characteristics of silent counting as used duringa competition by the Russian youth team of synchronized swimmers. Theathletes listened to the music that accompanied their performance at the competition.Diff erent indices of silent counting were defi ned, such as the beginningand cessation of diff erent periods of counting, counting frequency, the stabilityof the temporal structure of silent counting, the degree of synchronization of silentcounting at diff erent moments during the sports program. We studied therelationship of these characteristics of counting with expert estimates of the athletes’sense of tempo, coordination of movements, and choreographic abilities.

  18. Towards new research strategies: silent seismogenic areas or silent sources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Guidoboni

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Some earthquakes, particularly the strongest ones, can re-occur within hundreds or thousands of years. Therefore, the areas whose "seismic history" seems to be totally lacking in information are indeed a problem. In the past, these "silences" were interpreted in the simplest way, as an indicator of a low degree of seismicity. More recently, the results of historical research, some geological observations and the limits imposed by the physics of the seismic cycle suggest that this interpretation is wrong and must be overcome by new multi-disciplinary strategies. These strategies will involve the use of both the general pattern offered by the knowledge on the historical seismicity, and the little, though valuable information gleaned from land geology. Similar to these "silent" or "missing" earthquakes are the cases of the "missed" earthquakes which occurred in such historical and territorial conditions that they went completely unnoticed. A third case regards "underrated" earthquakes, reported as events of moderate energy. "Missing", "missed" and "underrated" earthquakes call for some reflection on the problem of completeness in the catalogue, and require innovative research projects. In recent years the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and SGA have developed three of such projects. These concern: 1 Sicily in the period between the ninth and thirteenth centuries; 2 the Pollino area (Northern Calabria before the nineteenth century; 3 the Velino-Sirente massif in the period between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries.

  19. How to Improve the Ability of English Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱旻旻

    2015-01-01

    <正>English is a living language and it is one of the most widely used languages in the world.Reading is divided into Intensive reading、Extensive reading、Read aloud、Read Silently etc.Reading can bring the students a lasting interest,it can consolidate and deepening the knowledge what we have learn,it

  20. Reimagining Reading: Creating a Classroom Culture That Embraces Independent Choice Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Many of us are plagued by negative memories of sustained silent reading. In some of these memories, we are the students, attempting to read a book that didn't hold our interest or trying to read over the din of our disengaged classmates. In other memories, we are the teachers, suffering through a ten-minute classroom management nightmare, deciding…

  1. Reading Aloud in Lewisham: An Exploration of Adult Reading-Aloud Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses initial findings of a qualitative pilot study of the reading-aloud practices of 17 adults in the London Borough of Lewisham. Although the dominant contemporary image of reading is that of a silent activity and within literacy provision it is frequently assumed that reading aloud is not a "natural" "real…

  2. Developmental Relations between Reading Fluency and Reading Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study from Grade 1 to Grade 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    From a developmental framework, relations among list reading fluency, oral and silent reading fluency, listening comprehension, and reading comprehension might be expected to change as children's reading skills develop. We examined developmental relations among these constructs in a latent-variable longitudinal study of first and second graders.…

  3. Morphology and spelling in French students with dyslexia: the case of silent final letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-04-01

    Spelling is a challenge for individuals with dyslexia. Phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules are highly inconsistent in French, which make them very difficult to master, in particular for dyslexics. One recurrent manifestation of this inconsistency is the presence of silent letters at the end of words. Many of these silent letters perform a morphological function. The current study examined whether students with dyslexia (aged between 10 and 15 years) benefit from the morphological status of silent final letters when spelling. We compared, their ability to spell words with silent final letters that are either morphologically justified (e.g., tricot, "knit," where the final "t" is pronounced in morphologically related words such as tricoter, "to knit" and tricoteur "knitter") or not morphologically justified (e.g., effort, "effort") to that of a group of younger children matched for reading and spelling level. Results indicated that the dyslexic students' spelling of silent final letters was impaired in comparison to the control group. Interestingly, morphological status helped the dyslexics improve the accuracy of their choice of final letters, contrary to the control group. This finding provides new evidence of morphological processing in dyslexia during spelling.

  4. Silent speechreading in the absence of scanner noise: an event-related fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacSweeney, M; Amaro, E; Calvert, G A; Campbell, R; David, A S; McGuire, P; Williams, S C; Woll, B; Brammer, M J

    2000-06-05

    In a previous study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate activation in auditory cortex during silent speechreading. Since image acquisition during fMRI generates acoustic noise, this pattern of activation could have reflected an interaction between background scanner noise and the visual lip-read stimuli. In this study we employed an event-related fMRI design which allowed us to measure activation during speechreading in the absence of acoustic scanner noise. In the experimental condition, hearing subjects were required to speechread random numbers from a silent speaker. In the control condition subjects watched a static image of the same speaker with mouth closed and were required to subvocally count an intermittent visual cue. A single volume of images was collected to coincide with the estimated peak of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response to these stimuli across multiple baseline and experimental trials. Silent speechreading led to greater activation in lateral temporal cortex relative to the control condition. This indicates that activation of auditory areas during silent speechreading is not a function of acoustic scanner noise and confirms that silent speechreading engages similar regions of auditory cortex as listening to speech.

  5. Silent as a Winter Cuckoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pad+ma dbang chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When my grandparents were children, parents were gods and their decisions about such issues as marriage and the choice of marriage partners were final. Children had no right to choose a spouse. Many parents found a daughter-in-law with a blood relationship for their son, believing this would better ensure family harmony. Consequently, many Tibetans struggled in sad marriages. Of course, parents hoped their children would have a good, stable life and not all arranged marriages were unhappy. When Grandfather was eighteen he herded sheep on our pastureland everyday. At that time, sheep and goats covered an enormous mountain that resembled a member of the Himalayas. Herders stayed together, played, told folktales, and sang folksongs. Some wrestled and others talked about their lovers. In many ways this daily gathering resembled a celebration of victory in battle. Grandfather and his lover, Dkon mchog mtsho, herded and had lunch together everyday. They went home from the pastureland and soon met again after supper, because they loved and needed each other as fish need water. They felt that they were the happiest people in the world, and hoped to marry. Everyone understood their intimate relationship and envied their loyalty to each other. Some other girls were especially jealous because Grandfather was handsome. In time, Great-grandfather discovered their relationship and resolved to end it. Grandfather was as silent as a winter cuckoo, because he was afraid of his father. However, he thought about how to convince his parents, or how to have a life with his lover. After some days he decided to elope, went to the place where he usually met Dkon mchog mtsho, and found her there. They looked longingly at each other as Dkon mchog mtsho's tears streamed down her red cheeks and seeped into the earth.

  6. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  7. Using silent motion pictures to teach complex syntax to adult deaf readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L

    1998-01-01

    This research tested whether silent motion pictures could be a source of contexts that fostered comprehension of relative clause and passive voice sentences during reading. These two syntactic structures are chronically difficult for some deaf readers. According to the instructional strategy, while subjects watched silent comedy stories, the video display intermittently focused attention on short segments of action and then called for a decision regarding which of two sentences printed in a workbook described the action segment. After this, a display on the video screen provided feedback on the accuracy of the decision. If successful here, this approach might be applied to other areas of competence in order to elevate the generally low level of reading performance by many deaf students. The study applied a single subject design in order to measure sentence comprehension accuracy before and following use of the materials. The computerized testing procedure also measured sentence reading time, an index of attention use. Thus, these data allowed an examination of whether any increases in comprehension were associated with slower, more laborious rates of reading. The instructional approach was an indirect one sharing multiple aspects of whole language methodology, and the sample included deaf subjects at a variety of reading ability levels. This permitted examination of whether an indirect instructional approach could be successful with readers demonstrating relatively low reading ability. The central research question of the study was the following 'Can this instructional method be effective with deaf readers?'.

  8. Reading Traits for Dynamically Presented Texts: Comparison of the Optimum Reading Rates of Dynamic Text Presentation and the Reading Rates of Static Text Presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetsuki, Miki; Watanabe, Junji; Ando, Hideyuki; Maruya, Kazushi

    2017-01-01

    With the growth in digital display technologies, dynamic text presentation is used widely in every day life, such as in electric advertisements and tickers on TV programs. Unlike static text reading, little is known about the basic characteristics underlying reading dynamically presented texts. Two experiments were performed to investigate this. Experiment 1 examined the optimum rate of dynamic text presentation in terms of a readability and favorability. This experiment demonstrated that, when the rate of text presentation was changed, there was an optimum presentation rate (around 6 letters/s in our condition) regardless of difficulty level. This indicates that the presentation rate of dynamic texts can affect the impression of reading. In Experiment 2, to elucidate the traits underlying dynamic text reading, we measured the reading speeds of silent and trace reading among the same participants and compared them with the optimum presentation rate obtained in Experiment 1. The results showed that the optimum rate was slower than with silent reading and faster than with trace reading, and, interestingly, the individual optimum rates of dynamic text presentation were correlated with the speeds of both silent and trace reading. In other words, the readers who preferred a fast rate in dynamic text presentation would also have a high reading speed for silent and trace reading.

  9. Reading Trade Books in a Freshman Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Murray; Moore, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Many college courses have historically been associated with large amounts of reading. For example, many biology courses required students to read trade books such as Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring" (Carson, 1962), or James Watson's "The Double Helix" (Watson, 1980), but now most instructors elect to focus students' reading on course textbooks and…

  10. Silent Infarcts with Sickle Cell Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transfusion therapy on the risk for new silent infarct or stroke in children with sickle cell anemia and abnormal transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasonography was determined at the University of Miami, FL, and other centers in the STOP trial (Stroke Prevention in Sickle Cell Anemia.

  11. Silent Way in the University Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.

    The use of the Silent Way method of second language instruction in beginning and intermediate Spanish classes at the college level is described. The approach encourages student self-responsibility for learning the target language according to learning strategies selected by the student. Although the method was used during three semesters, the…

  12. Effect of Book Reading Method upon Attitudes of Students towards Learning and Reading Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmet, Kara; Ali, Ünisen; Eyup, Izci

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of lessons trained through large group discussion method in a classroom environment during 10-15 min at the end of silent book reading activity for the first thirty minutes during a term upon attitudes of students towards learning and reading habit. The research was carried out with totally 89…

  13. Silent Sound Art: Performing the Unheard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flügge, Elen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on silent sound art, exemplified here by the works of Peter Ablinger and Akio Suzuki, in the context of a partially historical con-sideration of the participatory subject in Installation Art, with a primary focus on artistic movements and selected works from the late 1950s to the early 1970s by John Cage, George Brecht, and La Monte Young.Dieser Beitrag ist eine Reflexion über die so genannte Silent Sound Art. Beispielhaft hierfür sind die Arbeiten von Peter Ablinger und Akio Suzuki, die im Zusammenhang mit einer teilweise historisch hergeleiteten Annahme eines teilnehmenden Subjekts in der Installationskunst interpretiert werden sollen. Hierbei wird der Schwerpunkt auf Kunstbewegungen und ausgewählte Werke aus den späten 1950ern bis in die frühen 1970er gelegt, namentlich von John Cage, George Brecht und La Monte Young.

  14. (Hardly anyone listening? Writing silent geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1984, J. Douglas Porteous challenged the geography world to silence. True geographical appreciation cannot be expressed in prose; the logical conclusion is for geographers to be silent. Given that they cannot be silent, Porteous advocated nontraditional writing, such as poetry. In 1994, Paul Cloke illustrated the power of reflective narrative for a geographer grappling to understand the world. In 1998, I started writing geographic poetry. In 2012, I draw these strands together in this reflective essay, drawing on a poetic journey over a decade old now. Can I reflect a sense of place or place-making that transcends traditional geographical expression? Did Porteous truly open a geographic window otherwise closed to me? I conclude the poetry does create geographical sense and sensibility, but more as constructed possibilities than as objective realities. The poetry provides glimpses into the experiences of geographical displacement encountered by many New Australians, and thus may best be considered as metageographical expressions.

  15. Silent iritis in treated bacillary negative leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K; Job, C K

    1996-09-01

    Iridectomy specimens from 59 leprosy patients who had adequate medical records of whom 33 belong to the lepromatous (LL) leprosy variety and 16 normal controls were studied histopathologically. All patients were bacteriologically negative and had received dapsone followed by multidrug therapy (MDT), or MDT only, or only dapsone for varying periods. It was found that leprosy, particularly lepromatous disease, did not significantly decrease the age of formation of cataract. Of the 33 LL patients studied 60.6% had silent iritis. The duration of treatment had no obvious influence on the persistence of iritis. Treatment with only 2 years of MDT for LL patients did not significantly increase the prevalence of persistent silent iritis compared to those who received other types of antileprosy therapy for long periods. It is pointed out that chronic iritis is a serious complication that continues even after the patient is declared clinically and bacteriologically cured, especially in patients who had a history of chronic iritis clinically.

  16. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  17. Reading under the skin: physiological activation during reading in children with dyslexia and typical readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Valentina; Bonifacci, Paola; Ottaviani, Cristina; Borsato, Thomas; Marzocchi, Gian Marco

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate physiological activation during reading and control tasks in children with dyslexia and typical readers. Skin conductance response (SCR) recorded during four tasks involving reading aloud, reading silently, and describing illustrated stories aloud and silently was compared for children with dyslexia (n = 16) and a control group of typical readers (n = 16). Children's school wellness was measured through self- and parent-proxy reports. Significantly lower SCR was found for dyslexic children in the reading-aloud task, compared to the control group, whereas all participants showed similar physiological reactions to the other experimental conditions. SCR registered during reading tasks correlated with "Child's emotional difficulties," as reported by parents. Possible interpretations of the lower activation during reading aloud in dyslexic children are discussed.

  18. Application of Silent Way in Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱怡宁

    2013-01-01

      The Silent Way (SW) is language teaching method which teacher keeps silent much of the time making students to pro⁃duce the new language. This paper aims to apply SW to English teaching and figure out the idea why Silent Way couldn't be a wide⁃ly-adopted teaching method. In terms of the characteristics of this innovational teaching method, it has some advantages as well as inevitable defects.

  19. Silent giant left atrium. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badui, E; Delgado, C; Enciso, R; Graef, A; Solorio, S; Madrid, R; Cruz, H

    1995-05-01

    A sixty-two-year-old white woman with a 14.5 cm (145 mm) silent giant left atrial enlargement secondary probably to rheumatic heart disease is presented. Aside from mild progressive shortness of breath during the past year, the patient had been asymptomatic all her life. Her clinical picture was manifested for the first time by syncope secondary to slow atrial fibrillation, for which a permanent pacemaker was required. The correct diagnosis of the enlarged chamber was not possible through the routine chest roentgenogram. In this case, the echocardiogram, nuclear angiogram, and computed tomography were the pertinent studies needed to reach the diagnosis.

  20. Silent ischemia and beta-blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egstrup, K

    1991-01-01

    and should also be directed at the other coronary artery risk factors of the patients. The effects of beta-blockers, which reduce the duration and frequency of silent ischemic episodes, is well described. The effect is most pronounced in the morning, when the frequency of ischemia is highest......, and the mechanism of action seems mainly mediated through a reduction in myocardial oxygen demand. beta-Blockers have shown effectiveness in both effort-induced angina and mixed angina, and increased anti-ischemic potency may be achieved by combination therapy with a calcium antagonist. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockers...

  1. An introduction to silent speech interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Freitas, João; Dias, Miguel Sales; Silva, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a broad and comprehensive overview of the existing technical approaches in the area of silent speech interfaces (SSI), both in theory and in application. Each technique is described in the context of the human speech production process, allowing the reader to clearly understand the principles behind SSI in general and across different methods. Additionally, the book explores the combined use of different data sources, collected from various sensors, in order to tackle the limitations of simpler SSI approaches, addressing current challenges of this field. The book also provides information about existing SSI applications, resources and a simple tutorial on how to build an SSI.

  2. Silent Localization of Underwater Sensors Using Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callmer, Jonas; Skoglund, Martin; Gustafsson (Eurasipmember), Fredrik

    2010-12-01

    Sensor localization is a central problem for sensor networks. If the sensor positions are uncertain, the target tracking ability of the sensor network is reduced. Sensor localization in underwater environments is traditionally addressed using acoustic range measurements involving known anchor or surface nodes. We explore the usage of triaxial magnetometers and a friendly vessel with known magnetic dipole to silently localize the sensors. The ferromagnetic field created by the dipole is measured by the magnetometers and is used to localize the sensors. The trajectory of the vessel and the sensor positions are estimated simultaneously using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Simulations show that the sensors can be accurately positioned using magnetometers.

  3. Combustion Enhancement with a Silent Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosocha, Louis

    2003-10-01

    It is well known that the application of an external electric field to a flame can affect its propagation speed, stability, and combustion chemistry (Lawton & Weinberg 1969). External electrodes, arc discharges, and plasma jets have been employed to allow combustible gas mixtures to operate outside their flammability limits by gas heating, injection of free radicals, and field-promoted flame stabilization (Yagodnikov & Voronetskii 1994). Other investigators have carried out experiments with silent electrical discharges applied to propagating flames (Inomata et al 1983, Kim et al 2003). These have demonstrated that the flame propagation velocity is actually decreased (combustion retarded) when a silent discharge is applied directly to the flame region, but that the flame propagation velocity is increased (combustion promoted) when a silent discharge is applied to the unburned gas mixture upstream of a flame. Two other recent works have considered the possibility of combustion enhancement in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor mixers by using a plasma-generating fuel nozzle, that employs an electric-arc or microwave plasma generator, to produce dissociated fuel or ionized fuel (Johnson et al 2001); and pulsed corona-enhanced detonation of fuel-air mixtures in jet engines (Wang et al 2003). In contrast to these prior works, we have employed a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to break up large fuel molecules into smaller molecules and create free radicals or other active species in a gas stream before the fuel is mixed with an oxidizer and combusted. In experiments reported here, a cylindrical SDP reactor was used to 'activate' propane before mixing it with air and igniting the combustible gas mixture. With the plasma, the physical appearance of the flame changes and substantial changes in mass spectrometer fragmentation peaks are observed (e.g., propane fragments decrease and water and carbon dioxide increase). This indicates that the combustion process is

  4. Secondary silent sinus syndrome:case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王绪锐; 赵小冬

    2004-01-01

    @@ Silent sinus syndrome (SSS) is characterized by spontaneous and progressive unilateral enophthalmos with no other symptoms. Maxillary sinus atelectasis displayed on CT will be helpful for clinical diagnosis. The operation for better maxillary sinus ventilation shows good therapeutic effects and prognosis. In 1964, Montgometry1 described the first case of patient whose enophthalmos was caused by mucocele of the maxillary sinus. Since then, all otolaryngologists have taken more and more attention to this syndrome. And by June 2000, a total of 45 cases had been reported worldwide.

  5. The role of reading time complexity and reading speed in text comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S

    2014-11-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading process, and sometimes as a product of that process. We argue that both reading speed and comprehension should be seen as the result of the reading process, and that the process of fluent text reading can instead be described by complexity metrics that quantify aspects of the stability of the reading process. In this article, we introduce complexity metrics in the context of reading and apply them to data from a self-paced reading study. In this study, children and adults read a text silently or aloud and answered comprehension questions after reading. Our results show that recurrence metrics that quantify the degree of temporal structure in reading times yield better prediction of text comprehension compared to reading speed. However, the results for fractal metrics are less clear. Furthermore, prediction of text comprehension is generally strongest and most consistent across silent and oral reading when comprehension scores are normalized by reading speed. Analyses of word length and word frequency indicate that the observed complexity in reading times is not a simple function of the lexical properties of the text, suggesting that text reading might work differently compared to reading of isolated word or sentences. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Silent Conversations in the Labyrinth of Artistic Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eis, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores silent conversations with the past, but also navigates through the labyrinth of artistic process, with its manifold passages of research, chance occurrence and aesthetic experimentation. The double metaphors of silent conversations and labyrinths apply to the essay and the artwork within it, to the research and to the practice.…

  7. Silent Way in a University Setting: An Applied Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.

    1986-01-01

    A study comparing the use of the Silent Way technique in an experimental setting with its use in a real classroom setting suggests that results of experimental research cannot necessarily be transferred directly to the classroom. Student compositions based on ten Silent Way worksheets and an editing task are appended. (MSE)

  8. Silent trade and the supposed continuum between OIE and NIE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; Spithovem, A.

    2008-01-01

    New institutional Economics (NIE) claims that Silent Trade exists. Indeed, it would constitute the first step 'as trade moves beyond the border of the village' (North). In this brief article we show both that Silent Trade - trade between parties who have only the most minimal of a shared frame of re

  9. Current practice for diagnosis and management of silent atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobreanu, Dan; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Lewalter, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that silent atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with morbidity and mortality rates similar to those of symptomatic AF, no specific strategy for screening and management of this form of AF has been advocated. The purpose of this survey was to identify current practices...... for the diagnosis and management of silent AF. This survey is based on an electronic questionnaire sent to the European Heart Rhythm Association Research Network partners. Responses were received from 33 centres in 16 countries. The preferred screening methods for silent AF in patients with rhythm control...... episode of silent AF was documented, without recommending further investigations. The results of this survey have confirmed that there is currently no consensus regarding the screening and management of patients with silent AF and that clinical practice is not always consistent with the few existing...

  10. Free Reading: Is It the Only Way to Make Kids More Literate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on a literacy approach called free voluntary reading. In schools, this approach is often called sustained silent reading, or SSR. The secret of its effectiveness is simple: children become better readers by reading, and it may be the only way to help children become better readers, writers, and spellers. Study after study has…

  11. Readability and Its Effects on Reading Rate, Subjective Judgments of Comprehensibility and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Esther U.

    Prose passages read aloud or silently were rated for pronounceability and comprehensibility. The relationships of text-derived readability indices to reading rate, comprehensibility ratings and comprehension test scores were explored. Reading rate in syllables per minute was unrelated to readability. The high correlation between rate in words per…

  12. I read, you read, we read: the history of reading in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Dular

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose: The aim of the article is to research reading habits in Slovenia in the period between 16th and 19th century and to find similarities with Austria and other European countries of that time.Methodology/approach: For the purpose of the analysis different resources were used – study books, catechisms, prayer books and manuals. We were focused on introductions in which readers are advised how to read, explaining to whom the work is intended and emphasizing the importance of meditation on the texts.Results: Historically the laud reading was prefered, as to continue the folk tradition. However, the 16th century texts were transmitted by women while the folk tradition was narrated by males. In the 18th century the higher level of literacy and greater book production and availability caused that the books were not a privilege of a few. At that time more texts were intended for silent, individual reading. Interestingly, the authors emphasized the importance of meditation on the texts, too. It was also advised when to read – it wasrecommedend to read in leisure time on Sundays, and on holidays. The role of books was also to breakaway with the reality and to forget everyday problems. Due to the overproduction of books in the 17th centrury it was concerned that books are misleading the crowds. The church considered the reading of books as inappropriate, and criticized fiction, novels and adventure stories mostly read by women.Research limitation: The study is based on Slovenian texts only, although the foreign literature, especially in German, was generally available, too.Originality/practical implications: The study is fullfiling the gap in the history of reading in Slovenia.

  13. Silent Localization of Underwater Sensors Using Magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Callmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor localization is a central problem for sensor networks. If the sensor positions are uncertain, the target tracking ability of the sensor network is reduced. Sensor localization in underwater environments is traditionally addressed using acoustic range measurements involving known anchor or surface nodes. We explore the usage of triaxial magnetometers and a friendly vessel with known magnetic dipole to silently localize the sensors. The ferromagnetic field created by the dipole is measured by the magnetometers and is used to localize the sensors. The trajectory of the vessel and the sensor positions are estimated simultaneously using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. Simulations show that the sensors can be accurately positioned using magnetometers.

  14. The silent organizational pathology of insidious intimidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Theresa; Amori, Geri

    2011-01-01

    While organizations are valiantly striving to address acts of disruption among physicians and nurses, a silent and yet equally disruptive pathology is spreading through the veins of the organization. This behavior is found among all ranks and responsibilities, from the C-suite to the housekeeping staff. It occurs daily and is rarely reported. It continues because its nature is such that it is difficult to measure, the victims often feel helpless, and the perpetrators are often those in positions that are not normally perceived to be as essential to the flow of patient care. Nonetheless, this insidious intimidation chills communication, reduces morale, and ultimately harms patients. Organizations that desire a culture of safety and comfort must address this behavior through individual coaching, education of all staff, a willingness to tackle system frustrations that amplify and perpetuate the behavior, and establish processes for dealing fairly and firmly with the behavior.

  15. Silent ischemia and severity of pain in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, F E; Nielsen, S L; Knudsen, F

    1991-01-01

    An overall low tendency to complain of pain, due to a low perception of pain, has been suggested in the pathogenesis of silent ischemia, independent of the extent of the diseased coronaries and a history of previous acute myocardial infarction. This hypothesis has been tested indirectly...... in this retrospective study by comparison of the use of analgesics during admission for a first acute myocardial infarction with the occurrence of silent ischemia at exertion tests four weeks after discharge from hospital. The study did not show a lower use of analgesics in patients with silent ischemia, but this may...

  16. About Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    独行墨客

    2004-01-01

    As for reading and for learning, reading rate (that is, words per minute, WPM) is important, especially for students who have to pass some reading test. How to compute your reading rate? You may know it after reading the following. Reading Rate (WPM) = Total number of words + reading time.

  17. Silent Circulation of Ross River Virus in French Polynesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Aubry

    2015-08-01

    Discussion: Our results support the existence of autochthonous RRV transmission and suggest that this pathogen has silently circulated in French Polynesia. These findings raise the question of possible undetected circulation of RRV in other Pacific Island Countries and Territories.

  18. Heterogeneity of secretory granules of silent pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, S; Wewer, U M; Albrechtsen, R

    1988-01-01

    Silent pituitary adenomas were compared with hormonally active tumors taking into account the size, number, and ultrastructural characteristics of secretory granules (SG). The study group (a total of 79 primary pituitary adenomas) comprised 27 silent, 21 growth hormone (GH)-producing-, 16 prolactin...... (PRL)-producing-, 5 GH-PRL-producing- and 10 adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenomas. The SG of silent adenomas were significantly smaller than SG in endocrine active adenomas. All hormonally inactive tumors also contained small (mean, 94 nm) specific cytoplasmic granules, designated...... approximately 10 to 50% of the granules in each cell. These granules were not seen in hormonally active tumors and considered therefore diagnostic of silent pituitary adenomas....

  19. [Clinical and roentgenological manifestations of the silent sinus syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, S Z; Piskunov, I S; Zav'ialov, F N; Solodilova, N M

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of the results of the examination and treatment of four patients presenting with the silent sinus syndrome provided materials for the generalized characteristic of clinical and roentgenological manifestations of this condition.

  20. High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162666.html High Pain Tolerance Tied to 'Silent' Heart Attack Risk Unusual symptoms ... is. But the new findings suggest that pain tolerance might be a factor. Using a standard test ...

  1. Silent Synapse-Based Circuitry Remodeling in Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to cocaine, and likely other drugs of abuse, generates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. These immature synaptic contacts evolve after drug withdrawal to redefine the neurocircuital properties. These results raise at least three critical questions: (1) what are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced generation of silent synapses; (2) how are neurocircuits remodeled upon generation and evolution of drug-generated silent synapses; and (3) what behavioral consequences are produced by silent synapse-based circuitry remodeling? This short review analyzes related experimental results, and extends them to some speculations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  2. Cutaneous silent period in myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Ozden; Sencan, Savas; Ercalik, Tulay; Koytak, Pinar Kahraman; Alibas, Hande; Gunduz, Osman Hakan; Tanridag, Tulin; Uluc, Kayihan

    2017-09-06

    An increased response to painful stimuli without spontaneous pain suggests a role of central hyperexcitability of pain pathways in the pathogenesis of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). In this study we aimed to test the hypothesis that spinal pain pathways are affected in MPS. We used cutaneous silent period (CSP) parameters to demonstrate the hyperexcitability of spinal pain pathways in MPS. Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with MPS and 30 healthy volunteers were included in the study. The CSP recordings were performed in the right upper and left lower extremities. In both upper and lower extremities, patients had prolonged CSP latencies (P = 0.034 and P = 0.049 respectively) and shortened CSP durations (P = 0.009 and P = 0.008, respectively). Delayed and shortened CSP in MPS patients implies dysfunction in the inhibitory mechanism of the spinal/supraspinal pain pathways, suggesting central sensitization in the pathogenesis of MPS and supporting our research hypothesis. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Coincidence of cerebrovascular accident and silent myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badui, E; Estañol, B; Garcia-Rubi, D

    1982-11-01

    Although it is well known that a myocardial and a cerebral infarction may be coincident, the nature of this association is not clear. The problem is further complicated because the myocardial infarction may be silent. This is a report of 3 patients with cerebral infarct in whom a silent recent myocardial infarction was found. All patients with cerebrovascular disease should be screened for a possible myocardial lesion.

  4. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Preaw Hanseree; Vincent Bryan Salvador; Issac Sachmechi; Paul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpar...

  5. Usefulness of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty in silent myocardial ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Mami [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-04-01

    The usefulness of percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) was assessed in patients with exercise-induced asymptomatic myocardial ischemia (silent ischemia) and compared with exercise-induced symptomatic myocardial ischemia (symptomatic ischemia). Patients with single vessel coronary artery disease (51 with angina pectoris, 40 with old myocardial infarction) and evidence of stress-induced ischemia on thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) underwent successful PTCA. Thirty-seven percent of angina patients and 60% of infarction patients showed asymptomatic exercise-induced ischemia. There was no significant difference in population characteristics between silent and symptomatic patients. Patients with silent angina had significantly higher percentage thallium uptake and washout rate than symptomatic patients. After PTCA, both percentage diameter stenosis and percentage thallium uptake were improved in all patients with angina irrespective of the presence or absence of symptoms. There were no significant differences in percentage thallium uptake and washout rate between patients with silent and symptomatic infarction. After PTCA, percentage diameter stenosis, percentage thallium uptake, and washout rate improved in all infarction patients irrespective of the symptoms. Zero percent of silent angina patients, 12% of symptomatic angina patients, 12% of silent infarction patients, 19% of symptomatic infarction patients had cardiac events during about 4.5 years after PTCA. The incidence of cardiac events did not significantly differ in any patient group. PTCA improved myocardial perfusion in all patients, and the incidence of cardiac events did not differ between the silent and symptomatic groups. Revascularization with PTCA is suitable for patients with silent as well as symptomatic ischemia. (author).

  6. Silent aspiration: results of 2,000 video fluoroscopic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garon, Bernard R; Sierzant, Tess; Ormiston, Charles

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study of aspiration and the lack of a protective cough reflex at the vocal folds (silent aspiration) was to increase the awareness of nursing staffs of the diagnostic pathology groups associated with silent aspiration. Of the 2,000 patients evaluated in this study, 51% aspirated on the video fluoroscopic evaluation. Of the patients who aspirated, 55% had no protective cough reflex (silent aspiration). The diagnostic pathology groups with the highest rates of silent aspiration were brain cancer, brainstem stroke, head-neck cancer, pneumonia, dementia/Alzheimer, chronic obstructive lung disease, seizures, myocardial infarcts, neurodegenerative pathologies, right hemisphere stroke, closed head injury, and left hemisphere stroke. It is of high concern that the diagnostic groups identified in this research as having the highest risk of silent aspiration be viewed as "red-flag" patients by the nursing staff caring for them. Early nursing dysphagia screens, with close attention to the clinical symptoms associated with silent aspiration, and early referral for formal dysphagia evaluation are stressed.

  7. Accommodating Remedial Readers in the General Education Setting: Is Listening-while-Reading Sufficient to Improve Factual and Inferential Comprehension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Ara J.; Hale, Andrea D.; McCallum, Elizabeth; Mauck, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    Word reading accommodations are commonly applied in the general education setting in an attempt to improve student comprehension and learning of curriculum content. This study examined the effects of listening-while-reading (LWR) and silent reading (SR) using text-to-speech assistive technology on the comprehension of 25 middle-school remedial…

  8. [The ECCIS study: the epidemiology and clinical picture of silent ischemic cardiopathy. Epidemiologia e Clinica della Cardiopatia Ischemica Silente].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzini, P F; Prati, P L; Rovelli, F; Antoniucci, D; Menghini, F; Seccareccia, F; Menotti, A

    1994-12-01

    The ECCIS project (Epidemiology and Clinic of Silent Ischemic Heart Disease) is an italian epidemiological study based on a population sample of 4,842 totally asymptomatic men aged 40-59 whose primary aim is the evaluation of the prevalence of totally silent myocardial ischemia and silent myocardial infarction. The systemic search for markers of silent ischemia and infarction was pursued along 3 screening stages: the 1st stage included resting electrocardiogram, hyperventilation test, exercise electrocardiogram and 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram; the 2nd stage included echocardiogram, thallium-201 scintigraphy in conjunction with exercise test or dypiridamole test, exercise radionuclide ventriculography and ergometrine test; the 3rd stage included coronary angiography. After the completion of the 1st stage procedures 439 men (9.1%) with abnormal results and low probability of disease were invited to the 2nd stage and 387 accepted to undergo the diagnostic procedures. After the completion of the 2nd stage, 104 men with moderate or high suspicion of silent myocardial ischemia or infarction were invited to perform coronary angiography but only 62 men accepted to undergo the 3rd stage procedures (participation rate 59.6%). The final diagnosis of totally silent myocardial ischemia or infarction on the basis of predefined criteria was established in 25 patients. The prevalence of silent ischemic heart disease on the overall original 4,842 men was 0.52% (95% CL, 0.32 and 0.72%), while the final estimate after adjusting for participation rates at 2nd and 3rd stages was 0.89% (95% CL, 0.6 and 1.1%). The results of the ECCIS study show that the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia is definitely lower than that revealed by prior epidemiological studies in Norway and in USA.

  9. Thinking one thing, saying another: the behavioral correlates of mind-wandering while reading aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael S; Mooneyham, Benjamin W; Baird, Benjamin; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2014-02-01

    Although mind-wandering during silent reading is well documented, to date no research has investigated whether similar processes occur during reading aloud. In the present study, participants read a passage either silently or aloud while periodically being probed about mind-wandering. Although their comprehension accuracies were similar for both reading conditions, participants reported more mind-wandering while they were reading aloud. These episodes of mindless reading were associated with nearly normal prosody, but were nevertheless distinguished by subtle fluctuations in volume that were predictive of both overall comprehension accuracy and individual sentence comprehension. Together, these findings reveal that previously hidden within the common activity of reading aloud lies: (1) a demonstration of the remarkable automaticity of speech, (2) a situation that is surprisingly conducive to mind-wandering, (3) subtle vocal signatures of mind-wandering and comprehension accuracy, and (4) the promise of developing useful interventions to improve reading.

  10. Reading faster

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Nation

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  11. Reading faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Nation

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing reading fluency, and suggests how the development of fluency can become part of a reading programme.

  12. Effects of Studying to Music and Post-Study Relaxation on Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaugh, Claire; Ptasnik, Patricia

    1982-01-01

    Twenty female and 20 male college students studied a passage in quiet surroundings or while listening to preferred music and then either relaxed or read unrelated material. Reading comprehension of the passage was facilitated by silent study for subjects who seldom listen to music and by poststudy relaxation. (Author)

  13. Silent Revolution in Research for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Alder

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Is research ‘fit-for-purpose’ for realizing sustainable development? More than two decades after the Brundtland report and UNCED Earth summit, the world has now adopted Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs. Rather than a cause for celebration, this delay should encourage reflection on the role of research in society. Why is it so difficult to realize sustainability in practice? The answer lies in the fact that universities and research centres persist with 19th century methods of data gathering, scholarly analysis, and journal articles. Today’s world needs science in real-time, whether to detect drought, confront Ebola, or assist refugees. Research needs to work faster and embrace 21st century practices including data science, open access, and infographics.A silent revolution is occurring in the ways of organizing and conducting research, enabled by new technology and encouraging work that tackles the key challenges facing society. A variety of new arrangements have come into existence that promote international collaboration, including Horizon 2020 with its emphasis on societal challenges, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation which has inspired a family of grand challenges funds on health and development, and the Future Earth joint program of research for global sustainability. These arrangements not only control billions of dollars in research funding, they also influence the strategies of national research councils and international organizations. The result is no less than a transformation in the incentives that reward how researchers invest their time and effort.Why is a revolution needed? Within research, substantial growth in knowledge production coincided with fragmentation among disciplines. One can easily find expertise and publications in soil science or agronomy, yet integrated efforts on food security and climate adaptation remain scarce. Beyond research, society remains largely uninformed, as academics avoid engaging in public

  14. Eye Movements Reveal Readers' Lexical Quality and Reading Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica Nelson; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of…

  15. Silent method for mathematics instruction: An overview of teaching subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiman, Apino, Ezi

    2017-05-01

    Generally, teachers use oral communication for teaching mathematics. Taking an opposite perspective, this paper describes how instructional practices for mathematics can be carried out namely a silent method. Silent method uses body language, written, and oral communication for classroom interaction. This research uses a design research approach consisting of four phases: preliminary, prototyping and developing the instruction, and assessment. There are four stages of silent method. The first stage is conditioning stage in which the teacher introduces the method and makes agreement about the `rule of the game'. It is followed by the second one, elaborating stage, where students guess and explore alternative answers. The third stage is developing mathematical thinking by structuring and symbolizing. Finally, the method is ended by reinforcing stage which aims at strengthening and reflecting student's understanding. In this paper, every stage is described on the basis of practical experiences in a real mathematics classroom setting.

  16. Talker-specific auditory imagery during reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Lynne C.; Duke, Jessica; Kawar, Kathleen; Queen, Jennifer S.

    2004-05-01

    The present experiment was designed to determine if auditory imagery during reading includes talker-specific characteristics such as speaking rate. Following Kosslyn and Matt (1977), participants were familiarized with two talkers during a brief prerecorded conversation. One talker spoke at a fast speaking rate and one spoke at a slow speaking rate. During familiarization, participants were taught to identify each talker by name. At test, participants were asked to read two passages and told that either the slow or fast talker wrote each passage. In one condition, participants were asked to read each passage aloud, and in a second condition, they were asked to read each passage silently. Participants pressed a key when they had completed reading the passage, and reading times were collected. Reading times were significantly slower when participants thought they were reading a passage written by the slow talker than when reading a passage written by the fast talker. However, the effects of speaking rate were only present in the reading-aloud condition. Additional experiments were conducted to investigate the role of attention to talker's voice during familiarization. These results suggest that readers may engage in auditory imagery while reading that preserves perceptual details of an author's voice.

  17. Silent Atrial Fibrillation: Definition, Clarification, and Unanswered Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Harold L

    2015-11-01

    Silent or subclinical asymptomatic atrial fibrillation has currently gained wide interest in the epidemiologic, neurologic and cardiovascular communities. The association of brief episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation or surrogate atrial arrhythmias which predict future clinical adverse events have been established. Nevertheless there exists a confounding array of definitions to indicate its presence without discrete indication of which populations should be examined. Moreover the term "atrial fibrillation burden" (AFB) has emerged from such studies with a plethora of descriptions to prognosticate both arrhythmic and clinical adverse events. This presentation suggests clarification of diagnostic definitions associated with silent atrial fibrillation, and a more precise description of AFB. It examines the populations across the current disease and cardiovascular invasive therapeutic spectrum that lead to both silent atrial fibrillation and AFB. It describes the diagnostic methods of arrhythmia detection utilizing the surface ECG, subcutaneous ECG or intra-cardiac devices and their relationship in seeking meaningful arrhythmic markers of silent atrial fibrillation. Whereas a wide range of clinical risk factors of silent atrial fibrillation have been validated in the literature, there is an ongoing search for those arrhythmic risk factors that precisely identify and prognosticate outcome events in diverse populations at risk of atrial fibrillation and its complications. This presentation identifies this chaos, and focuses attention on the issues to be addressed to facilitate descriptive and comparative scientific studies in the future. It is a call to action specifically to the medical arrhythmic community and its specialty societies (i.e., ISHNE, HRS, EHRA) to begin a quest to unravel the arrhythmic quagmire associated with "silent atrial fibrillation."

  18. Covert speech behavior during a silent language recitation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesay, J; Liebke, A; Samaras, M; Stanley, A

    1996-12-01

    This study tested the prediction that covert speech behavior measured electromyographically from the lips is significantly more prominent during a brief silent-language recitation task than a brief nonlanguage visualization task. Subjects were 20 right-handed, adult volunteers who agreed to participate. Subjects were tested in a multiple-baseline reversal design following an ABAB procedure whereby A1 and A2 were 30-sec. rest periods. B1 and B2 were alternatively assigned 30-sec. silent-language recitation and visualization test periods, respectively. Subjects' dorsal lips and nondominant forearm EMG measures were taken during resting baseline and testing conditions. In addition, subjects' skin surface temperature and heartrate were measured during the rest and test conditions. For the silent-language task, subjects were asked to recite 'mentally' the Pledge of Allegiance to the flag. Subjects were instructed to 'imagine seeing' the American flag for the visualization task. Subjects' mean lip EMG activity increased significantly from rest to the silent-language recitation task, while no significant change in mean lip EMG was observed from rest to the visualization condition.

  19. An Exploration of Chinese Students Silent - Keeping in English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金璐

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to analysis causes of Chinese students' silent - keeping as cultural interference, defects of traditional teaching and learning method, and issues involved implications for ESL ( English as a Second Language) teaching in hope to improve the proficiency of English teaching in China.

  20. Determinants of Sir2-Mediated, Silent Chromatin Cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fan; Chou, Chia-Ching; Gartenberg, Marc R

    2016-08-01

    Cohesin associates with distinct sites on chromosomes to mediate sister chromatid cohesion. Single cohesin complexes are thought to bind by encircling both sister chromatids in a topological embrace. Transcriptionally repressed chromosomal domains in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent specialized sites of cohesion where cohesin binds silent chromatin in a Sir2-dependent fashion. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis for Sir2-mediated cohesion. We identified a cluster of charged surface residues of Sir2, collectively termed the EKDK motif, that are required for cohesin function. In addition, we demonstrated that Esc8, a Sir2-interacting factor, is also required for silent chromatin cohesion. Esc8 was previously shown to associate with Isw1, the enzymatic core of ISW1 chromatin remodelers, to form a variant of the ISW1a chromatin remodeling complex. When ESC8 was deleted or the EKDK motif was mutated, cohesin binding at silenced chromatin domains persisted but cohesion of the domains was abolished. The data are not consistent with cohesin embracing both sister chromatids within silent chromatin domains. Transcriptional silencing remains largely intact in strains lacking ESC8 or bearing EKDK mutations, indicating that silencing and cohesion are separable functions of Sir2 and silent chromatin.

  1. Silent, indirect strategic processes in small and medium sized enterprises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vinther; Madsen, Charlotte Øland; Rasmussen, Jørgen Gulddahl

    Based on empirical data we in this paper explore day-to-day strategising with an emphasis on phronesis. This way we shed some light on the nearly silent, quiet, indirect strategic change processes as they are practiced and reflected upon by leaders in small companies in their daily practice...

  2. Health Education Films of the Silent Era: A Historical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofalvi, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Films have been used to present health messages throughout the history of the medium. The purpose of this article is to describe pictures from the silent film era that were designed to educate people about health issues. Films still available in at least one format were reviewed. Published reviews were also used to obtain information about these…

  3. Multiple Silent Lacunes Are Associated with Recurrent Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren Due; Skjøth, Flemming; Yavarian, Yousef

    2016-01-01

    .16 (0.61-2.22) and 1.51 (0.86-2.66) for cardiovascular events. Conclusions: In this large cohort of patients with incident ischemic stroke and no AF, an increasing number of silent lacunes was associated with increasing incidence rates of ischemic stroke recurrence. In the adjusted Cox proportional...

  4. Health Care and the Silent Language of Vietnamese Immigrant Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, H. Rika

    2002-01-01

    Investigates the cultural context and the silent language of health care delivery from the perspective of foreign-born, Vietnamese immigrants. Suggests that business communication instructors need to incorporate cultural health beliefs, time orientation, and the expected role of family members in the practice of health care as they prepare…

  5. Ketene formation from aliphatic ketones in a silent electrical discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drumpt, J.D. van; Mackor, A.

    1973-01-01

    The title reaction in the plasma of a silent electrical discharge at 40° is described. Acetone, ethyl methyl ketone, diethyl ketone and diisopropyl ketone all give rise to the formation of ketenes. From these ketones not only is the corresponding ketene formed, but the lower ketenes also, presumably

  6. Using Early Silent Film to Teach French: The Language of "Cinema Muet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Michelle E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of early silent films in second-language classrooms, focusing on the experiences of one instructor in using early French silents in elementary and intermediate French courses. Sample lesson plans and information on the availability of French silents are also provided. (Contains 17 references.) (MDM)

  7. Electromyogram premotion silent period and tension development in human muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahats, K; Miyashita, M

    1983-11-01

    The EMG silent period has been observed frequently just before rapid movement from a slightly sustained contraction of the muscle. Our experiments were designed to show the relation between the tension developed in an intact human muscle and the occurrence of this silent period. Tension in the knee extensor was obtained from the floor reaction force of a living subject in a squatting position on the basis of a lever ratio-joint angle diagram obtained directly from measurements on an isolated knee extensor muscle of a human cadaver. The muscle tension was calculated under the condition that the floor reaction force in the squatting position passed through the anklebone, and decreased from 8.7 to 0.8 kN with an increase in the knee joint angle from 1.13 to 2.74 rad. When the center of pressure was not assumed, the increased knee extensor muscle torque with a decrease in the knee angle was estimated biomechanically from the free body diagram. Consistently, the EMG recordings confirmed an increased muscle activity with a reduction in the joint angle. The premotion silent period for the knee extensors and their antagonist with movement from the squatting position appeared to be limited to a knee joint angle of 2.44 to 3.07 rad, where the requirement for tension in those muscles was low. This silent period could be interpreted as an electromyographic transitional phase attributable to a switching mechanism in central nervous activity. The premotion silent period was most likely to appear prior to a swift, well coordinated movement.

  8. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  9. Reading Comics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Many adults, even librarians who willingly add comics to their collections, often dismiss the importance of comics. Compared to reading "real" books, reading comics appears to be a simple task and compared to reading no books, reading comics might be preferable. After all, comics do have words, but the plentiful pictures seem to carry most of the…

  10. The Effect of Short Vowelization on Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading Fluency and Comprehension in Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan; Kenana, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    This study facilitates the use of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) to investigate the effect of short vowels on oral reading fluency (ORF) and silent reading comprehension in Arabic orthography. A total sample of 131 fifth-grade students (89 skilled readers and 42 poor readers) participated in the study. Two kinds of CBM probes were…

  11. A Study to Determine the Existence and Characteristics of Distinctively Different Subpopulations Subsumed within the Reading Disabled Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurie S.

    Forty-five third-grade and fourth-grade boys identified by their schools as being both normal in intelligence and severely disabled in reading were given a battery of tests of language, visual perception, silent reading comprehension, and finger agnosia. Three consistent groups of subjects emerged from cluster analyses of the results. One group…

  12. A Study to Determine the Existence and Characteristics of Distinctively Different Subpopulations Subsumed within the Reading Disabled Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurie S.

    Forty-five third-grade and fourth-grade boys identified by their schools as being both normal in intelligence and severely disabled in reading were given a battery of tests of language, visual perception, silent reading comprehension, and finger agnosia. Three consistent groups of subjects emerged from cluster analyses of the results. One group…

  13. How can gynaecologists cope with the silent killer – osteoporosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Szamatowicz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a very common disease among women. It is frequently called a silent epidemic and, due to its impact on osteoporotic fractures with high morbidity and mortality, also a silent killer. There are a number of significant risk factors for osteoporosis, some of them very strongly related to the functioning of the reproductive system. These include menstrual irregularities, premature ovarian failure, early natural or surgical menopause, a high number of pregnancies, and long-term breast-feeding. Hence, there is every reason to include gynaecologists in the multidisciplinary team striving to cope with this dreadful disease. Calculation of the 10-year fracture risk, done by means of the FRAX calculator, and classification of women according to the level of risk could prove to be an effective method of limiting the negative effects of osteoporosis.

  14. Clinically silent seizures in a neonate with tuberous sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Mitsuru; Okumura, Akihisa; Abe, Shinpei; Igarashi, Ayuko; Hisata, Ken; Shoji, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Although seizures during infancy in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are common, seizures in neonates are infrequent. Here, we report the clinical course and electroencephalography (EEG) findings of a neonate with tuberous sclerosis complex associated with clinically silent seizures. The patient was a girl in whom cardiac tumors were detected on fetal ultrasonography. Brain magnetic resonance imaging during the neonatal period showed subependymal and cortical tubers. Routine EEG indicated unexpected ictal changes with no noticeable clinical symptoms. Ictal EEG was associated with a subtle increase in heart rate and a brief increase in chin electromyogram. These changes were difficult to identify clinically. The patient later developed focal seizures and epileptic spasms and had severe psychomotor delay. The present case suggests the occurrence of clinically silent seizures before the appearance of epileptic spasms in infants with tuberous sclerosis, and that EEG is an option for neonates with a prenatal diagnosis. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. How can gynaecologists cope with the silent killer – osteoporosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a very common disease among women. It is frequently called a silent epidemic and, due to its impact on osteoporotic fractures with high morbidity and mortality, also a silent killer. There are a number of significant risk factors for osteoporosis, some of them very strongly related to the functioning of the reproductive system. These include menstrual irregularities, premature ovarian failure, early natural or surgical menopause, a high number of pregnancies, and long-term breast-feeding. Hence, there is every reason to include gynaecologists in the multidisciplinary team striving to cope with this dreadful disease. Calculation of the 10-year fracture risk, done by means of the FRAX calculator, and classification of women according to the level of risk could prove to be an effective method of limiting the negative effects of osteoporosis.

  16. GIVE VOICES TO SILENT LEARNERS IN SPEAKING CLASS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    It is commonly experienced by teachers that they meet silent learners in speaking class,especiallyin an EFL setting at the tertiary level in China.This paper attempts to diagnose the problems inthe current curriculum,curriculum materials and teaching methods used to teach the productiveskill of speaking,which are supposed to be the direct cause of students in"losing their voices",Itbegins with a brief description of the teaching and learning situation in a teachers’ college which isalso typical at other tertiary levels as well.Concrete examples of modification to the teaching ofthe skill are provided with the hope to give back"voices"to the silent students in speaking class.

  17. Identification of novel silent HIV propagation routes in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Saeed, Umar; Waheed, Yasir; Manzoor, Sobia; ASHRAF, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in both high risk groups and the general population. In this study, silent routes of propagation in teenaged Pakistanis are discussed. In order to promote sexual activity in youths, regular clients write contact details of sex workers on the doors of public washrooms. HIV prevalence is much higher among Hijra sex workers. Hijra sex workers have apparently stepped into the profession of begging at public places, where they earn money by ...

  18. Music for Silent Films: 1894-1929. A Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gillian B., Comp.

    This book is a guide for locating scores and musical cue sheets made for films of the silent era, 1894-1929. All entries are for the microfilmed items found in the Library of Congress and the Museum of Modern Art music collections. The format for each main entry includes: (1) entry number; (2) film title; (3) title as transcribed from title page;…

  19. Silent intravascular lymphoma initially manifesting as a unilateral adrenal incidentaloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiko; Iida, Keiji; Hino, Yasuhisa; Ohara, Takeshi; Kurahashi, Toshifumi; Tashiro, Takashi; Chihara, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare subtype of malignant lymphoma. Although the involvement of adrenal glands in IVLBCL is often observed, primary adrenal IVLBCL is rare. Most reported cases of adrenal IVLBCL showed bilateral lesions resulting in rapidly progressive adrenal failure and poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive primary adrenal IVLBCL manifesting initially with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma. This case is a silent IVLBCL and shows that the enlargement of both adrenal glands can be followed.

  20. Singularities in Silent Universes State of the Art

    CERN Document Server

    Bruni, M; Uggla, C

    1996-01-01

    After a brief overview of the so-called silent models and their present status, we consider the subclass of Bianchi Type--I models with a magnetic field source. Due to the presence of the magnetic field, the initial singularity shows ``oscillatory'' features reminiscent of the Bianchi Type--IX case. The Bianchi Type--I models with a magnetic field are therefore a counterexample to the folklore that matter fields can be neglected in the vicinity of the singularity.

  1. Features of owl wings that promote silent flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Hermann; Weger, Matthias; Klaas, Michael; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2017-02-06

    Owls are an order of birds of prey that are known for the development of a silent flight. We review here the morphological adaptations of owls leading to silent flight and discuss also aerodynamic properties of owl wings. We start with early observations (until 2005), and then turn to recent advances. The large wings of these birds, resulting in low wing loading and a low aspect ratio, contribute to noise reduction by allowing slow flight. The serrations on the leading edge of the wing and the velvet-like surface have an effect on noise reduction and also lead to an improvement of aerodynamic performance. The fringes at the inner feather vanes reduce noise by gliding into the grooves at the lower wing surface that are formed by barb shafts. The fringed trailing edge of the wing has been shown to reduce trailing edge noise. These adaptations to silent flight have been an inspiration for biologists and engineers for the development of devices with reduced noise production. Today several biomimetic applications such as a serrated pantograph or a fringed ventilator are available. Finally, we discuss unresolved questions and possible future directions.

  2. Prevalence of silent gastrointestinal complications in maintenance renal transplant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplitsky Susan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the prevalence of silent GI complications within a stable renal transplant population and to investigate whether the conversion to enteric-coated myco-phenolate sodium (EC-MPS, Myfortic; would improve symptom scores. This was a single-center, open-label, non-randomized, prospective study. Patients without any history of GI com-plaints were evaluated by means of the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS, with subse-quent switch to EC-MPS in a group of patients. Silent complications were defined as patients who voiced no GI complaints at clinic visits despite a score of ≥ 2 on GSRS scale. A total of 236 stable patients participated in the trial. The prevalence of baseline scores ≥ 2 was relatively high with abdominal pain 29.66%, reflux 37.28%, indigestion 50%, constipation 58.47% and diarrhea 33.4%. Of 236 patients, 80 were converted to EC-MPS. There was statistically significant improvement on all scales in the subgroup of patients with GSRS score ≥ 2 (P< 0.05. In conclusion, the GSRS scale identified a high percentage of silent gastrointestinal complications in this renal transplant population. The converted patients with higher GSRS scores reported a sustained improvement.

  3. Multicultural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltze, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Multicultural reading advocates believe in the power of literature to transform and to change people's lives. They take seriously the arguments that racism and prejudice can be lessened through multicultural reading, and also that children from undervalued societal groups who read books that depict people like themselves in a positive light will…

  4. DNA Replication Forks Pause at Silent Origins near the HML Locus in Budding Yeast

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yangzhou; Vujcic, Marija; Kowalski, David

    2001-01-01

    Chromosomal replicators in budding yeast contain an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) that functions in a plasmid, but certain ARSs are silent as replication origins in their natural chromosomal context. In chromosome III, the HML ARS cluster (ARS302-ARS303-ARS320) and ARS301 flank the transcriptionally silent mating-type locus HML, and all of these ARSs are silent as replication origins. ARS301 and ARS302 function in transcriptional silencing mediated by the origin recognition complex ...

  5. The Rachel Carson Letters and the Making of Silent Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Environment, conservation, green, and kindred movements look back to Rachel Carson’s 1962 book Silent Spring as a milestone. The impact of the book, including on government, industry, and civil society, was immediate and substantial, and has been extensively described; however, the provenance of the book has been less thoroughly examined. Using Carson’s personal correspondence, this paper reveals that the primary source for Carson’s book was the extensive evidence and contacts compiled by two biodynamic farmers, Marjorie Spock and Mary T. Richards, of Long Island, New York. Their evidence was compiled for a suite of legal actions (1957-1960 against the U.S. Government and that contested the aerial spraying of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT. During Rudolf Steiner’s lifetime, Spock and Richards both studied at Steiner’s Goetheanum, the headquarters of Anthroposophy, located in Dornach, Switzerland. Spock and Richards were prominent U.S. anthroposophists, and established a biodynamic farm under the tutelage of the leading biodynamics exponent of the time, Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer. When their property was under threat from a government program of DDT spraying, they brought their case, eventually lost it, in the process spent US$100,000, and compiled the evidence that they then shared with Carson, who used it, and their extensive contacts and the trial transcripts, as the primary input for Silent Spring. Carson attributed to Spock, Richards, and Pfeiffer, no credit whatsoever in her book. As a consequence, the organics movement has not received the recognition, that is its due, as the primary impulse for Silent Spring, and it is, itself, unaware of this provenance.

  6. Silent compartment syndrome in children: a report of five cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christopher; Lightdale-Miric, Nina; Chang, Emory; Kay, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Compartment syndrome does not always present classically in the pediatric population, making clinical diagnosis uniquely challenging. The purpose of this study was to identify signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome that may help risk-stratify pediatric patients upon presentation, as well as to report outcomes of 'silent' compartment syndrome in children. A retrospective review of cases of 'silent' compartment syndrome at a level I pediatric trauma center between 2000 and 2010 was conducted. Patient demographics and clinical data were reviewed, including complications and patient outcomes. Radiographs taken at presentation, on intraoperative fluoroscopy, and at postoperative follow-up were reviewed for fracture type, and severity and outcome analyses. Five patients were found to have compartment syndrome without the presence of significant pain at rest or on passive range of motion. The study included three male and two female patients with a median age of 7 years. Three upper-extremity and two lower-extremity fractures were involved. The mean time from presentation to surgery was 14 h. At presentation, three of five patients had muscle paralysis, whereas at diagnosis of compartment syndrome, four of five had paralysis. Of the classic five P's, a maximum of two were found at diagnosis. The mean clinical follow-up period was 11 months (2-26 months). Long-term complications from compartment syndrome were found in one of five patients, who at the most recent follow-up, continued to be debilitated. This study reviews a series of cases of 'silent' compartment syndrome and confirms its atypical presentation. It is recommended that caution be used when assessing fractures with high risk for compartment syndrome in children, especially those complicated by nerve injury, as they do not always present in the classic manner, with missed diagnosis leading to significant functional deficits. IV.

  7. Correlations of electromyographic silent period duration and the Helkimo dysfunction index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helkimo, M I; Bailey, J O; Ash, M M

    1979-01-01

    Fifty-eight patients seen for consultation concerning mandibular dysfunction symptoms were examined utilizing the Helkimo index of dysfunction and electromyographic silent period recordings from masticatory muscles. The data collected were analyzed for correlations between the two parameters. Several significant correlations were noted between certain variables of the dysfunction index and the duration of the silent period. The mean duration of the silent period increased with increasing dysfunction index value. However, the clinical significance of this correlation is not established as long as we do not know the validity of neither the dysfunction index nor the the EMG silent period duration.

  8. Assessment of Silent T1-weighted head imaging at 7 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costagli, Mauro; Tiberi, Gianluigi; Tosetti, Michela [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); IRCCS Stella Maris, Laboratory of Medical Physics and Biotechnologies for Magnetic Resonance, Pisa (Italy); Symms, Mark R. [GE Applied Science Laboratory, Pisa (Italy); Angeli, Lorenzo [University of Pisa, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa (Italy); Kelley, Douglas A.C. [GE Healthcare Technologies, San Francisco, CA (United States); Biagi, Laura [IRCCS Stella Maris, Laboratory of Medical Physics and Biotechnologies for Magnetic Resonance, Pisa (Italy); Farnetani, Andrea [University of Ferrara, Engineering Department, Ferrara (Italy); Materiacustica s.r.l., Ferrara (Italy); Rua, Catarina [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, Pisa (Italy); Donatelli, Graziella [Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Pisana (AOUP), Neuroradiology Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Cosottini, Mirco [Imago7 Foundation, Pisa (Italy); University of Pisa, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    This study aimed to assess the performance of a ''Silent'' zero time of echo (ZTE) sequence for T1-weighted brain imaging using a 7 T MRI system. The Silent sequence was evaluated qualitatively by two neuroradiologists, as well as quantitatively in terms of tissue contrast, homogeneity, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and acoustic noise. It was compared to conventional T1-weighted imaging (FSPGR). Adequacy for automated segmentation was evaluated in comparison with FSPGR acquired at 7 T and 1.5 T. Specific absorption rate (SAR) was also measured. Tissue contrast and homogeneity in Silent were remarkable in deep brain structures and in the occipital and temporal lobes. Mean tissue contrast was significantly (p < 0.002) higher in Silent (0.25) than in FSPGR (0.11), which favoured automated tissue segmentation. On the other hand, Silent images had lower SNR with respect to conventional imaging: average SNR of FSPGR was 2.66 times that of Silent. Silent images were affected by artefacts related to projection reconstruction, which nevertheless did not compromise the depiction of brain tissues. Silent acquisition was 35 dB(A) quieter than FSPGR and less than 2.5 dB(A) louder than ambient noise. Six-minute average SAR was <2 W/kg. The ZTE Silent sequence provides high-contrast T1-weighted imaging with low acoustic noise at 7 T. (orig.)

  9. Silent Intravascular Lymphoma Initially Manifesting as a Unilateral Adrenal Incidentaloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiko Takahashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL is a rare subtype of malignant lymphoma. Although the involvement of adrenal glands in IVLBCL is often observed, primary adrenal IVLBCL is rare. Most reported cases of adrenal IVLBCL showed bilateral lesions resulting in rapidly progressive adrenal failure and poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of slowly progressive primary adrenal IVLBCL manifesting initially with unilateral adrenal incidentaloma. This case is a silent IVLBCL and shows that the enlargement of both adrenal glands can be followed.

  10. Some Semi-Deep Thoughts about Deep Reading: Rejoinder to "Digital Technology and Student Cognitive Development: The Neuroscience of the University Classroom"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheimer, Steve

    2016-01-01

    The author of this thought-provoking article joins an impressive cohort of current commentators and scholars united in their concern over the state of the art of reading. Mostly, they are concerned with the sustained, silent, generally solitary process of reading in which the reader is deeply focused on and immersed in the text. Their fear is that…

  11. Interpreting Secondary Students' Performance on a Timed, Multiple-Choice Reading Comprehension Assessment: The Prevalence and Impact of Non-Attempted Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Nathan H.; Davis, John L.; Simmons, Leslie E.; Oslund, Eric L.; Simmons, Deborah C.

    2015-01-01

    Standardized measures are often used as an index of students' reading comprehension and scores have important implications, particularly for students who perform below expectations. This study examined secondary-level students' patterns of responding and the prevalence and impact of non-attempted items on a timed, group-administered,…

  12. Does Phonology Play a Role When Skilled Readers Read High-Frequency Words? Evidence from ERPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Randy Lynn; Jared, Debra; Haigh, Corinne A.

    2012-01-01

    We used event-related brain potentials to clarify the role of phonology in activating the meanings of high-frequency words during skilled silent reading. Target homophones ("meet") in sentences such as "The students arranged to meet in the library to study" were replaced on some trials by either a high-frequency homophone mate…

  13. Orthographic and Phonological Parafoveal Processing of Consonants, Vowels, and Tones when Reading Thai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winskel, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Four eye movement experiments investigated whether readers use parafoveal input to gain information about the phonological or orthographic forms of consonants, vowels, and tones in word recognition when reading Thai silently. Target words were presented in sentences preceded by parafoveal previews in which consonant, vowel, or tone information was…

  14. Lip reading using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbande, Dhananjay; Mishra, Akassh A.; Patil, Sanjivani; Nirgudkar, Sneha; Patel, Prashant

    2011-10-01

    Computerized lip reading, or speech reading, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a speaking person to written text. It has several applications like teaching deaf and dumb to speak and communicate effectively with the other people, its crime fighting potential and invariance to acoustic environment. We convert the video of the subject speaking vowels into images and then images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like fast speech, bad pronunciation, and poor illumination, movement of face, moustaches and beards make lip reading difficult. Contour tracking methods and Template matching are used for the extraction of lips from the face. K Nearest Neighbor algorithm is then used to classify the 'speaking' images and the 'silent' images. The sequence of images is then transformed into segments of utterances. Feature vector is calculated on each frame for all the segments and is stored in the database with properly labeled class. Character recognition is performed using modified KNN algorithm which assigns more weight to nearer neighbors. This paper reports the recognition of vowels using KNN algorithms

  15. Intensive groundwater use: a silent revolution that cannot be ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, M R; Martínez-Santos, P

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decades, agriculture in arid and semi-arid countries has experienced a true "silent revolution" of intensive groundwater use. Millions of independent farmers worldwide have chosen to become increasingly dependent on the reliability of groundwater resources, and as a result their countries have reaped abundant social and economic benefits. Data from several countries shows that groundwater irrigation presents a much greater efficiency, than surface water irrigation systems, thus contributing to fulfil the motto of "more crops and jobs per drop". If this situation is confirmed globally, the usual world water visions have to be reviewed. However, the "silent revolution" has been carried out with scarce control on the part of governmental water agencies, and thus a series of unwanted effects have developed in certain places. While these by no means justify the pervasive "hydromyths" and obsolete paradigms that voice the frailty of groundwater, appropriate management of groundwater resources remains a worldwide challenge. This paper provides an overview of these issues, and concludes with the necessity there is to educate all levels of society on the importance of groundwater and to create bottom-up user associations to manage aquifers as common pool resources.

  16. Combustion Enhancement Using a Silent Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosocha, Louis; Platts, David; Coates, Don; Stange, Sy

    2003-10-01

    Electric fields affect flame propagation speed, stability, and combustion chemistry. External electrodes, arc discharges, and plasma jets have been used to combust gas mixtures outside their flammability limits. Experiments with silent electrical discharges (SEDs) and propagating flames have shown that flame propagation velocity is actually decreased (combustion retarded) when an SED is applied directly to the flame region, but velocity is increased (combustion promoted) when applied to the unburned gas mixture upstream of a flame. More recent work has proposed electric arc/microwave-driven plasma-generating fuel nozzles to produce dissociated fuel or ionized fuel for aircraft gas turbine engine combustor mixers. In contrast to prior works, we have used a silent discharge plasma (SDP) reactor to break up large fuel molecules into smaller molecules and create free radicals/active species in a gas stream before the fuel is mixed with an oxidizer and combusted. A cylindrical SDP reactor was used to 'activate' propane before mixing it with air and igniting the combustible gas mixture. With the plasma, the physical appearance of the flame changes and substantial changes in mass spectrometer fragmentation peaks for fuel and combustion products are observed (i.e., combustion is enhanced). Results of changes in the degree of combustion will be discussed in terms of variations in the plasma specific energy.

  17. Cutaneous silent period in human FDI motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya, Mehmet C; Yavuz, S Utku; Türker, Kemal S

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to use both the probability-based and the frequency-based analyses methods simultaneously to examine cutaneous silent period (CSP) induced by strong electrical currents. Subjects were asked to contract their first dorsal interosseus muscles so that one motor unit monitored via intramuscular wire electrodes discharged at a rate of approximately 8 Hz. Strong electrical stimuli were delivered to the back of the hand that created a subjective discomfort level of between 4 and 7 [0-10 visual analogue scale] and induced cutaneous silent period in all units. It was found that the duration of the CSP was significantly longer when the same data were analysed using frequency-based analysis method compared with the probability-based methods. Frequency-based analysis indicated that the strong electrical stimuli induce longer lasting inhibitory currents than what was indicated using the probability-based analyses such as surface electromyogram and peristimulus time histogram. Usage of frequency-based analysis for bringing out the synaptic activity underlying CSP seems essential as its characteristics have been subject to a large number of studies in experimental and clinical settings.

  18. Silent Cerebral Small Vessel Disease in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Moussouttas, Michael; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Aricò, Debora; Bagai, Kanika; Wang, Lily; McLaughlin, BethAnn; Walters, Arthur S

    2016-07-01

    Growing literature suggests that patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) may be at increased risk for hypertension, heart disease, and stroke. Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a known risk factor for clinical stroke. This study evaluated silent cerebral SVD by MRI in patients with RLS, in the absence of a history of previous clinical stroke or known stroke risk factors and taking into account disease duration. Fifty-three patients with RLS 10 y and 74 normal controls. A magnetic resonance imaging study was obtained from all subjects and scans were analyzed for area and volume of SVD. There was a significant increase in SVD area in the entire group of RLS patients compared to controls (P = 0.036); this was almost entirely driven by the group with RLS > 10 y. SVD area and volume were significantly increased in patients with RLS > 10 y with respect to both controls (P disease. Duration of RLS was an independent predictor of the burden of cerebral SVD (area P disease; our data support the hypothesis that a long-lasting RLS and its accompanying periodic limb movements in sleep are a risk factor for silent SVD and perhaps for the development of clinical stroke. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Promoting preschool reading

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The thesis titled Promoting preschool reading consists of a theoretiral and an empirical part. In the theoretical part I wrote about reading, the importance of reading, types of reading, about reading motivation, promoting reading motivation, internal and external motivation, influence of reading motivation on the child's reading activity, reading and familial literacy, the role of adults in promotion reading literacy, reading to a child and promoting reading in pre-school years, where I ...

  20. How Reading Volume Affects both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. ALLINGTON

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires about 15 minutes of reading activity daily. The remaining 75 minute of reading lessons is filled with many other activities such as completing workbook pages or responding to low-level literal questions about what has been read. Studies designed to enhance the volume of reading that children do during their reading lessons demonstrate one way to enhance reading development. Repeated readings have been widely used in fostering reading fluency but wide reading options seem to work faster and more broadly in developing reading proficiencies, including oral reading fluency.

  1. Teaching Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Mary

    1980-01-01

    Described are five approaches to teaching reading: Language Experience, Modified Alphabet, Linguistic, Programmed, and Basal. It is suggested that a good teacher, well trained, certified in his or her profession, an active participant in professional organizations, can teach reading successfully using almost any approach. (KC)

  2. Reading Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The Canadian Institute for Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences of Calgary was awarded a contract by the Provincial Government of Alberta to assess student skills and knowledge in reading and written composition. Here evaluation is defined and the use of standardized and criterion referenced tests for evaluating reading performance are…

  3. Reading Remixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman; Stephens, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Critics claim that digital technologies are killing reading, but these teacher-librarians have observed that teens are as excited about reading as they ever were. Online communities give these readers opportunities to get to know authors, communicate with other fans, and learn more about books of interest. Publishers and authors are responding to…

  4. Reading Letters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    In our everyday life we constantly encounter a diversity of reading matters, including display types on traffic signage, printed text in novels, newspaper headlines, or our own writing on a computer screen. All these conditions place different demands on the typefaces applied. The book discusses ...... these aspects by drawing on typography history, designers’ ideas, and available scientific data concerning the reading process....

  5. Morphology and Spelling in French Students with Dyslexia: The Case of Silent Final Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2017-01-01

    Spelling is a challenge for individuals with dyslexia. Phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence rules are highly inconsistent in French, which make them very difficult to master, in particular for dyslexics. One recurrent manifestation of this inconsistency is the presence of silent letters at the end of words. Many of these silent letters perform a…

  6. Imitated prosodic fluency predicts reading comprehension ability in good and poor high school readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Breen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have established a relationship between beginning readers’ silent comprehension ability and their prosodic fluency, such that readers who read aloud with appropriate prosody tend to have higher scores on silent reading comprehension assessments. The current study was designed to investigate this relationship in two groups of high school readers: Specifically Poor Comprehenders (SPCs, who have adequate word level and phonological skills but poor reading comprehension ability, and a group of age- and decoding skill-matched controls. We compared the prosodic fluency of the two groups by determining how effectively they produced prosodic cues to syntactic and semantic structure in imitations of a model speaker’s production of syntactically and semantically varied sentences. Analyses of pitch and duration patterns revealed that speakers in both groups produced the expected prosodic patterns; however, controls provided stronger durational cues to syntactic structure. These results demonstrate that the relationship between prosodic fluency and reading comprehension continues past the stage of early reading instruction. Moreover, they suggest that prosodically fluent speakers may also generate more fluent implicit prosodic representations during silent reading, leading to more effective comprehension.

  7. Not so "silent":The human prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Narain Tandon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little was known about the human prefrontal cortex till recently. It was thus labeled as the "silent area," "uncommitted cortex." It not only constitutes the largest component of the human brain but is the latest evolutionary addition to the mammalian brain. It endows the human beings with qualities that differentiate humans from all other animals. During the last couple of decades the advent of modern electrophysiological and imaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging, proton emission tomography, SPECT techniques have provided a wealth of insight into its role in memory, thought, emotions, moral judgment, social behavior, evaluating rewards, and assessing its fairness or otherwise and above all self-awareness. This brief review summarize the recent significant observations on its functions and connectivity which would interest the cognitive scientists and clinicians alike.

  8. Geometrical Shape Investigation For Electrodes in Silent Discharge Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facta, Mochammad; Ayu Ketut Umiati, Ngurah; Warsito, Agung

    2017-04-01

    Silent discharge is the most prominent method to carry out plasma reaction because. discharge is easily initiated by injecting alternating current in high voltage to the pair of separated electrodes. The electron emission from surface of dielectric placed on instantaneous cathode is stimulated by ion induced electron emission. In this method, spark is avoided by placing insulation material to either one or both of the electrodes. In practical, it is very difficult to determine the exact limit of the voltage that initiate the discharge by mathematical analysis because it depends on many factors, namely dimensions, type and geometrical shapes of electrode, thickness of insulation, and type of electric field inside the discharge gap. To get lower initial voltage for discharge, it is important to find the best geometrical shape of electrode in relation to skin effect that trigger electron emission. This work investigates the behaviour of charges, current, electric field and voltage surrounding electrodes with various geometrical shape.

  9. Hepatic steatosis: A benign disease or a silent killer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Steatosis is a common feature of many liver diseases, namely non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but the pathogenic mechanisms differ. Insulin resistance (IR), a key feature of metabolic syndrome, is crucial for NASH development, associated with many underlying genetically determined or acquired mitochondrial and metabolic defects and culminates to inflammation and progression to fibrosis. This may have potential implications for new drug therapy. In HCV-related disease, steatosis impacts both fibrosis progression and response to treatment. Steatosis in HCV-related disease relates to both viral factors (HCV genotype 3), and host factors (alcohol consumption, overweight, hyperlipidemia, diabetes). Among others, IR is a recognized factor. Hepatic steatosis is reported to be associated with disturbance in the signaling cascade of interferon and downregulation of its receptors. Thus, hepatic steatosis should not be considered a benign feature, but rather a silent killer.

  10. Isolated and silent spinal neurocysticercosis associated with pseudotumor cerebri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Rabindra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of spinal neurocysticercosis (NCC is rare. Isolated spinal NCC is still rarer. We present here a case report where a young lady presented with all the clinical features of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC, where medical treatment for PTC failed and the presence of cysticercous in spinal canal was detected only on the operation table, while doing a lumbo-peritoneal shunt (LP shunt to save her vision. Diagnosis could be confirmed only after the histopathology report was received. She did not have any direct evidence of spinal involvement, thereby eluding correct diagnosis. In English literature, we could not find any report of isolated and silent spinal NCC associated with PTC. In addition, we could not find any report of recovery of cysticercous larva through the Touhey′s needle injury, although this was an incidental finding. In endemic areas, isolated spinal NCC should be suspected in patients presenting with PTC.

  11. [Silent myocardial ischemia in patients with transient ischemic attacks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Valiente, S; Mostacero, E; del Río, A; Morales, F

    1994-10-01

    Given evidence that ischemic heart disease is the most frequent cause of death in patients with cerebrovascular disease, we used ergometrics to screen 80 patients with TIA for silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) at the neurological unit of Hospital Clínico Universitario in Zaragoza, Spain. The patients were compared with a control group of 80 with no signs of heart disease. Neither the patients nor the controls had ever shown clinical signs of coronary ischemia and their baseline electrocardiograms were normal. Stress test results were positive in 25 (31%) of the TIA patients, and in 4 (5%) (p Hiperlipidemia (75% testing positive versus 43% negative, p < 0.01) and diabetes (31% testing positive versus 13% negative, p < 0.01) were the risk factors statistically related with a positive stress test.

  12. Soundless Speech/ Wordless Writing: Language and German Silent Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Silberman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech / Wordless Writing: Language and German Silent Cinema Marc Silberman If language loses its communicative and interpretative functions in direct proportion to the loss of its referential grounding, then the modernist crisis is simultaneously a crisis of its signifying practices. This means that the evolution of the silent cinema is a particularly rich site to examine the problematic relationship of language and image. This essay presents several expressionist films as a specific response to this crisis in order to describe the diverse cinematic forms of resistance to the word, to articulated speech. While some film makers developed the silence of the silent film into a “gestural language” that dramatized light and movement, others reproduced the film figures’ silent speech by means of graphically stylized intertitles. My thesis is that the expressionist cinema maintained an idealistic notion of the film as a pure work of art that aimed at a unified composition of all elements and missed the opportunity to explore the rich semiotic possibilities of the new technological medium with its hybrid, synergetic forms and provocative force. Hence, the expressionist cinema marks a transition or even the endpoint of a long process of reflection about the communicative possibilities of language that shifted to a fundamentally new level with the invention of sound cinema at the end of the 1920s. Parole muette / écriture sans mot: Le langage et le cinéma allemand muet Marc Silberman Le langage, dit-on, perd de ses functions communicatrices et interpretatives en proportion directe à la perte de sa force référentielle. On dira que la crise moderniste est également une crise des pratiques signifiantes. Ce qui revient à dire aussi que l’évolution du cinéma muet serait une site particulièrement riche pour examiner les problématiques du langage vs. l’image. Cet essai présente quelques films expressionnistes comme réactions à la crise

  13. Cortical silent period following transcranial magnetic stimulation in epileptic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, N K; Gül, G; Altunhalka, A; Kirbas, D

    2000-09-01

    Cortical silent period (SP) following transcranial magnetic stimulation is mainly due to cortical inhibitory mechanisms. SP may have a value for detecting inhibitory mechanisms in epileptic patients with or without treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both the epilepsy and the antiepileptic medication on these inhibitory mechanisms. The subgroups studied consisted of (a) normal subjects, (b) unmedicated epileptic patients, (c) epileptic patients with uncontrolled seizures under medication, (d) epileptic patients with controlled seizures under medication. SP following transcranial magnetic stimulation was measured in all subjects. The SP values from shortest to the longest were in the following order: 1) normal subjects; 2) epileptic patients with controlled seizures under medication; 3) unmedicated epileptic patients; 4) epileptic patients with uncontrolled seizures under medication. Our findings probably indicate the enhanced interictal inhibitory mechanisms in epilepsy which is resistant to antiepileptic medication.

  14. Stopping the Silent Killer: Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast discusses an underappreciated health threat to many Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States: chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus. Dr. John Ward, director of CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis, and Dr. Sam So, founder of the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University, address the importance of testing, vaccination, and care to prevent serious health consequences from this "silent" disease.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Division of Viral Hepatitis (DVH) and Office of Dispute Resolution and Equal Employment Opportunity, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  15. Boundaries of transcriptionally silent chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Qian; Hatanaka, Akira; Oki, Masaya

    2011-01-01

    In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, heterochromatic gene silencing has been found within HMR and HML silent mating type loci, the telomeres, and the rRNA-encoding DNA. There may be boundary elements that regulate the spread of silencing to protect genes adjacent to silenced domains from this epigenetic repressive effect. Many assays show that specific DNA regulatory elements separate a euchromatic locus from a neighboring heterochromatic domain and thereby function as a boundary. Alternatively, DNA-independent mechanisms such as competition between acetylated and deacetylated histones are also reported to contribute to gene insulation. However, the mechanism by which boundaries are formed is not clear. Here, the characteristics and functions of boundaries at silenced domains in S. cerevisiae are discussed.

  16. Moderate Cortical Cooling Eliminates Thalamocortical Silent States during Slow Oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheroziya, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor

    2015-09-23

    Reduction in temperature depolarizes neurons by a partial closure of potassium channels but decreases the vesicle release probability within synapses. Compared with cooling, neuromodulators produce qualitatively similar effects on intrinsic neuronal properties and synapses in the cortex. We used this similarity of neuronal action in ketamine-xylazine-anesthetized mice and non-anesthetized mice to manipulate the thalamocortical activity. We recorded cortical electroencephalogram/local field potential (LFP) activity and intracellular activities from the somatosensory thalamus in control conditions, during cortical cooling and on rewarming. In the deeply anesthetized mice, moderate cortical cooling was characterized by reversible disruption of the thalamocortical slow-wave pattern rhythmicity and the appearance of fast LFP spikes, with frequencies ranging from 6 to 9 Hz. These LFP spikes were correlated with the rhythmic IPSP activities recorded within the thalamic ventral posterior medial neurons and with depolarizing events in the posterior nucleus neurons. Similar cooling of the cortex during light anesthesia rapidly and reversibly eliminated thalamocortical silent states and evoked thalamocortical persistent activity; conversely, mild heating increased thalamocortical slow-wave rhythmicity. In the non-anesthetized head-restrained mice, cooling also prevented the generation of thalamocortical silent states. We conclude that moderate cortical cooling might be used to manipulate slow-wave network activity and induce neuromodulator-independent transition to activated states. Significance statement: In this study, we demonstrate that moderate local cortical cooling of lightly anesthetized or naturally sleeping mice disrupts thalamocortical slow oscillation and induces the activated local field potential pattern. Mild heating has the opposite effect; it increases the rhythmicity of thalamocortical slow oscillation. Our results demonstrate that slow oscillation can be

  17. The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varao Sousa, Trish L.; Carriere, Jonathan S. A.; Smilek, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: (1) reading a passage aloud, (2) listening to a passage being read to them, and (3) reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage participants also rated how interesting it was and completed a content recognition test. Results showed that reading aloud led to the least amount of mind wandering, while listening to the passage led to the most mind wandering. Listening to the passage was also associated with the poorest memory performance and the least interest in the material. Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings. Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts. PMID:24348444

  18. The way we encounter reading material influences how frequently we mind wander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trish L Varao Sousa

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether different encounters of reading material influence the likelihood of mind wandering, memory for the material, and the ratings of interest in the material. In a within-subjects design participants experienced three different reading encounters: 1 reading a passage aloud, 2 listening to a passage being read to them, and 3 reading a passage silently. Throughout each reading encounter probes were given in order to identify mind wandering. After finishing the passage participants also rated how interesting it was and completed a content recognition test. Results showed that reading aloud led to the least amount of mind wandering, while listening to the passage led to the most mind wandering. Listening to the passage was also associated with the poorest memory performance and the least interest in the material. Finally, within the silent reading and listening encounters we observed negative relations between mind wandering and both memory performance and interest in the material, replicating previous findings. Taken together, the present findings improve our understanding of the nature of mind wandering while reading, and have potentially important implications for readers seeking to take advantage of the convenience of audiobooks and podcasts.

  19. The effects of crowding on eye movement patterns in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricolo, Emanuela; Salvi, Carola; Martelli, Marialuisa; Arduino, Lisa S; Daini, Roberta

    2015-09-01

    Crowding is a phenomenon that characterizes normal periphery limiting letter identification when other letters surround the signal. We investigated the nature of the reading limitation of crowding by analyzing eye-movement patterns. The stimuli consisted of two items varying across trials for letter spacing (spaced, unspaced and increased size), lexicality (words or pseudowords), number of letters (4, 6, 8), and reading modality (oral and silent). In Experiments 1 and 2 (oral and silent reading, respectively) the results show that an increase in letter spacing induced an increase in the number of fixations and in gaze duration, but a reduction in the first fixation duration. More importantly, increasing letter size (Experiment 3) produced the same first fixation duration advantage as empty spacing, indicating that, as predicted by crowding, only center-to-center letter distance, and not spacing per se, matters. Moreover, when the letter size was enlarged the number of fixations did not increase as much as in the previous experiments, suggesting that this measure depends on visual acuity rather than on crowding. Finally, gaze duration, a measure of word recognition, did not change with the letter size enlargement. No qualitative differences were found between oral and silent reading experiments (1 and 2), indicating that the articulatory process did not influence the outcome. Finally, a facilitatory effect of lexicality was found in all conditions, indicating an interaction between perceptual and lexical processing. Overall, our results indicate that crowding influences normal word reading by means of an increase in first fixation duration, a measure of word encoding, which we interpret as a modulatory effect of attention on critical spacing.

  20. Significance of silent ischemia in dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy. Evaluation in patients with angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Hiroaki; Takata, Jun; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Seo, Hiromi; Doi, Yoshinori [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    The significance of silent myocardial ischemia detected by dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy was evaluated in 80 patients with stable angina and reversible defects (RD) but no infarction. The patients consisted of 26 patients with silent RD and 54 patients with painful RD. There was no significant difference in the incidence of coronary risk factors between the two groups, except for hyperlipidemia which was less frequently observed in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (8% vs 41%), Coronary angiography revealed a higher prevalence of insignificant lesions or single vessel disease in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (73% vs 39%). Dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy revealed a lower degree of RD in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (4.4{+-}3.3 vs 9.0{+-}4.1 segments), though there was no significant difference in the localization of RD between these two groups. Treadmill stress testing revealed a lower incidence of chest pain in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (26% vs 65%), despite the mean exercise-duration being significantly longer in the former than in the latter (5.5{+-}1.7 vs 3.9{+-}11.7 min). Although initial percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and/or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were less frequently performed in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (12% vs 31%), there was no significant difference in the cardiac event rate during the mean follow-up period of 24{+-}14 months between the two groups. Patients with stable angina and silent RD on dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy may have less extensive coronary lesions and smaller amounts of ischemic myocardium than patients with painful RD. Dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy is useful for detecting and evaluating silent myocardial ischemia, even in those patients who cannot exercise adequately. (J.P.N.).

  1. How Reading Volume Affects Both Reading Fluency and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allington, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Long overlooked, reading volume is actually central to the development of reading proficiencies, especially in the development of fluent reading proficiency. Generally no one in schools monitors the actual volume of reading that children engage in. We know that the commonly used commercial core reading programs provide only material that requires…

  2. Language differences in the brain network for reading in naturalistic story reading and lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Jianfeng; Yang, Jie; Mencl, W Einar; Shu, Hua; Zevin, Jason David

    2015-01-01

    Differences in how writing systems represent language raise important questions about whether there could be a universal functional architecture for reading across languages. In order to study potential language differences in the neural networks that support reading skill, we collected fMRI data from readers of alphabetic (English) and morpho-syllabic (Chinese) writing systems during two reading tasks. In one, participants read short stories under conditions that approximate natural reading, and in the other, participants decided whether individual stimuli were real words or not. Prior work comparing these two writing systems has overwhelmingly used meta-linguistic tasks, generally supporting the conclusion that the reading system is organized differently for skilled readers of Chinese and English. We observed that language differences in the reading network were greatly dependent on task. In lexical decision, a pattern consistent with prior research was observed in which the Middle Frontal Gyrus (MFG) and right Fusiform Gyrus (rFFG) were more active for Chinese than for English, whereas the posterior temporal sulcus was more active for English than for Chinese. We found a very different pattern of language effects in a naturalistic reading paradigm, during which significant differences were only observed in visual regions not typically considered specific to the reading network, and the middle temporal gyrus, which is thought to be important for direct mapping of orthography to semantics. Indeed, in areas that are often discussed as supporting distinct cognitive or linguistic functions between the two languages, we observed interaction. Specifically, language differences were most pronounced in MFG and rFFG during the lexical decision task, whereas no language differences were observed in these areas during silent reading of text for comprehension.

  3. The Relationship of Selected Aspects of Reading Comprehension and Cognitive Tasks: Classification Abilities at the Concrete Operations Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Aaron Ross, Jr.

    This study attempted to prove a dichotomy between cognitive processes as measured by Piagetian reasoning tasks and those measured by traditional intelligence tests. A battery of tests (Slosson Intelligence Test, Durrell's Silent Reading and Listening Comprehension Test, Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices, and the Piagetian Measure of Cognitive…

  4. Reading Columns

    OpenAIRE

    Coutts, Marion

    2008-01-01

    Reading Columns are twin permanent public sculptures commissioned as part of a £245m scheme for the redevelopment of the Chatham Place area in Reading. Dimensions: 3.5m high x 1.3m diameter each Field of knowledge: The work consists of twin bespoke columns of stainless steel and glass over digital colour transparencies. The piece revisits and reworks the idea of the Morris Column, a 19th C feature characteristic of major European metropolitan centres. A wraparound image on each of ...

  5. A silent period in sural muscle occurring prior to the voluntary forward inclination of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Y; Uchida, T; Takanashi, Y; Suzuki, N; Hashimoto, M; Yamamoto, Y; Takegami, T; Koyama, H

    1981-01-20

    A silent period lasting for 300-500 msec was observed in triceps surae muscle when the subject inclined forward from the normal standing. This silent period preceded 100 msec or more the beginning of the body inclination and was terminated by an abrupt refiring in the midst of the body swing. The silence was not preceded by the increase in activity of the sural muscle itself or any other leg muscles studied. H-reflex in soleus was strongly inhibited or disappeared during the silent period, indicating that the excitability of the spinal motoneurons was greatly decreased during this period. These findings suggest that the silent period was not induced by some reflex activity in the spinal cord, but was caused by the inhibitory activity based on a central program on the spinal motoneurons.

  6. Silent seizures in sick infants in early life. Diagnosis by continuous cerebral function monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Westas, L; Rosén, I; Swenningsen, N W

    1985-09-01

    Cerebral electric activity was surveilled with a Cerebral Function Monitor (CFM) technique in 87 newborn infants under neonatal intensive care. A total of 26 infants had electrographical signs of repeated seizure activity. Among these infants 14 had periods of one hour or more of silent seizures activity. Among these infants 14 had periods of one hour or more of silent seizures, i.e. typical pattern of ictal epileptic activity on CFM without clinical symptoms or signs of convulsions. The occurrence of silent seizures and their pattern in relation to the clinical condition and management was unpredictable in most cases. Besides general limpness or flaccidity in an outward quiet baby these infants showed no clinical fits or clonic convulsions. The findings indicate that anticonvulsive therapy in small infants may be insufficient and need re-evaluation, since the long-term effect of silent seizures on cerebral function and activity is still uncertain.

  7. Needs of a Silent Minority: Mexican Transgender Asylum Seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Taylor, E Laurette; Dunnington, Jamie; Alshuwaiyer, Ghadah; Cheney, Marshall K

    2017-05-01

    Mexican male to female transgender asylum seekers in the United States suffer from serious health issues that can be attributed to stressors related to their transgender, ethnic minority, and socioeconomic status. This study explored these stressors, the resulting health issues, and the needs of this particularly vulnerable population. Asylum seekers' (n = 45) sworn declarations and psychological evaluations were examined by a multidisciplinary research team using a systematic document review process. The review identified stressors that occurred both in Mexico and the United States: verbal, physical, and sexual assaults; unstable environments; fear for safety/security; hiding undocumented status; and economic insecurity. The health issues that resulted in part from these stressors include posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, sleep issues, isolation, avoidance, drug/alcohol use, and suicidal tendencies. Despite suffering from multiple health issues, asylum seekers rarely sought health or social services. Health promotion practitioners can play an important role in serving this silent minority by (1) expanding community-based research focused on the intersection of transgender, ethnic minority, and socioeconomic status; (2) using trusted community members to connect this population to necessary resources; (3) providing communication training/resource development for health care providers; and (4) creating a network of service organizations that understand the needs of transgender asylum seekers.

  8. Motor cortical thresholds and cortical silent periods in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tataroglu, Cengiz; Ozkiziltan, Safa; Baklan, Baris

    2004-10-01

    We studied motor cortical thresholds (TIs) and cortical silent periods (SPs) evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in 110 epileptic patients. Sixty-two had primary generalised, 48 had partial type seizures. Fifteen out 110 patients were analysed both before and after anticonvulsant medication. Our aims were to evaluate the TI levels and the duration of SPs in patients with epilepsy and to determine the reliability of TMS in patients with epilepsy. There was no negative effect of TMS on the clinical status and EEG findings in patients with epilepsy. TIs obtained from patients with partial epilepsy were higher than those obtained from both controls and primary epileptics. The duration of SP in patients with primary epileptics was more prolonged than those obtained from controls. There was no correlation between EEG lateralisation and both SP duration and TI values. In de novo patient group, SP duration was significantly prolonged after anticonvulsant medication. We concluded that TMS is a reliable electrophysiological investigation in patients with epilepsy. The analysis of SP duration may be an appropriate investigation in monitoring the effect of anticonvulsant medication on the cortical inhibitory activity.

  9. [Subclinical adrenal diseases: silent pheochromocytoma and subclinical Addison's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, P; Kerlan, V

    2012-10-01

    The silent pheochromocytoma, a hidden form of pheochromocytoma, exposes the patient to an increased risk of mortality if the diagnosis is not established on time. Biological diagnosis of pheochromocytoma can be difficult. Catecholamine secretion is dependent on tumor size and a large number of physiological, pharmacological, lifestyle modifications and sampling conditions influence the measurement of urinary and plasma metanephrines. The prevalence of pheochromocytoma is 2% among adrenal incidentaloma smaller than 3 cm (2/3 of tumors). Recent studies suggest the almost zero risk of pheochromocytoma among these tumors if they are hypodense (<10 housefield units) on adrenal tomography. Addison's disease is a pathology affecting about 1 in 8000. Immunopathology is still unknown, but some elements advocated the hypothesis of a predominant cell-mediated immunity in particular Interferon-gamma production by CD4 T lymphocytes in the presence of an epitope from the 21-hydroxylase, as well as IgG1 subtype produced by activated B lymphocytes, autoantibodies do appear to be a simple marker of the disease. Subclinical Addison's disease is defined by the presence of anti-21-hydroxylase autoantibodies, without clinical symptoms. It evolves faster to the clinical phase in young subjects, male, having high levels of autoantibodies and with an initially impaired adrenal function. Dosage of ACTH, plasma renin active, and basal cortisol and after Synacthen allow to discriminate the subjects with low or high risk of evolution and establish an appropriate monitoring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Uniqueness of Petrov type D spatially inhomogeneous irrotational silent models

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolopoulos, P S; Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S; Carot, Jaume

    2006-01-01

    The consistency of the constraint with the evolution equations for spatially inhomogeneous and irrotational silent (SIIS) models of Petrov type I, demands that the former are preserved along the timelike congruence represented by the velocity of the dust fluid, leading to an infinite set of non-trivial constraints. This fact has been used to conjecture that the resulting models correspond to the spatially homogeneous (SH) models of Bianchi type I, at least for the case where the cosmological constant vanish. By exploiting the full set of the constraint equations as expressed in the 1+3 covariant formalism and using elements from the theory of the spacelike congruences, we provide a direct and simple proof of this conjecture for vacuum and dust fluid models, which shows that the Szekeres family of solutions represents the most general class of SIIS models. The suggested procedure also shows that, the uniqueness of the spatially inhomogeneous and irrotational models of Petrov type D is not affected by the prese...

  11. Benzene conversion by manganese dioxide assisted silent discharge plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Bin; JI Min; YU Xin; FENG Tao; YAO Shuiliang

    2007-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma technologies have shown their promising potential specially for the low concentration of volatile organic compound control in indoor air in recent years.But it is also high energy consuming.So,to improve the energy efficiency,adding catalysts which enhance the plasma chemical reactions to plasma reactors may be a good selection.Therefore,in this study the manganese dioxide assisted silent discharge plasma was developed for benzene conversion at a relatively high energy efficiency.The results show that MnO2 could promote complete oxidation of benzene with O2 and O3 produced in the plasma discharge zone.The energy efficiency of benzene conversion with MnO2 was two folds as much as that without catalysts.It was also found that the site of MnO2 in the reactor and the energy density had effects on benzene conversion.While the energy density was lower than 48 J/L,benzene conversion decreased with the increase in the distance between MnO2 bed and the plasma discharge zone.Whereas when the energy density was higher than 104 J/L,benzene conversion had an optimal value that was governed by the distance between MnO2 bed and the plasma discharge zone.The mechanism of benzene oxidation in plasma discharges and over MnO2 is discussed in detail.

  12. Silent angels the genetic and clinical aspects of Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziwota Ewelina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder and, because of some behavioral characteristics, individuals affected by the disease are known as silent angels. Girls with Rett syndrome perform stereotyped movements, they have learning difficulties, their reaction time is prolonged, and they seem alienated in the environment. These children require constant pediatric, neurological and orthopedic care. In the treatment of Rett syndrome physical therapy, music therapy, hydrotherapy, hippotherapy, behavioral methods, speech therapy and diet, are also used. In turn, psychological therapy of the syndrome is based on the sensory integration method, using two or more senses simultaneously. In 80% of cases, the syndrome is related to mutations of the MECP2 gene, located on chromosome X. The pathogenesis of Rett syndrome is caused by the occurrence of a non-functional MeCP2 protein, which is a transcription factor of many genes, i.e. Bdnf, mef2c, Sgk1, Uqcrc1. Abnormal expression of these genes reveals a characteristic disease phenotype. Clinical symptoms relate mainly to the nervous, respiratory, skeletal and gastrointestinal systems. Currently causal treatment is not possible. However, researchers are developing methods by which, perhaps in the near future, it will be possible to eliminate the mutations in the MECP2 gene, and this will give a chance to the patient for normal functioning.

  13. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed without…

  14. Oral Reading Fluency in Second Language Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Hee

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of oral reading fluency in second language reading. Two hundred and fifty-five high school students in South Korea were assessed on three oral reading fluency (ORF) variables and six other reading predictors. The relationship between ORF and other reading predictors was examined through an exploratory factor…

  15. Does Extensive Reading Promote Reading Speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mu

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown a wide range of learning benefits accruing from extensive reading. Not only is there improvement in reading, but also in a wide range of language uses and areas of language knowledge. However, few research studies have examined reading speed. The existing literature on reading speed focused on students' reading speed…

  16. WHAT IS READING?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Reading is enjoying,entertaining and ent ightening Reading is listening,speaking and writingReading is talking and discussing,with yourself with the author and with the others Reading is exploring,investigating and guessing. Reading is traveling backward and forward,historically and geographically. Reading is thinking in your own language,and/or in the other language. Reading is encoding and decoding. Reading is civilizing,rationalizing and intellectualizing. Reading is assimilating,associating,accumula...

  17. Characterization of 12 silent alleles of the human butyrylcholinesterase (BCHE) gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Primo-Parmo, S.L.; Wiersema, B.; Spek, A.F.L. van der [Univ. of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    The silent phenotype of human butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), present in most human populations in frequencies of {approximately}1/100,000, is characterized by the complete absence of BChE activity or by activity < 10 % of the average levels of the usual phenotype. Heterogeneity in this phenotype has been well established at the phenotypic level, but only a few silent BCHE alleles have been characterized at the DNA level. Twelve silent alleles of the human butyrylcholinesterase gene (BCHE) have been identified in 17 apparently unrelated patients who were selected by their increased sensitivity to the muscle relaxant succinylcholine. All of these alleles are characterized by single nucleotide substitutions or deletions leading to distinct changes in the structure of the BChE enzyme molecule. Nine of the nucleotide substitutions result in the replacement of single amino acid residues. Three of these variants, BCHE*33C, BCHE*198G, and BCHE*201T, produce normal amounts of immunoreactive but enzymatically inactive BChE protein in the plasma. The other six amino acid substitutions, encoded by BCHE*37S, BCHE*125F, BCHE*170E, BCHE-471R, and BCHE*518L, seem to cause reduced expression of BChE protein, and their role in determining the silent phenotype was confirmed by expression in cell culture. The other four silent alleles, BCHE*271STOP, BCHE*500STOP, BCHE*FS6, and BCHE*I2E3-8G, encode BChEs truncated at their C-terminus because of premature stop codons caused by nucleotide substitutions, a frame shift, or altered splicing. The large number of different silent BCHE alleles found within a relatively small number of patients shows that the heterogeneity of the silent BChE phenotype is high. The characterization of silent BChE variants will be useful in the study of the structure/function relationship for this and other closely related enzymes. 83 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. MESHING THEORY AND DESIGN METHOD OF NEW SILENT CHAIN AND SPROCKET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanzhong; FENG Zengming; CHU Yaxu

    2006-01-01

    Based on the study of the meshing theory of a new silent chain and sprockets, and the rolling cutting theory of sprocket and hob, the harmonious relations of dominating dimensions among the new silent chain, sprocket and hob is build, the meshing conditions are expatiated, and the resolved expression, which can instruct design and calculation, is educed. The tests show that the meshing design method is feasible.

  19. Reading Hygiene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    耿一铭

    2006-01-01

    Here are some good points for good eye health that everyone can follow: 1.Rest your eyes before they get tired. Just close your eyes from time to time or look offat some distant object. 2.Do not read in either too dark a light or

  20. PROPER CONDITIONS OF MESHING FOR Hy-Vo SILENT CHAIN AND SPROCKET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fanzhong; LI Chun; CHENG Yabing

    2007-01-01

    Proper meshing of Hy-Vo silent chain and sprocket is important for realizing the transmission of the silent chain with more efficiency and less noise. Based on the study of the meshing theory of the Hy-Vo silent chain with the sprocket and the roll cutting machining principle of the sprocket with the hob, the proper conditions of the meshing for the Hy-Vo silent chain and the sprocket are put forward with the variable pitch characteristic of the Hy-Vo silent chain taken into consideration, and the proper meshing design method on the condition that the value of the link tooth pressure angle is unequal to the value of the sprocket tooth pressure angle is studied. Experiments show that this new design method is feasible. In addition, the design of the pitch, the sprocket tooth pressure angle and the fillet radius of the sprocket addendum circle arc studied. It is crucial for guiding the design of the hob which cuts the Hy-Vo silent chain sprocket.

  1. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-01-01

    The authors review research on children’s reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children’s reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children’s reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers h...

  2. Peyronie's disease: a silent consequence of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Tefekli; E. Kandirali; B. Erol; M. Tunc; A. Kadioglu

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) and diabetes mellitus (DM).Methods: During an 8-year period, a total of 307 men seen at our outpatient clinic were diagnosed with PD. Clinical characteristics, penile deformities and the erectile status of patients with PD and DM together (n = 102) were retrospectively analyzed and compared to patients with PD alone with no risk factors for systemic vascular diseases (n = 97). Results: The prevalence of PD among men with DM and sexual dysfunction was 10.7 %. The mean age of diabetic patients with PD was (55.9 ± 8.9) years; in the no risk factor group it was (48.5 ± 9.0) years (P < 0.05).The median duration of DM was 5 years. The majority of diabetic patients with PD (56.0 %) presented in the chronic phase (P < 0.05), and they were more likely to have a severe penile deformity (> 60°) than the no risk factor group (P < 0.05). In the diabetic group, the most common presenting symptom was penile curvature (81.4 %), followed by a palpable nodule on the shaft of the penis (22.5 %) and penile pain with erection (14.7 %). A total of 19.6 % of patients were not aware of their penile deformities in the diabetic group. Erectile function, provided by history and in response to intracavernosal injection and a stimulation test, was significantly diminished in patients with PD and DM (P < 0.05). Conclusion: DM probably exaggerates the fibrotic process in PD. Diabetic patients with PD have a higher risk of severe deformity and erectile dysfunction (ED). PD seems to be a silent consequence of DM and should be actively sought in diabetic men.

  3. Automatic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡迪

    2007-01-01

    <正>Reading is the key to school success and,like any skill,it takes practice.A child learns to walk by practising until he no longer has to think about how to put one foot in front of the other.The great athlete practises until he can play quickly,accurately and without thinking.Ed- ucators call it automaticity.

  4. Crowding and eccentricity determine reading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelli, Denis G; Tillman, Katharine A; Freeman, Jeremy; Su, Michael; Berger, Tracey D; Majaj, Najib J

    2007-10-26

    Bouma's law of crowding predicts an uncrowded central window through which we can read and a crowded periphery through which we cannot. The old discovery that readers make several fixations per second, rather than a continuous sweep across the text, suggests that reading is limited by the number of letters that can be acquired in one fixation, without moving one's eyes. That "visual span" has been measured in various ways, but remains unexplained. Here we show (1) that the visual span is simply the number of characters that are not crowded and (2) that, at each vertical eccentricity, reading rate is proportional to the uncrowded span. We measure rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) reading rate for text, in both original and scrambled word order, as a function of size and spacing at central and peripheral locations. As text size increases, reading rate rises abruptly from zero to maximum rate. This classic reading rate curve consists of a cliff and a plateau, characterized by two parameters, critical print size and maximum reading rate. Joining two ideas from the literature explains the whole curve. These ideas are Bouma's law of crowding and Legge's conjecture that reading rate is proportional to visual span. We show that Legge's visual span is the uncrowded span predicted by Bouma's law. This result joins Bouma and Legge to explain reading rate's dependence on letter size and spacing. Well-corrected fluent observers reading ordinary text with adequate light are limited by letter spacing (crowding), not size (acuity). More generally, it seems that this account holds true, independent of size, contrast, and luminance, provided only that text contrast is at least four times the threshold contrast for an isolated letter. For any given spacing, there is a central uncrowded span through which we read. This uncrowded span model explains the shape of the reading rate curve. We test the model in several ways. We use a "silent substitution" technique to measure the

  5. Reading Together: A Successful Reading Fluency Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Mohr, Kathleen A. J.; Rasinski, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a reading fluency intervention called Reading Together that combines the method of repeated readings (Samuels, 1979) and the Neurological Impress Method (Heckelman, 1969). Sixteen volunteers from various backgrounds were recruited and trained to deliver the Reading Together intervention to struggling readers in third through…

  6. Skipped words and fixated words are processed differently during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether words are processed differently when they are fixated during silent reading than when they are skipped. According to a serial processing model of eye movement control (e.g., EZ Reader) skipped words are fully processed (Reichle, Rayner, Pollatsek, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(04):445-476, 2003), whereas in a parallel processing model (e.g., SWIFT) skipped words do not need to be fully processed (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, Kliegl, Psychological Review, 112(4):777-813, 2005). Participants read 34 sentences with target words embedded in them while their eye movements were recorded. All target words were three-letter, low-frequency, and unpredictable nouns. After the reading session, participants completed a repetition priming lexical decision task with the target words from the reading session included as the repetition prime targets, with presentation of those same words during the reading task acting as the prime. When participants skipped a word during the reading session, their reaction times on the lexical decision task were significantly longer (M = 656.42 ms) than when they fixated the word (M = 614.43 ms). This result provides evidence that skipped words are sometimes not processed to the same degree as fixated words during reading.

  7. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  8. STUDY OF IMMUNITY TO POLIOVIRUSES ON CERTAIN "SILENT" TERRITORIES OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Romanenkova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The degree of immunity to polioviruses of three serotypes among children of different ages was analysed on certain "controlled" and "silent" territories of Russia in different periods of Polio Eradication Initiative. It was shown that the levels of immunity of children’s population to polioviruses on "controlled" and "silent" territories had no significant difference. It was stated that on the phase which preceded the certification for the absence of circulation of wild polioviruses, when the National Immunisation Days were conducted in the country, the percentage of eronegative children to polioviruses of different serotypes was low on all the territories of Russia. After Russia as a part of the WHO European region was certified as a polio free country and mass immunisation was stopped thepercentage of seronegative children increased, especially to poliovirus of serotype 3, both on the "controlled" and on the "silent" territories.

  9. Agreement of the silent partnership – tax and legal consequences of its conclusion and execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Zieniewicz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The institution of the silent partnership is not currently regulated by any legal act in the Polish legal system, although its importance in practice is not in doubt. As every action made in the economic sphere and economic execution of the contract is associated with specific effects on the basis of the tax laws. However, due to the lack of statutory regulation of the institution of silent partnership problematic is the question of determining the effects of tax legislation. Therefore, special attention is needed to determine the issue of these effects on the basis of income tax, tax on goods and services, transfer tax and the tax on inheritance and donations, as well as the question of liability for the tax liabilities of the silent partnership.

  10. Brain CT-scan in acute stroke patients: silent infarcts and relation to outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corea, Francesco; Tambasco, Nicola; Luccioli, Roberto; Ciorba, Ettore; Parnetti, Lucilla; Gallai, Virgilio

    2002-01-01

    Silent infarcts (SIs) are common findings in stroke patients, but their clinical significance remains controversial. Aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of SI in consecutive stroke patients, characteristics, associated factors, and influence on in-hospital mortality. The population consisted of 191 patients, consecutively admitted for an acute stroke. Of 191 patients, 74 had SI on CT-scan. Silent infarcts were often multiple, right sided, lacunar. We found SI more frequently in older patients, smokers, with an ischemic stroke having small vessel disease as presumed cause. In our study SI were associated with ageing, smoke habit and lacunar stroke. Silent infarcts size influenced the rate of in-hospital mortality.

  11. The clinical dilemma of "silent desensitization" in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew A; Bosso, John V; Stevenson, Donald D

    2013-01-01

    Aspirin desensitization is a treatment option for patients with aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). Some patients with an excellent history of aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) reactions have negative aspirin challenges/desensitization. This study discusses the clinical entity of silent desensitization in AERD and the dilemma that this presents to the practicing allergist/immunologist. We discuss a series of patients with a strong history of NSAID reactions who initially underwent a negative challenge/silent desensitization. These patients were subsequently proven to have AERD after a second positive aspirin challenge. Silent desensitization is an uncommon but important outcome to recognize in AERD. Clinicians performing aspirin desensitization should understand that this can occur and consider a second confirmatory aspirin challenge in some patients.

  12. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Jauch, C.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2004-01-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create amodel database in different simulation tools....... The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. inductiongenerators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non......-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). Theinitialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1...

  13. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis as the presenting symptom of silent thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Debmalya; Bhattacharjee, Shakya

    2013-04-01

    Silent thyroiditis is a rare cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. The objective was to present a case of silent thyroiditis presenting as periodic paralysis. A 23-year-old man presented with recurrent acute flaccid predominantly proximal weakness of all four limbs. He had a similar episode 3 weeks back. On examination he was found to have hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis. Clinically there were no features of thyrotoxicosis or thyroiditis. He was initially treated with intravenous and later oral potassium supplementation and propranolol. At 8 weeks of follow-up his thyroid profile became normal and his propranolol was stopped. He had no further recurrence of paralysis. He was diagnosed as a case silent thyroiditis presenting as thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. In cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to suspect thyrotoxicosis, even if asymptomatic. Definitive treatment of thyrotoxicosis prevents recurrence.

  14. Thyrotoxic hypokalemic periodic paralysis as the presenting symptom of silent thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debmalya Sanyal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Silent thyroiditis is a rare cause of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. The objective was to present a case of silent thyroiditis presenting as periodic paralysis. A 23-year-old man presented with recurrent acute flaccid predominantly proximal weakness of all four limbs. He had a similar episode 3 weeks back. On examination he was found to have hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis. Clinically there were no features of thyrotoxicosis or thyroiditis. He was initially treated with intravenous and later oral potassium supplementation and propranolol. At 8 weeks of follow-up his thyroid profile became normal and his propranolol was stopped. He had no further recurrence of paralysis. He was diagnosed as a case silent thyroiditis presenting as thyrotoxic periodic paralysis. In cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to suspect thyrotoxicosis, even if asymptomatic. Definitive treatment of thyrotoxicosis prevents recurrence.

  15. Silent Synapses Speak Up: Updates of the Neural Rejuvenation Hypothesis of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanhua H; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2015-10-01

    A transient but prominent increase in the level of "silent synapses"--a signature of immature glutamatergic synapses that contain only NMDA receptors without stably expressed AMPA receptors--has been identified in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following exposure to cocaine. As the NAc is a critical forebrain region implicated in forming addiction-associated behaviors, the initial discoveries have raised speculations about whether and how these drug-induced synapses mature and potentially contribute to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we summarize recent progress in recognizing the pathway-specific regulations of silent synapse maturation, and its diverse impacts on behavior. We provide an update of the guiding hypothesis--the "neural rejuvenation hypothesis"--with recently emerged evidence of silent synapses in cocaine craving and relapse. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Text-fading based training leads to transfer effects on children’s sentence reading fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telse eNagler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies used a text-fading procedure as a training tool with the goal to increase silent reading fluency (i.e., proficient reading rate and comprehension. In recently published studies, this procedure resulted in lasting reading enhancements for adult and adolescent research samples. However, studies working with children reported mixed results. While reading rate improvements were observable for Dutch reading children in a text-fading training study, reading fluency improvements in standardized reading tests post-training attributable to the fading manipulation were not detectable. These results raise the question of whether text-fading training is not effective for children or whether research design issues have concealed possible transfer effects. Hence, the present study sought to investigate possible transfer effects resulting from a text-fading based reading training program, using a modified research design. Over a period of three weeks, two groups of German third-graders read sentences either with an adaptive text-fading procedure or at their self-paced reading rate. A standardized test measuring reading fluency at the word, sentence, and text level was conducted pre- and post-training. Text level reading fluency improved for both groups equally. Post-training gains at the word level were found for the text-fading group, however, no significant interaction between groups was revealed for word reading fluency. Sentence level reading fluency gains were found for the text-fading group, which significantly differed from the group of children reading at their self-paced reading routine. These findings provide evidence for the efficacy of text-fading as a training method for sentence reading fluency improvement also for children.

  17. Beyond Cognition: Reading Motivation and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Gladstone, Jessica; Turci, Lara

    2016-09-01

    The authors review research on children's reading motivation and its relation to their reading comprehension. They begin by discussing work on the development of school motivation in general and reading motivation in particular, reviewing work showing that many children's reading motivation declines over the school years. Girls tend to have more positive motivation for reading than do boys, and there are ethnic differences in children's reading motivation. Over the last 15 years researchers have identified in both laboratory and classroom-based research instructional practices that positively impact students' reading motivation and ultimately their reading comprehension. There is a strong need for researchers to build on this work and develop and study in different age groups of children effective classroom-based reading motivation instructional programs for a variety of narrative and informational materials.

  18. A silent synapse-based mechanism for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Travis E; Lee, Brian R; Mu, Ping; Ferguson, Deveroux; Dietz, David; Ohnishi, Yoshinori N; Lin, Ying; Suska, Anna; Ishikawa, Masago; Huang, Yanhua H; Shen, Haowei; Kalivas, Peter W; Sorg, Barbara A; Zukin, R Suzanne; Nestler, Eric J; Dong, Yan; Schlüter, Oliver M

    2011-06-01

    Locomotor sensitization is a common and robust behavioral alteration in rodents whereby following exposure to abused drugs such as cocaine, the animal becomes significantly more hyperactive in response to an acute drug challenge. Here, we further analyzed the role of cocaine-induced silent synapses in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell and their contribution to the development of locomotor sensitization. Using a combination of viral vector-mediated genetic manipulations, biochemistry, and electrophysiology in a locomotor sensitization paradigm with repeated, daily, noncontingent cocaine (15 mg/kg) injections, we show that dominant-negative cAMP-element binding protein (CREB) prevents cocaine-induced generation of silent synapses of young (30 d old) rats, whereas constitutively active CREB is sufficient to increase the number of NR2B-containing NMDA receptors (NMDARs) at synapses and to generate silent synapses. We further show that occupancy of CREB at the NR2B promoter increases and is causally related to the increase in synaptic NR2B levels. Blockade of NR2B-containing NMDARs by administration of the NR2B-selective antagonist Ro256981 directly into the NAc, under conditions that inhibit cocaine-induced silent synapses, prevents the development of cocaine-elicited locomotor sensitization. Our data are consistent with a cellular cascade whereby cocaine-induced activation of CREB promotes CREB-dependent transcription of NR2B and synaptic incorporation of NR2B-containing NMDARs, which generates new silent synapses within the NAc. We propose that cocaine-induced activation of CREB and generation of new silent synapses may serve as key cellular events mediating cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. These findings provide a novel cellular mechanism that may contribute to cocaine-induced behavioral alterations.

  19. Morphological awareness and reading difficulties in adolescent Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their classmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the role of morphological awareness weaknesses in the reading difficulties encountered by Spanish-speaking language minority learners and their native English-speaking peers in sixth grade. One hundred and thirty-eight students (82 language minority learners; 56 native English speakers) were assessed on English measures of reading comprehension, silent word reading fluency, and derivational morphological awareness. Students with specific reading comprehension difficulties, specific word reading difficulties, and combined difficulties were identified using categorical cut-scores. Findings indicated that morphological awareness differentiated skilled readers from students with reading difficulties. Substantial proportions of students with reading difficulties (38%-63%, depending on reading difficulty subtype) demonstrated weaknesses in morphological awareness. Language minority learners with reading difficulties were particularly likely to demonstrate weaknesses in morphological awareness (55%-64%), compared to native English speakers with similar reading difficulties (13%-50%). Findings suggest the diagnostic potential of morphological awareness for adolescent learners with reading difficulties, especially those from language minority backgrounds.

  20. Cerebral regional oxygen fluctuations and decline during clinically silent focal electroencephalographic seizures in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhaiber, Hans; Bolton, Scott; Alfonso, Israel; Dunoyer, Catalina; Yaylali, Ilker

    2004-07-01

    We describe a neonate with tuberous sclerosis complex and right frontal cortical dysplasia who underwent simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy and electroencephalography (EEG) during repetitive clinically silent right frontal EEG seizures. The seizures produced a progressive decline in regional oxygen saturation index and wider regional oxygen saturation index fluctuations in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. We conclude that recurrent clinically silent focal EEG seizures in this neonate were associated with lateralizing near-infrared spectroscopy changes suggestive of relative cerebral hypoxia.

  1. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with multi-segmental renal infarction: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Yang, Yung-Nien

    2011-01-01

    A 36-year-old diabetic man came to our institution presenting with constant left flank pain. Left renal embolic infarction was found by abdominal computed tomography. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was noted on 12-lead electrocardiogram. Emergent coronary angiography revealed large thrombus burdens with complete occlusion at the left anterior descending artery ostium, which may be the embolic origin. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with acute flank pain and multiple segmental renal infarction is an unusual presentation. High vigilance may prevent delay of the "golden hour" to treat acute myocardial infarction.

  2. Splicing mosaic of the myophosphorylase gene due to a silent mutation in McArdle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Cadenas, I; Andreu, A L; Gamez, J; Gonzalo, R; Martín, M A; Rubio, J C; Arenas, J

    2003-11-25

    The authors report the molecular findings in a patient with McArdle disease who harbored a silent polymorphism (K608K) in the myophosphorylase gene. cDNA studies demonstrated that this polymorphism leads to a severe mosaic alteration in mRNA splicing, including exon skipping, activation of cryptic splice-sites, and exon-intron reorganizations. These findings suggest that, in patients with McArdle disease in whom no pathogenic mutation has been found, any a priori silent polymorphism should be re-evaluated as a putative splicing mutation.

  3. Toward a Unified Theory of Silent Seismicity in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Rivet, D. N.; Kostoglodov, V.; Husker, A. L.; Legrand, D.; Campillo, M.

    2011-12-01

    During the 2006 slow slip event (SSE) in Guerrero, Mexico, a seismic profile was deployed above the slipping interface. Data from this seismological network generated several observations, including the detection of an ultra-slow velocity layer confined to the uppermost part of the slab (Song et al., Science, 2009), high Poisson's and Vp/Vs ratios within a large slab segment (Kim et al., JGR, 2010), and a transient reduction of surface waves velocity in the middle crust of about 0.2% due to the quasi-static slow-slip process (Rivet et al., GRL, 2011). Based on these observations, we have proceeded as follow. The slip history of the 2006 Guerrero SSE (Radiguet et al., GJI, 2010) was put into a 3D viscoelastic finite difference code, approximating the pore pressure as Pp=B*Pc, where B is the Skempton coefficient (0≤B≤1) and Pc is the confining pressure. Solving the fluid diffusion equation in the model, we find that the silent earthquake induces a widespread decrease of effective pressure, Pe=Pc-Pp (i.e. dilation increase), above the horizontal segment of the plate interface, where the NVT activity has been localized by previous authors (Payero et al., GRL, 2008; Husker et al., submitted, 2011). Assuming a fluid seal along the plate interface as suggested in Cascadia (Audet et al., Nature, 2009), the time-dependent migration (velocity) of confined fluids in the ultra-slow layer is first upward everywhere and then reorganizes by pointing two 'attraction' poles (i.e. low-pressure slab segments), the first one 80-90 km and the second one around 150 km away from the coast. We present NVT relocations obtained with a new and promising technique (Cruz-Atienza et al., in preparation, 2011). This technique is based on NVT energy-like and waveform correlation measurements in the three ground motion components. By superimposing the hypocentral relocations over the evolving Pp lithospheric cross-section, a surprisingly good correlation appears between the slab 'attraction

  4. Lorazepam-induced effects on silent period and corticomotor excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimiskidis, V K; Papagiannopoulos, S; Kazis, D A; Sotirakoglou, K; Vasiliadis, G; Zara, F; Kazis, A; Mills, K R

    2006-09-01

    TMS studies on the CNS effects of benzodiazepines have provided contradictory results. The objective of this study is to describe the effects of lorazepam on silent period (SP) and corticomotor excitability. Twelve healthy male subjects (median age 35 years) were studied at baseline, following i.v. lorazepam administration and after reversal of the benzodiazepine effects with i.v. flumazenil. Lorazepam was given at a low-dose in one subject (0.0225 mg/kg bolus + 2 microg/kg/h infusion) and at a high-dose (0.045 mg/kg bolus + 2.6 microg/kg/h infusion) in the rest. Threshold (Thr) was measured at 1% steps. SPs were investigated with two complementary methods. First, SPs were elicited using a wide range of stimulus intensities (SIs) (from 5 to 100% maximum SI at 5% increments). At each SI, four SPs were obtained and the average value of SP duration was used to construct a stimulus/response (S/R) curve of SI versus SP .The resulting S/R curves were then fitted to a Boltzman function, the best-fit values of which were statistically compared for each experimental condition (i.e., baseline vs. lorazepam vs. flumazenil). Second, a large number of SPs (n=100) was elicited during each of the three experimental conditions using blocks of four stimuli with an intensity alternating between MT and 200% MT. This method was employed so as to reveal the dynamic, time-varying effects of lorazepam and flumazenil on SP duration at two stimulus intensity (SI) levels. MEP recruitment curves were constructed at rest and during activation and fitted to a Boltzman function the best-fit values of which were statistically compared for each experimental condition. Lorazepam at a low dose did not affect Thr, SP, or the active MEP recruitment curves. The high dose also had no effect on Thr and the active MEPs whereas the resting MEP recruitment curves were depressed post-lorazepam at the higher range of stimulus intensities. With regard to SP, the Max value of the S/R curve decreased from 251

  5. Reading Instruction Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joanna

    1979-01-01

    Describes current achievement in the areas of reading theory and reading instruction. Reviews reading research in the fields of educational and cognitive psychology. Considers the overall role of formal education in the development of literacy. (GC)

  6. Text-to-speech technology effects on reading rate and comprehension by adults with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judy; Hux, Karen; Scott, Nikki; Snell, Jeffry

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the comprehension, rate and perceptions and reading preferences of adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) when reading passages with and without computerized text-to-speech (TTS) support. Nine adults with severe TBI read 24 passages in two conditions: with and without TTS support. The researchers compared reading rate and comprehension accuracy across conditions. Also, participants rated their perceived performance and reading preferences via a follow-up questionnaire. Comparison to normative data revealed that all nine participants read slower than average neurotypical readers. As a group, participants read significantly faster with TTS support than without such support, even though the TTS reading rate was roughly comparable to the oral rather than silent reading rate of neurotypical adults. No significant differences in comprehension resulted between the two conditions. Over half of the participants preferred the TTS condition over the no-TTS condition. In general, participants were inaccurate in judging their relative reading rates and comprehension accuracy across conditions. TTS may improve reading efficiency without compromising reading comprehension accuracy for adults with TBI. Given this finding, some survivors may find use of TTS technology contributes to increased participation in and efficiency when performing reading activities.

  7. The incidence of "silent" free air and aspiration pneumonia detected by CT after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Jiro; Tomita, Toshihiko; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Sakurai, Jun; Kondo, Takashi; Asano, Haruki; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Tanaka, Junji; Daimon, Takashi; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazutoshi; Matsumoto, Takayuki; Miwa, Hiroto

    2012-12-01

    Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is feasible as a treatment for early gastric cancer, it requires great skill to perform and may place patients at increased risk of a number of complications, including perforation and aspiration pneumonia. To investigate the incidence of "silent" free air without endoscopic perforation and aspiration pneumonia detected by CT after ESD and risk factors for the development of these 2 conditions. Prospective cohort study. Single academic center. This study involved 87 patients with a total of 91 malignancies. All patients underwent chest and abdominal CT and blood biochemistry analysis before and 1 day after ESD. The incidence of silent free air and aspiration pneumonia after ESD and the related risk factors. Silent free air was identified in 37.3% of patients without perforation. Tumor location (the upper portion of the stomach), the presence of a damaged muscular layer during ESD, and procedure time, but not specimen size, were significantly associated with silent free air (P = .006, P = .04, P = .02, and P = .53, respectively). According to the receiver-operating characteristic analysis, the resulting cutoff value of the procedure time for silent free air was 105 minutes (67.7% sensitivity, 65.4% specificity). Only procedure time (≥ 105 minutes) was an independent predictor of silent free air development (odds ratio 3.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-8.64; P = .02). On the other hand, aspiration pneumonia was seen in 6.6% of patients. Silent free air and aspiration pneumonia did not affect hospitalization. Single center and small number of patients. Silent free air is frequently observed after ESD, and longer procedure time (≥ 105 minutes) was an independent risk factor for silent free air. However, silent free air and aspiration pneumonia detected by CT are not associated with clinically significant complications. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  8. Reading(s) in the Writing Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David

    1997-01-01

    Interrogates the reading/writing connection by evaluating how three essays by published writers affected the attitude and writing practices of university students in a course on the personal essay. Describes the course. Suggests what findings imply for current rationales about the reading/writing connection and for the use of anthology readings in…

  9. Teaching Adults to Read with Reading Apprenticeship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Michele Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Many adult students have basic reading skills, but they are inexperienced readers who need to learn skills beyond the basics to equip them for success in college and career. How do educators face such adults with optimism and an eagerness to help improve specific reading skills so that these students can read and understand a variety of materials?…

  10. Cosmetology Reading Strategies. 1980 Vocational Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; And Others

    Cosmetology Reading Strategies is one of five instructional guides in the Reading Strategies in Vocational Education Series. Developed to assist teachers working with students considered disadvantaged because of reading deficiency, the guide contains several strategies, suitable for adaptation, specifically related to cosmetology instruction. Each…

  11. Promoting Reading Motivation by Reading Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Vera

    2013-01-01

    In the present project we tested the hypothesis that tutorial situations with peers would benefit children's reading motivation. Participants were from elementary school--80 fourth-graders and 80 second-graders. We used a questionnaire to assess reading motivation. In the tutorial sessions we developed a Paired Reading Program. The children who…

  12. EMPOWERING THE READING READABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handoko Handoko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A general assumption about reading is that students improve their reading ability by reading a lot. This research was conducted to explain the use of extensive reading and aimed to figure out its implementation in improving students’ reading readability by using the class action research technique. The data of this research relates to the students ‘reading progress shown in their reading reports: spoken and written summary, reading comprehension and vocabulary mastery and their participation. The strategy was evolved in the continuity of reading. Students were encouraged to read extensively in and outside class. The findings indicated that the implementation could improve students’ reading readability.This attainment demonstrated that students’ reading readabilityis frosted through the continuity of reading. Other facts showed that students enjoyed reading. Students’ curiosity was also a significant factor. Their high curiosity explained why students continued reading though they realized that materials they read were difficult enough. Students’ self-confidence was also built as they were required to write a retelling story and to share their previous reading. Instead of their retelling and summarizing, students felt to be appreciated as readers. This appreciation indirectly helped students to improve the reading fondness.

  13. Silent IL2RG Gene Editing in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li B; Ma, Chao; Awong, Geneve; Kennedy, Marion; Gornalusse, German; Keller, Gordon; Kaufman, Dan S; Russell, David W

    2016-03-01

    Many applications of pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) require efficient editing of silent chromosomal genes. Here, we show that a major limitation in isolating edited clones is silencing of the selectable marker cassette after homologous recombination and that this can be overcome by using a ubiquitous chromatin opening element (UCOE) promoter-driven transgene. We use this strategy to edit the silent IL2RG locus in human PSCs with a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV)-targeting vector in the absence of potentially genotoxic, site-specific nucleases and show that IL2RG is required for natural killer and T-cell differentiation of human PSCs. Insertion of an active UCOE promoter into a silent locus altered the histone modification and cytosine methylation pattern of surrounding chromatin, but these changes resolved when the UCOE promoter was removed. This same approach could be used to correct IL2RG mutations in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency patient-derived induced PSCs (iPSCs), to prevent graft versus host disease in regenerative medicine applications, or to edit other silent genes.

  14. Silent Films and Strange Stories: Theory of Mind, Gender, and Social Experiences in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Rory T.; Hughes, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In this study of two hundred and thirty 8- to 13-year-olds, a new "Silent Films" task is introduced, designed to address the dearth of research on theory of mind in older children by providing a film-based analogue of F. G. E. Happe's (1994) Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that all items from both tasks loaded…

  15. Characterisation of silent and active genes for a variable large protein of Borrelia recurrentis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scragg Ian G

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report the characterisation of the variable large protein (vlp gene expressed by clinical isolate A1 of Borrelia recurrentis; the agent of the life-threatening disease louse-borne relapsing fever. Methods The major vlp protein of this isolate was characterised and a DNA probe created. Use of this together with standard molecular methods was used to determine the location of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene in both this and other isolates. Results This isolate was found to carry silent and expressed copies of the vlp1B. recurrentis A1 gene on plasmids of 54 kbp and 24 kbp respectively, whereas a different isolate, A17, had only the silent vlp1B. recurrentis A17 on a 54 kbp plasmid. Silent and expressed vlp1 have identical mature protein coding regions but have different 5' regions, both containing different potential lipoprotein leader sequences. Only one form of vlp1 is transcribed in the A1 isolate of B. recurrentis, yet both 5' upstream sequences of this vlp1 gene possess features of bacterial promoters. Conclusion Taken together these results suggest that antigenic variation in B. recurrentis may result from recombination of variable large and small protein genes at the junction between lipoprotein leader sequence and mature protein coding region. However, this hypothetical model needs to be validated by further identification of expressed and silent variant protein genes in other B. recurrentis isolates.

  16. Prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette; Intzilakis, Theodoros; Binici, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of high sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) in subjects with silent myocardial ischemia (SMI). DESIGN: In total, 678 healthy men and women aged 55 to 75 years with no history of cardiovascular disease or stroke were included...

  17. Origin of the low-level EMG during the silent period following transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Jane E; Petersen, Nicolas C; Herbert, Robert D;

    2012-01-01

    the motor cortex. The rate of flexion during shortening contractions reduced muscle lengthening caused by muscle relaxation. Surface EMG was recorded from biceps brachii and brachioradialis, and the low-level EMG during silent periods produced by TMS was measured. RESULTS: Low-level EMG activity was reduced...

  18. The Use of Silent Single Concept Loop Films to Facilitate the Acquisition of Occupational Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Seymour A.

    Would use of silent concept loop films (SSCLF) facilitate the acquisition of manipulative occupational skills for nonacademic students? What is the effect of SSCLF on the teaching-learning climate? An experiment was undertaken to find answers to these questions. The design used was the Post-test Only Group Design No. 6. The subjects were a sample…

  19. [Prevalence of silent cerebrovascular lesions in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla-Machado, Pedro E; Luzzi, Ariel A; Balian, Natalia R; Pigretti, Santiago G; Zurrú-Ganen, M Cristina; Cristiano, Edgardo; Valiensi, Stella M

    2016-02-01

    Introduccion. El sindrome de apnea/hipopnea obstructiva del sueño (SAHOS) confiere mayor riesgo de enfermedad cardiovascular, dada su asociacion con otros factores de riesgo vascular. Tanto el SAHOS como otros factores de riesgo vascular se asocian con lesiones cerebrales silentes. Objetivo. Evaluar la prevalencia de lesiones cerebrales silentes en pacientes con SAHOS. Pacientes y metodos. Se evaluo retrospectivamente una cohorte de 137 pacientes con SAHOS, con una edad media de 65 ± 12 años, el 45% mujeres. Las lesiones cerebrales silentes en resonancia magnetica se evaluaron con la escala visual de Fazekas, y se consigno la presencia de infartos corticales, lacunares y microsangrados. Resultados. La prevalencia de factores de riesgo vascular fue: hipertension, 64%; dislipidemia, 58%; diabetes, 18%; tabaquismo, 34%; ateromatosis carotidea, 26%; enfermedad coronaria, 13%; y fibrilacion auricular, 4%. El SAHOS fue leve en el 47%, moderado en el 31% y grave en el 22% de los casos. El 91% de los pacientes tenia hiperintensidades periventriculares y el 66% presentaba lesiones en la sustancia blanca subcortical. El valor medio del indice de apnea/hipopnea fue mayor en los pacientes con mayor carga de lesiones, aunque sin significacion estadistica. Conclusiones. Los pacientes con SAHOS presentan una elevada prevalencia de lesiones cerebrales silentes, fundamentalmente con un patron microangiopatico. Posiblemente esto se explique por la asociacion entre el SAHOS, la hipertension arterial y otros factores de riesgo vascular.

  20. Blind Speakers Show Language-Specific Patterns in Co-Speech Gesture but Not Silent Gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçalışkan, Şeyda; Lucero, Ché; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2017-05-08

    Sighted speakers of different languages vary systematically in how they package and order components of a motion event in speech. These differences influence how semantic elements are organized in gesture, but only when those gestures are produced with speech (co-speech gesture), not without speech (silent gesture). We ask whether the cross-linguistic similarity in silent gesture is driven by the visuospatial structure of the event. We compared 40 congenitally blind adult native speakers of English or Turkish (20/language) to 80 sighted adult speakers (40/language; half with, half without blindfolds) as they described three-dimensional motion scenes. We found an effect of language on co-speech gesture, not on silent gesture-blind speakers of both languages organized their silent gestures as sighted speakers do. Humans may have a natural semantic organization that they impose on events when conveying them in gesture without language-an organization that relies on neither visuospatial cues nor language structure. © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Economising Education: From the Silent Revolution to Rethinking Education. A New Moment of Europeanisation of Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Fátima

    2016-01-01

    "Rethinking Education" (EC, 2012) suggests a new phase in European education policy. The constitution of education as a marketable service and the European (Higher) Education area as a market was pinpointed as an "implicit" agenda in the "silent revolution in education landscape" fostered by the open method of…

  2. An Evaluative Investigation of Silent Loop Films in the Teaching of Anatomy, Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, John R.

    Investigated were (1) the acceptance and effectiveness of silent film loops as a teaching and review aid, (2) the possible substitution of loop films for prosected and/or fresh dissection materials, and (3) the comparative costs of loop films used in the presentation of five units of a gross anatomy course and six units of an applied anatomy…

  3. Silent Films and Strange Stories: Theory of Mind, Gender, and Social Experiences in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Rory T.; Hughes, Claire

    2013-01-01

    In this study of two hundred and thirty 8- to 13-year-olds, a new "Silent Films" task is introduced, designed to address the dearth of research on theory of mind in older children by providing a film-based analogue of F. G. E. Happe's (1994) Strange Stories task. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that all items from both tasks loaded…

  4. Silent sinus syndrome presenting after a roller coaster ride: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singman, Eric L; Matta, Noelle S; Silbert, David I

    2014-01-01

    This is a case presentation of a 39-year-old male who presents with silent sinus syndrome. He was initially diagnosed by a neuroophthalmologist, and at first, the patient's otolaryngologist disagreed. The patient had a significant reduction in his symptoms with surgical and orthoptic intervention.

  5. Effect of Age on Silent Gap Discrimination in Synthetic Speech Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, Jennifer; Tarver, Kenton

    2004-01-01

    The difficulty that older listeners experience understanding conversational speech may be related to their limited ability to use information present in the silent intervals (i.e., temporal gaps) between dynamic speech sounds. When temporal gaps are present between nonspeech stimuli that are spectrally invariant (e.g., noise bands or sinusoids),…

  6. Dual silent communication system development based on subvocal speech and Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Daniel Ramírez-Corzo

    2016-09-01

    Additionally, in this article we show the speech subvocal signals’ recording system realization. The average accuracy percentage was 72.5 %, and includes a total of 50 words by class, this is 200 signals. Finally, it demonstrated that using the Raspberry Pi it is possible to set a silent communication system, using subvocal. speech signals.

  7. Cervical Cancer as a silent killer: A rare case report with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deeksha Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced-stage cervical cancer almost always presents either with abnormal vaginal bleeding or with foul-smelling vaginal discharge. We present here a rare case, where a postmenopausal lady presented almost silently with stage IVA cervical cancer. Fortunately, timely referral, correct diagnosis, and multispecialty team work could save her life.

  8. Biochemically silent abdominal paragangliomas in patients with mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B gene.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Pacak, K.; Huynh, T.T.; Abu-Asab, M.; Tsokos, M.; Merino, M.J.; Baysal, B.E.; Adams, K.T.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Patients with adrenal and extra-adrenal abdominal paraganglioma (PGL) almost invariably have increased plasma and urine concentrations of metanephrines, the O-methylated metabolites of catecholamines. We report four cases of biochemically silent abdominal PGL, in which metanephrines were no

  9. Age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone and electrocardiographic silent coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani Tehrani, F.; Montazeri, S. A.; Khalili, D.; Cheraghi, L.; Broekmans, F. J.; Momenan, A. A.; de Kat, A. C.; Azizi, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone level, as a predictor of ovarian reserve status, and electrocardiographic silent coronary artery disease in a population-based, prospective cohort, the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Methods: For the present study, 1

  10. “读”出快乐,“教”出精彩--浅谈小学语文阅读教学中朗读的重要性%Read Happily,“Teach”Word of Way---Introduction to the Importance of Reading Aloud in the Primary School Chinese Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛芳芳

    2014-01-01

    “Compulsory education language curricutum standards”points out:“The period of reading teaching should attach importance to read and read silently.”Reading is the most often in primary school Chinese reading teaching is the most important content of training. Children hear only read aloud,to relate the written word and its meaning,to understand the text content.%《义务教育语文课程标准》指出:“各个学段的阅读教学都要重视朗读和默读。”朗读是小学语文阅读教学中最重要的训练内容。儿童只有读出声,自己听到,才能把书面文字和它的含义联系起来,从而理解课文内容。

  11. Patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading in Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senaha M.L.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the concepts of cognitive neuropsychology, there are two principal routes of reading processing: a lexical route, in which global reading of words occurs and a phonological route, responsible for the conversion of the graphemes into their respective phonemes. In the present study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was used to investigate the patterns of cerebral activation in lexical and phonological reading by 13 healthy women with a formal educational level greater than 11 years. Participants were submitted to a silent reading task containing three types of stimuli: real words (irregular and foreign words, nonwords and illegitimate graphic stimuli. An increased number of activated voxels were identified by fMRI in the word reading (lexical processing than in the nonword reading (phonological processing task. In word reading, activation was greater than for nonwords in the following areas: superior, middle and inferior frontal gyri, and bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right cerebellum and the left precentral gyrus, as indicated by fMRI. In the reading of nonwords, the activation was predominant in the right cerebellum and in the left superior temporal gyrus. The results of the present study suggest the existence of differences in the patterns of cerebral activation during lexical and phonological reading, with greater involvement of the right hemisphere in reading words than nonwords.

  12. Eye movement analysis of reading from computer displays, eReaders and printed books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambarbieri, Daniela; Carniglia, Elena

    2012-09-01

    To compare eye movements during silent reading of three eBooks and a printed book. The three different eReading tools were a desktop PC, iPad tablet and Kindle eReader. Video-oculographic technology was used for recording eye movements. In the case of reading from the computer display the recordings were made by a video camera placed below the computer screen, whereas for reading from the iPad tablet, eReader and printed book the recording system was worn by the subject and had two cameras: one for recording the movement of the eyes and the other for recording the scene in front of the subject. Data analysis provided quantitative information in terms of number of fixations, their duration, and the direction of the movement, the latter to distinguish between fixations and regressions. Mean fixation duration was different only in reading from the computer display, and was similar for the Tablet, eReader and printed book. The percentage of regressions with respect to the total amount of fixations was comparable for eReading tools and the printed book. The analysis of eye movements during reading an eBook from different eReading tools suggests that subjects' reading behaviour is similar to reading from a printed book. © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Lipid levels as predictors of silent myocardial ischemia in a type 2 diabetic population in Havana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Yamilé; Fernández-Britto, José E; Bacallao, Jorge; Batista, Juan F; de León, María L

    2012-01-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is frequent in type 2 diabetics, therefore, symptoms cannot be relied upon for diagnosis and followup in these patients. Various studies relate blood lipid levels to cardiovascular diseases, and several authors describe certain lipoproteins as independent predictors of ischemia. Identify blood lipid levels that predict silent myocardial ischemia in a type 2 diabetic population in Havana. From May 2005 through May 2009, assessment was done of 220 asymptomatic type 2 diabetics in ten polyclinics in Havana using laboratory tests and Single-Photon Emission-Computed Tomography, synchronized with electrocardiogram, known as gated SPECT (gSPECT). Coronary angiography was used for confirmation when gSPECT detected ischemia. Patients were classified into two groups: gSPECT positive and gSPECT negative. Descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) were calculated for all variables and mean comparison tests were conducted. Classification trees were developed relating lipid values to gSPECT results, identifying optimal cutoff points for their use as indicators of silent myocardial ischemia in the total study population and for each sex separately. GSPECT found silent myocardial ischemia in 29.1% of those examined, and 68.4% of angiograms found multivessel disease. gSPECT-positive diabetics had higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides (p 119.9 mg/dL, and triglycerides >107.2 mg/d; 80.4% of diabetics with these HDL and triglyceride values had ischemia. HDL was the most important normalized variable when the entire population was analyzed. Analysis by sex showed a greater percentage of silent ischemia in men (33.3%) than in women (24.8%). The most important normalized variables were LDL of >100.8 mg/dL for men and HDL of ≤44 mg/dL for women. A considerable percentage of the study population had silent myocardial ischemia. Type 2 diabetics with ischemia had higher levels of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides. HDL levels

  14. Subvocalization and reading rate differences between stuttering and nonstuttering children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosshardt, H G

    1990-12-01

    The hypothesis tested was that stutterers subvocalize more slowly than nonstutterers and that they need more time for the overt production of the fluent parts of their speech. We also investigated whether rate differences could only be observed for those words on which the stutterers expect to stutter. Fifty-nine school children (27 stutterers and 32 nonstutterers) and 19 adults (18 stutterers and 21 nonstutterers) performed a reading task in which a noun was presented together with its definite article. The presentation times of the reading material were controlled by the subjects. Half of the material had to be read silently, the other half orally. In oral reading, only the data from those trials without any indication of disfluencies were used. Dependent variables were presentation times, speech latency, and speech duration. The stutterers' silent presentation times were significantly longer than those of nonstutterers and this difference was significantly greater for children than for adults. In oral reading all stutterers, regardless of age, had longer presentation times, speech latencies, and article durations than the nonstutterers. Some nouns, however, were uttered significantly more rapidly by stutterers than by nonstutterers. These time differences were found to be independent of the stutterers' expectation to stutter. Our results indicate that a strictly motoric explanation of stuttering is inadequate. The data show that the stutterers and nonstutterers differ with respect to the temporal parameters not only during speech execution, but during speech planning as well.

  15. Incidence of silent hemorrhage and delayed deterioration after stereotactic brain biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A V; Guha, A; Lozano, A; Bernstein, M

    1998-07-01

    Many neurosurgeons routinely obtain computerized tomography (CT) scans to rule out hemorrhage in patients after stereotactic procedures. In the present prospective study, the authors investigated the rate of silent hemorrhage and delayed deterioration after stereotactic biopsy sampling and the role of postbiopsy CT scanning. A subset of patients (the last 102 of approximately 800 patients) who underwent stereotactic brain biopsies at the Toronto Hospital prospectively underwent routine postoperative CT scanning within hours of the biopsy procedure. Their medical charts and CT scans were then reviewed. A postoperative CT scan was obtained in 102 patients (aged 17-87 years) who underwent stereotactic biopsy between June 1994 and September 1996. Sixty-one patients (59.8%) exhibited hemorrhages, mostly intracerebral (54.9%), on the immediate postoperative scan. Only six of these patients were clinically suspected to have suffered a hemorrhage based on immediate postoperative neurological deficit: in the remaining 55 (53.9%) of 102 patients, the hemorrhage was clinically silent and unsuspected. Among the clinically silent intracerebral hemorrhages, 22 measured less than 5 mm. 20 between 5 and 10 mm, five between 10 and 30 mm, and four between 30 and 40 mm. Of the 55 patients with clinically silent hemorrhages, only three demonstrated a delayed neurological deficit (one case of seizure and two cases of progressive loss of consciousness) and these all occurred within the first 2 postoperative days. Of the neurologically well patients in whom no hemorrhage was demonstrated on initial postoperative CT scan, none experienced delayed deterioration. Clinically silent hemorrhage after stereotactic biopsy is very common. However, the authors did not find that knowledge of its existence ultimately affected individual patient management or outcome. The authors, therefore, suggest that the most important role of postoperative CT scanning is to screen for those neurologically well

  16. Treatable renal disease in children with silent lupus nephritis detected by baseline biopsy: association with serum C3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Takei, Syuji; Kubota, Tomohiro; Miyazono, Akinori; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-02-01

    Lupus nephritis is identified in up to 75% of patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and may present with abnormal urinary findings (overt lupus nephritis) or be apparent only upon renal biopsy (silent lupus nephritis). We investigated whether serum complement levels correlate with renal pathology in pediatric patients with silent lupus nephritis. We performed baseline renal biopsy in 45 children diagnosed with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus who were admitted to Kagoshima University Hospital between January 2000 and June 2015. Patients were classified as having overt or silent lupus nephritis based on urinary findings at renal biopsy. Silent lupus nephritis was identified in 55.5% (25/45) of cases. Of these, 6 (13.3%) were classified as class III nephritis, according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society criteria. Decreased serum C3 levels were associated with the renal pathology classification for patients with silent but not with overt lupus nephritis. No differences in serum C4 levels were identified between cases of silent and overt lupus nephritis. Baseline renal biopsy is a critical component of the work-up of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus as treatable renal pathology may be present in the absence of urinary signs. Serum C3 may be an important marker of the progression of silent lupus nephritis.

  17. Reading Assessment: Looking Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afflerbach, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I focus on three areas of reading assessment that I believe to be crucial for students' reading development: developing comprehensive formative assessments, assessing the wide array of factors that contribute to students' reading development, and fostering student independence by helping students learn to use reading assessment on…

  18. On Efficient Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟平

    2003-01-01

    Time is limited for each reader,but many readers waste a lot oftime on unimportant things, and they read everything at the same speed and in the same way. As a result, they often fail to understand the word and the sentence; they don't know how one sentence relates to another, and how the whole text fixes together. They are not reading efficiently. It is high time that we held a discussion on efficient reading. The author states that efficient reading involves adequate comprehension with appropriate reading rate. Pointing out the factors that influence reading rate and comprehension, this article put forward some suggestions on efficient reading.

  19. The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieber, Magdalena; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Pokorny, Florian B; Einspieler, Christa; Langmann, Andrea; Körner, Christof; Falck-Ytter, Terje; Marschik, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence), we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months) were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12). We found that (a) reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b) better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c) reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d) eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.

  20. The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Krieber

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence, we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13;6 years;months were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verständnistest für Klassen 6-12. We found that (a reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.

  1. A test of the multiple connections model of reading acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, V W; Chen, A C; Abbott, R D

    1988-10-01

    Within the framework of Society of Mind Theory (Minsky, 1986), learning to read is conceptualized as a process of creating new communication links or neural connections between an existing visual society and an existing linguistic society. Four visual-linguistic connections may become functional: letter-phonemic code, whole word-semantic code, whole word-name code, letter sequence-aural syllabic code. The hypothesis was tested that more than one of these visual-linguistic connections must be taken into account in predicting reading achievement. Results showed that the combination of the composite letter-phoneme variable and the composite whole word-semantic code variable accounted for significantly more variance in oral reading than did either single variable at the end of the first grade. Groups with large absolute discrepancy (1 or more standard scores) or small absolute discrepancy (1/3 standard score or less) on corresponding visual and linguistic skills differed significantly in both oral (whole word-semantic code composite) and silent reading (whole word-semantic code and letter sequence-aural syllabic code composites). There was a relationship between the number of large discrepancies and reading achievement. Results are discussed in reference to neuropsychological models of connectionism (Rumelhart & McClelland, 1986) and working brain systems (Luria, 1973).

  2. The private self and literacy, a synopsis Hans Straub traces the development of silent reading and the ‘ inner voice'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HansStraub

    2004-01-01

    In the English language there are many expressions and words that indicate our high valuation of the individual. Any dictionary will give you several pages of words that have ‘self' as a component. Philosophically, self is synonymous with the ego,but encompasses one's nature, one's uniqueness, in short,one's individuality, which has come to be positively valued in Western culture. In fact, the idea of self and being has become interwoven in Western culture. What accounts for therelatively high valuation placed on the self in the West as compared, a lesser valuation of the same in other, more collectivistic cultures?

  3. 501 reading comprehension questions

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition offers the most extensive and varied practice for all types of questions students might face on standardized and in-class tests. With this guide, students will learn to develop expert reading strategies, understand how to read faster and with greater comprehension, overcome reading anxiety, and increase appreciation of reading for pleasure. This book's step-by-step approach provides graduated coverage that moves from the basics to more advanced reading.

  4. The eye-voice span during reading aloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen eLaubrock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although eye movements during reading are modulated by cognitive processing demands, they also reflect visual sampling of the input, and possibly preparation of output for speech or the inner voice. By simultaneously recording eye movements and the voice during reading aloud, we obtained an output measure that constrains the length of time spent on cognitive processing. Here we investigate the dynamics of the eye-voice span (EVS, the distance between eye and voice. We show that the EVS is regulated immediately during fixation of a word by either increasing fixation duration or programming a regressive eye movement against the reading direction. EVS size at the beginning of a fixation was positively correlated with the likelihood of regressions and refixations. Regression probability was further increased if the EVS was still large at the end of a fixation: if adjustment of fixation duration did not sufficiently reduce the EVS during a fixation, then a regression rather than a refixation followed with high probability. We further show that the EVS can help understand cognitive influences on fixation duration during reading: in mixed model analyses, the EVS was a stronger predictor of fixation durations than either word frequency or word length. The EVS modulated the influence of several other predictors on single fixation durations. For example, word-N frequency effects were larger with a large EVS, especially when word N-1 frequency was low. Finally, a comparison of single fixation durations during oral and silent reading showed that reading is governed by similar principles in both reading modes, although EVS maintenance and articulatory processing also cause some differences. In summary, the eye-voice span is regulated by adjusting fixation duration and/or by programming a regressive eye movement when the eye-voice span gets too large. Overall, the EVS appears to be directly related to updating of the working memory buffer during reading.

  5. Working Memory Influences Processing Speed and Reading Fluency in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A.; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B.; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Denckla, Martha B.; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    Processing speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This “slowing” in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the “processing” speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency, and reduced processing speed—driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed “processing” speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory, but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intra-subject variability. Further, “processing” speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally-mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally-mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus. PMID:21287422

  6. Capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Gabriela Juliane; Carvalho, Carolina Alves Ferreira; Ávila, Clara Regina Brandão de

    2017-06-08

    To investigate the capacity for self-monitoring reading comprehension in Brazilian Elementary School students. Fifty-three Elementary students in the 5th and 9th grades from two Public Schools in the city of São Paulo were assessed. They were selected based on their oral reading rate and grouped according to their performance in reading comprehension in the following categories: Group with best comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy, without difficulties in reading comprehension; Group with worst comprehension: students with adequate rate and accuracy but with difficulties in reading comprehension. Two narrative texts followed by eight questions to assess reading comprehension were presented. Two sentences and two words were replaced by ungrammatical elements and pseudo-words. Under the condition of spontaneous monitoring, students read the text aloud and answered the questions. The analysis considered the calculation of hesitation, self-correction, repetitions and mistakes. Under the condition of directed monitoring, students were instructed to read the text, either aloud or silently, after being told that certain parts of the text could not make sense, and they were oriented to underline such parts. The analysis was carried out by counting of underlined items. The comparisons were made with the Mann-Whitney test. A difference was observed between the groups only at the sentence level among the 9th grade schoolchildren under the spontaneous monitoring and among the 5th grade schoolchildren under directed monitoring. Students with worst comprehension had a poorer performance to monitor the presence of ungrammatical sentences than their peers with best comprehension.

  7. Teaching children with dyslexia to spell in a reading-writers' workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Virginia W; Lee, Yen-Ling; Abbott, Robert D; Breznitz, Zvia

    2013-04-01

    To identify effective treatment for both the spelling and word decoding problems in dyslexia, 24 students with dyslexia in grades 4 to 9 were randomly assigned to treatments A (n=12) or B (n=12) in an after-school reading-writers' workshop at the university (thirty 1-h sessions twice a week over 5 months). First, both groups received step 1 treatment of grapheme-phoneme correspondences (gpc) for oral reading. At step 2, treatment A received gpc training for both oral reading and spelling, and treatment B received gpc training for oral reading and phonological awareness. At step 3, treatment A received orthographic spelling strategy and rapid accelerated reading program (RAP) training, and treatment B continued step 2 training. At step 4, treatment A received morphological strategies and RAP training, and treatment B received orthographic spelling strategy training. Each treatment also had the same integrated reading-writing activities, which many school assignments require. Both groups improved significantly in automatic letter writing, spelling real words, compositional fluency, and oral reading (decoding) rate. Treatment A significantly outperformed treatment B in decoding rate after step 3 orthographic training, which in turn uniquely predicted spelling real words. Letter processing rate increased during step 3 RAP training and correlated significantly with two silent reading fluency measures. Adding orthographic strategies with "working memory in mind" to phonics helps students with dyslexia spell and read English words.

  8. Many Neighbors are not Silent. fMRI Evidence for Global Lexical Activity in Visual Word Recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario eBraun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many neurocognitive studies investigated the neural correlates of visual word recognition, some of which manipulated the orthographic neighborhood density of words and nonwords believed to influence the activation of orthographically similar representations in a hypothetical mental lexicon. Previous neuroimaging research failed to find evidence for such global lexical activity associated with neighborhood density. Rather, effects were interpreted to reflect semantic or domain general processing. The present fMRI study revealed effects of lexicality, orthographic neighborhood density and a lexicality by orthographic neighborhood density interaction in a silent reading task. For the first time we found greater activity for words and nonwords with a high number of neighbors. We propose that this activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex reflects activation of orthographically similar codes in verbal working memory thus providing evidence for global lexical activity as the basis of the neighborhood density effect. The interaction of lexicality by neighborhood density in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex showed lower activity in response to words with a high number compared to nonwords with a high number of neighbors. In the light of these results the facilitatory effect for words and inhibitory effect for nonwords with many neighbors observed in previous studies can be understood as being due to the operation of a fast-guess mechanism for words and a temporal deadline mechanism for nonwords as predicted by models of visual word recognition. Furthermore, we propose that the lexicality effect with higher activity for words compared to nonwords in inferior parietal and middle temporal cortex reflects the operation of an identification mechanism and based on local lexico-semantic activity.

  9. Molecular cloning, modeling and differential expression of a gene encoding a silent information regulator-like protein from Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Binbin; Liu, Xiaoming; Zheng, Fangliang; Xu, Xuezhu; Zhang, Zhenying

    2014-06-01

    Sporothrix schenckii (S. schenckii) is a dimorphic fungus that produces lymphocutaneous lesions. The signature characteristic of S. schenckii is a temperature-induced phase transition. Silent information regulator (Sir) has been proven to be involved in phenotypic switching in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) by organizing chromatin structure. In this study, we isolated and characterized a Sir homologue gene, designated as SsSir2, from the yeast form of S. schenckii. The full-length SsSir2 cDNA sequence is 1753 bp in size and contains an open reading frame of 1329 bp encoding 442 amino acids. The predicted molecular mass of SsSir2 is 48.1 kDa with an estimated theoretical isoelectric point of 4.6. The SsSir2 kinase domain shows a 78% identity with that of Hst2, a Sir2 Ib gene from S. cerevisiae. Three exons and two introns were identified within the 1472‑bp SsSir2 genomic DNA sequence of S. schenckii. A three-dimensional model of SsSir2 was constructed using a homology modeling method, and its reliability was evaluated. The active site of SsSir2 was identified by docking simulation, which indicated that several important residues, such as Asn127 and Asp129, play an important role in the histone deacetylase activity of Sir2 family proteins. The differential expression of the SsSir2 in two stages was demonstrated by real-time RT-PCR. The expression of SsSir2 was higher in the yeast stage compared with that in the mycelial one, which indicated that SsSir2 may be involved in the phenotypic switching and morphogenesis of the yeast phase in S. schenckii.

  10. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  11. What Oral Text Reading Fluency Can Reveal about Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenendaal, Nathalie J.; Groen, Margriet A.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency--the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation--has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor to reading comprehension outcomes in addition to…

  12. Silent mutations in sight: co-variations in tRNA abundance as a key to unravel consequences of silent mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Andreas; Fedyunin, Ivan; Zhang, Gong; Ignatova, Zoya

    2010-10-01

    Mutations that alter the amino acid sequence are known to potentially exert deleterious effects on protein function, whereas substitutions of nucleotides without amino acid change are assumed to be neutral for the protein's functionality. However, cumulative evidence suggests that synonymous substitutions might also induce phenotypic variability by affecting splicing accuracy, translation fidelity, and conformation and function of proteins. tRNA isoacceptors mediate the translation of codons to amino acids, and asymmetric tRNA abundance causes variations in the rate of translation of each single triplet. Consequently, the effect of a silent point mutation in the coding region could be significant due to differential abundances of the cognate tRNA(s), emphasizing the importance of precise assessment of tRNA composition. Here, we provide an overview of the methods used to quantitatively determine the concentrations of tRNA species and discuss synonymous mutations in the context of tRNA composition of the cell, thus providing a new twist on the detrimental impact of the silent mutations.

  13. When Spiders Bite: The Use, Misuse, and Unintended Consequences of ``Silent Information''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Thomas P.

    Spiders are the workhorses of the Internet, silently (and almost invisibly) traversing the online world, 24 hours a day, looking for information that may be of interest to someone. It is being archived, organized, and sold, usually without the knowledge or consent of the subject of the information. Serious consequences are starting to appear, such as the withdrawal of three candidates from the October 2008 Canadian Federal election because of previous online indiscretions. While these were intentional if mis-guided postings, information made available without our consent can have equally devastating effects. Advances in artificial intelligence, as well as the increasing tendency to post more and more information, such as videos, will make the gathering, aggregation, and republishing of this “silent information” an increasingly important issue that must be addressed from the technical, social, ethical and legal perspectives, and sooner rather than later.

  14. Clinically silent PML and prolonged immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with multiple sclerosis treated with natalizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blinkenberg, Morten; Sellebjerg, Finn; Leffers, Anne Mette;

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a woman with natalizumab-treated multiple sclerosis (MS) and clinically silent progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) with an unusually long preclinical phase, followed by acute symptoms due to development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS...

  15. Psychosis and Silent Celiac Disease in a Down Syndrome Adolescent: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Morant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune systemic disorder. It presents gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal manifestations as well as associated conditions. We report a 16-year-old Down syndrome girl who presented psychosis symptomatology, and she was diagnosed as having silent celiac disease. Olanzapine treatment and gluten-free diet were satisfactory. It is necessary to consider celiac disease in Down syndrome patients with psychiatric symptoms, mainly psychotic symptomatology.

  16. Predisposing Factors In Patients With Silent Myocardial Infarction Farabi Hospital (2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi M j

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction sequel of coronary artery diseases, can be sometimes asymptomatic, called silent myocardial infarction. Some risk factors predispose the patients to this condition. In this study, we intend to determine the predisposing factors in such patients."nMethods and Materials: We included those patients with electrocardiogram changes, consistent with myocardial infarction, who had not any symptoms of ischemia or a previous history of coronary artery disease, consulted for preoperative work up of eye surgery during the year 2000."nResults: We analyzed 100 patients with the diagnosis of silent myocardial infarction. (59 males and 41 females. Among our patients. 99 percent were above age 50 years of age. Their mean age at the time of study was 69.7 years. 78 percent of patients were illiterate. In 41 of them body mass index was above the normal limits (overweight and obese. Their past medical history revealed that 46 patients had hypertension, 38 patients had hyper-lipidemia. and 26 patients had diabetes mellitus. Also, a positive family history of coronary artery disease was seen in 52 percent of the patients. The rate of cigarette smokers and opium addicts, among our patients, was 33 and 13 percents. respectively. Analysis of electrocardiogram changes, showed that 43 patients had inferior myocardial infarction, 24 had antero-septal. and 17 of them suffered from anterior myocardial infarction."nConclusion: Almost all of our patients with silent myocardial infarction were in old age group. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, overweight, hyper-lipidemia, and a positive family history of coronary artery disease were the most important predisposing factors, found in such patients, thus taking into account these predisposing factors and control of them would dramatically reduce the prevalence of morbidity and mortality of silent myocardial infarction.

  17. Subducting slab ultra-slow velocity layer coincident with silent earthquakes in southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Helmberger, Donald V.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Clayton, Robert W.; Davis, Paul; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Singh, Shri K.

    2009-01-01

    Great earthquakes have repeatedly occurred on the plate interface in a few shallow-dipping subduction zones where the subducting and overriding plates are strongly locked. Silent earthquakes (or slow slip events) were recently discovered at the down-dip extension of the locked zone and interact with the earthquake cycle. Here, we show that locally observed converted SP arrivals and teleseismic underside reflections that sample the top of the subducting plate in southern Mexico reveal that the...

  18. Effect on epileptogenesis of carbamazepine treatment during the silent period of the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capella, H M; Lemos, T

    2002-01-01

    This study addresses the question of epileptogenesis by investigating the effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) on the silent period of the pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to status epilepticus (SE) induced by pilocarpine and treated with CBZ or saline, i.p, during 56 days. Latency for the first spontaneous seizure, incidence, frequency, and duration of seizures were monitored for seizures and the hippocampal damage. CBZ did not abort the epileptogenesis but minimized the expression of seizures and hippocampal damage.

  19. Cortical silent period in a patient with focal epilepsy and Parry-Romberg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktekin, Berrin; Oguz, Yurttaş; Aydin, Hülya; Senol, Utku

    2005-03-01

    Progressive facial hemiatrophy (PFH), Parry-Romberg syndrome, is a rare disorder frequently associated with epilepsy. We describe a 28-year-old man who had PFH and partial epilepsy that was easily controlled with antiepileptic drugs. In accordance with this patient's benign course of seizures, the cortical silent period was prolonged in the symptomatic hemisphere. This finding may represent compensatory interictal mechanisms in epilepsy.

  20. Silent hippocampal seizures and spikes identified by foramen ovale electrodes in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Alice D; Deck, Gina; Goldman, Alica; Eskandar, Emad N; Noebels, Jeffrey; Cole, Andrew J

    2017-06-01

    We directly assessed mesial temporal activity using intracranial foramen ovale electrodes in two patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) without a history or EEG evidence of seizures. We detected clinically silent hippocampal seizures and epileptiform spikes during sleep, a period when these abnormalities were most likely to interfere with memory consolidation. The findings in these index cases support a model in which early development of occult hippocampal hyperexcitability may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  1. Silent Sentinel公司成为Norbain公司的供应商之一

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    2012年12月19日Norbain公司技术总监Andrew Pigram称:“Norbain公司很高兴地宣布SiLent Sentinel公司成为其专业安全设备供应商之一。Silent Sentinel公司是英国一家高性能、坚固耐用摄像机系统和先进摄像机定位系统制造商。

  2. SILENT BLOWS——THE FILM ART OF CHEN CHIEH-JEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melanie; MeGanney

    2007-01-01

    Images provided by the author unless otherwise stated■This summer the first major U.S.solo exhibition by leading Taiwanese artist Chen Chieh-jen took place at Manhattan's Asia Society.The exhibition 'Condensation' united five silent films that address a variety of social topics into a cohesive unit. The films reflect the mind of someone who came to artistic maturity during a rapidly changing political environment in Taiwan.

  3. Challenges and opportunities of silent commerce - applying Radio Frequency Identification technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Cata

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This research paper investigates applications of Radio Frequency Technology (RFID as an application of ubiquitous commerce. RFID has a wide application in the supply chain but still is very limited for customer support. This study introduces the concept of the Silent CRM (s-CRM which is an application of RFID to proactively support customer needs. Challenges of RFID application within companies, outside of companies and about the technology itself are discussed as well.

  4. Modulation of the Cutaneous Silent Period in the Upper-Limb with Whole-Body Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Nathanial R; Poston, Brach; Riley, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    The silent period induced by cutaneous electrical stimulation of the digits has been shown to be task-dependent, at least in the grasping muscles of the hand. However, it is unknown if the cutaneous silent period is adaptable throughout muscles of the entire upper limb, in particular when the task requirements are substantially altered. The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristics of the cutaneous silent period in several upper limb muscles when introducing increased whole-body instability. The cutaneous silent period was evoked in 10 healthy individuals with electrical stimulation of digit II of the right hand when the subjects were seated, standing, or standing on a wobble board while maintaining a background elbow extension contraction with the triceps brachii of ~5% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) strength. The first excitatory response (E1), first inhibitory response (CSP), and second excitatory response (E2) were quantified as the percent change from baseline and by their individual durations. The results showed that the level of CSP suppression was lessened (47.7 ± 7.7% to 33.8 ± 13.2% of baseline, p = 0.019) and the duration of the CSP inhibition decreased (p = 0.021) in the triceps brachii when comparing the seated and wobble board tasks. For the wobble board task the amount of cutaneous afferent inhibition of EMG activity in the triceps brachii decreased; which is proposed to be due to differential weighting of cutaneous feedback relative to the corticospinal drive, most likely due to presynaptic inhibition, to meet the demands of the unstable task.

  5. Modulation of the Cutaneous Silent Period in the Upper-Limb with Whole-Body Instability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanial R Eckert

    Full Text Available The silent period induced by cutaneous electrical stimulation of the digits has been shown to be task-dependent, at least in the grasping muscles of the hand. However, it is unknown if the cutaneous silent period is adaptable throughout muscles of the entire upper limb, in particular when the task requirements are substantially altered. The purpose of the present study was to examine the characteristics of the cutaneous silent period in several upper limb muscles when introducing increased whole-body instability. The cutaneous silent period was evoked in 10 healthy individuals with electrical stimulation of digit II of the right hand when the subjects were seated, standing, or standing on a wobble board while maintaining a background elbow extension contraction with the triceps brachii of ~5% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC strength. The first excitatory response (E1, first inhibitory response (CSP, and second excitatory response (E2 were quantified as the percent change from baseline and by their individual durations. The results showed that the level of CSP suppression was lessened (47.7 ± 7.7% to 33.8 ± 13.2% of baseline, p = 0.019 and the duration of the CSP inhibition decreased (p = 0.021 in the triceps brachii when comparing the seated and wobble board tasks. For the wobble board task the amount of cutaneous afferent inhibition of EMG activity in the triceps brachii decreased; which is proposed to be due to differential weighting of cutaneous feedback relative to the corticospinal drive, most likely due to presynaptic inhibition, to meet the demands of the unstable task.

  6. Women and Nationalism in Indigenous Irish Filmmaking of the Silent Period

    OpenAIRE

    Casella, Donna R.

    2013-01-01

    Women in Ireland came into focus and onto the political stage during and as a result of nationalist and socialist movements that began in the mid-1700s and continued through the 1920s. Women like Anna Parnell, Constance Markievicz, and Hannah Sheehy-Skeffington participated in the land wars, struggles for independence from Britain and the suffragist movement. Indigenous silent feature filmmaking in Ireland was born out of this critical period of political and social change. From 1916 to 1935,...

  7. A HUGE SILENT INTRACRANIA L HYDATID CYST IN AN ADULT MALE: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydatid disease of the brain is a rare parasitic infestation caused by larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. It has an insidious onset with a slow rate of growth resulting in late diagnosis. Its occurence is rare in India, being endemic in Mediterranean countries and Middle East. We report a case of a huge, slow - growing, silent intracranial left parieto - temporo - occipital hydatid cyst in an 18 year old male presenting as a large cystic space occupying lesion.

  8. Cultural Factors in Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔敏

    2005-01-01

    Reading is a basic ability in learning English and reading comprehension exercise is a common way to assess this ability.Since reading is a communicative activity between author and reader in written form,there are some different rules and regulations of this communication in different countries.Therefore,cultural factors,existing in reading,decide,help,and influence the percentage of the right answers.This article attempts to analyze the effects of cultural differences in reading and the barriers in comprehension,and aims to improve students awareness of cultural differences in reading.

  9. Silent and a audible stereotypes: The constitution of "ethnic character" in Serbian epic poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the explanatory relevance of the concept of stereotype in one of its original meanings - as a "mental image". This meaning of the term is the starting point for further differentiations, such as: between linguistic and behavioral stereotypes (in the sense of nonverbal, expected responses; universal and particular stereotypes; self representative and introspective stereotypes; permanent and contemporary stereotypes; and finally, what is most important for our purposes, the difference between silent and audible stereotypes. These distinctions, along with the functions of stereotype, are discussed in the first part of the paper. In the second part, the relations of silent and audible stereotypes are tested against the introduction of "innovative vocabularies" in popular lore. In other words, the explanatory power of this differentiation is checked through an analysis of unconventional motives in Serbian epic poems. The goal of the argument is to clarify the procedure of self creation of masculinity as a relevant feature of the "national character" through "tactic games" of silent and audible stereotypes. The examination of these "poetic strategies" serves a twofold purpose: to illustrate the process of constructing particular features of the "ethno type", on one hand, and to check hypotheses and models which are taken as frameworks in analyzing stereotypes, on the other.

  10. Detecting Silent Data Corruption for Extreme-Scale Applications through Data Mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bautista-Gomez, Leonardo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-16

    Supercomputers allow scientists to study natural phenomena by means of computer simulations. Next-generation machines are expected to have more components and, at the same time, consume several times less energy per operation. These trends are pushing supercomputer construction to the limits of miniaturization and energy-saving strategies. Consequently, the number of soft errors is expected to increase dramatically in the coming years. While mechanisms are in place to correct or at least detect some soft errors, a significant percentage of those errors pass unnoticed by the hardware. Such silent errors are extremely damaging because they can make applications silently produce wrong results. In this work we propose a technique that leverages certain properties of high-performance computing applications in order to detect silent errors at the application level. Our technique detects corruption solely based on the behavior of the application datasets and is completely application-agnostic. We propose multiple corruption detectors, and we couple them to work together in a fashion transparent to the user. We demonstrate that this strategy can detect the majority of the corruptions, while incurring negligible overhead. We show that with the help of these detectors, applications can have up to 80% of coverage against data corruption.

  11. Detection of silent cells, synchronization and modulatory activity in developing cellular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Johannes J J; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Pires, Johny; Dassen, Valerie J; Berkhout, Janna A; Emperador Melero, Javier; Nadadhur, Aish G; Alevra, Mihai; Toonen, Ruud F; Heine, Vivi M; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Meredith, Rhiannon M

    2016-04-01

    Developing networks in the immature nervous system and in cellular cultures are characterized by waves of synchronous activity in restricted clusters of cells. Synchronized activity in immature networks is proposed to regulate many different developmental processes, from neuron growth and cell migration, to the refinement of synapses, topographic maps, and the mature composition of ion channels. These emergent activity patterns are not present in all cells simultaneously within the network and more immature "silent" cells, potentially correlated with the presence of silent synapses, are prominent in different networks during early developmental periods. Many current network analyses for detection of synchronous cellular activity utilize activity-based pixel correlations to identify cellular-based regions of interest (ROIs) and coincident cell activity. However, using activity-based correlations, these methods first underestimate or ignore the inactive silent cells within the developing network and second, are difficult to apply within cell-dense regions commonly found in developing brain networks. In addition, previous methods may ignore ROIs within a network that shows transient activity patterns comprising both inactive and active periods. We developed analysis software to semi-automatically detect cells within developing neuronal networks that were imaged using calcium-sensitive reporter dyes. Using an iterative threshold, modulation of activity was tracked within individual cells across the network. The distribution pattern of both inactive and active, including synchronous cells, could be determined based on distance measures to neighboring cells and according to different anatomical layers.

  12. A Relationship Between the EMG Silent Period and Muscle Fatigue of the Masticatory Muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T. H.; Cho, I. J.; Kim, S. H. [The University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea); Yang, D. J. [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Lee, J. [Samchok National University, Samchok (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    Silent period(SP) is transient stops of muscle activity that are induced by mechanical or electrical stimulus and the duration of silent period is a important parameter that have been associated with symptoms of masticatory dysfunction. Muscle fatigue is induced by sustained muscular contractions. It is associated with the external manifestations as the inability to maintain a desired force output, muscular tremor, and localized pain. Muscle fatigue is a parameter that have been measured or monitored the deterioration of a performance of muscles. On the study of relationship between SP and masticatory muscle fatigue, Nagasawa suggested that SP increase up to 3 min. from the beginning of clenching when the subjects performed sustained contractions at 50% maximum clenching level. In this paper, in order to evaluate a relationship between SP and muscle fatigue, 10 SPs per 1 minute are measured at 10%, 30%, 50% maximum clenching level. We used the median frequency in order to quantify the degree of muscle fatigue. However, the results shows that the duration of silent period was not significantly affected by differing levels of muscle fatigue. Therefore, we suggest that the SP is not increased or decreased as the results of muscle fatigue, also the origin of the SP generation mechanism is discussed. (author). 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Cumulus-specific genes are transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer in a mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether four cumulus-specific genes: follicular stimulating hormone receptor (FSHr), hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2), prostaglandin synthase 2 (Ptgs2) and steroidogenic acute regulator protein (Star), were correctly reprogrammed to be transcriptionally silent following somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in a murine model. Cumulus cells of C57×CBA F1 female mouse were injected into enucleated oocytes, followed by activation in 10 μmol/L strontium chloride for 5 h and subsequent in vitro culture up to the blastocyst stage. Expression of cumulus-specific genes in SCNT-derived embryos at 2-cell, 4-cell and day 4.5 blastocyst stages was compared with corresponding in vivo fertilized embryos by real-time PCR. It was demonstrated that immediately after the first cell cycle, SCNT-derived 2-cell stage embryos did not express all four cumulus-specific genes, which continually remained silent at the 4-cell and blastocyst stages. It is therefore concluded that all four cumulus-specific genes were correctly reprogrammed to be silent following nuclear transfer with cumulus donor cells in the mouse model. This would imply that the poor preimplantation developmental competence of SCNT embryos derived from cumulus cells is due to incomplete reprogramming of other embryonic genes, rather than cumulus-specific genes.

  14. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  15. To read or not to read

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Suzanne Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    There is a widely held belief that reading (story)books makes us smarter and helps promote success in life. Does scientific evidence support this notion? The three meta-analyses in this thesis comprise 146 studies between 1988 and 2010 (N=10,308 participants) that addressed the role of book reading

  16. Yeast homologous recombination-based promoter engineering for the activation of silent natural product biosynthetic gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, Daniel; Kang, Hahk-Soo; Chang, Fang-Yuan; Charlop-Powers, Zachary; Brady, Sean F

    2015-07-21

    Large-scale sequencing of prokaryotic (meta)genomic DNA suggests that most bacterial natural product gene clusters are not expressed under common laboratory culture conditions. Silent gene clusters represent a promising resource for natural product discovery and the development of a new generation of therapeutics. Unfortunately, the characterization of molecules encoded by these clusters is hampered owing to our inability to express these gene clusters in the laboratory. To address this bottleneck, we have developed a promoter-engineering platform to transcriptionally activate silent gene clusters in a model heterologous host. Our approach uses yeast homologous recombination, an auxotrophy complementation-based yeast selection system and sequence orthogonal promoter cassettes to exchange all native promoters in silent gene clusters with constitutively active promoters. As part of this platform, we constructed and validated a set of bidirectional promoter cassettes consisting of orthogonal promoter sequences, Streptomyces ribosome binding sites, and yeast selectable marker genes. Using these tools we demonstrate the ability to simultaneously insert multiple promoter cassettes into a gene cluster, thereby expediting the reengineering process. We apply this method to model active and silent gene clusters (rebeccamycin and tetarimycin) and to the silent, cryptic pseudogene-containing, environmental DNA-derived Lzr gene cluster. Complete promoter refactoring and targeted gene exchange in this "dead" cluster led to the discovery of potent indolotryptoline antiproliferative agents, lazarimides A and B. This potentially scalable and cost-effective promoter reengineering platform should streamline the discovery of natural products from silent natural product biosynthetic gene clusters.

  17. Teaching Reading Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘恒

    2014-01-01

    Reading skills are very important part in language teaching and learning. This paper is written after attending lectures given by an Australian teacher named Rod Ellis focusing on how to teach reading skills using authentic materials.

  18. On English Reading Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱芬

    2008-01-01

    Reading is one of the four important skills in English learning.It is also a skill that the students need to possess to support independent and self-directed learning.With the development of society,science and technology develop at hish speed and the competition in the society become sharp.Reading is a way for students to be more knowledgeable and successful.So,it becomes more and more important to speed up their reading in order to acquire as much information as possible.Thus,fostering a good English reading habit is essential,and being able to adopt different reading skills for different reading materials and purposes will also help to read more effectively.The paper mainly concenls some basic English reading skills.

  19. Remote Control Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Helen

    1995-01-01

    Explains how students who have difficulty remembering what they have read may be taught how to reread sections of text by suggesting to them that reading is analogous to watching a video with the remote control in hand. (TB)

  20. Can Reading Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Ponders the effect of September 11th on teenagers. Proposes that reading books can help teenagers sort out complicated issues. Recommends young adult novels that offer hope for overcoming tragedy. Lists 50 short story collections worth reading. (PM)

  1. Tactics for Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祥航; 张艳荣

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, reading comprehension is taking up a larger and larger part in almost every international test or domestic examination. Knowing the basic knowledge and grasping the test - taking tactics are key factors of good reading comprehension. In this thesis, I will dwell on nine commonly used tactics for reading comprehension. This will help you to deal with the problems with reading comprehension efficiently.

  2. Discussion on college students' English Reading Skills —intensive reading and extensive reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖登

    2016-01-01

    Students are exposed to a growing amount of vocabularies and knowledge as they step into higher grades, while seem to have little improvement in their reading ability and no alternative means to realize their reading goals. Improving the English reading skills is very important for students as reading enjoys a huge ratio in an English exam paper. Talking about reading, we can not ignore these facts: reading materials, reading speed and reading skills. The followings analyzed are some common skills applied to reading-intensive reading and extensive reading as well as the obstacles that may be met while reading.

  3. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  4. Voiced Reading and Rhythm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹艳萍

    2007-01-01

    Since voiced reading is an important way in learning English,rhythm is the most critical factor that enables to read beautifully.This article illustrates the relationship between rhythm and voiced reading,the importance of rhythm,and the methods to develop the sense of rhythm.

  5. Monster Moose Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Frank

    Monster Moose (MM) Reading is a program specifically aimed at improving children's language, beginning reading, and self-concept development through the creation and utilization of student-authored reading materials which feature a series of wordless picture books about a magical moose. The MM Program is based on the following general principles…

  6. Rapid Reading, Yes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommer, Harvey

    1971-01-01

    Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

  7. Reading/Writing Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie

    In the past, students and teachers alike viewed reading and writing instruction as two separate entities. Reading and writing instruction was often characterized by linear and behaviorist theories and methods, with students rarely coming away from their schooling experience with confidence in and respect for their own writing. To both read and…

  8. Reading and Empathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, John J.; Marchant, Gregory J.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between reading and empathy was explored. Controlling for GPA and gender, reading variables were hypothesized as related to empathy; the relationship was expected to differ for males and females. For the complete sample, affective components were related to GPA but not reading. Perspective taking was related to reading…

  9. Dutch for Reading Knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baalen, C.; Blom, F.R.E.; Hollander, I.

    2012-01-01

    This first Dutch for Reading Knowledge book on the market promotes a high level of reading and translation competency by drawing from Dutch grammar, vocabulary and reading strategies, and providing many translation "shortcuts" and tips when tackling complex texts in Dutch. Aimed at students, researc

  10. Prose reading in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschin, Nicoletta; Cisari, Carlo; Cubelli, Roberto; Della Sala, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    Prose reading has been shown to be a very sensitive measure of Unilateral Spatial Neglect. However, little is known about the relationship between prose reading and other measures of neglect and its severity, or between prose reading and single word reading. Thirty participants with a first stroke in the right hemisphere and clear symptoms of spatial neglect in everyday life were assessed with tests of prose reading (text in one column book-like, and in two columns magazine-like), single words reading, and a battery of 13 tests investigating neglect. Seventy percent of these participants omitted words at the beginning of the text (left end), showing Prose Reading Neglect (PRN). The participants showing PRN differed from those not showing PRN only for the overall severity of neglect, and had a lesion centred on the insula, putamen and superior temporal gyrus. Double dissociations emerged between PRN and single word reading neglect, suggesting different cognitive requirements between the two tests: parallel processing in single word reading vs. serial analysis in text reading. Notably, the pattern of neglected text varied dramatically across participants presenting with PRN, including dissociations between reading performance of one and two columns text. Prose reading proved a complex and unique task which should be directly investigated to predict the effects of unilateral neglect. The outcome of this study should also inform clinical assessment and advises given to patients and care-givers.

  11. Family Reading Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Darcy; Greenfeld, Marsha; Epstein, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    This book offers clear and practical guidelines to help engage families in student success. It shows families how to conduct a successful Family Reading Night at their school. Family Night themes include Scary Stories, Books We Love, Reading Olympics, Dr. Seuss, and other themes. Family reading nights invite parents to come to school with their…

  12. Reading difficulties in Albanian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdyli, Rrezarta; Cuetos, Fernando

    2012-10-01

    Albanian is an Indo-European language with a shallow orthography, in which there is an absolute correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. We aimed to know reading strategies used by Albanian disabled children during word and pseudoword reading. A pool of 114 Kosovar reading disabled children matched with 150 normal readers aged 6 to 11 years old were tested. They had to read 120 stimuli varied in lexicality, frequency, and length. The results in terms of reading accuracy as well as in reading times show that both groups were affected by lexicality and length effects. In both groups, length and lexicality effects were significantly modulated by school year being greater in early grades and later diminish in length and just the opposite in lexicality. However, the reading difficulties group was less accurate and slower than the control group across all school grades. Analyses of the error patterns showed that phonological errors, when the letter replacement leading to new nonwords, are the most common error type in both groups, although as grade rises, visual errors and lexicalizations increased more in the control group than the reading difficulties group. These findings suggest that Albanian normal children use both routes (lexical and sublexical) from the beginning of reading despite of the complete regularity of Albanian, while children with reading difficulties start using sublexical reading and the lexical reading takes more time to acquire, but finally both routes are functional.

  13. Reading: United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Rose-Marie

    1983-01-01

    An exploration of the increasingly important role of linguistics in literacy research and instruction reviews literature on reading comprehension, written language, orthography, metalinguistics, classroom language use, reading disabilities, native tongues, nonstandard dialects, bilingual education, adult literacy, and second-language reading. (86…

  14. The Future of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tom

    2009-01-01

    The future of reading is very much in doubt. In this century, reading could soar to new heights or crash and burn. Some educators and librarians fear that sustained reading for learning, for work, and for pleasure may be slowly dying out as a widespread social practice. Several social and technological developments of the 20th century, such as…

  15. Free Reading Is UTOPIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCrone, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    In high school students get tied up in extracurricular activities and have little time for pleasure reading. It is true that with rigorous academic schedules they have little time for pleasure reading. Thus began a conversation with a sophomore English teacher at the author's high school. As they were discussing the plight of free reading he was…

  16. Bullen Reading Attitude Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Gertrude F.

    The Bullen Reading Attitude Measure (BRAM) is an instrument that was developed to serve as a diagnostic aid in assessing reading attitudes of elementary school children in grades one through six. The objectives of the test are to measure the subject's attitude toward reading at home or school, visiting the library, owning and buying books,…

  17. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor t

  18. What oral text reading fluency can reveal about reading comprehension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, N.J.; Groen, M.A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Text reading fluency – the ability to read quickly, accurately and with a natural intonation – has been proposed as a predictor of reading comprehension. In the current study, we examined the role of oral text reading fluency, defined as text reading rate and text reading prosody, as a contributor t

  19. To Read or Not to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-01

    until the students are exposed to reading material above the mid- fifth grade level. The emphasis in these courses is upon improving comprehension...completing the material in the course books, students work at improving their reading speed through the use of controlled reading, pacers, and timed tests. As...FjN7 1473 EDITION OF INOV 𔄀 IS OBSOLETE Unclassified S/N 0102 tF-01t.6e0d) SECURITY CLASS•IFICATION OF THIS PAGE (147-m Do!& Entered) SECURITY

  20. Amblyopic reading is crowded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Dennis M; Song, Shuang; Pelli, Denis G

    2007-10-26

    We measure acuity, crowding, and reading in amblyopic observers to answer four questions. (1) Is reading with the amblyopic eye impaired because of larger required letter size (i.e., worse acuity) or larger required spacing (i.e., worse crowding)? The size or spacing required to read at top speed is called "critical". For each eye of seven amblyopic observers and the preferred eyes of two normal observers, we measure reading rate as a function of the center-to-center spacing of the letters in central and peripheral vision. From these results, we estimate the critical spacing for reading. We also measured traditional acuity for an isolated letter and the critical spacing for identifying a letter among other letters, which is the classic measure of crowding. For both normals and amblyopes, in both central and peripheral vision, we find that the critical spacing for reading equals the critical spacing for crowding. The identical critical spacings, and very different critical sizes, show that crowding, not acuity, limits reading. (2) Does amblyopia affect peripheral reading? No. We find that amblyopes read normally with their amblyopic eye except that abnormal crowding in the fovea prevents them from reading fine print. (3) Is the normal periphery a good model for the amblyopic fovea? No. Reading centrally, the amblyopic eye has an abnormally large critical spacing but reads all larger spacings at normal rates. This is unlike the normal periphery, in which both critical spacing and maximum reading rate are severely impaired relative to the normal fovea. (4) Can the uncrowded-span theory of reading rate explain amblyopic reading? Yes. The case of amblyopia shows that crowding limits reading solely by determining the uncrowded span: the number of characters that are not crowded. Characters are uncrowded if and only if their spacing is more than critical. The text spacing may be uniform, but the observer's critical spacing increases with distance from fixation, so the

  1. Hallermann–Streiff syndrome with severe bilateral enophthalmos and radiological evidence of silent brain syndrome: a new congenital silent brain syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nucci P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Nucci¹, Carlo de Conciliis², Matteo Sacchi¹, Massimiliano Serafino¹¹Eye Clinic, San Giuseppe Hospital, University of Milan, ²Eye Clinic, Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milan, ItalyBackground: We present the first case of a congenital form of silent brain syndrome (SBS in a young patient affected by Hallermann–Streiff syndrome (HSS and the surgical management of the associated eyelid anomalies.Methods: HSS signs were evaluated according to the Francois criteria. Orbital computed tomography (CT and genetic analysis were performed. An upper eyelid retractor-free recession was performed. Follow-up visits were performed at day 1, weeks 1 and 3, and months 3, 6, 9 (for both eyes, and 12 (for left eye after surgery.Results: The patient exhibited six of the seven signs of HSS. Orbital CT showed bilateral enophthalmos and upward bowing of the orbital roof with air entrapment under the upper eyelid as previously described for SBS. Genetic analysis showed a 2q polymorphism. During follow-up, the cornea showed absence of epithelial damage and the upper eyelids were lowered symmetrically, with a regular contour.Conclusion: Our HSS patient shares features with SBS. We postulate that SBS could include more than one pattern, ie, an acquired form following ventriculoperitoneal shunting and this newly reported congenital form in our HSS patient in whom typical syndromic skull anomalies led to this condition. The surgical treatment has been effective in restoring an appropriate lid level, with good globe apposition and a good cosmetic result.Keywords: Hallermann–Streiff syndrome, silent brain syndrome, upper eyelid entropion

  2. Isquemia miocárdica silente en diabéticos tipo 2 Silent myocardial ischemia in type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanka Piña Rivera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: determinar la frecuencia de isquemia miocárdica silente en diabéticos tipo 2 y su relación con el control metabólico. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal en 79 pacientes asintomáticos con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 sin antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica, hipertensión arterial o de ser fumador, que acudieron a la Consulta de Endocrinología del Hospital Militar Central "Dr. Carlos J. Finlay", entre febrero de 2009 y febrero de 2011. Se les realizó ecocardiografía con doppler tisular y se determinaron los niveles de glucemia en ayunas, posprandial, hemoglobina glucosilada, colesterol y triglicéridos. Las variables clínicas analizadas en relación con la isquemia miocárdica silente fueron: edad, sexo, tiempo de evolución de la diabetes e índice de masa corporal. Para las variables cualitativas se utilizaron distribuciones de frecuencia con el cálculo del porcentaje y para establecer relación entre variables la prueba de chi cuadrado. Resultados: la edad media del total de pacientes fue de 54 años, de ellos el 69,1 % correspondió al sexo masculino y el 31,9 % al femenino. En el 20,2 % de los pacientes se observaron signos de isquemia miocárdica por doppler tisular, y de ellos, un 75 % tuvo niveles patológicos de colesterol total, con relación estadísticamente significativa (p= 0,01, sujetos que tuvieron 4,4 veces más riesgo relativo de presentar isquemia miocárdica, que los pacientes con colesterol normal. Las cifras de glucemia en ayunas, posprandial y hemoglobina glucosilada fueron significativamente mayor en el grupo con isquemia. Los pacientes con niveles elevados de glucemia en ayunas tuvieron 10,5 veces más riesgo de isquemia miocárdica que los que tenían cifras adecuadas. Igualmente, los casos con cifras elevadas de glucemia posprandial presentaron 12 veces más riesgo de enfermar. Conclusiones: la isquemia miocárdica silente es frecuente en los diabéticos tipo 2 y se relaciona

  3. Methodological Variables in Choral Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Meredith A.; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study explored changes in prosodic variability during choral reading and investigated whether these changes are affected by the method of eliciting choral reading. Ten typical adult talkers recorded three reading materials (poetry, fiction and textbook) in three reading conditions: solo (reading aloud alone), track (reading aloud…

  4. Impact of the Reading Buddies Program on Reading Level and Attitude Towards Reading

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayley Dolman; Serena Boyte-Hawryluk

    2013-01-01

    ... children’s reading levels and attitudes towards reading.Methods – During the first and last sessions of the Reading Buddies program, the participants completed the Elementary Reading Attitudes Survey (ERAS...

  5. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  6. Exploring the Relationship between Adolescent's Reading Skills, Reading Motivation and Reading Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Duncan, Lynne G.; Griffiths, Yvonne M.; Stothard, Sue E.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines the extent to which adolescents' reading affect (reading motivation) and behaviour (reading habits) predict different components of reading (word reading, comprehension, summarisation and text reading speed) and also adds to the limited research examining group differences (gender, age, ability) in adolescents' reading…

  7. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C.; Jauch, C.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2003-12-01

    The present report describes the dynamic wind turbine models implemented in the power system simulation tool DIgSILENT (Version 12.0). The developed models are a part of the results of a national research project, whose overall objective is to create a model database in different simulation tools. This model database should be able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. However, the main attention in this report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of two wind turbine concepts: 1. Active stall wind turbine with induction generator 2. Variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. For both these two concepts, control strategies are developed and implemented, their performance assessed and discussed by means of simulations. (au)

  8. Applying independent component analysis to detect silent speech in magnetic resonance imaging signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Toshimitsu; Takikawa, Yoriko; Arai, Hajime; Kitazawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) can be usefully applied to functional imaging studies to evaluate the spatial extent and temporal profile of task-related brain activity. It requires no a priori assumptions about the anatomical areas that are activated or the temporal profile of the activity. We applied spatial ICA to detect a voluntary but hidden response of silent speech. To validate the method against a standard model-based approach, we used the silent speech of a tongue twister as a 'Yes' response to single questions that were delivered at given times. In the first task, we attempted to estimate one number that was chosen by a participant from 10 possibilities. In the second task, we increased the possibilities to 1000. In both tasks, spatial ICA was as effective as the model-based method for determining the number in the subject's mind (80-90% correct per digit), but spatial ICA outperformed the model-based method in terms of time, especially in the 1000-possibility task. In the model-based method, calculation time increased by 30-fold, to 15 h, because of the necessity of testing 1000 possibilities. In contrast, the calculation time for spatial ICA remained as short as 30 min. In addition, spatial ICA detected an unexpected response that occurred by mistake. This advantage was validated in a third task, with 13 500 possibilities, in which participants had the freedom to choose when to make one of four responses. We conclude that spatial ICA is effective for detecting the onset of silent speech, especially when it occurs unexpectedly.

  9. Reflections on clinical expertise and silent know-how in voice therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ‘clinical expertise’ is described as a part of evidence-based practice (EBP) together with ‘external scientific evidence’ and ‘patient values and perspectives’. However, clinical expertise in the management of voice disorders has not been described or discussed in much detail....... The expertise seems to consist partly of silent know-how that, from the outside, may seem improperly related to the personality of the speech-language pathologist or exclusively dependent on the number of years in the field. In this paper, it is suggested that clinical expertise in voice therapy consists...

  10. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risø-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database...... strategies have different goals e.g. fast response over disturbances, optimum power efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds, voltage ride-through capability including grid support. A dynamic model of a DC connection for active stall wind farms to the grid including the control is also implemented...

  11. Application of DIgSILENT POWERFACTORY software for modeling of industrial network relay protection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sučević Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modeling of industrial network relay protection system using DIgSILENT PowerFactory software. The basis for the model of protection system is a model of a single substation in an industrial network. The paper presents the procedure for modeling of protective devices of 6 kV asynchronous motors, 6/0,4 kV/kV transformers as well as protection in the bus coupler and busbar protection. Protective relay system response for the simulated disturbances is shown in the paper.

  12. Inhibition of motoneurons during the cutaneous silent period in the spinal cord of the turtle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guzulaitis, Robertas; Hounsgaard, Jørn Dybkjær; Alaburda, Aidas

    2012-01-01

    The transient suppression of motor activity in the spinal cord after a cutaneous stimulus is termed the cutaneous silent period (CSP). It is not known if CSP is due to suppression of the premotor network or direct inhibition of motoneurons. This issue was examined by intracellular recordings from...... motoneurons in the isolated carapace-spinal cord preparation from adult turtles during rhythmic scratch-like reflex. Electrical stimulation of cutaneous nerves induced CSP-like suppression of motor nerve firing during rhythmic network activity. The stimulus that generated the CSP-like suppression of motor...

  13. Cortical silent period following TMS in a patient with supplementary sensorimotor area seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Venturi, Alessandro; Ausserer, Harald; Ladurner, Günther; Tezzon, Frediano

    2008-01-01

    The cortical silent period (CSP) following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was evaluated in a patient with a dysembrioplastic neuroepithelial tumor (DNET) in the lateral portion of the right superior frontal gyrus (SFG) who suffered from supplementary sensorimotor area (SSMA) seizures. CSP duration was shortened on the affected side. Ipsilateral alterations of motor cortex excitability with TMS in epileptogenic DNET located outside the PMA argue in favour of cortico-cortical connections to primary motor cortex from SSMA. This functional connectivity should be taken into consideration to better understand the pathophysiology of ictal motor manifestations.

  14. [The silent disappearance: report of screening eugenics of people with Down syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarroig Martín, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we try to reflext an avident fact: since the last 20 years, the percentage of births of Down Sindrome in Spain is decreasing. This fact is so silenciated in the mass media, that we can call "the silent dissapearance". But this is a bit of a more big problem more preocupated: the rejection of our society against the disabled people. For this, first, we present the facts, and then we will make a bioethical reflexión about the meaning of the rejection of disabled people, a serious fact that contradict the human responsability for others.

  15. Osteoporosis - "a silent killer". A review of the current literature from clinician and physiotherapist perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kocjan, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    Kocjan Janusz. Osteoporosis - "a silent killer". A review of the current literature from clinician and physiotherapist perspective. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(7):63-70. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.19173 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%287%29%3A63-70 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/576516 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.19173 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-665X. Archives 2011 – 201...

  16. MUSE, WHY ARE YOU SILENT NOW?--A Speech on "Poetry and Humanity"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Muse, why, why are you silent now? On the Aegean Sea, you sang of heroes and beauties, of the Troy War In the ancient Orient, you sang "Guanju"--an earliest love song* You grieved and wept for the sufferings of humanity You cried out and fought for his survival and libertyIn the snow-covered field outside Petersburg, you raised a pistol in a duel but fell under the muzzle of tyranny** Among the billows of the Atlantic Ocean, you broke the iron chains of a slaves boat*** You are Les Fleurs du Mal blossoming in Paris; you are the cat-like fog floating in Chicago****

  17. A Practical Strategy to Discover New Antitumor Compounds by Activating Silent Metabolite Production in Fungi by Diethyl Sulphate Mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Fang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal biosynthetic pathways are silent in standard culture conditions, and activation of the silent pathways may enable access to new metabolites with antitumor activities. The aim of the present study was to develop a practical strategy for microbial chemists to access silent metabolites in fungi. We demonstrated this strategy using a marine-derived fungus Penicillium purpurogenum G59 and a modified diethyl sulphate mutagenesis procedure. Using this strategy, we discovered four new antitumor compounds named penicimutanolone (1, penicimutanin A (2, penicimutanin B (3, and penicimutatin (4. Structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, especially extensive 2D NMR analysis. Antitumor activities were assayed by the MTT method using human cancer cell lines. Bioassays and HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI-MS analyses were used to estimate the activated secondary metabolite production. Compounds 2 and 3 had novel structures, and 1 was a new compound belonging to a class of very rare natural products from which only four members are so far known. Compounds 1–3 inhibited several human cancer cell lines with IC50 values lower than 20 μM, and 4 inhibited the cell lines to some extent. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy to discover new compounds by activating silent fungal metabolic pathways. These discoveries provide rationale for the increased use of chemical mutagenesis strategies in silent fungal metabolite studies.

  18. Silent Incarceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Byron D.

    1984-01-01

    Teachers need to become more aware of problems facing the shy/quiet child. This article defines shyness and examines its significance, harms, and causal effects. In treating shyness, it is helpful to offer oral communication classes for teacher and student, provide specialized, voluntary treatment, and encourage oral communication classroom…

  19. Silent Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Albert

    This book examines dimensions of nonverbal human behavior through the "immediacy,""power," and "responsiveness" metaphors. Human feelings and attitudes as conveyed by variations upon these metaphors involve approach-avoidance behavior. The author defines these metaphors as like-dislike; potency-status (or a controlling versus a dependent…

  20. Silent Struggles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girschik, Verena; Boxenbaum, Eva

    when overt contestation is not a viable option – for example when they must dampen conflict to foster collaboration. This paper presents a case study of a Danish pharmaceutical company that overcame framing contexts, gained local stakeholders’ support and became the orchestrator of collaborative...... arrangements aimed at improving diabetes care in Indonesia. Inductively following the framing process in real-time, the paper presents a model that explicates three moves through which frame alignment was constructed: interactively reconstructing the field, manufacturing a common understanding of actions...

  1. Improve your reading

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Help your students discover the practical solution to their reading frustrations, with Improve Your Reading. Written by bestselling author and education advocate Ron Fry, this book avoids gimmicks and tricks in favor of proven strategies that will help your students better retain and comprehend what they've read in any textbook, in any course, at any academic level. Endlessly adaptable to each student's individual learning needs, the text focuses on fundamental skills students can carry beyond the classroom.

  2. Reading disorders and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J

    2016-12-01

    We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed.

  3. On Reading Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙健

    2005-01-01

    There has been a long discussion over the construct validity of reading tests. In china's reading tests, multiple choice is the main test method in view of the4 long controversy over the validity of multiple choice, construct validation is called for to empirically test the hypothesized relationships between test scores and abilities. The national CET committee conducted a comprehensive validation study. As part of the project, the specialists studied the reading comprehension test's validity by qualitative means, namely "introspective verbal reports". The analysis revealed that an overwhelming majority of the questions items were handled through "expected reading operations".

  4. Reading disorders and dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review We review current knowledge about the nature of reading development and disorders, distinguishing between the processes involved in learning to decode print, and the processes involved in reading comprehension. Recent findings Children with decoding difficulties/dyslexia experience deficits in phoneme awareness, letter-sound knowledge and rapid automatized naming in the preschool years and beyond. These phonological/language difficulties appear to be proximal causes of the problems in learning to decode print in dyslexia. We review data from a prospective study of children at high risk of dyslexia to show that being at family risk of dyslexia is a primary risk factor for poor reading and children with persistent language difficulties at school entry are more likely to develop reading problems. Early oral language difficulties are strong predictors of later difficulties in reading comprehension. Summary There are two distinct forms of reading disorder in children: dyslexia (a difficulty in learning to translate print into speech) and reading comprehension impairment. Both forms of reading problem appear to be predominantly caused by deficits in underlying oral language skills. Implications for screening and for the delivery of robust interventions for language and reading are discussed. PMID:27496059

  5. The Reading Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Kassuba, Tanja; Kastner, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Do you enjoy reading books? Reading is one of the unique activities that only humans do, and we have not been doing it for that long! Humans have talked to each other using a language system with grammatical rules for at least 100,000 years, but we have been reading and writing only for a few thousand years! What happens in our brain when we read? Our brain has developed a region that is specialized in knowing what written words look like. It closely works together with other parts of the bra...

  6. How to Develop Reading Strategies in Extensive Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈腊梅

    2016-01-01

    Extensive reading demands readers to read in quantity for general, overall meaning, and for information. Learners are supposed to know how to choose appropriate reading tactics in accordance with different reading purposes. This paper mainly proposes some effective strategies to develop learners' reading skills and competency.

  7. Reading Strategy: Tackling Reading through Topic and Main Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Bharathi; Briewin, Marshal; Embi, Mohamed Amin

    2013-01-01

    Reading comprehension is one of the four skills essential in learning English. In a reading class, students tend to read all the information provided in reading materials, but how much do they actually retain? This study explores whether learners use identification of the topic and main ideas as a reading strategy to assist in reading…

  8. Developmental Relations between Reading Comprehension and Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Swart, Nicole M.; Steenbeek-Planting, Esther G.; Droop, Mienke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Jong, Peter F.

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary, and working memory were administered. A structural…

  9. Developmental relations between reading comprehension and reading strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muijselaar, M.M.L.; Swart, N.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Droop, W.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Jong, P.F. de

    2017-01-01

    We examined the developmental relations between knowledge of reading strategies and reading comprehension in a longitudinal study of 312 Dutch children from the beginning of fourth grade to the end of fifth grade. Measures for reading comprehension, reading strategies, reading fluency, vocabulary,

  10. The Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program: Application of Buddhist Ethics to Teach Student Physicians Empathy, Compassion, and Self-Sacrifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santibañez, Scott; Boudreaux, Debra; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Konkel, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    The Buddhist Tzu Chi Silent Mentor Program promotes the donation of one's body to science as a selfless act by appealing to the Buddhist ethics of compassion and self-sacrifice. Together, faculty, families, and donors help medical students to learn the technical, spiritual, emotional, and psychological aspects of medicine. Students assigned to each "Silent Mentor" visit the family to learn about the donor's life. They see photos and hear family members' stories. Afterwards, students write a brief biography of the donor which is posted on the program website, in the medical school, and on the dissection table. In this paper, we: (1) summarize the Silent Mentor Program; (2) describe findings from an assessment of medical students who recently completed a new version of the program in Malaysia; and (3) explore how healthcare settings could benefit from this innovative program.

  11. The silent mutation nucleotide 744 G --> A, Lys172Lys, in exon 6 of BRCA2 results in exon skipping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V O; Steffensen, Ane Y; Jønson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Mutations are widespread throughout the gene and include disease-causing mutations as frameshift, nonsense, splicing mutations and large genomic rearrangements. However a large number of mutations, including missense, silent...... and intron variants are of unknown significance. Here, we describe the functional characterization of a silent mutation (nucleotide 744 G --> A/c.516 G --> A, Lys172Lys) in exon 6 of BRCA2 in a Danish family with breast and ovarian cancer. Exon trapping analysis showed that the mutation results in skipping...... of exon 6 and/or both exon 5 and 6, which was verified by RT-PCR analysis on RNA isolated from whole blood of the affected patient. We therefore conclude that the BRCA2 silent mutation Lys172Lys is a disease-causing mutation....

  12. Neocortical inhibitory activities and long-range afferents contribute to the synchronous onset of silent states of the neocortical slow oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Maxime; Chauvette, Sylvain; Timofeev, Igor

    2015-02-01

    During slow-wave sleep, neurons of the thalamocortical network are engaged in a slow oscillation (<1 Hz), which consists of an alternation between the active and the silent states. Several studies have provided insights on the transition from the silent, which are essentially periods of disfacilitation, to the active states. However, the conditions leading to the synchronous onset of the silent state remain elusive. We hypothesized that a synchronous input to local inhibitory neurons could contribute to the transition to the silent state in the cat suprasylvian gyrus during natural sleep and under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. After partial and complete deafferentation of the cortex, we found that the silent state onset was more variable among remote sites. We found that the transition to the silent state was preceded by a reduction in excitatory postsynaptic potentials and firing probability in cortical neurons. We tested the impact of chloride-mediated inhibition in the silent-state onset. We uncovered a long-duration (100-300 ms) inhibitory barrage occurring about 250 ms before the silent state onset in 3-6% of neurons during anesthesia and in 12-15% of cases during natural sleep. These inhibitory activities caused a decrease in cortical firing that reduced the excitatory drive in the neocortical network. That chain reaction of disfacilitation ends up on the silent state. Electrical stimuli could trigger a network silent state with a maximal efficacy in deep cortical layers. We conclude that long-range afferents to the neocortex and chloride-mediated inhibition play a role in the initiation of the silent state.

  13. Field demonstration and commercialization of silent discharge plasma hazardous air pollutant control technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosocha, L.A.; Coogan, J.J.; Korzekwa, R.A.; Secker, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reimers, R.F.; Herrmann, P.G.; Chase, P.J.; Gross, M.P. [High Mesa Technologies LLC, Santa Fe, NM (United States)]|[High Mesa Technologies LLC, Irvine, CA (United States); Jones, M.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Silent electrical discharge plasma (dielectric barrier) reactors can decompose gas-phase pollutants by free-radical attack or electron-induced fragmentation. The radicals or electrons are produced by the large average volume nonthermal plasmas generated in the reactor. In the past decade, the barrier configuration has attracted attention for destroying toxic chemical agents for the military, removing harmful greenhouse gases, and treating other environmentally- hazardous chemical compounds. At the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have been studying the silent discharge plasma (SDP) for processing gaseous-based hazardous chemicals for approximately five years. The key objective is to convert hazardous or toxic chemicals into non-hazardous compounds or into materials which are more easily managed. The main applications have been for treating off-gases from thermal treatment units, and for abating hazardous air-pollutant emissions (e.g., industrial air emissions, vapors extracted from contaminated soil or groundwater). In this paper, we will summarize the basic principles of SDP processing, discuss illustrative applications of the technology, and present results from small-scale field tests that are relevant to our commercialization effort.

  14. Transformation of a Silent Adrencorticotrophic Pituitary Tumor Into Central Nervous System Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon A. Miller MD, PhD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenomas are nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas that express adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH but do not cause the clinical or laboratory features of hypercortisolemia. Primary central nervous system (CNS melanoma is well documented, but rarely originates in the sellar region or pituitary gland. Here we report transformation of an aggressive silent adrenocorticotrophic pituitary adenoma that transformed into CNS melanoma and review other presentations of pituitary melanoma. A 37-year-old woman initially presented with apoplexy and an invasive nonfunctioning pituitary macroadenoma for which she underwent transphenoidal surgery. The patient underwent 3 subsequent surgeries as the tumor continued to progress. Pathology from the first 3 operations showed pituitary adenoma or carcinoma. Pathology from the final surgery showed melanoma and the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the tumor had changed to become consistent with CNS melanoma. Dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations did not identify cutaneous or ocular melanoma. The patient’s disease progressed despite aggressive surgical, medical and radiologic treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating transformation of a primary pituitary tumor into melanoma. The mechanism of tumor transformation is unclear, but it is possible that a mutation in the original ACTH-producing tumor lead to increased cleavage of pro-opiomelanocortin or ACTH into α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, which in turn stimulated the expression of microopthalmia transcription factor, leading to melanocytic phenotype transformation.

  15. Spatial Support Vector Regression to Detect Silent Errors in the Exascale Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subasi, Omer; Di, Sheng; Bautista-Gomez, Leonardo; Balaprakash, Prasanna; Unsal, Osman; Labarta, Jesus; Cristal, Adrian; Cappello, Franck

    2016-01-01

    As the exascale era approaches, the increasing capacity of high-performance computing (HPC) systems with targeted power and energy budget goals introduces significant challenges in reliability. Silent data corruptions (SDCs) or silent errors are one of the major sources that corrupt the executionresults of HPC applications without being detected. In this work, we explore a low-memory-overhead SDC detector, by leveraging epsilon-insensitive support vector machine regression, to detect SDCs that occur in HPC applications that can be characterized by an impact error bound. The key contributions are three fold. (1) Our design takes spatialfeatures (i.e., neighbouring data values for each data point in a snapshot) into training data, such that little memory overhead (less than 1%) is introduced. (2) We provide an in-depth study on the detection ability and performance with different parameters, and we optimize the detection range carefully. (3) Experiments with eight real-world HPC applications show thatour detector can achieve the detection sensitivity (i.e., recall) up to 99% yet suffer a less than 1% of false positive rate for most cases. Our detector incurs low performance overhead, 5% on average, for all benchmarks studied in the paper. Compared with other state-of-the-art techniques, our detector exhibits the best tradeoff considering the detection ability and overheads.

  16. Impact of Insulin Resistance on Silent and Ongoing Myocardial Damage in Normal Subjects: The Takahata Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Narumi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Insulin resistance (IR is part of the metabolic syndrome (Mets that develops after lifestyle changes and obesity. Although the association between Mets and myocardial injury is well known, the effect of IR on myocardial damage remains unclear. Methods and Results. We studied 2200 normal subjects who participated in a community-based health check in the town of Takahata in northern Japan. The presence of IR was assessed by homeostasis model assessment ratio, and the serum level of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP was measured as a maker of silent and ongoing myocardial damage. H-FABP levels were significantly higher in subjects with IR and Mets than in those without metabolic disorder regardless of gender. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the presence of IR was independently associated with latent myocardial damage (odds ratio: 1.574, 95% confidence interval 1.1–2.3 similar to the presence of Mets. Conclusions. In a screening of healthy subjects, IR and Mets were similarly related to higher H-FABP levels, suggesting that there may be an asymptomatic population in the early stages of metabolic disorder that is exposed to myocardial damage and might be susceptible to silent heart failure.

  17. Deafening silence? Time to reconsider whether organisations are silent or deaf when things go wrong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Aled; Kelly, Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Several public inquiries into healthcare failings in the UK have noted that employees of failing organizations attempt to raise concerns about shortcomings in care, often over a prolonged period of time, only for those concerns to be ignored. However, healthcare literature has largely focused on how organizations and their employees are silent in the face of such failings, positioning employees as daring not to speak in response to serious workplace problems or issues. We argue that only focussing on organizational silence is a critical mistake which misrepresents actual events and overly-simplifies the complexities of workplace culture. The disregard shown by academics, practitioners and policy makers to employee voice strategies, which do not amount to whistle-blowing, but equally cannot either be defined as "silence", results in signals being ignored that can be effective in preventing and ending wrongdoing by others. In addition to understanding silence we suggest therefore that better understanding of why organizations are deaf to, or disregard, employee concerns are needed. We propose that a virtuous cycle is possible, whereby the introduction of systems that result in better listening and valuing of employee concerns reinforces a culture of speaking up and, in turn, organizational learning. Similarly, organizations that disregard employees concerns are destined not to learn, ultimately falling silent and failing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Silent Polymorphisms: Can the tRNA Population Explain Changes in Protein Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calero, Tamara; Cabrera-Cabrera, Florencia; Ehrlich, Ricardo; Marín, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Silent mutations are being intensively studied. We previously showed that the estrogen receptor alpha Ala87’s synonymous polymorphism affects its functional properties. Whereas a link has been clearly established between the effect of silent mutations, tRNA abundance and protein folding in prokaryotes, this connection remains controversial in eukaryotic systems. Although a synonymous polymorphism can affect mRNA structure or the interaction with specific ligands, it seems that the relative frequencies of isoacceptor tRNAs could play a key role in the protein-folding process, possibly through modulation of translation kinetics. Conformational changes could be subtle but enough to cause alterations in solubility, proteolysis profiles, functional parameters or intracellular targeting. Interestingly, recent advances describe dramatic changes in the tRNA population associated with proliferation, differentiation or response to chemical, physical or biological stress. In addition, several reports reveal changes in tRNAs’ posttranscriptional modifications in different physiological or pathological conditions. In consequence, since changes in the cell state imply quantitative and/or qualitative changes in the tRNA pool, they could increase the likelihood of protein conformational variants, related to a particular codon usage during translation, with consequences of diverse significance. These observations emphasize the importance of genetic code flexibility in the co-translational protein-folding process. PMID:26901226

  19. The impact of time on predicate forms in the manual modality: signers, homesigners, and silent gesturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is difficult to create spoken forms that can be understood on the spot. But the manual modality, in large part because of its iconic potential, allows us to construct forms that are immediately understood, thus requiring essentially no time to develop. This paper contrasts manual forms for actions produced over three time spans-by silent gesturers who are asked to invent gestures on the spot; by homesigners who have created gesture systems over their life spans; and by signers who have learned a conventional sign language from other signers-and finds that properties of the predicate differ across these time spans. Silent gesturers use location to establish co-reference in the way established sign languages do, but they show little evidence of the segmentation sign languages display in motion forms for manner and path, and little evidence of the finger complexity sign languages display in handshapes in predicates representing events. Homesigners, in contrast, not only use location to establish co-reference but also display segmentation in their motion forms for manner and path and finger complexity in their object handshapes, although they have not yet decreased finger complexity to the levels found in sign languages in their handling handshapes. The manual modality thus allows us to watch language as it grows, offering insight into factors that may have shaped and may continue to shape human language. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. New Insights on Insect's Silent Flight. Part I: Vortex Dynamics and Wing Morphing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Liu, Geng; Dong, Haibo; Geng, Biao; Zheng, Xudong; Xue, Qian

    2016-11-01

    Insects are capable of conducting silent flights. This is attributed to its specially designed wing material properties for the control of vibration and surface morphing during the flapping flight. In current work, we focus on the roles of dynamic wing morphing on the unsteady vortex dynamics of a cicada in steady flight. A 3D image-based surface reconstruction method is used to obtain kinematical and morphological data of cicada wings from high-quality high-speed videos. The observed morphing wing kinematics is highly complex and a singular value decomposition method is used to decompose the wing motion to several dominant modes with distinct motion features. A high-fidelity immersed-boundary-based flow solver is then used to study the vortex dynamics in details. The results show that vortical structures closely relate to the morphing mode, which plays key role in the development and attachment of leading-edge vortex (LEV), thus helps the silent flapping of the cicada wings. This work is supported by AFOSR FA9550-12-1-0071 and NSF CBET-1313217.

  1. Microbial communication leading to the activation of silent fungal secondary metabolite gene clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina eNetzker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms form diverse multispecies communities in various ecosystems. The high abundance of fungal and bacterial species in these consortia results in specific communication between the microorganisms. A key role in this communication is played by secondary metabolites (SMs, which are also called natural products. Recently, it was shown that interspecies ‘talk’ between microorganisms represents a physiological trigger to activate silent gene clusters leading to the formation of novel SMs by the involved species. This review focuses on mixed microbial cultivation, mainly between bacteria and fungi, with a special emphasis on the induced formation of fungal SMs in co-cultures. In addition, the role of chromatin remodeling in the induction is examined, and methodical perspectives for the analysis of natural products are presented. As an example for an intermicrobial interaction elucidated at the molecular level, we discuss the specific interaction between the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus with the soil bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus, which provides an excellent model system to enlighten molecular concepts behind regulatory mechanisms and will pave the way to a novel avenue of drug discovery through targeted activation of silent SM gene clusters through co-cultivations of microorganisms.

  2. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography: a tool for monitoring silent seizures in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Eilon; Khvatskin, Sonia; Golan, Agneta; Karplus, Michael

    2006-03-01

    The clinical use of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography in the diagnosis of seizures in high-risk newborn infants with suspected central nervous system insult is evaluated with emphasis on silent seizures. Recordings from 93 infants with suspected central nervous system insults over a period of 7 years were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of electrical seizures and for their correlation with clinical events. Thirty infants (32%) had overt clinical seizures; 29 (97%) of these manifested clear seizure patterns in their tracings, and the remaining one infant had a suspected tracing. Eleven infants (12%) had subtle clinical seizures; of these 7 (59%) had clear electrical seizures, 3 (31%) had suspected tracing, and one had a normal tracing. Fifty-two infants (56%) had no clinical events indicative of seizures; of these 8 (15%) had clear electrical seizures, 17 (33%) had suspected tracings, and 27 (52%) had normal tracings. Electroencephalographic seizures are common in sick newborn infants. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalography can provide important information concerning their neurologic status and help to confirm or refute the presence of seizures in clinically suspected cases and detect infants with silent seizures.

  3. Type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Insabato

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Silent Corticotroph Adenoma (SCA is a pituitary adenoma variant characterized by the immunoreactivity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and related peptides, without the clinical signs of Cushing's disease. SCA has been postulated to either secrete structurally abnormal ACTH that is inactive but detectable by immunohistochemistry or radioimmunoassay, or to secrete ACTH intermittently or at low levels continuously. Excess of ACTH has been associated to type II muscle atrophy. We describe a case of type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog. The dog showed moderate to severe proximal muscle wasting and weakness with normal levels of muscle-associated enzymes. In the limb muscle biopsies, type II fibers were uniformly smaller than type I fibers. In temporalis muscles, there were few atrophic fibers, and several irregular areas of loss of enzymatic activity observed in NADH, SDH and COX stains. The tumour showed a trabecular growth pattern and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for ACTH. The muscle atrophy was considered to be related to an excess of inactive ACTH. Studying spontaneous occurring rare diseases in animals could help to understand the mechanism of similar diseases in human has well.

  4. Degradation of Benzene by Using a Silent-Packed Bed Hybrid Discharge Plasma Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2012-02-01

    In this work, a novel gas phase silent-packed bed hybrid discharge plasma reactor has been proposed, and its ability to control a simulative gas stream containing 240 ppm benzene is experimentally investigated. In order to optimize the geometry of the reactor, the benzene conversion rate and energy yield (EY) were compared for various inner electrode diameters and quartz tube shapes and sizes. In addition, benzene removal efficiency in different discharge regions was qualitatively analyzed and the gas parameter (space velocity) was systematically studied. It has been found that silent-packed bed hybrid discharge plasma reactor can effectively decompose benzene. Benzene removal proved to achieve an optimum value of 60% with a characteristic energy density of 255 J/L in this paper with a 6 mm bolt high-voltage electrode and a 13 mm quartz tube. The optimal space velocity was 188.1 h-1, which resulted in moderate energy yield and removal efficiency. Reaction by-products such as hydroquinone, heptanoic acid, 4-nitrocatechol, phenol and 4-phenoxy-phenol were identified by mean of GC-MS. In addition, based on these organic by-products, a benzene destruction pathway was proposed.

  5. Integration of noise control into the product design process : a case study : the Silent Aircraft Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faszer, A. [Noise Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    The Silent Aircraft Initiative (SAI) is a study being conducted by the Cambridge-MIT Institute to discover ways to significantly reduce aircraft noise. Part of the study focuses on developing aircraft and engine designs that meet the SAI objectives. This presentation included several illustrations of the favoured configuration of a blended wing design, with 4 engines located on the upper surface of a shallow wing which shields engine noise. This presentation described various engine parts such as the low specific thrust turbofan, the variable area nozzle and the acoustic treatment in the intake and exhaust turbomachinery that minimizes noise. The requirements for market viability of the aircraft were discussed as well as the technical challenges in terms of its propulsion systems; structural analysis; mechanical design; low speed aerodynamic performance; cabin layout; and maintenance considerations. It was concluded that the SAI has achieved a credible conceptual aircraft design given the high risk of the technologies used. The project has met objectives of a functionally silent and fuel efficient aircraft. The new conceptual aircraft has potential for fuel burn of 149 pax-miles per imperial gallon and noise of 63 dBA near the perimeter of airports. 1 tab., 48 figs.

  6. Clinical aspects of silent cerebral infarction; MRI findings and its distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Jiro (Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kudo, Yutaka

    1991-06-01

    High-field MR scans have often showed patchy incidental findings especially in the elderly. We examined 91 patients, without episodes of cerebrovascular disorders previously, who had silent cerebral lesions noted by the 1.5 tesla superconductive system T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging. They were divided into three subtypes by the localization of foci. The 23 subjects (25%) showed confined lesions to thalamus and/or internal capsule and/or basal ganglia (the basal ganglia type). The 39 subjects (43%) had lesions predominantly in cerebral cortex and/or subcortical white matter and/or cerebellum (the diffuse subcortical type). Finally, the 29 subjects (32%) had both features of abovementioned two groups (the mixed type). These subtypes were correlated with age, sex and some of the other risk factors, such as systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and uric acid, for stroke. From the age extent and the correlation of subtypes to risk factors, the basal ganglia type was suspected to be based on the different origin from other two types. The authors proposed that the arteriosclerotic factor might play an important role in the incidence of the diffuse subcortical type and the mixed type silent cerebral infarctions and that the hemodynamic factor might play an important role in the incidence of the basal ganglia type. (J.P.N.).

  7. Evaluation of the Cortical Silent Period of the Laryngeal Motor Cortex in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mo; Summers, Rebekah L. S.; Goding, George S.; Samargia, Sharyl; Ludlow, Christy L.; Prudente, Cecília N.; Kimberley, Teresa J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This work aimed to evaluate the cortical silent period (cSP) of the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) using the bilateral thyroarytenoid (TA) muscles with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Methods: In 11 healthy participants, fine-wire electromyography (EMG) was used to record bilateral TA muscle responses to single pulse TMS delivered to the LMC in both hemispheres. Peripheral responses to stimulation over the mastoid, where the vagus nerve exits the skull, were collected to verify the central origin of the cortical stimulation responses by comparing the latencies. Results: The cSP duration ranged from 41.7 to 66.4 ms. The peripherally evoked motor-evoked potential (MEP) peak occurred 5–9 ms earlier than the cortical responses (for both sides of TAs: p < 0.0001) with no silent period. The right TA MEP latencies were earlier than the left TA responses for both peripheral and cortical measures (p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusion: These findings demonstrate the feasibility of measuring cSP of LMC based on intrinsic laryngeal muscles responses during vocalization in healthy volunteers. Significance: The technique could be used to study the pathophysiology of neurological disorders that affect TA muscles, such as spasmodic dysphonia. Further, the methodology has application to other muscles of the head and neck not accessible using surface electrodes. PMID:28326007

  8. Non-silent story on synonymous sites in voltage-gated ion channel genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Ko, Eun A; Gu, Wanjun; Lim, Inja; Bang, Hyoweon; Ko, Jae-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Synonymous mutations are usually referred to as "silent", but increasing evidence shows that they are not neutral in a wide range of organisms. We looked into the relationship between synonymous codon usage bias and residue importance of voltage-gated ion channel proteins in mice, rats, and humans. We tested whether translationally optimal codons are associated with transmembrane or channel-forming regions, i.e., the sites that are particularly likely to be involved in the closing and opening of an ion channel. Our hypothesis is that translationally optimal codons are preferred at the sites within transmembrane domains or channel-forming regions in voltage-gated ion channel genes to avoid mistranslation-induced protein misfolding or loss-of-function. Using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, which applies to categorical data, we found that translationally optimal codons are more likely to be used at transmembrane residues and the residues involved in channel-forming. We also found that the conservation level at synonymous sites in the transmembrane region is significantly higher than that in the non-transmembrane region. This study provides evidence that synonymous sites in voltage-gated ion channel genes are not neutral. Silent mutations at channel-related sites may lead to dysfunction of the ion channel.

  9. Peri-procedural silent cerebral infarcts after left atrial appendage occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, M; Möhlenbruch, M; Horstmann, S; Pfaff, J; Geis, N A; Pleger, S; Schüler, S; Rizos, T; Bendszus, M; Veltkamp, R

    2017-01-01

    To determine the rate of peri-interventional silent brain infarcts after left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO). In this prospective, uncontrolled single-center pilot study, consecutive patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing LAAO between July 2013 and January 2016 were included. The Amplatzer Cardiac Plug, WATCHMAN or Amulet device was used. A neurological examination and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed within 48 h before and after the procedure. MRI was evaluated for new diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensities, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and white-matter lesions (WMLs). Left atrial appendage occlusion was performed in 21 patients (mean age, 73.2 ± 9.5 years). Main reasons for LAAO were previous intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 11) and major systemic bleeding (n = 6). No clinically overt stroke occurred peri-interventionally. After the intervention, one patient had a small cerebellar hyperintensity on DWI (4.8%; 95% confidence interval, 0.0-14.3) that was not present on the MRI 1 day before the procedure. Among 11 patients with available MRI just before LAAO, there were no significant changes in the number of CMBs and the severity of WMLs after LAAO. This study of peri-interventional MRI in LAAO suggests a low rate of silent peri-procedural infarcts in this elderly population. Confirmation in larger studies is needed. © 2016 EAN.

  10. Non-silent story on synonymous sites in voltage-gated ion channel genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhou

    Full Text Available Synonymous mutations are usually referred to as "silent", but increasing evidence shows that they are not neutral in a wide range of organisms. We looked into the relationship between synonymous codon usage bias and residue importance of voltage-gated ion channel proteins in mice, rats, and humans. We tested whether translationally optimal codons are associated with transmembrane or channel-forming regions, i.e., the sites that are particularly likely to be involved in the closing and opening of an ion channel. Our hypothesis is that translationally optimal codons are preferred at the sites within transmembrane domains or channel-forming regions in voltage-gated ion channel genes to avoid mistranslation-induced protein misfolding or loss-of-function. Using the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, which applies to categorical data, we found that translationally optimal codons are more likely to be used at transmembrane residues and the residues involved in channel-forming. We also found that the conservation level at synonymous sites in the transmembrane region is significantly higher than that in the non-transmembrane region. This study provides evidence that synonymous sites in voltage-gated ion channel genes are not neutral. Silent mutations at channel-related sites may lead to dysfunction of the ion channel.

  11. Silent Polymorphisms: Can the tRNA Population Explain Changes in Protein Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Fernández-Calero

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Silent mutations are being intensively studied. We previously showed that the estrogen receptor alpha Ala87’s synonymous polymorphism affects its functional properties. Whereas a link has been clearly established between the effect of silent mutations, tRNA abundance and protein folding in prokaryotes, this connection remains controversial in eukaryotic systems. Although a synonymous polymorphism can affect mRNA structure or the interaction with specific ligands, it seems that the relative frequencies of isoacceptor tRNAs could play a key role in the protein-folding process, possibly through modulation of translation kinetics. Conformational changes could be subtle but enough to cause alterations in solubility, proteolysis profiles, functional parameters or intracellular targeting. Interestingly, recent advances describe dramatic changes in the tRNA population associated with proliferation, differentiation or response to chemical, physical or biological stress. In addition, several reports reveal changes in tRNAs’ posttranscriptional modifications in different physiological or pathological conditions. In consequence, since changes in the cell state imply quantitative and/or qualitative changes in the tRNA pool, they could increase the likelihood of protein conformational variants, related to a particular codon usage during translation, with consequences of diverse significance. These observations emphasize the importance of genetic code flexibility in the co-translational protein-folding process.

  12. Comparative kinetic analysis of silent and ultrasound-assisted catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhina, Ekaterina V; Repo, Eveliina; Virkutyte, Jurate

    2010-03-01

    The kinetic study of silent and ultrasound-assisted catalytic wet peroxide oxidation of phenol in water was performed to qualitatively assess the effect of ultrasound on the process kinetics. Various kinetic parameters such as the apparent kinetic rate constants, the surface utilization coefficient and activation energy of phenol oxidation over RuI(3) catalyst were investigated. Comparative analysis revealed that the use of ultrasound irradiation reduced the energy barrier of the reaction but had no impact on the reaction pathway. The activation energy for the oxidation of phenol over RuI(3) catalyst in the presence of ultrasound was found to be 13kJmol(-1), which was four times smaller in comparison to the silent oxidation process (57kJmol(-1)). Finally, 'figures-of-merit' was utilized to assess different experimental strategies such as sonolysis alone, H(2)O(2)-enhanced sonolysis and sono-catalytic oxidation of phenol in order to estimate the electric energy consumption based on the kinetic rate constants of the oxidation process.

  13. Silent Encoding of Chemical Post-Translational Modifications in Phage-Displayed Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjhung, Katrina F; Kitov, Pavel I; Ng, Simon; Kitova, Elena N; Deng, Lu; Klassen, John S; Derda, Ratmir

    2016-01-13

    In vitro selection of chemically modified peptide libraries presented on phage, while a powerful technology, is limited to one chemical post-translational modification (cPTM) per library. We use unique combinations of redundant codons to encode cPTMs with "silent barcodes" to trace multiple modifications within a mixed modified library. As a proof of concept, we produced phage-displayed peptide libraries Ser-[X]4-Gly-Gly-Gly, with Gly and Ser encoded using unique combinations of codons (TCA-[X]4-GGAGGAGGA, AGT-[X]4-GGTGGTGGT, etc., where [X]4 denotes a random NNK library). After separate chemical modification and pooling, mixed-modified libraries can be panned and deep-sequenced to identify the enriched peptide sequence and the accompanying cPTM simultaneously. We panned libraries bearing combinations of modifications (sulfonamide, biotin, mannose) against matched targets (carbonic anhydrase, streptavidin, concanavalin A) to identify desired ligands. Synthesis and validation of sequences identified by deep sequencing revealed that specific cPTMs are significantly enriched in panning against the specific targets. Panning on carbonic anhydrase yielded a potent ligand, sulfonamide-WIVP, with Kd = 6.7 ± 2.1 nM, a 20-fold improvement compared with the control ligand sulfonamide-GGGG. Silent encoding of multiple cPTMs can be readily incorporated into other in vitro display technologies such as bacteriophage T7 or mRNA display.

  14. Monstruos de la Universal: la etapa silente y los mitos del sonoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fuentefría-Rodríguez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available En coincidencia con el centenario en 2012 de los legendarios Estudios Universal, este trabajo propone un exhaustivo análisis crítico sobre la construcción de sus principales símbolos terroríficos, la mayoría inspirados en la literatura, que entre los años 1923 y 1941 conformaron la estructura mitogénica del denominado “monstruo clásico”. Tanto en la etapa silente, como con la irrupción del sonoro, las películas de terror de la Universal marcaron un paso imprescindible en la evolución de este género canónico, y a ellas se debe buena parte del ingente desarrollo posterior del mismo.In coincidence with 2012 legendary Universal Studio´s centenary, this paper proposes an exhaustive critical analysis on the construction of its principal terrifying symbols, the majority inspired by literature, which between 1923 and 1941 shaped the myth structure of the so-called "classic monster". In both stages, silent and sonorous movies, the terror of Universal Studios marked an indispensable step in the evolution of this canonical genre, and to them it is owed a good deal of its enormous later development.

  15. Measuring the prevalence of regional mutation rates: an analysis of silent substitutions in mammals, fungi, and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuch Brian B

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The patterns of mutation vary both within and across genomes. It has been shown for a few mammals that mutation rates vary within the genome, while for unknown reasons, the sensu stricto yeasts have uniform rates instead. The generality of these observations has been unknown. Here we examine silent site substitutions in a more expansive set (20 mammals, 27 fungi, 4 insects to determine why some genomes demonstrate this mosaic distribution and why others are uniform. Results We applied several intragene and intergene correlation tests to measure regional substitution patterns. Assuming that silent sites are a reasonable approximation to neutrally mutating sequence, our results show that all multicellular eukaryotes exhibit mutational heterogeneity. In striking contrast, all fungi are mutationally uniform – with the exception of three Candida species: C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis. We speculate that aspects of replication timing may be responsible for distinguishing these species. Our analysis also reveals classes of genes whose silent sites behave anomalously with respect to the mutational background in many species, indicating prevalent selective pressures. Genes associated with nucleotide binding or gene regulation have consistently low silent substitution rates in every mammalian species, as well as multiple fungi. On the other hand, receptor genes repeatedly exhibit high silent substitution rates, suggesting they have been influenced by diversifying selection. Conclusion Our findings provide a framework for understanding the regional mutational properties of eukaryotes, revealing a sharp difference between fungi and multicellular species. They also elucidate common selective pressures acting on eukaryotic silent sites, with frequent evidence for both purifying and diversifying selection.

  16. Importance of thrombosis and thrombolysis in silent ischaemia: comparison of patients with acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, E.; Altman, R.; Scazziota, A.; Rouvier, J.; Mautner, B.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether plaque rupture and thrombosis have a role in silent ischaemia as well as in unstable angina. DESIGN--Prospective analysis of the results of haemostatic diagnostic tests at the moment of developing silent ischaemia at rest. SETTING--Coronary care unit. PATIENTS--22 patients with acute myocardial infarction, 12 patients with symptomatic angina (unstable angina), and 10 normal volunteers (control group). INTERVENTIONS--Continuous cardiac monitoring detected 15 asymptomatic episodes (silent ischaemia) in 6 patients with unstable angina. Blood samples were obtained at admission and when an asymptomatic alteration was detected and 10 minutes later. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Comparisons of concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator, urokinase type plasminogen activator, tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, cross-linked fibrin degradation products, von Willebrand factor, and thrombin-antithrombin III complexes in patients and controls at admission; same comparisons in patients with silent ischaemia at the start of an episode and 10 minutes later. RESULTS--Tissue plasminogen activator concentrations were raised at admission in patients with acute myocardial infarction (mean (SD) 14.2 (6) ng/ml) and in patients with unstable angina (10.1 (2.5) ng/ml) in comparison with controls (5.1 (2.7) ng/ml, p < 0.01 and < 0.05 respectively). There was no differences between the two groups of patients, however. Similar results were observed at the start of a silent ischaemic episode (9.8 (1.9) ng/ml) and 10 minutes later (10.5 (2.9) ng/ml) compared with controls (p < 0.05). Tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations were raised in patients with acute myocardial infarction (45.1 (15) ng/ml) compared with volunteers (20.6 (16) ng/ml, p < 0.01). In patients with silent ischaemia tissue plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations were slightly but not significantly increased. Concentrations of cross-linked fibrin degradation products

  17. Cardiac Arrest due to Recurrent Ventricular Fibrillation Triggered by Unifocal Ventricular Premature Complexes in a Silent Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyun Lee

    2014-11-01

    Suspecting idiopathic VF, emergency radiofrequency catheter ablation was planned for the VPCs. However, when coronary angiography was performed to exclude silent ischemia, the results showed a total occlusion of the right coronary artery posterolateral branch, which is thought to supply the left ventricular inferior and septal wall. After successful reperfusion, VF episodes and the triggering VPCs disappeared. We are documenting this case to emphasize the potential for silent myocardial infarction to cause out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest even in a patient without any symptom or sign of acute coronary syndrome.

  18. Reading strategies in mild to moderate strabismic amblyopia: an eye movement investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanonidou, Evgenia; Proudlock, Frank A; Gottlob, Irene

    2010-07-01

    PURPOSE. To investigate oculomotor strategies in strabismic amblyopia and evaluate abnormalities during monocular and binocular reading. METHODS. Eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted infrared video eye-tracker (250 Hz, <0.01 degrees resolution) in 20 strabismic amblyopes (mean age, 44.9 +/- 10.7 years) and 20 normal control subjects (mean age, 42.8 +/- 10.9 years) while they silently read paragraphs of text. Monocular reading comparisons were made between the amblyopic eye and the nondominant eye of control subjects and the nonamblyopic eye and the dominant eye of the control subjects. Binocular reading between the amblyopic and control subjects was also compared. RESULTS. Mean reading speed, number of progressive and regressive saccades per line, saccadic amplitude (of progressive saccades), and fixation duration were estimated. Inter- and intrasubject statistical comparisons were made. Reading speed was significantly slower in amblyopes than in control subjects during monocular reading with amblyopic (13.094 characters/s vs. 22.188 characters/s; P < 0.0001) and nonamblyopic eyes (16.241 characters/s vs. 22.349 characters/s, P < 0.0001), and binocularly (15.698 characters/s vs. 23.425 characters/s, P < 0.0001). In amblyopes, reading was significantly slower with the amblyopic eye than with the nonamblyopic eye in binocular viewing (P < 0.05). These differences were associated with significantly more regressive saccades and longer fixation durations, but not with changes in saccadic amplitudes. CONCLUSIONS. In strabismic amblyopia, reading is impaired, not only during monocular viewing with the amblyopic eye, but also with the nonamblyopic eye and binocularly, even though normal visual acuity pertains to the latter two conditions. The impaired reading performance is associated with differences in both the saccadic and fixational patterns, most likely as adaptation strategies to abnormal sensory experiences such as crowding and suppression.

  19. Recovering Innocence: Growing Up Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Patricia Sylvester

    1991-01-01

    Offers a plan for changing the perception among teenagers that reading for pleasure is an activity of their childhood past. Suggests an elective Reading Workshop that allows students to share favorite books and authors, to read aloud and listen to others read aloud, and to discuss their reading processes and decisions. (PRA)

  20. Cerebral Laterality and Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackworth, Jane F.

    Recent research has confirmed that hemispheric patterns of dominance are related to reading skills. Reading is more complex than speech because it includes a visuo-spatial element. In the great majority of people, the left hemisphere deals with speech and sequencing skills. Visual matching of printed words requires the spatial skills of the right…

  1. Anything but Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krashen, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Both the popular media and professional literature are filled with suggestions on how to improve reading, but the one approach that always works is rarely mentioned: provide readers with a supply of interesting and comprehensible books. Instead, people are given advice that is dead wrong as a means of improving reading (e.g., roller skating and…

  2. LINGUISTICS AND JAPANESE READING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CROWLEY, DALE P.

    THE PRINCIPLES OF STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS, THE DEVELOPMENT OF JAPANESE ORTHOGRAPHY, AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING ARE USED AS A BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A LINGUISTICALLY ORIENTED COURSE IN JAPANESE READING. THE FIRST PART OF THE TEXT IS DEVOTED TO THE RELATION BETWEEN READING AND LINGUISTICS. THE SECOND PART GIVES BACKGROUND MATERIAL ON JAPANESE…

  3. Little Herder Reading Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The Little Herder Reading Series is comprised of 4 volumes based on the life of a Navajo Indian girl. The books are written in English blank verse and describe many facets of Indian life. The volumes contain illustrations by Hoke Denetsosie which give a pictorial representation of the printed verse. The reading level is for the middle and upper…

  4. Books for Summer Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi Delta Kappan, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests several novels for educators' summer reading enjoyment, including classics by Robert Pirsig, Robertson Davies, John Steinbeck, Albert Camus, and Charles Dickens. Educators might also read Alex Kotlowitz's "There Are No Children Here" (Doubleday, 1991) and Sharon Quint's "Schooling Homeless Children" (Teachers College Press, 1994) to gain…

  5. Teaching Reading in Homeschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yambo, Idalia

    This paper discusses the home-schooling trend and identifies reading instructional methods used by home-schooling parents. Interviews were conducted with 5 home-schooling families of children ranging in age from 1 to 14 years. Parents reported that they began reading instruction with their child at about age 5 and agreed that instruction in…

  6. Lippincott Basic Reading Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterey Peninsula Unified School District, Monterey, CA.

    This program, included in "Effective Reading Programs...," serves 459 students in grades 1-3 at 15 elementary schools. The program employs a diagnostic-prescriptive approach to instruction in a nongraded setting through the use of the Lippincott Basic Reading program. When a child enters the program, he is introduced to a decoding…

  7. Reading Where It Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teachers are reminded that their content subject areas require acquainting children with special words or symbols related to that subject area (e.g. mathematics or social studies). Because children can read well does not mean they would be understanding of any special reading skill required in a content subject area; that the…

  8. Reading and Perestroika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, Sergei N.

    1992-01-01

    Presents a short historical and sociological analysis of reading in the Soviet Union from the beginning of the twentieth century to perestroika. Discusses some sociocultural problems associated with reading, including the prevailing social, economic and political crises in all spheres of life, particularly the cultural. (RS)

  9. Reading Patterns Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Modern life is changing the way people read April 23 was the 16th World Book and Copyright Day,also known as the World Book Day.Reading-related problems have once again attracted people’s attention.Today,living a life with an increasingly rapid pace,most people are

  10. Toddler Reading Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toddler Reading Time KidsHealth > For Parents > Toddler Reading Time A A A What's in this article? Reasons ... Kids make big leaps in vocabulary during this time, and learn about letters, shapes, colors, weather, animals, ...

  11. Improving Attitudes Toward Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Stephanie J.; Trent, Jane A.

    This report describes a program for improving students' attitudes toward reading. The targeted population consisted of second and third grade students in a growing middle class community. The problem of the lack of interest in reading and the poor quality of classroom work were evident in parent and student surveys, and teacher observations.…

  12. Online Reading Test Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷鸣

    2011-01-01

    Language test has been used as a scientific assessment tool in providing valuable information for teaching and learning. In fact,lots of online reading tests are not designed with validity. This paper analyzes those online reading tests from the aspects o

  13. Assistive Technologies for Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Tiece M.

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-first century teachers working with diverse readers are often faced with the question of how to integrate technology in reading instruction that meets the needs of the techno-generation. Are today's teachers equipped with the knowledge of how to effectively use Assistive Technologies (AT) for reading? This position paper discusses AT for…

  14. Reading: Seven to Eleven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, John E.

    This paper focuses on ways of improving reading by developing the intermediate skills and the higher order comprehension skills in reading. The paper consists of four sections: "Intermediate Skills and Context Cues" discusses the use of the cloze procedure for improving comprehension skills and for analyzing words in terms of class membership,…

  15. MORE ABOUT READING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RASMUSSEN, MARGARET

    FOUR ARTICLES ON INDIVIDUALIZED READING AND SELF-SELECTION REPRINTED FROM "CHILDHOOD EDUCATION" AND "READING," THE JOURNAL AND BULLETIN OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR CHILDHOOD EDUCATION INTERNATIONAL (ACEI), ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST ARTICLE IS A DISCUSSION OF SELF-SELECTION, OF THE TEACHER'S ROLE IN PROVIDING OPPORTUNITIES FOR…

  16. Reading Rate and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodai, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    Reading fluency is one of the most important signs of language proficiency both for native and foreign language speakers (Grabe, 2010; Macalister, 2010; Winston, 2010; Hasbrouck, 2008; Rasinski, 2004; Oakley, 2003; Waldman, 1985; Cited in: Sayenko, 2010, Introduction Para 1). This paper is in the area of reading fluency and tries to investigate…

  17. Extending Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    The April 2015 issue of "Reading in a Foreign Language" featured a discussion forum on extensive reading (ER). Most of the authors, recognized authorities on ER, discussed their views of the principles of ER, particularly in establishing and conducting ER programs. The purpose of this discussion is to review developments in the practice…

  18. Read Like a Scientist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawyer, Kirsten K. N.; Johnson, Heather J.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists read, and so should students. Unfortunately, many high school teachers overlook science texts as a way to engage students in the work of scientists. This article addresses how to help students develop literacy skills by strategically reading a variety of science texts. Unfortunately, most science teachers aren't trained to teach…

  19. Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease : A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to

  20. Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease : A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to

  1. EXTENSIVE READING IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    IntroductionMost teachers and students in China are quite familiar with the term‘extensive reading’,but how itshould be taught still remains a problem.This paper covers the aims of extensive reading and the methodsand materials used in the course.Then some practical suggestions will be given to make the course moreinteresting and efficient.According to Dzao(1990).extensive reading is‘the course where other reading skills-speed,predictionand making inference-can be developed,’and‘where there is practice in geting the gist,in summarisingmain ideas,in understanding the author’s purpose and theme...’.So the aims of this course are todevelop general reading skills,the ability,to read quickly and to grasp the main ideas of the text.Toachieve these,students must enlarge their vocabulary,so this is also regarded as one of the aims.

  2. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  3. Science Fiction: Serious Reading, Critical Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigo, Diane; Moore, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Science fiction deserves a greater respect, serious and critical reading and a better place in high school literature classes. Some of the science fiction books by Isaac Asimov, Alfred Bester, Ray Bradbury and Octavia L. Butler and various activities for incorporating science fiction into the English language arts instruction classroom are…

  4. Grasp Reading Skills to Improve Reading Ability?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaoJingt

    2004-01-01

    Reading is a kind of communication, and for most people in most situations it is more important than speaking. For college students today, it is more important for them to obtain the newest information on their own fields through English,rather than showing their English certificates. However, the most common problem students have nowadays, including

  5. Integrating Reading and Writing through Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeongyeon

    2016-01-01

    This study explores whether an extensive reading (ER) approach can enhance L2 learners' writing performance in an English for Academic Purposes context. Two classes were compared in terms of writing improvement after one semester: a 'traditional' writing class primarily focused on writing practice and grammar instruction, and an ER class in which…

  6. Forecasting Reading Anxiety for Promoting English-Language Reading Performance Based on Reading Annotation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; Wang, Jung-Ying; Chen, Yong-Ting; Wu, Jhih-Hao

    2016-01-01

    To reduce effectively the reading anxiety of learners while reading English articles, a C4.5 decision tree, a widely used data mining technique, was used to develop a personalized reading anxiety prediction model (PRAPM) based on individual learners' reading annotation behavior in a collaborative digital reading annotation system (CDRAS). In…

  7. Role of Reading Engagement in Mediating Effects of Reading Comprehension Instruction on Reading Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfield, Allan; Guthrie, John T.; Perencevich, Kathleen C.; Taboada, Ana; Klauda, Susan Lutz; McRae, Angela; Barbosa, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The engagement model of reading development suggests that instruction improves students' reading comprehension to the extent that it increases students' engagement processes in reading. We compared how Concept-Oriented Reading Instruction (CORI) (support for cognitive and motivational processes in reading), strategy instruction (support for…

  8. The Relationships between Korean University Students' Reading Attitude, Reading Strategy Use, and Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyangil

    2016-01-01

    This present study investigated the relationships among L2 readers' reading attitude, reading strategy use, and reading proficiency in order to identify patterns caused by individuals' differences. For this study, 153 Korean university students replied to a reading attitude and reading strategy questionnaire. An ANOVA and frequency analysis were…

  9. Student-Centered Reading Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, James; Wagner, Betty Jane

    1991-01-01

    Offers student-centered reading activities designed to bring students to reading maturity and involvement in literature. Discusses partner reading, dramatizing and performing texts, transforming texts, journal writing, discussion, and writing. (PRA)

  10. Discourse Awareness and Teaching Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FEI Jun

    2014-01-01

    Reading is an interactive process and discourse knowldege facilitates interpretation of the text. This paper discusses the thoery of reading from a discouse apporach, explores the interactive approach of teaching reading and discusses pedagogical impi-cations with contexts concerned.

  11. Cardiovascular risk evaluation and prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in subjects with asymptomatic carotid artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccone M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marco Matteo Ciccone1, Artor Niccoli-Asabella2, Pietro Scicchitano1, Michele Gesualdo1, Antonio Notaristefano2, Domenico Chieppa1, Santa Carbonara1, Gabriella Ricci1, Marco Sassara1, Corinna Altini2, Giovanni Quistelli1, Mario Erminio Lepera1, Stefano Favale1, Giuseppe Rubini21Cardiovascular Diseases Section, Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation (DETO, 2Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine and of Public Medicine, University of Bari, Bari, ItalyIntroduction: Silent ischemia is an asymptomatic form of myocardial ischemia, not associated with angina or anginal equivalent symptoms, which can be demonstrated by changes in ECG, left ventricular function, myocardial perfusion, and metabolism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of silent myocardial ischemia in a group of patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis.Methods: A total of 37 patients with asymptomatic carotid plaques, without chest pain or dyspnea, was investigated. These patients were studied for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and family history of cardiac disease, and underwent technetium-99 m sestamibi myocardial stress-rest scintigraphy and echo-color Doppler examination of carotid arteries.Results: A statistically significant relationship (P = 0.023 was shown between positive responders and negative responders to scintigraphy test when both were tested for degree of stenosis. This relationship is surprising in view of the small number of patients in our sample. Individuals who had a positive scintigraphy test had a mean stenosis degree of 35% ± 7% compared with a mean of 44% ± 13% for those with a negative test. Specificity of our detection was 81%, with positive and negative predictive values of 60% and 63%, respectively.Conclusion: The present study confirms that carotid atherosclerosis is associated with coronary atherosclerosis and highlights the importance of screening for ischemic heart disease in

  12. Silent myocardial infarction in women with type II diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmir Omerovic

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Elmir Omerovic, Gerhard Brohall, Markus Müller, Truls Råmunddal, Göran Matejka, Finn Waagstein, Björn FagerbergThe Wallenburg Laboratory at Sahlgrenska Academy, Department of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg University, 413 45, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Cardiology and Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, SwedenIntroduction: The aim of this study was to investigate whether asymptomatic women with diabetes mellitus (DM without previous history of ischemic heart disease (IHD and normal electrocardiogram (ECG have suffered silent myocardial infarction (MI.Methods: The study population consisted of 64-years old women with DM and albuminuria (n = 15 and aged- and body mass index-matched controls (n = 16. The patients were selected after screening of 240 women with previously known or unknown DM. The individuals with previous history of IHD and ECG suggesting the presence of IHD were excluded. All subjects were investigated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Results: MRI investigation has revealed the presence of subendocardial MI in the two DM women (13%. No MI was detected in the control group. MR coronary angiography detected the presence of significant stenosis in the proximal segment of left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery in one DM woman. This patient developed unstable angina 1 week after the MRI investigation. The conventional angiography has confirmed the presence of significant stenosis in LAD demanding invasive revascularization by percutaneous coronary angioplasty. No difference was found in indices of left ventricular (LV systolic function while diastolic function was disturbed in the DM group. There was a tendency for increased LV mass in the DM group. No difference was found in the LV volumes.Conclusion: Clinically significant proportion of the women with DM and albuminuria without previous history of IHD have had silent MI. MRI screening of these high risk

  13. Silent Corticotroph Adenomas After Stereotactic Radiosurgery: A Case–Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Ellis, Scott; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Starke, Robert M. [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Schlesinger, David [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Lee Vance, Mary [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Lopes, M. Beatriz [Division of Neuropathology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Sheehan, Jason, E-mail: jsheehan@virginia.edu [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the safety and effectiveness of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with a silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA) compared with patients with other subtypes of non–adrenocorticotropic hormone staining nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA). Methods and Materials: The clinical features and outcomes of 104 NFA patients treated with SRS in our center between September 1994 and August 2012 were evaluated. Among them, 34 consecutive patients with a confirmatory SCA were identified. A control group of 70 patients with other subtypes of NFA were selected for review based on comparable baseline features, including sex, age at the time of SRS, tumor size, margin radiation dose to the tumor, and duration of follow-up. Results: The median follow-up after SRS was 56 months (range, 6-200 months). No patients with an SCA developed Cushing disease during the follow-up. Tumor control was achieved in 21 of 34 patients (62%) in the SCA group, compared with 65 of 70 patients (93%) in the NFA group. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 58 months in the SCA group. The actuarial PFS was 73%, 46%, and 31% in the SCA group and was 94%, 87%, and 87% in the NFA group at 3, 5, and 8 years, respectively. Silent corticotroph adenomas treated with a dose of ≥17 Gy exhibited improved PFS. New-onset loss of pituitary function developed in 10 patients (29%) in the SCA group, whereas it occurred in 18 patients (26%) in the NFA group. Eight patients (24%) in the SCA group experienced worsening of a visual field deficit or visual acuity attributed to the tumor progression, as did 6 patients (9%) in the NFA group. Conclusion: Silent corticotroph adenomas exhibited a more aggressive course with a higher progression rate than other subtypes of NFAs. Stereotactic radiosurgery is an important adjuvant treatment for control of tumor growth. Increased radiation dose may lead to improved tumor control in SCA patients.

  14. Dynamic wind turbine models in power system simulation tool DIgSILENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Soerensen, Poul.; Cutululis, N.; Jauch, C.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2007-08-15

    This report presents a collection of models and control strategies developed and implemented in the power system simulation tool PowerFactory DIgSILENT for different wind turbine concepts. It is the second edition of Risoe-R-1400(EN) and it gathers and describes a whole wind turbine model database built-op and developed during several national research projects, carried out at Risoe DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy and Aalborg University, in the period 2001-2007. The overall objective of these projects was to create a wind turbine model database able to support the analysis of the interaction between the mechanical structure of the wind turbine and the electrical grid during different operational modes. The report provides thus a description of the wind turbines modelling, both at a component level and at a system level. The report contains both the description of DIgSILENT built-in models for the electrical components of a grid connected wind turbine (e.g. induction generators, power converters, transformers) and the models developed by the user, in the dynamic simulation language DSL of DIgSILENT, for the non-electrical components of the wind turbine (wind model, aerodynamic model, mechanical model). The initialisation issues on the wind turbine models into the power system simulation are also presented. The main attention in the report is drawn to the modelling at the system level of the following wind turbine concepts: (1) Fixed speed active stall wind turbine concept (2) Variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine concept (3) Variable speed multi-pole permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbine concept These wind turbine concept models can be used and even extended for the study of different aspects, e.g. the assessment of power quality, control strategies, connection of the wind turbine at different types of grid and storage systems. Different control strategies have been developed and implemented for these wind turbine

  15. Metacognition and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cecilia Chang

    2000-01-01

    @@ Introduction Reading is a mysterious process that has attracted attention from psychologists, reading researchers and educators alike for decades. Currently, reading is viewed as a meaningconstructing process where the reader interacts with the text by simultaneously using information from a variety of sources ranging from one's background knowledge of the content and about the world to the knowledge about the language in which the text is written (Mulling, 1994). Moreover, reading comprehension is achieved only after skillful orchestration of all the resources the reader possess when engaged in the act of reading. Among the various kinds of strategies a reader needs during the reading process are the monitoring strategies. In order to fully utilize the strategies, the reader needs to possess good metacognition. Metacognition refers to one's deliberate conscious control of one's cognition actions (Brown, 1980). Since it is crucial for success that we know what we know and what we don't know and, consequently what to do about what we know and don't know, it is not surprising to find the notion of metacognition being stressed in almost every situation of learning. Given the importance of metacognition in successful learning, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role metacognition plays in reading comprehension, and consequently, identify future research directions.

  16. Reading between eye saccades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skilled adult readers, in contrast to beginners, show no or little increase in reading latencies as a function of the number of letters in words up to seven letters. The information extraction strategy underlying such efficiency in word identification is still largely unknown, and methods that allow tracking of the letter information extraction through time between eye saccades are needed to fully address this question. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study examined the use of letter information during reading, by means of the Bubbles technique. Ten participants each read 5,000 five-letter French words sampled in space-time within a 200 ms window. On the temporal dimension, our results show that two moments are especially important during the information extraction process. On the spatial dimension, we found a bias for the upper half of words. We also show for the first time that letter positions four, one, and three are particularly important for the identification of five-letter words. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings are consistent with either a partially parallel reading strategy or an optimal serial reading strategy. We show using computer simulations that this serial reading strategy predicts an absence of a word-length effect for words from four- to seven letters in length. We believe that the Bubbles technique will play an important role in further examining the nature of reading between eye saccades.

  17. Newspaper Reading and English Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍丽蓉

    2014-01-01

    Reading is not only the most effective way to get the knowledge of the language but also the only way to improve the language skills of English learners. However, the vast majority of students' reading ability are far apart from the curriculum stan⁃dards in reality. Reading English newspaper helps to mobilize the enthusiasm of students' reading, and improve their reading abili⁃ty. It forms a bridge between learning and real life. It extends the English reading from the teaching materials and guides students to a lot of extracurricular reading, creating a new reading space for students.

  18. Interruptions disrupt reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Cyrus K; Werner, Nicole E; Barragán, Daniela; Boehm-Davis, Deborah A

    2015-06-01

    Previous research suggests that being interrupted while reading a text does not disrupt the later recognition or recall of information from that text. This research is used as support for Ericsson and Kintsch's (1995) long-term working memory (LT-WM) theory, which posits that disruptions while reading (e.g., interruptions) do not impair subsequent text comprehension. However, to fully comprehend a text, individuals may need to do more than recognize or recall information that has been presented in the text at a later time. Reading comprehension often requires individuals to connect and synthesize information across a text (e.g., successfully identifying complex topics such as themes and tones) and not just make a familiarity-based decision (i.e., recognition). The goal for this study was to determine whether interruptions while reading disrupt reading comprehension when the questions assessing comprehension require participants to connect and synthesize information across the passage. In Experiment 1, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension. In Experiment 2, interruptions disrupted reading comprehension but not recognition of information from the text. In Experiment 3, the addition of a 15-s time-out prior to the interruption successfully removed these negative effects. These data suggest that the time it takes to process the information needed to successfully comprehend text when reading is greater than that required for recognition. Any interference (e.g., an interruption) that occurs during the comprehension process may disrupt reading comprehension. This evidence supports the need for transient activation of information in working memory for successful text comprehension and does not support LT-WM theory. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Late evaluation of silent cerebral ischemia detected by diffusion-weighted MR imaging after filter-protected carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, G; Faraglia, V; Stella, N; Giugni, E; Bozzao, A; Taurino, M

    2008-08-01

    Postoperative diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) often discloses new lesions after carotid artery stent placement (CAS), most of them asymptomatic. Our aim was to investigate the fate of these silent ischemic lesions. We prospectively studied 110 patients undergoing protected transfemoral CAS, 98 of whom underwent DWI before and after the intervention. Patients in whom DWI disclosed silent postoperative lesions also had delayed MR imaging. Preoperative, postoperative, and delayed scans were compared. Of the 92 patients without postoperative symptoms, DWI disclosed 33 new silent ischemic lesions in 14 patients (15.2%), 13 of whom (30 lesions) underwent delayed MR imaging after a mean follow-up of 6.2 months. In 8 of these 13 patients (61%), MR imaging disclosed 12 persistent lesions (12/30, 40%). The reversibility rate depended significantly on the location (cortical versus subcortical) and size (0-5 versus 5-10 mm) of the lesions (P < .05 by chi(2) test). Because many silent ischemic lesions seen on postoperative DWI after CAS reverse within months, the extent of permanent CAS-related cerebral damage may be overestimated.

  20. Altered Modulation of Silent Period in Tongue Motor Cortex of Persistent Developmental Stuttering in Relation to Stuttering Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, Pierpaolo; Del Ben, Giovanni; Bernardini, Simona; Natarelli, Giulia; Bencich, Marco; Monti, Fabrizio; Manganotti, Paolo; Battaglini, Piero Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a "state" condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials. Tongue silent period duration was increased in DS, especially in the left hemisphere (Pstuttering severity. Pre-TMS electromyography data gave overlapping evidence. Findings suggest the existence of a complex intracortical balance in DS tongue primary motor cortex, with a particular interplay between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, also in neural substrates related to silent periods. Findings are discussed with respect to functional and structural impairments in stuttering, and are also proposed as novel neural markers of a stuttering "state" in persistent DS, helping to define more focused treatments (e.g. neuro-modulation).

  1. Altered Modulation of Silent Period in Tongue Motor Cortex of Persistent Developmental Stuttering in Relation to Stuttering Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busan, Pierpaolo; Del Ben, Giovanni; Bernardini, Simona; Natarelli, Giulia; Bencich, Marco; Monti, Fabrizio; Manganotti, Paolo; Battaglini, Piero Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Motor balance in developmental stuttering (DS) was investigated with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), with the aim to define novel neural markers of persistent DS in adulthood. Eleven DS adult males were evaluated with TMS on tongue primary motor cortex, compared to 15 matched fluent speakers, in a “state” condition (i.e. stutterers vs. fluent speakers, no overt stuttering). Motor and silent period thresholds (SPT), recruitment curves, and silent period durations were acquired by recording tongue motor evoked potentials. Tongue silent period duration was increased in DS, especially in the left hemisphere (Pstuttering severity. Pre-TMS electromyography data gave overlapping evidence. Findings suggest the existence of a complex intracortical balance in DS tongue primary motor cortex, with a particular interplay between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, also in neural substrates related to silent periods. Findings are discussed with respect to functional and structural impairments in stuttering, and are also proposed as novel neural markers of a stuttering “state” in persistent DS, helping to define more focused treatments (e.g. neuro-modulation). PMID:27711148

  2. Stimulus-response characteristics of motor evoked potentials and silent periods in proximal and distal upper-extremity muscles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A.A. van; Anker, L.C.; Pasman, J.W.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare stimulus-response characteristics of both motor evoked potentials (MEP) and silent periods (SP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in proximal and distal upper-extremity muscles. METHODS: Stimulus-response curves of MEPs and SPs were obtained from the biceps bra

  3. Sacrificing a Latina/o Presence in the Professoriate: An Analysis of Affirmative Action as Racial Remedy and Silent Covenant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the extent to which affirmative action policies and practices as remedies for racial injustice in higher education reflect a silent covenant that sacrifices the cultivation and presence of Latina/o faculty. Drawing upon the lived experiences of 22 Mexican American faculty and post-doctoral fellows, the author argues that,…

  4. Hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures diminish silent synapses and long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengwen; Lippman, Jocelyn J Bell; Sun, Hongyu; Jensen, Frances E

    2011-12-14

    Neonatal seizures can lead to epilepsy and long-term cognitive deficits into adulthood. Using a rodent model of the most common form of human neonatal seizures, hypoxia-induced seizures (HS), we aimed to determine whether these seizures modify long-term potentiation (LTP) and silent NMDAR-only synapses in hippocampal CA1. At 48-72 h after HS, electrophysiology and immunofluorescent confocal microscopy revealed a significant decrease in the incidence of silent synapses, and an increase in AMPARs at the synapses. Coincident with this decrease in silent synapses, there was an attenuation of LTP elicited by either tetanic stimulation of Schaffer collaterals or a pairing protocol, and persistent attenuation of LTP in slices removed in later adulthood after P10 HS. Furthermore, postseizure treatment in vivo with the AMPAR antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfonyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline (NBQX) protected against the HS-induced depletion of silent synapses and preserved LTP. Thus, this study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which early life seizures could impair synaptic plasticity, suggesting a potential target for therapeutic strategies to prevent long-term cognitive deficits.

  5. Holter monitoring to detect silent atrial fibrillation in high-risk subjects: the Perugia General Practitioner Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatori, Valentina; Becattini, Cecilia; Laureti, Stefano; Baglioni, Gregorio; Germini, Fabrizio; Grilli, Piero; Guercini, Francesco; Filippucci, Esmeralda; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2015-08-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is diagnosed for the first time in about 5 % of patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke. Advanced aged and arterial hypertension are risk factors for AF. We evaluated the prevalence of silent AF in subjects with advanced age and systemic arterial hypertension. Subjects of both gender, aged 65 years or more with systemic arterial hypertension were randomly identified from the patient lists of the participating general practitioners in the Perugia area, in Italy. Study subjects underwent baseline 12-lead ECG and, if this did not show AF, 48-h Holter monitoring was performed. AF was known and confirmed by 12-lead ECG in 4 out of the 308 evaluated subjects (1.3 %). Baseline 12-lead ECG showed no cases of silent AF. Holter monitoring was performed in 300 subjects, mean age 70 ± 4. Twenty-six recordings were not evaluable for the presence of artifacts; therefore, 274 subjects were included in the analysis. Holter monitoring showed AF in 27 out of 274 subjects (10 %; 95 % confidence interval 6.4-13.5 %); AF was longer than 30 s in four of the subjects. In 56 additional subjects, Holter monitoring revealed excessive supraventricular ectopic activity (20 %; 95 % confidence interval 15.3-24.7 %). Holter monitoring was able to detect silent AF in about 10 % of subjects aged 65 or above with systemic arterial hypertension. The risk of stroke associated with screened silent AF should be carefully evaluated.

  6. Stimulus-response characteristics of motor evoked potentials and silent periods in proximal and distal upper-extremity muscles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijk, A.A. van; Anker, L.C.; Pasman, J.W.; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Elswijk, G.A.F. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare stimulus-response characteristics of both motor evoked potentials (MEP) and silent periods (SP) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in proximal and distal upper-extremity muscles. METHODS: Stimulus-response curves of MEPs and SPs were obtained from the biceps bra

  7. "You Have the Right to Remain Silent." Two Case Studies in Forensic Linguistics Involving Spanish Speaking Suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotto, Giorgio

    Two case studies involving possible violations of the rights of Spanish speaking criminal suspects are presented. In cases where suspects do not understand English, the Miranda warnings regarding the right to remain silent must be delivered in their native language and in a way that is understandable to the suspects. In the two cases involving…

  8. Case Report: Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele with a clinically silent lateral bony defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anoop

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Anteromedial temporosphenoidal encephalocele is the least common type of temporal encephalocele. It commonly presents with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea in adults. This article presents the CT cisternography and MRI findings of one such case, which also had an associated clinically silent defect in the greater wing of the sphenoid on the same side.

  9. The Silent Language of Fingers and Hands-The Role of Finger and Hand Motions in Non-verbal Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周樱

    2013-01-01

    This paper engages in the discussion about nonverbal intercultural communication from the perspective of hand and finger gestures, probing into the functions of non-verbal cues in cross-cultural interaction, talking over two different attitudes to⁃ward gestures, and giving a detailed analysis about the silent language of some specific gestures with fingers and hands in different cultures.

  10. Towards Contactless Silent Speech Recognition Based on Detection of Active and Visible Articulators Using IR-UWB Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Hoon; Seo, Jiwon

    2016-10-29

    People with hearing or speaking disabilities are deprived of the benefits of conventional speech recognition technology because it is based on acoustic signals. Recent research has focused on silent speech recognition systems that are based on the motions of a speaker's vocal tract and articulators. Because most silent speech recognition systems use contact sensors that are very inconvenient to users or optical systems that are susceptible to environmental interference, a contactless and robust solution is hence required. Toward this objective, this paper presents a series of signal processing algorithms for a contactless silent speech recognition system using an impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB) radar. The IR-UWB radar is used to remotely and wirelessly detect motions of the lips and jaw. In order to extract the necessary features of lip and jaw motions from the received radar signals, we propose a feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm noticeably improved speech recognition performance compared to the existing algorithm during our word recognition test with five speakers. We also propose a speech activity detection algorithm to automatically select speech segments from continuous input signals. Thus, speech recognition processing is performed only when speech segments are detected. Our testbed consists of commercial off-the-shelf radar products, and the proposed algorithms are readily applicable without designing specialized radar hardware for silent speech processing.

  11. Towards Contactless Silent Speech Recognition Based on Detection of Active and Visible Articulators Using IR-UWB Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Hoon Shin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available People with hearing or speaking disabilities are deprived of the benefits of conventional speech recognition technology because it is based on acoustic signals. Recent research has focused on silent speech recognition systems that are based on the motions of a speaker’s vocal tract and articulators. Because most silent speech recognition systems use contact sensors that are very inconvenient to users or optical systems that are susceptible to environmental interference, a contactless and robust solution is hence required. Toward this objective, this paper presents a series of signal processing algorithms for a contactless silent speech recognition system using an impulse radio ultra-wide band (IR-UWB radar. The IR-UWB radar is used to remotely and wirelessly detect motions of the lips and jaw. In order to extract the necessary features of lip and jaw motions from the received radar signals, we propose a feature extraction algorithm. The proposed algorithm noticeably improved speech recognition performance compared to the existing algorithm during our word recognition test with five speakers. We also propose a speech activity detection algorithm to automatically select speech segments from continuous input signals. Thus, speech recognition processing is performed only when speech segments are detected. Our testbed consists of commercial off-the-shelf radar products, and the proposed algorithms are readily applicable without designing specialized radar hardware for silent speech processing.

  12. Molecular cloning and in vitro expression of a silent phenoxazinone synthase gene from Streptomyces lividans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, A C; Jones, G H

    1989-12-14

    Phenoxazinone synthase (PHS) catalyzes a step in actinomycin D biosynthesis in Streptomyces antibioticus. Two sequences from Streptomyces lividans that hybridize to the phs gene of S. antibioticus have been cloned in Escherichia coli K-12 using the plasmid pBR322. Although there was some similarity in the restriction maps of the two cloned fragments, neither insert appeared to be a direct subset of the other nor of the S. antibioticus phs gene. In vitro expression studies, in a streptomycete coupled transcription-translation system, showed that a 3.98-kb SphI fragment encoded a PHS-related protein. These observations provide additional support for the existence of silent genes for antibiotic production in streptomycetes.

  13. Clinically silent polymicrobial amnionitis and intrauterine fetal death associated with a Cu-7 intrauterine contraceptive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waites, K B; Bobo, R A; Davis, R O; Brookings, E S; Cassell, G H

    1984-12-15

    This article presents a case of silent polymicrobial amnionitis with subsequent intrauterine fetal death in a 34-year old woman who conceived with a Cu-7 IUD in place. There were no apparent pregnancy complications or symptoms of uterine infection during early pregnancy. At 16 weeks gestation, the patient underwent amniocentesis for cytogenetic studies. 5 different microorganisms--Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, and Ureaplasma urealyticum--were isolated from the amniotic fluid. 2 week later, intrauterine fetal death was detected. U. urealyticum was at this point isolated from the cervix and placental and fetal tissues. This organism, which has been associated with chorioamnionitis, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal death, is suspected to have contributed to the fetal death in this case. U. urealyticum can invade the amniotic sac with fetal membranes intact and persist for 8 weeks without overt effects. This case illustrates the risks associated with nonremoval of an IUD after contraceptive failure.

  14. [Citation errors: Uplavici (for Hlava) and William the Silent (for Jules Verne and Mignet)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhart, A

    2011-05-01

    A certain 'O Uplavici' was cited for more than fifty years, although he had never existed. This error probably came from a misinterpretation of the Czech language, in which the real author's name--Hlava--can mean 'Title'. It was finally recognized, which was not the case for the author of the sentence: 'I have no need of hope to take action, nor of success to persevere', it is still regularly attributed in France to William I, Prince of Orange, called the Silent. It is a mistake, and no serious reference certifies that an historical figure would have pronounced this sentence. It was written by the historian Mignet in 1841, to describe the character of William III, Prince of Orange and King of England. It was then used in 1875 by Jules Verne, to describe a character in 'The Mysterious Island'. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Treatment of Egyptian Maghara coal by plasma ozone synthesized by silent discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Salem, M A; Garamoon, A A; Hassouba, M A

    2003-01-01

    A sample of pyrite rich bituminous coal collected from the main coal seam of Maghara mine, northern sinai, was treated by ozone plasma. The latter was synthesized using silent discharge method (10 kv a.c. and 50 hz). The room temperature Moessbauer spectra of untreated coal sample was easily fitted to two doublet, whose parameters matched those of pyrite (FeS sub 2) and sulfate (FeSO sub 4.H sub 2 O) in addition to hematite. After treatment by ozone plasma, a doublet ascribed to pyrite was observed. The extent of pyrite oxidation to jarosite (Fe sub 2 (SO sub 4) sub 3. nH sub 2 O) was monitored by their relative spectral areas, the incomplete oxidation of pyrite may be attributed to the presence of calcium sulfate layer which acts a screen of ozone.

  16. Reflections on clinical expertise and silent know-how in voice therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwarsson, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ‘clinical expertise’ is described as a part of evidence-based practice (EBP) together with ‘external scientific evidence’ and ‘patient values and perspectives’. However, clinical expertise in the management of voice disorders has not been described or discussed in much detail....... The expertise seems to consist partly of silent know-how that, from the outside, may seem improperly related to the personality of the speech-language pathologist or exclusively dependent on the number of years in the field. In this paper, it is suggested that clinical expertise in voice therapy consists...... of specific skills that can be explicitly described and trained. These skills are discussed together with educational aspects that contribute to the development of clinical expertise. The skills are also discussed from the perspectives of the past, present, and future....

  17. Silent initial conditions for cosmological perturbations with a change of space-time signature

    CERN Document Server

    Mielczarek, Jakub; Barrau, Aurelien

    2014-01-01

    Recent calculations in loop quantum cosmology suggest that a transition from a Lorentzian to an Euclidean space-time might take place in the very early Universe. The transition point leads to a state of silence, characterized by a vanishing speed of light. This behavior can be interpreted as a decoupling of different space points, similar to the one characterizing the BKL phase. In this study, we address the issue of imposing initial conditions for the cosmological perturbations at the transition point between the Lorentzian and Euclidean phases. Motivated by the decoupling of space points, initial conditions characterized by a lack of correlations are investigated. We show that the "white noise" initial conditions are supported by the analysis of the vacuum state in the Euclidean regime adjacent to the state of silence. Furthermore, the possibility of imposing the silent initial conditions at the trans-Planckian surface, characterized by a vanishing speed for the propagation of modes with wavelengths of the ...

  18. Cutaneous silent period in hand muscles is lengthened by tramadol: Evidence for monoaminergic modulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujia, Francesco; Coppola, Gianluca; Anastasio, Maria G; Brienza, Marianna; Vestrini, Elisa; Valente, Gabriele O; Parisi, Leoluca; Serrao, Mariano; Pierelli, Francesco

    2012-10-18

    The purpose of this study was to shed light on the neurochemical modulatory mechanisms of the noxious spinal inhibitory cutaneous silent period (CSP). We study the effects of 100mg of oral tramadol in 11 healthy volunteers. Tramadol has low affinity for opioid receptors and has the ability to inhibit serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. We elicited CSPs in the first dorsal interosseus muscle and noxious withdrawal flexor reflexes (NWR) in the right biceps femoris muscle before, 30 min and each hour up to the 6th after tramadol. Subjective pain sensation was checked on an 11-point numerical scale. Tramadol increased duration of CSP, and reduced the NWR area under the curve maximally 2h after tramadol and paralleled the reduction of subjective pain perception. We suggest that the monoaminergic action of tramadol reinforces the activity of spinal inhibitory interneurons on α-motoneurons for the hand muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Harmonic Domain Modelling of Transformer Core Nonlinearities Using the DIgSILENT PowerFactory Software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Wiechowski, Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the results of implementation and verification of an already existing algorithm that allows for calculating saturation characteristics of singlephase power transformers. The algorithm was described for the first time in 1993. Now this algorithm has been implemented using...... the DIgSILENT Programming Language (DPL) as an external script in the harmonic domain calculations of a power system analysis tool PowerFactory [10]. The algorithm is verified by harmonic measurements on a single-phase power transformer. A theoretical analysis of the core nonlinearities phenomena...... in single and three-phase transformers is also presented. This analysis leads to the conclusion that the method can be applied for modelling nonlinearities of three-phase autotransformers....

  20. An intriguing "silent" mutation and a founder effect in antiquitin (ALDH7A1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomons, Gajja S; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard A; Pope, Lorna Landegge; Darmin, Patricia S; Mills, Philippa B; Clayton, Peter T; Willemsen, Michèl A; Jakobs, Cornelis

    2007-10-01

    Recently, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde (alpha-AASA) dehydrogenase deficiency was shown to cause pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy in a considerable number of patients. alpha-AASA dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a neonatal-onset epileptic encephalopathy in which seizures are resistant to antiepileptic drugs but respond immediately to the administration of pyridoxine (OMIM 266100). Increased plasma and urinary levels of alpha-AASA are associated with pathogenic mutations in the alpha-AASA dehydrogenase (ALDH7A1/antiquitin) gene. Here, we report an intriguing "silent" mutation in ALDH7A1, a novel missense mutation and a founder mutation in a Dutch cohort (10 patients) with alpha-AASA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  1. The silent social/emotional signals in left and right cheek poses: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2013-01-01

    When posing for a painted or photographic portrait, people are more likely to offer their left, rather than right, cheek (e.g., the Mona Lisa). Why? This paper reviews research investigating the left cheek bias, and the reasons underlying this posing asymmetry. Ruling out mechanical and perceptual biases, the paper focuses on the silent emotional and social signals conveyed by left and right cheek poses, demonstrating that people intuitively offer the left cheek to express emotion and perceive left cheek poses as more emotional. Moreover, because the left cheek appears more emotionally expressive, we unconsciously use cheek shown as a cue when presenting or determining academic specialisation, scientific standing, and even political affiliation. The research is consistent in suggesting that something as subtle as a 15° head turn implicitly influences others' perceptions: if you want to be perceived as open and creative, rather than dry and scientific, it might be time to turn the other cheek.

  2. Clinically silent subdural hemorrhage causes bilateral vocal fold paralysis in newborn infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshammari, Jaber; Monnier, Yan; Monnier, Philippe

    2012-10-01

    Bilateral congenital vocal fold paralysis (BVFP) may result from multiple etiologies or remain idiopathic when no real cause can be identified. If obstructive dyspnea is significant and requires urgent stabilization of the airway, then intubation is performed first and an MRI of the brain is conducted to rule out an Arnold-Chiari malformation that can benefit from a shunt procedure and thus alleviate the need for a tracheostomy. Clinically silent subdural hemorrhage without any birth trauma represents another cause of neonatal BVFP that resolves spontaneously within a month. It is of clinical relevance to recognize this potential cause of BVFP as its short duration may alleviate the need for a tracheostomy. In this article, we present such a case and review the literature to draw the otolaryngologist's attention to this possible etiology.

  3. A Modelling of Normal and Abnormal EMG Silent Period Generation of Masseter Muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T.H.; Jeon, C.I. [University Of Seoul, Seoul (Korea); Lee, S.H. [Induk Institute of Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-02-01

    This paper proposes a model of SP(silent period) generation in masseter muscle by means of computer simulation. The model is based on the anatomical and physiological properties of trigeminal nervous system. In determining the SP generation pathway, evoked SPs of masseter muscle after mechanical stimulation to the chin are divided into normal and abnormal group. Normal SP is produced by the activation of mechanoreceptors in periodontal ligament. The activation of nociceptors contributes to the latter part of normal SP, abnormal extended SP is produced. As a result, the EMG signal generated by a proposed SP generation model is similar to both real EMG signal including normal SP and abnormal extended SP with TMJ patients. The result of this study have shown differences of SP generation mechanism between subjects both with and without TMJ dysfunction. (author). 21 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Transmission of scrapie prions to primate after an extended silent incubation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoy, Emmanuel E; Mikol, Jacqueline; Luccantoni-Freire, Sophie; Correia, Evelyne; Lescoutra-Etchegaray, Nathalie; Durand, Valérie; Dehen, Capucine; Andreoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Richt, Juergen A; Greenlee, Justin J; Baron, Thierry; Benestad, Sylvie L; Brown, Paul; Deslys, Jean-Philippe

    2015-06-30

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (c-BSE) is the only animal prion disease reputed to be zoonotic, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans and having guided protective measures for animal and human health against animal prion diseases. Recently, partial transmissions to humanized mice showed that the zoonotic potential of scrapie might be similar to c-BSE. We here report the direct transmission of a natural classical scrapie isolate to cynomolgus macaque, a highly relevant model for human prion diseases, after a 10-year silent incubation period, with features similar to those reported for human cases of sporadic CJD. Scrapie is thus actually transmissible to primates with incubation periods compatible with their life expectancy, although fourfold longer than BSE. Long-term experimental transmission studies are necessary to better assess the zoonotic potential of other prion diseases with high prevalence, notably Chronic Wasting Disease of deer and elk and atypical/Nor98 scrapie.

  5. Subducting slab ultra-slow velocity layer coincident with silent earthquakes in southern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Teh-Ru Alex; Helmberger, Donald V; Brudzinski, Michael R; Clayton, Robert W; Davis, Paul; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Singh, Shri K

    2009-04-24

    Great earthquakes have repeatedly occurred on the plate interface in a few shallow-dipping subduction zones where the subducting and overriding plates are strongly locked. Silent earthquakes (or slow slip events) were recently discovered at the down-dip extension of the locked zone and interact with the earthquake cycle. Here, we show that locally observed converted SP arrivals and teleseismic underside reflections that sample the top of the subducting plate in southern Mexico reveal that the ultra-slow velocity layer (USL) varies spatially (3 to 5 kilometers, with an S-wave velocity of approximately 2.0 to 2.7 kilometers per second). Most slow slip patches coincide with the presence of the USL, and they are bounded by the absence of the USL. The extent of the USL delineates the zone of transitional frictional behavior.

  6. Cell Competition Promotes Phenotypically Silent Cardiomyocyte Replacement in the Mammalian Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Villa del Campo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous anabolic capacity in cell populations can trigger a phenomenon known as cell competition, through which less active cells are eliminated. Cell competition has been induced experimentally in stem/precursor cell populations in insects and mammals and takes place endogenously in early mouse embryonic cells. Here, we show that cell competition can be efficiently induced in mouse cardiomyocytes by mosaic overexpression of Myc during both gestation and adult life. The expansion of the Myc-overexpressing cardiomyocyte population is driven by the elimination of wild-type cardiomyocytes. Importantly, this cardiomyocyte replacement is phenotypically silent and does not affect heart anatomy or function. These results show that the capacity for cell competition in mammals is not restricted to stem cell populations and suggest that stimulated cell competition has potential as a cardiomyocyte-replacement strategy.

  7. Neurocysticercosis, Meningioma, and Silent Corticotroph Pituitary Adenoma in a 61-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Ramirez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with hydrocephalus and cystic and solid lesions in sella turcica, suprasellar areas, and third ventricle. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt she developed cognitive changes and the cystic lesions enlarged. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated multiple cysts and a solid lesion in the sella and around the anterior clinoid process. With diagnosis of neurocysticercosis she underwent craniotomy. Pathologic examination documented two different lesions: viable and dead cysticerci with inflaming infiltration and a left anterior clinoidal meningioma. At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was removed which was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these three different lesions in the sellar area was not described before.

  8. Neurocysticercosis, meningioma, and silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma in a 61-year-old woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Maria Del Pilar; Restrepo, Juan E; Syro, Luis V; Rotondo, Fabio; Londoño, Francisco J; Penagos, Luis C; Uribe, Humberto; Horvath, Eva; Kovacs, Kalman

    2012-01-01

    We report here the case of a 61-year-old woman who presented with hydrocephalus and cystic and solid lesions in sella turcica, suprasellar areas, and third ventricle. After ventriculoperitoneal shunt she developed cognitive changes and the cystic lesions enlarged. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated multiple cysts and a solid lesion in the sella and around the anterior clinoid process. With diagnosis of neurocysticercosis she underwent craniotomy. Pathologic examination documented two different lesions: viable and dead cysticerci with inflaming infiltration and a left anterior clinoidal meningioma. At the second surgery, six weeks later via transnasal transsphenoidal approach a silent corticotroph pituitary adenoma was removed which was studied by histology, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, the occurrence of these three different lesions in the sellar area was not described before.

  9. Migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; Garde, Ellen; Blaabjerg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    A small number of population-based studies reported an association between migraine with aura and risk of silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities in females. We investigated these relations in a population-based sample of female twins. We contacted female twins ages 30-60 years...... identified through the population-based Danish Twin Registry. Based on questionnaire responses, twins were invited to participate in a telephone-based interview conducted by physicians. Headache diagnoses were established according to the International Headache Society criteria. Cases with migraine with aura......% confidence interval): 0.17 (-0.08 to 0.41) cm(3)] and a similar difference was present in analyses restricted to twin pairs discordant for migraine with aura [adjusted mean difference 0.21 (-0.20 to 0.63)], but these differences did not reach statistical significance. We found no evidence of an association...

  10. Early silent microstructural degeneration and atrophy of the thalamocortical network in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deppe, Michael; Krämer, Julia; Tenberge, Jan-Gerd; Marinell, Jasmin; Schwindt, Wolfram; Deppe, Katja; Groppa, Sergiu; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G

    2016-05-01

    Recent studies on patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) demonstrated thalamic atrophy. Here we addressed the following question: Is early thalamic atrophy in patients with CIS and relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) mainly a direct consequence of white matter (WM) lesions-as frequently claimed-or is the atrophy stronger correlated to "silent" (nonlesional) microstructural thalamic alterations? One-hundred and ten patients with RRMS, 12 with CIS, and 30 healthy controls were admitted to 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was computed from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess thalamic and WM microstructure. The relative thalamic volume (RTV) and thalamic FA were significantly reduced in patients with CIS and RRMS relative to healthy controls. Both measures were also correlated. The age, gender, WM lesion load, thalamic FA, and gray matter volume-corrected RTV were reduced even in the absence of thalamic and extensive white matter lesions-also in patients with short disease duration (≤24 months). A voxel-based correlation analysis revealed that the RTV reduction had a significant effect on local WM FA-in areas next to the thalamus and basal ganglia. These WM alterations could not be explained by WM lesions, which had a differing spatial distribution. Early thalamic atrophy is mainly driven by silent microstructural thalamic alterations. Lesions do not disclose the early damage of thalamocortical circuits, which seem to be much more affected in CIS and RRMS than expected. Thalamocortical damage can be detected by DTI in normal appearing brain tissue. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1866-1879, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Detection and Correction of Silent Data Corruption for Large-Scale High-Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiala, David J [ORNL; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Ferreira, Kurt Brian [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Brightwell, Ron [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Riesen, Rolf [IBM Research, Ireland

    2013-01-01

    Faults have become the norm rather than the exception for high-end computing on clusters with 10s/100s of thousands of cores. Exacerbating this situation, some of these faults remain undetected, manifesting themselves as silent errors that corrupt memory while applications continue to operate and report incorrect results. This paper studies the potential for redundancy to both detect and correct soft errors in MPI message-passing applications. Our study investigates the challenges inherent to detecting soft errors within MPI application while providing transparent MPI redundancy. By assuming a model wherein corruption in application data manifests itself by producing differing MPI message data between replicas, we study the best suited protocols for detecting and correcting MPI data that is the result of corruption. To experimentally validate our proposed detection and correction protocols, we introduce RedMPI, an MPI library which resides in the MPI profiling layer. RedMPI is capable of both online detection and correction of soft errors that occur in MPI applications without requiring any modifications to the application source by utilizing either double or triple redundancy. Our results indicate that our most efficient consistency protocol can successfully protect applications experiencing even high rates of silent data corruption with runtime overheads between 0% and 30% as compared to unprotected applications without redundancy. Using our fault injector within RedMPI, we observe that even a single soft error can have profound effects on running applications, causing a cascading pattern of corruption in most cases causes that spreads to all other processes. RedMPI's protection has been shown to successfully mitigate the effects of soft errors while allowing applications to complete with correct results even in the face of errors.

  12. Reducing calorie sales from supermarkets - 'silent' reformulation of retailer-brand food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Sommer, Iben

    2017-08-23

    Food product reformulation is seen as one among several tools to promote healthier eating. Reformulating the recipe for a processed food, e.g. reducing the fat, sugar or salt content of the foods, or increasing the content of whole-grains, can help the consumers to pursue a healthier life style. In this study, we evaluate the effects on calorie sales of a 'silent' reformulation strategy, where a retail chain's private-label brands are reformulated to a lower energy density without making specific claims on the product. Using an ecological study design, we analyse 52 weeks' sales data - enriched with data on products' energy density - from a Danish retail chain. Sales of eight product categories were studied. Within each of these categories, specific products had been reformulated during the 52 weeks data period. Using econometric methods, we decompose the changes in calorie turnover and sales value into direct and indirect effects of product reformulation. For all considered products, the direct effect of product reformulation was a reduction in the sale of calories from the respective product categories - between 0.5 and 8.2%. In several cases, the reformulation led to indirect substitution effects that were counterproductive with regard to reducing calorie turnover. However, except in two insignificant cases, these indirect substitution effects were dominated by the direct effect of the reformulation, leading to net reductions in calorie sales between -3.1 and 7.5%. For all considered product reformulations, the reformulation had either positive, zero or very moderate negative effects on the sales value of the product category to which the reformulated product belonged. Based on these findings, 'silent' reformulation of retailer's private brands towards lower energy density seems to contribute to lowering the calorie intake in the population (although to a moderate extent) with moderate losses in retailer's sales revenues.

  13. Prognostic significance of silent myocardial ischemia on a thallium stress test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, L.I.; Tresgallo, M.; Sciacca, R.R.; Blood, D.K.; Seldin, D.W.; Johnson, L.L. (Columbia Univ., College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-03-15

    The clinical significance of silent ischemia is not fully known. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the presence or absence of angina during a thallium stress test positive for ischemia was independently predictive of an adverse outcome. Two hundred thirty-four consecutive patients with ischemia on a thallium stress test were identified. Ischemia was defined as the presence of defect(s) on the immediate postexercise scans not in the distribution of prior infarctions that redistributed on 4-hour scans. During the test 129 patients had angina, defined as characteristic neck, jaw, arm, back or chest discomfort, while the remaining 105 patients had no angina. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 8.2 years (mean 5.2 +/- 2.1) and was successfully obtained in 156 patients. Eighty-two of the 156 patients had angina (group A) and 74 had silent ischemia (group S). Group A patients were significantly older (62 +/- 8 vs 59 +/- 8 years, p less than 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of sex, history of prior infarction or presence of left main/3-vessel disease. A larger percentage of patients in group A were receiving beta blockers (60 vs 41%, p less than 0.05) and nitrates (52 vs 36%, 0.05 less than p less than 0.10). There was a large number of cardiac events (myocardial infarction, revascularization and death) in both groups (37 of 82 (45%) in group A; 28 of 72 (38%) in group S) but no statistically significant difference between the groups. Similarly, life-table analysis revealed no difference in mortality between the 2 groups.

  14. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Cao, Hailong; Wang, Sinan; Wang, Dan; Xu, Mengque; Piao, Meiyu; Wang, Bangmao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Dieulafoy lesion is a rare but serious cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. However, some cases can be occasionally found without bleeding during the endoscopic screening, and the management remains unclear. The aim of this article was to report the efficacy and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions, which presented as protrusion lesions mimicking gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Methods: Data from the patients with gastric protrusion lesions who underwent ESD from September 2008 to April 2016 in General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, China were recorded. Seven cases with pathological diagnosis of Dieulafoy lesion without bleeding were enrolled for further analysis. Results: A total of 7 patients (2 males and 5 females) with mean age of 57.7 ± 4.15 years were pathologically diagnosed as Dieulafoy lesion. Four of the lesions were located in gastric antrum, 2 in the fundus, and 1 in the body of stomach, respectively. The mean sizes of the Dieulafoy lesions under white light endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) were 1.06 ± 0.28 and 0.84 ± 0.29 cm. The origins of these lesions were submucosa (6/7, 85.7%) and muscularis propria (1/7, 14.3%). Three of them appeared with mixed echo under EUS, 3 with hypoechogenicity, and 1 with hyperechogenicity. En bloc complete resection was achieved in all the lesions by ESD with average time of 76.00 ± 16.86 minutes, and no intraoperative bleeding happened. In addition, all patients were followed up for 1 to 53 months, and no recurrence or long-term complications was observed. Conclusion: Therefore, ESD can be an effective and safe treatment for silent gastric Dieulafoy lesions with clinical presentations of submucosal protrusion lesions mimicking GISTs. PMID:27603399

  15. The Sound of Silence: Activating Silent Biosynthetic Gene Clusters in Marine Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jerry Reen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unlocking the rich harvest of marine microbial ecosystems has the potential to both safeguard the existence of our species for the future, while also presenting significant lifestyle benefits for commercial gain. However, while significant advances have been made in the field of marine biodiscovery, leading to the introduction of new classes of therapeutics for clinical medicine, cosmetics and industrial products, much of what this natural ecosystem has to offer is locked in, and essentially hidden from our screening methods. Releasing this silent potential represents a significant technological challenge, the key to which is a comprehensive understanding of what controls these systems. Heterologous expression systems have been successful in awakening a number of these cryptic marine biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs. However, this approach is limited by the typically large size of the encoding sequences. More recently, focus has shifted to the regulatory proteins associated with each BGC, many of which are signal responsive raising the possibility of exogenous activation. Abundant among these are the LysR-type family of transcriptional regulators, which are known to control production of microbial aromatic systems. Although the environmental signals that activate these regulatory systems remain unknown, it offers the exciting possibility of evoking mimic molecules and synthetic expression systems to drive production of potentially novel natural products in microorganisms. Success in this field has the potential to provide a quantum leap forward in medical and industrial bio-product development. To achieve these new endpoints, it is clear that the integrated efforts of bioinformaticians and natural product chemists will be required as we strive to uncover new and potentially unique structures from silent or cryptic marine gene clusters.

  16. How to read efficiently%How to read Efficiently

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖平

    2007-01-01

    At present, the university graduates have mountains of books to read. For this phenomenon, this paper first indicates why the students must read extensively and then tentatively suggests three measures establish new concept in reading, practise reading pragmatically, review and exchange.

  17. FIRST Reading: Focussed Instruction in Reading for Successful Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.; Metz, Elizabeth

    This book describes FIRST (Focussed Instruction in Reading for Successful Teaching) Reading, a computer program that takes answers to 20 questions about a learner and matches this profile against profiles in the database. FIRST Reading, formerly called "Consult Reading," can recommend the most-likely-to-succeed teaching focus(es) for…

  18. Reading Acts: An Inquiry into Reading and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    This text performs reading for teaching in an audit culture. Two teachers, myself and Steven, read the memoir "Hole in My Life" by Jack Gantos and, while reading, recorded our experiences as readers and planned to teach the book to Steven's English class. This study is an inquiry into the phenomenon of "reading to teach,"…

  19. Developing New Reading Assessments to Promote Beginning Reading in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kim H.; Paris, Scott G.

    2011-01-01

    Effective reading instruction and intervention are rooted in effective assessments of children's developing skills in reading. The article aims to describe the development of new reading assessments to help promote beginning reading in Singapore primary schools. We begin with an introduction to the educational landscape and policies before…

  20. Teen Summer Reading Program, 1999. Read around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia State Library, Richmond.

    This guide for the 1999 Virginia teen summer reading program for public libraries, "Read around the World," includes the following chapters: (1) "Reading and Teens," including serving the underserved, tips for teens, and a recipe for choosing a book to read for fun; (2) "Programming and Teens," including "The Why…