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Sample records for group-a positive sera

  1. The rapid plasma reagin (circle) card test in biological false positive and leprosy sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, M. F.; Backhouse, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) circle card and the Venereal Disease Reference Laboratory (VDRL) slide test results were compared on a group of sera known to show biological false positive (BFP) reactions to reagin detection tests for syphilis. The RPR test was more specific than the VDRL test on the sera selected, ie, it gave fewer false positive results than the VDRL test. However, in a group of presumed normal sera, the RPR test gave BFP reactions while the VDRL test gave none. The RPR test gave fewer BFP reactions than the VDRL test in 269 sera from patients with lepromatous leprosy. PMID:5086221

  2. Evaluation of different confirmatory algorithms using seven treponemal tests on Architect Syphilis TP-positive/RPR-negative sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, S; Berth, M; Van Esbroeck, M; Blomme, S; Lagrou, K; Padalko, E

    2015-10-01

    The Architect Syphilis TP is considered to be a suitable screening test due to its high sensitivity and full automation. According to the International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) 2014 guidelines, however, positive screening tests need confirmation with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP.PA). Among Architect-positive results, samples with a negative non-treponemal test present the major diagnostic challenge. In this multicenter study, we investigated if other, preferable less labor-intensive treponemal tests could replace TP.PA. A total of 178 rapid plasma reagin (RPR)-negative sera with an Architect value between 1 and 15 S/CO were prospectively selected in three centers. These sera were analyzed with TP.PA and six alternative treponemal tests: three immunoblots and three tests on random-access analyzers. The diagnostic performance of the treponemal tests differed substantially, with the overall agreement between the six alternative tests ranging from 44.6 to 82.0%. Based on TP.PA as the gold standard, the INNO-LIA IgG blot, the BioPlex 2200 IgG, and the Syphilis TPA showed a high sensitivity, while the EUROLINE-WB IgG blot, recomLine Treponema IgG blot, and the Chorus Syphilis screen showed a high specificity. However, an Architect cut-off of 5.6 S/CO can serve as an alternative for these confirmatory treponemal tests in case of an RPR-negative result. Treponemal tests show poor agreement in this challenging group of Architect-positive/RPR-negative sera. The most optimal algorithm is obtained by assigning sera with an Architect value >5.6 S/CO as true-positives and sera with a value between 1 and 5.6 S/CO as undetermined, requiring further testing with TP.PA.

  3. Targeted MS Assay Predicting Tamoxifen Resistance in Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Tissues and Sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Tommaso; Kuhn, Erik; Dekker, Lennard J; Stingl, Christoph; Braakman, Rene B H; Opdam, Mark; Linn, Sabine C; Sweep, Fred C G J; Span, Paul N; Luider, Theo M; Foekens, John A; Martens, John W M; Carr, Steven A; Umar, Arzu

    2016-04-01

    We recently reported on the development of a 4-protein-based classifier (PDCD4, CGN, G3BP2, and OCIAD1) capable of predicting outcome to tamoxifen treatment in recurrent, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer based on high-resolution MS data. A precise and high-throughput assay to measure these proteins in a multiplexed, targeted fashion would be favorable to measure large numbers of patient samples to move these findings toward a clinical setting. By coupling immunoprecipitation to multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS and stable isotope dilution, we developed a high-precision assay to measure the 4-protein signature in 38 primary breast cancer whole tissue lysates (WTLs). Furthermore, we evaluated the presence and patient stratification capabilities of our signature in an independent set of 24 matched (pre- and post-therapy) sera. We compared the performance of immuno-MRM (iMRM) with direct MRM in the absence of fractionation and shotgun proteomics in combination with label-free quantification (LFQ) on both WTL and laser capture microdissected (LCM) tissues. Measurement of the 4-proteins by iMRM showed not only higher accuracy in measuring proteotypic peptides (Spearman r: 0.74 to 0.93) when compared with MRM (Spearman r: 0.0 to 0.76) but also significantly discriminated patient groups based on treatment outcome (hazard ratio [HR]: 10.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.33 to 27.76; Log-rank P < 0.001) when compared with LCM (HR: 2.85; 95% CI: 1.24 to 6.54; Log-rank P = 0.013) and WTL (HR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.57 to 2.33; Log-rank P = 0.680) LFQ-based predictors. Serum sample analysis by iMRM confirmed the detection of the four proteins in these samples. We hereby report that iMRM outperformed regular MRM, confirmed our previous high-resolution MS results in tumor tissues, and has shown that the 4-protein signature is measurable in serum samples.

  4. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for group A Streptococcal anti-DNase B in human sera, using recombinant proteins - Comparison to the DNA methyl green micromethod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sarita; Dileepan, T; Johnson, D R; Kaplan, E L; Patrick Cleary, P

    2017-09-19

    Among the four known Streptococcal nucleases comprising of DNase A, B, C and D; DNase B is the most common, and determination of the levels of antibody to DNase B (ADB) is often used to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Streptococcus pyogenes/group A Streptococcal (GAS) infection. The commonly used assays for antibodies that neutralize DNase B or streptolysin O activity use partially purified antigens that often fail to detect antibody changes subsequent to culture documented infections. Therefore, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed employing his-tagged recombinant DNase B as plate antigen for comparison to the commonly used DNA methyl green micromethod (DMGM). DNAs from various Streptococcal species were screened for presence of dnaseB gene by PCR. Measurements of ADB in sera collected from subjects belonging to different ages, and ethnic groups were used to compare the two methods. dnaseB was not detected by PCR in DNA samples isolated from different strains of group B (GBS), C (GCS) and G (GGS) Streptococci. The ADB based ELISA proved to be highly sensitive and more responsive to changes in antibody concentration than DMGM. Use of recombinant DNase B eliminates the variability associated with the enzyme, partially purified from Streptococcal culture supernatants from various commercial sources and may provide a more reliable source of antigen to a wider group of laboratories concerned with GAS diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. The Jogging Group: A Positive-Wellness Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, John H., Jr.; Burcky, William D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how to organize and facilitate a jogging group, combining jogging and group counseling as an important intervention strategy for positive wellness. Describes client selection, medical clearance, liability, meeting times and places, as well as group work. (JAC)

  6. Positioning in Groups: A New Development in Systemic Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jeff W.; Singh, RajVinder

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a new approach, employing a combination of Positioning Theory and Semantic Polarities, that educational psychologists can use to develop and facilitate change in organisations and groups. Resistance to change can be seen as reflecting a lack of the language that the members of an organisation need to participate effectively…

  7. Positioning in Groups: A New Development in Systemic Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Jeff W.; Singh, RajVinder

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a new approach, employing a combination of Positioning Theory and Semantic Polarities, that educational psychologists can use to develop and facilitate change in organisations and groups. Resistance to change can be seen as reflecting a lack of the language that the members of an organisation need to participate effectively…

  8. Targeted MS Assay Predicting Tamoxifen Resistance in Estrogen-Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Tissues and Sera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Marchi, Tommaso; Kuhn, Erik; Dekker, Lennard J; Stingl, Christoph; Braakman, Rene B H; Opdam, Mark; Linn, Sabine C; Sweep, Fred C G J; Span, Paul N; Luider, Theo M; Foekens, John A; Martens, John W M; Carr, Steven A; Umar, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported on the development of a 4-protein-based classifier (PDCD4, CGN, G3BP2, and OCIAD1) capable of predicting outcome to tamoxifen treatment in recurrent, estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer based on high-resolution MS data. A precise and high-throughput assay to measure these

  9. Clinical features and sera anti-aquaporin 4 antibody positivity in patients with demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system from Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Sheng; Zhang, Da-Qi; Wang, Jing-Hua; Jin, Wei-Na; Li, Min-Shu; Liu, Jie; Zhang, Cun-Jin; Li, Ting; Shi, Fu-Dong; Yang, Li

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics and sera anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody positivity in patients with inflammatory demyelinating disorders (IDDs) of the central nervous system (CNS) in Tianjin, China. We retrospectively evaluated 234 patients with IDDs including neuromyelitis optica (NMO), recurrent optic neuritis (rON), longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM), clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), and multiple sclerosis (MS) groups. Sera from 217 patients were determined for AQP4-Ab. The clinical characteristics and sera anti-AQP4 positivity were compared. The IDDS comprised 63 MS, 51 NMO, 56 LETM, 10 rON, and 54 CIS. Compared with MS, NMO had a higher frequency of occurrence in women, intractable hiccup and nausea (IHN), medullospinal lesion, longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesions (LESCL) and bilateral ON, disease onset at a later age, and worsening residual disability. AQP4-Ab-positive rates were 84.1% and 69% in NMO and NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD), respectively, whereas it was undetectable in all of the MS sera samples. We comprehensively contrast the distinct clinical features of MS, NMO, and NMOSD in our center. A sensitive AQP4-Ab assay is necessary for the early diagnosis of NMOSD in our patients. Neither medullospinal lesion nor IHN is unique in NMO. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Biological false-positive tests comprise a high proportion of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory reactions in an analysis of 300,000 sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geusau, Alexandra; Kittler, Harald; Hein, Ulrike; Dangl-Erlach, Edda; Stingl, Georg; Tschachler, Erwin

    2005-11-01

    This retrospective study on syphilis screening at the sexually transmitted infection (STI) unit of a University Department emphasizes the necessity of a treponemal-specific test as the appropriate screening test. The Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test for syphilis screening may, under certain circumstances, yield positive results in patients not infected with Treponema pallidum, a phenomenon referred to as biological false-positive (BFP) VDRL test. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of BFP tests in a large sample of sera. In this retrospective study, we analysed the results of parallel VDRL and T. pallidum haemagglutination (TPHA) testing of a total of 514,940 blood samples obtained from patients at the Vienna General Hospital between January 1988 and November 1999. Patients' sera with incomplete data on stage and sex and duplicate sera were excluded, leaving 300,000 sera for analysis. The seroprevalence for syphilis was 1.77% (n = 5320), as determined by a positive TPHA test. It was significantly higher in male than in female patients (2.03% versus 1.58%, PVDRL. With regard to reactivity in VDRL testing, 2799 patients (0.92%) of the study population were positive, of whom 736 (26%) were biological false positive. BFP reactivity was found in 0.24% of all patients and was significantly higher in women than in men (0.27% versus 0.20%, PVDRL at 1:0 and 1:2 dilutions without a positive treponemal test was not reported. The subgroup of HIV-positive patients (n = 1415) revealed a 10-fold higher rate of BFP tests (2.1% versus 0.24), an effect being statistically significant. In a low syphilis prevalence population, BFP reactions comprise a high proportion of all VDRL reactors. Therefore, the use of the VDRL as a screening procedure is challenged.

  11. Raman spectroscopy-based screening of IgM positive and negative sera for dengue virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M.; Saleem, M.; Bilal, Maria; Ijaz, T.; Khan, Saranjam; Ullah, Rahat; Raza, A.; Khurram, M.; Akram, W.; Ahmed, M.

    2016-11-01

    A statistical method based on Raman spectroscopy for the screening of immunoglobulin M (IgM) in dengue virus (DENV) infected human sera is presented. In total, 108 sera samples were collected and their antibody indexes (AI) for IgM were determined through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Raman spectra of these samples were acquired using a 785 nm wavelength excitation laser. Seventy-eight Raman spectra were selected randomly and unbiasedly for the development of a statistical model using partial least square (PLS) regression, while the remaining 30 were used for testing the developed model. An R-square (r 2) value of 0.929 was determined using the leave-one-sample-out (LOO) cross validation method, showing the validity of this model. It considers all molecular changes related to IgM concentration, and describes their role in infection. A graphical user interface (GUI) platform has been developed to run a developed multivariate model for the prediction of AI of IgM for blindly tested samples, and an excellent agreement has been found between model predicted and clinically determined values. Parameters like sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for these tested samples are also reported to visualize model performance.

  12. Bovine coronavirus detection in a collection of diarrheic stool samples positive for group a bovine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Barry

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diarrhea is an important cause of economic losses for cattle farmers. The main viral etiologies of enteric diseases are group A rotaviruses (GARV and the bovine coronavirus (BCoV. Although both viruses infect calves of the same age, the occurrence of mixed infections is still under studied. The present study describes the co-infection of BCoV and GARV in stool samples. Forty-four diarrheic fecal samples from calves up to 60 days old that had previously tested positive for GARV by SS-PAGE were analyzed using semi-nested PCR for BCoV. A product with 251 bp of the BCoV nucleoprotein gene was amplified in 15.9% (7/44 of the samples, demonstrating that co-infection is not an unusual event. These results reinforce the need for testing for both GARV and BCoV, even in fecal samples that previously tested positive for one virus.A diarreia neonatal é uma importante causa de perdas econômicas para a criação de bovinos. Os principais agentes etiológicos virais das doenças entéricas são o rotavírus bovino grupo A (GARV e o coronavírus bovino (BCoV. Embora ambos os vírus infectem bezerros na mesma faixa etária, infecções mistas ainda são pouco estudadas. O presente trabalho descreve a identificação do BCoV em amostras de fezes positivas para o GARV, caracterizando a ocorrência de infecções mistas. Quarenta e quatro amostras de fezes diarreicas de bezerros com até 60 dias de idade, previamente identificadas como positivas para o GARV bovino por meio da técnica de SS-PAGE, foram avaliadas quanto a presença do BCoV pela técnica de semi-nested PCR. Um produto com 251 pb do gene da nucleoproteína do BCoV foi amplificado em 15,9% (7/44 das amostras de fezes demonstrando que a co-infecção não é um evento raro. Esse resultado enfatizada a importância da realização simultânea do diagnóstico para esses dois importantes vírus entéricos de bezerros em surtos de diarreia neonatal tanto em rebanhos bovinos leiteiros quanto de

  13. Contribution of Reflex MPO/PR3 Testing in Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Auto-Antibodies Positive Sera: An Indian Perspective

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    Nividha Fernandes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are serological markers of primary systemic vasculitis. Antigen-specific tests such as ELISA to detect antibodies directed against the myeloid enzymes, MPO and PR3 are essential in addition to screening by indirect immunofluorescence. Study was undertaken to 1 evaluate the diagnostic value of ANCA measurement by IIF, coupled with reflex anti-PR3 (for c-ANCA and anti- MPO (for p-ANCA ELISA for ANCA positive specimens, and 2 evaluate the utility of testing specimens simultaneously by all 3 tests, i.e. IIF, MPO and PR3 ELISA. Methods: The study was a retrospective study performed at a CAP and NABL accredited private reference laboratory in Mumbai in a community setting. A total of 23,920 serum specimens from patients with suspected small vessel vasculitis were tested for ANCA by IIF over a period of 5½ years. Of these, 855 specimens (3.57% (Group I had a pre request for anti-MPO or anti-PR3 ELISA following a positive IIF-pANCA pattern or IIF cANCA pattern respectively. Group II comprised another 52 specimens which had a pre-request for all 3 tests i.e. IIF, MPO and PR3 ELISA simultaneously, irrespective of the IIF positivity. Results: ANCA seroprevalence was 31.11% in group I with predominant p- ANCA pattern (65.41%. p-ANCA was more frequent in females and c-ANCA in males. Anti-MPO and anti-PR3 positivity was 23.56% and 36.95% respectively, highlighting the non-specific nature of IIF-ANCA. Anti-MPO & anti-PR3 positivity was lower in females (21.10% and 31.70%, respectively as compared to males (27.69% and 41.17%, respectively. Simultaneous performance of the three tests in Group II did not yield any significant advantage over reflex testing. Conclusion: Utility of reflex testing of IIF-ANCA positive specimens to MPO/PR3 ELISA is re-inforced in the Indian population. However, test requests for using the reflex algorithm are low. Prescribers must thus be encouraged to follow the reflex algorithm for

  14. Reduced complement-mediated immune complex solubilizing capacity and the presence of incompletely solubilized immune complexes in SLE sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Petersen, I; Jensenius, J C

    1983-01-01

    Reduced complement-mediated solubilization (CMS) of pre-formed immune complexes (IC) was demonstrated in sera from 11 out of 12 SLE patients. The presence of incompletely solubilized endogeneous IC in SLE sera was indicated by the following findings: (1) When IC positive SLE sera with reduced CMS...

  15. Characterization of Sera with Discordant Results from Reverse Sequence Screening for Syphilis

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    Kyunghoon Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse sequence screening for syphilis (RSSS (screening with treponemal tests, followed by confirmation with nontreponemal tests has been increasingly adopted. CDC recommends confirmation of discordant results (reactive EIA/CIA and nonreactive nontreponemal test with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA. We characterized sera with discordant results from RSSS with Architect Syphilis TP CIA. Among 15,713 screening tests using Architect Syphilis TP at Seoul National University Gangnam Center between October 2010 and May 2011, 260 (1.7% showed reactive results. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR and TP-PA were performed on 153 available sera among them. On sera with discordant results between Architect Syphilis TP and TP-PA, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and FTA-ABS were performed. Among 153 sera, RPR was nonreactive in 126 (82.4%. Among them, TP-PA was positive in 103 (81.7%, indeterminate (± in 7 (5.6%, and negative in 16 (12.7%. Out of 16 CIA(+/RPR(−/TP-PA(− sera, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and/or FTA-ABS were negative on 14 sera. Out of 7 CIA(+/RPR(−/TP-PA(± sera, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and FTA-ABS were positive/reactive in 6 sera. RSSS with confirmation by TP-PA on sera with discordant results between Architect Syphilis TP and RPR effectively delineated those discordant results and could be successfully adopted for routine checkup for syphilis.

  16. Characterization of sera with discordant results from reverse sequence screening for syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunghoon; Park, Hyewon; Roh, Eun Youn; Shin, Sue; Park, Kyoung Un; Park, Myoung Hee; Song, Eun Young

    2013-01-01

    Reverse sequence screening for syphilis (RSSS) (screening with treponemal tests, followed by confirmation with nontreponemal tests) has been increasingly adopted. CDC recommends confirmation of discordant results (reactive EIA/CIA and nonreactive nontreponemal test) with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA). We characterized sera with discordant results from RSSS with Architect Syphilis TP CIA. Among 15,713 screening tests using Architect Syphilis TP at Seoul National University Gangnam Center between October 2010 and May 2011, 260 (1.7%) showed reactive results. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) and TP-PA were performed on 153 available sera among them. On sera with discordant results between Architect Syphilis TP and TP-PA, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and FTA-ABS were performed. Among 153 sera, RPR was nonreactive in 126 (82.4%). Among them, TP-PA was positive in 103 (81.7%), indeterminate (±) in 7 (5.6%), and negative in 16 (12.7%). Out of 16 CIA(+)/RPR(-)/TP-PA(-) sera, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and/or FTA-ABS were negative on 14 sera. Out of 7 CIA(+)/RPR(-)/TP-PA(±) sera, INNO-LIA Syphilis Score and FTA-ABS were positive/reactive in 6 sera. RSSS with confirmation by TP-PA on sera with discordant results between Architect Syphilis TP and RPR effectively delineated those discordant results and could be successfully adopted for routine checkup for syphilis.

  17. Th17-relevant cytokines vary with sera of different ANA staining patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinhui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Denghai; Qiu, Chaolin; Hua, Ling; Xie, Qiuhua; He, Xiaoxue; Ye, Hongxing

    2013-04-01

    Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) react with components located in the cell nucleus and cytoplasm. Differing ANA staining patterns may reflect the specificity of autoantibodies in sera and indicate some autoimmune diseases specifically, to some extent. Th17-relevant cytokines have been shown to be involved in a variety of autoimmune diseases, but not consistently. In this study, we investigated whether differences in Th17-relevant cytokines exist between different ANA pattern sera. Sera of 64 ANA-positive patients (12 homogeneous, 13 speckled particle, 11 nucleolar, 15 centromere, 6 peripheral nuclear) and 16 healthy donors were analyzed for IL-17, IL-6, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23 (p19), and TGF-β, and subsequently correlations between IL-17 and IL-6, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, and TGF-β were analyzed. Results showed that these Th17-relevant cytokines varied with different ANA-positive sera compared with healthy donors, except TGF-β. Among them, IL-21 and IL-22 were higher with all ANA-positive sera and IL-17, IL-6, and IL-23 were higher with three or more ANA staining sera. No significant difference in these cytokines was seen between the different ANA staining sera except IL-17 levels in sera of peripheral nuclear staining positive subjects were higher than nucleolar. Additionally, in ANA-positive sera, IL-17 correlated with IL-6, IL-21, IL-22, and IL-23, but not with TGF-β. Thus, we demonstrated that Th17-relevant cytokines varied with different ANA staining pattern sera, suggesting that Th17-relevant cytokines play differing roles in autoimmune diseases.

  18. Prevalencia de anticuerpos anti envoltura nuclear y sus isotipos en sueros positivos para anticuerpos antinucleares Prevalence of antinuclear envelope antibodies and their isotypes in sera positive for antinuclear antibodies

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    Miriam Arcavi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Los anticuerpos antinucleares detectados por inmunofluorescencia indirecta en células HEp-2 presentan una gran variedad de imágenes, entre ellas el patrón de envoltura nuclear que suele ser un hallazgo poco frecuente. Se procesaron 2594 sueros en los cuales se detectó un 37.6% de anticuerpos antinucleares. La prevalencia de anticuerpos anti-envoltura nuclear (ANEA fue del 1.2% presentando una alta asociación con hepatopatías autoinmunes (83% y baja con lupus eritematoso sistémico. En los 21 sueros de los pacientes que presentaron ANEA no se detectaron anticuerpos anti-ADNn hallándose 28.6% de anticuerpos anti-músculo liso y 19% de anticuerpos anti-mitocondriales. El corte triple de tejido de rata mostró ser un sustrato menos sensible que HEp-2 para la detección de ANEA. Al utilizar conjugados dirigidos contra diferentes isotipos de anticuerpos para la detección de ANEA, se encontró: 90.5% de IgG, 66.6% de IgA y 9.5% de IgM. Dos de los pacientes presentaron ANEA-IgA a altos títulos (³1:160 en ausencia de ANEA-IgG. En este trabajo se destaca la importancia de realizar pruebas complementarias que detecten anticuerpos anti-músculo liso, anti-mitocondriales y anti-ADNn, para orientar el diagnóstico clínico de los pacientes que presentan ANEA. Además, sostiene la postura de utilizar como conjugado para IFI-HEp2 anticuerpos anti-inmunoglobulinas totales en lugar de anti-IgG hasta tanto se clarifique el rol que juegan los anticuerpos IgA en estas enfermedades autoimunes.Antinuclear antibodies detected in HEp-2 cells by indirect immunofluorescence assay display a great variety of images, including the nuclear envelope pattern. This is quite a less frequent finding. Two thousand five hundred and ninety-four sera were processed, and 37.6% of ANA were detected. The prevalence of anti-nuclear envelope antibodies (ANEA was of 1.2%, with a high association with autoimmune liver diseases (83% and a low association with systemic lupus

  19. Lactoferrin in canine sera: a pyometra study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoskova, A; Adlerova, L; Kudlackova, H; Leva, L; Vitasek, R; Faldyna, M

    2009-07-01

    The concentration of lactoferrin was measured in canine sera from groups of healthy male dogs as well as pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs and was compared with that of bitches with pyometra. Lactoferrin concentrations were higher in bitches with pyometra. The role of elevated lactoferrin concentrations in the suppression of lymphocyte activity was examined in sera from bitches with pyometra in a series of investigations. Although the sera from bitches with pyometra were capable of suppressing lymphocyte activity, lactoferrin was not found to be involved in this action.

  20. Identification of group A Streptococcus antigenic determinants upregulated in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Kowthar Y; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G; Chang, Peter; Bast, Darrin J; Handfield, Martin; Hillman, Jeffrey D; de Azavedo, Joyce C S

    2005-09-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes a range of diseases in humans, from mild noninvasive infections to severe invasive infections. The molecular basis for the varying severity of disease remains unclear. We identified genes expressed during invasive disease using in vivo-induced antigen technology (IVIAT), applied for the first time in a gram-positive organism. Convalescent-phase sera from patients with invasive disease were pooled, adsorbed against antigens derived from in vitro-grown GAS, and used to screen a GAS genomic expression library. A murine model of invasive GAS disease was included as an additional source of sera for screening. Sequencing DNA inserts from clones reactive with both human and mouse sera indicated 16 open reading frames with homology to genes involved in metabolic activity to genes of unknown function. Of these, seven genes were assessed for their differential expression by quantitative real-time PCR both in vivo, utilizing a murine model of invasive GAS disease, and in vitro at different time points of growth. Three gene products-a putative penicillin-binding protein 1A, a putative lipoprotein, and a conserved hypothetical protein homologous to a putative translation initiation inhibitor in Vibrio vulnificus-were upregulated in vivo, suggesting that these genes play a role during invasive disease.

  1. Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship among sera lipoprotein abnormalities in healthy individuals with background of diabetic sibling. ... As the prevalence of lipoprotein abnormalities in adolescents is increasing dramatically, the identification of ... Article Metrics.

  2. Analysis of hyperimmune sera by NAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Marcelino, J.R. [Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Full text: Nowadays, Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo city, Brazil) take care a demand of hyperimmune sera production that supplies 80% of the Brazilian market. The hyperimmune sera are immunological products that contain antibodies used for the treatment of victims of poisonous animals and patients with diseases caused by toxins of infectious agents. For hyperimmune sera production several steps are involved: first, horses are immunized with toxins or anatoxins from one or several species (mainly snakes and spiders); in the end of each cycle of immunization the horses are submitted to a bleeding for plasma extraction. The next step is the plasma treatment: it must be treated and purified in order to diminish the possibility of adverse reactions in patients who will receive the hyperimmune sera. Considering that only chlorine, sodium and sulfur can be present the final product, in this study Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) have been applied to check concentrations of these elements in the final of sera purification. These results must be inside of the limits established for the Word Health Organization (WHO) together with the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (Pharmaceutical Code Official of the Country) for its certification and commercialization. These data are an important support for quality control of hyperimmune sera production. (author)

  3. Sera Monastery's Home for the Elderly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊侬格·林班巴拉

    2007-01-01

    @@ Xirao Jiangcan, a 78-year-old lama, is sunbathing in front of a scripture-chanting hall in Sera Monastery in Lhasa, Tibet. He feels comfortable in the warmth of the sun. A native of Deqin County in Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Yun-nan, Xirao came to Lhasa at the age of 26. He has lived in Sera Monastery for 52 years. Currently he resides in the monastery's Old People's Home. Many other old lamas also live in the old people's home.

  4. Prevalence of mycoplasma antibodies in lesser prairie-chicken sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Christian A; Crupper, Scott S; Applegate, Roger D; Robel, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Serologic testing by the serum plate agglutination (SPA) procedure was performed to detect the presence of cross-reacting antibodies to Mycoplasma meleagridis, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum in lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) trapped over a 2-yr period in Finney and Kearny counties of southwestern Kansas. Sera examined from birds (n = 50) obtained in March-April 2000 tested positive for M meleagridis, M. synoviae, and M. gallisepticum at levels of 6%, 10%, and 10%, respectively, for the population examined. Mycoplasma meleagridis antibodies were detected in 3 samples (2.7%), M. synoviae antibodies in 2 samples (1.7%), and M. gallisepticum antibodies in 3 samples (2.7%) from birds (n = 112) collected in March-April 2001. Data obtained by SPA can result in false positives and should be verified by additional procedures such as the hemagglutination-inhibition test. Low amounts of sera prohibited this additional testing. Thus, the positive SPA results should be considered presumptive for the presence of Mycoplasma antibodies. Although Mycoplasma antibodies have been detected in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) from Kingman and Butler counties in Kansas, this report is the first of possible mycoplasmosis in Finney and Kearny counties, Kansas. All birds testing positive by this procedure should be considered as potential carriers of Mycoplasma and should not be used in relocation efforts.

  5. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Li; Weiheng Su; Jie Wang; Francesco Pisani; Antonio Frigeri; Tonghui Ma

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  6. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-03-15

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.

  7. Detection of anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibodies in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Su, Weiheng; Wang, Jie; Pisani, Francesco; Frigeri, Antonio; Ma, Tonghui

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we recruited 10 neuromyelitis optica patients, two multiple sclerosis patients and two myelitis patients. Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells transfected with a human aquaporin-4-mCherry fusion protein gene were used to detect anti-aquaporin-4 antibody in neuromyelitis optica patient sera by immunofluorescence. Anti-aquaporin-4 autoantibody was stably detected by immunofluorescence in neuromyelitis optica patient sera exclusively. The sensitivity of the assay for neuromyelitis optica was 90% and the specificity for neuromyelitis optica was 100%. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers in sera were tested with serial dilutions until the signal disappeared. A positive correlation was detected between Expanded Disability Status Scale scores and serum anti-aquaporin-4 antibody titers. The anti-aquaporin-4 antibody assay is highly sensitive and specific in the sera of Chinese neuromyelitis optica patients. Detection of aquaporin-4 autoantibody is important for the diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica. PMID:25206717

  8. Antibody recognition to secreted proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in sera from infected ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradenas, M; Jara, M C; Hernández, N; Zambrano, A; Collins, M T; Kruze, J

    2009-09-18

    Two liquid culture media to obtain secreted proteins of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis at different incubation periods were evaluated. Middlebrook 7H9-OADC (7H9) and Watson-Reid (WR) broths were inoculated with a field strain of M. paratuberculosis and growth curves determined using nonlinear regression analysis. Most culture filtrate (CF) proteins were of low molecular weight and reacted strongly against sera from cultured-positive cases of paratuberculosis. CF proteins obtained in WR yielded a higher number of bands and were detected earlier than those obtained from 7H9. A high degree of variability in CF protein immunoreactivity was seen among infected animals. Sera from cattle with clinical paratuberculosis or heavy fecal shedders of M. paratuberculosis reacted more intensively and to more CF proteins than did sera from other infected cattle. Immunoblots showed differences in antibody binding to CF proteins when sera were absorbed with M. avium but not with others environmental mycobacteria. Immunoblots with sera from infected goats and a sheep showed reactivity with proteins of 32, 33 and 46kDa both before and after the sera were absorbed with M. phlei. Antibodies found in serum of infected deer reacted with CF proteins in a similar way as did for cattle. These results suggest that a pool of CF proteins of M. paratuberculosis could be good candidates as antigens for serodiagnosis of paratuberculosis.

  9. Detection of autoantibodies against survivin in sera from cancer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Yumiko; Kano, Rui; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Asano, Kazushi; Tanaka, Shigeo; Hasegawa, Astuhiko; Kamata, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Survivin overexpression has been reported in relation to tumor malignancy, suggesting that it is an unfavorable prognostic marker, and antibody responses to this protein have been confirmed in human cancer patients. In this study, we investigated antibody responses to survivin in canine cancer cases, and examined the prevalence of such responses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using recombinant canine survivin protein as the antigen. The cut-off value for positivity in the anti-survivin ELISA was 0.35, as determined using the mean absorbance +2 S.D. of samples from healthy dogs. Sera from 16 of 59 (27.1%) cancer and 3 of 25 (12%) non-cancer disease dogs were positive on ELISA. The highest positivity rates (>50%) among the cancer cases were seen in dogs with mammary tumor, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma.

  10. Effects of sera taken from women with recurrent spontaneous abortion on sperm motility and apoptosis

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    Tahereh Talaei-khozani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion impacts almost 1% of couples. The sera from women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA have toxic effects on embryos that grow in the uterus. Therefore, the abnormal condition of the uterus may also affect sperm qualities.Objective: The objectives of this study were to search if these sera could induce DNA denaturation in sperm nuclei and also it could reduce sperm motility.Materials and Methods: Sera of 20 women with URSA history and sera from 20 women with at least two healthy children were added to the sperms samples from 20 healthy men for 2 hours. The sperm motility was assessed after incubation with sera. The samples were stained with Tdt mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay for DNA fragmentation. The samples were analyzed with flow cytometry and the percentage of the TUNEL positive sperms were calculated. The data were analyzed by t-test.Results: The incubation of the sperm samples in sera with URSA lead to a decrease in the percentage of the motile sperm from 55% in control to 41% in the treated group, significantly (p=0.038. The percentage of the sperm with abnormal fragmented DNA increased after incubation with URSA (26.6% compare to the control (21.2%; however, it was not significant.Conclusion: It seems that sera from URSA patients could not induce a significant increase in the percentage of the sperms with nuclei contain DNA fragmentation. However, the sera of women with URSA could affect the fertility rate by reduction of the sperm motility.

  11. Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 plays a non-enzymatic role in the malarial asexual blood-stage lifecycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallmach, Robert; Kavishwar, Manoli; Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Hackett, Fiona; Collins, Christine R; Howell, Steven A; Yeoh, Sharon; Knuepfer, Ellen; Atid, Avshalom J; Holder, Anthony A; Blackman, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum replicates in an intraerythrocytic parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The most abundant P. falciparum PV protein, called SERA5, is essential in blood stages and possesses a papain-like domain, prompting speculation that it functions as a proteolytic enzyme. Unusually however, SERA5 possesses a Ser residue (Ser596) at the position of the canonical catalytic Cys of papain-like proteases, and the function of SERA5 or whether it performs an enzymatic role is unknown. In this study, we failed to detect proteolytic activity associated with the Ser596-containing parasite-derived or recombinant protein. However, substitution of Ser596 with a Cys residue produced an active recombinant enzyme with characteristics of a cysteine protease, demonstrating that SERA5 can bind peptides. Using targeted homologous recombination in P. falciparum, we substituted Ser596 with Ala with no phenotypic consequences, proving that SERA5 does not perform an essential enzymatic role in the parasite. We could also replace an internal segment of SERA5 with an affinity-purification tag. In contrast, using almost identical targeting constructs, we could not truncate or C-terminally tag the SERA5 gene, or replace Ser596 with a bulky Arg residue. Our findings show that SERA5 plays an indispensable but non-enzymatic role in the P. falciparum blood-stage life cycle.

  12. Detection of Borreliae in Archived Sera from Patients with Clinically Suspect Lyme Disease

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    Sin Hang Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The diagnoses of Lyme disease based on clinical manifestations, serological findings and detection of infectious agents often contradict each other. We tested 52 blind-coded serum samples, including 20 pre-treatment and 12 post-treatment sera from clinically suspect Lyme disease patients, for the presence of residual Lyme disease infectious agents, using nested PCR amplification of a signature segment of the borrelial 16S ribosomal RNA gene for detection and direct DNA sequencing of the PCR amplicon for molecular validation. These archived sera were split from the samples drawn for the 2-tier serology tests performed by a CDC-approved laboratory, and are used as reference materials for evaluating new diagnostic reagents. Of the 12 post-treatment serum samples, we found DNA evidence of a novel borrelia of uncertain significance in one, which was also positive for the 2-tier serology test. The rest of the post-treatment sera and all 20 control sera were PCR-negative. Of the 20 pre-treatment sera from clinically suspect early Lyme disease patients, we found Borrelia miyamotoi in one which was 2-tier serology-negative, and a Borrelia burgdorferi in two—one negative and one positive for 2-tier serology. We conclude that a sensitive and reliable DNA-based test is needed to support the diagnosis of Lyme disease and Lyme disease-like borreliosis.

  13. A Novel Method for Detecting p53 Autoantibodies in Sera of Patients with NSCLC

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    Kai TANG

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Serum autoantibody detection is useful means for the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer. So our objective was to synthesize peptide array to analyse p53 autoantibodies in the sera of patients with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods Cellulose-bound overlapping peptides (12 mers derived from p53 wild type protein were synthesized using SOPTs synthesis technique by an AutoSpot robot –ASP SL (Intavis, Germany. The membrane was incubated with 1/400 dilutions of p53 monoclonal antibody (Sc-53394 to establish a new approach to detect p53 antibody, and the epitopes of the p53 monoclonal antibody is already known. We analysed the p53 autoantibodies from the sera of NSCLC and controls by peptide array and ELISA. Results We synthesized on cellulose membranes twelve-amino-acid overlapping peptides which included all of the sequences of the polypeptide chain of p53. The p53 autoantibody was positive in seven cases of thirty patients’ sera with NSCLC and was negative in sera of the controls, with the same result of ELISA. Conclusion The peptide array could be applied not only to detect the autoantibodies in the sera of patients with lung cancer, but also to map the epitopes of the autoantibodies which might be useful for the early diagnosis and prognosis of cancer.

  14. Evaluation of a C-reactive protein latex agglutination detection test with sera from patients with sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalla, W O; Arko, R J; Thompson, S E

    1984-01-01

    A total of 149 sera, including 79 pre- and posttreatment sera from 33 patients with disseminated gonococcal infections, 18 from patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infections, 6 from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, 4 from patients with genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections, and 42 from normal volunteers, were examined for C-reactive protein with a latex agglutination C-reactive protein detection kit (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.). Results were quantitated with LC-Partigen C-reactive protein radial immuno-diffusion plates (Calbiochem-Behring, La Jolla, Calif.). Positive latex agglutination results were observed in all of the pretreatment sera and some of the posttreatment sera of patients with disseminated gonococcal infections and in two sera from patients with pelvic inflammatory disease, which corresponded to quantitative C-reactive protein levels in the radial immunodiffusion plates. C-reactive protein levels were not detectable in the serum samples from normal volunteers or patients with uncomplicated gonococcal infections or genital chlamydial infections. Positive latex agglutination occurred as early as 20 s in sera with high C-reactive protein levels, and all positive results were observed within 90 s of the 3-min test limit. Positive latex test results were obtained with C-reactive protein levels as low as 1 mg/dl (10 micrograms/ml). PMID:6440907

  15. Stability of Freeze-Dried Sera Stored at Different Temperatures for the Detection of Anti-Leishmania infantum Antibodies Using Direct Agglutination Test.

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    Zahra Kakooei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate freeze-dried sera as an alternative to non-freeze dried for detection of anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies over the course of 11 months using the direct agglutination test (DAT.Altogether, 60 serum samples (30 from humans and 30 from dogs were collected from various geographical locations in Iran. All the collected sera were pooled and each pooled serum sample contained 10 different sera. In the beginning, the human and dog pooled sera were categorized as positive (weak and strong and negative based on anti-L. infantum antibodies using the DAT. All the freeze-dried and non-freeze-dried sera were stored at -70°C, -20°C, 4°C, 22-28°C and 56°C for 11 months. The positive and negative human and dog pooled sera were separately tested using the DAT each month and the results were compared to non-freeze-dried sera kept under the same conditions.We found strong agreement (100% between the results obtained from freeze-dried human and dog in strong DAT positive sera kept at -70°C, -20°C, 4°C and 22-28°C during this study. The human and dog pooled sera stored at 56°C were corrupted after 2 weeks. The DAT results were highly reproducible using freeze-dried human pooled sera in the beginning and month 11 of this study (CV = 0.036.Freeze-dried human and dog strong DAT positive sera are highly stable under different temperature conditions, are easy to transport and are safe for use as positive and negative serum controls in laboratories.

  16. Recognition by human sera of a variable region of the surface glycoprotein of HTLV-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, E; Londos-Gagliardi, D; Busetta, B; Geoffre, S; Dalbon, P; Moreau, J P; Guillemain, B

    1994-04-01

    The region comprised between the amino acids 175 and 199 of the HTLV-I envelope surface glycoprotein is one of the immunodominant domains of this molecule. In this region, which is well recognized by sera from HTLV-I infected patients, a substitution of the proline at position 192 by a serine has been described in some isolates. Because this mutation could modify the secondary structure of the glycoprotein molecule, we studied the inference of the presence of proline or serine on the recognition of the region 175-199 by human sera. For this, three peptides have been synthetized (a 25-mer 175-199 corresponding to the sequence of the ATK prototype, and two internal 10-mer 190-Pro-199 and 190-Ser-199 having a proline or a serine at position 192) and tested by immunosorbent assay. While most sera reacted with 190-Pro-199 and with 190-Ser-199 synthetic peptides, a differential recognition was observed according to the pathology associated to HTLV-I infection. Moreover sera corresponding to patients infected with a virus harboring a serine at position 192 were found to recognize only the 10-mer with a serine. These data indicates that HTLV-I is subject to antigenic variability.

  17. Detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera by a Dot-ELISA using acid extracts from c. fetus ssp. fetus and c. jejuni strains and comparison with a complement fixation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürtürk, K; Ekin, I H; Aksakal, A; Solmaz, H

    2002-04-01

    In this study, a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Dot-ELISA) was evaluated in comparison with a complement fixation test (CFT) for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera. Acid glycine extracts (AGE) of both Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus and Campylobacter jejuni strains that had been isolated from the gall-bladder of slaughtered sheep was used as antigen in both tests. A total of 153 sheep sera from aborted (74) and slaughtered (79) sheep were examined by both Dot-ELISA and CFT. Twenty-two sera showed anti-complementary activity were not suitable for CFT. Of the 22 sera showing anti-complementary activity, two sera were found to be positive in Dot-ELISA. Eighty-eight (67.2%) of the remaining 131 sera were negative by both Dot-ELISA and CFT using AGE of both Campylobacter strains whereas 43 sera (32.8%) gave different reaction patterns in Dot-ELISA and CFT with the extracts of both Campylobacter strains. Twelve sera were positive by both tests using AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus but CFT failed to detect antibodies in nine of these sera when AGE of C. jejuni was used. Twelve sera were positive by both tests only when AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus was used. Eleven sera were positive only by CFT. Seven of these reacted only with the AGE of C. fetus ssp. fetus and four sera were positive by using AGE of both Campylobacter strains. The remaining eight sera were found to be positive only by dot-immunobinding assay either with the AGE of both Campylobacter strains or with the AGE of one of the Campylobacter strains. It is concluded that Dot-ELISA using AGE from C. fetus ssp. fetus could be employed for the detection of Campylobacter antibodies in sheep sera and the additional use of AGE from C. jejuni as antigen appeared not to be profitable for this purpose.

  18. Phage neutralization by sera of patients receiving phage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Zaczek, Maciej; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Kłak, Marlena; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Owczarek, Barbara; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-08-01

    The aim of our investigation was to verify whether phage therapy (PT) can induce antiphage antibodies. The antiphage activity was determined in sera from 122 patients from the Phage Therapy Unit in Wrocław with bacterial infections before and during PT, and in sera from 30 healthy volunteers using a neutralization test. Furthermore, levels of antiphage antibodies were investigated in sera of 19 patients receiving staphylococcal phages and sera of 20 healthy volunteers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phages were administered orally, locally, orally/locally, intrarectally, or orally/intrarectally. The rate of phage inactivation (K) estimated the level of phages' neutralization by human sera. Low K rates were found in sera of healthy volunteers (K ≤ 1.73). Low K rates were detected before PT (K ≤ 1.64). High antiphage activity of sera K > 18 was observed in 12.3% of examined patients (n = 15) treated with phages locally (n = 13) or locally/orally (n = 2) from 15 to 60 days of PT. High K rates were found in patients treated with some Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis phages. Low K rates were observed during PT in sera of patients using phages orally (K ≤ 1.04). Increased inactivation of phages by sera of patients receiving PT decreased after therapy. These results suggest that the antiphage activity in patients' sera depends on the route of phage administration and phage type. The induction of antiphage activity of sera during or after PT does not exclude a favorable result of PT.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in the U.S. swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera and data on swine management practices was collected during the voluntary survey of 185 grower/finisher swine production sites located in 16 states accounting for >90% of U.S. swine production . A total of 6,238 sera were tested for T. gondii antibodies using a commercial ELISA assay; all posit...

  20. Studies of neutralising antibodies to SV40 in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, P; Pipkin, P; Jarzebek, Z; Knowles, W

    2003-07-01

    It has been suggested that the low levels of antibody to the simian polyoma virus SV40 found in human sera may be linked to the use of polio vaccines. Panels of sera from areas of the world with different vaccination histories were examined to see if consistent differences could be identified. In a total of 2,054 sera from the United Kingdom, 692 from Africa and 923 from Poland taken between 1985 and 1997, the seroprevalence was generally between 3 and 5%, although exceptionally one collection from Morocco had a prevalence of 100%, and one from Poland of 0.4%. The seroprevalence showed no obvious age-dependent increase and titres were low compared to post infection animal sera. The results are consistent with previous studies and reveal no general geographically based differences related to possible differences in vaccination history, but the origin of the SV40 antibody in human sera remains to be established.

  1. Roe deer sera used for TBE surveillance in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg Gerhard; Wetscher, Monika; Baumgartner, Raphaela; Walder, Gernot

    2015-06-01

    A large majority of Austrian citizens are aware of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), consequently reflected by a high vaccination rate of 85%. In return, risk assessment and disease mapping on human cases might be hampered due to high and inhomogeneous vaccination rates and travel habitats of humans. The roe deer was used to obtain a starting point for the integral view on the actual risk of TBE in Austria. The roe deer exhibits several attributes which makes it suitable as an indicator species: the roe deer has a restricted home range and it is known to be a heavy tick carrier. Furthermore it sero-converts after infection with TBE, but no outbreak occurs. Sera from 945 roe deer were obtained from all over Austria and screened with IFAT for the antibodies against TBE. Twenty-two positive samples, 2.4%, and 17 samples at the borderline titre of 1:16 were identified. The majority of the positive samples, 70.6%, were located in known TBE areas based on human cases. Further research is needed to confirm or reject new endemic foci of TBE transmission.

  2. Sera from chronic chagasic patients depress cardiac electrogenesis and conduction

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    Costa P.C.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We report results obtained with sera from 58 chronic chagasic patients that were evaluated for effects on heart rate and atrioventricular (AV conduction in isolated rabbit hearts and screened for the presence of muscarinic and beta-adrenergic activity. We show that sera from 26 patients decreased heart rate, while 10 increased it and 22 had no effect. Additionally, sera from 20 of the 58 patients blocked AV conduction. Muscarinic activation seems to be involved in both effects, but is not the only mechanism, since atropine did not antagonize the decrease in heart rate in 23% of sera or AV block in 40%. Sera from patients with complex arrhythmias were significantly more effective in depressing both heart rate and AV conduction. Sera that induce increases in heart rate seem to operate exclusively through beta-adrenergic activation. Two of these sera, evaluated with respect to intercellular communication in primary cultures of embryonic cardiomyocytes were able to block gap junction conductance evaluated by a dye injection technique after 24-h exposure. The mechanisms underlying this uncoupling effect are currently being investigated.

  3. Effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis sera on cultured cholinergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touzeau, G.; Kato, A.C.

    1983-03-01

    Dissociated monolayer cultures of chick ciliary ganglion neurons have been used to study the effects of control and ALS sera. The cultured neurons survive and extend neurites for a minimum of 2 weeks in a standard tissue culture medium that contains 10% heat-inactivated human serum. Three parameters of the neurons have been examined when cultured in control and ALS sera for 8 to 12 days: (1) neuronal survival, (2) activity of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase, and (3) synthesis of /sup 3/H-acetylcholine using /sup 3/H-choline as precursor. ALS sera cause a small decrease in these three parameters, but this difference is not significant.

  4. Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera

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    Røed Knut H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT. Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI. Results The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. Conclusions Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area.

  5. Detection of trichothecene mycotoxins in sera from individuals exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, Trevor L; Campbell, Andrew W; Demers, Roger E; Ferguson, Bruce S; Fink, Jordan; Vojdani, Aristo; Wilson, Stephen C; Straus, David C

    2004-06-01

    To date, no study has effectively demonstrated a direct human exposure to mycotoxins in mold-contaminated buildings. Therefore, the authors investigated the presence of trichothecene mycotoxins in sera from individuals exposed to indoor molds (specifically Stachybotrys chartarum). Sera from occupants of contaminated (test samples, n=44) and uncontaminated (control samples, n=26) buildings were analyzed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) highly specific for macrocyclic trichothecenes. Twenty-three samples were significantly different (p human serum tested in the same manner, whereas only 1 of the control samples tested positive. Mass spectrometry analysis could not confirm the presence of intact S. chartarum macrocyclic trichothecenes. The authors hypothesize that this result was caused by uncharacterized ELISA-reactive metabolic breakdown products. Data from this study suggest that trichothecene mycotoxins can be demonstrated in the tissues of certain individuals exposed to S. chartarum in contaminated buildings.

  6. Circulating antibodies directed against "polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-like" structures in the sera of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouns, Olivier; Mangas, Arturo; Coveñas, Rafael; Geffard, Michel

    2009-07-01

    An increase in immunoglobulin (Ig) A isotype directed against benzo(a)pyrene (BP) structure has previously been described in sera of cancer patients. In this study, new polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) conjugates were synthesized in order to more closely mimic the endogenous ligands of the cytosolic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). PAH [benzo(a)pyrene; 1,2-benzanthracene; dibenz[a,c]anthracene; 7,12-dimethylbenza[a]anthracene; benzo(ghi)perylene] were bound to protein carriers such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) via N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). The levels of circulating antibodies (Abs) directed against PAH-NAC conjugates in the sera of cancer patients were evaluated using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) with these new conjugates. The avidity (IC(50)) and specificity of these circulating Abs were assessed via competition experiments. An increase in Ig directed against these PAH-NAC conjugates was found in the sera of cancer patients, irrespective of the state and stage of the tumors. These Ig were principally of the A isotype. Sera from cancer patients had significantly higher optical density (OD) ranges than the controls, p<0.0001. The ELISA test for breast cancer (n=155) and ovarian cancer (n=62) identified 82% and 92% of positive patients, respectively. The percentage positive in the control group (n=60) was around 5%. Moreover, competition experiments with the different PAH-NAC conjugates and NAC-BSA revealed an estimated avidity of 10(-6)M for the circulating IgA antibodies. The Abs discriminated between the different PAH-NAC conjugates and NAC-BSA. Therefore, these Abs recognize a carcinogenic PAH-NAC structure and not only a BP structure. These markers may be useful in the future for monitoring cancer evolution and recurrence.

  7. A General Method to Discover Epitopes from Sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Whittemore

    Full Text Available Antigen-antibody complexes are central players in an effective immune response. However, finding those interactions relevant to a particular disease state can be arduous. Nonetheless many paths to discovery have been explored since deciphering these interactions can greatly facilitate the development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines. In silico B cell epitope mapping approaches have been widely pursued, though success has not been consistent. Antibody mixtures in immune sera have been used as handles for biologically relevant antigens, but these and other experimental approaches have proven resource intensive and time consuming. In addition, these methods are often tailored to individual diseases or a specific proteome, rather than providing a universal platform. Most of these methods are not able to identify the specific antibody's epitopes from unknown antigens, such as un-annotated neo antigens in cancer. Alternatively, a peptide library comprised of sequences unrestricted by naturally-found protein space provides for a universal search for mimotopes of an antibody's epitope. Here we present the utility of such a non-natural random sequence library of 10,000 peptides physically addressed on a microarray for mimotope discovery without sequence information of the specific antigen. The peptide arrays were probed with serum from an antigen-immunized rabbit, or alternatively probed with serum pre-absorbed with the same immunizing antigen. With this positive and negative screening scheme, we identified the library-peptides as the mimotopes of the antigen. The unique library peptides were successfully used to isolate antigen-specific antibodies from complete immune serum. Sequence analysis of these peptides revealed the epitopes in the immunized antigen. We present this method as an inexpensive, efficient method for identifying mimotopes of any antibody's targets. These mimotopes should be useful in defining both components of the

  8. Autoantibodies to IL-1 alpha in sera from umbilical cords, children, and adults, and from patients with juvenile chronic arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Hansen, M B; Zak, M;

    1996-01-01

    umbilical cords (n = 11), children (n = 45), and adults (n = 20), as well as in 51 patients with juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) of pauciarticular (n = 34), polyarticular (n = 8), or systemic onset type (n = 9). RESULTS. The frequency of positive sera was significantly lower in children than in cord blood...

  9. Mining biomarkers in human sera using proteomic tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rulin; Barker, Lisa; Pinchev, Deborah; Marshall, John; Rasamoelisolo, Michèle; Smith, Chris; Kupchak, Peter; Kireeva, Inga; Ingratta, Leslee; Jackowski, George

    2004-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in mining low abundance biomarkers from serum or plasma is due to the fact that a small number of proteins such as albumin, alpha2-macroglobulin, transferrin, and immunoglobulins, may represent as much as 80% of the total serum protein. The large quantity of these proteins makes it difficult to identify low abundance proteins in serum using traditional 2-dimensional electrophoresis. We recently used a combination of multidimensional liquid chromatography and gel electrophoresis coupled to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-quadrupole-time of flight and Ion Trap liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify protein markers in sera of Alzheimer's disease (AD), insulin resistance/type-2 diabetes (IR/D2), and congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. We identified 8 proteins that exhibit higher levels in control sera and 36 proteins that exhibit higher levels in disease sera. For example, haptoglobin and hemoglobin are elevated in sera of AD, IR/D2, and CHF patients. The levels of several other proteins including fibrinogen and its fragments, alpha 2-macroglobulin, transthyretin, pro-platelet basic protein, protease inhibitors clade A and C, as well as proteins involved in the classical complement pathway such as complement C3, C4, and C1 inhibitor, were found to differ between IR/D2 and control sera. The sera levels of proteins, such as the 10 kDa subunit of vitronectin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, apolipoprotein B100, fragment of factor H, and histidine-rich glycoprotein were observed to be different between AD and controls. The differences observed in these biomarker candidates were confirmed by Western blot and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological meaning of the proteomic changes in the disease states and the potential use of these changes as diagnostic tools or for therapeutic intervention will be discussed.

  10. DETECTION OF HPVB19 IN SERA OF KASHIN-BECK DISEASE PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between Kashin-Beck Disease(KBD) and Human Parvovirus B19(HPVB19).Methods HPVB19DNA was detected in 55 sera of KBD patients and 52 healthy in adjacent non-endemic area and 35 healthy sera in normal area using PCR and then linked the HPVB19DNA to pGEM-T vector.The nucleotide sequence was analyzed and compared with HPVB19 nucleotide sequence published by Genebank and another in Journal of virology.Results HPVB19DNA was found in 16 of 55 sera in KBD patients,and the HPVB19DNA position rate(29.09%) is significantly higher than that of the two healthy control groups(11.54%、11.42% respectively)(P<0.05).The nucleotide sequence homologies compared with the two published nucleotide sequence were 97.75%、97%,respectively.The putative amino acid homologies compared with the tow published were 93.5%.The amino acid variation was greater than the nucleotide sequence variation because of a base insertion.Conclusion There was a close relationship between HPVB19 infection and Kashin-Beck Disease.

  11. Autoantibody to glial fibrillary acidic protein in the sera of cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Sachiko; Miyasho, Taku; Maeda, Naoyuki; Doh-ura, Katsumi; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2009-08-01

    It is desirable to make the diagnosis in live cattle with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), and thus surrogate markers for the disease have been eagerly sought. Serum proteins from BSE cattle were analyzed by 2-D Western blotting and TOF-MS. Autoantibodies against proteins in cytoskeletal fractions prepared from normal bovine brains were found in the sera of BSE cattle. The protein recognized was identified to be glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which is expressed mainly in astrocytes in the brain. The antigen protein, GFAP, was also found in the sera of BSE cattle. The percentages of both positive sera in the autoantibody and GFAP were 44.0% for the BSE cattle, 0% for the healthy cattle, and 5.0% for the clinically suspected BSE-negative cattle. A significant relationship between the presence of GFAP and the expression of its autoantibody in the serum was recognized in the BSE cattle. These findings suggest a leakage of GFAP into the peripheral blood during neurodegeneration associated with BSE, accompanied by the autoantibody production, and might be useful in understanding the pathogenesis and in developing a serological diagnosis of BSE in live cattle.

  12. Evaluation of the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination test in the diagnosis of syphilis in weak reactive Venereal Disease Research Laboratory sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Manju; Toor, Aman; Malhotra, Meenakshi; Kakran, Monika; Muralidhar, Sumathi; Ramesh, V

    2012-07-01

    Biological false positive (BFP) reactivity by the Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test used for diagnosis of syphilis is a cause for concern. The use of the VDRL as a screening procedure is challenged by some studies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BFP reactions in different subject groups and to assess the usefulness of Treponema pallidum hemagglutination (TPHA) test in low titre VDRL reactive sera. A total of 5785 sera from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic attendees, antenatal clinic attendees, husbands of antenatal cases, peripheral health centres attendees (representing community population) and from patients referred from different OPDs/wards were screened for BFP reactions by the VDRL test. Sera reactive in the VDRL test were confirmed by the TPHA test. Out of 80 qualitative VDRL reactive sera, 68 had VDRL and TPHA positivity was highest (76%) in the age group of 20-29 years. The seroprevalence of syphilis varied from 0.4% to 3.5% in different patient groups. The results of this study highlight that the TPHA positivity was high (86.8%) in sera with VDRL titre less than 1:8. Therefore, for the diagnosis of syphilis, it is recommended that a confirmatory test such as TPHA should be performed on all sera with a reactive VDRL regardless of its titre.

  13. 21 CFR 864.2800 - Animal and human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Cell And Tissue Culture Products § 864.2800 Animal and... of humans or other animals, that provide the necessary growth-promoting nutrients in a cell culture... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal and human sera. 864.2800 Section 864.2800...

  14. Overcoming a "probable" diagnosis in antimitochondrial antibody negative primary biliary cirrhosis: study of 100 sera and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Covini, Giovanni; Rosina, Floriano; Muratori, Paolo; Tonutti, Elio; Villalta, Danilo; Pesente, Fiorenza; Alessio, Maria Grazia; Tampoia, Marilina; Antico, Antonio; Platzgummer, Stefan; Porcelli, Brunetta; Terzuoli, Lucia; Liguori, Marco; Bassetti, Danila; Brusca, Ignazio; Almasio, Piero L; Tarantino, Giuseppe; Bonaguri, Chiara; Agostinis, Paolo; Bredi, Elena; Tozzoli, Renato; Invernizzi, Pietro; Selmi, Carlo

    2012-06-01

    Serum anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are the serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), yet up to 15% of PBC sera are AMA negative at routine indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) while being referred to as "probable" cases. The diagnostic role of PBC-specific antinuclear antibodies (ANA) remains to be determined. We will report herein data on the accuracy of new laboratory tools for AMA and PBC-specific ANA in a large series of PBC sera that were AMA-negative at IIF. We will also provide a discussion of the history and current status of AMA detection methods. We included IIF AMA-negative PBC sera (n=100) and sera from patients with other chronic liver diseases (n=104) that had been independently tested for IIF AMA and ANA; sera were blindly tested with an ELISA PBC screening test including two ANA (gp210, sp100) and a triple (pMIT3) AMA recombinant antigens. Among IIF AMA-negative sera, 43/100 (43%) manifested reactivity using the PBC screening test. The same test was positive for 6/104 (5.8%) control sera. IIF AMA-negative/PBC screen-positive sera reacted against pMIT3 (11/43), gp210 (8/43), Sp100 (17/43), both pMIT3 and gp210 (1/43), or both pMIT3 and Sp100 (6/43). Concordance rates between the ANA pattern on HEp-2 cells and specific Sp100 and gp210 ELISA results in AMA-negative subjects were 92% for nuclear dots and Sp100 and 99% for nuclear rim and gp210. Our data confirm the hypothesis that a substantial part of IIF AMA-negative (formerly coined "probable") PBC cases manifest disease-specific autoantibodies when tested using newly available tools and thus overcome the previously suggested diagnostic classification. As suggested by the recent literature, we are convinced that the proportion of AMA-negative PBC cases will be significantly minimized by the use of new laboratory methods and recombinant antigens.

  15. Anti-hepatitis B virus X protein in sera is one of the markers of development of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer mediated by HBV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Wu, Lian-Ying; Zhang, Shuai; Qiu, Li-Yan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xuan; Zhang, Xue-Zhi; Shan, Chang-Liang; Ye, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays a crucial role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the significance of circulating antibody to hepatitis B virus X antigen (anti-HBx) in sera remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the titers of anti-HBx (IgG) in the sera from 173 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 106 liver cirrhosis (LC), and 61 HCC by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. Our data showed that the positive rates of anti-HBx were higher in sera of LC (40.6%) and HCC (34.4%) than those of CHB (10.4%), P HBV replication rather than a protective antibody. Thus, our findings reveal that circulating anti-HBx in sera is one of the markers of development of LC and HCC mediated by HBV.

  16. Introduction to the Security Engineering Risk Analysis (SERA) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    framework to elicit better secu- rity requirements; and proposes future work to build a SERA method description and additional model types and archetypes ...that threat to be realized. During threat iden- tification, the Analysis Team might refer to a Library of Threat Archetypes for guidance. In this...context, we define a threat archetype to be a pattern or model that illustrates the key characteris- tics of a complex threat scenario. The team can then

  17. Testing UK blood donors for exposure to human parvovirus 4 using a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay to screen sera and Western blot to confirm reactive samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple, Peter A C; Beard, Stuart; Parry, Ruth P; Brown, Kevin E

    2013-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (ParV4), a newly described member of the family Parvoviridae, like B19V, has been found in pooled plasma preparations. The extent, and significance, of ParV4 exposure in UK blood donors remain to be determined and reliable detection of ParV4 immunoglobulin (Ig)G, using validated methods, is needed. With ParV4 virus-like particles a ParV4 IgG time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) was developed. There is no gold standard or reference assay for measuring ParV4 IgG and the utility of the TRFIA was first examined using a panel of sera from people who inject drugs (PWIDS)--a high-prevalence population for ParV4 infection. Western blotting was used to confirm the specificity of TRFIA-reactive sera. Two cohorts of UK blood donor sera comprising 452 sera collected in 1999 and 156 sera collected in 2009 were tested for ParV4 IgG. Additional testing for B19V IgG, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV), and ParV4 DNA was also undertaken. The rate of ParV4 IgG seroprevalence in PWIDS was 20.7% and ParV4 IgG was positively associated with the presence of anti-HCV with 68.4% ParV4 IgG-positive sera testing anti-HCV-positive versus 17.1% ParV4 IgG-negative sera. Overall seropositivity for ParV4 IgG, in 608 UK blood donors was 4.76%. The ParV4 IgG seropositivity for sera collected in 1999 was 5.08%, compared to 3.84% for sera collected in 2009. No ParV4 IgG-positive blood donor sera had detectable ParV4 DNA. ParV4 IgG has been found in UK blood donors and this finding needs further investigation. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  18. Uraemic sera stimulate lipolysis in human adipocytes: role of perilipin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonas; Aström, Gaby; Sjölin, Eva; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Lorente-Cebrián, Silvia; Stenvinkel, Peter; Rydén, Mikael

    2011-08-01

    Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, the exact cause(s) are unknown. Since adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of these complications, we investigated the effect of uraemic sera on human adipocytes in vitro. Cultured human adipocytes were incubated for 48 h with media containing sera from eight CKD Stage 5 patients or four (matched for age, sex and body mass index) healthy controls. Glycerol release (an index of lipolysis) was determined in conditioned media. RNA was isolated from the cells and quantitative polymerase chain reaction of genes involved in lipolysis was performed. In vivo lipolysis was determined by the plasma glycerol/total fat mass (from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) ratio in 28 CKD patients and 28 matched controls. Incubation with uraemic, but not control, sera resulted in a significant ∼30% increase in spontaneous (basal) lipolysis (P lipolysis in human adipocytes in vitro, probably by attenuating the expression of the lipolytic regulator PLIN. Since in vivo lipolysis is a well-established risk factor for insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, these effects may promote increased morbidity and mortality in CKD.

  19. Absence of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide in sera of patients with hepatitis C virus infection and cryoglobulinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wener, Mark H; Hutchinson, Kathleen; Morishima, Chihiro; Gretch, David R

    2004-07-01

    To determine if antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) are found in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-CCP were measured in sera from 50 patients with HCV infection but without cryoglobulinemia, sera from 29 patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia (including 13 with rheumatic symptoms and 5 with arthritis), and sera from 20 normal blood donors. Anti-CCP was measured by second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No sera with elevated anti-CCP were found in patients with HCV infection without cryoglobulinemia, and in that population, the maximum anti-CCP was 10 units, well below the positive cutoff of 20 units. Positive findings on RF testing >13 IU/ml were present in 22 (44%) of the HCV patients, with RF >50 IU/ml in 8 (16%) and a maximum RF of 526 IU/ml. Of the cryoglobulinemia patients, 22 (76%) had positive results on tests for RF, including 18 (62%) with RF >50 IU/ml and a maximum RF of 5,540 IU/ml. Two (6.9%) of the cryoglobulinemia patients had borderline-positive findings on tests for anti-CCP (25 units and 37 units), which were false-positive results caused by nonspecific binding in the ELISA. No association between the RF and the anti-CCP concentrations was found. Whereas RF was frequent in patients with HCV infection with and without cryoglobulinemia, anti-CCP was not observed in patients with uncomplicated HCV infection. Borderline-positive anti-CCP results were observed infrequently in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia and were caused by nonspecific binding to plastic. Measurement of anti-CCP may help in diagnosing RA in patients with chronic HCV infection.

  20. Prevalence of anti-Taenia solium antibodies in sera from outpatients in an Andean region of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Escalante

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Sera from 9,254 individuals that presented at one of three outpatient clinics in Quito, Ecuador were assayed by indirect hemagglutination for the presence of antibodies reactive with antigens from Taenia solium cysts. Immunoblot anlysis of 81 selected sera with IHA titers ranging from 0 to 1,028 showed that a titer of maior ou igual a 32 was suggestive of exposure to the parasite. Nine percent (9 % of the 9,254 patients had titers of 32 or greater. Of 3,503 sera from one clinic, which included sera from food handlers undergoing yearly physicals, 390 (11 % were positive. In addition, a correlation with age was seen in some, but not all, populations. In situations where age-related effects were noted, the highest incidence was seen in the youngest (0-20 years and in the oldest (51-60 years group. Thus, a resurgence of infection after a period of lower prevalence may be developing. Overall, this study shows that cysticercosis is relatively common and potentially a serious health problem in this region.

  1. Detection of tumor-specific autoantibodies in sera of patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashio, Ryo; Sato, Yuichi; Jiang, Shi-Xu; Ryuge, Shinichiro; Kodera, Yoshio; Maeda, Tadakazu; Nakajima, Takashi

    2008-12-01

    The presence of autoantibodies (AAs) in sera from two pulmonary carcinoma patients, adenocarcinoma (AD) and small cell carcinoma (SCLC) was screened by immunoblotting using cell lysate of four cell lines (LCN1, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC); N231, SCLC; A549, AD; RERF-LC-AI, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)). To identify the antigens recognized by AAs, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was immunoblotted and target spots were cut out from the membrane and gel. After trypsin digestion, the proteins were analyzed by mass-spectrometry using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer. By this method, cytokeratin18 (CK18) and villin1 were identified with AAs in sera from patients with AD and SCLC, respectively. Thus, the expressions of CK18 and villin1 were further immunohistochemically studied on 124 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded pulmonary carcinomas of various histologic types (44 AD, 27 SCC, 29 SCLC, and 34 LCNEC) using commercially available CK18 and villin1 antibodies. Positive CK18 immunostaining was observed in almost all cases with staining intensities significantly higher in AD and LCNEC than in SCC and SCLC. Villin1 was detected in 17/44 (38.6%) of AD and 21/34 (61.8%) of LCNEC, respectively, while in only one each of SCLC and SCC. Thus, villin1 and CK18 may be useful markers to distinguish LCNEC/AD from SCLC/SCC, and the present method might be useful to identify specific tumor-associated molecules in sera from pulmonary carcinoma patients with different histologic types.

  2. Evaluation of a blocking ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Lawsonia intracellularis in pig sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merza Malik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lawsonia intracellularis is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea and poor performance in young growing pigs. Diagnosis of this obligate intracellular bacterium is based on the demonstration of the microbe or microbial DNA in tissue specimens or faecal samples, or the demonstration of L. intracellularis-specific antibodies in sera. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a blocking ELISA in the detection of serum antibodies to L. intracellularis, by comparison to the previously widely used immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT. Methods Sera were collected from 176 pigs aged 8-12 weeks originating from 24 herds with or without problems with diarrhoea and poor performance in young growing pigs. Sera were analyzed by the blocking ELISA and by IFAT. Bayesian modelling techniques were used to account for the absence of a gold standard test and the results of the blocking ELISA was modelled against the IFAT test with a "2 dependent tests, 2 populations, no gold standard" model. Results At the finally selected cut-off value of percent inhibition (PI 35, the diagnostic sensitivity of the blocking ELISA was 72% and the diagnostic specificity was 93%. The positive predictive value was 0.82 and the negative predictive value was 0.89, at the observed prevalence of 33.5%. Conclusion The sensitivity and specificity as evaluated by Bayesian statistic techniques differed from that previously reported. Properties of diagnostic tests may well vary between countries, laboratories and among populations of animals. In the absence of a true gold standard, the importance of validating new methods by appropriate statistical methods and with respect to the target population must be emphasized.

  3. Histamine release-neutralization assay for sera of patients with atopic dermatitis and/or cholinergic urticaria is useful to screen type I hypersensitivity against sweat antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Hajime; Ishii, Kaori; Yanase, Yuhki; Suzuki, Hidenori; Hide, Michihiro

    2012-10-01

    We previously reported that about 80 % of patients with atopic dermatitis and 60 % with cholinergic urticaria revealed type I allergy against sweat, by means of skin test against autologous sweat and/or histamine-release test for peripheral blood basophils with semi-purified sweat antigen. In this study, we developed an assay for sera to neutralize histamine-releasing activity of semi-purified sweat antigen. The semi-purified sweat antigen was pre-incubated with serially diluted sera for 30 min at 37 °C and was subjected to histamine-release activity. Histamine release-neutralization (HRN) activities were calculated by measuring the amount of histamine release from basophils in the presence or absence of semi-purified sweat antigen. Of 62 subjects, 39 showed positive histamine release (≥5 %) from their basophils in response to semi-purified sweat antigen, and sera of 34 out of 39 subjects (87.2 %) were also positive in HRN activity (≥10 %). The specificity of the HRN assay was 0.522. Moreover, HRN activities in sera were largely correlated with degrees of histamine release from peripheral blood basophils of the same donors in response to sweat antigen. To identify the substance that neutralizes histamine-release activity, we removed IgE and IgG from the sera of HRN (+) subjects by column chromatography. The HRN activities in 30 out of 42 sera were largely reduced by the removal of IgG. On the other hand, sera of four subjects lost HRN activity by the removal of IgE, suggesting that the majority of HRN (+) subjects have serum IgG against the sweat antigen as well as IgE bound to peripheral basophils. Thus, the HRN assay maybe useful for the screening of type I allergy against sweat antigen.

  4. The IgG antibody reactivity of sera from patients with active chronic hepatitis to a crude liver antigen and liver specific protein (LSP): analysis by ELISA and immunoblotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, U; Heigl, Z; Sundqvist, K G

    1988-11-01

    The antibody reactivity to liver specific protein (LSP) and a crude liver antigen of sera from patients with chronic active hepatitis (CAH) were studied along with other related diseases and healthy individuals. CAH sera containing liver reacting antibodies were selected using an ELISA with a crude liver preparation as antigen and subsequently the specificity was analysed by immunoblotting of SDS-PAGE-separated LSP. The incidence of IgG antibodies to the crude liver antigen and LSP in sera from 15 patients with CAH was 94% and 55% respectively. In the healthy control group (n = 30) the corresponding figures were 3% and 17%. Sera from patients with other autoimmune conditions with considerable reactivity in the crude liver ELISA test were those with antibodies against extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) and thyroid gland antigens, while the anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) group as a whole did not differ from the control group. In immunoblotting of SDS-PAGE-separated crude liver and LSP antigens, the IgG binding pattern of ELISA IgG positive CAH sera and sera from patients with thyroid disease was distinct, with bands corresponding to antigens of molecular weights of 38, 45 and 50 kD which were not observed in ELISA negative CAH sera or in sera from patients with other diseases and among healthy controls.

  5. Occurrences of major polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in maternal and fetal cord blood sera in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyuyeon; Kim, Sungjoo; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Youngeun; Kim, Hai-Joong; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Su Young; Lee, Sunggyu; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Sooran; Choi, Kyungho; Park, Jeongim

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are of growing public health concern because of their potential toxicities which range from endocrine disruption to neurodevelopment. However, information on their exposure among sensitive human populations is limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the levels of major PBDEs in blood sera of pregnant women and their matching newborn infants. For this purpose, a total of 198 maternal blood samples and 118 matching umbilical cord blood samples were collected from four regions of South Korea in 2011, and were determined for 19 PBDE congeners. Various demographic, dietary, and behavioral characteristics were asked in a questionnaire survey. Average concentration of total PBDEs in maternal blood serum was 3.34 ± 8.42 ng/g lipid weight (lw) at delivery and 3.14 ± 7.46 ng/g lw at 6 months of pregnancy, respectively. In cord blood serum, an average of 9.37 ± 12.60 ng/g lw was detected. Among the measured PBDE congeners, BDE-47, BDE-99 and BDE-153 were most dominant in both maternal and cord blood sera. Relatively higher levels of BDE-99 were detected in cord blood serum. Strong positive correlations were detected between maternal and cord blood serum samples, indicating the importance of maternal transfer. Health consequences of transplacental exposure to PBDEs among fetuses and newborn infants warrant further investigation.

  6. Immunosorbent assay using gold colloid cluster technology for determination of IgEs in patients’ sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Al-Dubai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Haifa Al-Dubai1, Irene Lichtscheidl2, Martina Strobl1, Gisela Pittner1, Fritz Pittner11Department of Biochemistry, Max F Perutz Laboratories, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2Institute of Cell Imaging and Ultrastructure Research, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: This study focuses on the development of a sensitive and simple cluster-linked immunosorbent assay (CLISA using gold colloidal cluster labeling for determination of proteins such as antigens (Ags or antibodies (Abs. Abs for detection can be labeled with gold colloid clusters (GCCs. The Fc domain of the Abs binds to the clusters, and the Fab domain to the Ag on a nitrocellulose membrane or a microtiter plate as a support for dot-blotting. The signal of positive interaction between GCC-labeled Abs and its dotted Ag is detectable by the naked eye and can be quantified by comparison to a color scale prepared from a dilution series of known sample concentrations. The colored reaction product is stable for prolonged periods and does not fade, making this method a simple, fast, and convenient means for detection of Ag or Ab biorecognitions and an alternative to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several interactions between different Ags or Abs (eg, ß-lactoglobulin and solutions avoiding gold colloidal cluster flocculation (eg, using protein G were studied. CLISA was tested for other analytical purposes such as detection of IgEs in patients’ sera.Keywords: ELISA, allergen, patient sera, CLISA, immunoassay, ß-lactoglobulin

  7. Detection and analysis of anti-latent membrane protein 2A antibodies in the sera of patients with Epstein-Barr virus associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; YAO Kun; SUN Hua; QING Jian; PENG Guang-yong

    2005-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated malignancies with a Type Ⅱ latency gene expression pattern, such as Hodgkin's disease, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), frequently express the EBV antigen latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A). We expected to establish a highly expressing LMP2A yeast cell strain and get the high quality LMP2A protein, which was used for detection, analysis and characterization of its antibodies in various patients' sera of EBV associated malignancies.Methods The plasmid pPICZαA-LMP2A containing the full length of LMP2A cDNA was constructed and transformed to Pichia pastoris GS115 to express LMP2A protein. After fermentation and purification, the LMP2A protein was used as an antigen to detect anti-LMP2A antibodies (Abs) in the sera of patients with EBV-associated malignancies in enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Western-blot.Results LMP2A was expressed successfully with an expected molecular weight of approximately 54 kD and Abs to LMP2A were strikingly specific to NPC. Two-thirds or more sera from NPC patients were positive for anti-LMP2A immunoglobulin G (IgG) Abs. The antibodies were absent from the sera of other EBV-associated diseases except a small fraction of the gastric carcinoma. Comparing anti-viral capsid Ags (VCA) IgA and LMP2A IgA titers in the sera from 76 NPC patients, only 55% were positive for anti-LMP2A IgA Abs while 70% were positive for anti-VCA IgA. However, we found that 3 sera negative for VCA IgA were positive for LMP2A IgA.Conclusion The results suggested the potential significance of LMP2A specific Abs for the diagnosis of EBV-associated malignancies, especially NPC.

  8. Anti-collagen antibodies in sera from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, H K; Ryvar, R; Skingle, J; Greenbury, C L

    1980-11-01

    Anti-cartilage antibodies, demonstrable by immunofluorescence, were found in 3.3% of rheumatoid arthritis patients. In most of these patients antibodies to type II collagen were detected. In specificity studies on these anti-collagen antibodies, they appeared to be type specific, showing no reaction with collagen types I and III. Denatured type II collagen reacted much less well than native type II, but isolated peptides from different regions of the collagen molecule were differentiated by individual sera. Removal of the glycoside side chains from native type II collagen had no effect on its antigenicity. The findings suggest that these patients produce highly specific antibodies which react with the triple helix of type II collagen.

  9. Bioassay and radioimmunoassay of lactogens in sera from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, P W; Tze, W J; Rennie, P S; Bruchovsky, N

    1984-05-16

    Lactogen levels in sera from children have been determined using the Nb 2 lymphoma cell bioassay (BA) and conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA). Assays were done on samples obtained under basal conditions and after pituitary stimulation induced by insulin or arginine administration. There was a close correspondence between BA and RIA results (r = 0.94; n = 43). The average ratio of the BA and RIA estimates of the lactogen levels (BA/RIA) was 0.86 +/- 0.13 (mean +/- SD) and 0.82 +/- 0.17 for basal and stimulated conditions, respectively. The increased secretion of lactogens after pituitary stimulation was not found to be associated with a change in the BA/RIA ratio.

  10. SERA - An Advanced Treatment Planning System for Neutron Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. A. Wemple; C. L. Albright; D. W. Nigg; D. W. Wessol; F. J. Wheeler; G. J. Harkin; M. B. Rossmeirer; M. T. Cohen; M. W. Frandsen

    1999-06-01

    The technology for computational dosimetry and treatment planning for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has advanced significantly over the past few years. Because of the more complex nature of the problem, the computational methods that work well for treatment planning in photon radiotherapy are not applicable to BNCT. The necessary methods have, however, been developed and have been successfully employed both for research applications as well as human trials. Computational geometry for BNCT applications can be constructed directly from tomographic medical imagery and computed radiation dose distributions can be readily displayed in formats that are familiar to the radiotherapy community. The SERA system represents a significant advance in several areas for treatment planning. However further improvements in speed and results presentation are still needed for routine clinical applications, particularly when optimizations of dose pattern is required.

  11. Identification of new centrosome proteins by autoimmune patient sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Compared to other subcellular organelles, centrosome proteome can hardly be studied, due to the dif- ficulties in separation and purification of centrosome. Auto-antisera from 6 autoimmune patients, which recognized centrosome specifically in immunofluorescence, were used to identify the corresponding centrosomal proteins. The sera were first tested by Western blot on whole cell lysate, and all bound antibodies were then eluted from each single band in Western blot membrane to assure which antibody was responsible for the centrosome specific immunofluorescence staining. The corresponding pro- teins were obtained by immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry. Six centrosomal proteins, including 2 known centrosomal proteins and 4 proteins with unknown localization or report- edly non-centrosomal localization, were identified. These proteins apparently involve in cell cycle regulation, signal transduction pathways, molecular chaperons, and metabolism enzymes, which may reflect the expected functional diversity of centrosome.

  12. Identification of new centrosome proteins by autoimmune patient sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Liang; LI Yan; YANG Dong; WANG LiMin; HE Fang; ZHOU ChunYuan; LI YongZhe; ZENG ChangQing; He DaCheng

    2007-01-01

    Compared to other subcellular organelles, centrosome proteome can hardly be studied, due to the difficulties in separation and purification of centrosome. Auto-antisera from 6 autoimmune patients, which recognized centrosome specifically in immunofluorescence, were used to identify the corresponding centrosomal proteins. The sera were first tested by Western blot on whole cell lysate, and all bound antibodies were then eluted from each single band in Western blot membrane to assure which antibody was responsible for the centrosome specific immunofluorescence staining. The corresponding proteins were obtained by immunoprecipitation and identified by mass spectrometry. Six centrosomal proteins, including 2 known centrosomal proteins and 4 proteins with unknown localization or reportedly non-centrosomal localization, were identified. These proteins apparently involve in cell cycle regulation, signal transduction pathways, molecular chaperons, and metabolism enzymes, which may reflect the expected functional diversity of centrosome.

  13. The Puzzle of the False Positve Reactions in Cr. Neoformanse’s Capsular Antigen Slide Lates Agglutination Test by Sera of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zaini

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Different examination have shown that rheumatoid factor is not responsible for false positive reaction (F.P.R. in Cr. Neoformanse’s free capsular antigen latex agglutination test, whereas high levels of iron in sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other sera was responsible not only for this F.P.R. , but also had an important role in the production of F.P.R. in many slide latex agglutination tests. This is because of Iron’s Ion reaction with reagent’s preservative: sodium azid and/or negative charge of the antigens fixed to the latex particles.

  14. Anti-Hepatitis B Virus X Protein in Sera Is One of the Markers of Development of Liver Cirrhosis and Liver Cancer Mediated by HBV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx plays a crucial role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. However, the significance of circulating antibody to hepatitis B virus X antigen (anti-HBx in sera remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the titers of anti-HBx (IgG in the sera from 173 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB, 106 liver cirrhosis (LC, and 61 HCC by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, respectively. Our data showed that the positive rates of anti-HBx were higher in sera of LC (40.6% and HCC (34.4% than those of CHB (10.4%, P<.05. In all 40 patients with anti-HBx+ out of 340 patients, 39 (97.5% were HBsAg/HBeAg/anti-HBc+ and 1 (2.5% was anti-HBs+ (P<.01, suggesting that anti-HBx in sera is a marker of HBV replication rather than a protective antibody. Thus, our findings reveal that circulating anti-HBx in sera is one of the markers of development of LC and HCC mediated by HBV.

  15. Identification of Hitherto Undefined B-Cell Epitopes by Antibodies in the Sera of Vitiligo Patients Using Phage-Display Peptide Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Jadali

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A random 12 mers phage library was used to screen a pool of immunoglo¬bulin fractions obtained from vitiligo patients. Subsequent to panning experiments, a panel of affinity selected phage from vitiligo patients were obtained. This panel was tested using an ELIS A for their reactivity with pooled sera from patients and normal controls. Among the 16 randomly selected clones, two of clones showed distinct positive reactivity with the patient's sera compared with controls. The peptides displayed by these phages expressed the following amino acid sequences: SHMPLANQYQWA and NHVQAWEQFWDS. Thus, screening with phage-displayed random peptide library of vitiligo sera can reveal peptide sequences that mimic vitiligo-related self-antigen.

  16. Prevalence of bands other than 160 and 130 kDa in pemphigus sera (a multicenter immunoblotting study). Gruppo Italiano Studi Epidemiologici in Dermatologia (GISED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, E; Parodi, A; Rebora, A

    1998-05-01

    Patients with pemphigus may produce antibodies against molecules other than the classical transmembranal ones. Recently, for example antibodies to 230 kDa antigens have been found in association with antibodies to intercellular substance. To better understand their prevalence, clinical correlates and prognostic significance of bands other than 130 and 160 kDa, we studied 67 pemphigus sera. About one-fourth of patients revealed multiple heterogeneous bands and 13% the 230 kDa band. When challenged with the recombinant protein rBP55, the carbossiterminal portion of bullous pemphigoid major antigen, all 230 kDa-positive-sera proved negative. Caution is to be recommended in interpreting pemphigus sera with a band migrating at the 230 kDa level.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi: identification of specific epimastigote antigens by human immune sera

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Soluble antigens from epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed by western blot in terms of their reactivity with sera from patients with Chagas' disease. In addition, sera from patients with visceral (AVL) and tegumentar leishmaniasis (ATL) were also tested in order to identify cross-reactivities with Trypanosoma cruzy antigens. Twenty eight polypeptides with molecular weights ranging from 14 kDa to 113 kDa were identified with sera from Chagas' disease patients. An extensive cross-re...

  18. Effects of sera taken from women with recurrent spontaneous abortion on sperm motility and apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion impacts almost 1% of couples. The sera from women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) have toxic effects on embryos that grow in the uterus. Therefore, the abnormal condition of the uterus may also affect sperm qualities. Objective: The objectives of this study were to search if these sera could induce DNA denaturation in sperm nuclei and also it could reduce sperm motility. Materials and Methods: Sera of 20 women with URSA history...

  19. Evaluation of three Campylobacter pylori antigen preparations for screening sera from patients undergoing endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, F J; Hutchinson, D N

    1989-01-01

    A surface antigen (SA), acid glycine extract (AGE), and urease preparation (UP) were evaluated using sera from patients undergoing endoscopy and from subjects with gastric or duodenal ulcers. Sera were tested for the presence of IgG and IgA antibodies by a conventional indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In patients with confirmed Campylobacter pylori associated gastritis, raised IgG antibody titres were indicated by absorbance values of greater than or equal to 500, greater than or equal to 500, and greater than or equal to 1500 for the SA, AGE, and UP, respectively. Corresponding values for the IgA assay were greater than or equal to 500, greater than or equal to 500, and greater than or equal to 1000. The specificity of the IgG assays were 94%, 92%, and 90% for the AGE, SA, and UP, respectively. In contrast, the UP was the most sensitive (97%); the other two antigen preparations gave values of 82%. In the IgA assay the UP showed the greatest specificity (90%) and sensitivity (90%). The predictive value for a true positive for the IgG assay was the same for all antigens (93%), whereas the UP gave a predictive value for a true negative of 96% compared with 79% for the other two antigen preparations. Of the patients with gastric or duodenal ulcers, raised antibody titres to SA were found in 72% (IgG) and 73% (IgA), to AGE in 75% (IgG) and 63% (IgA), and to UP in 77% (IgG) and 75% (IgA). The use of a urease antigen preparation to determine IgG antibody is recommended for screening patients undergoing endoscopy. PMID:2760233

  20. Trace elements in sera from patients with renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Sera, Kouichiro; Sato, Michirou

    1999-04-01

    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, an accumulation of trace elements such as aluminum, copper, silicon and vanadium has been reported. Aluminum-caused encephalopathy and aluminum-related bone diseases are important trace element-related complications. Using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) we determined concentrations of aluminum, silicon, copper, zinc, selenium and bromine in sera of 29 patients with HD, 14 nondialysis patients with renal disease (RD) and 27 normal controls. The concentration of serum silicon of the patients with HD was 107.4 ± 61.3 μmol/l, which is markedly higher than that of normal controls (48.3 ± 25.8 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The serum concentrations of zinc and bromine in patients with HD were 11.9 ± 1.7 and 21.3 ± 3.0 μmol/l, respectively. Both were markedly lower than those of normal controls (15.6 ± 2.6, 69.2 ± 8.3 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The concentrations of aluminium and bromine in the serum of patients with RD were 171.9 ± 64.3 and 81.9 ± 11.6 μmol/l, which were markedly higher than those of normal controls ( p < 0.0001, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the concentration of copper and selenium among three groups.

  1. Clues to evolution of the SERA multigene family in 18 Plasmodium species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuko Arisue

    Full Text Available SERA gene sequences were newly determined from 11 primate Plasmodium species including two human parasites, P. ovale and P. malariae, and the evolutionary history of SERA genes was analyzed together with 7 known species. All have one each of Group I to III cysteine-type SERA genes and varying number of Group IV serine-type SERA genes in tandem cluster. Notably, Group IV SERA genes were ascertained in all mammalian parasite lineages; and in two primate parasite lineages gene events such as duplication, truncation, fragmentation and gene loss occurred at high frequency in a manner that mimics the birth-and-death evolution model. Transcription profile of individual SERA genes varied greatly among rodent and monkey parasites. Results support the lineage-specific evolution of the Plasmodium SERA gene family. These findings provide further impetus for studies that could clarify/provide proof-of-concept that duplications of SERA genes were associated with the parasites' expansion of host range and the evolutionary conundrums of multigene families in Plasmodium.

  2. Beta-nerve growth factor levels in newborn cord sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, J; Vilge, V; Juif, J G; Maitre, M; Donato, L; Messer, J; Mark, J

    1994-06-01

    This study was designed to examine beta-nerve growth factor (NGF) levels in human cord blood by a two-site enzyme immunoassay using MAb 27/21 to mouse NGF and to determine whether beta-NGF levels show developmental changes. Blood was collected at delivery from 61 newborns, 55 neonates appropriate for gestational age (46 term infants and 9 premature infants), 5 neonates small for gestational age, and 1 neonate with congenital hydrocephalus. In addition, samples were collected from 2 microcephalic children (microcephaly vera) aged 15 and 18 mo, 2 control children, and 4 healthy adults. Mean levels of NGF in preterm infants (n = 9; 13.7 +/- 8 pg/mL) were significantly lower than levels in term infants (n = 47; 21.2 +/- 8.8 pg/mL; p = 0.034 by Mann-Whitney U test). There was no correlation between birth weight, length, head circumference, and beta-NGF levels. In microcephalic children, NGF levels were low (8 pg/mL) compared with control infants' values (22 pg/mL). In adults, beta-NGF levels were higher and ranged between 238 and 292 pg/mL. Our study demonstrates that beta-NGF levels can be assessed in human newborn sera using a two-site enzyme immunoassay with MAb 27/21 to mouse beta-NGF, that beta-NGF levels are extremely low in newborns compared with adults, that beta-NGF levels seems to show developmental changes, and that beta-NGF levels may be used to assess NGF utilization under normal and pathologic conditions such as cerebral malformations.

  3. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-13

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Chris Van Beneden discusses the dangers of group A strep infections.  Created: 6/13/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/13/2011.

  4. Development of a surface display ELISA to detect anti-IgG antibodies against bovine αS1-casein in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Thorsten; Braukmann, Achim; Vordenbäumen, Stefan; Altendorfer, Irina; Bleck, Ellen; Hochwallner, Heidrun; Valenta, Rudolf; Schneider, Matthias; Jose, Joachim

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a surface display ELISA (SD-ELISA) for IgG-serum reaction against bovine casein αS1 (CSN1S1). In a SD-ELISA, the antigen is displayed on the surface of Escherichia coli using the autodisplay technology and whole cells of E. coli are used to coat the microplates for serum testing. After establishing the setup of the SD-ELISA with polyclonal rabbit antiserum against bovine CSN1S1, the SD-ELISA was validated with 20 human sera, of which 10 sera were proven to have an IgG-mediated reaction against bovine CSN1S1 and 10 sera were shown to be negative for this reaction. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% at a cut-off value of 0.133. Furthermore, human serum of 48 patients with known reactivity against human CSN1S1 (31 positive and 17 negative) was examined by the newly developed SD-ELISA to exclude cross-reactivity. Twenty human sera showed an IgG-mediated reaction against bovine CSN1S1. Eleven of these sera were positive for the reactivity against human CSN1S1, and nine were negative. In conclusion it was demonstrated that the performance of SD-ELISA is comparable to established ELISA without loss in sensitivity or specificity. Based on the advantages of this method - in particular no need for time-consuming and expensive antigen production and purification - the SD-ELISA is a potent alternative to convenient methods for identification and especially high-throughput screening of new antigens in the field of food allergies.

  5. Detection of soluble tumor-associated antigens in sera and effusions using novel monoclonal antibodies, KL-3 and KL-6, against lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, N; Akiyama, M; Kyoizumi, S; Hakoda, M; Kobuke, K; Yamakido, M

    1988-09-01

    Two novel monoclonal antibodies, KL-3 (IgM) and KL-6 (IgG1), which can detect soluble antigens in sera and effusions (molecular weights greater than 1,000 K) were produced against human pulmonary adenocarcinoma VMRC-LCR cells. KL-3 and KL-6 antibodies reacted with asialo- and sialo-carbohydrate antigenic determinants, respectively. Both carbohydrate epitopes appear, from competitive inhibition studies, to be different from Lex, Ley, sialyl Lea and sialyl Lexi which were recognized with FH2, AH6, NS19-9 and FH6 antibodies, respectively. Using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, elevated KL-6 antigen levels were frequently observed in the sera of patients with lung adenocarcinoma [52% (17/33)], pancreatic cancer [44% (4/9)] and breast cancer [40% (8/20)], but infrequently in the sera of patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma [18% (4/22)], lung small cell carcinoma [8% (1/13)], gastric cancer [0% (0/19)], colorectal cancer [0% (0/8)] and hepatocellular cancer [13% (1/8)]. The levels and positive rates of serum KL-6 antigen increased with the progression of clinical stage of lung adenocarcinoma. In pleural effusions, the prevalences of lung adenocarcinoma cases with elevated levels of KL-3 and KL-6 antigens were 76% (13/17) and 82% (14/17), respectively. These monoclonal antibodies can define novel soluble antigens in sera and effusions which could be useful in tumor diagnoses and for monitoring tumor progression.

  6. PRESENCE OF ANTILAMIN ANTIBODIES IN SERA OF PATIENTS WITH SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧珍; 崔京涛; 王晓红; 王永潮

    1995-01-01

    In this study,we characterized specifically-stained sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) which had been shown to display the homogeneous or peripheral region of nuclei by indirect immunoflucrescence (IIF),By western blotting,we demonstrated that in some cases these was a correlation between the peripheral or homogenous,IIF staining of nuclei by sera from patients with SLE and the presence of autoantibodies to lamins.Here we first report the presence of 2.2% anti-lamin autoantibodies in the sera among the 174 patients with SLE in China.

  7. Detection of liver HBc antigen and its antibody in sera from viral hepatitis by the immunofluorescent complement technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji,Takao

    1976-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B core antigen (HBc Ag and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBs Ag were detected in the liver tissue of a patient with chronic aggressive hepatitis by the immunofluorescent complement technique. The presence of anti-HBc was examined by the same method in 67 human sera previously tested for HBs Ag, anti-HBs and s-GPT levels. HBc Ag was localized mainly in the nucleus and sometimes in the cytoplasm of the hepatic cells. HBs Ag was found only in the cytoplasm. The focal area of HBc Ag positive hepatic cells seemed to correspond to the HBs Ag positive cells. Double staining demonstrated the simultaneous presence of HBs Ag and HBc Ag in individual cells. Anti-HBc positive serum was found in 46 (68.7% cases. Forty-eight (71.6% indicated a combination of HBs Ag and anti-HBc.

  8. Analysis of Sera of Recipients with Allograft Rejection Indicates That Keratin 1 Is the Target of Anti-Endothelial Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuli; Hu, Juan; Luo, Weiguang; Luo, Qizhi; Guo, Jing; Tian, Fang; Ming, Yingzi

    2017-01-01

    Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECAs) are usually directed against the surface antigens on the vascular endothelial cells. Clinical studies suggest a pathogenic role for nonhuman leukocyte antigen in antibody-mediated rejection; however, the antigens on the donor vascular endothelium that serve as the first-line targets for an immune response during allograft rejection have not been fully identified. Here, we used immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry to identify antigens from the sera of kidney transplant recipients who were experiencing antibody-mediated rejection. Keratin 1 (KRT1) was identified as a novel antigenic target expressed on endothelial cells. To validate our finding, we produced recombinant proteins representing the three most common alleles of KRT1. The serum used for immunoprecipitation showed a strong reaction to KRT1 recombinants in western blot and ELISA. In the kidney transplant cohort, more AECA-positive recipients than AECA-negative recipients had KRT1 antibodies (32.2% versus 11.9%, p = 0.002). Sera from 255 renal recipients were tested by ELISA. Of the 77 recipients with deteriorating graft function (serum creatinine > 120 μmol/L), 23 had anti-KRT1 antibodies. KRT1-IgG positivity was, therefore, associated with a higher risk of kidney transplant rejection (29.9% (23/77) versus 16.9% (30/178), p = 0.0187). A better understanding of this antigenic target will improve long-term allograft survival.

  9. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Laniewska, Magdalena; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in gastric cancer cells (GC). Moreover, the activity of total ADH and class IV isoenzymes is significantly higher in cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and ALDH as tumor markers for gastric cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive value for positive and negative results, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 168 patients with gastric cancer before treatment and from 168 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH IV isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of gastric cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH IV was 73%, specificity 79%, positive and negative predictive values were 81 and 72% respectively. Area under ROC curve for ADH IV was 0.67. The results suggest a potential role for ADH IV as marker of gastric cancer.

  10. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Mroczko, Barbara; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2010-10-01

    The activity of total alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and class I isoenzymes is significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissue than in healthy mucosa. The activity of these enzymes in cancer cells is probably reflected in the sera and could thus be helpful for diagnosing colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of ADH and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) as tumor markers for colorectal cancer. We defined diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve for tested enzymes. Serum samples were taken from 182 patients with colorectal cancer before treatment and from 160 control subjects. Total ADH activity and class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by photometric, but ALDH activity and ADH I and II by the fluorometric method, with class-specific fluorogenic substrates. There was significant increase in the activity of ADH I isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of colorectal cancer patients compared to the control. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 76%, specificity 82%, AND positive and negative predictive values were 85 and 74%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ADH I increased with the stage of the carcinoma. The area under ROC curve for ADH I was 0.72. The results suggest a potential role for ADH I as marker for colorectal cancer.

  11. Diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease based on disease-specific autoantibody profiles in human sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Nagele

    Full Text Available After decades of Alzheimer's disease (AD research, the development of a definitive diagnostic test for this disease has remained elusive. The discovery of blood-borne biomarkers yielding an accurate and relatively non-invasive test has been a primary goal. Using human protein microarrays to characterize the differential expression of serum autoantibodies in AD and non-demented control (NDC groups, we identified potential diagnostic biomarkers for AD. The differential significance of each biomarker was evaluated, resulting in the selection of only 10 autoantibody biomarkers that can effectively differentiate AD sera from NDC sera with a sensitivity of 96.0% and specificity of 92.5%. AD sera were also distinguishable from sera obtained from patients with Parkinson's disease and breast cancer with accuracies of 86% and 92%, respectively. Results demonstrate that serum autoantibodies can be used effectively as highly-specific and accurate biomarkers to diagnose AD throughout the course of the disease.

  12. A survey for arboviral antibodies in sera of humans and animals in Lombok, Republic of Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J G; Ksiazek, T G; Gubler, D J; Lubis, S I; Simanjuntak, G; Lee, V H; Nalim, S; Juslis, K; See, R

    1983-04-01

    Sera were collected from humans, cattle, horses, goats, ducks, chickens, wild birds, bats and rats in Lombok, Indonesia, and were tested by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) for antibodies to JE, ZIKA, CHIK and RR. Selected sera were tested by microneutralization tests for antibodies to the following viruses: JE, ZIKA, MVE, TMU, LGT, KUN, SEP, DEN-2, CHIK, RR, GET, SIN, BUN, BAT and BAK. Human sera had JE HI antibody in 135 (30%) of 446 tested. Neutralization tests indicated that DEN-2, ZIKA, TMU, KUN and SEP may have caused flavivirus infections. Antibodies to other arboviruses tested for were not found. HI and neutralization tests on animal sera indicated possible flavivirus infections with JE, MVE, KUN and SEP, and also that infections with BAT and BUN had occurred among domestic animals. No neutralizing antibodies were found for alphaviruses or other viruses used in the tests.

  13. Sera from remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients disrupt the blood-brain barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumitaka Shimizu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological destruction of blood-brain barrier (BBB has been thought to be the initial key event in the process of developing multiple sclerosis (MS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the possible molecular mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of BBB by sera from relapse-remitting MS (RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS patients. METHODS: We evaluated the effects of sera from the patients in the relapse phase of RRMS (RRMS-R, stable phase of RRMS (RRMS-S and SPMS on the expression of tight junction proteins and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1, and on the transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs. RESULTS: Sera from the RRMS-R or SPMS patients decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. In RRMS-R, this effect was restored after adding an MMP inhibitor, and the MMP-2/9 secretion by BMECs was significantly increased after the application of patients' sera. In SPMS, the immunoglobulin G (IgG purified from patients' sera also decreased the claudin-5 protein expression and the TEER in BMECs. The sera and purified IgG from all MS patients increased the VCAM-1 protein expression in BMECs. CONCLUSIONS: The up-regulation of autocrine MMP-2/9 by BMECs after exposure to sera from RRMS-R patients or the autoantibodies against BMECs from SPMS patients can compromise the BBB. Both RRMS-S and SPMS sera increased the VCAM-1 expression in the BBB, thus indicating that targeting the VCAM-1 in the BBB could represent a possible therapeutic strategy for even the stable phase of MS and SPMS.

  14. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  15. [Sensitivity of different morphological variants of Leptospira to the leptospirocidal activity of normal animal sera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'ina, Iu V; Chernukha, Iu G

    1984-10-01

    The leptospirocidal activity of normal animal sera with respect to 23 Leptospira strains was experimentally studied in vitro. 91.3% of the strains under study proved to be sensitive to the lytic action of cattle serum and 86.9%, to sheep serum. The uncinate variants of the pathogenic strains showed resistance to the action of the above sera, and their nonuncinate analogs were subject to agglutination with subsequent lysis, similarly to saprophytes.

  16. The sL1CAM in sera of patients with endometrial and ovarian cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Michał; Głowacka, Ewa; Wilczyński, Miłosz; Pękala-Wojciechowska, Anna; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    L1CAM is a cell adhesion molecule suspected to play an important role in carcinogenesis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the level of soluble L1CAM in the sera of patients with endometrial and ovarian carcinomas and verify the feasibility of the sL1CAM as a marker of these carcinomas. 35 endometrial and 18 ovarian cancer patients were enrolled in the study. 43 patients with benign gynecological conditions constituted a control group. The sL1CAM serum level was measured with ELISA test in each patient and it was referred to the data from the surgical staging of the cancers. The sL1CAM serum level was significantly lower in patients with endometrial cancer than in healthy women and slightly lower in the ovarian cancer group than in the control group. In the endometrial cancer group there was no correlation between sL1CAM concentration and cancer histopathology, stage or grade. sL1CAM concentration positively correlated with ovarian cancer stage and (not significantly) with grade. Despite the increasing data about the possible role of L1CAM as a strong prognostic factor of poor outcome in many cancers, we did not find evidence supporting the use of sL1CAM as a marker of endometrial or ovarian cancers.

  17. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  18. Ultrastructural damage of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes exposed to decomplemented immune sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Presas, A M; Zavala, J T; Fauser, I B; Merchant, M T; Guerrero, L R; Willms, K

    2001-08-01

    The susceptibility of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes to lysis by normal or immune sera in a complement-dependent reaction has been reported, but the effects induced directly by immune serum depleted of complement remain unstudied. The aim of this work was to study the ultrastructural alterations induced in T. cruzi epimastigotes by immune mouse or rabbit sera with or without complement. A local isolate of T. cruzi (Queretaro) was used in all experiments. Immune sera were raised in both mouse and rabbit by immunization with T. cruzi epimastigote antigens. Light microscopy showed intense agglutination of epimastigotes when incubated with decomplemented mouse or rabbit immune sera. A distinctive ultrastructural feature of this agglutination pattern was the fusion of plasma membranes and a pattern of intercrossing between subpellicular microtubules. Agglutination was associated with fragmentation of nuclear membranes and swelling of cytoplasm, Golgi cisternae, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and kinetoplast membranes. Agglutinated parasites also incorporated trypan blue stain. Results of [3H]-thymidine incorporation confirmed that epimastigotes exposed to specific antibodies in the absence of complement were incapable of proliferating. Ultrastructural changes observed in epimastigote micrographs incubated with decomplemented immune mouse sera were statistically significant (P<0.001) when compared with results obtained from images after incubation with decomplemented normal mouse sera.

  19. EU H2020 SERA: Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Infrastructure Alliance for Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giardini, Domenico; Saleh, Kauzar; SERA Consortium, the

    2017-04-01

    SERA - Seismology and Earthquake Engineering Research Infrastructure Alliance for Europe - is a new infrastructure project awarded in the last Horizon 2020 call for Integrating Activities for Advanced Communities (INFRAIA-01-2016-2017). Building up on precursor projects like NERA, SHARE, NERIES, SERIES, etc., SERA is expected to contribute significantly to the access of data, services and research infrastructures, and to develop innovative solutions in seismology and earthquake engineering, with the overall objective of reducing the exposure to risks associated to natural and anthropogenic earthquakes. For instance, SERA will revise the European Seismic Hazard reference model for input in the current revision of the Eurocode 8 on Seismic Design of Buildings; we also foresee to develop the first comprehensive framework for seismic risk modeling at European scale, and to develop new standards for future experimental observations and instruments for earthquake engineering and seismology. To that aim, SERA is engaging 31 institutions across Europe with leading expertise in the operation of research facilities, monitoring infrastructures, data repositories and experimental facilities in the fields of seismology, anthropogenic hazards and earthquake engineering. SERA comprises 26 activities, including 5 Networking Activities (NA) to improve the availability and access of data through enhanced community coordination and pooling of resources, 6 Joint Research Activities (JRA) aimed at creating new European standards for the optimal use of the data collected by the European infrastructures, Virtual Access (VA) to the 5 main European services for seismology and engineering seismology, and Trans-national Access (TA) to 10 high-class experimental facilities for earthquake engineering and seismology in Europe. In fact, around 50% of the SERA resources will be dedicated to virtual and transnational access. SERA and EPOS (European Platform Observing System, a European Research

  20. Inhibition of adenovirus DNA synthesis in vitro by sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, M.S.; Friefeld, B.R.; Keiser, H.D.

    1982-12-01

    Sera containing antinuclear antibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and related disorders were tested for their effect on the synthesis of adenovirus (Ad) DNA in an in vitro replication system. After being heated at 60/sup 0/C for 1 h, some sera from patients with SLE inhibited Ad DNA synthesis by 60 to 100%. Antibodies to double-stranded DNA were present in 15 of the 16 inhibitory sera, and inhibitory activity copurified with anti-double-stranded DNA in the immunoglobulin G fraction. These SLE sera did not inhibit the DNA polymerases ..cap alpha.., BETA, ..gamma.. and had no antibody to the 72,000-dalton DNA-binding protein necessary for Ad DNA synthesis. The presence of antibodies to single-stranded DNA and a variety of saline-extractable antigens (Sm, Ha, nRNP, and rRNP) did not correlate with SLE serum inhibitory activity. Methods previously developed for studying the individual steps in Ad DNA replication were used to determine the site of inhibition by the SLE sera that contained antibody to double-stranded DNA. Concentrations of the SLE inhibitor that decreased the elongation of Ad DNA by greater than 85% had no effect on either the initiation of Ad DNA synthesis or the polymerization of the first 26 deoxyribonucleotides.

  1. A serological survey of sera from domestic animals on Easter Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, P; Gray, D P; Gibbs, H C; Murphy, D A

    1968-04-01

    Animals' sera collected on Easter Island from December 1964 to February 1965 were tested by appropriate methods for the presence of antibodies to various infections. These included, ornithosis, Q-fever, brucellosis, Johne's disease, leptospirosis, toxoplasmosis and vesicular stomatitis viruses. It appeared that the cattle and sheep were exposed to the ornithosis group of agents. The sheep were also exposed to toxoplasmosis. The low-grade reactions observed on the cattle sera with the leptospira and brucella antigens were not sufficient to indicate past infection. All sera tested with Q-fever and Johne's disease antigens gave negative reactions. The results suggested that neither strain of vesicular stomatitis virus had yet been introduced into this restricted animal population.

  2. Recombinant gp19 as a potential antigen for detecting anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in dog sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Silva de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia canis, is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Some serological diagnostic techniques using immunodominant proteins of E. canis as antigens are available, but their specificities and sensitivities are questionable. Based on this, the objective of this study was to test the antigenic potential of the recombinant gp19 protein (rGP19 for subsequent use in diagnostic tests. The rGP19 expressed in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3 C41 was recognized in the sera from experimentally infected dogs using ELISA and Western blotting. Thus, it was possible to obtain a promising antigen with the ability to differentiate between E. canis-positive and -negative animals, even 1 week after infection.

  3. Sera from patients with seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectral disorders caused the degeneration of rodent optic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiko; Kanamori, Akiyasu; Nakamura, Makoto; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Ichiro; Negi, Akira

    2014-02-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune inflammatory, neurodestructive disease primarily targeting the optic nerve and spinal cord. An autoantibody against water channel protein aquaporin-4 (AQP4), which is expressed at endofeet of astrocytes has been implicated in the pathogenesis of NMO. We evaluated the impact of sera of seropositive patients with NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) on the rodent optic nerve and retina. Serum was obtained either from patients with seropositive NMOSD (AQP4+), seronegative patient with idiopathic optic neuritis (AQP4-), and healthy volunteers (control). Anti-AQP4 antibody in a serum was measured by a previously established cell-based assay. The patients' sera were applied on the optic nerve after de-sheathed. Immunohistochemistry showed that at 7 days after the treatment, the area of the optic nerve exposed to the AQP4+ sera lost expression of both AQP4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Also, Human-IgG immunoreactivity and marked invasion of inflammation cells were observed in the optic nerve treated with AQP4+ serum. Immnoreactivity of neurofilament was reduced at 14 days after the treatment, not 7 days. Real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed the reduced gene expression of neurofilament in retina from the eye that was exposed to the AQP4+ sera at 14 days. Retrograde fluorogold-labeling on the retinal flatmount disclosed the significantly reduced number of retinal ganglion cells when the AQP4+ sera were applied. The present model has demonstrated that the sera from patients with seropositive NMOSDs led to the regional astrocytic degeneration and inflammatory cell invasion in the optic nerve, resulting in the ultimate loss of RGCs and their axons at areas beyond the injury site.

  4. Serological Evidence of Immune Priming by Group A Streptococci in Patients with Acute Rheumatic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M Raynes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever (ARF is an autoimmune response to Group A Streptococcus (GAS infection. Repeated GAS exposures are proposed to ‘prime’ the immune system for autoimmunity. This notion of immune-priming by multiple GAS infections was first postulated in the 1960s, but direct experimental evidence to support the hypothesis has been lacking. Here we present novel methodology, based on antibody responses to GAS T‑antigens, that enables previous GAS exposures to be mapped in patient sera. T-antigens are surface expressed, type specific antigens and GAS strains fall into 18 major clades or T-types. A panel of recombinant T-antigens was generated and immunoassays were performed in parallel with serum depletion experiments allowing type-specific T‑antigen antibodies to be distinguished from cross-reactive antibodies. At least two distinct GAS exposures were detected in each of the ARF sera tested. Furthermore, no two sera had the same T-antigen reactivity profile suggesting that each patient was exposed to a unique series of GAS T‑types prior to developing ARF. The methods have provided much-needed experimental evidence to substantiate the immune-priming hypothesis, and will facilitate further serological profiling studies that explore the multifaceted interactions between GAS and the host.

  5. Quantitation of Circulating Neuropilin-1 in Human, Monkey, Mouse, and Rat Sera by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanmei; Meng, Y Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a single spanning transmembrane glycoprotein that acts as a co-receptor for class 3 semaphorins and vascular endothelial growth factors. Naturally occurring soluble NRP1 isoforms containing partial extracellular domain (ECD) have been reported. In addition to soluble NRP1, full-length NRP1 ECD has also been identified in human and animal sera. Here, we describe primate and rodent NRP1 ELISAs that measure total circulating NRP1 including soluble NPR1 and NRP1 ECD in human, monkey, mouse, and rat sera.

  6. Increased Levels of Soluble CD14 in Sera of Periodontitis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hayashi, Joichiro; Masaka, Tamami; Ishikawa, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Soluble CD14 (sCD14) mediates the response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cells lacking membrane-bound CD14. We determined sCD14 concentrations in the sera of 38 periodontitis patients and 25 healthy controls by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The sCD14 levels in the sera of patients with periodontitis were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects and decreased after treatment. Enhanced levels of sCD14 in serum may contribute to the host response to LPS in periodontitis. Further...

  7. 9th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications(SERA 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications 2011

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the 9th International Conference on Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications(SERA 2011) held on August 10-12, 2011 in Baltimore, Maryland was to bring together scientists, engineers, computer users, and students to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information sciences, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them.   The conference organizers selected 12 outstanding papers from SERA 2011, all of which you will find in this volume of Springer’s Studies in Computational Intelligence.

  8. [Group A streptococcal perineal infection in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskas, M; Levy, C; Romain, O; Schlemmer, C; Béchet, S; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Perineal diseases in children are usually caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). If the natural course of untreated cases is not known, it is well known that symptoms do not resolve spontaneously and can persist often for many months, until appropriate diagnosis and effective treatment are instituted. Furthermore, failures and recurrences after penicillin treatment are frequent. From 2009 to 2014, 165 perineal infections (median age: 48 months, extremes: 0.4-139) were enrolled by 15 pediatricians: 4 balanitis, 29 vulvo-vaginal diseases and 132 perianal infections. Painful defecation, anal fissures and macroscopic blood in stools were significantly more frequent in GAS perianal infections than negative GAS infections (p<0.01). The performance of GAS-rapid antigen test compared to the GAS culture was : sensitivity 97 % [CI 95 %: 89-100 %], specificity 76 % [CI 95 %: 66-84 %], negative predictive value 97 % [CI 95 %: 91-100 %], positive predictive value 71 % [CI 95 %: 60-80 %].

  9. Detection of hepatitis E virus RNA in sera of patients with hepatitis E by polymerase chain reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Zhao; Bing Ruan; Hui Shao; Zhen-Juan Chen; She-Lan Liu

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The duration of viremia during hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has rarely been reported. This study was undertaken to detect HEV RNA in sera of patients with hepatitis E and to understand the process of HEV infection more thoroughly. METHODS:HEV RNA was detected in the serum samples of hospitalized patients with acute hepatitis E by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nPCR) using two pairs of primers from open reading frame (ORF) 1 of the HEV genome. RESULTS:The serum samples from 44 (70%) of 62 patients were positive for HEV RNA. Thirty-two of these patients, with 288 serial serum specimens, were followed up for the whole process, and 24 patients (75%) were positive for HEV RNA. The positive rates declined with the course of the disease, serum HEV RNA persisting for 20.6 days on average after onset of illness. Serum HEV RNA remained positive in 36 (81.8%) of the 44 patients at the time their alanine aminotransferase (ALT) began to decrease. There was no difference in HEV RNA positivity between serum with high levels of HEV antibody (peak P/N ratio ≥4.0) and that with low levels (peak P/N ratio0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There is a relatively long period of HEV viremia in patients with hepatitis E. The proportion of HEV viremia and its duration are not directly related to serum ALT values or HEV antibody levels.

  10. A survey on the occurrence of ochratoxin A in feeds and sera collected in conventional and organic poultry farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cavallarin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey has been conducted on conventional and organic poultry farms located in northern Italy in order to investigate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA in feeds and sera in 2006. Ten poultry farms were monitored by taking 20 samples of feed and 94 samples of blood. OTA was assessed through immunoaffinity column purification and HPLC analysis. For in-house validation, recovery experiments, carried out on the spiked samples in the range of 1.0-10.0 μg OTA kg-1 and 0.3-3.0 ng OTA ml-1 for the feed and serum samples, respectively, led to overall recovery averages of 80.6% (RDS=7.3%, n=9 and 83.3% (RDS=3.1%, n=9, respectively. All the feed samples were contaminated by OTA with values ranging from 0.04 to 6.50 μg kg-1. Fiftythree percent of the sera samples were positive, with values ranging from 0.003- 0.165 ng ml-1. None of the feed samples was above the limits set by the European Union on OTA contamination in poultry feeds. No statistically significant differences in OTA contamination of feed or sera were observed either between the organic vs conventional group or between the laying hens vs broiler group.

  11. Proteolytic Activation of the Essential Parasitophorous Vacuole Cysteine Protease SERA6 Accompanies Malaria Parasite Egress from Its Host Erythrocyte*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, Andrea; Shea, Michael; Hackett, Fiona; Suarez, Catherine; Hirst, Elizabeth M. A.; Milutinovic, Katarina; Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Blackman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The malaria parasite replicates within an intraerythrocytic parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV and host cell membranes eventually rupture, releasing merozoites in a process called egress. Certain inhibitors of serine and cysteine proteases block egress, indicating a crucial role for proteases. The Plasmodium falciparum genome encodes nine serine-repeat antigens (SERAs), each of which contains a central domain homologous to the papain-like (clan CA, family C1) protease family. SERA5 and SERA6 are indispensable in blood-stage parasites, but the function of neither is known. Here we show that SERA6 localizes to the PV where it is precisely cleaved just prior to egress by an essential serine protease called PfSUB1. Mutations that replace the predicted catalytic Cys of SERA6, or that block SERA6 processing by PfSUB1, could not be stably introduced into the parasite genomic sera6 locus, indicating that SERA6 is an essential enzyme and that processing is important for its function. We demonstrate that cleavage of SERA6 by PfSUB1 converts it to an active cysteine protease. Our observations reveal a proteolytic activation step in the malarial PV that may be required for release of the parasite from its host erythrocyte. PMID:22984267

  12. Detection of specific IgE antibodies to major and minor antigenic determinants in sera of penicillin allergic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永星; 乔海灵

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mechanism (s) of penicillins allergic reaction.Methods The radioallergosorbent test (RAST) was used to detect 9 specific IgE antibodies, including major antigenic determinants: benzylpenicilloyl (BPO), ampicilloyl (APO), amoxicilloyl (AXO), phenoxomethylpenicilloyl (PVO) and flucloxacilloyl (FLUO), and minor antigenic determinants: benzylpenicillanyl (BPA), amoxicillanyl (AXA), 6-aminopenicillanic (APA) and phenoxomethylpenicillany (PVA), in the sera of 32 penicillin allergic patients. The relationship between specific IgE antibodies and penicillins chemical structures was studied by radioallergosorbent inhibition test.Results Nineteen of 32 patients (59.4%) were RAST positive, among whom, five cases were positive only to one or two antigenic minor determinants, and three cases were positive only to one or three major antigenic determinants. The remaining 11 patients were positive not only to major antigenic determinants but also minor antigenic determinants. In 9 specific IgE antibodies, the positive rate of PVA-IgE was the highest (34.38%), followed by BPO-IgE (31.25%). The positive rate of FLUO-IgE was the lowest (15.63%). Of the total patient group, 53.13% were positive to one or more minor antigenic determinants, while 37.5% (12/32) were positive to one or more major antigenic determinants. The percentage of patients with urticarial reactions who were positive to minor antigenic determinants (63.16%) was significantly higher than observed in the anaphylactic shock group (38.5%, P<0.05).Conclusions The minor antigenic determinant was important in allergic reaction. The combining sites of the specific IgE antibodies were likely to be the side-chain of drug or the overwhelming drug molecule.

  13. ON THE NATURE OF THE OPSONIC SUBSTANCES OBNORMAL SERA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsser, H; Cary, E G

    1914-04-01

    Our experiments show that the albumen fraction, or end-piece, obtained by the dialysis of normal guinea pig serum possesses definite opsonic action. This action is often almost equal to that residing in the unfractionated alexin. It is evident, however, only if the reaction maintained during the experiments approximates that of the original serum. By the addition of small quantities of a weak sodium hydrate solution to the dialyzed serum we have been able to bring back opsonic action which was not evident in the same end-piece if simply rendered isotonic. Although our attention was called to the question of reaction by the work of Bronfenbrenner and Noguchi, like Liefmann, we have been unable to reactivate the hemolytic function of end-piece by alteration of reaction. Our experiments suggest that the opsonic action of the albumen fraction is enhanced by preliminary sensitization of the bacteria with heated normal serum and by persensitization of such bacteria with the globulin fraction. However, we cannot be positive of this, since the slight differences of phagocytic counts upon which such an opinion can be based, fall within the limits of what we consider our experimental error. The fact that the albumen fraction can exert opsonic activity upon bacteria but cannot hemolyze blood cells seems to us particularly interesting in the light of the fact that alexin can be absorbed by unsensitized bacteria but not by similarly untreated blood cells. The literature upon the relation of the alexin fractions to bacteria and the bactericidal effect is confusing in that contradictory results have been obtained by other workers. We are studying this phase of the problem with particular attention to the alkalinity or acidity under which the reactions are carried out. We think that our experiments do not point to a differentiation of normal opsonin from alexin, but we believe they indicate that the so called end-piece can enter to a slight extent into non-specific relationship

  14. Characterization of sequence diversity in Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 from Indian isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul C.N

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To characterize the sequence diversity of blood-stage Plasmodium falciparum serine repeat antigen-5 (PfSERA5 which is lacking in a malaria-endemic country like India. Methods: In this study, parasitic DNA was obtained from field isolates collected from various geographic regions. Subsequently, PfSERA5 gene sequence was PCR amplified and DNA sequenced. Results: We reported the existence of unique repeat polymorphisms and novel haplotypes for both the octamer repeat (OR and serine repeat (SR regions of the N-terminal fragment of PfSERA5 from Indian isolates. Several isolates from India were identical to low-frequency African haplotypes. Unique finding of our study was an Indian isolate showing deletion in a perfectly conserved 14 mer sequence within octamer repeat. Indian haplotypes reported in this study were found to be distributed into the three earlier classified allelic clusters of FCR3, K1 and Honduras showcasing broad diversity as compared to worldwide haplotypes. Conclusions: This study is the first report on genetic diversity of PfSERA5 antigen from India. Further evaluation of these haplotypes by serotyping would provide useful information for investigating variant-specific immunity and aid in malaria vaccine research.

  15. Sera from patients with chronic Lyme disease protect mice from Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikrig, E; Bockenstedt, L K; Barthold, S W; Chen, M; Tao, H; Ali-Salaam, P; Telford, S R; Flavell, R A

    1994-03-01

    Sera from selected patients with Lyme disease in different stages were used to passively immunize mice against Borrelia burgdorferi challenge to determine if human antibodies could protect the animals from infection. Sera from 2 patients with late-stage Lyme disease that contained strong antibody reactivity to proteins in B. burgdorferi lysates, including antibodies to the outer surface proteins (Osps) A and B, partly protected mice from infection after challenge with a small inoculum (10(2)) of B. burgdorferi. Mice immunized with sera from either of these 2 patients developed significantly fewer infections from the borreliae (patient 1 serum, 5%; patient 2 serum, 25%) relative to control mice (patient 1 serum, 90%; patient 2 serum, 74%). In contrast, sera from 2 patients with early or late Lyme disease that lacked antibodies reactive to OspA and OspB did not confer protection. Immunity appeared to be related, at least in part, to the presence of a strong humoral response to the Osps. These results suggest that during prolonged infection, some patients develop an immune response that may be partly protective against reinfection with B. burgdorferi. Therefore, although most patients do not mount a strong humoral response to the Osps during natural infection, vaccination with an Osp may elicit protective immunity.

  16. Diagnosis of Parkinson's disease based on disease-specific autoantibody profiles in human sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Han

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, hallmarked by a variety of motor disorders and neurological decline, is the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide. Currently, no diagnostic test exists to identify sufferers, and physicians must rely on a combination of subjective physical and neurological assessments to make a diagnosis. The discovery of definitive blood-borne biomarkers would be a major step towards early and reliable diagnosis. Despite attention devoted to this search, such biomarkers have remained elusive. In the present study, we used human protein microarrays to reveal serum autoantibodies that are differentially expressed among PD and control subjects. The diagnostic significance of each of these autoantibodies was evaluated, resulting in the selection of 10 autoantibody biomarkers that can effectively differentiate PD sera from control sera with a sensitivity of 93.1% and specificity of 100%. PD sera were also distinguishable from sera obtained from Alzheimer's disease, breast cancer, and multiple sclerosis patients with accuracies of 86.0%, 96.6%, and 100%, respectively. Results demonstrate that serum autoantibodies can be used as highly specific and accurate biomarkers for PD diagnosis throughout the course of the disease.

  17. Effect of leukaemic sera & cell-extracts on splenic colony counts (CFU-S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S; Rusia, U; Agarwal, S; Sood, S K

    1991-08-01

    Sera and leukaemic cell extracts from patients of acute leukaemia were evaluated for their effect on the repopulating ability of the pluripotent stem cells and erythroid differentiation by an in vivo splenic colony count (CFU-S) technique. Normal donor marrow cells of mice were treated with sera and cell extracts from patients of acute leukaemic and healthy controls and injected in the recipient mice. The CFU-S performed on the seventh day to assess repopulating ability of the stem cell showed consistently lower CFU-S counts in the test groups, with leukaemic sera (P less than 0.01) as well as leukaemic cell-extracts (P less than 0.001). The erythroid differentiation assessed by 59Fe uptake by the spleens also showed significantly reduced counts in the two test groups (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.001 respectively). The results indicate that both leukaemic sera and cell-extracts exert a significant suppressive effect on the repopulating ability of the stem cells and on their erythroid differentiation.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Parvovirus 2 Recovered from Swine Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, M.; Franco, A. C.; Giongo, A.; Valdez, F. P.; Saddi, T. M.; Brito, W. M. E. D.; Roehe, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    A complete genomic sequence of porcine parvovirus 2 (PPV-2) was detected by viral metagenome analysis on swine sera. A phylogenetic analysis of this genome reveals that it is highly similar to previously reported North American PPV-2 genomes. The complete PPV-2 sequence is 5,426 nucleotides long. PMID:26823583

  19. The relevance of coagulation factor X protection of adenoviruses in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, M R; Doszpoly, A; Turner, G; Nicklin, S A; Baker, A H

    2016-07-01

    Intravenous delivery of adenoviruses is the optimal route for many gene therapy applications. Once in the blood, coagulation factor X (FX) binds to the adenovirus capsid and protects the virion from natural antibody and classical complement-mediated neutralisation in mice. However, to date, no studies have examined the relevance of this FX/viral immune protective mechanism in human samples. In this study, we assessed the effects of blocking FX on adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) activity in the presence of human serum. FX prevented human IgM binding directly to the virus. In individual human sera samples (n=25), approximately half of those screened inhibited adenovirus transduction only when the Ad5-FX interaction was blocked, demonstrating that FX protected the virus from neutralising components in a large proportion of human sera. In contrast, the remainder of sera tested had no inhibitory effects on Ad5 transduction and FX armament was not required for effective gene transfer. In human sera in which FX had a protective role, Ad5 induced lower levels of complement activation in the presence of FX. We therefore demonstrate for the first time the importance of Ad-FX protection in human samples and highlight subject variability and species-specific differences as key considerations for adenoviral gene therapy.

  20. PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION OF p16 GENE AND DAPK GENE IN SERA FROM HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA (HCC) PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Qing; CHEN Long-bang; TANG Yong-ming; WANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the aberrant methylation of p16 gene and DAPK gene in sera from primary liver cancer patients ad to evaluate the clinical significance. Methods: A methylation-specific PCR was performed for the detection of promoter hypermethylation of p16 gene and DAPK gene in blood DNA from 64 cases of HCC patients, and to analyze the relation of the aberrant methylation of p16 gene and KAPK gene and the clinical pathological data. Results: 76.6%(49/64) of the sera from 64 cases of HCC patients showed hypermethylation for p16 promoter and 40.6% (26/64) for KAPK promoter, whereas no methylated p16 gene promoter and DAPK gene promoter were found in sera from benign liver diseases patients and normal control. Methylated p16 gene and KAPK gene promoters in sera did not strongly correlated with HBsAg, stage,metastasis and differentiation in HCC; but strongly correlated with AFP. Conclusion: Detection of the aberrant methylation of p16 gene and KAPK gene in blood DNA from HCC patients might offer an effective means for the earlier auxiliary diagnosis of the malignancy.

  1. Total pepsin activity and gastrin in sera as markers of eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoshkholgh, M.; Saberi-Firoozi, M.; Fattahi, M.; Siavoshi, F.; Khatibian, M.; Vahedi, H.; Mikaeli, J.; Ansari, R.; Alizadeh, B.; Malekzadeh, R.; Massarrat, S.

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of total pepsin activity by colorimetry, and gastrin by radioimmunoassay method was performed on the sera of 100 patients (80 with duodenal ulcer and 20 with non-ulcer dyspepsia) before and 4 weeks after the end of antibacterial treatment for eradication of Helicobacter pylori. While

  2. Suppression of in vitro megakaryopoiesis by maternal sera containing anti-HPA-1a antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Jian; Bussel, James B; Lakkaraja, Madhavi; Ferrer-Marin, Francisca; Ghevaert, Cedric; Feldman, Henry A; McFarland, Janice G; Chavda, Chaitanya; Sola-Visner, Martha

    2015-09-01

    Incompatibility of the human platelet antigen-1 (HPA-1) system is the most common cause of fetal/neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (F/NAIT) and is thought to be mediated by accelerated clearance of antibody-opsonized fetal platelets. We evaluated the effect of maternal sera containing anti-HPA-1a antibodies (F/NAIT sera) on in vitro megakaryopoiesis. Compared with control maternal sera, 14 out of 17 F/NAIT sera significantly reduced megakaryocyte (MK) number. This finding was associated with increased apoptosis and cell death of early MKs/MK progenitors, but normal maturation and differentiation of surviving MKs. An analysis of platelet counts in infants born to mothers following antenatal intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) ± prednisone therapy demonstrated a significant and moderately strong correlation between the MK growth in cultures and the infants' platelet counts at birth. These findings suggest that maternal anti-HPA-1a antibodies can suppress fetal megakaryopoiesis by inducing early cell death and that this influences the neonatal platelet count. Thus, the ability of maternal antibodies to suppress MK growth is a potential predictive factor for the fetal response to maternal IVIG therapy.

  3. Specific Antibodies in Sera and Gastric Aspirates of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Helicobacter pylori-Infected Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, A.; Tinnert, A.; Hamlet, A.; Lönroth, H.; Bölin, I.; Svennerholm, A.-M.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we have determined systemic and local antibody responses against different Helicobacter pylori antigens in H. pylori-infected and noninfected subjects. In addition, we studied whether differences in antibody responses between patients with duodenal ulcers and asymptomatic H. pylori carriers might explain the different outcomes of infection. Sera and in most instances gastric aspirates were collected from 19 duodenal ulcer patients, 15 asymptomatic H. pylori carriers, and 20 noninfected subjects and assayed for specific antibodies against different H. pylori antigens, i.e., whole membrane proteins (MP), lipopolysaccharides, flagellin, urease, the neuraminyllactose binding hemagglutinin HpaA, and a 26-kDa protein, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The H. pylori-infected subjects had significantly higher antibody titers against MP, flagellin, and urease in both sera and gastric aspirates compared with the noninfected subjects. Furthermore, the antibody titers against HpaA were significantly elevated in sera but not in gastric aspirates from the infected subjects. However, no differences in antibody titers against any of the tested antigens could be detected between the duodenal ulcer patients and the asymptomatic H. pylori carriers, either in sera or in gastric aspirates. PMID:9605978

  4. Extensions to the Systematic Error and Risk Analysis (SERA) Software Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-05

    texte enregistré sur un enregistreur de voix Sony IC et transcrit par le logiciel Dragon Naturally Speaking. Le logiciel SERA gère l’insertion du texte...enrichi d’une fonction qui accepte un texte enregistré sur un enregistreur de voix Sony IC et transcrit par le logiciel Dragon Naturally Speaking. Des

  5. Tennessee Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Tennessee concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including one with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborations...

  6. Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Kentucky concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including a number with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborat...

  7. Effect of neutralizing sera on factor X-mediated adenovirus serotype 5 gene transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parker, A.L.; Waddington, S.N.; Buckley, S.M.K.; Custers, J.; Havenga, M.J.E.; Rooijen, N. van; Goudsmit, J.; McVey, J.H.; Nicklin, S.A.; Baker, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    The deployment of adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5)-based vectors is hampered by preexisting immunity. When such vectors are delivered intravenously, hepatocyte transduction is mediated by the hexon-coagulation factor X (FX) interaction. Here, we demonstrate that human sera efficiently block FX-mediated

  8. First Complete Genome Sequences of Zika Virus Isolated from Febrile Patient Sera in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, S.; Carrera, J.; Pullan, S. T.; Lewandowski, K.; Paz, V.; Loman, N.; Quick, J.; Bonsall, D.; Powell, R.; Thézé, J.; Pybus, O. G.; Klenerman, P.; Eisenberg, J.; Coloma, J.; Carroll, M. W.; Trueba, G.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we present the complete genome sequences of two Zika virus (ZIKV) strains, EcEs062_16 and EcEs089_16, isolated from the sera of febrile patients in Esmeraldas City, in the northern coastal province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador, in April 2016. These are the first complete ZIKV genomes to be reported from Ecuador. PMID:28232448

  9. Acute phase phospholipids related to the cardiolipin of mitochondria in the sera of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic Ciguatera fish poisoning (CCFP), and other diseases attributed to chemicals, Gulf War, and marine toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokama, Yoshitsugi; Empey-Campora, Cara; Hara, Cynthia; Higa, Nicole; Siu, Nathaniel; Lau, Rachael; Kuribayashi, Tina; Yabusaki, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    This study examined 328 CFS sera in a study with 17 CCFP, 8 Gulf War Veterans (GWV), 24 Prostate Cancer (PC), and 52 normal sera in the modified Membrane Immunobead Assay (MIA) procedure for CTX. Three hundred and twenty-eight CFS patients' sera were examined by the modified MIA with purified MAb-CTX and 91.2% gave a titre > or =1:40. 76% of the 17 CCFP sera samples and 100% of the 8 GWV sera samples also had a titre > or =1:40. 92.3% of 52 normal sera showed titres of 1:20 or less, while 4 gave titres of > or =1:40. In addition, 41 sera were examined for Anti-Cardiolipin (aCL) by a commercial ELISA procedure with 87.8% demonstrating IgM, IgM+IgA, or IgM+IgG aCL antibodies. These results showed mostly the IgM aCL antibody alone in the sera samples. In addition, 41 serum samples were examined for aCL, with 37 showing positive for aCL, representing 90.2% positive for the three disease categories examined: CFS, CCFP and GWV. Examination for antiMitochondrial-M2 autoantibody (aM-M2) in 28 patients (CFS (18), CCFP (5), and GWV (5)) was negative for aM-M2. Inhibition analysis with antigens, CTX, CFS "Acute Phase Lipids", commercial Cardiolipin (CL) and 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-[Phospho-L-Serine] (PS) and antibodies, MAb-CTX and aCL from patients' serum show that the phospholipids in CL and CTX are antigenically indistinguishable with antibodies MAb-CTX and CFS-aCL. Preliminary chemical analyses have shown the lipids to be phospholipids associated with CL of the mitochondria. We designate this "Acute Phase Lipid" comparable to "Acute Phase Proteins" (C-reactive protein (CRP) and Serum Amyloid A (SAA)) in inflammatory conditions.

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa serA Gene Is Required for Bacterial Translocation through Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masashi; Nagata, Syouya; Yamane, Satoshi; Kunikata, Chinami; Kida, Yutaka; Kuwano, Koichi; Suezawa, Chigusa; Okuda, Jun

    2017-01-01

    To specify critical factors responsible for Pseudomonas aeruginosa penetration through the Caco-2 cell epithelial barrier, we analyzed transposon insertion mutants that demonstrated a dramatic reduction in penetration activity relative to P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. From these strains, mutations could be grouped into five classes, specifically flagellin-associated genes, pili-associated genes, heat-shock protein genes, genes related to the glycolytic pathway, and biosynthesis-related genes. Of these mutants, we here focused on the serA mutant, as the association between this gene and penetration activity is yet unknown. Inactivation of the serA gene caused significant repression of bacterial penetration through Caco-2 cell monolayers with decreased swimming and swarming motilities, bacterial adherence, and fly mortality rate, as well as repression of ExoS secretion; however, twitching motility was not affected. Furthermore, L-serine, which is known to inhibit the D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase activity of the SerA protein, caused significant reductions in penetration through Caco-2 cell monolayers, swarming and swimming motilities, bacterial adherence to Caco-2 cells, and virulence in flies in the wild-type P. aeruginosa PAO1 strain. Together, these results suggest that serA is associated with bacterial motility and adherence, which are mediated by flagella that play a key role in the penetration of P. aeruginosa through Caco-2 cell monolayers. Oral administration of L-serine to compromised hosts might have the potential to interfere with bacterial translocation and prevent septicemia caused by P. aeruginosa through inhibition of serA function. PMID:28046014

  11. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense adaptation to different mammalian sera is associated with VSG expression site plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cordon-Obras

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection is widely considered an anthroponosis, although it has also been found in wild and domestic animals. Thus, fauna could act as reservoir, constraining the elimination of the parasite in hypo-endemic foci. To better understand the possible maintenance of T. b. gambiense in local fauna and investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptation, we generated adapted cells lines (ACLs by in vitro culture of the parasites in different mammalian sera. Using specific antibodies against the Variant Surface Glycoproteins (VSGs we found that serum ACLs exhibited different VSG variants when maintained in pig, goat or human sera. Although newly detected VSGs were independent of the sera used, the consistent appearance of different VSGs suggested remodelling of the co-transcribed genes at the telomeric Expression Site (VSG-ES. Thus, Expression Site Associated Genes (ESAGs sequences were analysed to investigate possible polymorphism selection. ESAGs 6 and 7 genotypes, encoding the transferrin receptor (TfR, expressed in different ACLs were characterised. In addition, we quantified the ESAG6/7 mRNA levels and analysed transferrin (Tf uptake. Interestingly, the best growth occurred in pig and human serum ACLs, which consistently exhibited a predominant ESAG7 genotype and higher Tf uptake than those obtained in calf and goat sera. We also detected an apparent selection of specific ESAG3 genotypes in the pig and human serum ACLs, suggesting that other ESAGs could be involved in the host adaptation processes. Altogether, these results suggest a model whereby VSG-ES remodelling allows the parasite to express a specific set of ESAGs to provide selective advantages in different hosts. Finally, pig serum ACLs display phenotypic adaptation parameters closely related to human serum ACLs but distinct to parasites grown in calf and goat sera. These results suggest a better suitability of swine to maintain T. b. gambiense infection

  12. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Daniel, W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report describes the development and analysis of detailed temporal and spatial scenarios for early market hydrogen fueling infrastructure clustering and fuel cell electric vehicle rollout using the Scenario Evaluation, Regionalization and Analysis (SERA) model. The report provides an overview of the SERA scenario development framework and discusses the approach used to develop the nationwidescenario.

  13. Investigation of HGV and TTV infection in sera and saliva from non-hepatitis patients with oral diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yan; Li-Li Chen; Yong-Liang Lou; Xiao-Zhi Zhong

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To determine the frequencies of HGV and TTV infectionsin serum and saliva samples of non-hepatitis patients withoral diseases in Hangzhou area, and to understand thecorrelation between detected results of HGV RNA and/or TTVDNA in sera and in saliva from the same patientsMETHODS: RT-nested PCR for HGV RNA detection andsemi-nested PCR for nv DNA detection were performed inthe serum and saliva samples from 226 non-hepatitis patientswith oral diseases, and nucleotide sequence analysis.RESULTS: Twenty-seven (11.9 %) and 21 (9.3 %) of the226 serum samples were only positive for HGV RNA andlrv DNA, respectively. 10 (4.4 %) and 9 (3.9 %) of the226 saliva samples were only positive for HGV RNA andTTV DNA, respectively. And 7 (3.1%) of the serum samplesand 2 (0.9 %) of the saliva samples showed the positiveamplification results for both HGV RNA and Irv DNA. 12saliva samples from the 34 patients (35.3 %) with HGV orHGV/TTV viremia and 11 saliva samples from the 28 patients(39.3 %) with TTV or HGV/TTV viremia were HGV RNAdetectable, respectively, including two patients positive forboth HGV RNA and TTV DNA in serum and saliva samples.No saliva samples from the 226 patients were found to beHGV RNA or nv DNA detectable while their serum sampleswere negative for HGV or TTV. Homologies of the nucleotidesequences of HGV and TTV amplification products from theserum and saliva samples of the two patients comparedwith the reported sequences were 88.65-91.49 % and65.32-66.67 %, respectively. In comparison with thenucleotide sequences of amplification products betweenserum and from saliva sample from any one of the twopatients, the homologies were 98.58 % and 99.29 % forHGV, and were 98.65 % and 98.20 % for rTV, respectively.CONCLUSION: Relatively high carrying rates of HGV and/or TTV in the sera of non-hepatitis patients with oral diseasesin Hangzhou area are demonstrated. Parts of the carriersare HGV and/or TTV positive in their saliva. The results ofthis study indicate that

  14. Serologic reactivity of a synthetic peptide from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp41 with sera from a Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, G; Soler, C; Viveros, M; Padilla, A; Govezensky, T; Larralde, C

    1996-01-01

    The reactivities of 1,172 serum samples obtained from asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-positive and HIV-1-negative individuals residing in Mexico to a synthetic disulfide-looped peptide from the HIV-1 gp41 (amino acids 602 to 616 [IWGCSGKLICTTAVP] were examined by an enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay (ELISA) procedure. Antibodies to the synthetic peptide were detected in 261 of 268 serum samples from HIV-positive individuals (sensitivity, 97.4%). The peptide also reacted with 12 of 904 serum samples from control HIV-negative individuals (specificity, 98.7%). Western blots (immunoblots) of four of the seven serum samples that produced false-negative results in the ELISA showed that three of them reacted weakly with gp41 and strongly with gp120, p55, and/or p24. Potential diagnostic difficulties raised by the reported C1q binding capacity of this peptide were also evaluated: few and weak false-positive results were found among sera from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (1 of 31) and neurocysticercosis (2 of 111). In fact, strong reactivity with the peptide spotted an undetected HIV infection underlying clinical neurocysticercosis. PMID:8914754

  15. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in sera samples of mice experimentally infected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Detection of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii DNA in blood can help to diagnose the disease in its acute phase; however, it must be considered that hemoglobin, present in blood, can inhibit polymerase activity, making impracticable the detection of DNA in samples. Mice were experimentally infected via oral route with ME49 and BTU2 strains cysts and RH strain tachyzoites; polymerase chain reaction was used to detect T. gondii DNA in mice sera 18, 24, 48, 96, and 192 hours post infection (PI. Toxoplama gondii DNA was detected in only one animal infected with BTU2 strain, genotype III (isolated from a dog with neurological signs 18 hours PI. The agent's DNA was not detected in any sample of the other experimental groups. New studies must be carried out to verify the technique sensitivity in researches on this agent's genetic material using sera samples of acute-phase toxoplasmosis patients, especially in cases of immunosuppression.

  16. Anti-leptospirose agglutinins in equine sera, from São Paulo, Goias, and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, 1996-2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Langoni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Equine leptospirosis can present a non-symptomatic form, an acute clinical form, or even develop chronically, causing reproductive alterations, such as abortion and recurrent uveitis. Since the prevalence of leptospirosis in several countries and regions is widely reported, the objective of this study was to verify the prevailing equine leptospirosis in different regions of Brazil. Sera from 1402 blood samples from horses of different age, sex, breed, and purpose were examined. These samples came from southeastern and central west states of Brazil. The method utilized was the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT, with 12 different Leptospira serovars. From the sera tested, 754 (54% were positive for one (385 or more (372 serovars. These results were higher when compared to national and international levels. The most commonly found serovars were icterohaemorrhagiae (37.01%, suggesting exposure to rodents, castellonis (16.97%, and djasiman (15.19%. There were significant differences of reagents between sexes, and a tendency toward higher positivity with age. Distribution of sera-reagents related to aptitude showed a markedly higher value for work animals than for sporting ones. Higher rates were found for animals with undefined breed. There were no significant differences related to regional origin. As an indication of multiple exposure, significant associations were observed between the following serovars: castellonis and djasiman; castellonis and grippotyphosa; castellonis and copenhageni; castellonis and icterohaemorrhagiae; castellonis and pomona; canicola and pomona; canicola and djasiman; djasiman and copenhageni; icterohaemorrhagiae and djasiman; icterohaemorrhagiae and pyrogenes; copenhageni and pomona. These results showed the necessity of further studies on the epidemiology of this disease in equines and its relationship to human illness.

  17. Fingolimod prevents blood-brain barrier disruption induced by the sera from patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Nishihara

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Effect of fingolimod in multiple sclerosis (MS is thought to involve the prevention of lymphocyte egress from lymphoid tissues, thereby reducing autoaggressive lymphocyte infiltration into the central nervous system across blood-brain barrier (BBB. However, brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs represent a possible additional target for fingolimod in MS patients by directly repairing the function of BBB, as S1P receptors are also expressed by BMECs. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fingolimod on BMECs and clarified whether fingolimod-phosphate restores the BBB function after exposure to MS sera. METHODS: Changes in tight junction proteins, adhesion molecules and transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER in BMECs were evaluated following incubation in conditioned medium with or without fingolimod/fingolimod-phosphate. In addition, the effects of sera derived from MS patients, including those in the relapse phase of relapse-remitting (RR MS, stable phase of RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS, on the function of BBB in the presence of fingolimod-phosphate were assessed. RESULTS: Incubation with fingolimod-phosphate increased the claudin-5 protein levels and TEER values in BMECs, although it did not change the amount of occludin, ICAM-1 or MelCAM proteins. Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate restored the changes in the claudin-5 and VCAM-1 protein/mRNA levels and TEER values in BMECs after exposure to MS sera. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with fingolimod-phosphate prevents BBB disruption caused by both RRMS and SPMS sera via the upregulation of claudin-5 and downregulation of VCAM-1 in BMECs, suggesting that fingolimod-phosphate is capable of directly modifying the BBB. BMECs represent a possible therapeutic target for fingolimod in MS patients.

  18. B cell epitopes on infliximab identified by oligopeptide microarray with unprocessed patient sera

    OpenAIRE

    Homann, Arne; Röckendorf, Niels; Kromminga, Arno; Frey, Andreas; Jappe, Uta

    2015-01-01

    Background Autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease are treated with TNF-alpha-blocking antibodies such as infliximab and adalimumab. A common side effect of therapeutic antibodies is the induction of anti-drug antibodies, which may reduce therapeutic efficacy. Methods In order to reveal immunogenic epitopes on infliximab which are responsible for the adverse effects, sera from patients treated with infliximab were screened by ELISA for anti-infliximab anti...

  19. Microarray screening of Guillain-Barré syndrome sera for antibodies to glycolipid complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, Susan K.; Kalna, Gabriela; Islam, Mohammad B.; Jahan, Israt; Mohammad, Quazi D.; Bart C Jacobs; Endtz, Hubert P.; Islam, Zhahirul; Willison, Hugh J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the patterns of autoantibodies to glycolipid complexes in a large cohort of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and control samples collected in Bangladesh using a newly developed microarray technique.\\ud \\ud Methods: Twelve commonly studied glycolipids and lipids, plus their 66 possible heteromeric complexes, totaling 78 antigens, were applied to polyvinylidene fluoride–coated slides using a microarray printer. Arrays were probed with 266 GBS and 579 control sera (2 μL p...

  20. Microarray screening of Guillain-Barré syndrome sera for antibodies to glycolipid complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Halstead, Susan K.; Kalna, Gabriela; Islam, Mohammad B.; Jahan, Israt; Mohammad, Quazi D.; Bart C Jacobs; Endtz, Hubert P.; Islam, Zhahirul; Willison, Hugh J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the patterns of autoantibodies to glycolipid complexes in a large cohort of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and control samples collected in Bangladesh using a newly developed microarray technique. Methods: Twelve commonly studied glycolipids and lipids, plus their 66 possible heteromeric complexes, totaling 78 antigens, were applied to polyvinylidene fluoride–coated slides using a microarray printer. Arrays were probed with 266 GBS and 579 control sera (2 μL per seru...

  1. SERA: Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications - Users Manual Version 1CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venhuizen, James Robert; Wessol, Daniel Edward; Wemple, Charles Alan; Wheeler, Floyd J; Harkin, G. J.; Frandsen, M. W.; Albright, C. L.; Cohen, M.T.; Rossmeier, M.; Cogliati, J.J.

    2002-06-01

    This document is the user manual for the Simulation Environment for Radiotherapy Applications (SERA) software program developed for boron-neutron capture therapy (BNCT) patient treatment planning by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and students and faculty at Montana State University (MSU) Computer Science Department. This manual corresponds to the final release of the program, Version 1C0, developed to run under the RedHat Linux Operating System (version 7.2 or newer) or the Solaris™ Operating System (version 2.6 or newer). SERA is a suite of command line or interactively launched software modules, including graphical, geometric reconstruction, and execution interface modules for developing BNCT treatment plans. The program allows the user to develop geometric models of the patient as derived from Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images, perform dose computation for these geometric models, and display the computed doses on overlays of the original images as three dimensional representations. This manual provides a guide to the practical use of SERA, but is not an exhaustive treatment of each feature of the code.

  2. Determination of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in the sera of patients with liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, T; Migita, K; Miyashita, T; Maeda, Y; Nakamura, M; Abiru, S; Myoji, M; Komori, A; Yano, K; Yatsuhashi, H; Eguchi, K; Ishibashi, H

    2008-01-01

    To determine the frequency of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies in patients with HCV infection, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and type-I autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) to assess the specificity of anti-CCP antibodies. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-CCP antibodies were measured in the sera from patients with HCV infection (n=45), PBC (n=73), AIH (n=55) and rheumatoid arthritis (n=48), and also from the sera of healthy subjects (n=23). Anti-CCP antibodies were measured using a second generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No sera with elevated anti-CCP were found in the patients with HCV infection. Two PBC patients (2.7%) and six AIH patients (10.5%) had anti-CCP antibodies. The seropositivity for anti-CCP in these autoimmune disease patients was associated with a high frequency of RA association [PBC; 100% (2/2), AIH; 86.4% (5/6)]. Although anti-CCP antibodies may be present in patients with autoimmune liver diseases, almost seropositive patients had concomitant RA. As a result, the measurement of anti-CCP antibodies may therefore be helpful for accurately diagnosing RA in patients with these liver diseases.

  3. ALTERATION OF CHOLESTEROL SULFATE IN HUMAN SERA DURING THE COURSE OF PREGNANCY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林蓓; 张淑兰; 岩森正男

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the concentrations of cholesterol sulfate (CS) in human sera and placental villi during the course of pregnancy. And to analyze its inhibitory activity on thrombin and further characterize the functional significance of CS. Methods The concentrations of CS were determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) on 60 cases of normal pregnant women and 30 cases of normal placental villi. The effect of CS in human sera on the activity of thrombin was analyzed. Results The concentrations of CS in human sera gradually increased from the first to third trimester of gestation with a correlation coefficient of 0.69, and a correlation between the concentration of CS and weeks of gestation (P <0.01 ). CS was also contained in the placental villi, and its concentrations at the second and third trimester of gestations were 4. 7 and 6. 2-fold of that at the first trimester of gestation. CS inhibited the activity of thrombin. Conclusion Placental CS is one of the sources of CS in the serum, probably by shedding. From the observation that CS inhibited the activity of thrombin, the increased expression of CS may play an important role in the regulation of blood coagulation during the course of pregnancy.

  4. Ficolin-2 inhibitors are present in sera after prolonged storage at −80 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimball Aaron Geno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ficolins can activate the lectin pathway of the complement system that provides innate immune protection against pathogens, marks host cellular debris for clearance, and promotes inflammation. Baseline inflammation increases with aging in a phenomenon known as “inflammaging.” Although IL-6 and C-reactive protein are known to increase with age, contributions of many complement factors, including ficolins, to inflammaging have been little studied. Ficolin-2 is abundant in human serum and can recognize many target structures; therefore, ficolin-2 has potential to contribute to inflammaging. We hypothesized that inflammaging would alter ficolin-2 levels among older adults and examined 360 archived sera collected from older individuals. We found that these sera had apparently reduced ficolin-2 levels and that 84.2% of archived sera exhibited ficolin-2 inhibitors, which suppressed apparent amounts of ficolin-2 detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Fresh serum samples were obtained from donors whose archived sera showed inhibitors, but the fresh sera did not have ficolin-2 inhibitors. Ficolin-2 inhibitors were present in other long-stored sera from younger persons. Furthermore, noninhibiting samples and fresh sera from older adults had apparently normal amounts of ficolin-2. Thus, ficolin-2 inhibitors may arise as an artifact of long-term storage of serum at −80 °C.

  5. Group A Streptococcus vulvovaginitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Lacy, Judith; Hillard, Paula A

    2008-08-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus-associated vulvovaginitis is uncommon in adult women. Clinicians should include group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus as a possible cause of vulvovaginal symptoms in breastfeeding women. Along with appropriate antibiotic therapy, vaginal estrogen therapy may be considered to diminish susceptibility to recurrent infection in women with vaginal atrophy.

  6. Salmonella typhi O:9,12 polysaccharide-protein conjugates: characterization and immunoreactivity with pooled and individual normal human sera, sera from patients with paratyphoid A and B and typhoid fever, and animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, L; Di Fabio, J; Cabello, F C

    1993-04-01

    Polysaccharide of O:9,12 specificity purified from Salmonella typhi was conjugated to tetanus toxoid or bovine serum albumin in order to obtain defined antigenic material that would contain O chain free of other S. typhi antigens and that would be suitable for characterizing host humoral response to only S. typhi O-chain antigens. These artificial conjugates were strongly reactive in immunodots with 18 pooled and 3 individual serum samples from patients with typhoid fever and with rabbit anti-Salmonella O antiserum (group D, factors 1, 9, and 12). They reacted weakly with one serum sample from one human with paratyphoid A. These results suggest that the periodate oxidation and the reductive amination used in the conjugation conserved the immunogenicity of the O chain and allowed its absorption to nitrocellulose. They also suggest that the bovine serum albumin conjugate could be used in the diagnosis of S. typhi infections as normal sera may react with the protein molecule of the tetanus toxoid conjugate.

  7. Immunoreactive proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 identified by gnotobiotic mono-colonized mice sera, immune rabbit sera and nonimmune human sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Górska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372.

  8. Development of Multiple ELISAs for the Detection of Antibodies against Classical Swine Fever Virus in Pig Sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-hua Yang; Ling Li; Zi-shu Pan

    2012-01-01

    The major immunogenic proteins (Ems,E2 and NS3) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) (Shimen strain) were expressed in E.coli and purified by affinity chromatography.The recombinant antigens were applied to develop multiple enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific antibodies in pig sera.Optimum cut-off values were determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis after testing 201 sera of vaccinated pigs and 64 negative sera of unvaccinated piglets.The multiple ELISAs were validated with 265 pig sera yielding high sensitivity and specificity in comparison with the virus neutralization results.The results demonstrated that multiple ELISAs can be a valuable tool for the detection of CSFV infection and serological surveys in CSFV-free countries or for the evaluation of the antibody responses in pigs induced by a live attenuated C-strain vaccination.

  9. An acousto-optical method for registration of erythrocytes' agglutination reaction—sera color influence on the resolving power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Medvedeva, M. F.; Torbin, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption spectra of agglutinating sera were used to determine blood groups. It was shown experimentally that the sera color significantly affects the resolving power of the acousto-optical method of blood typing. In order to increase the resolving power of the method and produce an invariance of the method for sera color, we suggested introducing a probing light beam individually for different sera. The proposed technique not only improves the resolving power of the method, but also reduces the risk of false interpretation of the experimental results and, hence, error in determining the blood group of the sample. The latter is especially important for the typing of blood samples with weak agglutination of erythrocytes. This study can be used in the development of an instrument for instrumental human blood group typing based on the acousto-optical method.

  10. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection Language: English Español ( ... red rash that feels rough, like sandpaper. Scarlet Fever Podcast A pediatrician explains the cause, treatment, and ...

  11. Interference Between Lactobacilli And Group A Streptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference Between Lactobacilli And Group A Streptococcus pyogenes : An Expansion To The Concept Of ... New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology ... However, little is known about their health benefits in respiratory and skin infections.

  12. Angiogenic activity of sera from extrinsic allergic alveolitis patients in relation to clinical, radiological, and functional pulmonary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielonka, Tadeusz M; Demkow, Urszula; Filewska, Małgorzata; Bialas, Beata; Zycinska, Katarzyna; Radzikowska, Elzbieta; Wardyn, Andrzej K; Skopinska-Rozewska, Ewa

    2010-10-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) caused by inhaled organic environmental allergens can progress to a fibrotic end-stage lung disease. Neovascularization plays an important role in pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of sera from EAA patients on the angiogenic capability of normal peripheral human mononuclear cells (MNC) in relation to the clinical, radiological, and functional changes. The study population consisted of 30 EAA patients and 16 healthy volunteers. Routine pulmonary function tests were undertaken using ERS standards. As an angiogenic test, leukocyte-induced angiogenesis assay according to Sidky and Auerbach was used. Compared with sera from healthy volunteers, sera from our EAA patients significantly stimulated angiogenesis (P < 0.001). However, sera from healthy donors also stimulated angiogenesis compared to PBS (P < 0.001). No correlation was found between serum angiogenic activity and clinical symptoms manifested by evaluated patients. A decrease in DLco and in lung compliance in EAA patients was observed but no significant correlation between pulmonary functional tests and serum angiogenic activity measured by the number of microvessels or an angiogenesis index was found. However, the proangiogenic effect of sera from EAA patients differed depending on the stage of the disease and was stronger in patients with fibrotic changes. The present study suggests that angiogenesis plays a role in the pathogenesis of EAA. It could be possible that the increase in the angiogenic activity of sera from EAA patients depends on the phase of the disease.

  13. Identification and profiling of circulating antigens by screening with the sera from schistosomiasis japonica patients

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    Lu Yan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a chronic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. The disease remains a serious public health problem in endemic countries and affects at least 207 million people worldwide. A definite diagnosis of the disease plays a key role in the control of schistosomiasis. The detection of schistosome circulating antigens (CAs is an effective approach to discriminate between previous exposure and current infection. Different methods have been investigated for detecting the CAs. However, the components of the schistosome CAs remain unclear. In this study, we analyzed the CAs in sera of patients infected with Schistosoma japonicum. Methods The parasites were collected from the infected rabbits for preparing the adult worm antigen (AWA. The hyline hens were immunized subcutaneously with AWA to produce anti-AWA IgY. The IgY was purified by water-dilution and ammonium sulfate precipitation method and identified by ELISA and Western blotting. After purification and characterization, IgY was immobilized onto the resin as a capture antibody. The circulating antigens were immune-precipitated from patients′ serum samples by direct immunoprecipitation. The precipitated proteins were separated by one-dimensional electrophoresis and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Results Firstly, the IgY against AWA was produced from the eggs of immunized hens by AWA, which gave a titer of 1:12800. The purified IgY was used as the capture antibody to enrich the CAs in sera of S. japonicum infected patients through immunoprecipitation. The CAs were determined by LC-MS/MS. There were four proteins, including protein BUD31 homolog, ribonuclease, SJCHGC06971 protein and SJCHGC04754 protein, which were identified among the CAs. Conclusions We developed a novel method based on IgY for identification and profiling CAs in sera of S. japonicum infected patients. Four new CAs were identified and have potential value for further development

  14. Mass spectrometry analysis of melanoma related O-glycans in sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Glycomics comparison was carried out by screening melanoma serum biomarkers between C57 mice with and without B16 implanted. O-glycans were released from 10 μL sera by β-elimination, purified by Graphitized Carbon Cartridge Solid Phase Extraction (GCC-SPE) and analyzed by MALDI-QIT-TOF-MS. MS raw data were acquired and exported by Launchpad software. MATLAB was then applied for further data analysis. 10 Glycans were considered to have stable changes after B16 implantation and 5 of them were under structural analysis via MS/MS.

  15. Proteolytic antibodies in the sera of pregnant women: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimzadeh jahromi M, Mirshahi M, Shamsipour F, Mohamadi M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Background: The induction of catalytic antibodies (abzymes was first postulated by Pauling in 1948. Various catalytic antibodies have been detected recently in the sera of patients with several autoimmune pathologies such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, antibodies with DNase and RNase activity have been discovered in the milk and sera of healthy human mothers, which shows the physiologic role of these antibodies. In this study, we examined the proteolytic activity of antibodies in the sera of pregnant women. "n"nMethods: IgG antibody fractions were isolated from the sera of 30 healthy pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy and 10 control samples (men and nonpregnant women by subsequent steps of chromatographic purification on Protein G sepharose and sephacryl S-300. All patients were in their first pregnancy and aged 25-35 years. The conditions for proteolytic activity, such as type of buffer, pH and temperature, were optimized. The proteolytic activity of these antibodies was demonstrated by in-gel assay with gelatin as the substrate. "n"nResults: Antibody treatments at the optimum temperature showed that some samples from pregnant women contain proteolytic abzymes, as demonstrated by in-gel assays. Western blot results confirmed that the proteolytic activity is an intrinsic property of the antibodies. "n"nConclusions: During pregnancy and immediately after delivery women very often experience autoimmune processes similar to

  16. Validation of ELISA for the determination of anti-ricin immunoglobulin G concentration in mouse sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Changhong Y; Pace-Templeton, Judith G; Millard, Charles B; Wannemacher, Robert W; Hewetson, John F

    2006-03-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of anti-ricin immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration in mouse sera was systematically validated. The results obtained throughout the validation process strongly demonstrated that the ELISA was reliable, reproducible, and suitable for its intended use. The assay had a high level of precision within and between runs, was specific for the anti-ricin IgG, and showed no interference with a number of different serum matrices. The assay exhibited excellent accuracy, linearity, and stability. The mean recovery of four test samples with different known concentrations was 100.9+/-11.3%, 102.7+/-10.8%, 99.0+/-7.2%, and 95.9+/-11.3%, respectively (n=10). The mean recovery of the observed anti-ricin IgG concentration of three quality control samples run on 73 plates to their nominal concentrations was 100.1+/-7.3%, 100.2+/-5.8%, and 103.7+/-8.1%; and the coefficient of variation (CV) was 7.3%, 5.8%, and 7.8%, respectively. The back-calculated anti-ricin IgG concentration, %CV, and relative error of seven standards from the calibration curves run in the entire validation study were analyzed (n=7 x 73). The results indicated that the four-parameter logistic (4PL) equation, y=(a-d)/(1+(x/c)b)+d, provided an accurate representation of a sigmoidal relationship between the measured response and the logarithm of observed concentration of anti-ricin IgG in mouse sera for this ELISA. The lower limit of quantification and upper limit of quantification of the calibration curve were 3.3 ng/ml and 82.8 ng/ml, respectively. The measurable range of the assay would cover all possible anti-ricin IgG concentrations in mouse sera stimulated with a ricin vaccine candidate, when the test sera are measured at a 1:800 starting dilution followed by four additional fourfold serial dilutions.

  17. Nanomagnetic competition assay for low-abundance protein biomarker quantification in unprocessed human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Srinivasan, Balasubramanian; Jing, Ying; Yao, Xiaofeng; Hugger, Marie A; Wang, Jian-Ping; Xing, Chengguo

    2010-03-31

    A novel giant magnetoresistive sensor and uniform high-magnetic-moment FeCo nanoparticles (12.8 nm)-based detecting platform with minimized detecting distance was developed for rapid biomolecule quantification from body fluids. Such a system demonstrates specific, accurate, and quick detection and quantification of interleukin-6, a low-abundance protein and a potential cancer biomarker, directly in 4 muL of unprocessed human sera. This platform is expected to facilitate the identification and validation of disease biomarkers. It may eventually lead to a low-cost personal medical device for chronic disease early detection, diagnosis, and prognosis.

  18. Group A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culqui, Dante R; Manzanares-Laya, Sandra; Van Der Sluis, Sarah Lafuente; Fanlo, Albert Anton; Comas, Rosa Bartolomé; Rossi, Marcello; Caylá, Joán A

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to describe an outbreak of group A β-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in health care professionals. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 17 clients who dined at the same table in a restaurant in Barcelona in July 2012. The frequency, timing and severity of symptoms were analyzed, as were demographic variables and others concerning the food ingested. The attack rate was 58.8%. Six of the 10 clients were positive for group A β-hemolytic streptococcal. Six of the 13 individuals who handled the food involved in the dinner had symptoms. No association was identified with the food consumed. There is epidemiological evidence of foodborne group A β-hemolytic streptococcal transmission, but respiratory transmission could not be ruled out. PMID:24897054

  19. Detection of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen using the Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay: analysis of borderline reactive sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollier, Laurence; Laffont, Catherine; Kechkekian, Aurore; Doglio, Alain; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2008-12-01

    Routine use of the automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay Abbott ARCHITECT anti-HBc for diagnosis of hepatitis B is limited in case of borderline reactive sera with low signal close to the cut-off index. In order to determine the significance of anti-HBc detection when borderline reactivity occurs using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay, a comparative study was designed. 3540 serum samples collected over a 2-month period in the hospital of Nice were examined for markers of HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc). One hundred seven samples with sufficient volume and with borderline reactivity by the ARCHITECT assay were tested by two other anti-HBc assays, a microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA, AxSYM Core, Abbott Laboratories, IL, USA) and an enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA, VIDAS Anti-HBc Total II, bioMérieux, Lyon, France). Only 46 samples were confirmed by the AxSYM and the VIDAS assays. Additional serological information linked to patient history showed that the remaining samples (61) were false positives (11), had low titer of anti-HBc antibodies (13), or were inconclusive (37). This comparative study highlighted the existence of a grey zone around the cut-off index. Confirmative results through a different immunoassay are needed to confirm the diagnosis of HBV on borderline reactive sera using the ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay.

  20. Homogeneity study of the internal quality control sera for immunodiagnosis of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Jorge Castejon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study reports the data from the first homogeneity assessment of samples composing the serum panels produced at the Immunology Center of Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo. These samples have been distributed to the public laboratories and those partaking in the Brazilian Unified Health System, and to the participants in the Internal Quality Control Program for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibody (Ab testing. Objective: To assess the homogeneity of serum samples in panels from different lots for HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS immunodiagnosis by using the statistical method to ensure quality of the reference material. Method: Sera homogeneity was evaluated by means of enzyme-linked immunoassay/enzyme immunoassay (ELISA/EIA for detection of HIV Ab, and the one-way analysis of variance was employed for analyzing the data. No statistically significant differences were found among the several serum vials. Conclusion: The sera dispensed in the vials were homogeneous in the respective lots.

  1. Comparison of RFFIT tests with different standard sera and testing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peng-cheng; Noguchi, Akira; Inoue, Satoshi; Tang, Qing; Rayner, Simon; Liang, Guo-dong

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) standard assay for determining antibody level is the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and is used to determine the degree of immunity after vaccination against rabies. To compare the difference in RFFIT results between the laboratories of The National Institute of Infectious Disease in Japan (NIID) and the Chinese Centre for Disease Control (CCDC) as well the influence of the choice of standard serum (STD) for the detection, the two laboratories detection methods were simultaneously manipulated by RFFIT. The reference serums used in NIID and the WHO standard serum used in CCDC were compared in the same RFFIT detection to determine the titer of four sera samples C1, S1, S2 and S4 in parallel, and the titers of the detected sera samples were calculated using the standard formula for neutralizing antibody titer. No significant difference was found in RFFIT methods from the two laboratories and the RFFIT testing procedures of the two laboratories have good consistency. However, different titers were obtained with the tentative internal standard serum (TI-STD) produced by adjusting to 2.0 IU of WHO standard serum in NIID and the WHO STD. The titer determined with the TI-STD was higher than that determined with WHO STD, This difference appears to be significant and requires further investigation.

  2. Rock squirrel (Spermophilus variegatus) blood sera affects proteolytic and hemolytic activities of rattlesnake venoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biardi, James E; Coss, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Rock squirrels (Spermophilus variegatus) from two sites in south central New Mexico, where prairie (Crotalus viridis viridis) and western diamondback (Crotalus atrox) rattlesnakes are common predators, were assayed for inhibition of rattlesnake venom digestive and hemostatic activities. At statistically significant levels rock squirrel blood sera reduced the metalloprotease and hemolytic activity of venoms from C. v. viridis and C. atrox more than venom from an allopatric snake species, the northern Pacific rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus). In contrast, general proteolytic activity of venom from C. oreganus was inhibited more by S. variegatus serum defenses than activity of venom from sympatric snakes. For all three venoms, incubation with squirrel sera increased the level of fibrinolysis over venom-only treatments. These results suggest that rock squirrels (S. variegatus) can defend against metalloproteases and other proteases after envenomation from at least two of five rattlesnake predators they might encounter. However, there were statistically significant differences between general proteolytic activity and fibrinolytic activity of C. v. viridis and C. atrox venom, suggesting that rock squirrels might be differentially vulnerable to these two predators. The hypothesis that prey resistance influences snake venom evolution in a predator-prey arms race is given further support by the previously cryptic variation in venoms detected when assayed against prey defenses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Circulating Haptoglobin Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in the Sera of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changqing; Annamalai, Loganath; Guo, Changfa; Kothandaraman, Narasimhan; Koh, Stephen Chee Liang; Zhang, Huoming; Biswas, Arijit; Choolani, Mahesh

    2007-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of haptoglobin levels in the overall survival of patients presenting with various stages of epithelial ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS We employed an in-house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to determine the concentrations of preoperative haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sera samples obtained from 66 malignant tumors, 60 benign tumors, and 10 normal healthy women. RESULTS Levels of serum haptoglobin significantly correlated with tumor type (P < .001) and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P < .05). A significant correlation was observed between clinical stage and patient survival (r = 5.99, P = .026). Our data also indicated that elevated serum haptoglobin levels were associated with poor outcome for overall survival using both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .048 and P = .036 respectively). Using Pearson's correlation, we have noted that serum CRP concentrations significantly correlated with haptoglobin levels (r2 = 0.22, P < .001). Immunohistochemical findings and Western blot analyses were compatible with sera levels of haptoglobin in which a higher intensity of staining occurred in late-stage epithelial ovarian cancers. CONCLUSION This study provides evidence that preoperative serum levels of haptoglobin could serve as an independent prognostic factor in patients presenting with epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:17325738

  4. Circulating Haptoglobin Is an Independent Prognostic Factor in the Sera of Patients with Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changqing Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of haptoglobin levels in the overall survival of patients presenting with various stages of epithelial ovarian cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employed an in-house sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method to determine the concentrations of preoperative haptoglobin and C-reactive protein (CRP in sera samples obtained from 66 malignant tumors, 60 benign tumors, and 10 normal healthy women. RESULTS: Levels of serum haptoglobin significantly correlated with tumor type (P < .001 and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage (P < .05. A significant correlation was observed between clinical stage and patient survival (r = 5.99, P = .026. Our data also indicated that elevated serum haptoglobin levels were associated with poor outcome for overall survival using both univariate and multivariate analyses (P = .048 and P = .036 respectively. Using Pearson's correlation, we have noted that serum CRP concentrations significantly correlated with haptoglobin levels (r2 = 0.22, P < .001. Immunohistochemical findings and Western blot analyses were compatible with sera levels of haptoglobin in which a higher intensity of staining occurred in late-stage epithelial ovarian cancers. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that preoperative serum levels of haptoglobin could serve as an independent prognostic factor in patients presenting with epithelial ovarian cancer.

  5. Comparison of RFFIT Tests with Different Standard Sera and Testing Procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-cheng Yu; Akira Noguchi; Satoshi Inoue; Qing Tang; Simon Rayner; Guo-dong Liang

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) standard assay for determining antibody level is the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and is used to determine the degree of immunity after vaccination against rabies.To compare the difference in RFFIT results between the laboratories of The National Institute of Infectious Disease in Japan (NIID) and the Chinese Centre for Disease Control (CCDC) as well the influence of the choice of standard serum (STD) for the detection,the two laboratories detection methods were simultaneously manipulated by RFFIT.The reference serums used in NIID and the WHO standard serum used in CCDC were compared in the same RFFIT detection to determine the titer of four sera samples C1,S1,S2 and S4 in parallel,and the titers of the detected sera samples were calculated using the standard formula for neutralizing antibody titer.No significant difference was found in RFFIT methods from the two laboratories and the RFFIT testing procedures of the two laboratories have good consistency.However,different titers were obtained with the tentative internal standard serum (TI-STD) produced by adjusting to 2.0 IU of WHO standard serum in NIID and the WHO STD.The titer determined with the TI-STD was higher than that determined with WHO STD,This difference appears to be significant and requires further investigation.

  6. Detection of antibodies to bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan in human sera. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heymer, B.; Schleifer, K.H.; Read, S.; Zabriskie, J.B.; Krause, R.M.

    1976-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the measurement of antibodies to peptidoglycan in human sera including patients with rheumatic feaver and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The assay is based on the percentage of binding of the hapten /sup 125/I-L-Ala-..gamma..-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala-D-Ala, the major peptide determinant of peptidoglycan. Because of differences in the avidity of the antibodies in different sera, the amount of antibody was expressed as pentapeptide hapten-binding capacity (pentapeptide-HBC in ng/ml of serum). Fourteen out of 105 normal blood donors had a pentapeptide-HBC value greater than or equal to 75 ng/ml serum. Values in healthy children 5 to 18 years of age were less than or equal to 50 ng/ml. Sixty-eight percent of the individuals with rheumatic fever had values greater than or equal to 75 ng/ml, an indication that streptococcal infections can stimulate an immune response to peptidoglycan. Thirty-five percent of the patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis had values greater than or equal to 75 ng/ml. Such a finding points to a possible association between bacterial infections and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Antibodies reacting to carbonic anhydrase isozymes (I and II) and albumin in sera from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishita, Toshiho; Miyazaki, Rui; Miyazaki, Takae; Ochiai, Hideharu; Orito, Kensuke

    2016-06-01

    IgGs to carbonic anhydrase isozymes (CA-I and CA-II) and albumin were identified in dog serum. IgG titers were determined in the sera of asymptomatic dogs, and in dogs with atopic dermatitis, diarrhea and/or vomiting, diabetes and/or pancreatitis, kidney disease, hepatic disease, and thyroid gland disease, using ELISA. Low titres of IgG-reactive CA-I, CA-II, BSA, and CSA were found in the sera of healthy beagles. Compared with healthy beagles, there was a significant difference in the titers of antibodies against CA-I in asymptomatic dogs, dogs with diabetes and/or pancreatitis, or thyroid gland disease, or hepatic disease. Compared with healthy beagles, there was a significant difference in the antibody titer of anti-CA-II IgG in asymptomatic dogs and in those with hepatic disease. There was a significant difference in the antibody titer of anti-BSA IgG between healthy beagles and dogs with hepatic disease.

  8. Detection of mammaglobin in the sera of patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, G R; Houghton, R L; Retter, M W; Hendrickson, R C; Babcook, J; Dillon, D C; Durham, M D; Reynolds, L D; Johnson, J C; Carter, D; Fleming, T P; Roche, P C; Persing, D H; Reed, S G

    2002-01-01

    Current procedures for the diagnosis of breast cancer are cumbersome and invasive, making detection of this disease difficult. A rapid screening test for early detection of breast cancer would allow for better management of this deadly disease. In this report, we show that, with the exception of the skin, mammaglobin mRNA is specifically expressed in mammary tissue and commonly overexpressed in breast cancer. Mammaglobin is not expressed in other types of cancer including colon, lung, ovarian, and prostate cancer. Breast-specific expression of mammaglobin protein was shown using immunohistochemical methods. Mammaglobin is secreted from both established breast cancer cell lines and primary breast carcinoma cells cultured in vitro. Using a monoclonal antibody-based assay for monitoring the presence of mammaglobin in serum, elevated levels of mammaglobin were detected in sera of patients with breast cancer, but not in healthy women. Thus, mammaglobin, which is overexpressed and secreted from breast carcinoma cells, is detectable in sera of patients with breast cancer and may provide a rapid screening test for the diagnosis and management of breast cancer.

  9. Autoantibody profiling on human proteome microarray for biomarker discovery in cerebrospinal fluid and sera of neuropsychiatric lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaojun Hu

    Full Text Available Autoantibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE may be potential biomarkers for prediction, diagnosis, or prognosis of NPSLE. We used a human proteome microarray with~17,000 unique full-length human proteins to investigate autoantibodies associated with NPSLE. Twenty-nine CSF specimens from 12 NPSLE, 7 non-NPSLE, and 10 control (non-systemic lupus erythematosuspatients were screened for NPSLE-associated autoantibodies with proteome microarrays. A focused autoantigen microarray of candidate NPSLE autoantigens was applied to profile a larger cohort of CSF with patient-matched sera. We identified 137 autoantigens associated with NPSLE. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that these autoantigens were enriched for functions involved in neurological diseases (score = 43.Anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA was found in the CSF of NPSLE and non-NPSLE patients. The positive rates of 4 autoantibodies in CSF specimens were significantly different between the SLE (i.e., NPSLE and non-NPSLE and control groups: anti-ribosomal protein RPLP0, anti-RPLP1, anti-RPLP2, and anti-TROVE2 (also known as anti-Ro/SS-A. The positive rate for anti-SS-A associated with NPSLE was higher than that for non-NPSLE (31.11% cf. 10.71%; P = 0.045.Further analysis showed that anti-SS-A in CSF specimens was related to neuropsychiatric syndromes of the central nervous system in SLE (P = 0.009. Analysis with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient indicated that the titers of anti-RPLP2 and anti-SS-A in paired CSF and serum specimens significantly correlated. Human proteome microarrays offer a powerful platform to discover novel autoantibodies in CSF samples. Anti-SS-A autoantibodies may be potential CSF markers for NPSLE.

  10. Genetic Manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (The Group A Streptococcus, GAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutage...

  11. HBV cccDNA in patients′ sera as an indicator for HBV reactivation and an early signal of liver damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Chen; Johnny Sze; Ming-Liang He

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the covalently closed circle DNA (cccDNA)level of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in patients′ liver and sera.METHODS: HBV DNA was isolated from patients′liver biopsies and sera. A sensitive real-time PCR method, which is capable of differentiation of HBV viral genomic DNA and cccDNA, was used to quantify the total HBV cccDNA. The total HBV viral DNA was quantitated by real-time PCR using a HBV diagnostic kit (PG Biotech, LTD, Shenzhen, China)described previously.RESULTS: For the first time, we measured the level of HBV DNA and cccDNA isolated from ten HBV patients′liver biopsies and sera. In the liver biopsies, cccDNA was detected from all the biopsy samples. The copy number of cccDNA ranged from from 0.03 to 173.1 per cell, the copy number of total HBV DNA ranged from 0.08 to 3 717 per cell. The ratio of total HBV DNA to cccDNA ranged from 1 to 3 406. In the sera,cccDNA was only detected from six samples whereas HBV viral DNA was detected from all ten samples. The ratio of cccDNA to total HBV DNA ranged from 0 to 1.77%. To further investigate the reason why cccDNA could only be detected in some patients′sera, we performed longitudinal studies. The cccDNA was detected from the patients′sera with HBV reactivation but not from the patients′sera without HBV reactivation. The level of cccDNA in the sera was correlated with ALT and viral load in the HBV reactivation patients.CONCLUSION: HBV cccDNA is actively transcribed and replicated in some patients′hepatocytes, which is reflected by a high ratio of HBV total DNA vs cccDNA. Detection of cccDNA in the liver biopsy will provide an end-point for the anti-HBV therapy. The occurrence of cccDNA in the sera is an early signal of liver damage, which may be another important clinical parameter.

  12. Cytokine Expression Profile in Aqueous Humor and Sera of Patients with Acute Anterior Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Zhao, B; Jiang, R; Zhang, R; Wang, Y; Wu, H; Gordon, L; Chen, L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate cytokine expression profile in aqueous humor and sera in patients with HLAB27 associated acute anterior uveitis (AAU) and idiopathic AAU. Twenty patients with AAU and 17 controls were recruited from August 2012 to March 2013. Study subjects with uveitis were divided into two groups: 9 patients with idiopathic AAU and 11 patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU. Complete ophthalmological examinations were performed and clinical features of each group were clearly documented. Aqueous humor and sera were collected and the concentration of 15 immune mediators (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, TNF-α, IFN-γ, sCD40L) were measured in both aqueous humor and sera simultaneously by multiplex immunoassay. There were significantly higher levels of multiple cytokines in aqueous humor in patients with uveitis compared to controls, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17a, IL-17f, IL-21, IL-25, IL-31, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and sCD40L. The levels of IL-17a in aqueous humor correlated significantly with disease activity in patients with idiopathic AAU, while the level of IFN-γ in aqueous humor correlated significantly with disease activity in patients with HLA-B27 associated AAU. There was no significant difference in serum cytokine expression between uveitis patients and controls except IL-6, elevated in patients with both idiopathic and HLA-B27 associated AAU. Cytokine expression pattern in the aqueous humor, in contrast to that in serum, may reflect intraocular immune reactions during active inflammation in patients with AAU. Both Th1 and Th17 are involved in immunopathogenesis of HLA-B27 associated and idiopathic AAU, but a different cytokine pattern was identified in these two clinical entities. A predominant Th17-driven immune response may play an important role in the immunopathogenesis of idiopathic AAU, while Th1 dominant immune response may be responsible for the inflammation in HLA-B27 associated AAU.

  13. Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children diagnosed at acute stage by paired sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chun-ling; WEI Ming; LIU Zhen-ye; WANG Gui-qiang; ZHANG Bo; XU Hua; HU Liang-ping; HE Xiao-feng; WANG Jun-hua; ZHANG Jun-hong; LIU Xiao-yu

    2010-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is a frequent cause of respiratory tract infections. However,there is deficient knowledge about the clinical manifestations of M. pneumoniae infection. We described the clinical and laboratory findings of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in hospitalized children who were all diagnosed by a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titer.Methods M. pneumoniae antibodies were routinely detected in children admitted with acute respiratory infection during a one-year period. The medical history was re-collected from children whose M. pneumoniae antibody titer increased≥fourfold at the bedside by a single person, and their frozen paired serum samples were measured again for the M.pneumoniae antibody titer.Results Of the 635 children whose sera were detected for the M. pneumoniae antibody, paired sera were obtained from 82 and 29.3% (24/82) showed a ≥ fourfold increase in antibody titer. There were 24 cases, nine boys and 15 girls, aged from two to 14 years, whose second serum samples were taken on day 9 at the earliest after symptom onset; the shortest interval was three days. All children presented with a high fever (≥38.5℃) and coughing. Twenty-one had no nasal obstruction or a runny nose, and five had mild headaches which all were associated with the high fever. The disease was comparatively severe if the peak temperature was >39.5℃. All were diagnosed as having pneumonia through chest X-rays. Four had bilateral or multilobar involvement and their peak temperatures were all ≤ 39.5℃. None of the children had difficulty in breathing and all showed no signs of wheezing.Conclusions The second serum sample could be taken on day 9 at the earliest after symptom onset meant that paired sera could be used for the clinical diagnosis of M. pneumoniae pneumonia in children at the acute stage. M. pneumoniae is a lower respiratory tract pathogen. Extrapulmonary complications were rare and minor in our study. High peak temperature (

  14. Immunoreactive insulin in diabetes mellitus patient sera detected by ultrasensitive ELISA with thio-NAD cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Etsuro; Kaneda, Mugiho; Kodama, Hiromi; Morikawa, Mika; Tai, Momoko; Aoki, Kana; Watabe, Satoshi; Nakaishi, Kazunari; Hashida, Seiichi; Tada, Satoshi; Kuroda, Noriyuki; Imachi, Hitomi; Murao, Koji; Yamashita, Masakane; Yoshimura, Teruki; Miura, Toshiaki

    2015-12-01

    To minimize patient suffering, the smallest possible volume of blood should be collected for diagnosis and disease monitoring. When estimating insulin secretion capacity and resistance to insulin in diabetes mellitus (DM), increasing insulin assay immunosensitivity would reduce the blood sample volume required for testing. Here we present an ultrasensitive ELISA coupled with thio-NAD cycling to measure immunoreactive insulin in blood serum. Only 5 μL of serum was required for testing, with a limit of detection (LOD) for the assay of 10(-16) moles/assay. Additional recovery tests confirmed this method can detect insulin in sera. Comparisons between a commercially available immunoreactive insulin kit and our ultrasensitive ELISA using the same commercially available reference demonstrated good data correlation, providing further evidence of assay accuracy. Together, these results demonstrate our ultrasensitive ELISA could be a powerful tool in the diagnosis and treatment of not only DM but also many other diseases in the future.

  15. Detection of specific Mycoplasma conjunctivae antibodies in the sera of sheep with infectious keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloy, L; Giacometti, M; Abdo, E M; Nicolet, J; Krawinkler, M; Janovsky, M; Bruderer, U; Frey, J

    2001-01-01

    The serological cross reactions between Mycoplasma conjunctivae, the etiological agent of infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC), and the antigenetically and phylogenetically closely related Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, which is often found in sheep, were analysed. Cross reacting antigens were identified using sera from sheep with IKC and from sheep of herds known to be free of IKC, as well as rabbit hyperimmune serum specific to the two Mycoplasma species. Cross reactions were predominantly due to the strongly antigenic proteins of 42 kDa and 83 kDa. Serospecific antigens of M. conjunctivae could be separated from cross-reacting antigens by the extraction of Tween 20-soluble membrane proteins. The Tween 20-extracted proteins of the M. conjunctivae strain HRC/581T were used for the development of an indirect ELISA test. This ELISA test was shown to be a useful serological method for the diagnosis of M. conjunctivae infections and to identify infected sheep herds.

  16. Natural occurrence of Nuc in the sera of autoimmune-prone MRL/lpr mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Y; Miura, K; Uehara, T; Amagai, M; Takeda, O; Tanuma, S; Kurosawa, Y

    1993-10-29

    We previously established a clone of cells termed KML1-7 which produces a soluble factor that boosts anti-DNA antibody production both in vitro and in vivo across the H-2 barrier. By using the purified protein, termed nucleobindin (Nuc), we cloned cDNA and produced recombinant(r) Nuc in E.coli. Although the purified rNuc showed biological activities such as anti-DNA antibody boosting and DNA binding, there was no evidence that Nuc is really associated with autoimmune status in lupus-prone MRL/lpr mice. Here we report that identification of Nuc was successful from the sera of MRL/lpr mice, but not from those of the substrain MRL/n mice, which show no apparent autoimmune syndrome at the same age of MRL/lpr mice, by means of immunochemical as well as N-terminal amino-acid sequencing methods.

  17. Monitoring of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in Czechoslovak human sera by immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukal, L. (Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Reisnerova, H. (Univ. of Agriculture, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

    1990-03-01

    Since a level of food contamination with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A has been found low in Czechoslovakia, human exposure to these mycotoxins may not be negligible. However, analysis of food samples provides only indirect evidence of mycotoxin ingestion and no evidence about mycotoxin absorption. Direct evidence can only be obtained by analysis of human body fluids. Therefore, the authors decided to carry out a monitoring of aflatoxin and ochratoxin A level in human sera. In general, TLC and HPLC are most commonly used to analyze mycotoxins and its metabolites. The recent development of immunochemical techniques opens the possibility of determining individual exposure in a relatively large human population. These assays have the advantage of high specificity and sensitivity. Sample through-put is high, and the methods are technically simple and can be performed at low cost.

  18. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and rheumatoid factor sera titers in leprosy patients from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Cerna, María G; Fafutis-Morris, Mary; Guillen-Vargas, Cecilia; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; García-Cruz, Diana E; Riebeling, Carlos; Nava, Arnulfo

    2012-11-01

    Leprosy offers a broad spectrum of altered immunological sceneries, ranging from strong cell-mediated immune responses seen in tuberculoid leprosy (TT), through borderline leprosy (BB), to the virtual absence of T cell responses characteristic in lepromatous leprosy (LL). The exact mechanism of autoantibodies production remains unknown in leprosy and other chronic inflammatory diseases and also the contribution of these antibodies to the pathogenesis of the disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the frequency and profiles of serum anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (a-CCP), rheumatoid factor (RF) and its relationship with leprosy spectrum. Serum samples from 67 leprosy patients (54 LL, 5 TT and 8 BB) and 46 clinically healthy subjects (CHS) from the same endemic region were investigated. The clinical chart and questionnaire were used to obtain clinical information. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (a-CCP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas the rheumatoid factor (RF) levels were measured by nephelometric method. The mean age of patients was 51.5 ± 13 years. Sera levels of a-CCP where higher in leprosy patients than in CHS (5.9 ± 11.6 vs. 0.3 ± 0.29) (P < 0.0001); the same pattern was found for RF sera titers without reaching statistical significance (16.8 ± 22.5 vs. 9.9 ± 3) (P = NS). We did not find a correlation between a-CCP and RF Rho =0.02786 (IC 95%) P = 0.8229. However, LL patients had higher a-CCP and RF levels than TT patients. Although an absence in correlation was observed, the serum levels of a-CCP antibodies and RF appeared to be useful in distinguishing LL from TT patients with a limited significance in detecting reactional leprosy patients.

  19. Expression of Recombinant Streptokinase from Streptococcus Pyogenes and Its Reaction with Infected Human and Murine Sera

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    Neda Molaee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Streptokinase (SKa is an antigenic protein which is secreted by Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptokinase induces inflammation by complement activation, which may play a role in post infectious diseases. In the present study, recombinant streptokinase from S. pyogenes was produced and showed that recombinant SKa protein was recognized by infected human sera using Western blot analysis.   Materials and Methods: In this study, the ska gene from S. pyogenes was amplified and cloned into pET32a which is a prokaryotic expression vector. pET32a-ska was transformed to Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3 pLysS and gene expression was induced by IPTG. Protein production was improved by modification of composition of the bacterial culture media and altering the induction time by IPTG. The expressed protein was purified by affinity chromatography using the Ni-NTA resin. The integrity of the product was confirmed by Westernblot analysis using infected mice. Serum reactivity of five infected individuals was further analyzed against the recombinant SKa protein. Results: Data indicated that recombinant SKa protein from S. pyogenes can be recognized by patient and mice sera. The concentration of the purified recombinant protein was 3.2 mg/L of initial culture. The highest amount of the expressed protein after addition of IPTG was obtained in a bacterial culture without glucose with the culture optical density of 0.8 (OD600 = 0.8. Conclusion : Present data shows, recombinant SKa protein has same epitopes with natural form of this antigen. Recombinant SKa also seemed to be a promising antigen for the serologic diagnosis of S. pyogenes infections.

  20. Profiles ofEntamoeba histolytica-specific immunoglobulins in human sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Windell L Rivera; Herbert J Santos; Vanissa A Ong; Lara Jessica G Murao

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the profiles of anti-Entamoeba histolytica(E. histolytica) IgA, IgG, and IgM in sera of diarrheic and non-diarrheic individuals and partially characterize target antigens.Methods:Serum samples from thirty diarrheic and thirty non-diarrheic individuals were subjected to IgA, IgG, and IgM profiling through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry, and immunoblot.Results:ELISA titer results showed that both diarrheic and non-diarrheic individuals possess high levels ofE. histolytica-specific IgG compared to IgA and IgM. Flow cytometry data showed that diarrheic serum samples had higher mean reaction percentages againstE. histolyticacells compared to non-diarrheic samples. Immunoreactive E.histolytica proteins with molecular weights ranging between7 kDa and 292 kDa were recognized by diarrheic serum IgG, and170 kDa and250 kDa by non-diarrheic serum IgG. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that serum anti-E. histolyticaIgG, compared with serum anti-E. histolytica IgA and IgM responses, was generally high in both diarrheic and non-diarrheic sera, indicating a past exposure to the organism both in symptomatic patients as well as in asymptomatic carriers, respectively. In addition, serum IgG from diarrheic and non-diarrheic patients were able to detect immunogenicE. histolytica proteins.

  1. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Brolly

    Full Text Available Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to

  2. α-synuclein reactive antibodies as diagnostic biomarkers in blood sera of Parkinson's disease patients.

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    Kiran Yanamandra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Auto-antibodies with specificity to self-antigens have been implicated in a wide variety of neurological diseases, including Parkinson's (PD and Alzheimer's diseases, being sensitive indicators of neurodegeneration and focus for disease prevention. Of particular interest are the studies focused on the auto-immune responses to amyloidogenic proteins associated with diseases and their applications in therapeutic treatments such as vaccination with amyloid antigens and antibodies in PD, Alzheimer's disease and potentially other neurodegeneration ailments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Generated auto-antibodies towards the major amyloidogenic protein involved in PD Lewy bodies--α-synuclein and its amyloid oligomers and fibrils were measured in the blood sera of early and late PD patients and controls by using ELISA, Western blot and Biacore surface plasmon resonance. We found significantly higher antibody levels towards monomeric α-synuclein in the blood sera of PD patients compared to controls, though the responses decreased with PD progression (P<0.0001. This indicates potential protective role of autoimmunity in maintaining the body homeostasis and clearing protein species whose disbalance may lead to amyloid assembly. There were no noticeable immune responses towards amyloid oligomers, but substantially increased levels of IgGs towards α-synuclein amyloid fibrils both in PD patients and controls, which subsided with the disease progression (P<0.0001. Pooled IgGs from PD patients and controls interacted also with the amyloid fibrils of Aβ (1-40 and hen lysozyme, however the latter were recognized with lower affinity. This suggests that IgGs bind to the generic amyloid conformational epitope, displaying higher specificity towards human amyloid species associated with neurodegeneration. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings may suggest the protective role of autoimmunity in PD and therefore immune reactions towards PD major

  3. A macroecological analysis of SERA derived forest heights and implications for forest volume remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolly, Matthew; Woodhouse, Iain H; Niklas, Karl J; Hammond, Sean T

    2012-01-01

    Individual trees have been shown to exhibit strong relationships between DBH, height and volume. Often such studies are cited as justification for forest volume or standing biomass estimation through remote sensing. With resolution of common satellite remote sensing systems generally too low to resolve individuals, and a need for larger coverage, these systems rely on descriptive heights, which account for tree collections in forests. For remote sensing and allometric applications, this height is not entirely understood in terms of its location. Here, a forest growth model (SERA) analyzes forest canopy height relationships with forest wood volume. Maximum height, mean, H₁₀₀, and Lorey's height are examined for variability under plant number density, resource and species. Our findings, shown to be allometrically consistent with empirical measurements for forested communities world-wide, are analyzed for implications to forest remote sensing techniques such as LiDAR and RADAR. Traditional forestry measures of maximum height, and to a lesser extent H₁₀₀ and Lorey's, exhibit little consistent correlation with forest volume across modeled conditions. The implication is that using forest height to infer volume or biomass from remote sensing requires species and community behavioral information to infer accurate estimates using height alone. SERA predicts mean height to provide the most consistent relationship with volume of the height classifications studied and overall across forest variations. This prediction agrees with empirical data collected from conifer and angiosperm forests with plant densities ranging between 10²-10⁶ plants/hectare and heights 6-49 m. Height classifications investigated are potentially linked to radar scattering centers with implications for allometry. These findings may be used to advance forest biomass estimation accuracy through remote sensing. Furthermore, Lorey's height with its specific relationship to remote sensing

  4. THE PERSISTENCE OF LEPTOSPIRAL AGGLUTININS TITERS IN HUMAN SERA DIAGNOSED BY THE MICROSCOPIC AGGLUTINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete C. ROMERO

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of agglutinins detected by MAT has created some problems to the interpretation of the results. The aim of this study was to examine the data of serology from 70 patients with serologically confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis by during 3-13 months after being affected with leptospires in order to elucidate the interpretation of the persistence of agglutinins detected by MAT. Sixty-one patients sera (87.14% had titers equal or greater than 800. Of these, two individuals maintained titers of 800 thirteen months after the onset. This study showed that only one sample of sera with high titers is not reliable to determine the time at which infection occurred.Persistência de títulos de aglutininas anti-leptospiras em soros humanos diagnosticados pelo teste de aglutinação microscópica A persistência de aglutininas detectadas por MAT tem criado problemas na interpretação dos resultados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar os resultados da sorologia de 70 pacientes com confirmação sorológica de leptospirose durante 3-13 meses após terem sido infectados para se poder elucidar a interpretação da persistência de aglutininas detectadas por MAT. Sessenta e um soros de pacientes (87,14% apresentaram títulos iguais, ou maiores, que 800. Destes, 2 indivíduos mantiveram títulos de 800 treze meses após terem sido infectados. Este estudo mostra que apenas uma amostra de soro, mesmo com alto título de aglutininas, não pode ser considerada para determinar a fase da doença.

  5. Effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate on immuno-electrosyneresis between normal human erythrocyte membrane and sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients

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    Arimori,Shigeru

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available An anti-membrane antibody was present in the sera of systemic lupus erythematosus patients in immunoelectrosyneresis with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS solubilized erythrocyte membrane as antigen. The SDS bound to protein was detected by chromatography at 10(-3M concentration under U.V. light, at 10(-5M concentration by the distilled water spray method and at 10(-6M concentration by using rosaniline hydrochloride colorimetry. SDS was removed from the membrane protein at a concentration of 10(-3M by the first gel filtration of Sephadex G-25 column and at a concentration of 10(-6M by rechromatography of the same column. More than 99% of SDS in the solubilized erythrocyte membrane was removed by gel filtration. The antigenicity was still positive in the refiltrated fractions of systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Therefore, all precipitates in the gels were antigen-antibody aggregates.

  6. Downregulation of hepcidin and haemojuvelin expression in the hepatocyte cell-line HepG2 induced by thalassaemic sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weizer-Stern, Orly; Adamsky, Konstantin; Amariglio, Ninette; Levin, Carina; Koren, Ariel; Breuer, William; Rachmilewitz, Eliezer; Breda, Laura; Rivella, Stefano; Cabantchik, Z Ioav; Rechavi, Gideon

    2006-10-01

    Beta-thalassaemia represents a group of diseases, in which ineffective erythropoiesis is accompanied by iron overload. In a mouse model of beta-thalassaemia, we observed that the liver expressed relatively low levels of hepcidin, which is a key factor in the regulation of iron absorption by the gut and of iron recycling by the reticuloendothelial system. It was hypothesised that, despite the overt iron overload, a putative plasma factor found in beta-thalassaemia might suppress liver hepcidin expression. Sera from beta-thalassaemia and haemochromatosis (C282Y mutation) patients were compared with those of healthy individuals regarding their capacity to induce changes the expression of key genes of iron metabolism in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. Sera from beta-thalassaemia major patients induced a major decrease in hepcidin (HAMP) and lipocalin2 (oncogene 24p3) (LCN2) expression, as well as a moderate decrease in haemojuvelin (HFE2) expression, compared with sera from healthy individuals. A significant correlation was found between the degree of downregulation of HAMP and HFE2 induced by beta-thalassaemia major sera (r = 0.852, P < 0.0009). Decreased HAMP expression was also found in HepG2 cells treated with sera from beta-thalassaemia intermedia patients. In contrast, the majority of sera from hereditary haemochromatosis patients induced an increase in HAMP expression, which correlated with transferrin (Tf) saturation (r = 0.765, P < 0.0099). Our results suggest that, in beta-thalassaemia, serum factors might override the potential effect of iron overload on HAMP expression, thereby providing an explanation for the failure to arrest excessive intestinal iron absorption in these patients.

  7. Genotypification of bovine group A rotavirus in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Flores-Samaniego, Beatriz; de la Mora, Germán; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2009-10-30

    Bovine scours, frequently provoked by rotavirus infection, causes significant economic losses. Nevertheless, no information exists about the bovine rotavirus genotypes present in Mexico. This information is necessary for designing efficient vaccines. In this work, 128 samples from diarrheic calves were collected between 2005 and 2006 in 26 dairy and/or beef cattle herds located in 10 regions of Mexico, and analyzed for the presence of group A rotavirus. G and P genotypes were determined by PCR in rotavirus-positive samples (12/128). Three different genotype combinations were found, G10, P[11]; G6, P[5]; and G10, P[5]; in 67, 25 and 8% of the positive samples, respectively. Some rotavirus-positive animals had been vaccinated with an inactivated rotavirus strain of a different genotype.

  8. Analyses of p53 antibodies in sera of patients with lung carcinoma define immunodominant regions in the p53 protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlichtholz, B.; Trédaniel, J.; Lubin, R; Zalcman, G.; Hirsch, A.; Soussi, T

    1994-01-01

    Antibodies specific for human p53 were analysed in sera of lung cancer patients. We detected p53 antibodies in the sera of 24% (10/42) of patients with lung carcinoma. The distribution was as follows: 4/9 small-cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), 2/18 squamous cell lung carcinomas (SCCs), 2/10 adenocarcinomas (ADCs) and 2/5 large-cell lung carcinomas (LCCs). p53 antibodies were always present at the time of diagnosis and did not appear during progression of the disease. Using an original peptide-ma...

  9. Performance levels of four Latin American laboratories for the serodiagnosis of Chagas disease in Mexican sera samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luquetti, Alejandro O; Espinoza, Bertha; Martínez, Ignacio; Hernández-Becerril, Nidia; Ponce, Carlos; Ponce, Elisa; Reyes, Pedro A; Hernández, Oscar; López, Ruth; Monteón, Victor

    2009-08-01

    In nearly all of the previous multicentre studies evaluating serological tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, sera samples from Central or South American countries have been used preferentially. In this work we compared the reliability of the serological tests using Mexican sera samples that were evaluated in four independent laboratories. This included a reference laboratory in Brazil and three participant laboratories, including one in Central America and two in Mexico. The kappa index between Brazilian and Honduran laboratories reached 1.0 and the index for the Mexican laboratories reached 0.94. Another finding of this study was that the source of antigen did not affect the performance of the serological tests.

  10. Mass-sensing BioCD Protein Array towards Clinical Application: Prostate Specific Antigen Detection in Patient Sera

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xuefeng; Nolte, David D; Ratliff, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Mass-sensing biosensor arrays for protein detection require no fluorophores or enzyme labels. However, few mass biosensor protein arrays have demonstrated successful application in high background samples, such as serum. In this paper, we test the BioCD as a mass biosensor based on optical interferometry of antibodies covalently attached through Schiff-base reduction. We use the BioCD to detect prostate specific antigen (PSA, a biomarker of prostate cancer) in patient sera in a 96-well anti-PSA microarray. We have attained a 4 ng/ml detection limit in full serum and have measured PSA concentrations in three patient sera.

  11. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus

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    Mikić Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of the confirmed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Group A Streptococcus in Yugoslavia was presented. Male patient, aged 28, in good health, suddenly developed symptoms and signs of severe infective syndrome and intensive pain in the axillary region. Parenteral antibiotic, substitution and supportive therapy was conducted along with the radical surgical excision of the necrotizing tissue. The patient did not develop streptococcal toxic shock syndrome thanks to the early established diagnosis and timely applied aggressive treatment. He was released from the hospital as completely cured two months after the admission.

  12. Determination of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in the sera of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Jason M; Chauhan, Anil K; Kietz, Daniel A; Daud, Umar; Pepmueller, Peri H; Moore, Terry L

    2004-09-01

    Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies have been found in sera of 76% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), mainly in rheumatoid factor (RF) positive patients, with a specificity of 96%. We evaluated the presence of anti-CCP antibodies in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and assessed the possibility of synthetic citrullinated peptides as antigenic determinants in JIA. The presence of anti-CCP antibodies was determined using 3 synthetic citrullinated peptide variants and 2 commercial kits (Inova Diagnostics and Axis-Shield Diagnostics) optimized for detecting JIA-specific antibodies in serum by an ELISA based assay. We evaluated 66 patients with JIA (16 RF positive polyarthritis, 18 RF negative polyarthritis, 19 oligoarthritis, and 13 systemic arthritis). We also tested 9 adult RA patients, 34 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and 25 healthy persons as controls. Significant concentrations of anti-CCP antibodies were detected in the majority of RF positive JIA patients with polyarthritis. Using the 2 synthetic linear peptides, 12/16 (75%) were positive; 9/12 (75%) were positive with the Inova kit and 9/10 (90%) were positive with the Axis-Shield kit. However, utilizing the synthetic linear peptides, significant concentrations of anti-CCP antibodies were detected in 51/66 (77%) JIA patients, including 15/18 (83%) RF negative polyarthritis, 16/19 (84%) oligoarthritis, and 8/13 (62%) systemic arthritis patients. No healthy control showed elevated antibody levels. In contrast, 4/9 (44%) patients with adult RA and 2/6 (33%) with SLE had elevated anti-CCP levels. The synthetic cyclic variant cfc-1-cyc yielded significant anti-CCP levels for 13/14 (93%) patients with RF negative polyarthritis, 6/10 (60%) with oligoarthritis, and 3/7 (43%) with systemic arthritis, and 8/9 (88%) RF positive patients. No healthy control had increased anti-CCP levels. However, 4/9 (44%) adult RA and 9/34 (26%) SLE patients were found to

  13. Immunological parameters in the sera of patients with atopic dermatitis and airborne allergy treated with allergy vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecka-Operacz, Magdalena; Silny, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Patients with atopic disorders present an increased production of IgE, which is usually limited to specific antibodies against various environmental allergens. It has also been suggested that the production of these antibodies may be influenced by effective specific immunotherapy (SIT). Of course, a decline of serum antigen specific IgE in the course of such a treatment cannot explain the clinical efficacy of SIT and is probably not a key mechanism. However, SIT may at least participate in the final clinical result. In this study, 37 patients with atopic dermatitis were treated with allergy vaccines (Novo-Helisen Depot) for a time period of 48 months. The control group consisted of 29 patients with atopic dermatitis who were treated with classical methods. The clinical score (W-AZS), total IgE and antigen specific IgE (asIgE) in the sera of patients were assessed before treatment and after 24 and 48 months of therapy (FEIA CAP System, Pharmacia). There was a significant difference between the two investigated groups from both the clinical and immunological standpoints after 2 and 4 years of observation. There was a significant decrease of serum total IgE and asIgE (directed against airborne allergens) in the course of specific immunotherapy. In the control group, the total IgE level tended to increase, and this tendency was also recorded in case of asIgE measurements. We also evaluated the influence of specific immunotherapy on the serum level of IFN-G, sIL-2R, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 before treatment and after 4 years of therapy with the quantitative 2-step colorimetric sandwich ELISA method (R and D Systems). In the group of patients treated with allergy vaccines, a significant decrease of the serum sIL-2R level was observed after 48 months of therapy (p<0.01). In the control group, a significant increase of serum IL-4 (p<0.01) as well as IL-5 (p<0.05) was registered at the end of the observation period. There was no significant correlation between the clinical

  14. [Serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibilities of invasive group A streptococci identified in eastern Black Sea region of Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Topkaya, Aynur E; Balıkcı, Ahmet; Aydın, Faruk

    2011-07-01

    Frequency of invasive group A streptococcus (GAS) infections is increasing worldwide in recent 20 years. Serotypes responsible for these clinical manifestations and their antibiotic susceptibilities should be known in order to establish preventive measures and initiate appropriate treatment. This study was aimed to determine the serotypes, antibiotic susceptibilities and inducible clindamycin resistance among invasive GAS isolated between 2006-2009 period. A total of 22 GAS strains isolated from clinical samples [sterile body fluids (peritoneal, pleural, pericardial, joint and cerebrospinal fluids), blood, tissue biopsy] of the patients (14 male, 8 female; age range: 3-82 years, median age: 59) who admitted to Karadeniz Technical University Faculty of Medicine, Farabi Hospital located in Trabzon province (Eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey), between March 2006 and March 2009 were included in the study. GAS serotypes were determined by the investigation of serum opacity factors (SOF), T proteins and M proteins. SOF production was investigated by microplate method using human serum and SOF types were determined by SOF-inhibition test using specific antisera. T protein types were detected by agglutination method using polyvalent anti-T sera, and M serotypes were detected by capillary precipitation method using M antisera. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by disk-diffusion method according to CLSI recommendations. SOF were positive in 9 (41%) samples. Use of T antiserum yielded T (n= 8) and U (n= 7) types and M antiserum M1 (n= 4) and M2 (n= 3) types. The overall antibiotic susceptibility rate of the isolates was 68% (15/22) and overall resistance rate was 32% (7/22). All of the GAS strains were found susceptible to benzylpenicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, levofloxacine and linezolid, however 9 (41%) were intermediate susceptible to tetracycline and 1 (4.5%) was intermediate susceptible to erythromycin. Four (18%) strains were found resistant to

  15. [原著]Comparison of Rotavirus Immunoglobulin G Titers in Sera Collected in Japan and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Yoshihiro; Iwanaga, Tatsue; Maedar, Yukiko; Igarashi, Akira; Fukunaga, Toshihiko; Department of Virology, School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus; Department of Virology, Institute for Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University; Participant m the Oversea Training Project sponsored by Nagasaki Prefectural Government

    1984-01-01

    ELISA for detecting IgG antibody against human rotavirus was carried out on the sera collected in Kumamoto and Nyeri, Kenya. In both areas, most of the infants acquired antibody by 3 years of age and kept high level thereafter. The antibody prevalence among age groups in the two areas showed almost same patterns. Correlation was seen between ELISA titers and neutralization titers.

  16. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Cardenas-Aguayo, Maria Del Carmen; Arif, Mohammad; Blanchard, Julie; Fayyaz, Fatima; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6), which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  17. Direct assessment of cumulative aryl hydrocarbon receptor agonist activity in sera from experimentally exposed mice and environmentally exposed humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlezinger, Jennifer J; Bernard, Pamela L; Haas, Amelia;

    2010-01-01

    readouts to provide a broader context for estimating human risk than that obtained with serum extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS)-based assays alone. METHODS: AhR agonist activity was quantified in sera from dioxin-treated mice, commercial human sources, and polychlorinated biphenyl...

  18. Sera from children with autism induce autistic features which can be rescued with a CNTF small peptide mimetic in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Faraz Kazim

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized clinically by impairments in social interaction and verbal and non-verbal communication skills as well as restricted interests and repetitive behavior. It has been hypothesized that altered brain environment including an imbalance in neurotrophic support during early development contributes to the pathophysiology of autism. Here we report that sera from children with autism which exhibited abnormal levels of various neurotrophic factors induced cell death and oxidative stress in mouse primary cultured cortical neurons. The effects of sera from autistic children were rescued by pre-treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF small peptide mimetic, Peptide 6 (P6, which was previously shown to exert its neuroprotective effect by modulating CNTF/JAK/STAT pathway and LIF signaling and by enhancing brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF expression. Similar neurotoxic effects and neuroinflammation were observed in young Wistar rats injected intracerebroventricularly with autism sera within hours after birth. The autism sera injected rats demonstrated developmental delay and deficits in social communication, interaction, and novelty. Both the neurobiological changes and the behavioral autistic phenotype were ameliorated by P6 treatment. These findings implicate the involvement of neurotrophic imbalance during early brain development in the pathophysiology of autism and a proof of principle of P6 as a potential therapeutic strategy for autism.

  19. High Production of IL-18 by Dendritic Cells Induced by Sera from Patients with Primary Antibody Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nourizadeh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Predominantly antibody deficiencies are a category of primary immunodeficiency diseases, whichconsist of several rare disorders such as common variable immunodeficiency (CVID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA. We evaluated the effects of CVID and XLA patients’ sera as a source of microenviromental factors on maturation and function of monocyte-derived DCs.Blood was collected from 10 CVID and 5 XLA patients before immunoglobulin replacementtherapy and also from 8 healthy volunteers in order to obtain necessary sera for this study. Monocyte derived DCs were generated from blood cells obtained from healthy volunteers in the presence of GM-CSF, IL-4 and 10% serum concentrations from cases and controls. Immature DCs were incubated with monocyte conditioned medium (MCM and TNF-α in order to generate mature DCs. Interleukin 18 (IL-18 production by CD40L-activated mature DCs was measured after 24 hours of culture in vitro.IL-18 production by DCs generated in the presence of CVID and XLA patients’ sera were6.75±2.59 and 7.08±1.75 ng/ml, respectively, which were significantly higher than normal serumconditioned DCs (3.55±0.68 ng/ml.These results suggest that the sera of patients with predominantly antibody deficiencies maycontain soluble factor(s that can induce a significant increase in IL-18 production by DCs.

  20. Distribution of perfluorochemicals between sera and milk from the same mothers and implications for prenatal and postnatal exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Kyu [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK-21), Seoul National University, Kwanakgu Shilimdong san 56-1, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyu Tae [Institute of Environmental Protection and Safety, NeoEnBiz Co., Rm 1306, Bucheon Daewoo Technopark Bldg. A, Dodang dong 187-7, Bucheon, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang Seong [Department of OB and GYN KEPCO Medical Foundation, Hanil General Hospital, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Tao, Lin; Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State 18 Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State 18 Plaza, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Kim, Kyung-Ryul [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences (BK-21), Seoul National University, Kwanakgu Shilimdong san 56-1, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan-Kook; Lee, Jung Suk; Park, Pan Soo [Institute of Environmental Protection and Safety, NeoEnBiz Co., Rm 1306, Bucheon Daewoo Technopark Bldg. A, Dodang dong 187-7, Bucheon, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Yung Wook; Ha, Jeong Yi [Department of OB and GYN KEPCO Medical Foundation, Hanil General Hospital, Seoul 132-703 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong-Seung [Environmental Policy Division, Korea Environment Institute, Eunpyung-ku, Bulkwang-dong 613-2, Seoul 122-706 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Hyeon, E-mail: jhleecheju@gmail.co [Institute of Environmental Protection and Safety, NeoEnBiz Co., Rm 1306, Bucheon Daewoo Technopark Bldg. A, Dodang dong 187-7, Bucheon, Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The levels of six perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), four perfloroalkylsulfonates (PFASs), and one sulfonamide were measured in paired samples of maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and breast milk. The maternal and cord sera were strongly correlated with each other for all measured compounds (r > 0.5 and p < 0.01). Nevertheless, there was a significant difference in compound composition profile between the two sera matrices, with a more depletion of the longer chain compounds in cord serum. The transfer efficiency values from maternal to cord serum (TF{sub CS/MS}) decreased by 70% with each increasing unit of -CF{sub 2} chain within a PFCA group, and for perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), by a half compared to perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In contrast to the strong correlation in concentrations between the two sera matrices, the pattern of compounds in breast milk differed considerably with those in sera. Accordingly, compound- and matrix-specific transfer must be considered when assessing prenatal and postnatal exposure. - Functional group and -CF2 chain-length dependent transfer of PFCs from maternal serum to cord serum and to breast milk was clearly observed.

  1. Structural Insights into the Protease-like Antigen Plasmodium falciparum SERA5 and Its Noncanonical Active-Site Serine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodder, Anthony N.; Malby, Robyn L.; Clarke, Oliver B.; Fairlie, W. Douglas; Colman, Peter M.; Crabb, Brendan S.; Smith, Brian J.; (WEHIMR); (Melbourne)

    2009-08-28

    The sera genes of the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium encode a family of unique proteins that are maximally expressed at the time of egress of parasites from infected red blood cells. These multi-domain proteins are unique, containing a central papain-like cysteine-protease fragment enclosed between the disulfide-linked N- and C-terminal domains. However, the central fragment of several members of this family, including serine repeat antigen 5 (SERA5), contains a serine (S596) in place of the active-site cysteine. Here we report the crystal structure of the central protease-like domain of Plasmodium falciparum SERA5, revealing a number of anomalies in addition to the putative nucleophilic serine: (1) the structure of the putative active site is not conducive to binding substrate in the canonical cysteine-protease manner; (2) the side chain of D594 restricts access of substrate to the putative active site; and (3) the S{sub 2} specificity pocket is occupied by the side chain of Y735, reducing this site to a small depression on the protein surface. Attempts to determine the structure in complex with known inhibitors were not successful. Thus, despite having revealed its structure, the function of the catalytic domain of SERA5 remains an enigma.

  2. Surface plasmon resonance-based competition assay to assess the sera reactivity of variants of humanized antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Noreen R; Schuck, Peter; Schlom, Jeffrey; Kashmiri, Syed V S

    2002-10-15

    While clinical trials are the only way to evaluate the immunogenicity, in patients, of murine or genetically engineered humanized variants of a potentially therapeutic or diagnostic monoclonal antibody (MAb), ethical and logistical considerations of clinical trials do not permit the evaluation of variants of a given MAb that are generated to minimize its immunogenicity. The most promising variant could be identified by comparing the reactivities of the parental antibody (Ab) and its variants to the sera of patients containing anti-variable region (anti-VR) Abs to the administered parental Ab. We have developed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor-based assay to monitor the binding of the sera anti-VR Abs to the parental Ab and the inhibition of this binding by the variants. SPR biosensors allow the real-time detection and monitoring of the binding between an immobilized protein and its soluble ligand without the need for prior purification and labeling of the mobile analyte. This new assay requires no radiolabeling, is relatively less time-consuming, and uses only small amounts of serum (5-20 microl of diluted serum) through a new microfluidic sample handling technique. To validate the assay, we have tested the relative reactivities of the CDR-grafted anti-carcinoma Ab, HuCC49, and its two variants, designated V5 and V10, to the sera of patients who were earlier administered radiolabeled murine CC49 in a clinical trial. A comparison of IC(50)s (the concentrations of the competitor Abs required for 50% inhibition of the binding of sera to immobilized HuCC49) showed that V5 and V10 were less reactive than HuCC49 to the three patients' sera tested. We have also demonstrated, for the first time, the specific detection and comparison of relative amounts of anti-VR Abs present in the sera of different patients without prior removal of anti-murine Fc Abs and/or circulating antigen. This may facilitate the rapid screening, for the presence of anti-VR Abs, of the

  3. Comparison of protocatechuic aldchyde in Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and corresponding pharmacological sera from normal and fibrotic rats by high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Lv; Xi-Xian Yao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of protocatechuic aldchyde on the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs).METHODS: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Then normal and fibrotic drug sera were extracted from rats. The effects of protocatechuic aldchyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza on HSC growth were determined by CCK-8. The protocatechuic aldchyde was separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in a Alltima C18 column (250 mm x4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-4% glacial acetic acid solution (gradient elution) at the wavelength of 281 nm.RESULTS: Protocatechuic aldchyde, raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and drug sera of Salvia miltiorrhiza were found to have inhibitory effects on proliferation of rat HSCs. Raw Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza had a stronger inhibitory effect than the drug sera. The fibrotic drug sera showed a higher suppressive effect than the normal drug sera (P < 0.05). Protocatechuic aldchyde was found in crude materials of both Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza and its corresponding drug sera. The average recovery (n = 6)was 110.5% for raw Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge, 102% for normal drug sera and 105.2% for fibrotic drug sera.The relative standard devitation (RSD) was 0.37%,1.96% and 1.51%, respectively (n=6). The contents of protocatechuic aldchyde were 0.22%, 0.15% and 0.19%,respectively (n=6) (P<0.05). The RSD was 0.33%,0.75% and 1.24% (n =6) for raw material of Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza, normal drug sera and fibrotic drug sera,respectively. The samples were stable for 6 d.CONCLUSION: Protocatechuic aldchyde can inhibit the growth of HSCs. HPLC is suitable for the determination of virtual bioactive components of Chinese herbal medicines in vitro.

  4. Development and evaluation of a competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody for antibody detection after goose parvovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) and vaccine immunization in goose sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Ju, Huanyu; Li, Yanwei; Jing, Zhiqiang; Guo, Lu; Zhao, Yu; Ma, Bo; Gao, Mingchun; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Junwei

    2014-12-01

    An assay protocol based on a monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAb-based C-ELISA) for detecting antibodies against goose parvovirus (GPV) and its virus-like particles (VLPs) is described. The assay was developed using baculovirus-expressed recombinant VP2 virus-like particles (rVP2-VLPs) as antigens and a monoclonal antibody against GPV as the competitive antibody. Of the four anti-GPV MAbs that were screened, MAb 1G3 was selected as it was blocked by the GPV positive serum. Based on the distribution of percent inhibition (PI) of the known negative sera (n=225), a cut-off value was set at 36% inhibition. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity of the assay was 93.3% and the specificity was 95.8%, as compared with the gold standard (virus neutralization assay). The rVP2-VLPs did not react with anti-sera to other goose pathogens, indicating that it is specific for the recognization of goose parvovirus antibodies. The assay was then validated with serum samples from goslings vaccinated with several VLPs (rVP1-VLPs, rVP2-VLPs, rVP3-VLPs, and rCGV-VLPs) and other vaccines (inactivated and attenuated). The C-ELISA described in this study is a sensitive and specific diagnostic test and should have wide applications for the sero-diagnosis and immunologic surveillance of GPV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The development and validation of an immunoassay for the measurement of anti-thymidine phosphorylase antibodies in mouse and dog sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasson, Charlotte; Levene, Michelle; Bax, Bridget E

    2013-01-01

    Erythrocyte encapsulated thymidine phosphorylase (EE-TP) is under development as an enzyme replacement therapy for mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE), a fatal metabolic disorder resulting from an inherited deficiency of the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase. We report here the development and validation of a sensitive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) bridging immunoassay to support Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant preclinical safety studies of EE-TP in the mouse and dog. Affinity-purified rabbit anti-E. coli thymidine phosphorylase (TP) antibody was used as a calibrator standard with an effective working range of 2.5-7500 ng/mL. The minimum required dilution (MRD) for both mouse and dog sera was 1:10. The mean analytical recoveries for anti-TP antibodies spiked into serum at 70 ng/mL and 7000 ng/mL were 117.9% and 93.2%, respectively for mouse, and 112.0% and 104.3%, respectively for dog. The intra-assay precision (coefficient of variation, CV) ranged between 1.1% and 8.0% in mouse serum, and 1.9% and 2.5% in dog serum. Inter-assay precision ranged between -1.6% and 6.7% in mouse serum, and -13.0% and -2.5% in dog serum. Assay cut-point/screening cut-point correction factors were 201.37 and 44.4, respectively for mouse and dog sera. For future analysis of positive test samples, less than 37.12% (mouse) and 31.41% (dog) inhibition of the assay signal in the confirmation assay will confer anti-TP antibody specificity. Assay drift and hook effects (prozone) were not observed. The intra-assay and inter-assay accuracy for robustness were within ±20%.

  6. Hepatitis B e antigen polypeptides isolated from sera of individuals infected with hepatitis B virus: comparison with HBeAg polypeptide derived from Dane particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Imai, M; Gotanda, T; Sano, T; Oinuma, A; Mishiro, S; Miyakawa, Y; Mayumi, M

    1980-09-01

    Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) occurs in the serum of individuals infected with hepatitis B virus both free and in association with IgG. Utilizing a succession of steps involving salt precipitation, affinity chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and isoelectrofocusing, we isolated free and IgG-bound forms of HBeAg from the sera of infected individuals with an overall gain in specific activity of 3000-fold and 540-fold, respectively. Polypeptide profiles of purified HBeAg preparations were studied by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Both free and IgG-bound preparations revealed polypeptides with mol. wt. of 15500 (P15.5) and 16 500 (P16.5), and HBeAg activity was detected corresponding to their positions. The HBeAg polypeptides (P15.5/16.5) derived from sera were physicochemically different from the two polypeptides with HBeAg activity (P19 and P45) liberated from Dane particle cores by the conventional method involving incubation with Nonidet P40 and 2-mercaptoethanol. However, when core particles were prepared in the presence of a proteolytic enzyme, in addition to Nonidet P40 and 2-mercaptoethanol, they gave rise to HBeAg polypeptides with mol. wt. of 31000 (P31) and 15 500. Furthermore, P31 split into P15.5 when heated at 100 degrees C for 2 min. On the basis of these results, P15.5 may be assumed to be the essential polypeptide bearing HBeAg activity in the serum and also in Dane particles.

  7. Epitope mapping of Campylobacter jejuni flagellar capping protein (FliD) by chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Telli, Arife Ezgi; Jagne, Jarra F; Benson, Christopher L; Hiett, Kelli L; Line, John E

    2016-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative rod, is a zoonotic pathogen associated with human acute bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The flagellum, composed of more than 35 proteins, is responsible for colonization of C. jejuni in the host gastrointestinal tract as well as inducing protective antibodies against the homologous serotype. In our previous study, we demonstrated that the flagellar capping protein (FliD) is an immunodominant protein that reacted strongly to sera from field chickens. In this communication, we mapped linear immunoreactive epitopes on FliD using a set of 158 synthetic peptides of 15-mer overlapping with 11 amino acid residues on peptide microarrays with sera from field chickens. The results from peptide microarrays showed (1) no cross-reactivity of the immobilized peptides with the secondary anti-chicken antibody in the control incubation, and (2) heterogeneous patterns of sera reacting to the immobilized peptides. The peptides that reacted to more than three chicken sera and had higher averages of fluorescence units were selected for further validation by the peptide ELISA. The results showed peptides 24, 91 and 92 had relatively high reactivity and less variation among 64 individual serum samples, indicating these peptides represented the shared immunodominant epitopes on the C. jejuni FliD protein. These peptides were also recognized by sera from chickens immunized with the purified recombinant FliD protein. The findings of the specific shared linear immunodominant epitopes on FliD in this study provide a rationale for further evaluation to determine their utility as epitope vaccines covering multiple serotypes for chicken immunization, and subsequently, for providing safer poultry products for human consumption.

  8. Influence of various coagulation factors on chemical composition of sera gained by centrifugation from casein gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Snežana T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological operations applied during curd processing influence syneresis and total solids content of cheese. Syneresis is not a simple physical process representing whey segregation due to curd contractions. Numerous factors can influence the process of syneresis. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of various parameters (pH, quantity of CaCl2 added, temperature of coagulation and heat treatment on induced syneresis. Reconstituted instant skim milk (control samples and reconstituted instant skim milk heated at 87ºC for 10 min (experimental samples were coagulated at 30ºC and 35ºC, and pH of 5.8 and 6.2 with 100, 200 and 400 mg/l of CaCl2 added. According to our results, these parameters had significant influence on nitrogen content of serum as well as on the distribution of nitrogen matter from gel into sera. Due to the formation of coaggregates the best rheological properties of gel were obtained for experimental samples coagulated with 400 mg/l of CaCl2 added at pH 5.8 and temperature of 35ºC.

  9. Rapid Microfluidic Assay for the Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin in Animal Sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lmar Babrak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potent Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs represent a threat to public health and safety. Botulism is a disease caused by BoNT intoxication that results in muscle paralysis that can be fatal. Sensitive assays capable of detecting BoNTs from different substrates and settings are essential to limit foodborne contamination and morbidity. In this report, we describe a rapid 96-well microfluidic double sandwich immunoassay for the sensitive detection of BoNT-A from animal sera. This BoNT microfluidic assay requires only 5 μL of serum, provides results in 75 min using a standard fluorescence microplate reader and generates minimal hazardous waste. The assay has a <30 pg·mL−1 limit of detection (LOD of BoNT-A from spiked human serum. This sensitive microfluidic BoNT-A assay offers a fast and simplified workflow suitable for the detection of BoNT-A from serum samples of limited volume in most laboratory settings.

  10. Measurement of low concentration and nano-quantity hydrogen sulfide in sera using unfunctionalized carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X. C.; Zhang, W. J.; Sammynaiken, R.; Meng, Q. H.; Wu, D. Q.; Yang, Q.; Yang, W.; Zhang, Edwin M.; Wang, R.

    2009-10-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is produced in small amounts by certain cells in the mammalian body and has a number of biological functions. H2S gas naturally produced by the body is not simply a toxic gas; it could be a vascular dilator and play a physiological role in regulating cardiovascular functions. In order to know the effects of H2S, it is necessary to accurately know its concentrations in the body. Conventional measurement methods have their limitations concerning the small amount and low concentration of H2S in the body. A new paradigm of using carbon nanotubes in H2S measurement expresses its potential. However, the influence of proteins in the mammalian body must be studied in the measurement of H2S by carbon nanotubes. In this paper, we demonstrate a successful measurement of low concentration (20 µM) and nano-quantity (0.5 µg) H2S in the serum by using carbon nanotubes and further with the fluorescence of confocal laser scanning microscopy and the luminescence of Raman microscopy. Statistical analysis of the experimental data shows that the relationship between concentrations and intensities is linear, which thus makes the carbon nanotube sensor highly promising for the measurement of H2S in sera.

  11. Identification of immunologically relevant proteins of Chlamydophila abortus using sera from experimentally infected pregnant ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, P X; Souda, Puneet; O'Donovan, J; Gutierrez, J; Gutierrez, E J; Worrall, S; McElroy, M; Proctor, A; Brady, C; Sammin, D; Basset, H F; Whitelegge, Julian P; Markey, B E; Nally, J E

    2010-08-01

    Chlamydophila abortus is an intracellular pathogen and the etiological agent of enzootic abortion of ewes (EAE). C. abortus has a biphasic development cycle; extracellular infectious elementary bodies (EB) attach and penetrate host cells, where they give rise to intracellular, metabolically active reticulate bodies (RB). RB divide by binary fission and subsequently mature to EB, which, on rupture of infected cells, are released to infect new host cells. Pregnant ewes were challenged with 2 x 10(6) inclusion forming units (IFU) of C. abortus cultured in yolk sac (comprising both EB and RB). Serum samples were collected at 0, 7, 14, 21, 27, 30, 35, 40, and 43 days postinfection (dpi) and used to identify antigens of C. abortus expressed during disease. Additionally, sera from fetal lambs were collected at 30, 35, 40, and 43 dpi. All serum samples collected from experimentally infected pregnant ewes reacted specifically with several antigens of EB as determined by one-dimensional (1-D) and 2-D gel electrophoresis; reactive antigens identified by mass spectrometry included the major outer membrane protein (MOMP), polymorphic outer membrane protein (POMP), and macrophage infectivity potentiator (MIP) lipoprotein.

  12. Profile of upregulated inflammatory proteins in sera of Myasthenia Gravis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, Carl Johan; Westerberg, Elisabet; Punga, Anna Rostedt

    2017-01-01

    This study describes specific patterns of elevated inflammatory proteins in clinical subtypes of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. MG is a chronic, autoimmune neuromuscular disease with antibodies most commonly targeting the acetylcholine receptors (AChRab), which causes fluctuating skeletal muscle fatigue. MG pathophysiology includes a strong component of inflammation, and a large proportion of patients with early onset MG additionally present thymus hyperplasia. Due to the fluctuating nature and heterogeneity of the disease, there is a great need for objective biomarkers as well as novel potential inflammatory targets. We examined the sera of 45 MG patients (40 AChRab seropositive and 5 AChRab seronegative), investigating 92 proteins associated with inflammation. Eleven of the analysed proteins were significantly elevated compared to healthy controls, out of which the three most significant were: matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP-10; p = 0.0004), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α; p = 0.0017) and extracellular newly identified receptor for advanced glycation end-products binding protein (EN-RAGE) (also known as protein S100-A12; p = 0.0054). Further, levels of MMP-10, C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) differed between early and late onset MG. These novel targets provide valuable additional insight into the systemic inflammatory response in MG. PMID:28045063

  13. Immunoproteome of Aspergillus fumigatus Using Sera of Patients with Invasive Aspergillosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emylli D. Virginio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening lung or systemic infection caused by the opportunistic mold Aspergillus fumigatus. The disease affects mainly immunocompromised hosts, and patients with hematological malignances or who have been submitted to stem cell transplantation are at high risk. Despite the current use of Platelia™ Aspergillus as a diagnostic test, the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis remains a major challenge in improving the prognosis of the disease. In this study, we used an immunoproteomic approach to identify proteins that could be putative candidates for the early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. Antigenic proteins expressed in the first steps of A. fumigatus germination occurring in a human host were revealed using 2-D Western immunoblots with the serum of patients who had previously been classified as probable and proven for invasive aspergillosis. Forty antigenic proteins were identified using mass spectrometry (MS/MS. A BLAST analysis revealed that two of these proteins showed low homology with proteins of either the human host or etiological agents of other invasive fungal infections. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing specific antigenic proteins of A. fumigatus germlings that are recognized by sera of patients with confirmed invasive aspergillosis who were from two separate hospital units.

  14. SYNTHESIS OF 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D3 CONJUGATE WITH KEYHOLE LIMPET HEMOCYANIN AND OBTAINING OF IMMUNE SERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. O. Mazanova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at obtaining polyclonal antibodies that recognize 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, for their further specifications and applications in immunochemical test systems of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, determination in blood serum. We used the methods of chemical synthesis of immunoconjugates (modified carbodiimide method using N´-ethyl carbodiimide, thin layer chromatography, gel filtration and indirect immunoenzyme analysis ELISA. The work describes the stages of the synthesis of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, immunoconjugate with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH, which was used for receiving immune sera. As a result of mouse and rabbit immunization antisera were obtained and antibody titers against 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, were tested by immunoenzyme assay. It was demonstrated that the titer of specific antibodies was higher in rabbits compared with mice. The resulting polyclonal antibodies can be used for the development of immunochemical test systems for screening studies of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, content in human blood serum as a marker of vitamin D3 availability.

  15. Hyperglycemia Determines Increased Specific MicroRNAs Levels in Sera and HDL of Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients and Stimulates MicroRNAs Production in Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnuta, Mihaela G.; Sanda, Gabriela M.; Stancu, Camelia S.; Popescu, Andreea C.; Popescu, Mihaela R.; Vlad, Adelina; Dimulescu, Doina R.; Simionescu, Maya; Sima, Anca V.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) in sera and HDL of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) compared to stable angina (SA) patients with/without hyperglycemia, and evaluate comparatively the functional effect of these sera on the processing machinery proteins (Drosha, DGCR8, Dicer) and miRNAs production in human macrophages. MiRNAs levels in sera and HDL from 35 SA and 72 ACS patients and 30 healthy subjects were measured by using microRNA TaqMan assays. MiR-223, miR-92a, miR-486, miR-122, miR-125a and miR-146a levels were higher in the hyperglycemic ACS compared to normoglycemic sera. MiR-223 and miR-486 prevailed in HDL2, while miR-92a predominated in HDL3, all three miRNAs discriminating between ACS and SA patients; their levels were increased in HDL from hyperglycemic ACS patients versus normoglycemic ones. The incubation of human macrophages with sera from ACS and SA patients showed that all patients’ sera induced an increase of Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expressions and of selected miRNAs levels compared to control sera, the effect being higher in the case of hyperglycemic versus normoglycemic ACS sera. The addition of glucose to SA and ACS sera increased Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expression and miRNAs levels in the exposed macrophages. In conclusion, hyperglycemia is associated with increased miR-223, miR-92a, miR-486 levels in HDL, which discriminate between ACS and SA patients. Exposure of human macrophages to ACS compared to SA sera determines the upregulation of Drosha, DGCR8 and Dicer expression and the increase of selected miRNAs production, the effect being augmented by an increased glucose concentration. PMID:27519051

  16. Molecular analysis of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli O111:H- proteins which react with sera from patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, E; Paton, A W; Manning, P A; Paton, J C

    1998-04-01

    Western blot analysis was used to assess the reactivity of convalescent-phase sera from patients who were associated with an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by fermented sausage contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The predominant STEC isolated from HUS patients belonged to serotype O111:H-, and reactivity to O111:H- whole-cell lysates, treated or untreated with proteinase K, was examined. As expected, all five serum samples demonstrated a marked anti-lipopolysaccharide response, but several protein bands were also immunoreactive, particularly one with an apparent size of 94 kDa. One convalescent-phase serum sample was subsequently used to screen an O111:H- cosmid bank and 2 of 900 cosmid clones were found to be positive, both of which contained a similar DNA insert. Western blot analysis of one of these clones identified three major immunoreactive protein bands of approximately 94, 70, and 50 kDa. An immune response to the three proteins was detectable with all five convalescent-phase serum samples but not with healthy human serum. Immunoreactive 94- and 50-kDa species were produced by a deletion derivative of the cosmid containing a 7-kb STEC DNA insert. Sequence analysis of this region indicated that it is part of the locus for enterocyte effacement, including the eaeA gene which encodes intimin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the O111:H- intimin was 88.6% identical to intimin from O157:H7 STEC, and the most divergent region was the 200 residues at the carboxyl terminus, which were only 75% identical. Such variation may be antigenically significant as serum from a HUS patient infected only with the O111:H- STEC reacted with intimin from an enteropathogenic E. coli O111 strain, as well as several other eaeA-positive STEC isolates, but not with an eaeA-positive STEC belonging to serotype O157:H-. Sera from two of the other HUS patients also failed to react with intimin from this latter strain. However, intimin

  17. Molecular Analysis of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli O111:H− Proteins Which React with Sera from Patients with Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Elena; Paton, Adrienne W.; Manning, Paul A.; Paton, James C.

    1998-01-01

    Western blot analysis was used to assess the reactivity of convalescent-phase sera from patients who were associated with an outbreak of hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by fermented sausage contaminated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The predominant STEC isolated from HUS patients belonged to serotype O111:H−, and reactivity to O111:H− whole-cell lysates, treated or untreated with proteinase K, was examined. As expected, all five serum samples demonstrated a marked anti-lipopolysaccharide response, but several protein bands were also immunoreactive, particularly one with an apparent size of 94 kDa. One convalescent-phase serum sample was subsequently used to screen an O111:H− cosmid bank and 2 of 900 cosmid clones were found to be positive, both of which contained a similar DNA insert. Western blot analysis of one of these clones identified three major immunoreactive protein bands of approximately 94, 70, and 50 kDa. An immune response to the three proteins was detectable with all five convalescent-phase serum samples but not with healthy human serum. Immunoreactive 94- and 50-kDa species were produced by a deletion derivative of the cosmid containing a 7-kb STEC DNA insert. Sequence analysis of this region indicated that it is part of the locus for enterocyte effacement, including the eaeA gene which encodes intimin. The deduced amino acid sequence of the O111:H− intimin was 88.6% identical to intimin from O157:H7 STEC, and the most divergent region was the 200 residues at the carboxyl terminus, which were only 75% identical. Such variation may be antigenically significant as serum from a HUS patient infected only with the O111:H− STEC reacted with intimin from an enteropathogenic E. coli O111 strain, as well as several other eaeA-positive STEC isolates, but not with an eaeA-positive STEC belonging to serotype O157:H−. Sera from two of the other HUS patients also failed to react with intimin from this latter strain. However

  18. Herd immunity to GII.4 noroviruses is supported by outbreak patient sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Jennifer L; Lindesmith, Lisa C; Donaldson, Eric F; Saxe, Lauryn; Baric, Ralph S; Vinjé, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) of genogroup II, cluster 4 (GII.4), are the most common cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. During the past 13 years, GII.4 NoVs caused four seasons of widespread activity globally, each associated with the emergence of a new strain. In this report, we characterized the most recent epidemic strain, GII.4-2006 Minerva, by comparing virus-like particle (VLP) antigenic relationships and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) binding profiles with strains isolated earlier. We also investigated the seroprevalence and specificity of GII.4 antibody in the years prior to, during, and following the GII.4 pandemic of 1995 and 1996 using a large collection of acute- and convalescent-phase serum pairs (n = 298) collected from 34 outbreaks. In a surrogate neutralization assay, we measured the blockade of HBGA binding using a panel of GII.4 VLPs representing strains isolated in 1987, 1997, 2002, and 2006 and a GII.3 VLP representing a strain isolated in the mid-1990s. Serum titers required for 50% HBGA blockade were compared between populations. In general, blockade of GII.4 VLP-HBGA binding was greater with convalescent-phase outbreak sera collected near the time of origin of the VLP strain. Heterotypic genotypes did not contribute to herd immunity against GII.4 NoVs based on their inability to block GII.4 VLP binding to HBGA. However, previous exposure to GII.4 NoV followed by infection by GII.3 NoV appeared to evoke an immune response to GII.4 NoV. These results support the hypothesis that herd immunity is a driving force for GII.4 evolution in the U.S. population. The data also suggest that complex patterns of cross-protection may exist across NoV genotypes in humans.

  19. Biofilm and planktonic pneumococci demonstrate disparate immunoreactivity to human convalescent sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivshankar Pooja

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is the leading cause of otitis media, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP, sepsis, and meningitis. It is now evident that S. pneumoniae forms biofilms during nasopharyngeal colonization; the former which facilitates persistence, the latter, a prerequisite for subsequent development of invasive disease. Proteomic evaluation of S. pneumoniae suggests the antigen profile available for host-recognition is altered as a consequence of biofilm growth. This has potentially meaningful implications in regards to adaptive immunity and protection from disseminated disease. We therefore examined the antigen profile of biofilm and planktonic pneumococcal cell lysates, tested their reactivity with human convalescent sera and that generated against biofilm pneumococci, and examined whether immunization with biofilm pneumococci protected mice against infectious challenge. Results Biofilm pneumococci have dramatically altered protein profiles versus their planktonic counterparts. During invasive disease the humoral immune response is skewed towards the planktonic protein profile. Immunization with biofilm bacteria does not elicit a strong-cross-reactive humoral response against planktonic bacteria nor confer resistance against challenge with a virulent isolate from another serotype. We identified numerous proteins, including Pneumococcal serine-rich repeat protein (PsrP, which may serve as a protective antigens against both colonization and invasive disease. Conclusion Differential protein production by planktonic and biofilm pneumococci provides a potential explanation for why individuals remain susceptible to invasive disease despite previous colonization events. These findings also strongly suggest that differential protein production during colonization and disease be considered during the selection of antigens for any future protein vaccine.

  20. Immunoreactivity of protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) in sera from sheep infected with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ratna B; Begg, Douglas J; Purdie, Auriol C; Bach, Horacio; Whittington, Richard J

    2014-07-15

    Evasion of host defense mechanisms and survival inside infected host macrophages are features of pathogenic mycobacteria including Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne's disease in ruminants. Protein tyrosine phosphatase A (PtpA) has been identified as a secreted protein critical for survival of mycobacteria within infected macrophages. The host may mount an immune response to such secreted proteins. In this study, the humoral immune response to purified recombinant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis PtpA was investigated using sera from a cohort of sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and compared with uninfected healthy controls. A significantly higher level of reactivity to PtpA was observed in sera collected from M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis infected sheep when compared to those from uninfected healthy controls. PtpA could be a potential candidate antigen for detection of humoral immune responses in sheep infected with M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

  1. Limited hydrolysis combined with controlled Maillard-induced glycation does not reduce immunoreactivity of soy protein for all sera tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jordan; Greenberg, Yana; Sriramarao, P; Ismail, Baraem P

    2016-12-15

    Combining proteolysis and Maillard-induced glycation was investigated to reduce the immunoreactivity of soy protein. Soy protein was hydrolyzed by Alcalase following response surface methodology utilizing three variables, temperature, time, and enzyme:substrate ratio, with the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and percent reduction in immunoreactivity as response variables. Western blots and ELISA were used to evaluate immunoreactivity using human sera. Data were fitted to appropriate models and prediction equations were generated to determine optimal hydrolysis conditions. The hydrolysate produced under optimized conditions was subjected to glycation with dextran. Hydrolysate produced under optimal conditions had 7.8% DH and a percent reduction in immunoreactivity ranging from 20% to 52%, depending on the sera used. Upon glycation, immunoreactivity was further reduced only when using serum that had the highest soy-specific IgE. This work revealed limitations and provided premises for future studies intended to prove the potency of the combined modification approach to produce a hypoallergenic protein ingredient.

  2. Performance levels of four Latin American laboratories for the serodiagnosis of Chagas disease in Mexican sera samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro O Luquetti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In nearly all of the previous multicentre studies evaluating serological tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, sera samples from Central or South American countries have been used preferentially. In this work we compared the reliability of the serological tests using Mexican sera samples that were evaluated in four independent laboratories. This included a reference laboratory in Brazil and three participant laboratories, including one in Central America and two in Mexico. The kappa index between Brazilian and Honduran laboratories reached 1.0 and the index for the Mexican laboratories reached 0.94. Another finding of this study was that the source of antigen did not affect the performance of the serological tests.

  3. Detection of Potentially Diagnostic Leishmania Antigens with Western Blot Analysis of Sera from Patients with Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyyedtabaei, Seyyed Javad; Rostami, Ali; Haghighi, Ali; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kazemi, Bahram; Fallahi, Shirzad; Spotin, Adel

    2017-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are important public health problems in Iran. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of Western blot (WB) compared with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT) to serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis. This study was performed from 2010-2014 and participants were different parts of Iran. Serum samples were obtained from 43 patients with proven CL, 33 patients with proven VL, 39 patients with other parasitic diseases and 23 healthy individuals. WB sensitivity for CL and VL was 100% and 91%, compared to IFA 4.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Sera from patients with CL and VL recognized numerous antigens with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 68 kDa and 12 to 94 kDa, respectively. The most sensitive antigens were 14 and 16 kDa for CL recognized by 100% of the sera from patients with proven CL and 12, 14 and 16 kDa for VL, recognized by 63.6%, 100% and 63.6% of the sera from patients with proven VL respectively. WB analysis is more sensitive than IFAT for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis particularly in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The 12, 14 and 16 kDa can be valuable diagnostic molecules for serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis because at least two immunogenic molecules were simultaneously detected by all patient sera, as well as produced antibodies against these antigens have no cross-reactivity with other control groups. WB could be useful for screening and serodiagnosis of CL and VL in epidemiologic studies in endemic areas.

  4. Strongyloides stercoralis excretory/secretory protein strongylastacin specifically recognized by IgE antibodies in infected human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajalu, Ravi; Parandaman, Vijayalakshmi; Ndao, Momar; Andersen, John F; Neva, Franklin A

    2011-02-01

    The infective, microscopic Strongyloides stercoralis larvae in contaminated soil can penetrate human skin with the help of excretory/secretory proteases. These proteases play a critical role in infection and transmigration of the parasite to the intestines. Strongylastacin is similar to astacin (from the digestive gland of the crayfish Astacus astacus), a multi-domain protein with a signal peptide, a pro-enzyme, a catalytic domain containing the zinc binding consensus astacin family signature sequence HEXXHXXGFXHEXXRXDR, and a second conserved zinc binding motif SIMHY at N- terminal region. An EGF-1 like domain and a CUB domain are located at the COOH- terminal. In this study, the excretory/secretory Strongylastacin gene from S. stercoralis infective larval stage was cloned and expressed as a 45 kDa in Escherichia coli. Immunoblot analysis showed the presence of natural IgG antibodies against strongylastacin in six infected and six non-endemic normal sera. These findings were confirmed in an ELISA of 32 S. stercoralis infected and 32 presumed normal human sera; all contained natural anti-strongylastacin IgG antibodies. By contrast, IgE antibodies specific to strongylastacin were present in sera from individuals infected with S. stercoralis but not in uninfected control sera. Moreover, recombinant strongylastacin did not cross-react with IgE antibodies either from patients infected with filaria or patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilic (TPE) who had increased IgE antibodies. The present authors conclude that strongylastacin, an excretory/secretory antigen, elicits specific IgE antibodies in S. stercoralis infected humans. Non-specific IgG antibodies to strongylastacin are present in both infected and normal humans. Further investigation is needed to understand the role of the host protective response against strongylastacin.

  5. Autoantibodies Profile in the Sera of Patients with Sjogren]s Syndrome: The ANA Evaluation—A Homogeneous, Multiplexed System

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Gilburd; Mahmoud Abu-Shakra; Yehuda Shoenfeld; Andrea Giordano; Elena Bartoloni Bocci; Francesco delle Monache; Roberto Gerli

    2004-01-01

    Background: Flow-based, multiplex bead arrays (MBA) have been developed for a variety of applications including the detection of antibodies to extractable nuclear antigens (ENA). It offers a rapid and sensitive method to assess multiple analyses in a single tube/well. Purpose: To evaluate the Athena Multi-Lyte ANA Test System utilizes Luminex Corporation's MBA technology for the detection of antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and ENA antibodies in the sera of patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). ...

  6. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal Wareth; Murat Eravci; Christoph Weise; Uwe Roesler; Falk Melzer; Sprague, Lisa D.; Heinrich Neubauer; Jayaseelan Murugaiyan

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with ...

  7. Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to detect anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibody in blood sera of domestic cats: quantitative analysis based on partial least-squares multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Janaína; Pacheco, Marcos T. T.; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Machado, Rosangela Z.; Zângaro, Renato A.; Silveira, Landulfo

    2010-07-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important zoonosis in public health because domestic cats are the main agents responsible for the transmission of this disease in Brazil. We investigate a method for diagnosing toxoplasmosis based on Raman spectroscopy. Dispersive near-infrared Raman spectra are used to quantify anti-Toxoplasma gondii (IgG) antibodies in blood sera from domestic cats. An 830-nm laser is used for sample excitation, and a dispersive spectrometer is used to detect the Raman scattering. A serological test is performed in all serum samples by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for validation. Raman spectra are taken from 59 blood serum samples and a quantification model is implemented based on partial least squares (PLS) to quantify the sample's serology by Raman spectra compared to the results provided by the ELISA test. Based on the serological values provided by the Raman/PLS model, diagnostic parameters such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive prediction values, and negative prediction values are calculated to discriminate negative from positive samples, obtaining 100, 80, 90, 83.3, and 100%, respectively. Raman spectroscopy, associated with the PLS, is promising as a serological assay for toxoplasmosis, enabling fast and sensitive diagnosis.

  8. Microbial transglutaminase treatment in pasta-production does not affect the immunoreactivity of gliadin with celiac disease patients' sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruh, Tobias; Ohsam, Jürgen; Pasternack, Ralf; Yokoyama, Keiichi; Kumazawa, Yoshiyuki; Hils, Martin

    2014-07-30

    The effect of microbial transglutaminase (MTG)-treatment of pasta-dough on the immunoreactivity with celiac disease patient's sera has been investigated. Modification by MTG has been proven by determination of the MTG reaction product ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysine (3.63 μmol/g protein), which was not detectable in non-MTG-treated pasta. Antigenicity has been analyzed by immunoblotting and ELISA using gliadin-extracts from pasta and MTG-treated pasta. Immunoblotting showed that the antibody-population (antigliadin antibodies and antideamidated gliadin antibodies) of the sera is specific for every individual patient. Immunoblotting and ELISA showed that there is no difference in immunoreactivity of gliadin extracted from pasta and MTG-pasta. Recognition pattern and intensity in Western blot as well as antibody titer has also been identical even for sera with a high antideamidated gliadin antibody titer. These results indicate no difference between pasta-gliadin and MTG-pasta-gliadin and especially no increased deamidation in pasta-gliadin by MTG-treatment.

  9. The influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies from cows sera and cervical mucus on bull sperm motility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarević Miodrag

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies (ASA from the sera and cervical mucus of cows on bulls sperm motility. A total of 64 cows was included in the study and samples of sera and cervical mucus were collected on the day of artificial insemination. Cows were of Busha breed or mix breed with Simmental. The presence of antisperm Ig G and Ig A antibodies was determined by indirect immunofluorescence method and according to these results, cows were divided in groups as follows: cows with high or low ASA titer in their sera and cows with high or low ASA titer in the cervical mucus. Influence of antisperm antibodies on sperm motility was further estimated by Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA. Results demonstrated a significant difference in the influence of antisperm antibodies depending on their origin and titer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002: Molecular genetic and ecophysiological researches on the protection of autochthonous animal resources, sustaining domestic animals’ welfare, health and reproduction, and safe food production

  10. Effect of sera of normal cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) on in vitro maturation of buffalo, sheep and goat oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anthony Sabasthin; Sumanta Nandi; Venkataswamy Girish Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the oocytes maturation capacity of buffalo, sheep and goat using media containing sera of three different groups of buffaloes (regularly cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding). Methods: The buffalo, sheep and goat oocytes were matured under suitable conditions in medium containing sera of regularly cycling, pregnant and repeat breeding buffaloes. Results:The oocytes maturation rate containing buffalo oocytes cultured in media containing sera of the control group and regularly cycling group were not significantly different. However when oocytes cultured in the media containing sera of pregnant buffaloes the maturation rate were significantly declined. Further significant declined in maturation rate were observed when oocytes cultured in media containing sera of repeat breeding buffaloes. When sheep and goat oocytes cultured in the media containing control, pregnant and regularly cycling animals sera the oocytes maturation rate were not significantly different. A significant decline in maturation rate of sheep and goat oocytes were observed, when oocytes cultured in media containing sera of repeat breeding buffaloes. Conclusion: We may conclude that serum collected from normal cycling buffaloes can be used for oocytes maturation in both homogeneous and heterogeneous species.

  11. Passive transfer of resistance to mice with sera from rabbits, rats or mice vaccinated with ultraviolet-attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, N A; Hinchcliffe, P; Webbe, G

    1987-06-01

    All serum transfers from donor rats or rabbits given single or multiple vaccinations of ultraviolet (u.v.)-attenuated Schistosoma japonicum cercariae conferred significant resistance against challenge to mice. Donors given 5 vaccinations, however, produced the most effective sera; rat sera giving up to 88% protection and rabbit sera up to 80%. This protective effect was species-specific and titratable. Sera from vaccinated rabbits and rats were were most effective when transferred to mice 2 h before challenge, but became progressively less effective when transferred with increasing time after challenge. These sera had no efficacy when given 6 days after challenge. Thus, sera from vaccinated rabbits and rats were effective against the early stage of migration, but did not necessarily have to act in the skin as all serum transfers were as effective against intraperitoneal as percutaneous challenge. By contrast, serum from multiply vaccinated mice had little or no protective effect when transferred to mice before challenge, but conferred 62% resistance when transferred 5 days after challenge. Further, there was an additive protective effect when vaccinated rat and mouse sera were given in combination at their optimum transfer times (days 0 and +5, respectively). Thus, there appears to be a stage-specific immune response induced by vaccination depending upon whether the vaccinated hosts are truly permissive or not. Vaccinated rats and rabbits respond to the early phase of migration and vaccinated mice make protective responses against the lung phase of migration.

  12. Canine visceral leishmaniasis: a comparative study of real-time PCR, conventional PCR, and direct agglutination on sera for the detection of Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadiha, A; Haghighi, A; Mohebali, M; Mahdian, R; Abadi, A R; Zarei, Z; Yeganeh, F; Kazemi, B; Taghipour, N; Akhoundi, B; Barati, M; Mahmoudi, M R

    2013-02-18

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) is endemic in northwestern Iran. This study aimed to compare real-time PCR, conventional PCR, and the direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis Leishmania infantum infection in 167 serum samples of domestic dog. Bone marrow was used for parasitological examination (smears and/or culture) in symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, and serum was used for detection of L. infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) by both conventional PCR and real-time PCR, while anti-L. infantum antibodies in sera were measured by DAT. The sera were collected from 37 symptomatic and 112 asymptomatic dogs during April to May 2011. Eighteen presumed negative samples were obtained from healthy dogs kept in non-endemic areas with no history of CVL and used as controls. All 18 samples were negative by DAT and Dipstick rK39. DAT confirmed previous exposure to L. infantum for all 149 serum samples collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in CVL endemic areas of Iran. Among the 37 symptomatic dogs, 20 (54%), 25 (67.6%), 36 (97.3%), and 37 (100%) showed L. infantum infection by parasitological methods, conventional PCR, real-time PCR, and DAT (≥ 1:80), respectively. Of 112 asymptomatic dogs, 79 (70.5%), 111 (99.1%), and 112 (100%) were shown to be positive by conventional PCR, and DAT (≥ 1:80), respectively. For ethical reasons, no asymptomatic or healthy control dogs were examined by parasitological methods. Three (16.7%) control dogs were positive by real-time PCR, but were negative by DAT, dipstick rK39, and conventional PCR methods. Parasitemia levels were measured by real-time PCR targeting kDNA using SYBR(®) green assay. This quantitative technique detected infection in 89.9% (150/167) of the domestic dogs that harbored L. infantum kDNA, ranging from 0.01 49 to 310.1 parasites/ml. The average was 16.60 parasites/ml. A good agreement (0.97) was found between real-time PCR and DAT at ≥ 1:80 titer, used as cut-off value by Kappa analysis. Thus

  13. Effects of Different Sera Conditions on Olfactory Ensheathing Cells in Vitro

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    Meng Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OEC is a promising therapy in spinal cord injury (SCI treatment. However, the therapeutic efficacy of this method is unstable due to unknown reasons. Considering the alterations in the culture environment that occur during OEC preparation for transplantation, we hypothesize that these changes may cause variations in the curative effects of this method. In this study, we compared OEC cultured in medium containing different types and concentrations of serum. After purification and passage, the OEC were cultured for 7 days in different media containing 5%, 10%, 15% or 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS or rat serum (RS, or the cells were cultured in FBS-containing medium first, followed by medium containing RS. In another group, the OEC were first cultured in 10% FBS for 3 days and then cultured with rat spinal cord explants with 10% RS for another 4 days. An MTT assay and P75 neurotrophin receptor immunofluorescence staining were used to examine cell viability and OEC numbers, respectively. The concentration of neurotrophin-3 (NT-3, which is secreted by OEC into the culture supernatant, was detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RT-PCR was applied to investigate the NT-3 gene expression in OEC according to different groups. Compared with FBS, RS reduced OEC proliferation in relation to OEC counts (χ2 = 166.279, df = 1, p < 0.01, the optical density (OD value in the MTT assay (χ2 = 34.730, df = 1, p < 0.01, and NT-3 concentration in the supernatant (χ2 = 242.997, df = 1, p < 0.01. OEC cultured with spinal cord explants secreted less NT-3 than OEC cultured alone (F = 9.611, df = 5.139, p < 0.01. Meanwhile, the order of application of different sera was not influential. There was statistically significant difference in NT-3 gene expression among different groups when the serum concentration was 15% (χ2 = 64.347, df = 1, p < 0.01. In conclusion, different serum conditions may be

  14. [The changes of complement activities in sera of mice after subcutaneous administration of beryllium chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, T; Sakaguchi, S; Nakamura, I; Kudo, Y

    1996-02-01

    We studied changes of the complement pathway activities and the content of C3 in sera of mice, administered BeCl2 (containing 5 micrograms of Be per mouse) or CuCl2 (containing 5 micrograms of Cu per mouse) by a single subcutaneous injection. The value of the classical complement pathway activity (CH50) of the Be group 3 days after administration was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.001). It was significantly lower than in the control group after 7 days (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the CH50 value of the Cu group 3 hr after administration tended to increase, however, it was significantly lower than in the control group after 7 days (P < 0.01). The change of the alternative complement pathway activity (ACH50) value of the Be group was similar to the change of the CH50 value of the group. The ACH50 value of the Cu group 3 days after administration tended to increase but it was the same as the ACH50 value of the control group after 7 days. The C3 contents of both the Be and Cu groups 3 days after administration were significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.001). The aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity of the Be group 7 days after administration was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01). By contrast, AST activity of the Cu group 3 hr after administration was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The value of the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity of the Be group was low (P < 0.01), but that of the Cu group was high (P < 0.05), 3 hr after administration. These values of both groups after 7 days, however, were significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). The AST/ALT ratio in mice was very high at 3 hr, and it remained high by 7 days after Be injection. On the other hand, the ratio of the Cu group was almost constant for 7 days after Cu injection. Thus, these values changed with relative expedition after Be injection. Therefore, we confirmed that measurements of

  15. miRNA Signatures in Sera of Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Ilaria C.; Norbis, Luca; Sotgiu, Giovanni; Bosu, Roberta; Ambrosi, Alessandro; Codecasa, Luigi R.; Goletti, Delia; Matteelli, Alberto; Ntinginya, Elias N.; Aloi, Francesco; Heinrich, Norbert; Reither, Klaus; Cirillo, Daniela M.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies showed that assessing levels of specific circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) is a non-invasive, rapid, and accurate method for diagnosing diseases or detecting alterations in physiological conditions. We aimed to identify a serum miRNA signature to be used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). To account for variations due to the genetic makeup, we enrolled adults from two study settings in Europe and Africa. The following categories of subjects were considered: healthy (H), active pulmonary TB (PTB), active pulmonary TB, HIV co-infected (PTB/HIV), latent TB infection (LTBI), other pulmonary infections (OPI), and active extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB). Sera from 10 subjects of the same category were pooled and, after total RNA extraction, screened for miRNA levels by TaqMan low-density arrays. After identification of “relevant miRNAs”, we refined the serum miRNA signature discriminating between H and PTB on individual subjects. Signatures were analyzed for their diagnostic performances using a multivariate logistic model and a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) model. A leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV) approach was adopted for assessing how both models could perform in practice. The analysis on pooled specimens identified selected miRNAs as discriminatory for the categories analyzed. On individual serum samples, we showed that 15 miRNAs serve as signature for H and PTB categories with a diagnostic accuracy of 82% (CI 70.2–90.0), and 77% (CI 64.2–85.9) in a RVM and a logistic classification model, respectively. Considering the different ethnicity, by selecting the specific signature for the European group (10 miRNAs) the diagnostic accuracy increased up to 83% (CI 68.1–92.1), and 81% (65.0–90.3), respectively. The African-specific signature (12 miRNAs) increased the diagnostic accuracy up to 95% (CI 76.4–99.1), and 100% (83.9–100.0), respectively. Serum miRNA signatures represent an interesting source of biomarkers for TB disease with the

  16. miRNA signatures in sera of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Miotto

    Full Text Available Several studies showed that assessing levels of specific circulating microRNAs (miRNAs is a non-invasive, rapid, and accurate method for diagnosing diseases or detecting alterations in physiological conditions. We aimed to identify a serum miRNA signature to be used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. To account for variations due to the genetic makeup, we enrolled adults from two study settings in Europe and Africa. The following categories of subjects were considered: healthy (H, active pulmonary TB (PTB, active pulmonary TB, HIV co-infected (PTB/HIV, latent TB infection (LTBI, other pulmonary infections (OPI, and active extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB. Sera from 10 subjects of the same category were pooled and, after total RNA extraction, screened for miRNA levels by TaqMan low-density arrays. After identification of "relevant miRNAs", we refined the serum miRNA signature discriminating between H and PTB on individual subjects. Signatures were analyzed for their diagnostic performances using a multivariate logistic model and a Relevance Vector Machine (RVM model. A leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV approach was adopted for assessing how both models could perform in practice. The analysis on pooled specimens identified selected miRNAs as discriminatory for the categories analyzed. On individual serum samples, we showed that 15 miRNAs serve as signature for H and PTB categories with a diagnostic accuracy of 82% (CI 70.2-90.0, and 77% (CI 64.2-85.9 in a RVM and a logistic classification model, respectively. Considering the different ethnicity, by selecting the specific signature for the European group (10 miRNAs the diagnostic accuracy increased up to 83% (CI 68.1-92.1, and 81% (65.0-90.3, respectively. The African-specific signature (12 miRNAs increased the diagnostic accuracy up to 95% (CI 76.4-99.1, and 100% (83.9-100.0, respectively. Serum miRNA signatures represent an interesting source of biomarkers for TB disease with the potential to

  17. The diagnostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) measurement in the sera of patients with brain tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) exist in the brain. Alcohol dehydrogenase and ALDH are also present in brain tumor cells. Moreover, the activity of class I isoenzymes was significantly higher in cancer than healthy brain cells. The activity of these enzymes in tumor tissue is reflected in the serum and could thus be helpful for diagnostics of brain neoplasms. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of ADH and ALDH as markers for brain tumors. Material and methods Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 115 patients suffering from brain tumors (65 glioblastomas, 50 meningiomas). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. Results There was a significant increase in the activity of ADH I isoenzyme and ADH total in the sera of brain tumor patients compared to the controls. The diagnostic sensitivity for ADH I was 78%, specificity 85%, and positive and negative predictive values were 86% and 76% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of ADH I increased with the stage of the carcinoma. Area under receiver-operating characteristic curve for ADH I was 0.71. Conclusions The results suggest a potential role for ADH I as a marker for brain tumor. PMID:28261287

  18. Analysis of anti-zona pellucida antibody and tumor necrosis factor-α,γ-interferon and interleukin-2 in sera from patients with premature ovarian failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一峰; 韩兰英; 欧汝强; 杨宁; 谢端薇; 陈巧儿

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role and the clinical significance of anti-zona pellucidaantibody (AzpAb) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),γ-interferon(IFN-γ) and inter-leukin-2 (IL-2) in sera from patients with premature ovarian failure (POF).Methods: The AzpAb in the serum of POF patient was analyzed by means ofELISA. The levels of TNF-α, IL-2 and IFN-γ in the serum were determined by meansof radioimmunoassay (RIA).Results:The level of serum AzpAb in the POF patients was significantly higher thanthat of the normal controls(P<0.001). The levels of TNF-α and IL-2 were significantlyreduced (P<0. 001), and the level of IFN-γ was significantly elevated (P<0.01). Thelevels of above three cytokines in AzpAb positive group were significantly higher thanthose of the negative group in POF patients.Conclusion: This study suggested that AzpAb, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-2 might playimportant roles in the pathogenesis of autoimmune POF.

  19. The in vitro protection of human decay accelerating factor and hDAF/heme oxygenase-1 transgenes in porcine aortic endothelial cells against sera of Formosan macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, C-F; Tai, H-C; Wu, C-P; Ho, L-L; Lin, Y-J; Hwang, C-S; Yang, T-S; Lee, J-M; Tseng, Y-L; Huang, C-C; Weng, C-N; Lee, P-H

    2010-01-01

    To mitigate hyperacute rejection, pigs have been generated with alpha-Gal transferase gene knockout and transgenic expression of human decay accelerating factor (hDAF), MCP, and CD59. Additionally, heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been suggested to defend endothelial cells. Sera (MS) (0%, 1%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) from Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis, MC), an Old World monkey wildly populated in Taiwan, was used to test the protective in vitro, effects of hDAF or hDAF/hHO-1 on porcine aortic endothelial cells (pAEC) derived from hDAF(+), hDAF(+)/hHO-1(+), and hDAF(+)/hHO-1(-) and 1 nontransgenic pAEC. Ten percent human serum (HS) served as a positive control. When MS addition increased to 10% or 15%, all transgenic pAEC exhibited a greater survival than nontransgenic pAEC. Noticeably, 15% MS reduced survived to 40% in nontransgenic and transgenic pAEC, respectively. These results revealed that hDAF exerted protective effects against MC complement activation. However, comparing with 10% MS and HS in pAEC of nontransgenic pigs, the survivability was higher in HS, suggesting that complement activation by MS was more toxic than that by HS. Furthermore, hDAF(+)/hHO-1(+) showed no further protection against effects of MS on transgenic pAEC. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  1. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  2. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Wareth

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B. species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  3. Comprehensive Identification of Immunodominant Proteins of Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis Using Antibodies in the Sera from Naturally Infected Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Eravci, Murat; Weise, Christoph; Roesler, Uwe; Melzer, Falk; Sprague, Lisa D; Neubauer, Heinrich; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2016-04-30

    Brucellosis is a debilitating zoonotic disease that affects humans and animals. The diagnosis of brucellosis is challenging, as accurate species level identification is not possible with any of the currently available serology-based diagnostic methods. The present study aimed at identifying Brucella (B.) species-specific proteins from the closely related species B. abortus and B. melitensis using sera collected from naturally infected host species. Unlike earlier reported investigations with either laboratory-grown species or vaccine strains, in the present study, field strains were utilized for analysis. The label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of the naturally isolated strains of these two closely related species revealed 402 differentially expressed proteins, among which 63 and 103 proteins were found exclusively in the whole cell extracts of B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains, respectively. The sera from four different naturally infected host species, i.e., cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goat were applied to identify the immune-binding protein spots present in the whole protein extracts from the isolated B. abortus and B. melitensis field strains and resolved on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Comprehensive analysis revealed that 25 proteins of B. abortus and 20 proteins of B. melitensis were distinctly immunoreactive. Dihydrodipicolinate synthase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and lactate/malate dehydrogenase from B. abortus, amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein from B. melitensis and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase from both species were reactive with the sera of all the tested naturally infected host species. The identified proteins could be used for the design of serological assays capable of detecting pan-Brucella, B. abortus- and B. melitensis-specific antibodies.

  4. Evaluation of the reactivity of sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus against the human MCP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronze-da-Rocha, Elsa; Nóvoa, Ana; Teixeira, Natércia; Vasconcelos, Carlos Silva; Cerveira, Conceição; Castro e Melo, João; Carvalho, Manuel Cirne

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates metaphase chromosome protein 1 (MCP1), a nuclear antigen, as a diagnostic marker for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Reactivity of sera from 114 Portuguese patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease or from healthy blood donors (HBD), against MCP1, produced in bacteria (bact-MCP1) or in its native form (native-MCP1), was determined by immunoblotting. Predictive and discriminative power of MCP1 reactivity for SLE diagnosis in disease-control groups was evaluated by logistic regression, its diagnostic value determined by receiver-operating characteristic analysis and compared with similar analysis of antinuclear antibody and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). We demonstrated that native-MCP1, in contrast to bact-MCP1, reacts with SLE sera with significant predictive and discriminative power versus other autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] ≤3.537 and ≥3.265; area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve [AUC] ≤0.643 and ≥0.636) or versus HBD (OR = 5.006; AUC = 0.671), showing a good diagnostic power with high specificity (82.1% versus HBD) and low sensitivity for SLE, similar to those of dsDNA. The reactivity of SLE sera with native-MCP1 was shown to be dependent on the presence of phosphorylated residues. Native-MCP1 was shown to have diagnostic value as a specific marker for SLE diagnosis and, therefore, is a suitable substrate for a new antibody test. The widely reported importance of phosphorylated epitopes as targets for autoantibodies in SLE could also be confirmed for native-MCP1.

  5. Use of immunoblotting to detect antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli infection in the sera of crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawo, Fufa; Mohan, Krishna

    2008-02-01

    An immunoblotting protocol for the detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma crocodyli was developed using sonicated antigen of the reference strain 266/93. Immunoblotting detected nine reacting antigens, of which the 33 and 40kDa antigens were immunodominant. There was no difference in reactivity of the antigens against sera obtained from vaccinated and infected crocodiles. Both antigens are candidates for other serological and molecular studies. This is the first report to develop and apply an immunoblotting test for detection of antibody to M. crocodyli infection in crocodiles.

  6. An endogenous antitoxin to the lethal venom of the funnel web spider, Atrax robustus, in rabbit sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheumack, D D; Comis, A; Claassens, R; Mylecharane, E J; Spence, I; Howden, M E

    1991-01-01

    1. An endogenous antitoxin fraction was isolated from non-immune rabbit sera by affinity chromatography with robustoxin bound to the solid support. 2. Robustoxin is the sole lethal toxin in the venom of the male funnel web spider, Atrax robustus. 3. The fraction was found to contain IgG and IgM immunoglobulins. 4. This fraction prevented or reversed the lethal actions of the crude venom in newborn mice, in mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations, and in anaesthetized monkeys. 5. The antitoxin fraction is of potential value in the therapy of human envenomation by A. robustus.

  7. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  8. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media...... discourse, practitioners attempt to maintain their self-positioning of competence when performing. This leads us, as researchers, to caution against any a priori anticipation of the anchoring power of media discourses within everyday activities....

  9. The prevalence of group A streptococcal throat carriage in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, K P; Ameen, A S; Nsanze, H; Bin-Othman, S; Mustafa, N

    1996-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the carrier rate of group A beta haemolytic streptococci in school children in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. One thousand and two randomly selected school children aged 5-7 years had their throats swabbed twice for both culture and direct antigen detection of group A streptococci. One hundred and fourteen children (11.3%) had both a positive antigen and culture test, while 216 (21.6%) had antigen-positive tests only and 16 (1.5%) had a positive culture only. Thus, the combination of culture and antigen detection revealed a carrier rate of 35.4% in the children examined. We conclude that in an affluent but isolated desert area on the Tropic of Cancer, group A streptococcal carriage rate is high. Antigen detection is superior to culture techniques in asymptomatic carrier studies.

  10. THE COMPOSITION OF FLUIDS AND SERA OF SOME MARINE ANIMALS AND OF THE SEA WATER IN WHICH THEY LIVE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, W H

    1940-05-20

    1. The electrolyte composition, the pH, and freezing points of the fluids of several invertebrates and one primitive chordate are reported. 2. Fluids of the worms, echinoderms, and the clam Venus were isotonic with sea water; fluids of the Arthropoda were hypertonic to sea water. 3. The pH of all fluids was below that of sea water. In the Arthropoda and Myxine less individual variation in pH appeared than in the echinoderms and worms. 4. Ratios of ionic concentrations in the fluid to those in the sea water indicated (1) uniform distribution of ions between the internal and external media for the echinoderms and Venus, (2) differential distribution of potassium and magnesium in the worms; (3) differential distribution of sulfate, magnesium, potassium, and calcium in the Arthropoda; and (4) differential distribution of calcium, magnesium, and sulfate in Myxine. 5. The unequal distribution of ions implies the expenditure of energy against a concentration gradient across the absorbing or excreting membranes, a capacity frequently overlooked in the invertebrates. 6. The sera of the Arthropoda from diluted sea water showed higher concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ions relative to the respective concentrations in the external medium than in normal sea water, and also showed different orders for those ions. 7. The increase in osmotic pressure of the sera of the animals moving into brackish water is caused by unequal accumulation of sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride ions. Sulfate and magnesium ionic ratios do not change.

  11. Immune reactivity of sera obtained from brucellosis patients and vaccinated-rabbits to a fusion protein from Brucella melitensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Amani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens which can stay alive and multiply in professional and nonprofessional phagocytes. Immunity against Brucella melitensis involves antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells activation and humoral immune responses. Due to negative aspects of live attenuated vaccines, much attention has been focused on finding Brucella-protective antigens to introduce them as potential subunit vaccine candidates. Materials and Methods: A chimeric gene encoding trigger factor (TF, Omp3148-74 and BP2687-111 fragments (TOB from B. melitensis was successfully cloned, expressed in Escherichia coliBL21-DE3 and purified by Ni-NTA agarose column. Antibodies to recombinant TOB (rTOB have been investigated in Brucella-infected human sera and a pool serum prepared from B. melitensis-vaccinated rabbits. Results: Our results showed that the immunized rabbit pool serum strongly reacted with rTOB. In addition, antibodies against rTOB were detectable in 76.5% of sera obtained from infected patients. Conclusion: These findings suggest that rTOB may provide a potential immunogenic candidate which could be considered in future vaccine studies.

  12. Cross-reactive anti-PfCLAG9 antibodies in the sera of asymptomatic parasite carriers of Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana D'Arc Neves; Zanchi, Fernando Berton; Rodrigues, Francisco Lurdevanhe da Silva; Honda, Eduardo Rezende; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroschi; Pereira, Dhélio Batista; Taborda, Roger Lafontaine Mesquita; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Pereira-da-Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    The PfCLAG9 has been extensively studied because their immunogenicity. Thereby, the gene product is important for therapeutics interventions and a potential vaccine candidate. Antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to selected sequences of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfCLAG9 were found in sera of falciparum malaria patients from Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon. Much higher antibody titres were found in semi-immune and immune asymptomatic parasite carriers than in subjects suffering clinical infections, corroborating original findings in Papua Guinea. However, sera of Plasmodium vivax patients from the same Amazon area, in particular from asymptomatic vivax parasite carriers, reacted strongly with the same peptides. Bioinformatic analyses revealed regions of similarity between P. falciparum Pfclag9 and the P. vivax ortholog Pvclag7. Indirect fluorescent microscopy analysis showed that antibodies against PfCLAG9 peptides elicited in BALB/c mice react with human red blood cells (RBCs) infected with both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The patterns of reactivity on the surface of the parasitised RBCs are very similar. The present observations support previous findings that PfCLAG9 may be a target of protective immune responses and raises the possibility that the cross reactive antibodies to PvCLAG7 in mixed infections play a role in regulate the fate of Plasmodium mixed infections. PMID:23440122

  13. Cross-reactive anti-PfCLAG9 antibodies in the sera of asymptomatic parasite carriers of Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana D'Arc Neves Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The PfCLAG9 has been extensively studied because their immunogenicity. Thereby, the gene product is important for therapeutics interventions and a potential vaccine candidate. Antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to selected sequences of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfCLAG9 were found in sera of falciparum malaria patients from Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon. Much higher antibody titres were found in semi-immune and immune asymptomatic parasite carriers than in subjects suffering clinical infections, corroborating original findings in Papua Guinea. However, sera of Plasmodium vivax patients from the same Amazon area, in particular from asymptomatic vivax parasite carriers, reacted strongly with the same peptides. Bioinformatic analyses revealed regions of similarity between P. falciparum Pfclag9 and the P. vivax ortholog Pvclag7. Indirect fluorescent microscopy analysis showed that antibodies against PfCLAG9 peptides elicited in BALB/c mice react with human red blood cells (RBCs infected with both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The patterns of reactivity on the surface of the parasitised RBCs are very similar. The present observations support previous findings that PfCLAG9 may be a target of protective immune responses and raises the possibility that the cross reactive antibodies to PvCLAG7 in mixed infections play a role in regulate the fate of Plasmodium mixed infections.

  14. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the sera of patients with brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelski, Wojciech; Laniewska-Dunaj, Magdalena; Orywal, Karolina; Kochanowicz, Jan; Rutkowski, Robert; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2014-12-01

    Human brain tissue contains various alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes and possess also aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. In our last experiments we have shown that ADH and ALDH are present also in the brain tumour cells. Moreover the activities of total ADH and class I isoenzymes were significantly higher in cancer tissue than healthy cells. It can suggests that these changes may be reflected by enzyme activity in the serum of patients with brain cancer. Serum samples were taken for routine biochemical investigation from 62 patients suffering from brain cancer (36 glioblastoma, 26 meningioma). For the measurement of the activity of class I and II ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, the fluorometric methods were used. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes were measured by the photometric method. A statistically significant increase of class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes was found in the sera of patients with brain cancer. The median activity of this class isoenzyme in the patients group increased about 24 % in the comparison to the control level. The total alcohol dehydrogenase activity was also significantly higher (26 %) among patients with brain tumour than healthy ones. The activities of other tested ADH isoenzymes and total ALDH were unchanged. The increase of the activity of total ADH and class I alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme in the sera of patients with brain cancer seems to be caused by the release of this isoenzyme from tumour's cells.

  15. Characterization of KLK4 expression and detection of KLK4-specific antibody in prostate cancer patient sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Craig H; Fanger, Gary R; Retter, Marc W; Hylander, Bonnie L; Penetrante, Remedios B; Houghton, Raymond L; Zhang, Xinqun; McNeill, Patricia D; Filho, Aristides Maltez; Nolasco, Marcos; Badaro, Roberto; Cheever, Martin A; Reed, Steven G; Dillon, Davin C; Watanabe, Yoshihiro

    2002-10-10

    The ability to identify prostate tumor or prostate tissue specific genes that are expressed at high levels and use their protein products as targets could greatly aid in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. Using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based subtraction technique, we have recovered the recently described KLK4 (prostase) gene from human prostate cDNA. In this study, KLK4 gene expression in human prostate tumors was further characterized using cDNA quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that the gene is specifically expressed at both the mRNA and protein levels in normal human prostate tissue, and in both primary and metastatic prostate tumor samples. Quantitative mRNA analysis also demonstrated low level expression including adrenal gland, salivary gland and thyroid. Finally, it was demonstrated that prostate cancer patient sera contain antibodies that bind specifically to recombinant KLK4 protein. This antibody has been used to detect KLK4-specific peptides in epitope mapping experiments. The relatively specific expression profile and elevated level of KLK4 mRNA and protein in both tumor and normal prostate tissues, in addition to detectable KLK4-specific antibody in cancer patient sera, supports additional efforts to determine if KLK4 can play a role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the monitoring of residual disease, or act as a target for immunotherapy.

  16. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the 'top 10' causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress.

  17. IgG avidity assay: a tool for excluding acute toxoplasmosis in prolonged IgM titer sera from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelia, O; Rahana, A R; Mohamad Firdaus, A; Cheng, H S; Nursyairah, M S; Fatinah, A S; Azmawati, M N; Siti, N A M; Aisah, M Y

    2014-12-01

    An accurate diagnosis for toxoplasmosis is crucial for pregnant women as this infection may lead to severe sequelae in the fetus. The value of IgG avidity assay as a tool to determine acute and chronic toxoplasmosis during pregnancy was evaluated in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). In this study, 281 serum samples from 281 pregnant women in various trimesters were collected. These samples were assayed using specific anti-Toxoplasma IgM and IgG antibodies, followed by IgG avidity test. The overall seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women was 35.2% (33.5% for anti-Toxoplasma IgG and 1.8% for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies). Of 5 (1.8%) serum samples positive for IgM ELISA, 4 had high-avidity antibodies, suggesting past infection and one sample with borderline avidity index. Two samples with low avidity were from IgM negative serum samples. The IgG avidity assay exhibited an excellent specificity of 97.6% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 95.6%. The study also demonstrated no significant correlation between avidity indexes of the sera with IgG (r=0.12, p=0.24) and IgM (r=-0.00, p=0.98), suggesting the complementary needs of the two tests for a better diagnosis outcome. These findings highlight the usefulness of IgG avidity assay in excluding a recently acquired toxoplasmosis infection in IgM-positive serum sample.

  18. Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA in sera of patients with primary EBV infection

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Detection of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) DNA by PCR in serum had a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 94%, and positive and negative predictive values of 95 and 79%, respectively, for the diagnosis of primary EBV infection. We suggest that this is a useful addition to the panel of tests used for this purpose.

  19. Positive Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  20. Positioning Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oza, Nilay; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Conboy, Kieran

    Agile methods are increasingly adopted by European companies. Academics too are conducting numerous studies on different tenets of agile methods. Companies often feel proud in marketing themselves as ‘agile’. However, the true notion of ‘being agile’ seems to have been overlooked due to lack of positioning of oneself for agility. This raises a call for more research and interactions between academia and the industry. The proposed workshop refers to this call. It will be highly relevant to participants, interested in positioning their company’s agility from organizational, group or project perspectives. The positioning of agility will help companies to better align their agile practices with stakeholder values. Results of the workshop will be shared across participants and they will also have opportunity to continue their work on agile positioning in their companies. At broader level, the work done in this workshop will contribute towards developing Agile Positioning System.

  1. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  2. In Vitro Endothelial Cell Proliferation Assay Reveals Distinct Levels of Proangiogenic Cytokines Characterizing Sera of Healthy Subjects and of Patients with Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Voltan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although myocardial angiogenesis is thought to play an important role in heart failure (HF, the involvement of circulating proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines in the pathogenesis and/or prognosis of HF has not been deeply investigated. By using a highly standardized proliferation assay with human endothelial cells, we first demonstrated that sera from older (mean age 52±7.6 years; n=46 healthy donors promoted endothelial cell proliferation to a significantly higher extent compared to sera obtained from younger healthy donors (mean age 29±8.6 years; n=20. The promotion of endothelial cell proliferation was accompanied by high serum levels of several proangiogenic cytokines. When we assessed endothelial cell proliferation in response to HF patients’ sera, we observed that a subset of sera (n=11 promoted cell proliferation to a significantly lesser extent compared to the majority of sera (n=18. Also, in this case, the difference between the patient groups in the ability to induce endothelial cell proliferation correlated to significant (P<0.05 differences in serum proangiogenic cytokine levels. Unexpectedly, HF patients associated to the highest endothelial proliferation index showed the worst prognosis as evaluated in terms of subsequent cardiovascular events in the follow-up, suggesting that high levels of circulating proangiogenic cytokines might be related to a worse prognosis.

  3. Effect of IBD sera on expression of inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Károly Palatka; István Altorjay; Zoltán Serf(o)z(o); Zoltán Veréb; Róbert Bátori; Beáta Lontay; Zoltán Hargitay; Zoltán Nemes; Miklós Udvardy; Ferenc Erd(o)di

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of endothelial and inducible nitric oxide synthases (eNOS and iNOS) and their role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).METHODS: We examined the effect of sera obtained from patients with active Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) on the function and viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVECs were cultured for 0-48 h in the presence of a medium containing pooled serum of healthy controls, or serum from patients with active CD or UC. Expression of eNOS and iNOS was visualized by immunofluorescence,and quantified by the densitometry of Western blots.Proliferation activity was assessed by computerized image analyses of Ki-67 immunoreactive cells, and also tested in the presence of the NOS inhibitor, 10-4 mol/L L-NAME. Apoptosis and necrosis was examined by the annexin-Ⅴ-biotin method and by propidium iodide staining, respectively.RESULTS: In HUVEC immediately after exposure to UC,serum eNOS was markedly induced, reaching a peak at 12 h. In contrast, a decrease in eNOS was observed after incubation with CD sera and the eNOS level was minimal at 20 h compared to control (18% ± 16% vs 23% ± 15% P<0.01). UC or CD serum caused a significant increase in iNOS compared to control (UC: 300%±21%; CD:275%±27% vs 108%± 14%, P<0.01). Apoptosis/necrosis characteristics did not differ significantly in either experiment. Increased proliferation activity was detected in the presence of CD serum or after treatment with L-NAME. Cultures showed tube-like formations after 24 h treatment with CD serum.CONCLUSION: IBD sera evoked changes in the ratio of eNOS/iNOS, whereas did not influence the viability of HUVEC. These involved down-regulation of eNOS and up-regulation of iNOS simultaneously, leading to increased proliferation activity and possibly a reduced antiinflammatory protection of endothelial cells.

  4. Dengue viruses are enhanced by distinct populations of serotype cross-reactive antibodies in human immune sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruklanthi de Alwis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses (DENV are mosquito-borne flaviviruses of global importance. DENV exist as four serotypes, DENV1-DENV4. Following a primary infection, individuals produce DENV-specific antibodies that bind only to the serotype of infection and other antibodies that cross-react with two or more serotypes. People exposed to a secondary DENV infection with another serotype are at greater risk of developing more severe forms of dengue disease. The increased risk of severe dengue in people experiencing repeat DENV infections appear to be due, at least in part, to the ability of pre-existing serotype cross-reactive antibodies to form virus-antibody complexes that can productively infect Fcγ receptor-bearing target cells. While the theory of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE is supported by several human and small animal model studies, the specific viral antigens and epitopes recognized by enhancing human antibodies after natural infections have not been fully defined. We used antibody-depletion techniques to remove DENV-specific antibody sub-populations from primary DENV-immune human sera. The effects of removing specific antibody populations on ADE were tested both in vitro using K562 cells and in vivo using the AG129 mouse model. Removal of serotype cross-reactive antibodies ablated enhancement of heterotypic virus infection in vitro and antibody-enhanced mortality in vivo. Further depletion studies using recombinant viral antigens showed that although the removal of DENV E-specific antibodies using recombinant E (rE protein resulted in a partial reduction in DENV enhancement, there was a significant residual enhancement remaining. Competition ADE studies using prM-specific Fab fragments in human immune sera showed that both rE-specific and prM-specific antibodies in primary DENV-immune sera significantly contribute to enhancement of heterotypic DENV infection in vitro. Identification of the targets of DENV-enhancing antibodies should contribute to

  5. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...... process. Studying the other calls for close reflections on one's own position, theoretically, personally, and politically, taking into account one's complicity in either overcoming or reproducing processes of othering and marginalisation. [i] We use the term (ethnic) minoritised, not as a distinction...

  6. Biosynthetic basis of incompatible histo-blood group A antigen expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, L; Leitao, D; Sobrinho-Simoes, M

    1993-01-01

    , we have screened 31 cases of gastric tumors of phenotype O for the expression of blood group A gene-defined glycosyltransferase by immunohistology on frozen sections using newly developed monoclonal antibodies to the transferases. Three cases were positive, and transferase expression was confirmed...

  7. Trivalent M-related protein as a component of next generation group A streptococcal vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Purpose There is a need to broaden protective coverage of M protein–based vaccines against group A streptococci (GAS) because coverage of the current 30-valent M protein vaccine does not extend to all emm types. An additional GAS antigen and virulence factor that could potentially extend vaccine coverage is M-related protein (Mrp). Previous work indicated that there are three structurally related families of Mrp (MrpI, MrpII, and MrpIII) and peptides of all three elicited bactericidal antibodies against multiple emm types. The purpose of this study was to determine if a recombinant form containing Mrp from the three families would evoke bactericidal antiserum and to determine if this antiserum could enhance the effectiveness of antisera to the 30-valent M protein vaccine. Materials and Methods A trivalent recombinant Mrp (trMrp) protein containing N-terminal fragments from the three families (trMrp) was constructed, purified and used to immunize rabbits. Anti-trMrp sera contained high titers of antibodies against the trMrp immunogen and recombinant forms representing MrpI, MrpII, and MrpIII. Results The antisera opsonized emm types of GAS representing each Mrp family and also opsonized emm types not covered by the 30-valent M protein–based vaccine. Importantly, a combination of trMrp and 30-valent M protein antiserum resulted in higher levels of opsonization of GAS than either antiserum alone. Conclusion These findings suggest that trMrp may be an effective addition to future constructs of GAS vaccines. PMID:28168173

  8. 12th International Conference on Software Engineering, Arti fi cial Intelligence Research, Management and Applications (SERA 2014)

    CERN Document Server

    Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications

    2015-01-01

    This edited book presents scientific results of the 12th International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence Research, Management and Applications (SERA 2014) held on August 31 – September 4, 2014 in Kitakyushu, Japan.  The aim of this conference was to bring together researchers and scientists, businessmen and entrepreneurs, teachers, engineers, computer users, and students to discuss the numerous fields of computer science and to share their experiences and exchange new ideas and information in a meaningful way. Research results about all aspects (theory, applications and tools) of computer and information science, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered along the way and the solutions adopted to solve them. This publication captures 17 of the conference’s most promising papers.

  9. Adult rabbits acquire resistance to lethal calicivirus infection by adoptive transfer of sera from infected young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, P G; Dinís, M; Costa-E-Silva, A; Aguas, A P

    2008-02-15

    Calicivirus infection of adult rabbits induces the so-called rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) that kills 90% or more of the infected animals; in contrast, young rabbits (up to 8-week-old animals) are resistant to the same infectious agent. We report that calicivirus inoculation of young rabbits induced moderate titres of antiviral antibodies. When these rabbits reached adulthood, a second calicivirus inoculation resulted in resistance to RHD and boosting of antibody titres in half of the rabbits. Adoptive transfer of sera from calicivirus-infected young rabbits to naïve adult rabbits conferred resistance to RHD. We conclude that calicivirus infection of young rabbits induces specific anti-calicivirus antibodies that will protect them from RHD when they reach adulthood.

  10. Naturally occurring antibodies against nerve growth factor in human and rabbit sera: comparison between control and herpes simplex virus-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicou, E; Nerrière, V; Labropoulou, V

    1991-11-01

    Antibodies against nerve growth factor (NGF) in sera were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), by their isolation after passage of sera through NGF immunoadsorbent columns and by their specificity to bind and immunoprecipitate mouse NGF as well as to stain by immunohistochemical methods cellular sites of NGF synthesis. Increased levels of anti-NGF antibodies were found in sera of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected patients but not in HSV-inoculated rabbits. As HSV latency is known to be promoted by NGF in vitro, these results may suggest that anti-NGF antibodies modulate the cytokine function of NGF and thus might play a role in HSV infection. The biological function of circulating antibodies against NGF, in general, is now open to future investigation.

  11. Soluble CD40 Ligand in Sera of Subjects Exposed to Leishmania infantum Infection Reduces the Parasite Load in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Alvisi de Oliveira

    Full Text Available While CD40L is typically a membrane glycoprotein expressed on activated T cells and platelets that binds and activates CD40 on the surface on antigen presenting cells, a soluble derivative (sCD40L that appears to retain its biological activity after cleavage from cell membrane also exists. We recently reported that sCD40L is associated with clinical resolution of visceral leishmaniasis and protection against the disease. In the present study we investigated if this sCD40L is functional and exerts anti-parasitic effect in L. infantum-infected macrophages.Macrophages from normal human donors were infected with L. infantum promastigotes and incubated with either sera from subjects exposed to L. infantum infection, monoclonal antibodies against human CD40L, or an isotype control antibody. We then evaluated infection by counting the number of infected cells and the number of parasites in each cell. We also measured a variety of immune modulatory cytokines in these macrophage culture supernatants by Luminex assay. The addition of sCD40L, either recombinant or from infected individuals' serum, decreased both the number of infected macrophages and number of intracellular parasites. Moreover, this treatment increased the production of IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, IL-15, and IL1β such that negative correlations between the levels of these cytokines with both the infection ratio and number of intracellular parasites were observed.sCD40L from sera of subjects exposed to L. infantum is functional and improves both the control of parasite and production of inflamatory cytokines of infected macrophages. Although the mechanisms involved in parasite killing are still unclear and require further exploration, these findings indicate a protective role of sCD40L in visceral leishmaniasis.

  12. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay identifies vitamin D binding protein (Gc-globulin) in human, rat, and mouse sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, W X; Bazaraa, H M; Magiera, H; Cooke, N E; Haddad, J G

    1996-06-01

    Serum vitamin D binding protein (DBP, also known as Gc-globulin) is a multifunctional protein capable of binding both vitamin D metabolites and actin. DBP can be visualized when analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by staining. Confirmation of its identity had previously required immunoprecipitation with specific anti-DBP antisera or occupancy of the protein with radioactive vitamin D sterols. We present studies showing that preincubation of G-actin with mammalian sera produced a discernible DBP protein band shift on native gel electrophoresis. Addition of DNaseI, a 33-kDa intracellular protein with an avid actin-binding site, to the incubations resulted in a supershift of DBP-actin complexes to an even more cathodal region of the gels. Following incubations with human, rat, and murine sera the same actin shift occurred as did the actin plus DNaseI supershift. The migrations of each complex were correlated with purified DBP migrations under identical conditions. It was confirmed that the supershifted bands contained DBP by Western blotting and detection of DBP by binding of 25-OH[3H]D3. After intravenous G-actin injections into living mice, a serum DBP-actin complex could be detected on native gels as the uncomplexed DBP band decreased in intensity. This simple, direct-staining technique appears to be suitable for identifying DBP/Gc phenotypes in human populations as well as for semiquantitatively monitoring the plasma actin-scavenger system in vivo in animal models or in human diseases.

  13. Identification of host-immune response protein candidates in the sera of human oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeng Chen

    Full Text Available One of the most common cancers worldwide is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, which is associated with a significant death rate and has been linked to several risk factors. Notably, failure to detect these neoplasms at an early stage represents a fundamental barrier to improving the survival and quality of life of OSCC patients. In the present study, serum samples from OSCC patients (n = 25 and healthy controls (n = 25 were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and silver staining in order to identify biomarkers that might allow early diagnosis. In this regard, 2-DE spots corresponding to various up- and down-regulated proteins were sequenced via high-resolution MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and analyzed using the MASCOT database. We identified the following differentially expressed host-specific proteins within sera from OSCC patients: leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG, alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (ABG, clusterin (CLU, PRO2044, haptoglobin (HAP, complement C3c (C3, proapolipoprotein A1 (proapo-A1, and retinol-binding protein 4 precursor (RBP4. Moreover, five non-host factors were detected, including bacterial antigens from Acinetobacter lwoffii, Burkholderia multivorans, Myxococcus xanthus, Laribacter hongkongensis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Subsequently, we analyzed the immunogenicity of these proteins using pooled sera from OSCC patients. In this regard, five of these candidate biomarkers were found to be immunoreactive: CLU, HAP, C3, proapo-A1 and RBP4. Taken together, our immunoproteomics approach has identified various serum biomarkers that could facilitate the development of early diagnostic tools for OSCC.

  14. Immunoblot profiles of sera from laboratory rats naturally infected with Mycoplasma pulmonis and technicians exposed to infected animal facilities Imunoeletroforese do soro de ratos naturalmente infectados com Mycoplasma pulmonis e bioteristas expostos a biotérios infectados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Oliveira Delgado

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pulmonis have been isolated in about 10(5 CFU/mL from tracheal aspirates of rats from conventional animal facilities in São Paulo. The mycoplasma transmission by aerosol may happen from an infected rat to a healthy one at distances up to 120 cm. This condition also favors the technicians contamination. As this infection is unknown in humans, in this study the immunoblot profiles to M. pulmonis of sera from rats were compared to those presented by animal facility technicians. About 32 proteins from 11 to 230 kDa (kilodaltons were recognized by the sera from rats naturally infected with M. pulmonis. Sera from technicians responsible for the cleaning and sanitation of cages of infected animals for more than seven years recognized about 10 proteins of this bacteria. Sera from individuals with shorter working time or that had never been exposed to such environment recognized few proteins. Proteins about 117 and 95 kDa were recognized by human and rat sera and by the negative controls. Although a positive human serum against M. pulmonis is unknown, this study established a temporary profile of protein recognition of human serum against such mycoplasma.Mycoplasma pulmonis foi isolado em aproximadamente 10(5 UFC/mL do lavado traqueal de ratos mantidos em biotérios convencionais da cidade de São Paulo. A transmissão do micoplasma por aerossol pode ocorrer entre os animais em até 120 cm. Esta condição favorece a sua transmissão para os bioteristas que também são expostos a este microrganismo. Como esta colonização é desconhecida em humanos, as imunoeletroforeses dos soros destes indivíduos foram comparados à com os dos ratos. Aproximadamente 32 proteínas de 11 a 230 kDa foram reconhecidas pelo soros dos ratos naturalmente infectados com M. pulmonis. Os soros dos bioteristas que estão envolvidos por mais de 7 anos na higenização das caixas com animais infectados reconheceram cerca de 10 proteínas deste microrganismo. O soro

  15. Pesquisa de aglutininas anti Brucella canis em soros humanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Research on agglutinins for Brucella canis in human sera in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Matiko Akao Larsson

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available De 330 soros humanos examinados pela prova de soroaglutinação lenta em tubos, 4(1,21% apresentaram aglutininas anti Brucella canis em diluição 1:100 (1 reagente com título 100, 2 reagentes com título 200 e 1 reagente com título 400.Of the 330 human sera tested by tube agglutination test, 4 (1.21% were positive for Brucella canis antibodies with tilers 1:100 or higher (1 reagent with titer of 1:100, 2 reagents with titer of 1:200, and 1 reagent with tiler of 1:400.

  16. Positional games

    CERN Document Server

    Hefetz, Dan; Stojaković, Miloš; Szabó, Tibor

    2014-01-01

    This text serves as a thorough introduction to the rapidly developing field of positional games. This area constitutes an important branch of combinatorics, whose aim it is to systematically develop an extensive mathematical basis for a variety of two-player perfect information games. These range from such popular games as Tic-Tac-Toe and Hex to purely abstract games played on graphs and hypergraphs. The subject of positional games is strongly related to several other branches of combinatorics such as Ramsey theory, extremal graph and set theory, and the probabilistic method. These notes cover a variety of topics in positional games, including both classical results and recent important developments. They are presented in an accessible way and are accompanied by exercises of varying difficulty, helping the reader to better understand the theory. The text will benefit both researchers and graduate students in combinatorics and adjacent fields.

  17. Researcher Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex and multilayered process of researcher positioning,specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and "othered"groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic,religious, and racial backgrounds...... involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives onresearch and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance ofconstant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioningas a researcher influences the research process. Studying the other...

  18. [Screening and studies of the specificity of antinuclear antibodies in lupus erythematosus and scleroderma sera in the tumor cell monolayer substrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthke, K; Conrad, K; Frank, K H

    1989-01-01

    The comparative study of the human tumour cell line HeLa and rat liver sections for the detection of antinuclear antibodies by the indirect immunofluorescence technique demonstrates the superiority of HeLa monolayer in sensitivity and specificity. Use of monolayers is essential for the diagnosis of antinucleolar and anticentromere ANA specificities and permits differentiation between anti-Sm/RNP, anti-SS-B and anti-Scl-70. ANA profiles are evaluated in 142 sera of 72 patients with different forms of lupus erythematosus and scleroderma and in 216 sera of healthy subjects.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi: identification of specific epimastigote antigens by human immune sera Trypanosoma cruzi: identificação de antígenos específicos de epimastigotas reconhecidos por soros humanos imunes

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Soluble antigens from epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed by western blot in terms of their reactivity with sera from patients with Chagas' disease. In addition, sera from patients with visceral (AVL) and tegumentar leishmaniasis (ATL) were also tested in order to identify cross-reactivities with Trypanosoma cruzy antigens. Twenty eight polypeptides with molecular weights ranging from 14 kDa to 113 kDa were identified with sera from Chagas' disease patients. An extensive cross-re...

  20. Positively Adolescent!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  1. Saliva and sera IgA and IgG in Egyptian Giardia-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gebaly, Naglaa Saad M; Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Moussa, Hanaa M Ezzat; Rabia, Ibrahim; Abu-Zekry, Maha

    2012-08-01

    Giardiasis is a gastrointestinal infection of wide distribution that is more prevalent in childhood. Easy and rapid diagnosis of giardiasis is essential for reduction of this infection. This cross-sectional study included 62 children in which collection of saliva, stool and serum samples was performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique was evaluated to detect IgA and IgG responses in both saliva and serum samples. Twenty-two children were positive for Giardia duodenalis infection by direct examination of faecal specimens, 20 non-infected and 20 infected with other parasites. Salivary and serum IgA and IgG responses against G. duodenalis infection were significantly higher in Giardia parasitized than non-Giardia parasitized children (p < 0.001). This concludes that specific salivary IgA may serve as a diagnostic tool and specific salivary IgG as a screening tool in monitoring the exposure of various populations to Giardia duodenalis. The advantage of salivary assays over serum immunoglobulin assay is being easy and non-invasive in sampling technique which is important especially for young children.

  2. A STUDY OF PNEUMOCOCCI REACTING WITH ANTIPNEUMOCOCCUS SERA OF TYPES I, II, AND III, WITH AN OBSERVATION OF A MUTATION OF ONE OF THE STRAINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, M C

    1919-08-01

    In this paper are reported the results of a study of nine strains of pneumococci agglutinating with antipneumococcus sera of all three types (Nos. I, II, and III). Seven of the strains were the cause of serious or fatal infections in human beings. Morphologically they were typical pneumococci with characteristic growth on ordinary media. Most of the strains were soluble in bile, fermented inulin, and caused no precipitation on glucose ascitic fluid agar. Two of the strains, however, resembled streptococci in these three cultural characteristics, but have been regarded as pneumococci on account of their serological reactions. Variations in the cultural reactions occurred with several strains while they were under observation. The virulence of the strains varied greatly, some strains being almost non-pathogenic, and others killing mice in doses of 0.000001 cc. of a 24 hour broth culture. Antipneumococcus Sera I, II, and III agglutinated all the strains in fairly high dilution (1:8 to 1:64 or higher), while normal horse serum caused no agglutination. Antipneumococcus Sera I, II, and III stimulated active phagocytosis of all the strains, while no phagocytosis occurred in control preparations with normal horse serum. These strains elaborated a soluble substance in the body of inoculated mice which caused the formation of a precipitate when the peritoneal washings, cleared by centrifugalization, were added to the antipneumococcus sera of all three types. Antipneumococcus Sera I, II, and III protected mice equally well against 1,000 to 10,000 times the minimal lethal dose of the two strains with which protection tests could be carried out. Absorption of serum of Types I and II with the homologous pneumococcus removed the agglutinins and the bacteriotropins for all these strains. Absorption of these sera with Strains T and N removed the agglutinins and the bacteriotropins for the homologous strain only, and not for typical members of Type I or II, or for the other

  3. Western blot analysis of sera from dogs with suspected food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Claude; Linek, Monika; Fontaine, Jacques; Beco, Luc; Rostaher, Ana; Fischer, Nina; Couturier, Nicolas; Jacquenet, Sandrine; Bihain, Bernard E

    2017-04-01

    Food allergy is often suspected in dogs with clinical signs of atopic dermatitis. This diagnosis is confirmed with an elimination diet and a subsequent challenge with regular food. Laboratory tests for the diagnosis of food allergy in dogs are unreliable and/or technically difficult. Cyno-DIAL(®) is a Western blot method that might assist with the selection of an appropriate elimination diet. To evaluate the performance of Cyno-DIAL(®) for the selection of an elimination diet and diagnosis of food allergy. Thirty eight dogs with atopic dermatitis completed an elimination diet. Combining the results of the diet trials and the challenges, 14 dogs were classified as food allergic (FA), 22 as nonfood-allergic and two as ambiguous cases. Amongst all dogs and amongst dogs with a clinical diagnosis of FA, 3% and 7% (respectively) were positive to Royal Canin Anallergenic(®) , Vet-Concept Kanguru(®) or Vet-Concept Dog Sana(®) ; 8% and 7% to Hill's d/d Duck and Rice(®) ; 8% and 21% to Hill's z/d Ultra Allergen Free(®) ; 53% and 64% to Eukanuba Dermatosis FP(®) ; and 32% and 43% to a home-cooked diet of horse meat, potatoes and zucchini. The specificity and sensitivity of Cyno-DIAL(®) for diagnosing food allergy were 73% and 71%, respectively. Although Cyno-DIAL(®) was considered potentially useful for identifying appropriate foods for elimination diet trials, it cannot be recommended for the diagnosis of food allergy. The Cyno-DIAL(®) test performed better than some previously evaluated ELISA-based tests. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  4. Contralateral compartment syndrome inoculated by invasive group A streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiwen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Compartment syndrome is a rare but a well-documented complication in patients with trauma-induced group A streptococcus infection. Here, we present a case of a male who developed compartment syndrome on the left lower extremity after an injury inoculated by group A streptococcus on the right lower extremity. The patient was resuscitated with antibiotics, urgent fasciotomy, and immunoglobulin. The patient was eventually transferred to a burn center for further care.

  5. Human group A rotavirus infections in children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, S; Böttiger, B; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children......One of the leading causes of severe childhood gastroenteritis are group A rotaviruses, and they have been found to be associated with similar to 40% of the annual gastroenteritis-associated hospitalizations in young Danish children...

  6. Puerperal Group A Streptococcal Infections: A Case Series and Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T. Busowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Puerperal group A streptococcal infections, a major postpartum killer during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, have become (fortunately rare. We describe a cluster of 4 serious peripartum group A streptococcal infections occurring within the past five years at a single medical center. These cases were not epidemiologically linked and serve to illustrate the continuing risk of these potentially fulminant infections.

  7. Evaluation of immunoassays for the diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection using archived sera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With a national program initiated recently to reduce transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China, there is an urgent need for accessible, quality-assured diagnostics for case detection, surveillance, and program monitoring of chemotherapy efficacy and other control interventions in areas of low endemicity. We compared the performance of nine immunodiagnostic tests developed in P.R. China for detection of antibodies against S. japonicum and established their priority for further assessment in field settings. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the Kato-Katz technique as the reference standard, 240 well-characterized archived serum specimens (100 positive and 140 negative were evaluated in nine immunological tests developed in P.R. China. The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB, which uses an adult worm extract of S. japonicum, supplied by the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, USA, was also evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of each test were determined and the reproducibility of each test was assessed by evaluating operator-to-operator and run-to-run variation. In addition the simplicity of use for the end-user was evaluated. All tests showed good sensitivities ranging from 92.0% (95% confidence interval (CI: 86.7-97.3% to 98.0% (95% CI: 95.3-100.0%. The test specificities varied from 70.0% (95% CI: 62.4-77.6% to 97.1% (95% CI: 94.4-99.9%. All tests showed excellent reproducibility with a discordant rate in the range of 0-10.0% for operator-to-operator variation and run-to-run variation. All tests, except one magnetic particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were found to be easy to use, especially the dot immunogold filtration assays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most evaluated tests had acceptable performance characteristics and could make an impact on the schistosomiasis control programs in P.R. China. Three tests with the highest sensitivity

  8. Evaluation of Immunoassays for the Diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum Infection Using Archived Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Chen, Jia-Xu; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Zhong-Dao; Wang, Shi-Ping; Feng, Ting; Chen, Shao-Hong; Li, Hao; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2011-01-01

    Background With a national program initiated recently to reduce transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China), there is an urgent need for accessible, quality-assured diagnostics for case detection, surveillance, and program monitoring of chemotherapy efficacy and other control interventions in areas of low endemicity. We compared the performance of nine immunodiagnostic tests developed in P.R. China for detection of antibodies against S. japonicum and established their priority for further assessment in field settings. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the Kato-Katz technique as the reference standard, 240 well-characterized archived serum specimens (100 positive and 140 negative) were evaluated in nine immunological tests developed in P.R. China. The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB), which uses an adult worm extract of S. japonicum, supplied by the Center of Disease Control and Prevention, USA, was also evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of each test were determined and the reproducibility of each test was assessed by evaluating operator-to-operator and run-to-run variation. In addition the simplicity of use for the end-user was evaluated. All tests showed good sensitivities ranging from 92.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 86.7–97.3%) to 98.0% (95% CI: 95.3–100.0%). The test specificities varied from 70.0% (95% CI: 62.4–77.6%) to 97.1% (95% CI: 94.4–99.9%). All tests showed excellent reproducibility with a discordant rate in the range of 0–10.0% for operator-to-operator variation and run-to-run variation. All tests, except one magnetic particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were found to be easy to use, especially the dot immunogold filtration assays. Conclusions/Significance Most evaluated tests had acceptable performance characteristics and could make an impact on the schistosomiasis control programs in P.R. China. Three tests with the highest sensitivity, specificity

  9. SERA Scenarios of Early Market Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Introductions: Modeling Framework, Regional Markets, and Station Clustering; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M.

    2015-03-23

    This presentation provides an overview of the Scenario Evaluation and Regionalization Analysis (SERA) model, describes the methodology for developing scenarios for hydrogen infrastructure development, outlines an example "Hydrogen Success" scenario, and discusses detailed scenario metrics for a particular case study region, the Northeast Corridor.

  10. Identification and Complete Genome of Seneca Valley Virus in Vesicular Fluid and Sera of Pigs Affected with Idiopathic Vesicular Disease, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, F A; Linhares, D C L; Barcellos, D E S N; Lam, H C; Collins, J; Marthaler, D

    2015-12-01

    Numerous, ongoing outbreaks in Brazilian swine herds have been characterized by vesicular lesions in sows and acute losses of neonatal piglets. The complete genome of Seneca Valley virus (SVV) was identified in vesicular fluid and sera of sows, providing evidence of association between SVV and vesicular disease and viraemia in affected animals.

  11. Reactivity to human papillomavirus type 16 Ll virus-like particles in sera from patients with genital cancer and patients with carcinomas at five different extragenital sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.J. van Doornum (Gerard); C.M. Korse (Catharina); J.C.G.M. Buning-Kager (J. C G M); J.M. Bonfrer (Hans); S. Horenblas (Simon); B. Taal (Babs); J. Dillner (Joakim)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA retrospective seroepidemiologic study was performed to examine the association between human papillomaviruses (HPV) 16 infection and carcinomas of the oropharynx, the oesophagus, penis and vagina. Sera were selected from the serum bank from the Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (Netherla

  12. Antibodies to immunoglobulin-G in dog sera, synovial fluids and aqueous humor : a comparative study of rheumatoid factor assays, suitable for routine application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernadina, W.E.; Kol, P.J. van; Willemse, A.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of anti-IgG antibodies (rheumatoid factors, RF) in body fluids (sera, synovial fluids and aqueous humor) selected from 62 normal and 275 diseased dogs was studied. Fluids were assayed by canine versions of standard agglutinating and/or precipitating RF assays with routine application i

  13. Hepatitis B surface antigen detection using pooled sera: A cost-benefit analysis Detección de HBsAg usando mezcla de sueros: Estudio coste-beneficio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fernández

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to examine the feasibility and to perform a cost benefit analysis of a 5-sample pooling strategy using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA for the screening of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Material and methods: to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the pooling method, each of the 40 positive sera (from weak to intensely HBsAg-positive and 250 negative sera were tested in a pool with 4 HBsAg-negative sera. The limit of detection for HBsAg/ad and HBsAg/ay was evaluated using sera from a panel of purified subtypes. A study under real conditions was conducted using pools from 340 pregnant women. Results: the sensitivity and specificity of this technique were 100%. The correlation coefficient among the sample/cutoff ratios of 40 samples studied in single and in pooled conditions was 0.792 (p Objetivos: examinar la fiabilidad y realizar un estudio coste beneficio de una estrategia de mezcla de 5 muestras usando un enzimainmunoanálisis (EIA para el cribado del HBsAg. Material y métodos: para evaluar la sensibilidad y especificidad del método de mezcla de sueros se determinaron 40 sueros HBsAg positivos (de débil a intensamente positivos y 250 sueros HBsAg negativos en mezcla con 4 sueros HBsAg negativos. El límite de detección para el HBsAg/ad y HBsAg/ay se evaluó usando suero de un panel de subtipos purificados. Se llevó a cabo un estudio en condiciones reales usando mezcla de sueros de 314 mujeres gestantes. Resultados: la sensibilidad y especificidad de esta técnica fue del 100%. El coeficiente de correlación entre los ratios muestra / punto de corte de las 40 muestras estudiadas en determinación simple y en mezcla fue 0,792 (p < 0,005. El método de mezcla de sueros detectó niveles más bajos de HBsAg/ad y HBsAg/ay (0,20 ng/mL y 0,12 ng/mL que el método simple (0,34 ng/mL y 0,29 ng/mL, respectivamente. Un análisis coste-beneficio mostró que el método de mezcla puede ahorrar de un 30 a un 75% de el coste de la

  14. Antigenic Variation of East/Central/South African and Asian Chikungunya Virus Genotypes in Neutralization by Immune Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chong-Long; Sam, I-Ching; Merits, Andres; Chan, Yoke-Fun

    2016-01-01

    Background Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne virus which causes epidemics of fever, severe joint pain and rash. Between 2005 and 2010, the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype was responsible for global explosive outbreaks across India, the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asia. From late 2013, Asian genotype CHIKV has caused outbreaks in the Americas. The characteristics of cross-antibody efficacy and epitopes are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We characterized human immune sera collected during two independent outbreaks in Malaysia of the Asian genotype in 2006 and the ECSA genotype in 2008–2010. Neutralizing capacity was analyzed against representative clinical isolates as well as viruses rescued from infectious clones of ECSA and Asian CHIKV. Using whole virus antigen and recombinant E1 and E2 envelope glycoproteins, we further investigated antibody binding sites, epitopes, and antibody titers. Both ECSA and Asian sera demonstrated stronger neutralizing capacity against the ECSA genotype, which corresponded to strong epitope-antibody interaction. ECSA serum targeted conformational epitope sites in the E1-E2 glycoprotein, and E1-E211K, E2-I2T, E2-H5N, E2-G118S and E2-S194G are key amino acids that enhance cross-neutralizing efficacy. As for Asian serum, the antibodies targeting E2 glycoprotein correlated with neutralizing efficacy, and I2T, H5N, G118S and S194G altered and improved the neutralization profile. Rabbit polyclonal antibody against the N-terminal linear neutralizing epitope from the ECSA sequence has reduced binding capacity and neutralization efficacy against Asian CHIKV. These findings imply that the choice of vaccine strain may impact cross-protection against different genotypes. Conclusion/Significance Immune serum from humans infected with CHIKV of either ECSA or Asian genotypes showed differences in binding and neutralization characteristics. These findings have implications for the continued

  15. Snake fetuin: isolation and structural analysis of new fetuin family proteins from the sera of venomous snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Narumi; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Kihara, Kenji; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2009-09-15

    Novel proteins were isolated from the sera of Chinese Mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffi brevicaudus) and Habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis). The primary structures of these proteins were determined by protein sequencing, and the nucleotide sequences were established by cDNA cloning from the liver mRNAs. They belonged to the fetuin family having a double-headed cystatin-like domain and a His-rich domain, akin to HSF, an antihemorrhagic factor isolated from Habu serum. They showed no antihemorrhagic activity and were designated HSF-like proteins (HLPs). Mamushi serum contained two different HLPs termed HLP-A and HLP-B. Both HLP-A and Habu HLP had a unique 17-residue deletion in their His-rich domains. HLP-B comprised two glycosylated polypeptide chains and inhibited the precipitation of calcium phosphate as potently as does bovine fetuin. HLP-B was hence identified as a snake fetuin. The phylogenetic analysis of the fetuin family of proteins showed that antihemorrhagins and HLPs have evolved from this snake fetuin.

  16. Properties and cDNA cloning of antihemorrhagic factors in sera of Chinese and Japanese mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Narumi; Tsutsumi, Kadzuyo; Deshimaru, Masanobu; Terada, Shigeyuki

    2008-02-01

    An antihemorrhagic protein has been isolated from the serum of Chinese mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffi brevicaudus) by using a combination of ethanol precipitation and a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C8 column. This protein-designated Chinese mamushi serum factor (cMSF)-suppressed mamushi venom-induced hemorrhage in a dose-dependent manner. It had no effect on trypsin, chymotrypsin, thermolysin, and papain but inhibited the proteinase activities of several snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) including hemorrhagic enzymes isolated from the venoms of mamushi and habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis). A similar protein (Japanese MSF, jMSF) with antihemorrhagic activity has also been purified from the sera of Japanese mamushi (G. blomhoffi). The N-terminal 70 and 51 residues of the intact cMSF and jMSF were directly analyzed; a similarity between the sequences of two MSFs to that of antihemorrhagic protein (HSF) from habu serum was noticed. To obtain the complete amino acid sequences of MSFs, cDNAs encoding these proteins were cloned from the liver mRNA of Chinese and Japanese vipers based on their N-terminal amino acid sequences. The mature forms of both MSFs consisted of 305 amino acids with a 19-residue signal sequence, and a unique 17-residue deletion was detected in their His-rich domains.

  17. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring ileal symbiont intracellularis-specific immunoglobulin G response in sera of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoake, P K; Cutler, R S; Caple, I W; Monckton, R P

    1994-01-01

    Proliferative enteritis (PE) is a common intestinal disease on pig farms. The disease is caused by ileal symbiont (IS) intracellularis (Campylobacter-like organisms) bacteria. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure IS intracellularis-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response in the sera of pigs. The antigen used in the ELISA was filtered, percoll gradient-purified IS intracellularis extracted from the intestines of pigs affected with proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy. The antibody responses of pigs challenged with intestinal homogenates from pigs affected with proliferative hemorrhagic enteropathy containing IS intracellularis or percoll-gradient purified IS intracellularis were low and variable. The low IgG titers measured in challenged pigs support previous findings that IgG plays a minor role in the immune response of pigs to IS intracellularis. On a farm in which infection was endemic, pigs seroconverted at between 7 and 24 weeks of age. High IgG titers, indicative of maternally acquired antibody, were present in 3-week-old pigs. The IgG titers in piglets were lowest at 6 weeks of age, which approximates the age of onset of clinical disease. These results suggest that IgG plays a role in determining the susceptibilities of pigs to natural infection. Measurements of seroconversion by the ELISA might aid in epidemiological investigations of PE in naturally infected herds. However, the variable antibody responses in experimentally challenged pigs would seem to limit its usefulness as an antemortem diagnostic test for PE. PMID:7989553

  18. Specific recognition of the major capsid protein of Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus by sera of patients infected by Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Nicolas; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2009-08-01

    Francisella tularensis, a Gram-negative cocobacillus responsible for tularemia, especially severe pneumonia, is a facultative intracellular bacterium classified as a biological agent of category A. Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus (APM) is a recently discovered giant virus suspected to be an agent of both community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. During specificity testing of antibody to APM detection, it was observed that nearly all patients infected by F. tularensis had elevated antibody titers to APM. In the present study, we investigated this cross-reactivity by immunoproteomics. Apart from the detection of antibodies reactive to new immunoreactive proteins in patients infected by F. tularensis, we showed that the sera of those patients recognize specifically two proteins of APM: the capsid protein and another protein of unknown function. No common protein motif can be detected in silico based on genome analysis of the involved protein. Furthermore, this cross-reactivity was confirmed with the recombinant capsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli. This emphasizes the pitfalls of a serological diagnosis of pneumonia.

  19. Complexes of hepatitis B surface antigen and immunoglobulin M in the sera of patients with hepatitis B virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, M; Rizzi, R; Toti, M; Almi, P; Rizzetto, M; Bonino, F; Purcell, R

    1983-01-01

    Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) bound to immunoglobulin M (IgM) was detected in sera of HBsAg carriers by a radioimmunoassay based on selective absorption of the immunoglobulin on a solid phase coated with antiserum to human IgM. Isopycnic banding and rate-zonal sedimentation have shown that the reaction is related to particulate forms of the HBsAg complexed with IgM. The binding of IgM possibly occurred because of a selective affinity of these molecules to the surface of HBsAg particles. HBsAg/IgM was found transiently in 24 of 25 (96%) patients with acute self-limited hepatitis B and persistently in 6 of 25 patients whose acute hepatitis B progressed to chronicity. It was also found in 20 of 39 (51%) chronic HBsAg carriers with inactive and asymptomatic infection. The HBsAg/IgM phenomenon is not dependent on replication of hepatitis B virions; its persistence in patients with acute hepatitis B may provide complementary evidence of transition of the infection to chronicity. PMID:6309673

  20. Cloning of a cDNA encoding a surface antigen of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula recognized by sera of vassinated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, J.P.; Tom, T.D.; Strand, M.

    1987-06-01

    Spleen cells of mice vaccinated with radiation-attenuated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae were used to produce monoclonal antibodies directed against newly transformed schistosomular surface antigens. One of these monoclonal antibodies recognized a polypeptide of 18 kDa. Binding was measured by radioimmunoassay. This glycoprotein was purified by monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity chromatography and a polyclonal antiserum was prepared against it. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the polyclonal antiserum bound to the surface of newly transformed schistosomula and lung-stage organisms but not to the surface of liver-stage and adult worms. Using this polyclonal antiserum we isolated recombinant clones from an adult worm cDNA expression library constructed in lambdagt11. Clone 654.2 contained an insert of 0.52 kilobase and hybridized to a 1.2-kilobase mRNA species from adult worms. Most importantly, clone 654.2 produced a fusion protein of 125 kDa that was reactive with sera of vaccinated mice that are capable of transferring resistance. This result encourages future vaccination trials with the fusion protein.

  1. An outbreak of food-borne group A Streptococcus (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis among residents of a dormitory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvghad, M R; Naderi, H R; Naderi-Nassab, M; Majdzadeh, R; Javanian, M; Faramarzi, H; Fatehmanesh, P

    2005-01-01

    Epidemics of food-borne pharyngitis due to group A Streptococcus are rarely reported. Here we present an outbreak of food-borne tonsillopharyngitis in female dormitories in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Throat swabs and cultures were performed on a number of patients, and of specimens from the nasopharynx and hands of staff who were involved in food processing. We planned a case-control study for assessing the source of epidemics. 11 out of 17 throat swabs of students were positive for Streptococcus group A and also 2 throat samples from asymptomatic cooks were positive. A DNA fingerprinting study showed that Streptococcus group A strains of 11 students and 1 cook had the same T agglutination pattern and M protein factor (M3/T13). It is suggested that group A streptococci as well as group C and G streptococci can cause epidemic food-borne pharyngitis. Regular health surveillance of food handlers and food preparation processes are important for prevention of such outbreaks.

  2. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in patients with propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced ANCA positive vasculitis are associated with disease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F; Zhao, M-H; Zhang, Y-K; Zhang, Y; Wang, H-Y

    2005-03-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that propylthiouracil (PTU) could induce ANCA positive vasculitis. However, our previous work has suggested that only one-fifth of the PTU-induced ANCA positive patients had clinical vasculitis and so the mechanism is not clear. Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various vasculitides, including primary ANCA positive systemic vasculitis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of AECA and their possible role in the pathogenesis of patients with PTU-induced ANCA positive vasculitis. Sera from 11 patients with PTU-induced ANCA positive vasculitis at both active and quiescent phases, and sera from 10 patients with PTU-induced ANCA but without clinical vasculitis, were studied. Sera from 30 healthy blood donors were collected as normal controls. Soluble proteins from 1% Triton-100 extracted in vitro cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells were used as antigens and an immunoblotting technique was performed to determine the presence of AECA, and their specific target antigens were identified. In patients with PTU-induced ANCA positive vasculitis, 10 of the 11 patients in an active phase of disease were serum IgG-AECA positive and six protein bands of endothelial antigens could be blotted (61 kD, 69 kD, 77 kD, 85 kD, 91 kD and 97 kD). However, in the quiescent phase, seven of the 10 positive sera turned negative. None of the ANCA positive but vasculitis negative patients or normal controls were AECA positive. In conclusion, AECA could be found in sera from patients with PTU-induced ANCA positive vasculitis and were associated more closely with vasculitic disease activity.

  3. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease. National Epidemiology and Genetic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaminckx, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Infections with group A streptococci (GAS), or S. pyogenes, range from mild and superficial to very severe and lethal invasive disease. In severe invasive GAS infections, hypotension and multiorgan failure may develop rapidly resulting in the development of toxic shock-like syndrome (TSS). In the

  4. Rotavirus Group A in Danish Cattle and Swine Herds 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, Sofie; Gram, Nina; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    Rotavirus group A infection causes gastroenteritis in both humans and a variety of animal species. Both domestic pet species such as cats and dogs, and commercial species such as pigs and cows can be affected. Zoonotic transmission is a possibility and could lead to the introduction into human...... populations of novel rotavirus strains....

  5. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Disease. National Epidemiology and Genetic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaminckx, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Infections with group A streptococci (GAS), or S. pyogenes, range from mild and superficial to very severe and lethal invasive disease. In severe invasive GAS infections, hypotension and multiorgan failure may develop rapidly resulting in the development of toxic shock-like syndrome (TSS). In the no

  6. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A correcting protein from Calf Thymus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.M. Eker (André); W. Vermeulen (Wim); N. Miura; K. Tanaka (Kiyoji); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA proteinous factor was purified from calf thymus and HeLa cells, which specifically corrects the excision repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) cells. Recovery of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis after microinjection of XP-A cells was used as a quanti

  7. ESTUDIO DIAGNÓSTICO DEL CLIMA LABORAL EN LA EMPRESA DE SUEROS Y PRODUCTOS HEMODERIVADOS / DIAGNOSTIC STUDY OF ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT IN THE ENTERPRISE OF SERA AND BLOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanys Paule-Hernández

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar las variables que inciden negativamente sobre la percepción que tienen las personas acerca de la calidad del trabajo que realizan y la actitud que asumen al respecto, en la Empresa de Sueros y Hemoderivados. Se evalúa el estado del clima socio-psicológico mediante el cuestionario OLARIS, con escala de 78 ítems, dividida en cinco variables y 19 subvariables; y el cuestionario autodiagnóstico sobre estilos de dirección, realizado a los jefes directos por áreas, que permite determinar su orientación como: analizador, controlador, apoyador, promocionador. Para ello se utilizó una muestra de 73 trabajadores, pertenecientes a todas las áreas de la planta, especificándose un 99,5% de confianza. En el trabajo se estableció la existencia de un estado del clima favorable, aunque también se reflejan las insatisfacciones con el propio desempeño del trabajo y del Centro, así como la percepción de un inadecuado funcionamiento de la organización, que entorpecen un mejor estado del mismo.

    Abstract

    The aim of this paper is to identify the variables that have a negative impact in people´s perception about the quality of their work and the attitude they assume in this regard at the enterprise of sera and blood products. To assess the state of socio-psychological environment it is applied the questionnaire OLARIS which has a scale of 78 items divided into five variables and 19 sub-variables, and the questionnaire of self-management style to direct supervisors from different areas in order to evaluate the management styles, such as: analyzer, supervisor, supporter, promotioner. It was selected a sample with 73 workers from all areas at the plant, with a 99.5% of confidence. As a result of this work it is shown that the state of socio-psychological environment is conducive to performance, however, also it reflected a number of dissatisfactions with the proper

  8. Identification of Immunoreactive Leishmania infantum Protein Antigens to Asymptomatic Dog Sera through Combined Immunoproteomics and Bioinformatics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania infantum is the etiologic agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in countries in the Mediterranean basin, where dogs are the domestic reservoirs and represent important elements in the transmission of the disease. Since the major focal areas of human VL exhibit a high prevalence of seropositive dogs, the control of canine VL could reduce the infection rate in humans. Efforts toward this have focused on the improvement of diagnostic tools, as well as on vaccine development. The identification of parasite antigens including suitable major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I- and/or II-restricted epitopes is very important since disease protection is characterized by strong and long-lasting CD8+ T and CD4+ Th1 cell-dominated immunity. In the present study, total protein extract from late-log phase L. infantum promastigotes was analyzed by two-dimensional western blots and probed with sera from asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs. A total of 42 protein spots were found to differentially react with IgG from asymptomatic dogs, while 17 of these identified by Coommasie stain were extracted and analyzed. Of these, 21 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry; they were mainly involved in metabolism and stress responses. An in silico analysis predicted that the chaperonin HSP60, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, enolase, cyclophilin 2, cyclophilin 40, and one hypothetical protein contain promiscuous MHCI and/or MHCII epitopes. Our results suggest that the combination of immunoproteomics and bioinformatics analyses is a promising method for the identification of novel candidate antigens for vaccine development or with potential use in the development of sensitive diagnostic tests. PMID:26906226

  9. Specific IgG Antibodies React to Mimotopes of BK Polyomavirus, a Small DNA Tumor Virus, in Healthy Adult Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, Silvia; Bononi, Ilaria; Mazzoni, Elisa; Lotito, Francesca; Manfrini, Marco; Puozzo, Andrea; Destro, Federica; Guerra, Giovanni; Nocini, Pier Francesco; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro G.

    2017-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) was isolated in 1971 from the urine of a kidney transplant patient. Soon after its identification, BKPyV was characterized as a kidney-tropic virus, which is responsible of a significant fraction of the rejection of transplant kidney in the host. Moreover, in experimental conditions, BKPyV is able to transform different types of animal and human cells and to induce tumors of different histotypes in experimental animals. BKPyV DNA sequences have been detected in healthy individuals and cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction/Shouthern blot hybridization methods. Serum antibodies against this polyomavirus were revealed using immunological techniques, which, however, cross-react with other polyomaviruses such as JC (JCPyV) and Simian Virus 40. These non-specific data indicate the need of novel immunological methods and new investigations to check in a specific manner, BKPyV spread in humans. To this aim, mimotopes from BKPyV structural capsid protein 1 (VP1) were employed for specific immunological reactions to IgG antibodies of human serum samples. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with synthetic peptides mimicking immunogenic epitopes of BKPyV VP1 was set up and employed to test sera of healthy adult subjects. Data from this innovative immunological assay indicate that serum antibodies against BKPyV VP1 mimotopes are detectable in healthy subjects ranging from 18 to 90 years old. The overall prevalence of serum samples that reacted to BKPyV VP1 mimotopes was 72%. The strong points from this investigation are the novelty of the immunological method, its simplicity of the approach, and the specificity of BKPyV antibody reaction to VP1 mimotopes. PMID:28321224

  10. Development of an elisa for the diagnosis of reactive IgE antibodies anti-therapeutic horse sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Simone, Salvatore Giovanni; Souza, Andre Luis Almeida; Aguiar, Aniesse Silva; Melgarejo, Anibal Raphel; Provance-Jr, David William

    2017-08-12

    Hypersensitive diseases that involve IgE reactivity are important concern of public, especially those encompassing the potential pathogenesis from the administration of horse serum-based therapeutics such as antivenoms. A method for the definitive diagnosis of reactive IgE is important for identifying allergic patients to control severe collateral effects during planned and emergency application of immunotherapies when the allergy source cannot be avoided for treatment. To date, no tests have been developed to accompany the wide range of antivenoms produced from horse sera. The aim of this was to develop a cost-effective ELISA of high sensitivity and specificity to detect circulating patient IgE that binds horse IgG3, the most prevalent antibody class in passive antibody therapies. Horse IgG3 was purified in a single step on jacalin-Sepharose and absorbed to standard ELISA plates as the capture molecule for reactive human IgE. The direct performance evaluation with allergenic and non-allergenic patient, together with competitive peptides assays, showed high sensitivity and specificity to detect human IgE that recognized horse IgG3. The analytical sensitivity and ED50 were calculated to be 0.01 μg mL(-1) and 0.052 μg mL(-1), respectively. The intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation ranged from 3.3 to 11.1% and 4.0-8.0%, respectively. The horse IgG3-based ELISA assay can detect reactive allergenic IgE at picomolar concentrations. The coefficient of variation suggests that it can be easily standardized between laboratories, provide rapid and can be applied to population surveillance. Patient management during treatment for envenomation would be greatly improved by a robust and reliable diagnostic test for preexisting allergies to mitigate life-threating consequences of hypersensitivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High levels of DJ-1 protein and isoelectric point 6.3 isoform in sera of breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawate, Takahiko; Iwaya, Keiichi; Koshikawa, Kayoko; Moriya, Tomoyuki; Yamasaki, Tamio; Hasegawa, Sho; Kaise, Hiroshi; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Takashi; Hiroi, Sadayuki; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae MM; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Murota, Keiichi; Fujimori, Minoru; Yamamoto, Junji; Matsubara, Osamu; Kohno, Norio

    2015-01-01

    In patients with cancer and Parkinson’s disease, the DJ-1 protein may be secreted into the serum during the impaired response of the underlying cell-protective mechanisms. In order to determine the clinical significance of DJ-1 protein in the sera of breast cancer patients, we examined blood samples from a breast cancer group (n = 180) and a non-cancerous control group (n = 300). Higher levels of DJ-1 were detected in the breast cancer group (mean level, 42.7 ng/mL) than the control group (28.3 ng/mL) by ELISA (P = 0.019). Higher DJ-1 levels were significantly associated with advanced clinical grade, according to the TNM classification, negative hormone receptor status, and high Ki-67 labeling index, of biopsied materials; samples showed low DJ-1 protein expression despite upregulated DJ-1 mRNA. DJ-1 isoforms could be detected clearly in 17 blood samples (from 11 breast cancer patients, and 6 non-cancerous controls) by 2-D gel electrophoresis and immunoblot analysis. The isoform at the pI of 6.3 showed the highest intensity in all 11 cancer cases. Conversely, in the 6 non-cancerous cases, isoforms other than the pI 6.3 isoform were highly expressed, and there was a significant difference in the isoform pattern between breast cancer cases and controls (P = 0.00025). These data indicate that high levels of DJ-1, probably of isoform at pI 6.3, is a candidate serum marker of breast cancer. PMID:25867058

  12. Comparison of colorimetry and electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittangprasert, Piyada; Wilairat, Prapin; Pootrakul, Pensri

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes a comparison of two analytical techniques, one employing bathophenanthrolinedisulfonate (BPT), a most commonly-used reagent for Fe (II) determination, as chromogen and an electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy (ETAAS) for the quantification of non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI) in sera from thalassemic patients. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) was employed as the ligand for binding iron from low molecular weight iron complexes present in the serum but without removing iron from the transferrin protein. After ultrafiltration the Fe (III)-NTA complex was then quantified by both methods. Kinetic study of the rate of the Fe (II)-BPT complex formation for various excess amounts of NTA ligand was also carried out. The kinetic data show that a minimum time duration (> 60 minutes) is necessary for complete complex formation when large excess of NTA is used. Calibration curves given by colorimetric and ETAAS methods were linear over the range of 0.15-20 microM iron (III). The colorimetric and ETAAS methods exhibited detection limit (3sigma) of 0.13 and 0.14 microM, respectively. The NTBI concentrations from 55 thalassemic serum samples measured employing BPT as chromogen were statistically compared with the results determined by ETAAS. No significant disagreement at 95% confidence level was observed. It is, therefore, possible to select any one of these two techniques for determination of NTBI in serum samples of thalassemic patients. However, the colorimetric procedure requires a longer analysis time because of a slow rate of exchange of NTA ligand with BPT, leading to the slow rate of formation of the colored complex.

  13. Blockade of invariant TCR-CD1d interaction specifically inhibits antibody production against blood group A carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Hirofumi; Irei, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Yuka; Igarashi, Yuka; Tashiro, Hirotaka

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we detected B cells expressing receptors for blood group A carbohydrates in the CD11b+CD5+ B-1a subpopulation in mice, similar to that in blood group O or B in humans. In the present study, we demonstrate that CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are required to produce anti-A antibodies (Abs), probably through collaboration with B-1a cells. After immunization of wild-type (WT) mice with human blood group A red blood cells (A-RBCs), interleukin (IL)-5 exclusively and transiently increased and the anti-A Abs were elevated in sera. However, these reactions were not observed in CD1d−/− mice, which lack NKT cells. Administration of anti-mouse CD1d blocking monoclonal Abs (mAb) prior to immunization abolished IL-5 production by NKT cells and anti-A Ab production in WT mice. Administration of anti-IL-5 neutralizing mAb also diminished anti-A Ab production in WT mice, suggesting that IL-5 secreted from NKT cells critically regulates anti-A Ab production by B-1a cells. In nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/γcnull) mice, into which peripheral blood mononuclear cells from type O human volunteers were engrafted, administration of anti-human CD1d mAb prior to A-RBC immunization completely inhibited anti-A Ab production. Thus, anti-CD1d treatment might constitute a novel approach that could help in evading Ab-mediated rejection in ABO-incompatible transplant recipients. PMID:23943651

  14. Comparative evaluation of antibody positive titer by ELISA and IFA in Theileria annulata vaccinated cattle in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Fesharki R.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to evaluate antibody positive titer in vaccinated and non-vaccinated cattle using schizont infected myeloid cells as an antigen. The result was compared with indirect fluorescent antibody level in the same animals. For this study 116 milking cows, 95 vaccinated and 21 non-vaccinated, were bleeded in order to prepare sera. They were tested with both ELISA and IFA tests. 94 sera had positive antibody titer and 22 sera were negative through ELISA test but, with IFA test, only 89 sera showed positive antibody titer and 27 were negative. Thereby, it was concluded that the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA test in comparison with IFA test was 95.5 % and 66.6 % respectively. This study generally indicated that ELISA could be an effective test for seroepidemiological investigations of bovine tropical theileriosis, and it is considered to be valid as an additional test to distinguish the vaccinated from the non vaccinated cattle in order to schedule vaccination programs.

  15. Simple and Efficient Method for Measuring Anti-Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin Antibodies in Human Sera Using Complement-Mediated Lysis of Transgenic Tachyzoites Expressing β-Galactosidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, Caroline; Gabriel, Katie E.; Remington, Jack S.; Parmley, Stephen F.

    2001-01-01

    A simple and efficient method using transgenic Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites expressing β-galactosidase was developed for detection of specific antibodies against the parasite in sera of patients. The titers obtained with the new test were similar to those obtained with the Sabin-Feldman dye test run in parallel. Although significant changes in endpoint titers were not observed when sera drawn sequentially at 2- to 3-week intervals were tested with both procedures, apparent differences in antibody affinity were observed with the new test which were not perceptible with the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Like the Sabin-Feldman dye test, the new test is based on complement lysis of tachyzoites, but it is much easier to perform and the reaction is read colorimetrically instead of visually. PMID:11376045

  16. Mass spectrometry data from proteomics-based screening of immunoreactive proteins of fully virulent Brucella strains using sera from naturally infected animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Wareth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on comprehensive screening of Brucella immunoreactive proteins using sera of naturally infected hosts published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Wareth et al., 2015 [1]. Whole-cell protein extracts were prepared from Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and subsequently western blotting was carried out using sera from bovines (cows and buffaloes and small ruminants (goats and sheep. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org via the PRIDE partner repository [2] with the dataset identifiers PXD001270 and DOI:10.6019/PXD001270.

  17. Doxycycline levels and anti-Wolbachia antibodies in sera from dogs experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis and treated with a combination of ivermectin/doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menozzi, A; Bertini, S; Turin, L; Serventi, P; Kramer, L; Bazzocchi, C

    2015-04-30

    Sera from Dirofilaria immitis-experimentally infected dogs treated with a combination of ivermectin/doxycycline were analysed for doxycycline levels by HPLC and anti-Wolbachia Surface Protein (rWSP) antibodies by ELISA and compared with sera from dogs treated with doxycycline alone. Results show that doxycycline levels were not statistically different between the two groups. Circulating anti-WSP antibody titres were markedly lower in both treatment groups when compared to control D. immitis infected dogs, indicating that doxycycline is able to reduce Wolbachia and prevent the immune response against the bacteria. The combination treatment protocol has been shown to be highly adulticidal and further studies are needed to better understand the interaction between doxycycline and ivermectin in D. immitis infected dogs.

  18. Mass spectrometry data from proteomics-based screening of immunoreactive proteins of fully virulent Brucella strains using sera from naturally infected animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wareth, Gamal; Melzer, Falk; Weise, Christoph; Neubauer, Heinrich; Roesler, Uwe; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide the dataset associated with our research article on comprehensive screening of Brucella immunoreactive proteins using sera of naturally infected hosts published in Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Wareth et al., 2015 [1]. Whole-cell protein extracts were prepared from Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis, separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and subsequently western blotting was carried out using sera from bovines (cows and buffaloes) and small ruminants (goats and sheep). The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org) via the PRIDE partner repository [2] with the dataset identifiers PXD001270 and DOI:10.6019/PXD001270. PMID:26322324

  19. Solubilization of immune complexes in complement factor deficient sera and the influence of temperature, ionic strength and divalent cations on the solubilization reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, Gunnar; Petersen, Ivan; Svehag, Svend-Erik;

    1984-01-01

    The complement-mediated solubilization (CMS) of immune complexes (IC) and the initial kinetics (IKS) of this reaction in human sera depleted of or deficient in C2, C3, C8, factors B, P and I were investigated. Sera depleted of B or P and those lacking native C3 or factor I showed virtually no CMS...... by a radioassay and kinetic data for the binding of C3b to preformed immune complexes. The CMS capacity reached maximum at 39-41 degrees C and at an ionic strength of approximately 0.20 mu. Selective chelation of Mg2+ completely abolished the CMS of IC. Maximal CMS was observed at Mg2+ concentration of about 2m...

  20. Age-Dependent Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Class-Specific Antibody Concentrations and Bactericidal Titers in Sera from Young Children from Montana Immunized with a Licensed Polysaccharide Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Maslanka, Susan E; Tappero, Jordan W.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Brumberg, Robert S.; Dykes, Janet K.; Gheesling, Linda L.; Donaldson, Kimberley B. J.; Schuchat, Anne; Pullman, John; Jones, Maryann; Bushmaker, Julie; Carlone, George M.

    1998-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C bactericidal titers and class-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody concentrations were measured in sera from 173 children (1 to 5 years old) before and 6 weeks and 7 months following vaccination with a quadrivalent (A/C/Y/W-135) polysaccharide vaccine. The immune responses of the children were compared with those of 40 adults 6 weeks postvaccination. Both bactericidal titers and ELISA antibody concentrations were significantly higher i...

  1. IgG antibody subclass responses determined by immunoblot in infants' sera following vaccination with a meningococcal recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S; Sadler, F; Borrow, R; Dawson, M; Fox, A; Cartwright, K

    2001-08-14

    The introduction of meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccines into the UK immunisation schedule has led to the decline of serogroup C disease in those vaccinated but there is no imminent vaccine solution for serogroup B disease. The PorA outer membrane protein (OMP) is a potential serogroup B vaccine candidate and an outer membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccine containing six different PorA OMPs (each representing a different serosubtype) has been evaluated in phase II trials with encouraging results. Little is known about the IgG subclass response to the various antigens contained within this vaccine. These responses are important due to the different half-lives and complement fixing abilities of these antibodies. In this study, immunoblotting was undertaken with infants' sera following either three or four doses of vaccine, and OMVs from six isogenic meningococcal strains differing only in their PorA serosubtype. Following either three or four doses of the vaccine, IgG(3) and IgG(1) subclass antibodies were induced to all six of the isogenic strains, although sera collected after four doses of vaccine showed stronger antibody levels. IgG(3) was found in more sera than IgG(1). For both sets of sera, the two isogenic strains expressing P1.5,2 and P1.5(c),10 induced stronger IgG subclass antibody responses than the other four meningococcal strains. The recombinant hexavalent PorA OMV vaccine stimulates both IgG(1) and IgG(3) subclass antibodies, the subclasses that are most effective in activating the complement system.

  2. Sera from patients with anti-GBM nephritis including goodpasture syndrome show heterogenous reactivity to recombinant NC1 domain of type IV collagen alpha chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehan, P; Weber, M; Zhang, X; Reeders, S T; Foidart, J M; Tryggvason, K

    1996-11-01

    Goodpasture (GP) syndrome is defined by the clinical association of pulmonary haemorrhage with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The disease is caused by pathogenic autoantibodies directed against type IV collagen, which is a major structural component of glomerular basement membranes (GBM). The non-collagenous domains (NC1) of all six human type IV collagen alpha chains was produced in E. coli as recombinant fusion proteins with glutathione-S transferase. Sera from 10 patients with different types of anti-GBM nephritis, including GP syndrome, were tested for reactivity with the six proteins using immunoblotting of denatured and reduced proteins and ELISA without reduction. All 10 sera reacted with the alpha 3 (IV) collagen chain by immunoblotting and ELISA. One serum also recognized the alpha 2(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 5(IV) and alpha 6(IV) chains by immunoblotting. ELISA measurements revealed reactivity of several other sera with alpha 2(IV), alpha 4(IV) or alpha 6(IV) but not with alpha 5(IV) collagen chains. No reactivity was observed with the alpha 1(IV) chain. Autoantibodies in anti-GBM nephritis may not be directed only against the alpha 3(IV) collagen chain and they frequently recognize conformational epitopes.

  3. Biofilm in group A streptococcal necrotizing soft tissue infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siemens, Nikolai; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Shambat, Srikanth Mairpady

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) is a life-threatening, rapidly progressing infection. At present, biofilm is not recognized as a potential problem in GAS necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI), as it is typically linked to chronic infections or associated with foreign...... devices. Here, we present a case of a previously healthy male presenting with NSTI caused by GAS. The infection persisted over 24 days, and the surgeon documented the presence of a "thick layer biofilm" in the fascia. Subsequent analysis of NSTI patient tissue biopsies prospectively included...

  4. Suspected zoonotic transmission of rotavirus group A in Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midgley, S. E.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Group A rotaviruses infect humans and a variety of animals. In July 2006 a rare rotavirus strain with G8P[14] specificity was identified in the stool samples of two adult patients with diarrheoa, who lived in the same geographical area in Denmark. Nucleotide sequences of the VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4...... genes of the identified strains were identical. Phylogenetic analyses showed that both Danish G8P[14] strains clustered with rotaviruses of animal, mainly, bovine and caprine, origin. The high genetic relatedness to animal rotaviruses and the atypical epidemiological features suggest that these human G8...

  5. Kawasaki disease-specific molecules in the sera are linked to microbe-associated molecular patterns in the biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Kusuda

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is a systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. The innate immune system is involved in its pathophysiology at the acute phase. We have recently established a novel murine model of KD coronary arteritis by oral administration of a synthetic microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP. On the hypothesis that specific MAMPs exist in KD sera, we have searched them to identify KD-specific molecules and to assess the pathogenesis.We performed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS analysis of fractionated serum samples from 117 patients with KD and 106 controls. Microbiological and LC-MS evaluation of biofilm samples were also performed.KD samples elicited proinflammatory cytokine responses from human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAECs. By LC-MS analysis of KD serum samples collected at 3 different periods, we detected a variety of KD-specific molecules in the lipophilic fractions that showed distinct m/z and MS/MS fragmentation patterns in each cluster. Serum KD-specific molecules showed m/z and MS/MS fragmentation patterns almost identical to those of MAMPs obtained from the biofilms formed in vitro (common MAMPs from Bacillus cereus, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus at the 1st study period, and from the biofilms formed in vivo (common MAMPs from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis/Bacillus cereus/Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus at the 2nd and 3rd periods. The biofilm extracts from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus also induced proinflammatory cytokines by HCAECs. By the experiments with IgG affinity chromatography, some of these serum KD-specific molecules bound to IgG.We herein conclude that serum KD-specific molecules were mostly derived from biofilms and possessed molecular structures common to MAMPs from Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Discovery of these KD

  6. [Characteristics of group A streptococcal meningitis in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, C; Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S; Béchet, S; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcal (GAS) meningitis in children are rare. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical, biological and outcome data on GAS meningitis recorded in the Bacterial Meningitis (BM) French Surveillance Network (GPIP/ACTIV). From 2001 through 2012, 4,564 children suffering from proven bacterial meningitis were recorded in the data base. Among them, 0.7 % were GAS infections. The median age was 5.6 years. A history of community acquired infection before the onset of GAS meningitis was frequent. Apart from the identification of the bacterial species, GAS meningitis were clinically and biologically indistinguishable from meningitis caused by other pathogens notably S. pneumoniae. Case fatality rate was 8 %.

  7. Recurrent group A streptococcal vulvovaginitis in adult women: family epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Jack D; Funaro, Deana; Kaplan, Edward L

    2007-03-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) vulvovaginitis has been reported in prepubertal girls. In adult women, a vaginal carrier state has been described, but vulvovaginitis is rarely reported. We describe 2 cases of recurrent GAS vulvovaginitis in women whose husbands were gastrointestinal carriers of GAS. Characterization of the isolated strains demonstrated that identical emm types of GAS were shared by partners. Treatment of both partners resulted in resolution of vaginitis. On the basis of negative vaginal culture results obtained after treatment of each individual episode of vaginitis, we believe that the female patients were reinfected as a result of exposure to their husbands, with shedding likely to have occurred in bed. These cases reiterate the necessity for adequate screening of the patient's family and contacts in cases of recurrent GAS infection by culturing all potential areas of GAS carriage.

  8. Group a streptococcal cellulitis in the early puerperium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Branka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infectious diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, a member of the group A Streptococci (GAS are among the most common life threatening ones. Patients with GAS infections have a poor survival rate. Cellulitis is a severe invasive GAS infection and the most common clinical presentation of the disease associated with more deaths than it can be seen in other GAS infections. According to the literature data, most cases of GAS toxic shock syndrome are developed in the puerperium. However, there are two main problems with GAS infection in early puerperium and this case report is aimed at reminding on them. The first problem is an absence of awareness that it can be postpartal invasive GAS infection before the microbiology laboratory confirms it, and the second one is that we have little knowledge about GAS infection, in general. Case report. A 32- year-old healthy woman, gravida 1, para 1, was hospitalized three days after vaginal delivery with a 38-hour history of fever, pain in the left leg (under the knee, and head injury after short period of conscious lost. Clinical picture of GAS infection was cellulites. Group A Streptoccocus pyogenes was isolated in vaginal culture. Rapid antibiotic and supportive treatment stopped development of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS and potential multiorganic failure. Signs and symptoms of the infection lasted 25 days, and complete recovery of the patient almost 50 days. Conclusion. In all women in childbed with a history of fever early after delivery, vaginal and cervical culture specimens should be taken as soon as possible. Early recognition of GAS infection in early puerperium and prompt initiation of antimicrobial drug and supportive therapy can prevent development of STSS and lethal outcome.

  9. The molecular mimicry and its possible role in origin of false-positive results in HCV-infection testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benkovskaya L. K.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main reason for the false positive results of the detection of antibodies to HCV is considered the unspecific binding of the blood serum immunoglobulins with the components of the test-systems’ immunosorbent, what is observed in various pathologies. When considering the issues of diagnosis, prevention and treatment of infectious diseases examined the impact of antigenic heterogeneity and molecular mimicry. With regarding to hepatitis C this phenomenon more illustrated in terms of pathogenesis, autoimmune, extrahepatic lesions. This does not exclude the influence of antigenic mimicry on the specificity of serological tests for anti-HCV detection. Aim. Estimation the frequency of false-positive reactions of anti-HCV testing in patients with chronic somatic diseases and assessment of the antigenic mimicry’s role in their occurrence. Methods. Total anti-HCV, antibodies to the single viruses’ protein, and false positive sera antibodies’ interaction with microbial origin combinations (mimicrins were determined by ELISA. Mimicrins were separated from the cultural medium after cultivation Staphylococcus aureus, Micobacterium tuberculosis and Candida albicans. Results. Upon detection of anti-HCV in patients with chronic pathologies detected a significant number of false-positive results are more likely in patients with diabetes and among healthy individuals – in pregnant women.The majorities of false positive sera interacted with mimicrins. Conclusions. The antigenic crossings over between mimicrins and antibodies in the structure of false positive sera must be considered during the evaluation of the specific diagnostics’ results in the persons with different pathologic states.

  10. Presencia de anticuerpos sericos contra Neospora caninum en equinos en Chile Sera antibodies to Neospora caninum in Chilean horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Patitucci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Neospora sp. es un parásito protozoario causante de abortos y/o enfermedad del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC en caninos, bovinos, ciervos, caprinos, ovinos, equinos y otros. En equinos, se lo ha involucrado como causa de aborto, mortalidad neonatal y enfermedades del SNC y viscerales. La especie que infecta a los equinos es distinta a Neospora caninum y se denomina Neospora hughesi. En Chile no existe evidencia de infección en equinos, sin embargo, la enfermedad ha sido informada en bovinos y caninos, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue buscar anticuerpos contra la enfermedad en sueros equinos . Para ello se tomaron muestras de sangre a 145 equinos (87 de la IX Región y 58 de la VIII Región de Chile. Los sueros fueron analizados mediante Test de Aglutinación para Neospora (NAT. Cada suero se diluyó en 1:40 en solución salina tamponada (PBS pH 7.2 conteniendo 2- mercaptoetanol y fueron analizados en 1:40 y 1:80. Los sueros positivos a 1:80 fueron examinados a 1:160 y 1:320. Anticuerpos contra N.caninum (≥ 1:40 se encontraron en 32% (47/145 de los equinos estudiados. Debido a que N.caninum y N.hughesi dan reacción cruzada, ambos o uno de ellos podrían ser los responsables de la seropositividad. Estos resultados indican que equinos provenientes de la VIII y IX regiones de Chile son reaccionantes a la infección de Neospora, por lo que su diagnóstico presuntivo debería ser considerados ante la presencia de cuadros clínicos con sintomatología nerviosa y/o abortos en esta especie.Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite that affects cattle and dogs, its infections seem to be widely prevalent in Chile. To date, nothing is known of the presence of N. caninum in horse population of the country. In South America, two seroprevalence studies have failed to find antibodies in Argentina and Brazil. The objective of the study was to investigate the presence of N. caninum exposure in horses of Chile. Sera from 145 asymptomatic horses (87

  11. [Diagnostic of group A streptococcal blistering distal dactylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R; Levy, C; Cohen, J; Corrard, F; Deberdt, P; Béchet, S; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph

    2014-11-01

    Blistering distal dactylitis is a distinct clinical entity, generally due to S. pyogenes, unfrequently reported. Characteristically, blistering distal dactylitis is described as a localized infection involving the distal phalanx of the digits, and it usually presents as a fluid-filled blister. Between October 2009 and June 2014, 69 children (median age: 60 months, extremes: 0,6-176) were enrolled. The sensitivity of GAS rapid antigen detection test was 97 % (CI 95 %: 83-100 %), the specificity was 76 % (CI 95 %: 60-89 %), the negative predictive value was 97 % (CI 95 %: 83-100 %), and the positive predictive value 76 % (CI 95 %: 60-89 %). All patients with a positive GAS rapid antigen test were treated with antibiotics (amoxicillin essentially) and cured without surgery.

  12. [Use of group A streptococcal rapid diagnostic test in extra-pharyngeal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, A; Levy, C; Benani, M; Thollot, F; Béchet, S; Cohen, J; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the performances of the group A streptococcus (GAS) rapid antigen diagnostic tests (RADTs) in extra-pharyngeal infections. Between October 2009 and June 2014, 368 patients (median age: 48 months) were enrolled. The pathologies involved were : 160 perineal infections (44 %), 69 blistering distal dactylitis (19 %), 55 cervical lymphadenitis (15 %), 31 crusty or bleeding rhinitis (8 %), and 53 other diseases (14 %). The sensitivity of GAS-RADT used was 96 % (95 % CI: 92-99 %), the specificity 81 % (95 % CI: 75- 86 %), the negative predictive value 97 % (CI 95 %: 93-99 %), and the positive predictive value 79 % (95 % CI: 73-85 %). Finally, positive and negative likelihood ratio were 5 (95 % CI: 4-7) and 0.05 (95 % CI: 0.02-0.11) respectively. The GAS-RADTs developed for pharyngitis have comparable performances in these settings and therefore can be used.

  13. Allergen-specific IgE testing in the diagnosis of food allergy and the event of a positive match in the bioinformatics search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Current documents on risk assessment of genetically modified foods recommend including IgE-binding tests on sera from allergic patients. However, there is no generally accepted recommendation on technical aspects of the testing procedures or on the interpretation of the results, despite that fact...... that the use of sera from clinically well-characterized subjects is of high importance. In the case of a positive test result, the biological activity of the detected IgE antibodies, i. e., the potential to trigger mediator release from basophils or mast cells in an allergen-specific manner, should be taken...... screening, i. e., the testing of gene products from organisms not known to be allergenic with sera from subjects allergic to related species....

  14. Mycobacterial Hsp65 potentially cross-reacts with autoantibodies of diabetes sera and also induces (in vitro) cytokine responses relevant to diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Pittu Sandhya; Babajan, Banaganapalli; Tulsian, Nikhil K; Begum, Mahabubunnisa; Kumar, Ashutosh; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2013-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disease and its incidence is increasing worldwide. Among the two types of diabetes, type-2 accounts for about 90% of all diabetic cases, whereas type-1 or juvenile diabetes is less prevalent and presents with humoral immune responses against some of the autoantigens. We attempted to test whether the sera of type-1 diabetes patients cross-react with mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) due to postulated epitope homologies between mycobacterial Hsp65 and an important autoantigen of type-1 diabetes, glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65). In our study, we used either recombinant mycobacterial Hsp65 protein or synthetic peptides corresponding to some of the potential epitopes of mycobacterial Hsp65 that are shared with GAD65 or human Hsp60, and a control peptide sourced from mycobacterial Hsp65 which is not shared with GAD65, Hsp60 and other autoantigens of type-1 diabetes. The indirect ELISA results indicated that both type-1 diabetes and type-2 diabetes sera cross-react with conserved mycobacterial Hsp65 peptides and recombinant mycobacterial Hsp65 protein but do not do so with the control peptide. Our results suggest that cross-reactivity of mycobacterial Hsp65 with autoantibodies of diabetes sera could be due to the presence of significantly conserved peptides between mycobacterial Hsp65 and human Hsp60 rather than between mycobacterial Hsp65 and GAD65. The treatment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with recombinant mycobacterial Hsp65 protein or the synthetic peptides resulted in a significant increase in the secretion of cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. Taken together, these findings point towards a dual role for mycobacterial Hsp65: in inducing autoimmunity and in inflammation, the two cardinal features of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Detection of anti-HspX antibodies and HspX protein in patient sera for the identification of recent latent infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jacobo, Paola; Rivera-Morales, Lydia G.; Barber, James; Karls, Russell; Haas, Debra; Helms, Shelly; Gupta, Tuhina; Blumberg, Henry; Tapia, Jane; Luna-Cruz, Itza; Rendon, Adrián; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Rodríguez-Padilla, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB) a spectrum of disease including acute and asymptomatic latent stages. Identifying and treating latently-infected patients constitutes one of the most important impediments to TB control efforts. Those individuals can remain undiagnosed for decades serving as potential reservoirs for disease reactivation. Tests for the accurate diagnosis of latent infection currently are unavailable. HspX protein (α-crystallin), encoded by Rv2031c gene, is produced in vitro by M. tuberculosis during stationary growth phase and hypoxic or acidic culture conditions. In this study, using standard, and Luminex xMAP® bead capture ELISA, respectively, we report on detection of anti-HspX IgG and IgM antibodies and HspX protein in sera from acute and latent TB patients. For the antibody screen, levels of IgG and IgM antibodies were similar between non-infected and active TB patients; however, individuals classified into the group with latent TB showed higher values of anti-HspX IgM (p = 0.003) compared to active TB patients. Using the bead capture antigen detection assay, HspX protein was detected in sera from 56.5% of putative latent cases (p< 0.050) compared to the background median with an average of 9,900 pg/ml and a range of 1,000 to 36,000 pg/ml. Thus, presence of anti-HspX IgM antibodies and HspX protein in sera may be markers of latent TB. PMID:28813434

  16. Analysis of epitopes on dengue virus envelope protein recognized by monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal human sera by a high throughput assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-En Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The envelope (E protein of dengue virus (DENV is the major target of neutralizing antibodies and vaccine development. While previous studies on domain III or domain I/II alone have reported several epitopes of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against DENV E protein, the possibility of interdomain epitopes and the relationship between epitopes and neutralizing potency remain largely unexplored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a dot blot assay by using 67 alanine mutants of predicted surface-exposed E residues as a systematic approach to identify epitopes recognized by mAbs and polyclonal sera, and confirmed our findings using a capture-ELISA assay. Of the 12 mouse mAbs tested, three recognized a novel epitope involving residues (Q211, D215, P217 at the central interface of domain II, and three recognized residues at both domain III and the lateral ridge of domain II, suggesting a more frequent presence of interdomain epitopes than previously appreciated. Compared with mAbs generated by traditional protocols, the potent neutralizing mAbs generated by a new protocol recognized multiple residues in A strand or residues in C strand/CC' loop of DENV2 and DENV1, and multiple residues in BC loop and residues in DE loop, EF loop/F strand or G strand of DENV1. The predominant epitopes of anti-E antibodies in polyclonal sera were found to include both fusion loop and non-fusion residues in the same or adjacent monomer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses have implications for epitope-specific diagnostics and epitope-based dengue vaccines. This high throughput method has tremendous application for mapping both intra and interdomain epitopes recognized by human mAbs and polyclonal sera, which would further our understanding of humoral immune responses to DENV at the epitope level.

  17. Benign positional vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; BPPV: dizziness- positional ... Benign positional vertigo is also called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). It is caused by a problem in the inner ear. ...

  18. [Management of severe invasive group A streptococcal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, A; Lorrot, M; Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    The group A streptococcus (GAS) is the 5(th) responsible pathogen of invasive infections in children in France. These particularly severe diseases are dominated in children by soft tissue infection, isolated bacteremia but also osteoarthritis. Other complications are rare in France such as lung infections, necrotizing fasciitis (NF) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). More unusual localizations such as meningitis, neonatal infections, severe ear and throat and gastrointestinal infections and vascular disorders are also described. Based on published series, mortality ranging from 0-8 % of cases, is high but still lower than that observed in adults. Probabilistic antibiotherapy includes a β-lactam with anti-SGA but also anti-staphylococcal (predominantly methi-S in France) activity such as clavulanic acid- amoxicillin followed by amoxicillin as soon as identification of SGA is performed. The addition of an anti-toxin antibiotic such as clindamycin is recommended particularly in NF or STSS or clinical signs suggestive of toxin production by the SGA (rash, gastrointestinal signs, hemodynamic disorders). The use of intravenous polyvalent immunoglobulins must also be discussed in NF and STSS. In all cases surgery should be discussed. The prognosis of these potentially very severe infections is related to their early diagnosis and treatment. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of these infections may optimize their management but also their prevention.

  19. Characterization of a porcine enterocyte receptor for group A rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Rolsma, M D; Kuhlenschmidt, T B; Gelberg, H B

    1997-01-01

    We have identified, purified to apparent homogeneity and chemically characterized a biologically-relevant porcine enterocyte receptor for group A porcine rotavirus. Ceramide glycanase digestion followed by acid hydrolysis and monosaccharide compositional analyses indicated the receptor is a family of two GM, gangliosides, one containing N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid and the other N-acetylneuraminic acid. Both gangliosides displayed dose-dependent inhibition of rotavirus binding to, and infectivity of, host cells. Inhibition of infectivity in a focus-forming-unit-reduction assay was achieved with as little as 2 nmols of NeuGcGM3 (50% inhibition with 3.97 nmol) or NeuAcGM3 (50% inhibition with 9.84 nmol) per 10(4) FFU of virus. Preliminary data suggest specific porcine GM3 carbohydrate fine structure or spatial orientation of the sialyloligosaccharide epitopes of the holoGM3 gangliosides may be crucial to enterocyte receptor recognition by rotavirus. We have quantified both NeuGcGM3 and NeuAcGM3 in enterocytes of various-aged pigs from newborn through 16 weeks and have found with increasing age the amount of both GM3 derivatives, especially NeuGcGM3 per gram (dry weight) intestinal brush border decreases rapidly from newborn through 4 weeks of age. These results may help explain the age-sensitivity of piglets to severe rotavirus diarrhea.

  20. Adaptation of group A Streptococcus to human amniotic fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Sitkiewicz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For more than 100 years, group A Streptococcus has been identified as a cause of severe and, in many cases, fatal infections of the female urogenital tract. Due to advances in hospital hygiene and the advent of antibiotics, this type of infection has been virtually eradicated. However, within the last three decades there has been an increase in severe intra- and post-partum infections attributed to GAS. METHODOLOGY: We hypothesized that GAS alters its transcriptome to survive in human amniotic fluid (AF and cause disease. To identify genes that were up or down regulated in response to growth in AF, GAS was grown in human AF or standard laboratory media (THY and samples for expression microarray analysis were collected during mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic, and stationary growth phases. Microarray analysis was performed using a custom Affymetrix chip and normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates were collected at each growth point. Ratios of AF/THY above a 2-fold change and P-value <0.05 were considered significant. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The majority of changes in the GAS transcriptome involved down regulation of multiple adhesins and virulence factors and activation of the stress response. We observed significant changes in genes involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and in the nucleotide de novo synthesis pathway. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work provides new insight into how pathogenic bacteria respond to their environment to establish infection and cause disease.

  1. Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to group A Streptococcus vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikone, Mayu; Kobayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Washino, Takuya; Ota, Masayuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Iwabuchi, Sentaro; Ohnishi, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a systemic illness usually caused in the setting of infection by group A Streptococcus (GAS). The primary infections are often invasive infections of the respiratory tract or necrotizing infections of the skin and soft tissue, but some infections occur without relevant focus. GAS vaginitis is a rare condition among adult women and is accordingly thought to be uncommon as a cause of streptococcal TSS. Here we report the cases of two postmenopausal women with streptococcal TSS secondary to GAS vaginitis, one aged 55 and one aged 60. Both came to our emergency department with complaints or symptoms of abdominal pain, fever, hypotension, and multi-organ failure. In both cases, the relevant factor associated with streptococcal infection was a recent episode of GAS vaginitis. Both underwent fluid management and 14 days of antibiotic treatment and fully recovered without complications. Vaginitis was likely to be the primary infectious trigger of TSS in these two cases. Intrauterine device insertion, endometrial biopsy, and post-partum state have all been previously reported in TSS patients, and the female genital tract has been described as a portal of entry. GAS vaginitis warrants appropriate treatment as it may progress to severe systemic infection as described. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Anna C; Davies, Mark R; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N; Scott, J Anthony G; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A

    2016-02-01

    To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998-2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type-specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence.

  3. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16-Specific IgG and IgM Antibodies in Patient Sera: A Potential Indicator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Subash C B Gopinath; Kai, Sia Bik; Tang, Thean-Hock; Ng, Helen Lee-Ching; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Hashim, Uda; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM ...

  4. Antibodies to immunoglobulin-G in dog sera, synovial fluids and aqueous humor : a comparative study of rheumatoid factor assays, suitable for routine application

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadina, W.E.; Kol, P.J. van; Willemse, A.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of anti-IgG antibodies (rheumatoid factors, RF) in body fluids (sera, synovial fluids and aqueous humor) selected from 62 normal and 275 diseased dogs was studied. Fluids were assayed by canine versions of standard agglutinating and/or precipitating RF assays with routine application in human practice. The number of RF detected by dog IgG-coated particles was substantially higher by latex fixation test (LFT) than by modified Rose-Waaler (RW) test (61/144 vs. 14/144). This did no...

  5. Comparison of RPR 'teardrop' card test, VDRL and FTA-ABS tests results on sera from persons with suspected yaws in Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, D R; Florez, D

    1977-01-01

    A small study comparing results of the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) teardrop card test performed in the field, with results of Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) and fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) tests performed in the laboratory on venous blood specimens from the same suspected yaws patients was undertaken in Columbia in July 1975. The results suggest that the RPR teardrop card test may be used to screen for infectious, or potentially infectious, yaws patients under field conditions, but that it will not reliably detect patients with VDRL titres of 1:2 or less, or all patients in whom sera are reactive in the FTA-ABS test. PMID:336143

  6. Express immunochromatographic detection of antibodies against Brucella abortus in cattle sera based on quantitative photometric registration and modulated cut-off level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, Dmitriy V; Byzova, Nadezhda A; Zherdev, Anatoly V; Eskendirova, Saule Z; Baltin, Kairat K; Mukanov, Kasim K; Ramankulov, Erlan M; Sadykhov, Elchin G; Dzantiev, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    An immunochromatographic test system was developed for rapid detection of the levels of specific IgG antibodies to Brucella abortus lipopolysaccharide, as a tool for diagnosis of brucellosis in cattle. The pilot test strips were examined using blood sera from sick (78 samples) and healthy (35 samples) cows. The results obtained by immunochromatographic assay, using a portable optical densitometer for digital video detection, correlate well with the results obtained by immunoenzyme assay and are in agreement with the results of the disease diagnosis. The new test system allows detection of antibodies within 10 min and can be proposed as an alternative to the methods available for serodiagnosis of brucellosis.

  7. Elliptic elements in a Weyl group: a homogeneity property

    CERN Document Server

    Lusztig, G

    2010-01-01

    Let G be a reductive group over an algebraically closed field whose characteristic is not a bad prime for G. Let w be an elliptic element of the Weyl group which has minimal length in its conjugacy class. We show that there exists a unique unipotent class X in G such that the following holds: if V is the variety of pairs consisting of an element g in X and a Borel subgroup B such that B,gBg^{-1} are in relative position w, then V is a homogeneous G-space.

  8. Group A Streptococcus pharyngitis outbreak among university students in a judo club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Akiko; Ashizawa, Tatsuto; Ebata, Akira; Nasu, Yutaka; Fujii, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    We report on an outbreak of Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis among university students in a judo club. Eventually, 14 of total 23 club members developed acute pharyngitis clinically. In a span of 15 days in April 2013, 12 students visited our hospital complaining of sore throat and high fever. All were men with a median age of 19.5 years (interquartile range, 18-21). The rapid streptococcal antigen test was positive in 3 of 4 patients (75%) without previous antibiotic treatment, and in 2 of 8 patients (25%) with previous antibiotic treatment. The definitive diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis was made by either a positive RADT or positive throat culture of GAS when patients had more than 2 findings from the Centor scoring system in this study. 5 students received the definitive diagnosis. The throat culture results showed that 1 out of 9 asymptomatic students was GAS-positive. The outbreak might have occurred by person-to-person contact while living in a dormitory and during judo training, which is a highly close-contact sport. However, there was also the possibility of oral transmission by the shared use of water bottles, although the culture from 1 bottle was negative. Some students continued to participate in the judo club activities after the onset of sore throat or fever. Healthcare professionals, teachers, and coaches should be aware of the potential outbreaks of infectious diseases among university students engaged in athletic activities. Furthermore, it is important to educate athletes about infectious diseases.

  9. Positive maps, positive polynomials and entanglement witnesses

    CERN Document Server

    Skowronek, Lukasz

    2009-01-01

    We link the study of positive quantum maps, block positive operators, and entanglement witnesses with problems related to multivariate polynomials. For instance, we show how indecomposable block positive operators relate to biquadratic forms that are not sums of squares. Although the general problem of describing the set of positive maps remains open, in some particular cases we solve the corresponding polynomial inequalities and obtain explicit conditions for positivity.

  10. Positive maps, positive polynomials and entanglement witnesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skowronek, Lukasz; Zyczkowski, Karol [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)], E-mail: lukasz.skowronek@uj.edu.pl, E-mail: karol@tatry.if.uj.edu.pl

    2009-08-14

    We link the study of positive quantum maps, block positive operators and entanglement witnesses with problems related to multivariate polynomials. For instance, we show how indecomposable block positive operators relate to biquadratic forms that are not sums of squares. Although the general problem of describing the set of positive maps remains open, in some particular cases we solve the corresponding polynomial inequalities and obtain explicit conditions for positivity.

  11. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian group A Streptococcus epidemiologic landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Robert Smeesters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group A Streptococcus (GAS clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium and Brasília (Brazil. Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections, whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88% in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001. emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A-C (55% and E (42.5% while emm pattern E (51.5% and D (36% were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A-C pattern isolates were infrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies.

  12. NAD+-Glycohydrolase Promotes Intracellular Survival of Group A Streptococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onkar Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A global increase in invasive infections due to group A Streptococcus (S. pyogenes or GAS has been observed since the 1980s, associated with emergence of a clonal group of strains of the M1T1 serotype. Among other virulence attributes, the M1T1 clone secretes NAD+-glycohydrolase (NADase. When GAS binds to epithelial cells in vitro, NADase is translocated into the cytosol in a process mediated by streptolysin O (SLO, and expression of these two toxins is associated with enhanced GAS intracellular survival. Because SLO is required for NADase translocation, it has been difficult to distinguish pathogenic effects of NADase from those of SLO. To resolve the effects of the two proteins, we made use of anthrax toxin as an alternative means to deliver NADase to host cells, independently of SLO. We developed a novel method for purification of enzymatically active NADase fused to an amino-terminal fragment of anthrax toxin lethal factor (LFn-NADase that exploits the avid, reversible binding of NADase to its endogenous inhibitor. LFn-NADase was translocated across a synthetic lipid bilayer in vitro in the presence of anthrax toxin protective antigen in a pH-dependent manner. Exposure of human oropharyngeal keratinocytes to LFn-NADase in the presence of protective antigen resulted in cytosolic delivery of NADase activity, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death, whereas a similar construct of an enzymatically inactive point mutant had no effect. Anthrax toxin-mediated delivery of NADase in an amount comparable to that observed during in vitro infection with live GAS rescued the defective intracellular survival of NADase-deficient GAS and increased the survival of SLO-deficient GAS. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that delivery of LFn-NADase prevented intracellular trafficking of NADase-deficient GAS to lysosomes. We conclude that NADase mediates cytotoxicity and promotes intracellular survival of GAS in host cells.

  13. Occult HBV infection in anti-HBs-positive young adults after neonatal HB vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Libin; Wei, Yong; Chen, Taoyang; Lu, Jianhua; Zhu, Chang-Lin; Ni, Zhengping; Huang, Fei; Du, Jun; Sun, Zongtang; Qu, Chunfeng

    2010-08-23

    Previous follow-up on our neonatal HB vaccination cohorts with 80,000 individuals in Qidong, China, showed significant protective efficacy of immunization against HBV infection in childhood. However, some vaccinees were found to be HBsAg negative, but anti-HBs positive and anti-HBc positive at age 10-11 years. To study this phenomenon, 2919 vaccinees at age 19-21 years were sampled from the cohort. HBsAg(-), anti-HBs(+) and anti-HBc(+) were found in 124/2919 (4.2%) of the vaccinees. HBV DNA was detectable in 81/106 sample sera by using nested PCR. The PreS-S regions of HBV were sequenced in 41 randomly sampled sera. All the HBV isolates were HBV genotype C. Twenty one isolates (21/41, 51.2%) were identical to an HBV isolated in this area (GU434374). Only 4/41 (9.8%) showed mutations at the "a" epitope and three of them were G145A. The other mutations were found outside of the "a" epitope. Most of the sera contained anti-HBs(+) and anti-HBc(+) status, who received neonatal vaccination in Qidong.

  14. Molecular and Clinical Diagnosis of Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faddoul, Diala; Sposto, Richard; Batoon, Kristine; Polanco, Claudia M.; Dien Bard, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis is a very common condition causing significant morbidity in children. Accurate diagnosis followed by appropriate antimicrobial therapy is recommended to prevent postinfectious sequelae. Diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis by a rapid antigen detection test (RADT) or culture in the absence of discriminating clinical findings remains challenging. Validation of new sensitive rapid diagnostic tests is therefore a priority. The performance of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay (illumigene assay) for the diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis was compared with that of a RADT and standard culture in 361 pediatric throat swab samples. Discrepant results were resolved using an alternate molecular assay. Test results were correlated with clinical presentations in patients positive by either method. The closest estimate of the true prevalence of GAS pharyngitis was 19.7% (71/361 samples). The illumigene assay alone detected 70/71 GAS-positive samples; RADT and culture detected 35/71 and 55/71 samples, respectively. RADT followed by culture confirmation of RADT-negative specimens detected 58/71 cases. The illumigene assay increased identification among children eligible for testing by American College of Physicians (ACP)/American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) criteria from 31 to 39 positive cases, five of which were false positives. Analysis of clinical data in GAS-positive patients indicated that a significantly greater proportion of children with McIsaac scores of ≥4 tested positive by the illumigene assay versus RADT and culture. Overall, the illumigene assay was much more sensitive and was similarly specific for GAS detection, compared to culture alone, RADT alone, or the ACP/AAFP RADT/culture algorithm. Combining high sensitivity with rapidly available results, the illumigene GAS assay is an appropriate alternative to culture for the laboratory diagnosis of GAS pharyngitis in patients for whom testing is clinically

  15. Appreciative Socialization Group. A Model of Personal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PONEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we want to present o new of form of group, which we consider as being important for the process of personal development. Groups are a form of gathering more people united by a common purpose. We believe that through their group, members can develop new skills and also can obtain the change in the direction they want. Socialization is the processthat we “share” along with others, by communicating and also by having close views towards different things in life. Appreciative socialization involves placing emphasis on those elements that have value to us, which are positive. We consider appreciative group socialization as a model of good practice that aims the development among group members and increasesempowerment process.

  16. Selective microemulsion liquid chromatography analysis of dopamine receptor antagonist LE300 and its N-methyl metabolite in mouse sera by using a monolithic silica column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majed, Abdulrhman A; Hefnawy, Mohamed M; Mohammed, Mostafa S; Attia, Sabry M; Lehmann, Jochen

    2015-05-01

    A highly selective, sensitive, and rapid microemulsion liquid chromatography (MELC) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of a novel type of dopamine receptor antagonist LE300 and its N-methyl metabolite in mouse sera. LE300, its N-methyl metabolite, and pindolol (an internal standard) were detected using excitation and emission wavelengths of 275 and 340 nm, respectively. HPLC analysis by using a monolithic column was performed by directly injecting the sample after appropriate dilution with the microemulsion mobile phase. The chromatographic behaviour of these compounds was studied to demonstrate their chromatographic efficiency, retention, and peak symmetry. The MELC method was validated for its specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and stability. An experimental design was used during validation to evaluate method robustness. The calibration curves in serum showed excellent linearity (r=0.997) over concentrations ranging from 10 to 400 ngmL(-1) for LE300 and 15 to 500 ngmL(-1) for its N-methyl metabolite. The mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of the results of inter- and intra-day precision and accuracy of LE300 and its N-methyl metabolite were ≤5%. The overall recoveries of LE300 and its N-methyl metabolite from mouse sera were in the range 97.9-101.5% with %RSD ranging from 0.98% to 3.63%, which were in line with ICH guidelines. The assay was successfully applied in a pharmacokinetic study.

  17. Expression of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Ectodomain in E.coli and Its Application in the Detection of Anti-E2 Antibodies in Human Sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingLIU; Xin-XinZHANG; Shen-YingZHANG; MinLU; Yu-YingKONG; YuanWANG; Guang-DiLI

    2004-01-01

    The second envelope glycoprotein (E2) of hepatitis C virus has been shown to bind human target cells and has become a major target for the development of anti-HCV vaccines. Anti-E2 antibodies have been suggested to be of clinical significance in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of hepatitis C. However,large-scale expression and purification of E2 proteins in mammalian cells is difficult. As an alternative, E2 fragment (aa 385-730) with a four-amino-acid mutation (aa 568-571 PCNI to RVTS) was expressed as hexa-histidine-tagged full length protein [E2N730(m)] in E.coli and purified to over 85% purity. Purified E2N730(m) was specifically recognized by homologous hepatitis C patient serum in Western blot, suggesting that it displayed E2-specific antigenicity. Rabbit antiserum raised against E2N730(m) recognized E2 glycoproteins expressed in mammalian cells in Western blot. Purified E2N730(m) was ttsed to detect anti-E2 antibodies in human sera and showed better specificity and sensitivity than previously reported C-terminally truncated E2 fragment (aa 385-565). Association between anti-E2 antibodies in patient sera and HCV RNA status was also demonstrated using this E.coli-derived protein. E2N730(m) might serve as an inexpensive alternative to mammalian cell-expressed E2 proteins in clinical and research applications.

  18. Expression of Hepatitis C Virus E2 Ectodomain in E.coli and Its Application in the Detection of Anti-E2 Antibodies in Human Sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LIU; Xin-Xin ZHANG; Shen-Ying ZHANG; Min LU; Yu-Ying KONG; Yuan WANG; Guang-Di LI

    2004-01-01

    The second envelope glycoprotein (E2) of hepatitis C virus has been shown to bind human target cells and has become a major target for the development of anti-HCV vaccines. Anti-E2 antibodies have been suggested to be of clinical significance in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of hepatitis C. However,large-scale expression and purification of E2 proteins in mammalian cells is difficult. As an alternative, E2 fragment (aa 385-730) with a four-amino-acid mutation (aa 568-571 PCNI to RVTS) was expressed as hexa-histidine-tagged full length protein [E2N730(m)] in E. Coli and purified to over 85% purity. Purified E2N730(m) was specifically recognized by homologous hepatitis C patient serum in Western blot, suggesting that it displayed E2-specific antigenicity. Rabbit antiserum raised against E2N730(m) recognized E2 glycoproteins expressed in mammalian cells in Western blot. Purified E2N730(m) was used to detect anti-E2 antibodies in human sera and showed better specificity and sensitivity than previously reported C-terminally truncated E2 fragment (aa 385-565). Association between anti-E2 antibodies in patient sera and HCV RNA status was also demonstrated using this E. Coli-derived protein. E2N730(m) might serve as an inexpensive alternative to mammalian cell-expressed E2 proteins in clinical and research applications.

  19. Blast-derived microvesicles in sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia suppress natural killer cell function via membrane-associated transforming growth factor-beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanski, Miroslaw J; Szajnik, Marta; Welsh, Ann; Whiteside, Theresa L; Boyiadzis, Michael

    2011-09-01

    Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is decreased in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in comparison to that in normal controls. Tumor-derived microvesicles present in patients' sera exert detrimental effects on immune cells and may influence tumor progression. We investigated the microvesicle protein level, molecular profile and suppression of natural killer cell activity in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. The patients' sera contained higher levels of microvesicles compared to the levels in controls (Pmicrovesicles had a distinct molecular profile: in addition to conventional microvesicle markers, they contained membrane-associated transforming growth factor-β1, MICA/MICB and myeloid blasts markers, CD34, CD33 and CD117. These microvesicles decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity (Pmicrovesicles further increased the levels of this protein. Neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-β1 antibodies inhibited microvesicle-mediated suppression of natural killer cell activity and NKG2D down-regulation. Interleukin-15 protected natural killer cells from adverse effects of tumor-derived microvesicles. We provide evidence for the existence in acute myeloid leukemia of a novel mechanism of natural killer cell suppression mediated by tumor-derived microvesicles and for the ability of interleukin-15 to counteract this suppression.

  20. Blast-derived microvesicles in sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia suppress natural killer cell function via membrane-associated transforming growth factor-β1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanski, Miroslaw J.; Szajnik, Marta; Welsh, Ann; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Boyiadzis, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural killer cell cytotoxicity is decreased in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in comparison to that in normal controls. Tumor-derived microvesicles present in patients’ sera exert detrimental effects on immune cells and may influence tumor progression. Design and Methods We investigated the microvesicle protein level, molecular profile and suppression of natural killer cell activity in patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. Results The patients’ sera contained higher levels of microvesicles compared to the levels in controls (Pmicrovesicles had a distinct molecular profile: in addition to conventional microvesicle markers, they contained membrane-associated transforming growth factor-β1, MICA/MICB and myeloid blasts markers, CD34, CD33 and CD117. These microvesicles decreased natural killer cell cytotoxicity (Pmicrovesicles further increased the levels of this protein. Neutralizing anti-transforming growth factor-β1 antibodies inhibited microvesicle-mediated suppression of natural killer cell activity and NKG2D down-regulation. Interleukin-15 protected natural killer cells from adverse effects of tumor-derived microvesicles. Conclusions We provide evidence for the existence in acute myeloid leukemia of a novel mechanism of natural killer cell suppression mediated by tumor-derived microvesicles and for the ability of interleukin-15 to counteract this suppression. PMID:21606166

  1. Multiple antibody targets on herpes B glycoproteins B and D identified by screening sera of infected rhesus macaques with peptide microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven-Kevin Hotop

    Full Text Available Herpes B virus (or Herpesvirus simiae or Macacine herpesvirus 1 is endemic in many populations of macaques, both in the wild and in captivity. The virus elicits only mild clinical symptoms (if any in monkeys, but can be transmitted by various routes, most commonly via bites, to humans where it causes viral encephalitis with a high mortality rate. Hence, herpes B constitutes a considerable occupational hazard for animal caretakers, veterinarians and laboratory personnel. Efforts are therefore being made to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection and to improve prognosis after accidental exposure. Among the measures envisaged are serological surveillance of monkey colonies and specific diagnosis of herpes B zoonosis against a background of antibodies recognizing the closely related human herpes simplex virus (HSV. 422 pentadecapeptides covering, in an overlapping fashion, the entire amino acid sequences of herpes B proteins gB and gD were synthesized and immobilized on glass slides. Antibodies present in monkey sera that bind to subsets of the peptide collection were detected by microserological techniques. With 42 different rhesus macaque sera, 114 individual responses to 18 different antibody target regions (ATRs were recorded, 17 of which had not been described earlier. This finding may pave the way for a peptide-based, herpes B specific serological diagnostic test.

  2. Yellow fever virus envelope protein expressed in insect cells is capable of syncytium formation in lepidopteran cells and could be used for immunodetection of YFV in human sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Yellow fever is an haemorrhagic disease caused by a virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus (Flaviviridae family) and is transmitted by mosquitoes. Among the viral proteins, the envelope protein (E) is the most studied one, due to its high antigenic potencial. Baculovirus are one of the most popular and efficient eukaryotic expression system. In this study a recombinant baculovirus (vSynYFE) containing the envelope gene (env) of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus was constructed and the recombinant protein antigenicity was tested. Results Insect cells infected with vSynYFE showed syncytium formation, which is a cytopathic effect characteristic of flavivirus infection and expressed a polypeptide of around 54 kDa, which corresponds to the expected size of the recombinant E protein. Furthermore, the recombinant E protein expression was also confirmed by fluorescence microscopy of vSynYFE-infected insect cells. Total vSynYFE-infected insect extracts used as antigens detected the presence of antibodies for yellow fever virus in human sera derived from yellow fever-infected patients in an immunoassay and did not cross react with sera from dengue virus-infected patients. Conclusions The E protein expressed by the recombinant baculovirus in insect cells is antigenically similar to the wild protein and it may be useful for different medical applications, from improved diagnosis of the disease to source of antigens for the development of a subunit vaccine. PMID:21619598

  3. Invasive Group A streptococcal disease in Ireland, 2004 to 2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Martin, J

    2011-01-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal infections (iGAS) are a major clinical and public health challenge. iGAS is a notifiable disease in Ireland since 2004. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiology of iGAS in Ireland for the first time over the seven-year period from 2004 to 2010. The Irish national electronic infectious disease reporting system was used by laboratories to enter the source of iGAS isolates, and by departments of public health to enter clinical and epidemiological details. We extracted and analysed data from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2010. Over the study period, 400 iGAS cases were notified. The annual incidence of iGAS doubled, from 0.8 per 100,000 population in 2004 to 1.6 in 2008, and then remained the same in 2009 and 2010. The reported average annual incidence rates were highest among children up to five years of age (2.3\\/100,000) and adults aged over 60 years (3.2\\/100,000). The most common risk factors associated with iGAS were skin lesions or wounds. Of the 174 people for whom clinical syndrome information was available, 28 (16%) cases presented with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and 19 (11%) with necrotising fasciitis. Of the 141 cases for whom seven-day outcomes were recorded, 11 people died with iGAS identified as the main cause of death (seven-day case fatality rate 8%). The notification rate of iGAS in Ireland was lower than that reported in the United Kingdom, Nordic countries and North America but higher than southern and eastern European countries. The reasons for lower notification rates in Ireland compared with other countries may be due to a real difference in incidence, possibly due to prescribing practices, or due to artefacts resulting from the specific Irish case definition and\\/or low reporting in the early stages of a new surveillance system. iGAS disease remains an uncommon but potentially severe disease in Ireland. Ongoing surveillance is required in order to undertake appropriate control measures and

  4. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Philip; Johannsen, Finn E; Hangaard, Stine

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G......: Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors....

  5. Control charts for identifying systematic errors using control sera to detect antibody to Salmonella in an indirect ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, H.; Barfod, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the preparation of Shewhart's control charts using the concept of rational subgroups for monitoring the Salmonella antibody ELISA used for surveillance of Danish pig herds. Control charts were prepared for a buffer control sample, a negative serum sample and a positive serum ...... charts could reveal systematic analytical errors....

  6. Development of primers for sequencing the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes of the group A porcine rotavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Dornelas Florentino Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is the causative pathogen of diarrhea in humans and in several animal species. Eight pairs of primers were developed and used for Sanger sequencing of the coding region of the NSP1, NSP3, and VP6 genes based on the conserved regions of the genome of the group A porcine rotavirus. Three samples previously screened as positive for group A rotaviruses were subjected to gene amplification and sequencing to characterize the pathogen. The information generated from this study is crucial for the understanding of the epidemiology of the disease.

  7. 应用胶体金SEA-DIPSTICK法检测日本血吸虫病血清抗体的研究%STUDY ON THE DETECTION OF SERUM ANTIBODY IN SERA OF PATIENTS WITH SCHISTOSOMIASIS JAPONICA BY COLLOIDAL GOLD SEA- DIPSTICK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷家慧; 姜昌富; 甘燕; 魏兰英; 宁长修; 邓伟文; 石佑恩

    2001-01-01

    Aim To develop an accurate, rapid, simple and applicable assay for the diagmosis of Schistosomiasis japonica.Method A time-saving, reliable colloidal gold SEA-dipstik assay was applied to detect serum antibody of schistosomiasis japonica. Results All of 28 sera from patients with accute schistosomiasis showed positive reaction while 289 of 297(97.31% ) sera from chronic schistosomiasis were positive by SEA-dipstick assay. 1 of 518(0. 19% ) sera from normal population gave false positive reaction 14 of 573(2.4% ) cases of various other parasitic diseases, including paragonimiasis, lonorchiasis, cysticercosis, and trichinellosis, showed cross reaction. SEA-dispstick assay showed similar sensivity and higher specificity as parallel testing by Dot-LISA ( P < 0.05 ). Conclu sion Colloidal gold SEA-dipstick assay is not only rapid and simple, but also sensitive adn specific for the detection of serum antibody of schistosomiasis japonica. It will be a practical immunological a~ay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in the uture.%目的建立一种快速、简便、实用的检测日本血吸虫病血清抗体的Dipstick方法。方法应用胶体金SEA-dipstick法检测日本血吸虫病血清抗体。结果用该法检测急性血吸虫病血清28人份和慢性血吸虫病血清297人份,其阳性检出率分别为100%和97.31%。在518例正常人和573例其它4种寄生虫病人血清中有0.19%假阳性和2.4%交叉反应。与Dot-ELISA比较,经卡方检验表明两者的敏感性无显著性差异,而SEA-dipstick法的特异性较Dot-ELISA强。结论胶体金SEA-dipstick法检测日本血吸虫病血清抗体有较高的敏感性和特异性,并且方法快速,操作简便,不需特殊仪器设备,稳定性高,重复性好,具有广泛的应用前景。

  8. More specific bands in the IgG western blot in sera from Scottish patients with suspected Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Roger; Mavin, Sally; McDonagh, Susan; Chatterton, Jean M W; Milner, Rachel; Ho-Yen, Darrel O

    2010-08-01

    To identify further Western blot bands that may be specific in the diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis. The Borrelia burgdorferi antibody profiles of 270 western blot positive patients and 241 western blot negative patients from 2008 were examined. 27 different non-specific bands were detected in both groups. Six of 27 (22%) of the non-specific bands were detected significantly more in the western blot positive patients compared to the western blot negative patients (20 kDa, p<0.0001; 28 kDa, p<0.002; 36 kDa, p<0.002; 37 kDa, p<0.007; 48 kDa, p<0.023; 56 kDa, p<0.028; two-tailed F test). Results suggest that the 20, 28 and 48 kDa bands should be regarded as specific.

  9. Frequency of the Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Infection in Children Presenting with Acute Tonsillopharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgül Yiğit

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GABHS in children with tonsillopharyngitis and to assess their complaints and clinical findings.Materials and Method: A total of 420 children who presented to our outpatient department with acute tonsillopharyngitis were enrolled to the study. The clinical features of patients with positive throat cultures for GABHS were compared to those with negative culture results. Presence of fever (≥37.50C, axilary, vomiting, coryza, sore throat, cough, abdominal pain, tenderness of cervical lymph nodes, and tonsillopharyngitis were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients was 6.5±3.4 years (range, 1 to 14 years. The positive throat culture rate for GABHS was 22.62% (95 of 420 patients. It was found that fever, sore throat, cough, abdominal pain and tender cervical lymph nodes were significantly more frequent in patients with positive throat culture for GABHS than those with negative result for GABHS.Conclusion: GABHS should be firstly considered in patients presenting with symptoms of fever, sore throat, cough, abdominal pain and tenderness of cervical lymph nodes. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 13-7

  10. [Heterophile interference: an experimental method of depleting rheumatoid factor from sera in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, K; Dassé, S R; Yébouah, O R; Kouacou, A P V; Séka, S J

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) is a major source of interference in immunoassays. Several methods have been proposed to eliminate interference. We experimented with a new technique based on the depletion of rheumatoid factor from serum samples. Our study included 150 samples, 64 of them positive for RF. Depletion was performed by the adsorption of RF from the sample by latex beads sensitized with human IgG anti-RF. After precipitation of the complexes formed, the supernatant was tested for RF. Finally, we assessed the performance of this RF depletion method with two tests: ELISA Enzygnost Enzygnost anti-HBs micro-Behring and IFI falciparum Ref 75521 Biomerieux. We compared the percentages of false-negative and false-positive results of these tests before and after depletion of the RF-positive serum samples. Efficiency index is 92.2% and the performance of the two immunoassay tests improved significantly by a factor of 2 to 25 after depletion. In addition, this technique is easy, inexpensive, fast, and suitable to our limited resources as a developing country. It should be extended to other immunological tests for validation of the results.

  11. Circulating Natural IgM Antibodies Against Angiogenin in the Peripheral Blood Sera of Patients with Osteosarcoma as Candidate Biomarkers and Reporters of Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitskaya, Yulia A.; Rico, Genaro; Linares, Luis; González, Roberto; Téllez, René; Estrada, Eréndira; Marín, Norma; Martínez, Elisa; Alfaro, Alfonso; Ibarra, Clemente

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tumor immunology research has led to the identification of a number of tumor-associated self antigens, suggesting that most tumors trigger an immunogenic response, as is the case in osteosarcoma, where the detection of natural serum IgM antibodies might achieve the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Natural IgM antibodies to tumor-associated proteins may expand the number of available tumor biomarkers for osteosarcoma and may be used together in a serum profile to enhance test sensitivity and specificity. Natural IgM antibodies can be consistently detected in the peripheral blood sera months to years before the tumor is diagnosed clinically. The study of the level of a potential biomarker many months (or years) prior to diagnosis is fundamentally important. Integrated circulating and imaging markers in clinical practice treating osteosarcoma have potential applications for controlling tumor angiogenesis. Objectives: To study the expression of natural IgM antibodies to the tumor antigens of angiogenesis in the peripheral blood sera of osteosarcoma patients and healthy individuals, and to develop serum-based predictive biomarkers. Methods: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 117 osteosarcoma patients and 117 patients with other tumors. All diagnosis was histologically confirmed. Staging of patients was performed according to the Enneking Surgical Staging System. The control group consisted of 117 age- and sex- matched healthy individuals. In this study, novel immunoconjugates were designed, synthesized and then used to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect angiogenin (ANG)–IgM directly in the peripheral blood sera of humans. Results: Serum ANG–IgM levels are significantly higher in osteosarcoma patients than in healthy individuals (P osteosarcoma patients and ANG–IgM levels were significantly higher in osteosarcoma patients compared to any other tumors (P osteosarcoma patients than

  12. A New Sandwich ELISA for Quantification of Thymidine Kinase 1 Protein Levels in Sera from Dogs with Different Malignancies Can Aid in Disease Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagarlamudi, Kiran Kumar; Moreau, Laura; Westberg, Sara; Rönnberg, Henrik; Eriksson, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    Thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) is a DNA precursor enzyme whose expression is closely correlated with cell proliferation and cell turnover. Sensitive serum TK1 activity assays have been used for monitoring and prognosis of hematological malignancies in both humans and dogs. Here we describe the development of a specific sandwich TK1-ELISA for the quantification of TK1 protein levels in sera from dogs with different malignancies. A combination of rabbit polyclonal anti-dog TK1 antibody and a mouse monoclonal anti-human TK1 antibody was used. Different concentrations of recombinant canine TK1 was used as standard. Clinical evaluation of the ELISA was done by using sera from 42 healthy dogs, 43 dogs with hematological tumors and 55 with solid tumors. An established [3H]-dThd phosphorylation assay was used to determine the TK1 activity levels in the same sera. The mean TK1 activities in dogs with hematological tumors were significantly higher than those found in healthy dogs. In agreement with earlier studies, no significant difference was observed in serum TK1 activities between healthy dogs and dogs with solid tumors. However, the mean TK1 protein levels determined by new TK1-ELISA were significantly higher not only in hematological tumors but also in solid tumors compared to healthy dogs (mean ± SD = 1.30 ± 1.16, 0.67 ± 0.55 and 0.27± 0.10 ng/mL, respectively). Moreover, TK1-ELISA had significantly higher ability to distinguish lymphoma cases from healthy based on receiver operating characteristic analyses (area under the curve, AUC, of 0.96) to that of the activity assay (AUC, 0.84). Furthermore, fluctuations in TK1 protein levels during the course of chemotherapy in dogs with lymphoma closely associated with clinical outcome. Overall, the TK1-ELISA showed significant linear correlation with the TK1 activity assay (rs = 0.6, p<0.0001). Thus, the new TK1-ELISA has sufficient sensitivity and specificity for routine clinical use in veterinary oncology.

  13. Effects of Sera from Patients with SLE on ICAM - 1 and MCP- 1 Expression in HUVEC and Fluvastatin Intervention%SLE患者血清对人脐静脉内皮细胞ICAM-1和MCP-1表达的影响及氟伐他汀的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁倩; 李霞; 刘伏友; 刘虹; 许向青; 彭佑铭

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ANA- positive and anti - dsDNA antibody - positive sera from patients with SLE on intercellular adhesion molecule - 1 ( ICAM - 1 ) and monocyte chemoattractant protein - 1 (MCP-1 ) released from cul-tured human umbilical vein endothdial cells (HUVEC) and whether fluvastatin can attenuate these effect. Methods:Confluent mono-layers of culturad HUVEC with serum samples (diluted 1:5) were from 15 female patients and 5 normal female controls or with both serum samples and solution of fluvastatin for 24 hours. ICAM- 1 and MCP- 1 concentrations in the culture supernatant were mea-sured by EL1SA and intracellular expressions of ICAM- 1 and MCP- 1 were measured by immunocytochemistry. Results: The ex-pression of ICAM - 1 and MCP - 1 incubated with ANA-positive and anti - dsDNA antibody - positive sera from patient with SLE were higher than HUVEC incubated with ANA-negative sera from patients with SLE(P < 0.01 ) and normal controls( P < 0.01 ).Fluvaststin showed significant inhibition of ANA - positive and anti - dsDNA antibody- positive sera induced ICAM- 1 and MCP - 1expression on HUVEC(P<0.01 ,and P<0.05). Conclusion:ANA- pcsitive and anti- dsDNA antibody- positive sera's ability to activate HUVEC is evidenced by induction of ICAM- 1 and MCP- 1 expression in vitro. Fluvastatin can inhibit up- reguhtion of ICAM- 1 and MCP- 1 on HUVEC by ANA- positive and anti- dsDNA antibody- positive sera from patients with SLE in vitro.%目的:观察抗核抗体(ANA)和抗ds-DNA抗体对人脐静脉血管内皮细胞(HUVEC)细胞间黏附分子-1(ICAM-1)、单核细胞趋化因子-1(MCP-1)表达的影响及他汀类药物氟伐他汀(fluvastatin,flu)干预后的变化,以探讨ANA和抗ds-DNA抗体在系统性红斑狼疮(SLE)血管炎中的致病机制和flu对血管内皮保护作用.方法:体外培养HUVEC,收集女性SLE患者血清(以抗核抗体全套为依据,分3组:ANA阴性、ANA滴度1:80、ANA滴度1:80和抗ds-DNA抗

  14. Development of a Real-time PCR test for porcine group A rotavirus diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C.M. Marconi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Group A Rotavirus (RVA is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and several animal species. A SYBR-Green Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to diagnose RVA from porcine fecal samples, targeting amplification of a 137-bp fragment of nonstructural protein 5 (NSP5 gene using mRNA of bovine NADH-desidrogenase-5 as exogenous internal control. Sixty-five samples were tested (25 tested positive for conventional PCR and genetic sequencing. The overall agreement (kappa was 0.843, indicating 'very good' concordance between tests, presenting 100% of relative sensitivity (25+ Real Time PCR/25+ Conventional PCR and 87.5% of relative sensitivity (35- Real Time PCR/40- Conventional PCR. The results also demonstrated high intra- and inter-assay reproducibility (coefficient of variation ≤1.42%; thus, this method proved to be a fast and sensitive approach for the diagnosis of RVA in pigs.

  15. Asymptomatic Group A Streptococcus carriage in children with recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, Isabela P Olivetti; Sanchez, Daniela Cristina Janolli; Di Francesco, Renata

    2016-07-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is the most important bacterial cause of acute tonsillitis in children. Some children are chronic GAS carriers, and this carriage is poorly understood. We determined the frequency of GAS detection using a rapid antigen detection test in pediatric patients with indications for tonsillectomy due to adenotonsillar hypertrophy or recurrent GAS infections. Seventy-two patients underwent a tonsil swab for a rapid antigen detection test. The GAS rapid antigen detection test was positive in 18.1% of children. GAS was not associated with sex, age or previous history of recurrent tonsillitis. Also, the prevalence of GAS was similar between patients with either recurrent tonsillitis or tonsil hypertrophy. In our study, the GAS carriage rate was similar to other reports, and GAS carrier state was not correlated with recurrent tonsillitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Physical Characteristics of a Citrullinated Pro-Filaggrin Epitope Recognized by Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies in Rheumatoid Arthritis Sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Nicole Hartwig; Holm, Bettina Eide; Slot, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    whether biotin labelling influence antibody recognition. The full-length cyclic pro-filaggrin peptide and a linear form with a N-terminal biotin, was recognized to the same level, whereas, a notable difference in ACPA reactivity to the linear peptides with a C-terminal biotin was found, probably due...... amino acid in position 4 C-terminal to citrulline. Collectively, peptide structure, length, the presence of charged amino acids and biotin labelling markedly influence antibody reactivity. In relation to the clinical diagnostics of ACPA, these findings may reflect the differences in diagnostic assays...

  17. Positive clinical neuroscience: explorations in positive neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Narinder; Cole, Jonathan; Manly, Tom; Viskontas, Indre; Ninteman, Aafke; Hasher, Lynn; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-08-01

    Disorders of the brain and its sensory organs have traditionally been associated with deficits in movement, perception, cognition, emotion, and behavior. It is increasingly evident, however, that positive phenomena may also occur in such conditions, with implications for the individual, science, medicine, and for society. This article provides a selective review of such positive phenomena--enhanced function after brain lesions, better-than-normal performance in people with sensory loss, creativity associated with neurological disease, and enhanced performance associated with aging. We propose that, akin to the well-established field of positive psychology and the emerging field of positive clinical psychology, the nascent fields of positive neurology and positive neuropsychology offer new avenues to understand brain-behavior relationships, with both theoretical and therapeutic implications.

  18. Positive Psychology: Positive Emotions and Emotional Intelegence

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on the and emotional intelligence. We try to answer on some questions regarding the role which positive emotions have in our life’s. The broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) predicts that positive emotions are useful in several ways. They guide present behavior, by broadening one’s attention and cognition, setting the stage for creative, explorative, and innovative pursuits. As well, positive emotions build personal and social resources to help individuals achi...

  19. [Impact of sera from children with active Henoch-Schönlein purpura on human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) and protective effects of methylprednisolone against HUVECs injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Yuan, Li-Ping; Fei, Wen-Jun; Deng, Fang; Zhang, Qin; Hu, Bo; Lu, Ling

    2012-01-01

    To observe the changes of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by the sera from children with active Henoch-Sch-nlein purpura (HSP) and the protective effects of methylprednisolone against HUVECs injury. HUVECs were divided into four groups based on the culture conditions: blank control group, normal serum group, HSP serum group, and HSP serum plus methylprednisolone group. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 in the supernatants of each group were detected using ELISA and the nitric oxide (NO) level by nitrate reductase determination. Moreover, the expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Fractalkine in HUVECs were examined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The levels of IL-8, TNF-α, and NO in the HSP serum group were significantly higher than those in the blank control and normal serum groups (Pinflamation.

  20. Determination of the concentrations of the steroids estradiol, progesterone and testosterone in bovine sera: comparison of commercial dissociation enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay kits with conventional radio and enzyme immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C T; Francis, K S; Shortt, H D; McCaughey, W J

    1995-06-01

    The performance of three conventional enzyme and radioimmunoassays routinely used to detect residues of anabolic steroids in cattle sera were compared with dissociation enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay (DELFIA) kits designed for the hospital market. Slight modifications to the kit reagents were required for the analysis of bovine sera. Owing to the large sample volumes used in conventional assays, detection limits were generally better than those obtained with DELFIA kits, however, assay reproducibility was enhanced using the DELFIA technology. Comparison of sera obtained from cattle implanted with anabolic steroids revealed a good correlation between alternate methods (r2 from 0.91 to 0.97). The DELFIA kits offer a faster method for measuring estradiol, progesterone and testosterone with adequate sensitivity and in a safer environment than that encountered using radioimmunoassays.

  1. Sera and conditioned media contain different isoforms of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) which bind to different classes of PDGF receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen-Pope, D F; Hart, C E; Seifert, R A

    1989-02-15

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is encoded by separate genes for two possible subunit chains (A-chain and B-chain) which can form three possible dimers (AA, AB, and BB). We have recently presented evidence that multiple forms of PDGF receptor exist which distinguish between these isoforms (Hart, C. H., Forstrom, J. W., Kelley, J. D., Smith, R. A., Ross, R., Murray, M. J., and Bowen-Pope, D. F. (1988) Science 240, 1529-1531). We used this specificity to determine the amount of PDGF from different sources which is able to bind to each class of receptor and found that each source had a characteristic isoform composition. Levels of total PDGF activity in sera from different species ranged more than 15-fold, from less than 1 ng/ml in dog, chicken, pig, and calf, to greater than 13 ng/ml in mouse and human. Despite these differences in PDGF content, the total mitogenic activities of the sera were comparable indicating that the relative importance of PDGF as a serum mitogen may vary considerably between species. Analysis of the total PDGF into the amounts of each isoform revealed great differences in composition. PDGF-BB constitutes only about 15% of the total binding activity in human PDGF purified by the method of Raines and Ross (Raines, E. W., and Ross, R. (1982) J. Biol. Chem. 257, 5154-5160) but is the predominant isoform in whole blood serum from all other species. In contrast to serum, medium conditioned by cultured PDGF-secreting cell types contained no detectable PDGF-BB except in two cases: medium conditioned by vascular endothelial cells and by cells transformed by simian sarcoma virus. The existence of isoform-specific PDGF receptors and the large variation in PDGF isoform composition dependent upon source may provide an important mechanism through which the effects of PDGF can be targeted to different cell types and/or toward eliciting different cell responses.

  2. Anti-GaL IgG antibodies in sera of newborn humans and baboons and its significance in pig xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minanov, O P; Itescu, S; Neethling, F A; Morgenthau, A S; Kwiatkowski, P; Cooper, D K; Michler, R E

    1997-01-27

    We have previously demonstrated that hyperacute rejection does not occur in a pig-to-newborn baboon heart transplant model, presumably because of low levels of cytotoxic antipig antibodies present in the serum of newborn baboons. Cytotoxic antipig antibodies are primarily directed to alpha-1,3-galactosyl (alpha Gal) residues on endothelial cell surface structures Twenty-one full-term humans and 5 full-term baboons were tested for complement mediated lysis (CML) of pig kidney (PK-15) cells and anti-alpha Gal activity with an ELISA using BSA-conjugated alpha Gal residues as target. To evaluate the significance of the anti-alpha Gal titers in vivo 5 newborn baboons underwent heterotopic pig cardiac xenotransplantation. Six of 21 human samples and 1 of 5 baboon samples demonstrated significant cytotoxicity to PK-15 cells. Twelve of 21 newborn humans had anti-alpha Gal IgG antibodies at titers of 1:80 or greater. None of the samples had anti-alpha Gal IgM. In newborn baboons, 1 of 5 sera had anti-alpha Gal IgG antibodies at titers greater than 1:80 and none of these samples had anti-alpha Gal IgM. Xenografts survived for an average of 3.6 days, even in the baboon with high anti-alpha Gal IgG titers. Analysis of the explanted grafts showed minimal evidence of complement-mediated hyperacute rejection (HAR), but prominent mononuclear cell infiltrates. In serum tested posttransplant there was an induced anti-alpha Gal response with cytotoxicity against PK-15 cells. These results show that anti-alpha Gal IgM is absent in newborn human and baboon sera, allowing pig grafts to avoid HAR. However, the presence of anti-alpha Gal IgG may be associated with mononuclear cell infiltration of the xenograft and its subsequent rejection.

  3. Suppression of angiogenic activity of sera from diabetic patients with non-proliferative retinopathy by compounds of herbal origin and sulindac sulfone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopinski, Piotr; Szaflik, Jerzy; Duda-Król, Barbara; Nartowska, Jadwiga; Sommer, Ewa; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Demkow, Urszula; Skopinska-Rózewska, Ewa

    2004-10-01

    Angiogenesis, the process of new blood vessel formation, is the key event in the mechanism of several pathological processes including diabetic retinopathy. The physiological control of angiogenesis depends on the balance between stimulatory and inhibitory factors. Therefore, a number of anti-angiogenic approaches has been developed, many of them based on the inhibition of the functional activity of pro-angiogenic factors. The aim of the present study was to compare the anti-angiogenic effectiveness of sulindac sulfone and some herbal compounds in the serum-induced angiogenesis test performed in Balb/c mice. Pooled sera from 35 patients with diabetes type 2 and retinopathy were used as pro-angiogenic stimuli. The strongest inhibitory effect was observed for the sulindac sulfone and ursolic acid in the highest concentration of 200 micro g/ml, as well as for the low-dosage concomitant treatment with 2 micro g/ml of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, green tea flavanol), ursolic acid (plant-derived triterpenoid), sulindac sulfone and convalamaroside (steroidal saponin). Combination treatment was significantly more effective than monotherapy with medium (20 micro g/ml) or lowest doses of tested compounds. The present study is the first to demonstrate the potent anti-angiogenic effect of the combination therapy comprising of plant-derived extracts and sulindac sulfone, as tested in the in vivo angiogenesis experimental model with sera of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy patients used as the pro-angiogenic stimuli. We think that it might be the first step toward application of some of these compounds, in the future, in preventive anti-angiogenic therapy of these patients, as well, as in the treatment of later, proliferative stage of this disease.

  4. One-shot flow injection spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of copper, iron and zinc in patients' sera with newly developed multi-compartment flow cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Norio [Department of Applied Chemistry, Aichi Institute of Technology, 1247 Yachigusa, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Gotoh, Shingo [Department of Applied Chemistry, Aichi Institute of Technology, 1247 Yachigusa, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Ida, Kazunori [Murakami Memorial Hospital, Asahi University, 3-23 Hashimoto-cho, Gifu 500-8523 (Japan); Sakai, Tadao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Aichi Institute of Technology, 1247 Yachigusa, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan)]. E-mail: tadsakai@aitech.ac.jp

    2006-01-31

    We propose here an affordable flow injection method for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of copper, iron and zinc in patients' sera. The use of a newly designed multi-compartment flow cell allowed the simultaneous determination of the three metals with a single injection ('one-shot') and a double beam spectrophotometer. The chemistry relied on the reactions of these metals with 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (nitro-PAPS) to form corresponding colored complexes. At pH 3.8, only copper-nitro-PAPS complex was formed in the presence of pyrophosphate as a masking agent for iron, and then the copper and iron(II) complexes were formed in the presence of reductant (ascorbic acid) at the same pH, and finally all three metals reacted with nitro-PAPS at pH 8.6. The characteristics were introduced into the flow system to determine each metal selectively and sensitively. Under the optimum conditions, linear calibration curves for the three metals were obtained in the range of 0.01-1 mg L{sup -1} with a sample throughput rate of 20 h{sup -1}. The limits of detection (3{sigma}) were 3.9 {mu}g L{sup -1} for copper, 4.1 {mu}g L{sup -1} for iron and 4.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} for zinc. The proposed method was applied to analysis of some patients' sera.

  5. Cross-reactive antibodies in convalescent SARS patients' sera against the emerging novel human coronavirus EMC (2012) by both immunofluorescent and neutralizing antibody tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok-Hung; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tse, Herman; Chen, Honglin; Lau, Candy Choi-Yi; Cai, Jian-Piao; Tsang, Alan Ka-Lun; Xiao, Xincai; To, Kelvin Kai-Wang; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Zheng, Bo-Jiang; Wang, Ming; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2013-08-01

    A severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like disease due to a novel betacoronavirus, human coronavirus EMC (HCoV-EMC), has emerged recently. HCoV-EMC is phylogenetically closely related to Tylonycteris-bat-coronavirus-HKU4 and Pipistrellus-bat-coronavirus-HKU5 in Hong Kong. We conducted a seroprevalence study on archived sera from 94 game-food animal handlers at a wild life market, 28 SARS patients, and 152 healthy blood donors in Southern China to assess the zoonotic potential and evidence for intrusion of HCoV-EMC and related viruses into humans. Anti-HCoV-EMC and anti-SARS-CoV antibodies were detected using screening indirect immunofluorescence (IF) and confirmatory neutralizing antibody tests. Two (2.1%) animal handlers had IF antibody titer of ≥ 1:20 against both HCoV-EMC and SARS-CoV with neutralizing antibody titer of SARS patients had significant IF antibody titers with 7/28 (25%) having anti-HCoV-EMC neutralizing antibodies at low titers which significantly correlated with that of HCoV-OC43. Bioinformatics analysis demonstrated a significant B-cell epitope overlapping the heptad repeat-2 region of Spike protein. Virulence of SARS-CoV over other betacoronaviruses may boost cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies against other betacoronaviruses. Convalescent SARS sera may contain cross-reactive antibodies against other betacoronaviruses and confound seroprevalence study for HCoV-EMC. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Detection and Analysis of Cattle Sera Antibodies Against Neospora Cauinum in Xinjiang Province%新疆地区牛新孢子虫病血清抗体检测及结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小兰; 张军; 张玲; 季新成

    2011-01-01

    为了解新疆地区牛新孢子虫病的流行情况,用ELISA方法对采自新疆6个地区327份的牛血清进行了新孢子虫病的抗体检测,并以第一次检测结果为依据,对20头牛进行了5次连续采样检测,每次间隔30-40天。检测结果表明,该病在新疆不同地区都有不同程度的发生和流行,平均阳性率为24.5%,且在年龄大和流产牛群中阳性率偏高,血清抗体阳性持续时间至少半年以上。%In order to leam about the epidemiological of Neospom caninum in cattle population , 327 cattle serum samples from 6 regions of xinjiang province were detected by ELISA. 5 tests from 20 cattles sera were consecutively at an interval of 30 to 40 days. The results showed that in Xinjiang provice exist the diseases, the average positive rate was 24.5%, and the seropositivity was higher in the herd of older age or abortive cows. The sero antibody to N. caninum persist more than half of a year.

  7. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  8. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  9. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  10. A、C群脑膜炎球菌-b型流感嗜血杆菌多糖结合疫苗免疫学效果观察%Immune effect of a meningococcal groups A&C/Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚南; 梁丽; 李艳萍; 叶强

    2012-01-01

    conjugate, in left and right arms respectively. The children at ages of 3 ~ 5 months were injected with 3 doses at an interval of 1 month, while those at ages of 6 ~ 11 months with 2 doses at an interval of 1 month, and those at ages of 12 ~ 71 months with one dose. Venous blood samples were collected before and 30 ~ 35 d after immunization respectively, from which sera were isolated and determined for bactericidal antibody titer against meningococci groups A&C by functional antibody bactericidal test, and for antibody level against Hib by indirect ELISA, based on which the positive conversion rate and increasing folds of antibodies were calculated. Results The positive conversion rates of antibodies against meningococci groups A&C and Hib in sera of children at various ages in trial group showed no significant difference with those in control group (P > 0. 05). No significant differences were observed in antibody titers a gainst meningococci groups A&C in susceptible and non-susceptible children at various ages in trial and control groups(each P> 0. 05). However, the antibody levels against Hib were significantly lower in trial group than in control group (P < 0. 001). Conclusion ACHib showed good immunogenicity, which was worthy of popularization as a prophylactic product against meningococci groups A&C and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

  11. Comparison of Gen-Probe Group A streptococcus Direct Test with culture for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorski, S J; Vetter, E A; Wollan, P C; Cockerill, F R

    1994-01-01

    The Group A Streptococcus Direct Test (GP-ST test; Gen-Probe, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) was compared with culture for the detection of Streptococcus pyogenes from throat swabs of 767 patients with pharyngitis. Swabs were tested by the GP-ST test after inoculating a 5% sheep blood agar (SBA) plate. SBA plates were incubated at 35 degrees C in room air for 72 h. SBA plates with no evidence of beta-hemolytic colonies after 18 to 24 h of incubation were subcultured by taking a swipe across the primary inoculum from the SBA plate to an agar selective for Streptococcus spp. In a low-prevalence (11.9%) population and in comparison with the number of positive cultures detected by the 72-h single-culture method (SBA plate method), the GP-ST test had a sensitivity of 88.6%, a specificity of 97.8%, a positive predictive value of 83.9%, and a negative predictive value of 98.5%. In comparison with the growth of any colonies of S. pyogenes on the 72-h SBA plates plus a subculture onto selective blood agar, the sensitivities and specificities were as follows: 72-h SBA plate method, 96.7 and 100%, respectively; GP-ST test, 85.7 and 97.8%, respectively. The GP-ST test is an easy-to-perform, reliable test for batch screening of throat swabs for S. pyogenes. PMID:8077386

  12. Status of sheep sera to bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants and sheep pox in a few northern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Bluetongue (BT, peste des petits ruminants (PPR and sheep pox are the most economically important viral diseases of sheep in India. Serum samples obtained from sheep in five northern states of the country were screened for antibody against these agents to explore the extent of spread of these infections. A total of 516 serum samples were screened for the presence of antibodies against BT and PPR viruses. Of these, 155 samples were also tested for antibodies against sheep pox virus. BT antibodies were found in 293 (56.8% animals, PPR virus antibodies in 215 (41.7% and sheep pox virus antibodies in 106 (68.3%. Of the serum samples tested, 25.2% were positive for antibodies against all three viruses. These findings clearly demonstrated not only the enzootic nature of disease, but also the co-existence of antibodies to more than one of these viruses which would indicate that concurrent infections were common. Therefore, control measures should focus in combating all three diseases simultaneously by exploring the possibility of a trivalent vaccine or the use of multiple genes expressing vectored vaccine.

  13. c-erbB-2 protein level in tissue and sera of breast cancer patients: a possibly useful clinical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Michele; Daniele, Antonella; Coviello, Maria; Savonarola, Annalisa; Abbate, Ines; Venneri, Maria Teresa; Paradiso, Angelo; Stea, Baldassarre; Zito, Alfredo; Labriola, Angela; Schittulli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the clinical utility of circulating preoperative HER-2 extracellular domain p105 detected by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA), to compare the tissue expression of HER-2/neu determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), to correlate prognostic factors including tumor size, nodal involvement, and hormone receptor status, and to analyze the prognostic significance of the marker in relation to clinical outcome as measured by disease-free and overall survival. In this study, we enrolled 108 consecutive patients with breast carcinoma, and obtained serum samples and frozen tumor tissues. We compared them with 57 women with fibroadenoma and 63 healthy women as controls. Univariate ANOVA analysis showed no relationship between HER-2/neu in tissue and serum. Preoperative serum levels of p105 were significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in women with benign disease or healthy women. Concerning the correlation between p105, HER-2/neu tissue expression, and the other prognostic factors, a statistically significant correlation between high serum p105 levels and ER-negative status in breast cancer patients was found. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that patients with positive HER-2/neu tissue expression had a significantly shorter survival than those with negative expression. Analysis with the Cox model demonstrated that tumor size was the only significant independent prognostic factor. This research failed to demonstrate a relationship between preoperative tissue overexpression and circulating HER-2/neu, suggesting that p105 does not represent a valid alternative to predict a worsened prognosis in breast cancer, but it could be a diagnostic marker to discriminate healthy subjects from breast cancer patients.

  14. [Serological survey of feline leukemia virus infection and the outcome of antibody-positive cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashihara, T; Tajima, M; Ishiguro, T; Tamura, H; Maejima, K

    1988-04-01

    A serological survey was carried out to examine the presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline oncornavirus-associated cell membrane antigen (FOCMA) in 208 cat sera collected at Teikyo University School of Medicine. Seven cats (3.4%) were positive for FeLV antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay whereas no cat was positive for FOCMA antibody by indirect membrane immunofluorescent test. Anemia, leukemia and/or lymphoma formation were not observed in these FeLV antibody-positive cats. But among these seven cats, three were positive for toxoplasma antibodies. One of them was also positive for Chlamydia psittaci antibody and it died in pneumonia. Among the four toxoplasma antibody negative cats, one was died in eosinophilic granuloma. Furthermore, two of three cats, which were used for experiments, had cold and took therapy.

  15. Anti-ALK Antibodies in Patients with ALK-Positive Malignancies Not Expressing NPM-ALK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Siddiqi, Faraz; Fischer, Matthias; Hero, Barbara; Narayanan, Vignesh; Camidge, David Ross; Harris, Michael; Burke, Amos; Lehrnbecher, Thomas; Pulford, Karen; Oschlies, Ilske; Siebert, Reiner; Turner, Suzanne; Woessmann, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Nucleophosmin (NPM)- Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) fusion positive Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma produce autoantibodies against ALK indicative of an immune response against epitopes of the chimeric fusion protein. We asked whether ALK-expression in other malignancies induces specific antibodies. Antibodies against ALK were detected in sera of one of 50 analysed ALK-expressing neuroblastoma patients, 13 of 21 ALK positive non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients, 13 of 22 ALK translocation-positive, but NPM-ALK-negative lymphoma patients and one of one ALK-positive rhabdomyosarcoma patient, but not in 20 healthy adults. These data suggest that boosting a pre-existent anti-ALK immune response may be more feasible for patients with ALK-positive NSCLC, lymphomas and rhabdomyosarcomas than for tumours expressing wild-type ALK.

  16. CHARACTERISATION AND MEASUREMENT TO THE SUB-MICRON SCALE OF A REFERENCE WIRE POSITION CARACTERISATION ET MESURE SUB-MICROMETRIQUE DE LA POSITION D’UN FIL DE REFERENCE

    CERN Document Server

    SANZ , Claude; MAINAUD DURAND , Hélène; MORANTZ , Paul; SHORE , Paul

    2015-01-01

    L’étude suivante est réalisée dans le cadre du projet PACMAN (a study on Particle Accelerator Components Metrology and Alignment to the Nanometre scale) : une étude sur la métrologie et l’alignement à l’échelle nanométrique des composants d’un accélérateur de particules. C’est un programme Marie Curie supporté par la Commission Européenne et hébergé par le CERN. Le but de ce programme est de faire travailler en équipe de jeunes chercheurs sur le développement d’un banc de pré-alignement pour l’accélérateur linéaire CLIC (Compact Linear Collider). Sur ce banc, chaque composant sera aligné au niveau requis en une seule opération basée sur l’utilisation d’un fil tendu. Pendant cette opération, le fil matérialisera les axes magnétiques et électriques des composants, c’est-à-dire qu’il sera à la position théorique du faisceau de particules. Puis il servira de référence et la position de son axe sera mesurée avec autant de précision que possible par une machin...

  17. Liposome-based intranasal delivery of lipopeptide vaccine candidates against group A streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffar, Khairunnisa Abdul; Marasini, Nirmal; Giddam, Ashwini Kumar; Batzloff, Michael R; Good, Michael F; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-09-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS), an exclusively human pathogen, causes a wide range of diseases ranging from trivial to life threatening. Treatment of infection is often ineffective following entry of bacteria into the bloodstream. To date, there is no vaccine available against GAS. In this study, cationic liposomes encapsulating lipopeptide-based vaccine candidates against GAS have been employed for intranasal vaccine delivery. Cationic liposomes were prepared with dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB) using the film hydration method. Female Swiss mice were immunized intranasally with the liposomes. In contrast to unmodified peptides, lipopeptides entrapped by liposomes induced both mucosal and systemic immunity, IgA and IgG (IgG1 and IgG2a) production in mice, respectively. High levels of antibody (IgA and IgG) titres were detected even five months post immunization. Thus, the combination of lipopeptides and liposomes generates a very promising delivery system for intranasal vaccines. Group A streptococcus, causing rheumatic heart diseases, kills approximately half a million people annually. There is no vaccine available against the infection. Mucosal immunity is vital in ensuring an individual is protected as this gram positive bacteria initially colonizes at the throat. Herein, we demonstrated that lipopeptides entrapped by liposomes induced both mucosal and systemic immunity. High levels of antibody (IgA and IgG) titres were detected even five months post immunization and lead vaccine candidate was able to induce humoral immune responses even after single immunization. Thus, the combination of lipopeptides and liposomes generates a very promising delivery system for intranasal vaccines. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific IgE levels in students' sera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovet, Habibe; Ergin, Cağrı; Kaleli, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. Monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. Since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. This study was aimed to investigate the indoor air mold distribution of elementary schools in Denizli province (located in west Anatolia, Turkey) and to compare the allergen-specific IgE levels of children against the most frequently detected mold genus. A questionnaire (MM080) was distributed to the 4967 students (6-8 year-old) attending first and second degrees of 16 different elementary schools with scattered locations in city center. This questionnaire form included the questions related to the general information about the child, school environment, allergic complaints since last year, home environment and nutrition. Response rate to the questionnaire was 51.6% (2565/4967). Air samples were collected from 18 classrooms in March 2009, during which high rates of allergic symptoms were observed according to the questionnaire results. Mold fungi belonging to 10 different genera (Penicillium spp. 46%; Aspergillus spp. 18%; Cladosporium spp. 17%; Alternaria spp. 15%; Drechslera spp. 1%; Chrysosporium, Fusarium, Conidiobolus and Cladothecium species 0.5%; unidentified 1%) were isolated from indoor air of classrooms. Since the most frequently detected mold was Penicillium spp. (46%), the 48 children with atopic symptoms were called to the hospital for the determination of total IgE and Penicillium specific IgE in their sera. Twenty two students accepted the invitation and serum total IgE (Immulite 2000; Diagnostic Product Corporation, USA) and allergen-specific IgE (Penicillium brevicompactum

  19. Assessment of three human FcεRI-transfected RBL cell-lines for identifying IgE induced degranulation utilizing peanut-allergic patient sera and peanut protein extract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladics, G.S.; Bilsen, J.H.M. van; Brouwer, H.M.H.; Vogel, L.; Vieths, S.; Knippels, L.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Specific IgE sera screening studies are employed to investigate protein cross-reactivity. Such nonfunctional immunochemical methods cannot measure the biological activity of proteins. Therefore, an assay using RBL cells transfected with human FcεRI was developed. Our objective was to evaluate the de

  20. Initially unrecognised group A streptococcal pelvic inflammatory disease in a postmenopausal woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, I J E; Polderman, F N; Bekers, E M; Bloks, P H C J; Schneeberger, P M; de Jager, C P C

    2014-11-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal infection is a severe disease with high mortality. Invasive group A streptococcal infection may arise after pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease in postmenopausal women is rare. Here, we report a unique case of a postmenopausal woman with fatal invasive group A streptococcal infection due to pelvic inflammatory disease and an extraordinary course of diagnosis.

  1. EAACI taskforce position paper: evidence for autoimmune urticaria and proposal for defining diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, G N; Asero, R; Ferrer, M; Knol, E F; Maurer, M; Raap, U; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Skov, P S; Grattan, C E H

    2013-01-01

    An autoimmune subset of chronic spontaneous urticaria is increasingly being recognized internationally, based on laboratory and clinical evidence that has accrued over the last 20 years. This evidence has been reviewed by a taskforce of the Dermatology section of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Functional autoantibodies in chronic urticaria (CU) patient sera have been demonstrated against IgE and FcεRIα by basophil and mast cell histamine release assays and by basophil activation assays. Antibody specificity has been confirmed by immunoassay, but there is a poor correlation between functionality and immunoreactivity. Approximately 25% of CU patients have a positive basophil histamine release assay and show autoreactivity (a positive autologous serum skin test), whereas 50% are negative regarding both. Functionality of CU sera appears to be complement dependent on mast cells but not exclusively on basophils. Basophil activation by CU sera is predominantly restricted to IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses. Circumstantial evidence for CU being an autoimmune disease comes from an observed association with other autoimmune diseases, a strong association between serum functionality and HLA-DR4 haplotype and the good response of CU patients to immunotherapies. It was proposed that a study should be undertaken to prospectively validate potentially relevant clinical criteria (from the history, examination and routinely available clinical investigations) against a new 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of ACU (positive autoreactivity, functional bioassay and immunoassay) to define preliminary criteria sets for the diagnosis of ACU based on clinical and laboratory features with highest individual sensitivity and specificity.

  2. Apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells and sCD95 levels in women's sera are related with the risk of developing cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo-Cuellar Alejandro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is clear evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the development and progression of tumors. One of the best characterized apoptosis triggering systems is the CD95/Fas/APO-1 pathway; previous reports have demonstrated high levels of soluble CD95 (sCD95 in serum of patients with some types of cancer. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. As a first step in an attempt to design a minimally invasive test to predict the risk of developing cervical cancer in patients with precancerous lesions, we used a simple assay based on the capacity of human serum to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells. We evaluated the relationship between sCD95 levels and the ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells in cervical cancer patients and controls. Methods Jurkat cells were exposed to serum from 63 women (20 healthy volunteers, 21 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade I [CIN 1] and 22 with cervical-uterine carcinoma. The apoptotic rate was measured by flow cytometry using Annexin-V-Fluos and Propidium Iodide as markers. Serum levels of sCD95 and soluble CD95 ligand (sCD95L were measured by ELISA kits. Results We found that serum from almost all healthy women induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells, while only fifty percent of the sera from women with CIN 1 induced cell death in Jurkat cells. Interestingly, only one serum sample from a patient with cervical-uterine cancer was able to induce apoptosis, the rest of the sera protected Jurkat cells from this killing. We were able to demonstrate that elimination of Jurkat cells was mediated by the CD95/Fas/Apo-1 apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the serum levels of sCD95 measured by ELISA were significantly higher in women with cervical cancer. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between low levels of sCD95 in serum of normal women and higher apoptosis induction in Jurkat cells. We suggest that an analysis of

  3. Integrated analysis of the climate change effects on water availability for catchment management. The case of the Ésera River (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solera, Abel; Segura, Carlos; Bussi, Gianbattista; Momblanch, Andrea; Francés, Félix

    2014-05-01

    The analysis of the impact of climate change on water resources is of primary importance in Mediterranean Areas. Mean precipitation is expected to decrease, although an increase in its torrentiality is foreseen, and temperature is expected to increase. In addition, growing urban water demand and new environmental requirements also contribute to increase water stress. To achieve an improved use of water resources, new and detailed studies of the impact of the climate change are needed. Due to the high complexity of rainfall-runoff processes and the need to incorporate climate change effect in them, physically based distributed models are proposed as a tool for assessing and analysing the climate change impact on water discharge. In this case, the distributed conceptual TETIS model was employed. This model was previously calibrated and validated in order to reproduce the hydrological cycle of a Mediterranean-influenced catchment, the Ésera River (Spain), under current climate conditions. Then, the TETIS model was driven by the results of a climatic model (precipitation and temperature series) under three climatic scenarios: current climate (or control scenario), A2 and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios. Water discharge series were generated at different points of the catchment. The model results pointed out that a global decrease in water yield is devised, being around 33% and 37% for scenario A2 and B2 respectively. Water discharge series were subsequently used in the analysis of climate change impact on water resources and water use in the studied river basin. To do so, a water allocation model was built, calibrated and validated under current streamflow conditions for the Ésera River. It considered all the water management infrastructures, water uses and environmental requirements. The results from TETIS for the three different scenarios were introduced as inputs to the water management model, what allowed performing three simulations. The outcomes

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi: identification of specific epimastigote antigens by human immune sera Trypanosoma cruzi: identificação de antígenos específicos de epimastigotas reconhecidos por soros humanos imunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Morgado

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available Soluble antigens from epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were analyzed by western blot in terms of their reactivity with sera from patients with Chagas' disease. In addition, sera from patients with visceral (AVL and tegumentar leishmaniasis (ATL were also tested in order to identify cross-reactivities with Trypanosoma cruzy antigens. Twenty eight polypeptides with molecular weights ranging from 14 kDa to 113 kDa were identified with sera from Chagas' disease patients. An extensive cross-reactivity was observed when sera from human visceral leishmaniasis were used, while only a slight cross-reaction was observed with sera from tegumentar leishmaniasis. On the other hand, 10 polypeptidesspecifically reacting with sera from Chagas' disease patients were identified. Among them, the antigens with molecular weights of 46 kDa and 25 kDa reacted with all sera teste and may be good candidates for specific immunodiagnosis of Chagas' disease.Antígenos solúveis de epimastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi foram analisados por "imunoblot" a fim de verificar sua reatividade com soros de pacientes com doença de Chagas. Além disso, soro de pacientes com leishmaniose visceral (LVA e tegumentar americana (LTA foram também analisados com o objetivo de se identificar oa antígenos de reação cruzada com o Trypanosoma cruzi. Pelo menos 28 polipeptídeos, com pesos moleculares variando de 14 a 113 kDa foram identificados com soros de pacientes com doença de Chagas. Uma intensa reatividade cruzada foi observada quando foram utilizados soros de pacientes com leishmaniose visceral, enquanto que uma fraca reação cruzada foi observada com soros de pacientes portadores de leishmaniose tegumentar. Por outro lado, pelo menos 10 polipeptídeos puderam ser identificados apresentando reação específica com soros de pacientes chagásicos. Entre estes, os polipeptídeos de pesos moleculares de 46 kDa e 25 kDa que reagiram com todos esses soros e são potencialmente bons

  5. Multi-technology positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lohan, Elena-Simona; Wymeersch, Henk; Seco-Granados, Gonzalo; Nykänen, Ossi

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of positioning technologies, applications and services in a format accessible to a wide variety of readers. Readers who have always wanted to understand how satellite-based positioning, wireless network positioning, inertial navigation, and their combinations work will find great value in this book. Readers will also learn about the advantages and disadvantages of different positioning methods, their limitations and challenges. Cognitive positioning, adding the brain to determine which technologies to use at device runtime, is introduced as well. Coverage also includes the use of position information for Location Based Services (LBS), as well as context-aware positioning services, designed for better user experience. • Brings understanding of positioning technology to readers from a variety of disciplines • Reviews multiple techniques, providing insight on the pros, cons and challenges related to each • Designed to be a tutorial on basic principles, avoiding unnecessary de...

  6. Positive Deviance: Learning from Positive Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMahieu, Paul G.; Nordstrum, Lee E.; Gale, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is one of seven in this volume, each elaborating different approaches to quality improvement in education. The purpose of this paper is to delineate a methodology called positive deviance. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the origins, theoretical foundations, core principles and a case study demonstrating an…

  7. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  8. Specific elevation of DcR3 in sera of sepsis patients and its potential role as a clinically important biomarker of sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghee; Mi, Lijun; Zhang, Lurong

    2012-01-01

    Because of its potentially important role in the pathogenesis of sepsis, the expression of soluble decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) was investigated in sera of sepsis patients. The serum levels of DcR3 and its TNF-like ligand TL1A and homologous decoy receptor OPG were quantified by ELISA. The values of DcR3 to diagnose sepsis were analyzed by receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The results showed that DcR3 was significantly elevated in sepsis compared to SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome), a condition similar to sepsis but resulting from noninfectious insults. DcR3 showed superior area under the ROC curve (AUC, 0.958) compared to poor AUCs of TL1A and OPG. At a cut-off of 3.24 ng/ml, DcR3 predicted sepsis from SIRS with 96% sensitivity and 82.6% specificity. DcR3 also predicted sepsis from cancer and inflammatory bowel disease with equally excellent values. Therefore, DcR3 serum level has the potential to serve as a reliable biomarker of sepsis. PMID:22647538

  9. Increased levels of soluble CD226 in sera accompanied by decreased membrane CD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Zhuwei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a cellular membrane triggering receptor, CD226 is involved in the NK cell- or CTL-mediated lysis of tumor cells of different origin, including freshly isolated tumor cells and tumor cell lines. Here, we evaluated soluble CD226 (sCD226 levels in sera, and membrane CD226 (mCD226 expression on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from cancer patients as well as normal subjects, and demonstrated the possible function and origin of the altered sCD226, which may provide useful information for understanding the mechanisms of tumor escape and for immunodiagnosis and immunotherapy. Results Soluble CD226 levels in serum samples from cancer patients were significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (P P Conclusion These findings suggest that sCD226 might be shed from cell membranes by certain proteases, and, further, sCD226 may be used as a predictor for monitoring cancer, and more important, a possible immunotherapy target, which may be useful in clinical application.

  10. Natural IgG autoantibodies are abundant and ubiquitous in human sera, and their number is influenced by age, gender, and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Nagele

    Full Text Available The presence of self-reactive IgG autoantibodies in human sera is largely thought to represent a breakdown in central tolerance and is typically regarded as a harbinger of autoimmune pathology. In the present study, immune-response profiling of human serum from 166 individuals via human protein microarrays demonstrates that IgG autoantibodies are abundant in all human serum, usually numbering in the thousands. These IgG autoantibodies bind to human antigens from organs and tissues all over the body and their serum diversity is strongly influenced by age, gender, and the presence of specific diseases. We also found that serum IgG autoantibody profiles are unique to an individual and remarkably stable over time. Similar profiles exist in rat and swine, suggesting conservation of this immunological feature among mammals. The number, diversity, and apparent evolutionary conservation of autoantibody profiles suggest that IgG autoantibodies have some important, as yet unrecognized, physiological function. We propose that IgG autoantibodies have evolved as an adaptive mechanism for debris-clearance, a function consistent with their apparent utility as diagnostic indicators of disease as already established for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  11. Fine-mapping naturally occurring NY-ESO-1 antibody epitopes in melanoma patients' sera using short overlapping peptides and full-length recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Nobukazu; Jackson, Heather M; Chan, Kok-fei; Oveissi, Sara; Cebon, Jonathan; Itoh, Kyogo; Chen, Weisan

    2013-07-01

    The tumor antigen NY-ESO-1 is one of the most antigenic cancer-testis antigens, first identified by serologic analysis of a recombinant cDNA expression library (SEREX). NY-ESO-1 is expressed in different types of cancers including melanoma. NY-ESO-1-specific spontaneous humoral and cellular immune responses are detected in a large proportion of patients with advanced NY-ESO-1-expressing cancers. Therefore NY-ESO-1 is a good candidate antigen for immunotherapy. Although cellular immune responses to NY-ESO-1 are well characterized, much less is known about the humoral immune responses. In this study, we finely mapped linear antibody epitopes using sera from melanoma patients and shorter overlapping peptide sets. We have shown that melanoma patients' humoral immune systems responded to NY-ESO-1 differently in each individual with widely differing antibody specificity, intensity and antibody subtypes. This knowledge will help us further understand anti-tumor immunity and may also help us to monitor cancer progress and cancer vaccine efficacy in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antibodies to Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis in the sera of ankylosing spondylitis patients with/without iritis and enthesitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki-Ikola, O; Lehtinen, K; Toivanen, P; Granfors, K

    1995-05-01

    IgM, IgG and IgA class serum antibodies against the whole Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis bacteria, as well as against K. pneumoniae and E. coli lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) were studied earlier in the sera of 98 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and in 102 healthy blood donors by enzyme immunoassay. In this study the patients were divided into groups according to the clinical picture, i.e. presence or absence of iritis and enthesitis. The previous major finding of increased IgA class antibody levels against the whole K. pneumoniae bacteria in AS patients when compared to the healthy controls was not specifically associated with any single patient group in the present study. However, the patients with iritis had higher levels of IgA class antibodies to LPS of K. pneumoniae and E. coli when compared to the patients without iritis. In addition, the patients without enthesitis had higher level of IgG class antibodies against whole K. pneumoniae bacteria compared to the patients with enthesitis. The increased IgA class antibody levels against K. pneumoniae and E. coli LPS in AS patients with iritis may reflect an inflammatory process in the gut area. Furthermore, there were certain other differences in the immunological parameters between the AS patients with and without iritis or enthesitis and the possibility that they reflect different mechanisms involved in the disease processes cannot be excluded.

  13. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16-Specific IgG and IgM Antibodies in Patient Sera: A Potential Indicator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P; Gopinath, Subash C B; Kai, Sia Bik; Tang, Thean-Hock; Ng, Helen Lee-Ching; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Hashim, Uda; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, nested PCR analysis using comprehensive consensus primers (PGMY09/11 and GP5(+)/6(+)) was used to confirm the presence of HPV. Furthermore, we have evaluated the association of various additional causal factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel quid chewing) in HPV-infected OSCC patients. Statistical analysis of the Malaysian population indicated that OSCC was more prevalent in female Indian patients that practices betel quid chewing. ELISA revealed that HPV16 IgG, which demonstrates past exposure, could be detected in 197 (95.6%) OSCC patients and HPV16-specific IgM was found in a total of 42 (20.4%) OSCC patients, indicating current exposure. Taken together, our study suggest that HPV infection may play a significant role in OSCC (OR: 13.6; 95% CI: 3.89-47.51) and HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies could represent a significant indicator of risk factors in OSCC patients.

  14. Immune escape mutants of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 selected using polyclonal sera: identification of key amino acids in the HA protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Sitaras

    Full Text Available Evolution of Avian Influenza (AI viruses--especially of the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI H5N1 subtype--is a major issue for the poultry industry. HPAI H5N1 epidemics are associated with huge economic losses and are sometimes connected to human morbidity and mortality. Vaccination (either as a preventive measure or as a means to control outbreaks is an approach that splits the scientific community, due to the risk of it being a potential driving force in HPAI evolution through the selection of mutants able to escape vaccination-induced immunity. It is therefore essential to study how mutations are selected due to immune pressure. To this effect, we performed an in vitro selection of mutants from HPAI A/turkey/Turkey/1/05 (H5N1, using immune pressure from homologous polyclonal sera. After 42 rounds of selection, we identified 5 amino acid substitutions in the Haemagglutinin (HA protein, most of which were located in areas of antigenic importance and suspected to be prone to selection pressure. We report that most of the mutations took place early in the selection process. Finally, our antigenic cartography studies showed that the antigenic distance between the selected isolates and their parent strain increased with passage number.

  15. Mutations in the H, F, or M Proteins Can Facilitate Resistance of Measles Virus to Neutralizing Human Anti-MV Sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kweder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although there is currently no evidence of emerging strains of measles virus (MV that can resist neutralization by the anti-MV antibodies present in vaccinees, certain mutations in circulating wt MV strains appear to reduce the efficacy of these antibodies. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that resistance to neutralization by such antibodies could allow MV to persist. In this study, we use a novel in vitro system to determine the molecular basis of MV’s resistance to neutralization. We find that both wild-type and laboratory strain MV variants that escape neutralization by anti-MV polyclonal sera possess multiple mutations in their H, F, and M proteins. Cytometric analysis of cells expressing viral escape mutants possessing minimal mutations and their plasmid-expressed H, F, and M proteins indicates that immune resistance is due to particular mutations that can occur in any of these three proteins that affect at distance, rather than directly, the native conformation of the MV-H globular head and hence its epitopes. A high percentage of the escape mutants contain mutations found in cases of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis (SSPE and our results could potentially shed light on the pathogenesis of this rare fatal disease.

  16. Detection of Human Papillomavirus 16-Specific IgG and IgM Antibodies in Patient Sera: A Potential Indicator of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Risk Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerishnan, Jesinda P.; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Kai, Sia Bik; Tang, Thean-Hock; Ng, Helen Lee-Ching; Rahman, Zainal Ariff Abdul; Hashim, Uda; Chen, Yeng

    2016-01-01

    The association between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and oral cancer has been widely reported. However, detecting anti-HPV antibodies in patient sera to determine risk for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been well studied. In the present investigation, a total of 206 OSCC serum samples from the Malaysian Oral Cancer Database & Tissue Bank System, with 134 control serum samples, were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) to detect HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies. In addition, nested PCR analysis using comprehensive consensus primers (PGMY09/11 and GP5+/6+) was used to confirm the presence of HPV. Furthermore, we have evaluated the association of various additional causal factors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel quid chewing) in HPV-infected OSCC patients. Statistical analysis of the Malaysian population indicated that OSCC was more prevalent in female Indian patients that practices betel quid chewing. ELISA revealed that HPV16 IgG, which demonstrates past exposure, could be detected in 197 (95.6%) OSCC patients and HPV16-specific IgM was found in a total of 42 (20.4%) OSCC patients, indicating current exposure. Taken together, our study suggest that HPV infection may play a significant role in OSCC (OR: 13.6; 95% CI: 3.89-47.51) and HPV16-specific IgG and IgM antibodies could represent a significant indicator of risk factors in OSCC patients. PMID:27279791

  17. Multi-sequential surface plasmon resonance analysis of haptoglobin-lectin complex in sera of patients with malignant and benign prostate diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazuno, Saiko; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Arai, Takahiro; Ueno, Takashi; Nagao, Keiji; Fujime, Makoto; Murayama, Kimie

    2011-12-15

    Screening for prostate cancer remains unsatisfactory. Recent studies have examined the cancer diagnostic/prognostic values of various acute phase proteins, such as haptoglobin. We describe here a novel method of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based on multi-sequential analysis with SNA-1, AAL, and PHA-L(4) lectin, to estimate the glycosylation status of haptoglobin in sera of patients with prostate cancer (n=15), benign prostate disease (BPD) including benign prostatic hypertrophy (n=20), and normal subjects (n=11). The SPR-based analysis involves the use of anti-haptoglobin as ligand and dilution of the analyte to 1400-fold and filtration, followed by detection of the sugar chain by lectin solution. The normalized RU of lectin to haptoglobin represents the binding amount of lectin divided by that of haptoglobin. The normalized RU by SNA-1 of the prostate cancer group was significantly higher than those of the control and BPD group. SNA-1 detected NeuAcα2,6 in a biantennary sugar chain, whose content was the highest among the major glycoproteins in serum. Serum samples diluted about 7000-fold were subjected to microanalysis at 10 ng/μl and 10 μl/min for 4 min. The combination of SNA-1 and haptoglobin by SPR multi-sequential analysis offered the most accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer without any modification of serum glycoproteins.

  18. Investigation of a panel of monoclonal antibodies and polyclonal sera against anthrax toxins resulted in identification of an anti-lethal factor antibody with disease-enhancing characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Parul; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Priyanka; Joon, Shikha; Sinha, Subrata; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2015-12-01

    Hybridomas were created using spleen of mice that were actively immunized with rLFn (recombinant N-terminal domain of lethal factor). Later on, separate group of mice were immunized with rLFn to obtain a polyclonal control for passive immunization studies of monoclonal antibodies. This led to the identification of one cohort of rLFn-immnized mice that harboured disease-enhancing polyclonal antibodies. At the same time, the monoclonal antibodies secreted by all the hybridomas were being tested. Two hybridomas secreted monoclonal antibodies (H10 and H8) that were cross-reactive with EF (edema factor) and LF (lethal factor), while the other two hybridomas secreted LF-specific antibodies (H7 and H11). Single chain variable fragment (LETscFv) was derived from H10 hybridoma. H11 was found to have disease-enhancing property. Combination of H11 with protective monoclonal antibodies (H8 and H10) reduced its disease enhancing nature. This in vitro abrogation of disease-enhancement provides the proof of concept that in polyclonal sera the disease enhancing character of a fraction of antibodies is overshadowed by the protective nature of the rest of the antibodies generated on active immunization.

  19. Group A Streptococcus exploits human plasminogen for bacterial translocation across epithelial barrier via tricellular tight junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitomo, Tomoko; Nakata, Masanobu; Higashino, Miharu; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen responsible for local suppurative and life-threatening invasive systemic diseases. Interaction of GAS with human plasminogen (PLG) is a salient characteristic for promoting their systemic dissemination. In the present study, a serotype M28 strain was found predominantly localized in tricellular tight junctions of epithelial cells cultured in the presence of PLG. Several lines of evidence indicated that interaction of PLG with tricellulin, a major component of tricellular tight junctions, is crucial for bacterial localization. A site-directed mutagenesis approach revealed that lysine residues at positions 217 and 252 within the extracellular loop of tricellulin play important roles in PLG-binding activity. Additionally, we demonstrated that PLG functions as a molecular bridge between tricellulin and streptococcal surface enolase (SEN). The wild type strain efficiently translocated across the epithelial monolayer, accompanied by cleavage of transmembrane junctional proteins. In contrast, amino acid substitutions in the PLG-binding motif of SEN markedly compromised those activities. Notably, the interaction of PLG with SEN was dependent on PLG species specificity, which influenced the efficiency of bacterial penetration. Our findings provide insight into the mechanism by which GAS exploits host PLG for acceleration of bacterial invasion into deeper tissues via tricellular tight junctions. PMID:26822058

  20. [Rapid antigen detection tests for group A streptococcus in children with pharyngitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Levy, C; Chalumeau, M; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is the most frequently identified bacterium in children with acute pharyngitis. Clinical signs and symptoms cannot distinguish accurately between viral and GAS pharyngitis. Rapid antigen detection tests (RADTs) can identify GAS by an immunologic reaction within a few minutes. Compared to throat culture, most RADTs have a high specificity (around 95 %), allowing antibiotic prescribing on the basis of a positive RADT result. Similarly, the negative predictive value of RADTs seems sufficiently high (around 95 %) to ensure against the presence of GAS in case of a negative RADT result. Among several factors affecting RADT sensitivity, the training and expertise of the person performing the test and the quality of the throat swab specimen seem to be key determinants. Available evidence suggests that clinical prediction rules for the triage of children who should undergo GAS testing are not sufficiently accurate. Implementing RADTs into clinical practice has an important impact on antibiotic prescription rates, for a reduction of about 30 %. French guidelines that recommend using RADTs in all children above 3 years of age presenting with pharyngitis without backup culture of negative tests seem relevant in this context.

  1. Evolution of human G4P[8] group A rotavirus strains circulating in Italy in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Giovanni; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Lucia; Ruggeri, Franco M

    2015-06-02

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in young (humans worldwide are associated with the five major G/P combinations G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8] and G9P[8]. During RVA gastroenteritis surveillance in Italy, a total of 1112 samples collected from children hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis in 2013 were RVA positive and were genotyped following standardized protocols from the EuroRotaNet. Most strains analyzed belonged to the five major human genotypes. Among these common strains, 22 G4P[8] RVA strains from different Italian regions were subjected to nucleotide sequencing of their VP4, VP6, VP7 and NSP4 genes to investigate their evolution. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the Italian strains belonged to lineage G4-I for VP7 and to lineage P[8]-III for VP4, in line with the modern G4P[8] RVA strains detected in children worldwide. The phylogenetic trees revealed high degrees of nucleotide identity between the RVA strains involved in this study and G4P[8] strains detected previously in Europe, Asia and Africa, but also demonstrated at least three separate evolution clusters within the same lineage. Based on the amino acid sequences deduced for their hypervariable regions, both the VP7 and VP8* proteins of the Italian G4P[8] RVA strains presented amino acid substitutions near known neutralizing epitopes.

  2. Pretty Easy Pervasive Positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rene; Wind, Rico; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard;

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing availability of positioning based on GPS, Wi-Fi, and cellular technologies and the proliferation of mobile devices with GPS, Wi-Fi and cellular connectivity, ubiquitous positioning is becoming a reality. While offerings by companies such as Google, Skyhook, and Spotigo render...... positioning possible in outdoor settings, including urban environments with limited GPS coverage, they remain unable to offer accurate indoor positioning. We will demonstrate a software infrastructure that makes it easy for anybody to build support for accurate Wi-Fi based positioning in buildings. All...... that is needed is a building with Wi-Fi coverage, access to the building, a floor plan of the building, and a Wi-Fi enabled device. Specifically, we will explain the software infrastructure and the steps that must be completed to obtain support for positioning. And we will demonstrate the positioning obtained...

  3. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  4. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit W Maus

    Full Text Available Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer versus away from the target (appearing further. This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  5. Construction of a prokaryotic expression system of vacA gene and detection of vatA gene,VacA protein in Helicobacter pylori isolates and ant-VacA antibody in patients'sera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yan; Ya-Fei Mao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct a recombinant prokaryotic expression vector inserted with Helicobacter pylori vacA gene and identify the immunity of the expressed recombinant protein,and to determine prevalence of vacA-carryinglVacA expressing Hpyloriisolates and seroprevalence of specific ant-VacA antibody in H pyloriinfected patients.METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction technique was used to amplify complete vacA gene of H pyloristrain NCTC11637 and to detect vacA gene in 109 H pylori isolates. The amplification product of the complete vacA gene was sequenced after T-A cloning. A recombinant expression vector inserted with a complete vacA gene fragment, named as pET32a-vacA, was constructed. Expression of the target recombinant protein VacA (rVacA) was examined by SDSPAGE. Western blot using commercial antibodies against whole cell of H pyloriand an immunodiffusion assay using self-prepared rabbit anti-rVacA antibody were applied to determine immunoreaction and antigenicity of rVacA. Two ELISA methods were established to detect VacA expression in H pyloriisolates and the specific anti-VacA antibody in sera from 125 patients infected with H pylori.RESULTS: In comparison with the reported corresponding sequences, homologies of nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences of the cloned vacA gene were 99.82% and 100%, respectively. The constructed recombinant prokaryotic expression system efficiently produced rVacA. rVacA was able to combine with the commercial antibodies against whole cell of H pyloriand to induce the immunized rabbit to produce specific antibody with an immunodiffusion titer of 1:4. All tested H pyloriisolates carried vacA gene, but only 66.1% expressed Vac A protein. Of the serum samples tested,42.4% were positive for specific anti-VacA antibody.CONCLUSION: A prokaryotic expression system of H pylori vacA gene was successfully constructed. The expressed rVacA can be used to detect specific anti-VacA antibody in human and to prepare antiserum in animals. The high

  6. Positive criminology in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice.

  7. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide positivity in non-rheumatoid arthritis disease samples: citrulline-dependent or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, A; Cheung, K; Fusconi, M; Stammen-Vogelzangs, J; Drenth, J P H; Dall'Aglio, A C; Bianchi, F B; Bakker-Jonges, L E; van Venrooij, W J; Pruijn, G J M; Zendman, A J W

    2007-04-01

    Antibodies directed against citrullinated proteins (eg anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP)) have excellent diagnostic and good prognostic potential for rheumatoid arthritis. Type 1 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH-1) is a chronic liver disease characterised by a variety of serum autoantibodies. Recently, in a large group of patients with AIH-1 without clear rheumatoid arthritis overlap, a relatively high percentage (9%) of anti-CCP2 positivity was scored. To characterise the citrulline-dependence of the observed anti-CCP2 positivity in AIH-1 sera as well as in other groups of patients without rheumatoid arthritis (mainly rheumatic diseases). Serum samples of 57 patients with AIH-1 and 66 patients without rheumatoid arthritis, most of them reported as anti-CCP positive, were tested for citrulline-specific reactivity with a second generation anti-CCP kit, with the citrullinated and the corresponding non-citrullinated (arginine-containing) antigen. A subset of AIH-1 sera was also tested with a CCP1 ELISA (and arginine control). The anti-CCP2 reactivity of most non-rheumatoid arthritis rheumatic diseases samples (87-93%) was citrulline-specific, whereas a relatively high percentage of AIH-1 samples (42-50%) turned out to be reactive in a citrulline-independent manner. The use of citrullinated and non-citrullinated CCP1 peptides confirmed a high occurrence of citrulline-independent reactivity in AIH-1 samples. In rheumatoid arthritis and most non-rheumatoid arthritis rheumatologic disease sera, anti-CCP positivity is citrulline-dependent. However in some patients, particularly patients with AIH-1, citrulline-independent reactivity in the anti-CCP2 test can occur. A positive CCP test in a non-rheumatic disease (eg liver disease) should therefore be interpreted with care, and preferably followed by a control ELISA with a non-citrullinated antigen.

  8. Positioning magnetorheological actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, Valery; Bazinenkov, Alexey; Akimov, Igor [Bauman Moscow State Technical University, 2-nd Baumanskaia st. 5, MT-11, 105005, Moscow (Russian Federation); Borin, Dmitry [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, 01062, Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: mikhailov@bmstu.ru

    2009-02-01

    In this work we consider a construction of a positioning magnetorheological actuator based on bellow units, as well as dynamical model, which include such elements as a magnetically hysteresis, pressure loses in hydraulic system, nonlinearity of rheological behaviour of working fluid. Two operating modes of positioning actuator are taken into account and transients are presented. Dynamical modelling shows possibility for the improvement of a real control system and ensure of submicron precision of positioning with millisecond time of response.

  9. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-01-01

    Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in ...

  10. Reflection Positive Doubles

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffe, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Here we introduce reflection positive doubles, a general framework for reflection positivity, covering a wide variety of systems in statistical physics and quantum field theory. These systems may be bosonic, fermionic, or parafermionic in nature. Within the framework of reflection positive doubles, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for reflection positivity. We use a reflection-invariant cone to implement our construction. Our characterization allows for a direct interpretation in terms of coupling constants, making it easy to check in concrete situations. We illustrate our methods with numerous examples.

  11. [Distribution of IgG subclasses of TgAb and TPOAb in sera from patients with Graves' disease, Graves' disease plus Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyrotoxicosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shanshan; Yu, Nan; Gao, Ying; Huang, Wei; He, Yifan; Dong, Bin; Lu, Guizhi; Li, Maorong; Cai, Xiaopin; Peng, Dingqiong; Wang, Yunhong; Li, Ting; Huang, Youyuan; Gao, Yanming; Guo, Xiaohui; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-14

    To evaluate the distribution of IgG subclasses of TgAb and TPOAb in sera from patients with Graves' disease (GD), Graves' disease plus Hashimoto's thyroiditis (GH) and Hashimoto's thyrotoxicosis. Patients with GD (n = 33), GH (n = 31) or Hashimoto's thyrotoxicosis (n = 18) diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology at Department of Endocrinology of Peking University First Hospital, Beijing Haidian Hospital, China-Japan Friendship Hospital and Civil Aviation General Hospital during the period from January 2010 to May 2013 were enrolled. All of them had TgAb and TPOAb. The total serum IgG and IgG subclasses of TgAb and TPOAb were detected by antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The prevalence and relative amount of IgG subclasses were calculated and compared among three groups. The levels of TRAb in GD group (21.80(7.53, 40) U/L) were significantly higher than those in GH (7.30(3.10, 25.40) U/L) (P = 0.000) and Hashimoto's thyrotoxicosis groups (4.90(1.69, 16.43) U/L) (P = 0.003). And no significant differences were found in the levels of TgAb and TPOAb. The prevalence of TgAb IgG3 subclass in Hashimoto's thyrotoxicosis group (66.7%) was higher than GD group (35.5%) and GH group (36.4%) and the difference was close to significance (P = 0.066). There were significant differences of relative amount of TgAb IgG2 and TgAb IgG4 among three groups (P = 0.039 and 0.013), and GD patients had higher relative amounts of TgAb IgG2 (0.59(0.34, 0.94)) and TgAb IgG4 (0.57(0.28, 0.97)) than GH patients (TgAb IgG2, 0.31(0.23, 0.34); TgAb IgG4, 0.26(0.09, 0.48)) or patients with Hashimoto's thyrotoxicosis (TgAb IgG2, 0.32(0.24, 0.83); TgAb IgG4, 0.33(0.10, 0.65)) (for TgAb IgG2, P = 0.009 and 0.167; for TgAb IgG4, P = 0.005 and 0.041 respectively). No significant difference was found in the prevalence of each TPOAb IgG subclass. The difference of relative amount of TPOAb IgG2 among three groups was close to significance (P = 0.069). And the relative amount

  12. Influence of molecular weight of DNA on the determination of anti-DNA antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisert, M.; Heicke, B.; Metzmann, E.; Zahn, R.K.

    1975-04-01

    Using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) based on the Farr technique with radioactively labeled /sup 3/H-DNA for quantitative measurements of anti-DNA antibodies in sera of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the influence of molecular weight of DNA (ranging from 0.1 x 10/sup 6/ to 22.0 x 10/sup 6/ daltons) on binding and precipitation in this system has been investigated. Comparing our results with mathematical models it follows that one antibody molecule is fixed on the average to a statistical DNA segment of 2 x 10/sup 6/ to 4 x 10/sup 6/ daltons. Furthermore binding capacity of the DNA was found to be independent of the molecular weight, as demonstrated in a double label experiment using /sup 14/C and /sup 3/H-labeled DNA of different size. However, the amount of radioactivity precipitated was found to depend on the molecular weight of the labeled DNA following a non-linear function. It was calculated that a minimal ratio of fixed antibody molecules per a certain size of DNA was necessary for precipitation. The mathematical treatment of the observed non-linear precipitation dependence will be discussed using various statistical models. The results indicate that the quantitative measurements of anti-DNA antibodies with the Farr technique e.g., for diagnosis and control of SLE in clinical immunology is highly dependent on the molecular weight of the labeled DNA used in the assay system and reliable results are only obtained with DNA of a sufficiently high molecular weight. (auth)

  13. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Sonobe

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test. In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P < 0.0001. Titers of tetanus or diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection, or in guinea pigs for anti-diphtheria detection. Both assays were suitable for determining wide ranges of antitoxin levels. The linear regression plots showed high correlation coefficients for tetanus (r² = 0.95, P < 0.0001 and for diphtheria (r² = 0.93, P < 0.0001 between the in vitro and the in vivo assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels.

  14. Determination of low tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin titers in sera by a toxin neutralization assay and a modified toxin-binding inhibition test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonobe, M H; Trezena, A G; Guilhen, F B; Takano, V L; Fratelli, F; Sakauchi, D; Morais, J F; Prado, S M A; Higashi, H G

    2007-01-01

    A method for the screening of tetanus and diphtheria antibodies in serum using anatoxin (inactivated toxin) instead of toxin was developed as an alternative to the in vivo toxin neutralization assay based on the toxin-binding inhibition test (TOBI test). In this study, the serum titers (values between 1.0 and 19.5 IU) measured by a modified TOBI test (Modi-TOBI test) and toxin neutralization assays were correlated (P diphtheria antibodies were evaluated in serum samples from guinea pigs immunized with tetanus toxoid, diphtheria-tetanus or triple vaccine. For the Modi-TOBI test, after blocking the microtiter plates, standard tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin and different concentrations of guinea pig sera were incubated with the respective anatoxin. Twelve hours later, these samples were transferred to a plate previously coated with tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin to bind the remaining anatoxin. The anatoxin was then detected using a peroxidase-labeled tetanus or diphtheria antitoxin. Serum titers were calculated using a linear regression plot of the results for the corresponding standard antitoxin. For the toxin neutralization assay, L+/10/50 doses of either toxin combined with different concentrations of serum samples were inoculated into mice for anti-tetanus detection, or in guinea pigs for anti-diphtheria detection. Both assays were suitable for determining wide ranges of antitoxin levels. The linear regression plots showed high correlation coefficients for tetanus (r(2) = 0.95, P diphtheria (r(2) = 0.93, P assays. The standardized method is appropriate for evaluating titers of neutralizing antibodies, thus permitting the in vitro control of serum antitoxin levels.

  15. Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Self-Paired Sera of Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Responsive to Gefin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying HUANG

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective All the advanced NSCLC patients that received EGFR-TKI therapy will eventually relapse after a period of efficacy. The aim of this study is to investigate the serum biomarkers as potential predictive factors for the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI targeted therapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Methods Twenty self-paired serum samples were collected from 9 advanced NSCLC patients that evaluated as disease control (SD or PR after gefinitib therapy, at the time points of before and after gefinitib treatment but 2 weeks before being evaluated as disease progress. All samples were pre-separated by WCX microbeads, and then detected on the MALDI-TOF-MS platform of Bruker AutoflexTM. ClinProTools (Version: 2.1 was used to analyze the differentially expressed proteins. Results There were 7 protein peaks (m/z, 3242.09, 8 690.36, 2 952.64, 3 224.04, 1 450.51, 1 887.8 and 3 935.73 found statistically differentially expressed between the self-paired samples. Three proteins (3 242.09, 2 952.64 and 3 224.04 were down-regulated and four proteins (8 690.36, 1 450.51, 1 887.8 and 3 935.73 up-regulated in gefinitib treated sera. Conclusion The data here suggest that several specific protein peaks might indicate gefinitib resistance, yet the identities of these proteins and the mechanisms underlying the responsiveness to gefinitib treatment need further investigation.

  16. A prospective follow - up study on the HBV - infected cases with anti - HBs positive sera%抗-HBs阳性HBV感染者5年前瞻性随访观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄利华; 张英

    2007-01-01

    目的 观察乙肝表面抗体(抗-HBs)阳性HBV感染者5年疾病演变.方法 对62例抗-HBs阳性者检测5年前后血清乙肝病毒标志物(HBVM)、HBVDNA水平及观察临床演变.结果 5年后肝硬化、肝癌发生率分别11.3%、4.8%,死亡5例见于123、12阳性模式组,123、12、245阳性模式5年后仍有48.1%、66.7%、61.1%保持原模式不变,临床类型构成比有显著性差异,5年后抗-HBs和HBVDNA水平总趋势下降,123模式HBVDNA定量显著下降,12模式抗-HBs水平显著下降.结论 HBVDNA和血清抗-HBs水平高低是预示疾病转归的重要指标.

  17. An Inexpensive Position Transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Described is a position transducer used to convert the position of an object into a voltage read by a computer with use of an interface board. The arrangement of the apparatus, electronic circuit, and typical graph displays are presented. Discussed is the instructional use of the transducer. (YP)

  18. Den positive psykologis metoder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Frans Ørsted; Mørck, Line Lerche; Nissen, Poul Erik

    En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi.......En antologi der giver en introduktion til en række af de metoder der anvendes til forskning, assessment, test, udviklingsarbejde og intervention indenfor den positive psykologi....

  19. Use of "biokit HSV-2 Rapid Assay" to improve the positive predictive value of Focus HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich David

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Commercially available assays to detect antibodies to the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2-specific glycoprotein gG-2 have markedly improved serologic diagnosis of HSV-2 infection. However, even tests with high specificity can have low positive predictive values in low prevalence populations. HSV-2 is a chronic, life-long viral infection that requires both medical attention and potential alterations in health care strategy. As such, the concern for false positive diagnoses is high confirmatory testing is routine for other viral serologies such as HIV and hepatitis C. We evaluated such a strategy for HSV-2 serology by using an easily performed commercial test, biokitHSV-2 rapid test ("Biokit"; Biokit USA, Lexington MA as a confirmatory test for the widely used gG-2 specific serology ("Focus;" HerpeSelect HSV-2 ELISA; Focus Diagnostics, Cypress CA. Methods We tested 782 sera by Focus HSV-2 ELISA, Biokit, and the current gold standard test, Western blot (WB. Results The positive predictive value of the Focus HSV-2 ELISA increased from 80.5% to 95.6% when Biokit testing was performed on sera that were initially positive by Focus HSV-2 ELISA. Confirmatory testing increased the specificity markedly among sera with Focus EIA values between 1.1 and 3.5: only 35% of low positive (index values 1.1–3.5 Focus HSV-2 ELISA results confirmed as positive by Biokit and WB compared with 92% of those with index values >3.5. Mathematical modeling of the data resulted in expected positive predictive values over 98% for populations with antibody prevalences typical of clinical practices in the US and Europe. Conclusion Confirmatory Biokit testing of positive Focus HSV-2 ELISA results is fast, easy, and effective in reducing falsely positive HSV-2 antibody results. Patients, clinicians, and laboratories could benefit from the enhanced specificity of this simple HSV-2 serologic test combination.

  20. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H;

    1991-01-01

    not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  1. Statistics on Lie groups: A need to go beyond the pseudo-Riemannian framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miolane, Nina; Pennec, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Lie groups appear in many fields from Medical Imaging to Robotics. In Medical Imaging and particularly in Computational Anatomy, an organ's shape is often modeled as the deformation of a reference shape, in other words: as an element of a Lie group. In this framework, if one wants to model the variability of the human anatomy, e.g. in order to help diagnosis of diseases, one needs to perform statistics on Lie groups. A Lie group G is a manifold that carries an additional group structure. Statistics on Riemannian manifolds have been well studied with the pioneer work of Fréchet, Karcher and Kendall [1, 2, 3, 4] followed by others [5, 6, 7, 8, 9]. In order to use such a Riemannian structure for statistics on Lie groups, one needs to define a Riemannian metric that is compatible with the group structure, i.e a bi-invariant metric. However, it is well known that general Lie groups which cannot be decomposed into the direct product of compact and abelian groups do not admit a bi-invariant metric. One may wonder if removing the positivity of the metric, thus asking only for a bi-invariant pseudo-Riemannian metric, would be sufficient for most of the groups used in Computational Anatomy. In this paper, we provide an algorithmic procedure that constructs bi-invariant pseudo-metrics on a given Lie group G. The procedure relies on a classification theorem of Medina and Revoy. However in doing so, we prove that most Lie groups do not admit any bi-invariant (pseudo-) metric. We conclude that the (pseudo-) Riemannian setting is not the richest setting if one wants to perform statistics on Lie groups. One may have to rely on another framework, such as affine connection space.

  2. POSITIONING STRATEGIES DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhshir Ghassan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The positioning strategy has suffered serious changes in the last few decades, being influenced by the rapid development of competition and the growing focus on specific traits belonging to the market, to the consumer or to the product. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments of theoretical positioning strategies and the orientation from more simple, product oriented strategies, to ones more oriented towards the client and with a briefer period of time. The world is moving in a much faster pace than in the past, thanks to communication development so companies are obliged to adopt more specific strategies in order for them to be effective. This essay represents a literary review presenting a documentary research within the scientific articles and strategy and positioning books. The paper begins with the analysis of company strategies and the marketing strategies in general. The first author to group the product positioning strategies is Porter with his three generic strategies. Following the development of brands and because of the lack of competitiveness in the simple generic positioning strategies, this paper has also presented the newer positioning strategies proposed by Kotler, Treacy & Wiersema, and also more complex ones such as Bowman's Strategy Clock and Blankson and Kalafatis positioning strategy based on the type of the consumer. The fast expansion of local brands in all categories has led to mistakes in positioning strategies, categories also presented in the current essay. The results of this study show that new positioning strategies are more and more based on the consumer and market segments and on the product specification - which have also evolved in the last decades. Adaptability to fast changes in the competitive market will represent the future positioning strategies.

  3. Subclinical Sjögren's syndrome and anti-Ro/SSA-positive autoimmune fatigue syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Y; Imai, T; Fujino, O; Igarashi, T; Fukunaga, Y

    2002-09-01

    Abstract Although Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is quite rare among children, subclinical conditions without any sicca symptoms have been reported. This condition is characterized by nonspecific rheumatic symptoms and histopathological findings in salivary glands which are equivalent to SS. Many children with subclinical SS are positive for anti-Ro/SSA. On the other hand, autoimmune fatigue syndrome (AIFS) is characterized by chronic nonspecific complaints and positive antinuclear antibodies, with or without fulfilling the criteria for chronic fatigue syndrome. Although a novel autoantibody against a 62 kD nuclear protein (anti-Sa) is detected in about 40% of AIFS patients, few marker antibodies for autoimmune diseases, such as anti-DNA, anti-Sm, anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein (RNP), or anticardiolipin, are found in AIFS patients. In this study, however, anti-Ro/SSA was detected in sera from 8 out of 122 AIFS patients. Seven of the 8 anti-Ro/SSA-positive patients were female. All 8 patients had fatigue and low-grade fever, but none complained of xerosis. Western immunoblot analysis revealed that 7 sera reacted with Ro52, and that none was positive for anti-La/SSB or anti-Sa. Two of the 8 patients had histories of recurrent parotitis. Lip biopsies showed mild chronic inflammation compatible with subclinical SS in these 2 patients, although the other 6 patients had no abnormal histopathology. Thus, at least some anti-Ro/SSA-positive patients could be diagnosed as having SS.

  4. Initially unrecognised group A streptococcal pelvic inflammatory disease in a postmenopausal woman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouijzer, I.J.; Polderman, F.N.; Bekers, E.M.; Bloks, P.H.; Schneeberger, P.M.; Jager, C.P. de

    2014-01-01

    Invasive group A streptococcal infection is a severe disease with high mortality. Invasive group A streptococcal infection may arise after pelvic inflammatory disease. Pelvic inflammatory disease in postmenopausal women is rare. Here, we report a unique case of a postmenopausal woman with fatal

  5. Construction of prokaryotic expression system of 2 148-bp fragment from cagA gene and detection of cagA gene, CagA protein in Helicobacter pyloriisolates and its antibody in sera of patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yan; Yuan Wang; Shi-He Shao; Ya-Fei Mao; Hua-Wen Li; Yi-Hui Luo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To construct a prokaryotic expression system of a Helicobacter pylori ( H pylori) cagA gene fragment and establish enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for detecting CagA and its antibody, so as to understand the manner in which the infection of CagA-expressing H pylori (CagA+ H pylori) isolates cause diseases.METHODS: H pylori strains in gastric biopsy specimens from 156 patients with positive results in rapid urease test were isolated. PCR was used to detect the frequency of cagA gene in the 109 H pylori isolates and to amplify a 2 148-bp fragment (cagA1) of cagA gene from a clinical strain Y06. A prokaryotic expression system of cagA1 gene was constructed,and the expression of the target recombinant protein (rCagA1) was examined by SDS-PAGE. Western blotting and immunodiffusion assay were employed to determine the immunoreactivity and antigenicity of rCagA1, respectively.Two ELISAs were established to detect CagA expression in 109 H pylori isolates and the presence of CagA antibody in the corresponding patients′ sera, and the correlations between infection with CagA+ H pylori and gastritis as well as peptic ulcer were analyzed.RESULTS: Of all the clinical specimens obtained, 80.8%(126/156) were found to have H pylori isolates and 97.2%of the isolates (106/109) were positive for caaA gene. In comparison with the reported data, the cloned cagA1fragment possessed 94.83% and 93.30% homologies with the nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences,respectively. The output of rCagA1 produced by the constructed recombinant prokaryotic expression system was approximately 30% of the total bacterial protein, rCagA1was able to bind to the commercial antibody against the whole-cells of H pylori and to induce the immunized rabbits to produce antibody with an immunodiffusion titer of 1:4. A proportion as high as 92.6% of the H pylori isolates (101/109)expressed CagA and 88.1% of the patients′ serum samples (96/109) were CagA antibody-positive. The percentage of

  6. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...... that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...

  7. Clinical Positioning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Lars Peter Hedegaard; Christensen, Mette Krogh; Rytter, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of residents’ clinical experiences and communication in outpatient oncology consultations. We apply positioning theory, a dynamic alternative to role theory, to investigate how oncology residents and patients situate themselves as persons with rights...... establish acts and positions and narratively frame what participants can expect from a medical consultation viewed as a social episode; and (c) the positioning of rights and duties can lead to misunderstandings and frustrations. We conclude that residents and patients locate themselves in outpatient...

  8. Position Resolution in DROIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2008-04-01

    Since the very beginning, Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) were proposed to achieve both good position and energy resolutions. In DROIDs, the absorption of primary particle energy occurs in a long superconductive strip. Quasiparticles produced in the absorber diffuse along the strip and counted by the superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the two ends of the strip. In this paper the formula for estimation DROID’s position resolution from experimental data was derived. This formula takes into account correlation between fluctuations of signals of DROID’s detectors.

  9. Positional Concerns and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    that invoking envy or subjective well-being is not fully satisfying for regulating positional concerns. More compelling reasons seem, in complement with efficiency, to be related to considerations for equality. In other words, if institutions could have strong reasons to pay attention to and regulate positional...... their implications for economics, positional concerns imply important normative dimensions. There have been presumed to be a symptom of envy, reduce people’s happiness, and create problems of social interaction or economic inefficiencies. Individuals are, for instance, prone to pick states of the world that improve...

  10. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Positive thinking helps with stress management and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk ... with optimism is a key part of effective stress management. And effective stress management is associated with ...

  11. What controls nucleosome positions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Eran; Widom, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    The DNA of eukaryotic genomes is wrapped in nucleosomes, which strongly distort and occlude the DNA from access to most DNA-binding proteins. An understanding of the mechanisms that control nucleosome positioning along the DNA is thus essential to understanding the binding and action of proteins that carry out essential genetic functions. New genome-wide data on in vivo and in vitro nucleosome positioning greatly advance our understanding of several factors that can influence nucleosome positioning, including DNA sequence preferences, DNA methylation, histone variants and post-translational modifications, higher order chromatin structure, and the actions of transcription factors, chromatin remodelers and other DNA-binding proteins. We discuss how these factors function and ways in which they might be integrated into a unified framework that accounts for both the preservation of nucleosome positioning and the dynamic nucleosome repositioning that occur across biological conditions, cell types, developmental processes and disease.

  12. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  13. Positive emotions in education

    OpenAIRE

    Pekrun, Reinhard; Götz, Thomas; Titz, Wolfram; Perry, Raymond P.

    2002-01-01

    In this chapter, we focus on the student side of educational settings. More specifically, we give an overview of our research addressing students' academic emotions, that is, their emotions relating to learning, instruction, and achievement in academic settings associate with attending class, studying, and taking tests and exams. In so doing, we address the following problems in turn: (1) How frequently are positive emotions experienced by students at school and university, and which positive...

  14. Group A PP2Cs evolved in land plants as key regulators of intrinsic desiccation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kenji; Suzuki, Norihiro; Kuwamura, Mayuri; Nishikawa, Yuri; Nakatani, Mao; Ohtawa, Hitomi; Takezawa, Daisuke; Seki, Motoaki; Tanaka, Maho; Taji, Teruaki; Hayashi, Takahisa; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-01-01

    Vegetative desiccation tolerance is common in bryophytes, although this character has been lost in most vascular plants. The moss Physcomitrella patens survives complete desiccation if treated with abscisic acid (ABA). Group A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2C) are negative regulators of abscisic acid signalling. Here we show that the elimination of Group A PP2C is sufficient to ensure P. patens survival to full desiccation, without ABA treatment, although its growth is severely hindered. Microarray analysis shows that the Group A PP2C-regulated genes exclusively overlap with genes exhibiting a high level of ABA induction. Group A PP2C disruption weakly affects ABA-activated kinase activity, indicating Group A PP2C action downstream of these kinases in the moss. We propose that Group A PP2C emerged in land plants to repress desiccation tolerance mechanisms, possibly facilitating plants propagation on land, whereas ABA releases the intrinsic desiccation tolerance from Group A PP2C regulation.

  15. 不同新生牛血清对体外培养BHK-21细胞的影响%Effect of various types of newborn bovine sera on culture in vitro of BHK-21 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙招金; 陈柄企; 王玲; 叶贺佳; 童菊芸; 罗开健

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较不同新生牛血清对体外培养的BHK-21细胞的影响.方法 以不同厂家和同一厂家不同批次的共6种新生牛血清培养BHK-21细胞,观察细胞传代后在不同血清培养条件下的形态、增长倍数和细胞维持时间.结果 6号血清培养的细胞生长状态最好,增长倍数最高,维持细胞存活时间最长;3号血清培养效果次之;2号、4号和5号血清培养的细胞至第4天仍未长满单层;1号血清培养的细胞基本未生长.结论 不同厂家和同一厂家不同批次的新生牛血清对BHK-21细胞体外培养的效果存在差异.%Objective To compare the effect of various types of newborn bovine sera on culture in vitro of BHK-21 cells. Methods BHK-21 cells were cultured with six kinds of newborn bovine sera,manufactured by various manufacturers or of different batches manufactured by the same manufacturer,respectively,and observed for morphology,increased fold in quantity,and survival time after subculture. Results The cells cultured with serum No. 6 grew well,of which the increased fold in quantity was high and survival time was long as compared with those cultured with other newborn bovine sera. The culture efficacy of cells with serum No. 3 was only second to that with serum No.6. However,no monolayer was formed in the cells on day 4 after culture with sera No. 2,4 and 5,and little growth was observed in the cells cultured with serum No.l. Conclusion Significant differences were observed in culture efficacies of BHK-21 cells with newborn bovine sera manufactured by various manufacturers or of different batches manufactured by the same manufacturer.

  16. A novel bead-based assay to detect specific antibody responses against Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis simultaneously in sera of experimentally infected swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bokken Gertie CAM

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel, bead-based flow cytometric assay was developed for simultaneous determination of antibody responses against Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis in pig serum. This high throughput screening assay could be an alternative for well known indirect tests like ELISA. One of the advantages of a bead-based assay over ELISA is the possibility to determine multiple specific antibody responses per single sample run facilitated by a series of antigens coupled to identifiable bead-levels. Furthermore, inclusion of a non-coupled bead-level in the same run facilitates the determination of, and correction for non-specific binding. The performance of this bead-based assay was compared to one T. spiralis and three T. gondii ELISAs. For this purpose, sera from T. gondii and T. spiralis experimentally infected pigs were used. With the experimental infection status as gold standard, the area under the curve, Youden Index, sensitivity and specificity were determined through receiver operator curve analysis. Marginal homogeneity and inter-rater agreement between bead-based assay and ELISAs were evaluated using McNemar's Test and Cohen's kappa, respectively. Results Results indicated that the areas under the curve of the bead-based assay were 0.911 and 0.885 for T. gondii and T. spiralis, respectively, while that of the T. gondii ELISAs ranged between 0.837 and 0.930 and the T. spiralis ELISA was 0.879. Bead-based T. gondii assay had a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 96%, while the ELISAs ranged between 64-84% and 93-99%, respectively. The bead-based T. spiralis assay had a sensitivity of 68% and specificity of 100% while the ELISA scored 72% and 95%, respectively. Marginal homogeneity was found between the T. gondii bead-based test and one of the T. gondii ELISAs. Moreover, in this test combination and between T. spiralis bead-based assay and respective ELISA, an excellent inter-rater agreement was found. When results of

  17. Screening of the phage-display random peptide specific to the sera of patients with lung cancer%应用噬菌体随机肽库筛选肺癌血清标志物的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文辉; 苏丽菊; 杨桐树; 杨威; 钟志; 马玉杰; 孟晓燕; 徐宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective In order to screening the phage - display random 12 peptide specific to the lung cancer and explore early diagnosis, differential diagnosis and clinical treatment for lung cancer. Methods We sdected the serum of lung cancer patient,benign tumor and normal tumor,which was 35 case respectirely,Using the phage random 12 peptide library screening^ the lung cancer specific phage clones),we pooled these serum as a screening ligand. Then, the Dot - ELISA is used to identify the lung cancer specific phage clones reactive to sera of the lung cancer patients and normal controls individually. Results Total 12 of the phage - display random 12 peptide are obtained by phage peptide library screening and the Dot - ELISA identification. Mix of positive cloning respectively with the 12 cases of lung cancer patients and 12 cases of normal serum reaction and 12 cases of lung cancer patients serum all positive, normal serum all negative, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%. Conclusion Lung cancer - specific peptides were screened by phage random peptide library maybe used to diagnosis the lung cancer,and implementing early detection and early intervention has important theoretical significance and application value of lung cancer.%目的 利用噬菌体随机12肽库筛选肺癌患者血清中标志物,对探索肺癌的早期诊断、鉴别诊断、临床治疗特别是实施针对肺癌的早期干预有重要的理论意义和应用价值.方法 分别选取正常人、良性肿瘤患者及肺癌患者血清各35例,先用肺癌患者、良性肿瘤患者、正常人混合血清作为筛选配基,对噬菌体随机12肽库进行减性淘筛,获得肺癌血清特异性结合的噬菌体克隆,并用患者混合血清进行Dot-ELISA实验鉴定获得的噬菌体克隆,进而分别用肺癌患者及正常人血清各12例进一步鉴定阳性噬菌体的混合克隆,确定阳性噬菌体克隆与个体血清之间的结合情况.结果 经减性筛选后,特异结

  18. Local positioning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  19. Treatment outcomes of mandibular advancement devices in positional and non-positional OSA patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Woo; Enciso, Reyes; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Morgan, Todd D.; Westbrook, Philip R.; Clark, Glenn T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate treatment outcome of mandibular advancement devices (MADs) for positional and non-positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Study design Forty-two positional (supine apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 2x’s lateral AHI) and 30 non-positional (supine AHI < 2x’s lateral AHI) OSA patients performed two-nights of sleep study before and after insertion of MADs. Results The decreases in apnea severity based on a reduction in the overall and supine AHI values after MADs therapy were significantly greater for the positional OSA than non-positional OSA group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that decrease in overall AHI was significantly associated with being in the positional group (standardized coefficient=0.505). Age, body mass index, gender, and time in supine position during sleep did not show significant associations with decrease in overall AHI after MAD therapy. Conclusion Our data suggest that MADs are more effective in positional OSA than non-positional OSA patients. PMID:20299246

  20. Multi-reassortant G3P[3] group A rotavirus in a horseshoe bat in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Sasaki, Satoko; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Ishii, Akihiro; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Ito, Kimihito; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2016-10-01

    Group A rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhoea in humans, especially in young children. Bats also harbour group A rotaviruses, but the genetic backgrounds of bat rotavirus strains are usually distinct from those of human rotavirus strains. We identified a new strain of group A rotavirus in the intestinal contents of a horseshoe bat in Zambia. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the identified virus, named RVA/Bat-wt/ZMB/LUS12-14/2012/G3P[3], possessed the genotype constellation G3-P[3]-I3-R2-C2-M3-A9-N2-T3-E2-H3. Several genome segments of LUS12-14 were highly similar to those of group A rotaviruses identified from humans, cows and antelopes, indicating interspecies transmission of rotaviruses between bats and other mammals with possible multiple genomic reassortment events.

  1. Genetic Architecture of Group A Streptococcal Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections in the Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chella Krishnan, Karthickeyan; Mukundan, Santhosh; Alagarsamy, Jeyashree;

    2016-01-01

    Host genetic variations play an important role in several pathogenic diseases, and we have previously provided strong evidences that these genetic variations contribute significantly to differences in susceptibility and clinical outcomes of invasive Group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections, includi...

  2. 78 FR 61387 - Supermedia LLC, Publishing Operations Divison, Account Management Group, a Subsidiary of Dex...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Supermedia LLC, Publishing Operations Divison, Account Management..., Florida; Supermedia LLC, Publishing Operations Divison, Listing Management Group, a Subsidiary of Dex... Operation Division, Account Management Group, Internet Publishing Operations Group, and Listing...

  3. Erythromycin-resistant genes in group A β-haemolytic Streptococci in Chengdu, Southwestern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The management of Group A β-haemolytic Streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes or GAS infection include the use of penicillins, cephalosporins or macrolides for treatment. A general increase in macrolides resistance in GAS has been observed in recent years. Differences in rates of resistance to these agents have existed according to geographical location and investigators. Aims: To investigate the antibiotic pattern and erythromycin-resistant genes of GAS isolates associated with acute tonsillitis and scarlet fever in Chengdu, southwestern China. Settings and Design: To assess the macrolide resistance, phenotype, and genotypic characterization of GAS isolated from throat swabs of children suffering from different acute tonsillitis or scarlet fever between 2004 and 2011 in the city of Chengdu, located in the southwestern region of China. Materials and Methods: Minimal inhibitory concentration with seven antibiotics was performed on 127 GAS isolates. Resistance phenotypes of erythromycin-resistant GAS isolates were determined by the double-disk test. Their macrolide-resistant genes (mefA, ermB and ermTR were amplified by PCR. Results: A total of 98.4% (125/127 of the isolates exhibited resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G and cefotaxime. Moreover, 113 ermB-positive isolates demonstrating the cMLS phenotype of erythromycin resistance were predominant (90.4% and these isolates showed high-level resistance to both erythromycin and clindamycin (MIC 90 > 256 μg/ml; 12 (9.6% isolates demonstrating the MLS phenotype of erythromycin resistance carried the mefA gene, which showed low-level resistance to both erythromycin (MIC 90 = 8 μg/ml and clindamycin (MIC 90 = 0.5 μg/ml; and none of the isolates exhibited the M phenotype. Conclusions: The main phenotype is cMLS, and the ermB gene code is the main resistance mechanism against macrolides in GAS. Penicillin is the most beneficial

  4. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  5. A Two-Component Regulatory System Impacts Extracellular Membrane-Derived Vesicle Production in Group A Streptococcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Resch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Export of macromolecules via extracellular membrane-derived vesicles (MVs plays an important role in the biology of Gram-negative bacteria. Gram-positive bacteria have also recently been reported to produce MVs; however, the composition and mechanisms governing vesiculogenesis in Gram-positive bacteria remain undefined. Here, we describe MV production in the Gram-positive human pathogen group A streptococcus (GAS, the etiological agent of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. M1 serotype GAS isolates in culture exhibit MV structures both on the cell wall surface and in the near vicinity of bacterial cells. A comprehensive analysis of MV proteins identified both virulence-associated protein substrates of the general secretory pathway in addition to “anchorless surface proteins.” Characteristic differences in the contents, distributions, and fatty acid compositions of specific lipids between MVs and GAS cell membrane were also observed. Furthermore, deep RNA sequencing of vesicular RNAs revealed that GAS MVs contained differentially abundant RNA species relative to bacterial cellular RNA. MV production by GAS strains varied in a manner dependent on an intact two-component system, CovRS, with MV production negatively regulated by the system. Modulation of MV production through CovRS was found to be independent of both GAS cysteine protease SpeB and capsule biosynthesis. Our data provide an explanation for GAS secretion of macromolecules, including RNAs, lipids, and proteins, and illustrate a regulatory mechanism coordinating this secretory response.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of the human group A rotavirus in the Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jucélia Stadinicki dos Santos

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available From January/2000 to December/2003, 550 diarrheic fecal samples from the children and adults were collected in several geographical regions of Paraná State, Brazil. The enzyme immunoassay showed 120 (21.8% samples positive for the group A rotaviruses. One hundred and fourteen samples were genotyped by multiplex-nested-PCR assay. The highest frequency (77.5% of the positive samples (n=93 was observed in the children under 5 years old. Rotavirus diarrhea was more frequent in the cold and dry seasons of the four evaluated years. The most frequent genotypes were: G1 (50.9%, G4 (9.6%, G9 (7.0%, G2 (1.7%, G3 (0.9%, P[ 8] (71.9%, and P[ 4] (3.5%. The P[ 8] G1 (46.5% and P[ 8] G4 (9.6% were the main combinations found to P and G genotypes. The mixed infections, characterized by the rotaviruses with more than one genotype G or P, and nontypeable rotavirus were observed in 8.8, 3.5, and 16.7% of the samples, respectively. The identification of the G9 genotype in the rotavirus strains tested along the four years of studies ratifies the emergency of this genotype also in Paraná State, South region of Brazil, as the worldwide.No período de janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2003 foram colhidas, em várias regiões geográficas do Estado do Paraná, 550 amostras fecais de crianças e adultos com quadro clínico de diarréia aguda. Por meio de ensaio imunoenzimático comercial, 120 (21,8% amostras foram positivas para o rotavírus grupo A. Dessas, 114 amostras foram genotipadas por meio da multiplex-nested-PCR. A maior freqüência (77,5% de amostras positivas (n=93 foi observada em crianças menores de cinco anos de idade. A maior concentração de casos positivos para o rotavírus ocorreu nos meses frios e secos dos quatro anos avaliados. Os genotipos de maior ocorrência foram: G1 (50,9%, G4 (9,6%, G9 (7,0%, G2 (1,7%, G3 (0,9%, P[ 8] (71,9% e P[ 4] (3,5%. P[ 8] G1 (46,5% e P[ 8] G4 (9,6% foram as associações de genotipos P e G mais encontradas. Infec

  7. Positionality at the Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Vanner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As a Western feminist supporting and researching gender equality in education in postcolonial contexts, I often wonder: Am I doing more harm than good? The privilege of my social location means that my efforts to support education in postcolonial contexts risk being patronizing, insulting, threatening, imperialist, and recolonizing. Yet neglecting and ignoring postcolonial contexts similarly reflects and reproduces a privileged position. I provide a tentative framework designed to address positionality, power, and privilege while creating an ethical research process for working in a postcolonial context. Beginning with an identification of positionality, the objectives of research, and guiding theoretical frameworks to situate the research in relation to the participants and context, I proceed to establish a methodology designed to minimize the negative effects of power and maximize participants’ empowerment. I position myself as a bricoleur, layering feminist standpoint theory and postcolonial theory, and propose the collaborative data collection and analysis techniques, with particular attention to ethical and cultural sensitivity, using a social constructivist approach to grounded theory. This article highlights the need for Western researchers to reflect upon the power dynamics of their research in postcolonial contexts and develop a strategy for conducting empowering research that prevents the misrepresentation and exploitation of participants. Observations from my doctoral thesis data collection provide examples of how these concepts were operationalized in practice as well as reflections on the disconnect between theorizing and conducting ethical research in postcolonial contexts.

  8. Positioning for Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  9. Logotherapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar R. Oro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychology omitted to approach, during almost a century, the positive aspects from persons, like creativity, humor, optimism, hope, forgiveness, life meaning, and happiness. These themes are approached by Positive Psychology, with Seligman like the principal exponent. Psychology was dedicated to explore the negative aspects from human beings improving human health. Nevertheless, this pathogenic model could not prevent mental disease. Concepts of Positive Psychology have a solid antecedent in Víktor Frankl ́s studies, which is the Logotherapy founder. This allows incorporating another perspective to approach positive aspects, from a philosophical and anthropological focus. Although the ways adopted by Frank and Seligman are different, both considered main aspects of human existence. Nevertheless, they investigated in different countries (from Europe and EE.UU.; in different circumstances (concentration camps, deaths, tortures; vs. academic context; in different historical periods and different social contexts (a country that lost the war and other that gave freedom to Europeans. In this work is used the concept life sense as the focus in professional formation and psychotherapy approach. 

  10. Positioning Theory in Paradigms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-qiu

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of theory and paradigm to a researcher. It starts from introducing and analyzing the definition of the two terms, by using the theories in the field of intercultural communication as examples. To a good researcher, he needs not only clarifying the paradigm his research is positioned, but also integrating the theories in his paradigm.

  11. A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Richard A.

    This position paper covers possible problems of collective bargaining. (1) The two sides should not bring prejudgments of good or bad to the negotiating table. (2) Neither side should exaggerate its strength or minimize its weakness. (3) Neither side should confuse intransigence with firmness. (4) The composition of each team must be carefully…

  12. POSITIVE TO THE END

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    After serving at the United Nations (UN) for some 45 years, Secretary General Kofi Annan will leave his position at the end of the year. In a recent written interview with Beijing Review, the world's top diplomat discusses some past and present achievements of the UN, and hopes for the future.

  13. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  14. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...... for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  15. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H;

    1991-01-01

    for virus neutralization by the monoclonal antibody (MAb) AH16 directed against the blood group A epitope. MAb AH16 was previously shown to inhibit cell-free virus infection using HTLV-IIIB propagated in H9 cells. AH16 showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the HTLV-IIIB/lyA isolate but did...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can......Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...

  16. Group A rotavirus and norovirus display sharply distinct seasonal profiles in Belém, northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Several viruses have been associated with acute gastroenteritis (AGE, and group A rotavirus (RVA and nor-ovirus (NoV are the most prevalent. This study aimed to assess their prevalence among children hospitalised for diarrhoea during a three-year surveillance study. From May 2008-April 2011, overall positivity rates of 21.6% (628/2904 and 35.4% (171/483 were observed for RVA and NoV, respectively. The seasonality observed indicated distinct patterns when both viruses were compared. This finding may explain why hospitalisation for AGE remains constant throughout the year. Continuous AGE monitoring is needed to better assess the patterns of infection.

  17. Clinical Signiifcance of Detection of Cathepsin X and Cystatin C in the Sera of Patients with Lung Cancer%检测肺癌患者血清Cathepsin X及Cystatin C的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学德; 侯彦丽; 牛泽群; 李维; 孟夏; 张娜; 杨拴盈

    2013-01-01

    背景与目的组织蛋白酶X(Cathepsin X, Cat X)是最近发现的一种组织蛋白酶(Cathepsins, Cats)家族成员。近年来研究表明Cat X与多种恶性肿瘤发生、发展有关。本研究旨在探讨肺癌患者血清Cat X及cystatin C的表达与临床特征及预后的关系。方法采用ELISA法定量检测84例肺癌患者及36例健康对照者血清Cat X及cystatin C表达。结果肺癌患者血清Cat X和cystatin C水平明显高于健康人(P<0.01);Cat X水平与肺癌病理类型之间有相关的趋势(P=0.076)。血清cystatin C水平与肺癌TNM分期正相关(P=0.01),cystatin C/Cat X与淋巴结转移之间有相关趋势(P=0.058)。Cat X表达水平与肺癌患者总生存期(overall survival, OS)相关,高水平Cat X肺癌患者OS更短。Cox单因素回归示Cat X高表达以及TNM分期是影响肺癌预后独立因素,Cox多因素回归显示,仅TNM分期是患者预后的独立危险因素。结论肺癌患者中血清Cat X和cystatin C水平升高,检测肺癌患者Cat X和cystatin C血清水平对于指导临床肺癌诊断、评估预后有重要意义。%Background and objective Cathepsin X (Cat X) has been identiifed as a member of cathepsin family. Studies have shown that Cat X is involved in tumorigenesis and tumor development of various cancers. hTe aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the clinicopathological prognosis and the levels of Cat X and cystatin C in the serum of patients with lung cancer. Methods Blood samples were collected from 84 patients with lung cancer and 36 healthy control subjects. Cat X and cystatin C were determined by quantitative ELISA. Results Cat X and cystatin C levels were signiifcantly higher in the patients with lung cancer than that in the healthy control subjects (P<0.01). Cat X level was correlated with the pathological types of lung cancer (P=0.076). Cystatin C was positively correlated with TNM stage (P=0.01). Furthermore

  18. Enlargements of positive sets

    CERN Document Server

    Bot, Radu Ioan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the notion of enlargement of a positive set in SSD spaces. To a maximally positive set $A$ we associate a family of enlargements $\\E(A)$ and characterize the smallest and biggest element in this family with respect to the inclusion relation. We also emphasize the existence of a bijection between the subfamily of closed enlargements of $\\E(A)$ and the family of so-called representative functions of $A$. We show that the extremal elements of the latter family are two functions recently introduced and studied by Stephen Simons. In this way we extend to SSD spaces some former results given for monotone and maximally monotone sets in Banach spaces.

  19. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiang-Dong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is a common clinical disorder characterized by brief recurrent spells of vertigo often brought about by certain head position changes as may occur with looking up, turning over in bed, or straightening up after bending over. It is important to understand BPPV not only because it may avert expensive and often unnecessary testing, but also because treatment is rapid, easy, and effective in >90% of cases. The diagnosis of BPPV can be made based on the history and examination. Patients usually report episodes of spinning evoked by certain movements, such as lying back or getting out of bed, turning in bed, looking up, or straightening after bending over. At present, the generally accepted recurrence rate of BPPV after successful treatment is 40%-50% at 5 years of average follow-up. There does appear to be a subset of individuals prone to multiple recurrences.

  20. Mapping your competitive position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  1. Review of HRP Positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  2. Thought Positions in Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Thought Positions in Sculpture presents ten contemporary artists who have encountered the archive through the stories of their own art practice. The physical exhibition at Huddersfield Art Gallery refers to existing works of art from Leeds Museums and Galleries Sculpture Collection, archival material from the Henry Moore Institute, digitised archival material from the Tate Gallery, audio material from the British Library and other archival sites, some of which are inventions by the artist the...

  3. Matching Through Position Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Terence Johnson

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies how an intermediary should design two-sided matching markets when agents are privately informed about their quality as a partner and can make payments to the intermediary. Using a mechanism design approach, I derive sufficient conditions for assortative matching to be profit- or welfare-maximizing, and then show how to implement the optimal match and payments through two-sided position auctions. This sharpens our understanding of intermediated matching markets by clarifying...

  4. STUDY ON THE LEVEL OF NITRIC OXIDE IN SERA OF THE PATIENTS WITH HEPATIC ENCEPHALOPATHY%肝性脑病患者血清一氧化氮水平的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽华; 孙淑爱; 郭冬梅; 王淑娥; 岳凤娥; 赵丽; 马立宪

    2001-01-01

    观察一氧化氮(NO)水平与肝性脑病的关系。方法:确诊的肝性脑病30例,禁食蛋白质,空腹抽血,经重氮化反应法测量血清中的NO水平,与30例确诊的慢性肝炎血清中的NO水平比较;并比较不同时期患者血清中的NO水平。结果:①肝性脑病患者血清NO值为(105.9±29.5)μmol/L,慢性肝炎患者血清NO值为(67.5±18.9)μmol/L,两者相比有显著性差异(P<0.01);②肝性脑病昏睡期和昏迷期血清NO值为(122.1±25.3)μmol/L,较前驱期和昏迷前期患者血清NO值(87.4±22.6)μmol/L为高(P<0.01);③肝性脑病患者血清NO值与血氨值进行相关性分析无明显相关性。结论:肝性脑病患者血清NO值明显增高,并随着肝性脑病的严重程度加重而增加,提示NO水平增高可能是肝性脑病发病的有关因素之一。%To observe the relationship between nitric oxide and hepatic encephalopathy.Methods: Nitric oxide were detected by enzyme reduction assay from the sera of 30 cases of the patients with he patic encephalopathy and compared with that of chronic virus hepatitis. The level of nitric oxide in different peri ods of hepatic encephalopathy was compared, too. Results:(①The level of nitric oxide in sera of the patients with hepatic encephalopathy was (105.9±29.5)μmol/L, which was significantly different from those in sera of the patients with chronic virus hepatitis (67.5±18.3)μmol/L(P<0.01); ②Among the patients with hepatic encephalopathy the level of nitric oxide in sera of Lethargy and Coma periods was (122.1±25.3)μmol/L, which was higher than that of Prodromal and Precoma periods, (87.4±22.6)μmol/L(P<0.01) ;③In the sera of the patients with hepatic encephalopathy ,the degree of relationship of nitric oxide and ammonia levels were nearly zero correlation. Conclusion:Nitric oxide in sera of the patients with hepatic encephalopathy is higher than that of the patients with chronic virus hepatitis, and increases as

  5. Positional information, in bits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuis, Julien O; Tkacik, Gasper; Wieschaus, Eric F; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-10-08

    Cells in a developing embryo have no direct way of "measuring" their physical position. Through a variety of processes, however, the expression levels of multiple genes come to be correlated with position, and these expression levels thus form a code for "positional information." We show how to measure this information, in bits, using the gap genes in the Drosophila embryo as an example. Individual genes carry nearly two bits of information, twice as much as would be expected if the expression patterns consisted only of on/off domains separated by sharp boundaries. Taken together, four gap genes carry enough information to define a cell's location with an error bar of ~1 along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. This precision is nearly enough for each cell to have a unique identity, which is the maximum information the system can use, and is nearly constant along the length of the embryo. We argue that this constancy is a signature of optimality in the transmission of information from primary morphogen inputs to the output of the gap gene network.

  6. Quantum Positioning System

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, T B

    2004-01-01

    A quantum positioning system (QPS) is proposed that can provide a user with all four of his space-time coordinates. The user must carry a corner cube reflector, a good clock, and have a two-way classical channel of communication with the origin of the reference frame. Four pairs of entangled photons (biphotons) are sent through four interferometers: three interferometers are used to determine the user's spatial position, and an additional interferometer is used to synchronize the user's clock to coordinate time in the reference frame. The spatial positioning part of the QPS is similar to a classical time-of-arrival (TOA) system, however, a classical TOA system (such as GPS) must have synchronized clocks that keep coordinate time and therefore the clocks must have long-term stability, whereas in the QPS only a photon coincidence counter is needed and the clocks need only have short-term stability. Several scenarios are considered for a QPS: one is a terrestrial system and another is a space-based-system compos...

  7. [Epidemiology of invasive group A streptococcal infections in developed countries : the Canadian experience with necrotizing fasciitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovetchkine, Ph; Bidet, Ph; Minodier, Ph; Frère, J; Bingen, E

    2014-11-01

    In industrialized countries, group A streptococcal infections were a source of concern, mainly due to the occurrence of rheumatic fever and its cardiac complications. At present, the incidence of rheumatic fever is decreasing in these countries, giving way to an increasing occurrence of invasive streptococcal group A infections with high level of morbidity and mortality. Streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis, a specific entity, emerged these last decades, often in association with chickenpox. The introduction of the varicella vaccine in the province of Quebec routine immunization program, was followed by a significant decrease in the number of necrotizing fasciitis or other skin and soft-tissues infections in our pediatric population. However, in our experience at the CHU Sainte-Justine, this immunization program has not been helpful to reduce the overall incidence of invasive group A streptococcal infections. Conversely, an increase in the number of pleuro-pulmonary and osteo-articular infections was observed.

  8. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Three virus isolates HTLV-IIIB/lyA, HTLV-IIIB/lyB and HTLV-IIIB/lyO, obtained by passaging and propagating the HTLV-IIIB/H9 isolate in three separate cultures of mixed peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from donors of blood type A, B or O, respectively, were tested for susceptibility...... not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  9. [Research progress of real-time quantitative PCR method for group A rotavirus detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Qing; Li, Dan-Di; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2013-11-01

    Group A rotavirus is one of the most significant etiological agents which causes acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide. So far, several method which includes electron microscopy (EM), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)and Real-time Quantitative PCR has been established for the detection of rotavirus. Compared with other methods, Real-time quantitative PCR have advantages in specificity, sensitivity, genotyping and quantitative accuracy. This article shows a overview of the application of real-time quantitative PCR technique to detecte group A rotavirus.

  10. Virulence of Group A Streptococci Is Enhanced by Human Complement Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ermert, David; Shaughnessy, Jutamas; Joeris, Thorsten;

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement and c...... in studies of GAS pathogenesis and for developing vaccines and therapeutics that rely on human complement activation for efficacy.......Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an important human bacterial pathogen that can cause invasive infections. Once it colonizes its exclusively human host, GAS needs to surmount numerous innate immune defense mechanisms, including opsonization by complement...

  11. Position from gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  12. Long-term Administration of Alcohol in Rats: Effects on Glucagon and Insulin Levels in Sera During Pre-Pregnancy, Pregnancy and Lactation Periods

    OpenAIRE

    ZEYBEK, Birsen; TÜRKMEN, Gülhan

    2002-01-01

    The effects of long-term administration of ethyl alcohol on insulin and glucagon hormone levels during pregnancy and lactation periods of rats were investigated. Female wistar albinos, 200±20 g, were used in this study. The control group consisted of 15 rats, and the experimental group consist of 25 ethyl-alcohol-addicted rats. While 0.9% saline (with sucrose) was to the control group, a 5 g kg perday dose of 20% ethyl alcohol was given to the experimental group. Blood samples were taken fiv...

  13. Analysis of modern positioning systems, used for dynamic positioning purposes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article contains the detailed analysis of the modern position systems used for dynamic positioning basing on their expediency perspective. The accuracy issue related to determining vessel’s positions using dynamic positioning has been contemplated. The analysis included not only advantages but disadvantages of each determining position system as well summarizing the results for further consideration and possible application purposes. The accuracy of ship’s positioning using the dynamic p...

  14. [A postpartum woman with toxic shock syndrome: group A streptococcal infection, a much feared postpartum complication.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, K.; Kortekaas, J.C.; Buise, M.P.; Dokter, J.; Kuppens, S.M.; Hasaart, T.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The development of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) after an invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) infection in the postpartum period is a much feared complication. The mortality rate of TSS with necrotizing fasciitis is 30 to 50%. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present the case of a woman with atypical

  15. Identification and Characterization of Peptide Mimics of Blood Group A Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoming TANG; Lin WANG; Lihua HU; Yirong LI; Tianpen CUI; Juan XIONG; Lifang DOU

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate peptide mimics of carbohydrate blood group A antigen, a phage display 12-met peptide library was screened with a monoclonal antibody against blood group A antigen, NaM87-1F6. The antibody-binding properties of the selected phage peptides were evaluated by phage ELISA and phage capture assay. The peptides were co-expressed as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins. RBC agglutination inhibition assay was performed to assess the natural blood group A antigen-mimicking ability of the fusion proteins. The results showed that seven phage clones selected bound to NaM87-1F6 specifically, among which, 6 clones bore the same peptide sequence, EYWYCGMNRTGC and another harbored a different one QIWYERTLPFrF. The two peptides were successfully expressed at the N terminal of GST protein. Both of the fusion proteins inhibited the RBC agglutination mediated by anti-A serum in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggested that the fusion proteins based on the selected peptides could mimic the blood group A an- tigen and might be used as anti-A antibody-adsorbing materials when immunoabsorption was applied in ABO incompatible transplantation.

  16. OCCURRENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI CLONAL GROUP A IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolates of Escherichia coli belonging to clonal group A (CGA), a recently described disseminated cause of drug-resistant urinary tract infections in humans, were present in four of seven sewage effluents collected from geographically dispersed areas of the United States. ...

  17. Napa River Restoration Project: Oakville to Oak Knoll Reach, Group A Sites 21-23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Restoration Project: Oakville to Oak Knoll Reach, Group A Sites 21-23, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources

  18. Reassortment Group A Rotavirus from Straw-colored Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-12-02

    In this podcast, Dr. Mathew Esona of the Division of Viral Diseases at CDC describes the discovery of a unique Group A rotavirus isolated from fruit bats in Kenya.  Created: 12/2/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.   Date Released: 12/2/2010.

  19. OCCURRENCE OF ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT UROPATHOGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI CLONAL GROUP A IN WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolates of Escherichia coli belonging to clonal group A (CGA), a recently described disseminated cause of drug-resistant urinary tract infections in humans, were present in four of seven sewage effluents collected from geographically dispersed areas of the United States. ...

  20. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein loads as a separate factor onto DNA lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Rademakers (Suzanne); M. Volker (Marcel); D. Hoogstraten (Deborah); A.L. Nigg (Alex); M.J. Mone; A.A. van Zeeland (Albert); A.B. Houtsmuller (Adriaan); W. Vermeulen (Wim); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractNucleotide excision repair (NER) is the main DNA repair pathway in mammals for removal of UV-induced lesions. NER involves the concerted action of more than 25 polypeptides in a coordinated fashion. The xeroderma pigmentosum group A protein (XPA) has been suggested to function as a centr