WorldWideScience

Sample records for group response function

  1. Redundancy and response diversity of functional groups: implications for the resilience of coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Magnus

    2006-02-01

    To improve coral reef management, a deeper understanding of biodiversity across scales in the context of functional groups is required. The focus of this paper is on the role of diversity within functional groups in securing important ecosystem processes that contribute to the resilience of coral-dominated reef states. Two important components of species biodiversity that confer ecosystem resilience are analyzed: redundancy and the diversity of responses within functional groups to change. Three critical functional groups are used to illustrate the interaction between these two components and their role in coral reef resilience: zooxanthellae (symbiotic micro algae in reef-building corals), reef-building corals, and herbivores. The paper further examines the consequences of undermining functional redundancy and response diversity and addresses strategies to secure ecological processes that are critical for coral reef resilience.

  2. [Response of Phytoplankton Functional Groups to Eutrophication in Summer at Xiaoguan Reservoir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Li, Qiu-hua; Jiao, Shu-lin; Li, Yue; Xiao, Jing; Deng, Long; Sun, Rong-guo; Gao, Yong-chun; Luo, Lan

    2015-12-01

    Hydrology and Water Resources Bureau of Guizhou Province, Guiyang 550002, China) Abstract: In order to explore the distribution characteristics of phytoplankton functional groups, eutrophication characteristics and response of phytoplankton functional groups to eutrophication in Xiaoguan Reservoir, phytoplankton and water samples were taken once a week from 25th July 2014 to 27th September 2014. The results showed that there were 22 phytoplankton functional groups, groups S1, D, J, B, G, MP, L₀, SN, X1, Y, Xph, F, T and W1 were comparatively common functional groups, Wherein, S1, D and J were the dominant functional groups. Weekly dynamics of phytoplankton functional groups were: S1-->S1-->S1-->S1-->S1--S1-->S1-->J/D/S1-->Sl1- >/1D. group Sl1dominated over other groups, the cell abundance of S1 appeared two peaks at week 5 and week 7 respectively, but there was a slump at week 8, and rose again at last, compared to two peaks before, the cell abundance had dropped from 10⁸cells · L⁻¹ to 10⁷cells · L⁻¹ Water flush caused by discharge gate opening artificially was the main reason. Based on the three methods of eutrophication evaluation, the water was in moderately eutrophic and eutrophic states in Xiaoguan Reservoir in the summer of 2014. Multivariate analysis (RDA) indicated transparency was the main factor affecting the distribution of phytoplankton functional groups, and nutrients were no longer the limiting factor. The study suggested that phytoplankton functional groups could make a good response to eutrophication: groups S1 and J adapted to the turbid eutrophic water bodies, D adapted to shallow turbid waters and was sensitive to nutrient depletion. Also, common functional groups like G, X1, WW1 F etc. mostly adapted to eutrophic water bodies.

  3. Response of rotifer functional groups to changing trophic state and crustacean community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MANCA

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Information based on taxon-based indices is species-specific while information gained from function-based research can give a comprehensive view of ecosystem processes. We applied the guild-ratio, an index based on the proportion of functional groups of rotifers (i.e. microphagous and raptorial species, on a long-term data set of Lago Maggiore. By applying seasonal trend decomposition based on smoothing techniques and non-metrical multidimensional scaling, we assessed the response of rotifer functional groups to changes in trophic state and climate. While the taxon-based indices showed smooth changes, the function-based index showed a dramatic shift from a raptorial to a microphagous dominance, with a back-shift to raptorial dominance starting in 2000. The seasonal peak of microphagous and raptorial dry weight was clearly separated in the pre-eutrophication period. When mesotrophic conditions prevailed both peaks overlapped, only to be separated again with re-oligotrophication. We attributed these alterations of rotifer functional groups to changes in competition with crustacean zooplankton and to decreased phytoplankton algal abundance and size while altered seasonality in functional groups could be related to inter-group competition for food. We hypothesise that the effects of trophic state (i.e. altered phytoplankton and climate (i.e. altered cladoceran community were transferred across trophic levels to rotifer functional groups. Our study highlights that functional groups are valid instruments for illustrating unifying principles in ecology through a better understanding of ecosystem processes and the interrelationship between trophic levels.

  4. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. © 2015 The Authors Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Can ammonia tolerance amongst lichen functional groups be explained by physiological responses?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munzi, S.; Cruz, C.; Branquinho, C.; Pinho, P.; Leith, I.D.; Sheppard, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia (NH 3 ) empirical critical levels for Europe were re-evaluated in 2009, based mainly on the ecological responses of lichen communities without acknowledging the physiological differences between oligotrophic and nitrophytic species. Here, we compare a nitrogen sensitive lichen (Evernia prunastri) with a nitrogen tolerant one (Xanthoria parietina), focussing on their physiological response (Fv/Fm) to short-term NH 3 exposure and their frequency of occurrence along an NH 3 field gradient. Both frequency and Fv/Fm of E. prunastri decreased abruptly above 3 μg m −3 NH 3 suggesting direct adverse effects of NH 3 on its photosynthetic performance. By contrast, X. parietina increased its frequency with NH 3 , despite showing decreased capacity of photosystem II above 50 μg m −3 NH 3 , suggesting that the ecological success of X. parietina at ammonia-rich sites might be related to indirect effects of increased nitrogen (NH 3 ) availability. These results highlight the need to establish NH 3 critical levels based on oligotrophic lichen species. - Highlights: • Physiological response and ecological behavior were compared in two contrasting lichens. • NH 3 reduces Fv/Fm in both the N sensitive E. prunastri and the N tolerant X. parietina. • In the field frequency of occurrence correlated with NH 3 concentration. • NH 3 indirectly provides the nitrophytic X. parietina with ecological advantages. • Oligotrophs more accurately indicate increasing NH 3 concentrations than nitrophytes. - Physiological response to ammonia helps to explain lichen functional groups

  6. Assessing physiological responses of dune forest functional groups to changing water availability: from Tropics to Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Cristina; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Correia, Otília; Vieira, Simone; Cruz Diaz Barradas, Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria; Ramos, Margarida; João Pereira, Maria; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in water availability are important to vegetation as can produce dramatic changes in plant communities, on physiological performance or survival of plant species. Particularly, groundwater lowering and surface water diversions will affect vulnerable coastal dune forests, ecosystems particularly sensitive to groundwater limitation. Reduction of water tables can prevent the plants from having access to one of their key water sources and inevitably affect groundwater-dependent species. The additional impact of drought due to climatic change on groundwater-dependent ecosystems has become of increasing concern since it aggravates groundwater reduction impacts with consequent uncertainties about how vegetation will respond over the short and long term. Sand dune plant communities encompass a diverse number of species that differ widely in root depth, tolerance to drought and capacity to shift between seasonal varying water sources. Plant functional groups may be affected by water distribution and availability differently. The high ecological diversity of sand dune forests, characterized by sandy soils, well or poorly drained, poor in nutrients and with different levels of salinity, can occur in different climatic regions of the globe. Such is the case of Tropical, Meso-mediterranean and Mediterranean areas, where future climate change is predicted to change water availability. Analyses of the relative natural abundances of stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) have been used across a wide range of scales, contributing to our understanding of plant ecology and interactions. This approach can show important temporal and spatial changes in utilization of different water sources by vegetation. Accordingly, the core idea of this work is to evaluate, along a climatic gradient, the responses and capacity of different coastal plant communities to adapt to changing water availability. This large-climatic-scale study, covering Brazil, Portugal and

  7. Alpine plant functional group responses to fertiliser addition depend on abiotic regime and community composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onipchenko, V.G.; Makarov, M.I.; Akmetzhanova, A.A.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Aibazova, F.U.; Elkanova, M.K.; Stogova, A.V.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims: We ask how productivity responses of alpine plant communities to increased nutrient availability can be predicted from abiotic regime and initial functional type composition. Methods: We compared four Caucasian alpine plant communities (lichen heath, Festuca varia grassland,

  8. Hyphal responses of Neurospora crassa to micron-sized beads with functional chemical surface groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Marie; Edwards, Clive; Nicolau, Dan V.

    2011-02-01

    Filamentous fungi include serious plant and animal pathogens that explore their environment efficiently in order to penetrate the host. This environment is physically and chemically heterogeneous and the fungi rely on specific physical and chemical signals to find the optimal point/s of attack. This study presents a methodology to introduce distinct structures with dimensions similar to the hyphal diameter and specific chemical surface groups into a controllable environment in order to study the fungal response. We introduced 3.3 μm polystyrene beads covered with Epoxy surface groups into microfluidic channels made from PDMS by rapid replica molding. The experimental setup resulted in different areas with low and high densities of beads as well as densely packed patches. The observations of the fungus exploring the areas long-term showed that the growth parameters were altered significantly, compared with the values measured on agar. The fungus responded to both, the physical and chemical parameters of the beads, including temporary directional changes, increased branching angles, decreased branching distances, decreased apical extension velocities and occasional cell wall lysis. The wealth and magnitude of the observed responses indicates that the microfluidic structures provide a powerful platform for the investigation of micron-sized features on filamentous fungi.

  9. Board-invited review: Sensitivity and responses of functional groups to feed processing methods on a molecular basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Peiqiang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In complex feed structures, there exist main chemical functional groups which are associated with nutrient utilization and availability and functionality. Each functional group has unique molecular structure therefore produce unique molecular vibration spectral profile. Feed processing has been used to improve nutrient utilization for many years. However, to date, there was little study on processing-induced changes of feed intrinsic structure and functional groups on a molecular basis within intact tissue. This is because limited research technique is available to study inherent structure on a molecular basis. Recently bioanalytical techniques: such as Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy as well as Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform molecular spectroscopy have been developed. These techniques enable to detect molecular structure change within intact tissues. These techniques can prevent destruction or alteration of the intrinsic protein structures during processing for analysis. However, these techniques have not been used in animal feed and nutrition research. The objective of this review was show that with the advanced technique, sensitivity and responses of functional groups to feed processing on a molecular basis could be detected in my research team. These functional groups are highly associated with nutrient utilization in animals.

  10. Electronic and optical response of Ru(II) complexes functionalized by methyl, carboxylate groups: joint theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    New photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications have been recently proposed based on the hybrid Ru(II)-bipyridine-complex/semiconductor quantum dot systems. In order to attach the complex to the surface of a semiconductor, a linking bridge - a carboxyl group - is added to one or two of the 2,2{prime}-bipyridine ligands. Such changes in the ligand structure, indeed, affect electronic and optical properties and consequently, the charge transfer reactivity of Ru-systems. In this study, we apply both theoretical and experimental approaches to analyze the effects brought by functionalization of bipyridine ligands with the methyl, carboxyl, and carboxilate groups on the electronic structure and optical response of the Ru(II) bipyridine complex. First principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and linear response time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) are used to simulate the ground and excited-state structures of functionalized Ru-complexes in the gas phase, as well as in acetonitrile solution. In addition, an inelaborate Frenkel exciton model is used to explain the optical activity and splitting patterns of the low-energy excited states. All theoretical results nicely complement experimental absorption spectra of Ru-complexes and contribute to their interpretation. We found that the carboxyl group breaks the degeneracy of two low-energy optically bright excited states and red-shifts the absorption spectrum, while leaves ionization and affinity energies of complexes almost unchanged. Experimental studies show a high probability of deprotonation of the carbboxyl group in the Ru-complexes resulted in a slight blue shift and decrease of intensities of the low energy absorption peaks. Comparison of experimental and theoretical linear response spectra of deprotanated complexes demonstrate strong agreement when acetonitrile solvent is used in simulations. A polar solvent is found to play an important role in calculations of optical spectra: it

  11. Can ammonia tolerance amongst lichen functional groups be explained by physiological responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munzi, S; Cruz, C; Branquinho, C; Pinho, P; Leith, I D; Sheppard, L J

    2014-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) empirical critical levels for Europe were re-evaluated in 2009, based mainly on the ecological responses of lichen communities without acknowledging the physiological differences between oligotrophic and nitrophytic species. Here, we compare a nitrogen sensitive lichen (Evernia prunastri) with a nitrogen tolerant one (Xanthoria parietina), focussing on their physiological response (Fv/Fm) to short-term NH3 exposure and their frequency of occurrence along an NH3 field gradient. Both frequency and Fv/Fm of E. prunastri decreased abruptly above 3 μg m(-3) NH3 suggesting direct adverse effects of NH3 on its photosynthetic performance. By contrast, X. parietina increased its frequency with NH3, despite showing decreased capacity of photosystem II above 50 μg m(-3) NH3, suggesting that the ecological success of X. parietina at ammonia-rich sites might be related to indirect effects of increased nitrogen (NH3) availability. These results highlight the need to establish NH3 critical levels based on oligotrophic lichen species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Magnetic susceptibility of functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herr, T.; Ferraro, M.B.; Contreras, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Proceeding with a series of works where new criteria are applied to the the calculation of the contribution of molecular fragments to certain properties, results are presented for a group of 1-X-benzenes and 1-X-naphtalenes for the magnetic susceptibility constant. Both the diamagnetic and paramagnetic parts are taken into account. To reduce the problems associated with the Gauge dependence originated in the approximations made, Gauge independent atomic orbitals (GIAO) orbitals are used in the atomic orbital basis. Results are discussed in terms of functional groups. (Author). 17 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. GADRAS Detector Response Function.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Harding, Lee; Thoreson, Gregory G; Horne, Steven M.

    2014-11-01

    The Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) applies a Detector Response Function (DRF) to compute the output of gamma-ray and neutron detectors when they are exposed to radiation sources. The DRF is fundamental to the ability to perform forward calculations (i.e., computation of the response of a detector to a known source), as well as the ability to analyze spectra to deduce the types and quantities of radioactive material to which the detectors are exposed. This document describes how gamma-ray spectra are computed and the significance of response function parameters that define characteristics of particular detectors.

  14. Determination of Germination Response to Temperature and Water Potential for a Wide Range of Cover Crop Species and Related Functional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribouillois, Hélène; Dürr, Carolyne; Demilly, Didier; Wagner, Marie-Hélène; Justes, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A wide range of species can be sown as cover crops during fallow periods to provide various ecosystem services. Plant establishment is a key stage, especially when sowing occurs in summer with high soil temperatures and low water availability. The aim of this study was to determine the response of germination to temperature and water potential for diverse cover crop species. Based on these characteristics, we developed contrasting functional groups that group species with the same germination ability, which may be useful to adapt species choice to climatic sowing conditions. Germination of 36 different species from six botanical families was measured in the laboratory at eight temperatures ranging from 4.5-43°C and at four water potentials. Final germination percentages, germination rate, cardinal temperatures, base temperature and base water potential were calculated for each species. Optimal temperatures varied from 21.3-37.2°C, maximum temperatures at which the species could germinate varied from 27.7-43.0°C and base water potentials varied from -0.1 to -2.6 MPa. Most cover crops were adapted to summer sowing with a relatively high mean optimal temperature for germination, but some Fabaceae species were more sensitive to high temperatures. Species mainly from Poaceae and Brassicaceae were the most resistant to water deficit and germinated under a low base water potential. Species were classified, independent of family, according to their ability to germinate under a range of temperatures and according to their base water potential in order to group species by functional germination groups. These groups may help in choosing the most adapted cover crop species to sow based on climatic conditions in order to favor plant establishment and the services provided by cover crops during fallow periods. Our data can also be useful as germination parameters in crop models to simulate the emergence of cover crops under different pedoclimatic conditions and crop

  15. Elucidation of functional chemical groups responsible of compost phytotoxicity using solid-state13C NMR spectroscopy under different initial C/N ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Khalid; Faissal, Youssef; Soudi, Brahim; Perissol, Claude; Roussos, Sevastianos; Thami Alami, Imane

    2018-02-01

    More than 1 million tons of fresh organic wastes is produced in the Souss-Massa region in Morocco. Tomato organic residues represent more than 25% of the total organic wastes and are deposited in uncontrolled landfills. Thus, composting can represent a valuable and pertinent solution to this environmental problem. The objectives of this experiment are to identify the potential functional groups responsible for compost phytotoxicity and to determine the optimum initial carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) for maximum recovery of tomato residues. The experiment consisted of the variation of the initial C/N ratios (25, 30, 35, and 40) using mixtures of different raw materials (tomato residues, melon residues, olive mill pomace, and sheep manure). Physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity, C/N ratio, and humic acid/fulvic acid ratio) were determined and spectroscopic analyses (UV-vis and NMR- 13 C) were performed during the composting process along with quality parameters (germination and phytotoxicity tests) at the end. The results showed that the compost with the initial C/N ratio of 35 is the most humified with the least phytotoxic effect. The germination and phytotoxicity tests were negatively correlated with the methoxyl/N-alkyl-C ratio and O-alkyl-C. These two functional groups are probably the origin of phytotoxicity expression in compost quality tests. Thus, a simple and precise quality test could be performed to evaluate directly the phytotoxicity and maturity of compost.

  16. Introduction to the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopietz, Peter; Bartosch, Lorenz; Schuetz, Florian [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2010-07-01

    This book, based on a graduate course given by the authors, is a pedagogic and self-contained introduction to the renormalization group with special emphasis on the functional renormalization group. The functional renormalization group is a modern formulation of the Wilsonian renormalization group in terms of formally exact functional differential equations for generating functionals. In Part I the reader is introduced to the basic concepts of the renormalization group idea, requiring only basic knowledge of equilibrium statistical mechanics. More advanced methods, such as diagrammatic perturbation theory, are introduced step by step. Part II then gives a self-contained introduction to the functional renormalization group. After a careful definition of various types of generating functionals, the renormalization group flow equations for these functionals are derived. This procedure is shown to encompass the traditional method of the mode elimination steps of the Wilsonian renormalization group procedure. Then, approximate solutions of these flow equations using expansions in powers of irreducible vertices or in powers of derivatives are given. Finally, in Part III the exact hierarchy of functional renormalization group flow equations for the irreducible vertices is used to study various aspects of non-relativistic fermions, including the so-called BCS-BEC crossover, thereby making the link to contemporary research topics. (orig.)

  17. Zeta functions of groups and rings

    CERN Document Server

    Sautoy, Marcus du

    2008-01-01

    Zeta functions have been a powerful tool in mathematics over the last two centuries. This book considers a new class of non-commutative zeta functions which encode the structure of the subgroup lattice in infinite groups. The book explores the analytic behaviour of these functions together with an investigation of functional equations. Many important examples of zeta functions are calculated and recorded providing an important data base of explicit examples and methods for calculation.

  18. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  19. Dynamics of plant functional groups composition along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leaf/stem/fruit/total biomass of dominant and companion species in plant functional groups were calculated and the correlation between elevation and species biomass was analyzed. We showed that elevation was the most important environmental factor affecting the distribution pattern of biomass of plant functional groups ...

  20. Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P.

    2001-10-01

    Teaching functional groups to high school and college chemistry students is often accomplished by having students memorize the functional groups from a table. Using this approach, students typically forget what they have memorized shortly after the examination and fail to transfer the memorized material to other topics in chemistry such as nomenclature, VSEPR theory, and chemical reactions. This method is frustrating for both the teacher and the students. To facilitate the learning of functional groups and to avoid a strictly memorization approach, we developed a classification key based on discernible characteristics that students can identify and consequently key out. This key can be used by the teacher in a variety of ways: as an introduction, a review, or a homework assignment. The functional group classification key is well received by students and provides an engaging alternative for teachers to use when introducing functional groups to their classes.

  1. Functional invertebrate prey groups reflect dietary responses to phenology and farming activity and pest control services in three sympatric species of aerially foraging insectivorous birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Orłowski

    Full Text Available Farming activity severely impacts the invertebrate food resources of farmland birds, with direct mortality to populations of above-ground arthropods thorough mechanical damage during crop harvests. In this study we assessed the effects of phenological periods, including the timing of harvest, on the composition and biomass of prey consumed by three species of aerial insectivorous birds. Common Swifts Apus apus, Barn Swallows Hirundo rustica and House Martins Delichon urbica breed sympatrically and most of their diet is obtained from agricultural sources of invertebrate prey, especially from oil-seed rape crops. We categorized invertebrate prey into six functional groups, including oil-seed rape pests; pests of other arable crops; other crop-provisioned taxa; coprophilous taxa; and taxa living in non-crop and mixed crop/non-crop habitats. Seasonality impacted functional groups differently, but the general direction of change (increase/decrease of all groups was consistent as indexed by prey composition of the three aerial insectivores studied here. After the oil-seed rape crop harvest (mid July, all three species exhibited a dietary shift from oil-seed rape insect pests to other aerial invertebrate prey groups. However, Common Switfts also consumed a relative large quantity of oil-seed rape insect pests in the late summer (August, suggesting that they could reduce pest insect emigration beyond the host plant/crop. Since these aerially foraging insectivorous birds operate in specific conditions and feed on specific pest resources unavailable to foliage/ground foraging avian predators, our results suggest that in some crops like oil-seed rape cultivations, the potential integration of the insectivory of aerial foraging birds into pest management schemes might provide economic benefits. We advise further research into the origin of airborne insects and the role of aerial insectivores as agents of the biological control of crop insect pests

  2. Silsesquioxane nanoparticles with reactive internal functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozek, Eric M . [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry (United States); Washton, Nancy M.; Mueller, Karl T. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (United States); Zharov, Ilya, E-mail: i.zharov@utah.edu [University of Utah, Department of Chemistry (United States)

    2017-02-15

    A series of silsesquioxane nanoparticles containing reactive internal organic functionalities throughout the entire particle body have been synthesized using a surfactant-free method with organosilanes as the sole precursors and a base catalyst. The organic functional groups incorporated are vinyl, allyl, mercapto, cyanoethyl, and cyanopropyl groups. The sizes and morphologies of the particles were characterized using SEM and nitrogen adsorption, while the compositions were confirmed using TGA, FT-IR, solid state NMR, and elemental analysis. The accessibility and reactivity of the functional groups inside the particles were demonstrated by performing bromination and reduction reactions in the interior of the particles.

  3. Dynamics of plant functional groups composition along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    elevation) gradients in the typical area of Yi-Luo River. Using community ecology techniques, these researchers examined the influences of elevation factors on plant functional group dynamics and population interactions along.

  4. Computational functional group mapping for drug discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Guvench, Olgun

    2016-01-01

    Computational functional group mapping (cFGM) is emerging as a high-impact complement to existing widely used experimental and computational structure-based drug discovery methods. cFGM provides comprehensive atomic-resolution 3D maps of the affinity of functional groups that can constitute drug-like molecules for a given target, typically a protein. These 3D maps can be intuitively and interactively visualized by medicinal chemists to rapidly design synthetically accessible ligands. Given th...

  5. Discrete groups, Mumford curves and Theta functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, Marius van der

    1992-01-01

    A discrete group Γ given over some complete non archimedean valued field defines a curve X. The theta functions for Γ provide an analytic construction for the Jacobian variety of X. A theory of theta functions is developed with the help of currents on trees and graphs and the cohomology for Γ. In

  6. A statistical estimation approach for quantitative concentrations of compounds lacking authentic standards/surrogates based on linear correlations between directly measured detector responses and carbon number of different functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    A statistical approach was investigated to estimate the concentration of compounds lacking authentic standards/surrogates (CLASS). As a means to assess the reliability of this approach, the response factor (RF) of CLASS is derived by predictive equations based on a linear regression (LR) analysis between the actual RF (by external calibration) of 18 reference volatile organic compounds (VOCs) consisting of six original functional groups and their physicochemical parameters ((1) carbon number (CN), (2) molecular weight (MW), and (3) boiling point (BP)). If the experimental bias is estimated in terms of percent difference (PD) between the actual and projected RF, the least bias for 18 VOCs is found from CN (17.9 ± 19.0%). In contrast, the PD values against MW and BP are 40.6% and 81.5%, respectively. Predictive equations were hence derived via an LR analysis between the actual RF and CN for 29 groups: (1) one group consisting of all 18 reference VOCs, (2) three out of six original functional groups, and (3) 25 groups formed randomly from the six functional groups. The applicability of this method was tested by fitting these 29 equations into each of the six original functional groups. According to this approach, the mean PD for 18 compounds dropped as low as 5.60 ± 5.63%. This approach can thus be used as a practical tool to assess the quantitative data for CLASS.

  7. Computational functional group mapping for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvench, Olgun

    2016-12-01

    Computational functional group mapping (cFGM) is emerging as a high-impact complement to existing widely used experimental and computational structure-based drug discovery methods. cFGM provides comprehensive atomic-resolution 3D maps of the affinity of functional groups that can constitute drug-like molecules for a given target, typically a protein. These 3D maps can be intuitively and interactively visualized by medicinal chemists to rapidly design synthetically accessible ligands. Given that the maps can inform selection of functional groups for affinity, specificity, and pharmacokinetic properties, they are of utility for both the optimization of existing drug candidates and creating novel ones. Here, I review recent advances in cFGM with emphasis on the unique information content in the approach that offers the potential of broadly facilitating structure-based ligand design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interaction network among functional drug groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background More attention has been being paid to combinatorial effects of drugs to treat complex diseases or to avoid adverse combinations of drug cocktail. Although drug interaction information has been increasingly accumulated, a novel approach like network-based method is needed to analyse that information systematically and intuitively Results Beyond focussing on drug-drug interactions, we examined interactions between functional drug groups. In this work, functional drug groups were defined based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification System. We defined criteria whether two functional drug groups are related. Then we constructed the interaction network of drug groups. The resulting network provides intuitive interpretations. We further constructed another network based on interaction sharing ratio of the first network. Subsequent analysis of the networks showed that some features of drugs can be well described by this kind of interaction even for the case of structurally dissimilar drugs. Conclusion Our networks in this work provide intuitive insights into interactions among drug groups rather than those among single drugs. In addition, information on these interactions can be used as a useful source to describe mechanisms and features of drugs. PMID:24555875

  9. Functional renormalization group approach to neutron matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Drews

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The chiral nucleon-meson model, previously applied to systems with equal number of neutrons and protons, is extended to asymmetric nuclear matter. Fluctuations are included in the framework of the functional renormalization group. The equation of state for pure neutron matter is studied and compared to recent advanced many-body calculations. The chiral condensate in neutron matter is computed as a function of baryon density. It is found that, once fluctuations are incorporated, the chiral restoration transition for pure neutron matter is shifted to high densities, much beyond three times the density of normal nuclear matter.

  10. The Evolution of the Personnel Function in Capital Group (Case of Zywiec Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borkowska

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article constitutes a detailed case study on the evolution on the personnel function in Zywiec Group that followed from the restructuring of the member breweries of the capital group. It covers the process of integration of the Group and changes to the human resources management system. It also contains theoretical reflections upon the role of HR specialists in the process of the integration of the companies. The organization of the personnel function has been presented here against a period spanning 3 years of G activity (wider range of HR responsibility, increase in the number of specialists employed in HR, lower age, higher level of education.

  11. The response of macroinvertebrate community taxa and functional groups to pollution along a heavily impacted river in Central Europe (Bilina River, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orendt, C.; Wolfram, G.; Adámek, Zdeněk; Jurajda, Pavel; Schmitt-Jansen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2012), s. 180-199 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : community analysis * functional community * taxonomic community * multiple pollution * multi-stress * macroinvertebrates * Central Europe * lower mountain river * EU-WFD Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  12. Synthesis, radiometric determination of functional groups, complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Schmeide, K.; Heise, K.H.; Bernhard, G.; Nitsche, H.

    2000-01-01

    The interaction behavior of humic acids with uranium(VI) and the influence of humic substances on the migration behavior of uranium was investigated. A main focus of this work was the synthesis of four different humic acid model substances and their characterization and comparison to the natural humic acid from Aldrich. A radiometric method for the determination of humic acid functional groups was applied in addition to conventional methods for the determination of the functionality of humic acids. The humic acid model substances show functional and structural properties comparable to natural humic acids. Modified humic acids with blocked phenolic OH were synthesized to determine the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids. A synthesis method for 14 C-labeled humic acids with high specific activity was developed. The complexation behavior of synthetic and natural humic acids with uranium(VI) was investigated by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. The synthetic model substances show an interaction behavior with uranium(VI) that is comparable to natural humic acids. This points to the fact that the synthetic humic acids simulate the functionality of their natural analogues very well. For the first time the influence of phenolic OH groups on the complexation behavior of humic acids was investigated by applying a modified humic acid with blocked phenolic OH groups. The formation of a uranyl hydroxy humate complex was identified by laserspectroscopic investigations of the complexation of Aldrich humic acid with uranium(VI) at pH 7. The migration behavior of uranium in a sandy aquifer system rich is humic substances was investigated in column experiments. A part of uranium migrates non-retarded through the sediment, bound to humic colloids. The uranium migration behavior is strongly influenced by the kinetically controlled interaction processes of uranium with the humic colloids

  13. The galaxy luminosity function around groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R. E.; Padilla, N. D.; Galaz, G.; Infante, L.

    2005-11-01

    We present a study on the variations of the luminosity function of galaxies around clusters in a numerical simulation with semi-analytic galaxies, attempting to detect these variations in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We subdivide the simulation box into equal-density regions around clusters, which we assume can be achieved by selecting objects at a given normalized distance (r/rrms, where rrms is an estimate of the halo radius) from the group centre. The semi-analytic model predicts important variations in the luminosity function out to r/rrms~= 5. In brief, variations in the mass function of haloes around clusters (large dark matter haloes with M > 1012h-1Msolar) lead to cluster central regions that present a high abundance of bright galaxies (high M* values) as well as low-luminosity galaxies (high α) at r/rrms~= 3 there is a lack of bright galaxies, which shows the depletion of galaxies in the regions surrounding clusters (minimum in M* and α), and a tendency to constant luminosity function parameters at larger cluster-centric distances. We take into account the observational biases present in the real data by reproducing the peculiar velocity effect on the redshifts of galaxies in the simulation box, and also by producing mock catalogues. We find that excluding from the analysis galaxies which in projection are close to the centres of the groups provides results that are qualitatively consistent with the full simulation box results. When we apply this method to mock catalogues of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) and the 2PIGG catalogue of groups, we find that the variations in the luminosity function are almost completely erased by the Finger of God effect; only a lack of bright galaxies at r/rrms~= 3 can be marginally detected in the mock catalogues. The results from the real 2dFGRS data show a clearer detection of a dip in M* and α for r/rrms= 3, consistent with the semi-analytic predictions.

  14. Spectral functions and transport coefficients from the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripolt, Ralf-Arno

    2015-06-03

    In this thesis we present a new method to obtain real-time quantities like spectral functions and transport coefficients at finite temperature and density using the Functional Renormalization Group approach. Our non-perturbative method is thermodynamically consistent, symmetry preserving and based on an analytic continuation from imaginary to real time on the level of the flow equations. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by calculating mesonic spectral functions as well as the shear viscosity for the quark-meson model. In particular, results are presented for the pion and sigma spectral function at finite temperature and chemical potential, with a focus on the regime near the critical endpoint in the phase diagram of the quark-meson model. Moreover, the different time-like and space-like processes, which give rise to a complex structure of the spectral functions, are discussed. Finally, based on the momentum dependence of the spectral functions, we calculate the shear viscosity and the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio using the corresponding Green-Kubo formula.

  15. Multiloop functional renormalization group for general models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Fabian B.; von Delft, Jan

    2018-02-01

    We present multiloop flow equations in the functional renormalization group (fRG) framework for the four-point vertex and self-energy, formulated for a general fermionic many-body problem. This generalizes the previously introduced vertex flow [F. B. Kugler and J. von Delft, Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 057403 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.057403] and provides the necessary corrections to the self-energy flow in order to complete the derivative of all diagrams involved in the truncated fRG flow. Due to its iterative one-loop structure, the multiloop flow is well suited for numerical algorithms, enabling improvement of many fRG computations. We demonstrate its equivalence to a solution of the (first-order) parquet equations in conjunction with the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the self-energy.

  16. Functional renormalization group methods in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, J.

    2006-12-18

    We apply functional Renormalization Group methods to Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). First we calculate the mass shift for the pion in a finite volume in the framework of the quark-meson model. In particular, we investigate the importance of quark effects. As in lattice gauge theory, we find that the choice of quark boundary conditions has a noticeable effect on the pion mass shift in small volumes. A comparison of our results to chiral perturbation theory and lattice QCD suggests that lattice QCD has not yet reached volume sizes for which chiral perturbation theory can be applied to extrapolate lattice results for low-energy observables. Phase transitions in QCD at finite temperature and density are currently very actively researched. We study the chiral phase transition at finite temperature with two approaches. First, we compute the phase transition temperature in infinite and in finite volume with the quark-meson model. Though qualitatively correct, our results suggest that the model does not describe the dynamics of QCD near the finite-temperature phase boundary accurately. Second, we study the approach to chiral symmetry breaking in terms of quarks and gluons. We compute the running QCD coupling for all temperatures and scales. We use this result to determine quantitatively the phase boundary in the plane of temperature and number of quark flavors and find good agreement with lattice results. (orig.)

  17. 42 CFR 408.86 - Responsibilities under group billing arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Payment § 408.86 Responsibilities under group billing arrangement. (a) Enrollee responsibilities. (1) The enrollee is still responsible for premium payments; the group payer simply acts as his agent. If the agent... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities under group billing arrangement...

  18. Oxygen functional groups in graphitic carbon nitride for enhanced photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shizhen; Li, Degang; Sun, Hongqi; Ang, Ha Ming; Tadé, Moses O; Wang, Shaobin

    2016-04-15

    Metal-free semiconductors offer a new opportunity for environmental photocatalysis toward a potential breakthrough in high photo efficiency with complete prevention of metal leaching. In this study, graphitic carbon nitride (GCN) modified by oxygen functional groups was synthesized by a hydrothermal treatment of pristine GCN at different temperatures with H2O2. Insights into the emerging characteristics of the modified GCN in photocatalysis were obtained by determining the optical properties, band structure, electrochemical activity and pollutant degradation efficiency. It was found that the introduction of GCN with oxygen functional groups can enhance light absorption and accelerate electron transfer so as to improve the photocatalytic reaction efficiency. The photoinduced reactive radicals and the associated photodegradation were investigated by in situ electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The reactive radicals, O2(-) and OH, were responsible for organic degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, D; Yallop, M L; Memmott, J

    2015-06-10

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web.

  20. A minimalist functional group (MFG) approach for surrogate fuel formulation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Jameel, Abdul Gani

    2018-03-20

    . The present MFG approach supports existing literature demonstrating that key functional groups are responsible for the occurrence of complex combustion properties. The functional group approach offers a method of understanding the combustion properties of complex mixtures in a manner which is independent, yet complementary, to detailed chemical kinetic models. The MFG approach may be readily extended to formulate surrogates for other complex fuels.

  1. On the stability of Jensen's functional equation on groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    embedded into some group G such that the Jensen functional equation is stable on G. Keywords. Additive mapping ... direct product of groups; stability of functional equation, wreath product of groups. 1. Introduction ...... [3] Chung J K, Ebanks B R, Ng C T and Sahoo P K, On a quadratic-trigonometric functional equation and ...

  2. Sandwich Structures from Arbitrary Functions in Group Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hawthorn, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Functions between groups with the property that all function con- jugates are inverse preserving are called sandwich morphisms. These maps pre- serve a structure within the group known as the sandwich structure. Sandwich structures are left distributive idempotent left involutary magmas. These pro- vide a generalisation of groups which we call a sandwich. This paper explores sandwiches and their relationship to groups.

  3. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  4. Fermionic functional integrals and the renormalization group

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Joel; Trubowitz, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This book, written by well-known experts in the field, offers a concise summary of one of the latest and most significant developments in the theoretical analysis of quantum field theory. The renormalization group is the name given to a technique for analyzing the qualitative behavior of a class of physical systems by iterating a map on the vector space of interactions for the class. In a typical nonrigorous application of this technique, one assumes, based on one's physical intuition, that only a certain finite dimensional subspace (usually of dimension three or less) is important. The material in this book concerns a technique for justifying this approximation in a broad class of fermionic models used in condensed matter and high energy physics. This volume is based on the Aisenstadt Lectures given by Joel Feldman at the Centre de Recherches Mathematiques (Montreal, Canada). It is suitable for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in mathematical physics. Included are many problems and so...

  5. Pd(II)-Catalyzed C–H Functionalizations Directed by Distal Weakly Coordinating Functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Wan, Li; Zhang, Guofu; Leow, Dasheng; Spangler, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Ortho-C(sp2)–H olefination and acetoxylation of broadly useful synthetic building blocks phenylacetyl Weinreb amides, esters, and ketones are developed without installing an additional directing group. The interplay between the distal weak coordination and the ligand-acceleration is crucial for these reactions to proceed under mild conditions. The tolerance of longer distance between the target C–H bonds and the directing functional groups also allows for the functionalizations of more distal C–H bonds in hydrocinnamoyl ketones, Weinreb amides and biphenyl Weinreb amides. Mechanistically, the coordination of these carbonyl groups and the bisdentate amino acid ligand with Pd(II) centers provides further evidence for our early hypothesis that the carbonyl groups of the potassium carboxylate is responsible for the directed C–H activation of carboxylic acids. PMID:25768039

  6. Interference and quantization in semiclassical response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruenbaum, Scott M.; Loring, Roger F.

    2008-01-01

    Application of the Herman-Kluk semiclassical propagator to the calculation of spectroscopic response functions for anharmonic oscillators has demonstrated the quantitative accuracy of these approximate dynamics. In this approach, spectroscopic response functions are expressed as multiple phase-space integrals over pairs of classical trajectories and their associated stability matrices. Here we analyze the Herman-Kluk semiclassical approximation to a linear response function and determine the origin of the capacity of this method to reproduce quantum effects in a response function from classical dynamical information. Our analysis identifies those classical trajectories that contribute most significantly to the response function on different time scales. This finding motivates a procedure for computing the linear response function in which the interference between pairs of classical trajectories is treated approximately, resulting in an integral over a single average trajectory, as in a purely classical calculation

  7. Plant functional group classifications and a generalized hierarchical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plant functional group concept has been proven to be an excellent research framework for investigating the linkages between ecosystem functions and plant biodiversity. The large number of plant functional group classifications however makes it difficult to compare data from different studies and draw general ...

  8. Peer Tutoring and Response Groups. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Peer Tutoring and Response Groups" aims to improve the language and achievement of English language learners by pairing or grouping students to work on a task. The students may be grouped by age or ability (English-only, bilingual, or limited English proficient) or the groups may be mixed. Both peer tutoring pairs and peer response…

  9. Functional and structural responses to marine urbanisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Pinto, M.; Cole, V. J.; Johnston, E. L.; Bugnot, A.; Hurst, H.; Airoldi, L.; Glasby, T. M.; Dafforn, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas have broad ecological footprints with complex impacts on natural systems. In coastal areas, growing populations are advancing their urban footprint into the ocean through the construction of seawalls and other built infrastructure. While we have some understanding of how urbanisation might drive functional change in terrestrial ecosystems, coastal systems have been largely overlooked. This study is one of the first to directly assess how changes in diversity relate to changes in ecosystem properties and functions (e.g. productivity, filtration rates) of artificial and natural habitats in one of the largest urbanised estuaries in the world, Sydney Harbour. We complemented our surveys with an extensive literature search. We found large and important differences in the community structure and function between artificial and natural coastal habitats. However, differences in diversity and abundance of organisms do not necessarily match observed functional changes. The abundance and composition of important functional groups differed among habitats with rocky shores having 40% and 70% more grazers than seawalls or pilings, respectively. In contrast, scavengers were approximately 8 times more abundant on seawalls than on pilings or rocky shores and algae were more diverse on natural rocky shores and seawalls than on pilings. Our results confirm previous findings in the literature. Oysters were more abundant on pilings than on rocky shores, but were also smaller. Interestingly, these differences in oyster populations did not affect in situ filtration rates between habitats. Seawalls were the most invaded habitats while pilings supported greater secondary productivity than other habitats. This study highlights the complexity of the diversity-function relationship and responses to ocean sprawl in coastal systems. Importantly, we showed that functional properties should be considered independently from structural change if we are to design and manage artificial

  10. Plant functional group composition modifies the effects of precipitation change on grassland ecosystem function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Fry

    Full Text Available Temperate grassland ecosystems face a future of precipitation change, which can alter community composition and ecosystem functions through reduced soil moisture and waterlogging. There is evidence that functionally diverse plant communities contain a wider range of water use and resource capture strategies, resulting in greater resistance of ecosystem function to precipitation change. To investigate this interaction between composition and precipitation change we performed a field experiment for three years in successional grassland in southern England. This consisted of two treatments. The first, precipitation change, simulated end of century predictions, and consisted of a summer drought phase alongside winter rainfall addition. The second, functional group identity, divided the plant community into three groups based on their functional traits- broadly described as perennials, caespitose grasses and annuals- and removed these groups in a factorial design. Ecosystem functions related to C, N and water cycling were measured regularly. Effects of functional groupidentity were apparent, with the dominant trend being that process rates were higher under control conditions where a range of perennial species were present. E.g. litter decomposition rates were significantly higher in plots containing several perennial species, the group with the highest average leaf N content. Process rates were also very strongly affected by the precipitation change treatmentwhen perennial plant species were dominant, but not where the community contained a high abundance of annual species and caespitose grasses. This contrasting response could be attributable to differing rooting patterns (shallower structures under annual plants, and deeper roots under perennials and faster nutrient uptake in annuals compared to perennials. Our results indicate that precipitation change will have a smaller effect on key process rates in grasslandscontaining a range of perennial

  11. Item response theory at subject- and group-level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tobi, Hilde

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California

  12. On E-functions of semisimple Lie groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrivnak, JirI; Patera, JirI [Centre de Recherches Mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, C P 6128 - Centre Ville, Montreal, H3C 3J7 Quebec (Canada); Kashuba, Iryna, E-mail: patera@crm.umontreal.ca, E-mail: kashuba@ime.usp.br, E-mail: jiri.hrivnak@fjfi.cvut.cz [Departamento de Matematica, Instituto de Matematica e EstatIstica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1010, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-08-12

    We develop and describe continuous and discrete transforms of class functions on a compact semisimple, but not simple, Lie group G as their expansions into series of special functions that are invariant under the action of the even subgroup of the Weyl group of G. We distinguish two cases of even Weyl groups-one is the direct product of even Weyl groups of simple components of G and the second is the full even Weyl group of G. The problem is rather simple in two dimensions. It is much richer in dimensions greater than two-we describe in detail E-transforms of semisimple Lie groups of rank 3.

  13. An -OH group functionalized MOF for ratiometric Fe3+ sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Dong, Yingying; Wu, Yuhang; Ren, Wenjing; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Shunli; Gao, Junkuo

    2018-02-01

    Iron is one of the most important elements in the biochemical processes in all living system, both deficiency or excess of iron will lead to metabolism disorder diseases. However, Fe3+ is one of the most efficient fluorescence quenchers among the transition-metal ions because of its paramagnetic nature. The realization of Fe3+ ratiometric and self-calibrated fluorescent sensor is highly-challenging. We synthesized a novel luminescent -OH functionalized EuOHBDC (Eu2(OH-BDC)3, OH-BDC=2-hydroxyterephthalic acid) by hydrothermal reaction and in situ ligand synthesis, and used it as a rare ratiomatric luminescent sensor for Fe3+ ions. The -OH functional group facilitates both electron transfer and binding interaction between EuOHBDC and Fe3+, which lead to luminescent quenching of ligand-based emission while enhancement of a new peak emission, and thus enables ratiometric detection of Fe3+. The relative fluorescent intensity ratio (I375/I427) increased linearly with increasing Fe3+ concentration in the 10-50 μM range with 1.17 μM (65 ppb) detection limit. The EuOHBDC also shows excellent selectivity towards different metal ions, particularly can discriminate Fe3+ and Fe2+ through different luminescent responses. This result clearly demonstrates the superiority of -OH functionalized MOF for Fe3+ detection, which can contribute to develop high performance luminescent probe for detection of metal ions in environmental and biomedical applications.

  14. Fourier transforms of Dini-Lipschitz functions on Vilenkin groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Younis

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In [4] we proved some theorems on the Fourier Transforms of functions satisfying conditions related to the Dini-Lipschitz conditions on the n-dimensional Euclidean space Rn and the torus group Tn. In this paper we extend those theorems for functions with Fourier series on Vilenkin groups.

  15. Dynamics of environmental gradients on plant functional groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Importance values (IV) of every dominant and companion species in plant functional groups composition were calculated and the correlation between elevation and species IV was analyzed. We showed that elevation was the most important environmental factor affecting the distribution pattern of plant functional groups ...

  16. The effect of continuous grouping of pigs in large groups on stress response and haematological parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Birthe Marie; Studnitz, Merete; Jensen, Karin Hjelholt

    2009-01-01

    The consequences of an ‘all in-all out' static group of uniform age vs. a continuously dynamic group with litter introduction and exit every third week were examined with respect to stress response and haematological parameters in large groups of 60 pigs. The experiment included a total of 480 pigs...... from weaning at the age of 4 weeks to the age of 18 weeks after weaning. Limited differences were found in stress and haematological parameters between pigs in dynamic and static groups. The cortisol response to the stress test was increasing with the duration of the stress test in pigs from...... the dynamic group while it was decreasing in the static group. The health condition and the growth performance were reduced in the dynamic groups compared with the static groups. In the dynamic groups the haematological parameters indicated an activation of the immune system characterised by an increased...

  17. Computations of nuclear response functions with MACK-IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M A; Gohar, Y

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hybrids, and fission applications.

  18. MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.M.

    1978-03-15

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hydrids, and fission applications.

  19. MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV, and ENDF/B-IV, and is suitable for fusion, fusion--fission hybrids, and fission applications. 3 figures, 4 tables

  20. MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.M.

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hydrids, and fission applications

  1. Computations of nuclear response functions with MACK-IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Gohar, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The MACK computer program calculates energy pointwise and multigroup nuclear response functions from basic nuclear data in ENDF/B format. The new version of the program, MACK-IV, incorporates major developments and improvements aimed at maximizing the utilization of available nuclear data and ensuring energy conservation in nuclear heating calculations. A new library, MACKLIB-IV, of nuclear response functions was generated in the CTR energy group structure of 171 neutron groups and 36 gamma groups. The library was prepared using MACK-IV and ENDF/B-IV and is suitable for fusion, fusion-fission hybrids, and fission applications

  2. Sum rules in the response function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayanagi, Kazuo

    1990-01-01

    Sum rules in the response function method are studied in detail. A sum rule can be obtained theoretically by integrating the imaginary part of the response function over the excitation energy with a corresponding energy weight. Generally, the response function is calculated perturbatively in terms of the residual interaction, and the expansion can be described by diagrammatic methods. In this paper, we present a classification of the diagrams so as to clarify which diagram has what contribution to which sum rule. This will allow us to get insight into the contributions to the sum rules of all the processes expressed by Goldstone diagrams. (orig.)

  3. Influence of functional groups on charge transport in molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Jones, Glenn; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2008-01-01

    Using density functional theory (DFT), we analyze the influence of five classes of functional groups, as exemplified by NO2, OCH3, CH3, CCl3, and I, on the transport properties of a 1,4-benzenedithiolate (BDT) and 1,4-benzenediamine (BDA) molecular junction with gold electrodes. Our analysis...... demonstrates how ideas from functional group chemistry may be used to engineer a molecule's transport properties, as was shown experimentally and using a semiempirical model for BDA [Nano Lett. 7, 502 (2007)]. In particular, we show that the qualitative change in conductance due to a given functional group can...... be predicted from its known electronic effect (whether it is sigma/pi donating/withdrawing). However, the influence of functional groups on a molecule's conductance is very weak, as was also found in the BDA experiments. The calculated DFT conductances for the BDA species are five times larger than...

  4. Combining vibrational biomolecular spectroscopy with chemometric techniques for the study of response and sensitivity of molecular structures/functional groups mainly related to lipid biopolymer to various processing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Gloria Qingyu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-09-01

    The objectives of this project were to (1) combine vibrational spectroscopy with chemometric multivariate techniques to determine the effect of processing applications on molecular structural changes of lipid biopolymer that mainly related to functional groups in green- and yellow-type Crop Development Centre (CDC) pea varieties [CDC strike (green-type) vs. CDC meadow (yellow-type)] that occurred during various processing applications; (2) relatively quantify the effect of processing applications on the antisymmetric CH3 ("CH3as") and CH2 ("CH2as") (ca. 2960 and 2923 cm(-1), respectively), symmetric CH3 ("CH3s") and CH2 ("CH2s") (ca. 2873 and 2954 cm(-1), respectively) functional groups and carbonyl C=O ester (ca. 1745 cm(-1)) spectral intensities as well as their ratios of antisymmetric CH3 to antisymmetric CH2 (ratio of CH3as to CH2as), ratios of symmetric CH3 to symmetric CH2 (ratio of CH3s to CH2s), and ratios of carbonyl C=O ester peak area to total CH peak area (ratio of C=O ester to CH); and (3) illustrate non-invasive techniques to detect the sensitivity of individual molecular functional group to the various processing applications in the recently developed different types of pea varieties. The hypothesis of this research was that processing applications modified the molecular structure profiles in the processed products as opposed to original unprocessed pea seeds. The results showed that the different processing methods had different impacts on lipid molecular functional groups. Different lipid functional groups had different sensitivity to various heat processing applications. These changes were detected by advanced molecular spectroscopy with chemometric techniques which may be highly related to lipid utilization and availability. The multivariate molecular spectral analyses, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis of original spectra (without spectral parameterization) are unable to fully distinguish the structural differences in the

  5. Investigating the LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Melissa; Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of the LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work, a trans-theoretical supervisory framework to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) persons (Goodrich & Luke, 2011). Findings partially supported applicability of the LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision…

  6. Coping responses as predictors of psychosocial functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory and the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Form. The prevalence of the use of Avoidance and Approach Coping, and the relationship between these responses and psychosocial functioning (Pain Severity, Interference, Support, Life Control, and Affective Distress) were ...

  7. The LGBTQ Responsive Model for Supervision of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Although supervision of group work has been linked to the development of multicultural and social justice competencies, there are no models for supervision of group work specifically designed to address the needs of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) persons. This manuscript presents the LGBTQ Responsive Model for…

  8. Correlation functions from a unified variational principle: Trial Lie groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balian, R., E-mail: roger.balian@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Vénéroni, M. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, Université Paris-Sud and IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2015-11-15

    Time-dependent expectation values and correlation functions for many-body quantum systems are evaluated by means of a unified variational principle. It optimizes a generating functional depending on sources associated with the observables of interest. It is built by imposing through Lagrange multipliers constraints that account for the initial state (at equilibrium or off equilibrium) and for the backward Heisenberg evolution of the observables. The trial objects are respectively akin to a density operator and to an operator involving the observables of interest and the sources. We work out here the case where trial spaces constitute Lie groups. This choice reduces the original degrees of freedom to those of the underlying Lie algebra, consisting of simple observables; the resulting objects are labeled by the indices of a basis of this algebra. Explicit results are obtained by expanding in powers of the sources. Zeroth and first orders provide thermodynamic quantities and expectation values in the form of mean-field approximations, with dynamical equations having a classical Lie–Poisson structure. At second order, the variational expression for two-time correlation functions separates–as does its exact counterpart–the approximate dynamics of the observables from the approximate correlations in the initial state. Two building blocks are involved: (i) a commutation matrix which stems from the structure constants of the Lie algebra; and (ii) the second-derivative matrix of a free-energy function. The diagonalization of both matrices, required for practical calculations, is worked out, in a way analogous to the standard RPA. The ensuing structure of the variational formulae is the same as for a system of non-interacting bosons (or of harmonic oscillators) plus, at non-zero temperature, classical Gaussian variables. This property is explained by mapping the original Lie algebra onto a simpler Lie algebra. The results, valid for any trial Lie group, fulfill

  9. ESTIMATION OF IMPULSE RESPONSE FUNCTION BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The method proves stable in both numerical and statistical sense. There was no instability observed up to 80 input variables. KEY WORDS: Iterative multiple regression, impulse response function, error square contribution, time series analysis, transfer function model. Global Jnl of Mathematical Sciences Vol. 3(1) 2004: 47- ...

  10. Chief Business Officers' Functions: Responsibilities and Importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Richard A.; Vogler, Daniel E.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on a survey of 177 chief business officers of public community colleges regarding their responsibilities and the importance they assigned to various role functions. Highlights findings concerning the perceived importance of fiscal/financial duties; endowments as a job function; role in shared planning; and personal attention given to…

  11. Radiological emergency response - a functional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, P.

    1998-01-01

    The state of Louisiana's radiological emergency response programme is based on the federal guidance 'Criteria for Preparation and Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plans and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants' (NUREG-0654, FEMA-REP-1 Rev. 1). Over the past 14 years, the planning and implementation of response capabilities became more organized and efficient; the training programme has strengthened considerably; co-ordination with all participating agencies has assumed a more co-operative role, and as a result, a fairly well integrated response planning has evolved. Recently, a more 'functional' approach is being adopted to maximize the programme's efficiency not only for nuclear power plant emergency response, but radiological emergency response as a whole. First, several broad-based 'components' are identified; clusters of 'nodes' are generated for each component; these 'nodes' may be divided into 'sub-nodes' which will contain some 'attributes'; 'relational bonds' among the 'attributes' will exist. When executed, the process begins and continues with the 'nodes' assuming a functional and dynamic role based on the nature and characteristics of the 'attributes'. The typical response based on stand-alone elements is thus eliminated, the overlapping of functions is avoided, and a well structured and efficient organization is produced, that is essential for today's complex nature of emergency response. (author)

  12. Plant functional group classifications and a generalized hierarchical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... 1Institute of Ecological Science and Technology, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475001, China. 2College of Life ... Key words: Plant functional traits, relationship, biodiversity, plant functional groups, ecosystem process. INTRODUCTION .... satory interactions among major components at both species and PFG ...

  13. Statistical exponential distribution function as distance indicator to stellar groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rahman, H.; Sabry, M. A.; Issa, I. A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, statistical distribution functions are developed for distance determination of stellar groups. This method depends on the assumption that, absolute magnitudes and apparent magnitudes follow an exponential distribution function. The developed approaches have been implemented to determine distances of some clusters and stellar associations. The comparison with the distances derived by different authors revealed good agreement.

  14. Executive function in different groups of university students

    OpenAIRE

    Prosen, Simona; Smrtnik Vitulić, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyses the executive function (EF) skills of 369 students of primary education (n = 116), preschool education (n = 72), social pedagogy (n = 54), and biology (n = 128). It explores how the different groups of students use selected executive skills and whether there are any differences between the groups in this respect. Eleven EF skills were self-assessed using the Executive Skills Questionnaire for Students (Dawson & Guare, 2010). All of the groups of students experien...

  15. Response Surface Modeling Using Multivariate Orthogonal Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; DeLoach, Richard

    2001-01-01

    A nonlinear modeling technique was used to characterize response surfaces for non-dimensional longitudinal aerodynamic force and moment coefficients, based on wind tunnel data from a commercial jet transport model. Data were collected using two experimental procedures - one based on modem design of experiments (MDOE), and one using a classical one factor at a time (OFAT) approach. The nonlinear modeling technique used multivariate orthogonal functions generated from the independent variable data as modeling functions in a least squares context to characterize the response surfaces. Model terms were selected automatically using a prediction error metric. Prediction error bounds computed from the modeling data alone were found to be- a good measure of actual prediction error for prediction points within the inference space. Root-mean-square model fit error and prediction error were less than 4 percent of the mean response value in all cases. Efficacy and prediction performance of the response surface models identified from both MDOE and OFAT experiments were investigated.

  16. Functional groups in a semideciduous seasonal forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Santiago Vale

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n2p45   This study was carried out in a semideciduous forest in Southeastern Brazil. Five ecological attributes were used to define the functional groups: dominant stratum of the species, light demand of the plant, seed dispersal, likely pollinator, and deciduousness. The groups were formed through a species matrix and its attributes, and they were delimited according to the Jaccard similarity coefficient and a dendrogram generated by the group average (UPGMA. The analysis used was satisfactory, indicating the formation of four coherent groups with distinct functions both with regard to the community and the ecosystem. The results indicate a tree community in a late successional stage, with relations between flora and fauna species.

  17. Response predictions using the observed autocorrelation function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik Dam; H. Brodtkorb, Astrid; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2018-01-01

    -induced response in study. Thus, predicted (future) values ahead of time for a given time history recording are computed through a mathematical combination of the sample autocorrelation function and previous measurements recorded just prior to the moment of action. Importantly, the procedure does not need input...

  18. NaI(Tl) response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M.; Benites R, J. L.; De Leon M, H. A.

    2015-09-01

    The response functions of a NaI(Tl) detector have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV). Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. The responses were used to calculate the efficiency functions in term of photon energy. Commonly, sources used for calibration are point-like, and eventually sources to be measured have different features. In order to use the calibrated sources corrections due to solid angle, self-absorption and scattering, must be carried out. However, some of these corrections are not easy to perform. In this work, the calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency of point-like sources, and sources distributed in Portland type cement. Samples of Portland paste were prepared and were exposed to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linac. Some of the elements in the cement were activated producing γ-emitting radionuclides that were measured with a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, that was calibrated with point-like sources. In order to determine the specific activity in the induced radioisotopes calculated efficiencies were used to make corrections due to the differences between the solid angle, photon absorption and photon scattering in the point-like calibration sources and the sources distributed in cement. During the interaction between photoneutrons and the cement samples three radioisotopes were induced: 56 Mn, 24 Na, and 28 Al. (Author)

  19. Functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Baoli, E-mail: ptoubaoli@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Simulation of Ministry of Education, Hunan Province College Key Laboratory of QSAR/QSPR, Xiangtan 411201 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Duxin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Qingquan; Zhou, Zhihua; Liao, Bo [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Simulation of Ministry of Education, Hunan Province College Key Laboratory of QSAR/QSPR, Xiangtan 411201 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle chemistry, and may promote their many potential applications such as in polymer composites and coatings. This paper describes a facile method to prepare functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle with highly reactive isocyanate groups on its surface, via the reaction between toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate (TDI) and hydroxyl on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surface. The main effect factors on the reaction of TiO{sub 2} with TDI were studied by determining the reaction extent of hydroxyl groups on TiO{sub 2} surface. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed that reactive isocyanate groups were covalently attached to the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surface. The dispersion of the TDI-functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Owing to the TDI molecules covalently bonded on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle surface, it was established that the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in toluene, thus indicating that this functionalization method can prevent TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle from agglomerating. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle was functionalized with toluene-2, 4-diisocyanate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle can be uniformly dispersed in xylene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Compatibility of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle and organic solvent is significantly improved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiO{sub 2} containing isocyanate groups can extend the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticle chemistry.

  20. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  1. Dynamics of environmental gradients on plant functional groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... the northern slope of the Fu-Niu Mountain Nature Reserve. Using community ecology techniques, these researchers examined the influences of elevation on plant functional group (PFG) dynamics and population interactions at elevations between 855 and 1920 m on the northern slope of the Fu-Niu.

  2. Group delay functions and its applications in speech technology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fourier transform phase; group delay functions; feature extraction from phase; feature switching; mutual information; K-L divergence. 1. Introduction. Speech is the output of a quasistationary process, since the characteristics of speech change con- tinuously with time. As the ear perceives frequencies to understand sound, ...

  3. Testing for difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Chen, Andrew C. N.; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We describe a meta-analytic method that tests for the difference between two groups of functional neuroimaging experiments. We use kernel density estimation in three-dimensional brain space to convert points representing focal brain activations into a voxel-based representation. We find the maximum...

  4. Pelagic functional group modeling: Progress, challenges and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Raleigh R.; Laws, Edward A.; Armstrong, Robert A.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carlson, Craig A.; Chai, Fei; Doney, Scott C.; Falkowski, Paul G.; Feely, Richard A.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Landry, Michael R.; Keith Moore, J.; Nelson, David M.; Richardson, Tammi L.; Salihoglu, Baris; Schartau, Markus; Toole, Dierdre A.; Wiggert, Jerry D.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art and major challenges in current efforts to incorporate biogeochemical functional groups into models that can be applied on basin-wide and global scales, with an emphasis on models that might ultimately be used to predict how biogeochemical cycles in the ocean will respond to global warming. We define the term "biogeochemical functional group" to refer to groups of organisms that mediate specific chemical reactions in the ocean. Thus, according to this definition, "functional groups" have no phylogenetic meaning—these are composed of many different species with common biogeochemical functions. Substantial progress has been made in the last decade toward quantifying the rates of these various functions and understanding the factors that control them. For some of these groups, we have developed fairly sophisticated models that incorporate this understanding, e.g. for diazotrophs (e.g. Trichodesmium), silica producers (diatoms) and calcifiers (e.g. coccolithophorids and specifically Emiliania huxleyi). However, current representations of nitrogen fixation and calcification are incomplete, i.e., based primarily upon models of Trichodesmium and E. huxleyi, respectively, and many important functional groups have not yet been considered in open-ocean biogeochemical models. Progress has been made over the last decade in efforts to simulate dimethylsulfide (DMS) production and cycling (i.e., by dinoflagellates and prymnesiophytes) and denitrification, but these efforts are still in their infancy, and many significant problems remain. One obvious gap is that virtually all functional group modeling efforts have focused on autotrophic microbes, while higher trophic levels have been completely ignored. It appears that in some cases (e.g., calcification), incorporating higher trophic levels may be essential not only for representing a particular biogeochemical reaction, but also for modeling export. Another serious problem is our

  5. Direct quantification of negatively charged functional groups on membrane surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Tiraferri, Alberto

    2012-02-01

    Surface charge plays an important role in membrane-based separations of particulates, macromolecules, and dissolved ionic species. In this study, we present two experimental methods to determine the concentration of negatively charged functional groups at the surface of dense polymeric membranes. Both techniques consist of associating the membrane surface moieties with chemical probes, followed by quantification of the bound probes. Uranyl acetate and toluidine blue O dye, which interact with the membrane functional groups via complexation and electrostatic interaction, respectively, were used as probes. The amount of associated probes was quantified using liquid scintillation counting for uranium atoms and visible light spectroscopy for the toluidine blue dye. The techniques were validated using self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols with known amounts of charged moieties. The surface density of negatively charged functional groups of hand-cast thin-film composite polyamide membranes, as well as commercial cellulose triacetate and polyamide membranes, was quantified under various conditions. Using both techniques, we measured a negatively charged functional group density of 20-30nm -2 for the hand-cast thin-film composite membranes. The ionization behavior of the membrane functional groups, determined from measurements with toluidine blue at varying pH, was consistent with published data for thin-film composite polyamide membranes. Similarly, the measured charge densities on commercial membranes were in general agreement with previous investigations. The relative simplicity of the two methods makes them a useful tool for quantifying the surface charge concentration of a variety of surfaces, including separation membranes. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Function-specific response to depletion of microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Hannes; Beier, Sara; Bertilsson, Stefan; Lindström, Eva S; Langenheder, Silke; Tranvik, Lars J

    2011-02-01

    Recent meta-analyses suggest that ecosystem functioning increases with biodiversity, but contradictory results have been presented for some microbial functions. Moreover, observations of only one function underestimate the functional role of diversity because of species-specific trade-offs in the ability to carry out different functions. We examined multiple functions in batch cultures of natural freshwater bacterial communities with different richness, achieved by a dilution-to-extinction approach. Community composition was assessed by molecular fingerprinting of 16S rRNA and chitinase genes, representing the total community and a trait characteristic for a functional group, respectively. Richness was positively related to abundance and biomass, negatively correlated to cell volumes and unrelated to maximum intrinsic growth rate. The response of chitin and cellulose degradation rates depended on the presence of a single phylotype. We suggest that species identity and community composition rather than richness matters for specific microbial processes.

  7. A Functional Model of the Aesthetic Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In a process of somatic evolution, the brain semi-randomly generates initially-unstable neural circuits that are selectively stabilized if they succeed in making sense out of raw sensory input. The human aesthetic response serves the function of stabilizing the circuits that successfully mediate perception and interpretation, making those faculties more agile, conferring selective advantage. It is triggered by structures in art and nature that provoke the making of sense. Art is deliberate human action aimed at triggering the aesthetic response in others; thus, if successful, it serves the same function of making perception and interpretation more agile. These few principles initiate a cascade of emergent phenomena which account for many observed qualities of aesthetics, including universality and idiosyncrasy of taste, the relevance of artists’ intentions, the virtues of openness and resonance, the dysfunction of formulaic art, and the fact that methods of art correspond to modes of perceptual transformation.

  8. Optical response from functionalized atomically thin nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malic, Ermin; Berghaeuser, Gunnar; Feierabend, Maja [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Knorr, Andreas [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    Chemical functionalization of atomically thin nanostructures presents a promising strategy to create new hybrid nanomaterials with remarkable and externally controllable properties. Here, we review our research in the field of theoretical modeling of carbon nanotubes, graphene, and transition metal dichalcogenides located in molecular dipole fields. In particular, we provide a microscopic view on the change of the optical response of these technologically promising nanomaterials due to the presence of photo-active spiropyran molecules. The feature article presents a review of recent theoretical work providing microscopic view on the optical response of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes, graphene, and monolayered transition metal dichalcogenides. In particular, we propose a novel sensor mechanism based on the molecule-induced activation of dark excitons. This results in a pronounced additional peak presenting an unambiguous optical fingerprint for the attached molecules. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. NaI(Tl) response functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega C, H. R.; Ortiz R, J. M. [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Benites R, J. L. [Centro Estatal de Cancerologia de Nayarit, Calz. de la Cruz 118 Sur, Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); De Leon M, H. A., E-mail: fermineutron@yahoo.com.mx [Instituto Tecnologico de Aguascalientes, Av. Adolfo Lopez Mateos 1801 Ote., 20155 Aguascalientes, Ags. (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    The response functions of a NaI(Tl) detector have been estimated using Monte Carlo methods. Response functions were calculated for monoenergetic photon sources (0.05 to 3 MeV). Responses were calculated for point-like sources and for sources distributed in Portland cement cylinders. The responses were used to calculate the efficiency functions in term of photon energy. Commonly, sources used for calibration are point-like, and eventually sources to be measured have different features. In order to use the calibrated sources corrections due to solid angle, self-absorption and scattering, must be carried out. However, some of these corrections are not easy to perform. In this work, the calculated responses were used to estimate the detector efficiency of point-like sources, and sources distributed in Portland type cement. Samples of Portland paste were prepared and were exposed to photoneutrons produced by a 15 MV linac. Some of the elements in the cement were activated producing γ-emitting radionuclides that were measured with a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer, that was calibrated with point-like sources. In order to determine the specific activity in the induced radioisotopes calculated efficiencies were used to make corrections due to the differences between the solid angle, photon absorption and photon scattering in the point-like calibration sources and the sources distributed in cement. During the interaction between photoneutrons and the cement samples three radioisotopes were induced: {sup 56}Mn, {sup 24}Na, and {sup 28}Al. (Author)

  10. Ant functional responses along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Cerdá, Xim; Retana, Javier

    2014-11-01

    Understanding species distributions and diversity gradients is a central challenge in ecology and requires prior knowledge of the functional traits mediating species' survival under particular environmental conditions. While the functional ecology of plants has been reasonably well explored, much less is known about that of animals. Ants are among the most diverse, abundant and ecologically significant organisms on earth, and they perform a great variety of ecological functions. In this study, we analyse how the functional species traits present in ant communities vary along broad gradients in climate, productivity and vegetation type in the south-western Mediterranean. To this end, we compiled one of the largest animal databases to date: it contains information on 211 local ant communities (including eight climate variables, productivity, and vegetation type) and 124 ant species, for which 10 functional traits are described. We used traits that characterize different dimensions of the ant functional niche with respect to morphology, life history and behaviour at both individual and colony level. We calculated two complementary functional trait community indices ('trait average' and 'trait dissimilarity') for each trait, and we analysed how they varied along the three different gradients using generalized least squares models that accounted for spatial autocorrelation. Our results show that productivity, vegetation type and, to a lesser extent, each climate variable per se might play an important role in shaping the occurrence of functional species traits in ant communities. Among the climate variables, temperature and precipitation seasonality had a much higher influence on functional responses than their mean values, whose effects were almost lacking. Our results suggest that strong relationships might exist between the abiotic environment and the distribution of functional traits among south-western Mediterranean ant communities. This finding indicates that

  11. Evolution of Functional Groups during Pyrolysis Oil Upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovikj, Filip [Department; Tran, Chi-Cong [Department; Kaliaguine, Serge [Department; Olarte, Mariefel V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Garcia-Perez, Manuel [Department

    2017-07-14

    In this paper, we examine the evolution of functional groups (carbonyl, carboxyl, phenol, and hydroxyl) during stabilization at 100–200 °C of two typical wood derived pyrolysis oils from BTG and Amaron in a batch reactor over Ru/C catalyst for 4h. An aqueous and an oily phase were obtained. The content of functional groups in both phases were analyzed by GC/MS, 31P-NMR, 1H-NMR, elemental analysis, KF titration, carbonyl groups by Faix, Folin – Ciocalteu method and UV-Fluorescence. The consumption of hydrogen was between 0.007 and 0.016 g/g oil, and 0.001-0.020 g of CH4/g of oil, 0.005-0.016 g of CO2/g oil and 0.03-0.10 g H2O/g oil were formed. The content of carbonyl, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups in the volatile GC-MS detectable fraction decreased (80, 65, and ~70% respectively), while their behavior in the total oil and hence in the non-volatile fraction was more complex. The carbonyl groups initially decreased having minimum at ~125-150°C and then increased, while the hydroxyl groups had reversed trend. This might be explained by initial hydrogenation of the carbonyl groups to form hydroxyls, followed by continued dehydration reactions at higher temperatures that may increase their content. The 31P-NMR was on the limit of its sensitivity for the carboxylic groups to precisely detect changes in the non-volatile fraction, however the more precise titration method showed that the concentration of carboxylic groups in the non-volatile fraction remains constant with increased stabilization temperature. The UV-Fluorescence results show that repolymerization increases with temperature. ATR-FTIR method coupled with deconvolution of the region between 1490 and 1850 cm-1 showed to be a good tool for following the changes in carbonyl groups and phenols of the stabilized pyrolysis oils. The deconvolution of the IR bands around 1050 and 1260 cm-1 correlated very well with the changes in the 31P-NMR silent O groups (likely ethers). Most of the H2O formation could be

  12. Exotic species enhance response diversity to land-use change but modify functional composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavert, Jamie R; Pattemore, David E; Gaskett, Anne C; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Bartomeus, Ignasi

    2017-08-16

    Two main mechanisms may buffer ecosystem functions despite biodiversity loss. First, multiple species could share similar ecological roles, thus providing functional redundancy. Second, species may respond differently to environmental change (response diversity). However, ecosystem function would be best protected when functionally redundant species also show response diversity. This linkage has not been studied directly, so we investigated whether native and exotic pollinator species with similar traits (functional redundancy) differed in abundance (response diversity) across an agricultural intensification gradient. Exotic pollinator species contributed most positive responses, which partially stabilized overall abundance of the pollinator community. However, although some functionally redundant species exhibited response diversity, this was not consistent across functional groups and aggregate abundances within each functional group were rarely stabilized. This shows functional redundancy and response diversity do not always operate in concert. Hence, despite exotic species becoming increasingly dominant in human-modified systems, they cannot replace the functional composition of native species. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Groups as units of functional analysis, individuals as proximate mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David Sloan

    2014-06-01

    Whenever selection operates at a given level of a multitier hierarchy, units at that level should become the object of functional analysis, and units at lower levels should be studied as proximate mechanisms. This intuition already exists for the study of genes in individuals, when individuals are the unit of selection. It is only beginning to be applied for the study of individuals in groups, when groups are the unit of selection. Smaldino's target article is an important step in this direction with an emphasis on human cultural evolution, but the same algorithm applies to all multilevel evolutionary processes.

  14. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only...... most distant from the capillaries, whereas other studies point to a shift toward a higher degree of non-oxidative glucose consumption during activation. In this review, we argue that the key mechanism responsible for the regional CBF (rCBF) increase during functional activation is a tight coupling...... between rCBF and glucose metabolism. We assert that uncoupling of rCBF and oxidative metabolism is a consequence of a less pronounced increase in oxygen consumption. On the basis of earlier studies, we take into consideration the functional recruitment of capillaries and attempt to accommodate...

  15. Computing the effective action with the functional renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codello, Alessandro; Percacci, Roberto; Rachwał, Lesław; Tonero, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The "exact" or "functional" renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ _k. The ordinary effective action Γ _0 can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k=Λ down to k=0. We give several examples of such calculations at one-loop, both in renormalizable and in effective field theories. We reproduce the four-point scattering amplitude in the case of a real scalar field theory with quartic potential and in the case of the pion chiral Lagrangian. In the case of gauge theories, we reproduce the vacuum polarization of QED and of Yang-Mills theory. We also compute the two-point functions for scalars and gravitons in the effective field theory of scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity.

  16. Computing the effective action with the functional renormalization group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codello, Alessandro [CP3-Origins and the Danish IAS University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Percacci, Roberto [SISSA, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Rachwal, Leslaw [Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China); Tonero, Alberto [ICTP-SAIFR and IFT, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    The ''exact'' or ''functional'' renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ{sub k}. The ordinary effective action Γ{sub 0} can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k = Λ down to k = 0. We give several examples of such calculations at one-loop, both in renormalizable and in effective field theories. We reproduce the four-point scattering amplitude in the case of a real scalar field theory with quartic potential and in the case of the pion chiral Lagrangian. In the case of gauge theories, we reproduce the vacuum polarization of QED and of Yang-Mills theory. We also compute the two-point functions for scalars and gravitons in the effective field theory of scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity. (orig.)

  17. Functional renormalization group for three-dimensional quantum magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Yasir; Thomale, Ronny; Parisen Toldin, Francesco; Rachel, Stephan; Reuther, Johannes

    2016-10-01

    We formulate a pseudofermion functional renormalization group (PFFRG) scheme to address frustrated quantum magnetism in three dimensions. In a scenario where many numerical approaches fail due to sign problem or small system size, three-dimensional (3D) PFFRG allows for a quantitative investigation of the quantum spin problem and its observables. We illustrate 3D PFFRG for the simple cubic J1-J2-J3 quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnet, and benchmark it against other approaches, if available.

  18. ESG: extended similarity group method for automated protein function prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitale, Meghana; Hawkins, Troy; Park, Changsoon; Kihara, Daisuke

    2009-07-15

    Importance of accurate automatic protein function prediction is ever increasing in the face of a large number of newly sequenced genomes and proteomics data that are awaiting biological interpretation. Conventional methods have focused on high sequence similarity-based annotation transfer which relies on the concept of homology. However, many cases have been reported that simple transfer of function from top hits of a homology search causes erroneous annotation. New methods are required to handle the sequence similarity in a more robust way to combine together signals from strongly and weakly similar proteins for effectively predicting function for unknown proteins with high reliability. We present the extended similarity group (ESG) method, which performs iterative sequence database searches and annotates a query sequence with Gene Ontology terms. Each annotation is assigned with probability based on its relative similarity score with the multiple-level neighbors in the protein similarity graph. We will depict how the statistical framework of ESG improves the prediction accuracy by iteratively taking into account the neighborhood of query protein in the sequence similarity space. ESG outperforms conventional PSI-BLAST and the protein function prediction (PFP) algorithm. It is found that the iterative search is effective in capturing multiple-domains in a query protein, enabling accurately predicting several functions which originate from different domains. ESG web server is available for automated protein function prediction at http://dragon.bio.purdue.edu/ESG/.

  19. Morphological and functional diversity of primary producers group in savannas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, E.

    1996-01-01

    The meaning of biological diversity for the operation and stability of natural ecosystems is matter of great theoretical and practical interest. The appearance and permanency of species in a given atmosphere indicates its capacity to compete with other species with similar habit and requirements, and to accumulate the resources that allow its reproduction. On the other hand, the coexistence of similar species in the same ecosystem allows to wonder if ever biological redundancy exists, that is to say, if several species coexist with the same function inside the ecosystem, so that the disappearance of one of them would not have biological significant consequences. A strategy to simplify the analysis of relationships between biodiversity and ecosystems operation is by grouping species with similar function, called functional groups. In this work the the primary producers functional group is analyzed, essentially superiors plants, in a savannas ecosystems. The analysis establishes that the gives the primary producers group is heterogeneous and complex, so much morphological as functionally: 1) the structural complexity and diversity forms of life in an savannas ecosystem are associated with the stratified exploitation of resources over (light) and under the floor (nourishment and water). Changes in diversity that affect the system structure will probably also affect its operations. 2 )Very similar morphological species can differ physiologically up to constitute production units with contrasting nutritional requirements. The echo-physiologic analysis of this differentiation can explain the habitat preferences that are naturally observed. 3) The long-time permanency of rare species, of low frequency, show the inability of dominant species to capture all the available resources. 4) The primary producers and the floor microorganisms have strong interactions. Changes in the community composition can generate significant changes in other community. These biotic interactions

  20. Functional group diversity of bee pollinators increases crop yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Patrick; Tscharntke, Teja; Tylianakis, Jason M; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2008-10-07

    Niche complementarity is a commonly invoked mechanism underlying the positive relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but little empirical evidence exists for complementarity among pollinator species. This study related differences in three functional traits of pollinating bees (flower height preference, daily time of flower visitation and within-flower behaviour) to the seed set of the obligate cross-pollinated pumpkin Cucurbita moschata Duch. ex Poir. across a land-use intensity gradient from tropical rainforest and agroforests to grassland in Indonesia. Bee richness and abundance changed with habitat variables and we used this natural variation to test whether complementary resource use by the diverse pollinator community enhanced final yield. We found that pollinator diversity, but not abundance, was positively related to seed set of pumpkins. Bees showed species-specific spatial and temporal variation in flower visitation traits and within-flower behaviour, allowing for classification into functional guilds. Diversity of functional groups explained even more of the variance in seed set (r2=45%) than did species richness (r2=32%) highlighting the role of functional complementarity. Even though we do not provide experimental, but rather correlative evidence, we can link spatial and temporal complementarity in highly diverse pollinator communities to pollination success in the field, leading to enhanced crop yield without any managed honeybees.

  1. Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.

    2008-12-01

    In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and

  2. [Functional feeding groups of macroinvertebrates in Gaira river, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Barrios, Javier; Ospina-Tórres, Rodulfo; Turizo-Correa, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    Tropical rivers are frequently described on their biodiversity but few studies have considered the ecological value of this richness in their food webs. We determined the trophic structure of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities (expressed in the richness and abundance of taxa and biomass proportions of different functional feeding groups) at the level of the river, stretch and microhabitats (functional units - UFs). We evaluated the spatial and temporal variation of these descriptors during wet and dry events, and selected three sites associated with different altitudinal belts. We reported 109 taxa, with 11167 individuals who contributed 107.11g of biomass. Density of macroinvertebrates was favored with increasing height, and biomass showed the opposite pattern (K-W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p leaf litter macroinvertebrates was foliage followed by epilithon, fine sediment and gravel-sand (K-W = 25.3, d.f. = 3, p shredders (Macrobrachium, 73%), present only in the lower reaches, followed by shredder Leptonema with 15%, located mostly in the upper reaches and predatory stoneflies of the genus Anacroneuria to 6.56%, which dominated in the middle stretch of stream. Excluding Macrobrachium from the analysis, there was dominance of Anacroneuria in the lower reaches. Between rainfall and drought events, biomass of functional feeding groups was higher in rain (W = 10.1, d.f. = 1, p < 0.05), favoring the growth of decapods, but the abundance was much higher during drought events.

  3. Surface functional groups in capacitive deionization with porous carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmatifar, Ali; Oyarzun, Diego I.; Palko, James W.; Hawks, Steven A.; Stadermann, Michael; Santiago, Juan G.; Stanford Microfluidics Lab Team; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team

    2017-11-01

    Capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technology for removal of toxic ions and salt from water. In CDI, an applied potential of about 1 V to pairs of porous electrodes (e.g. activated carbon) induces ion electromigration and electrostatic adsorption at electrode surfaces. Immobile surface functional groups play a critical role in the type and capacity of ion adsorption, and this can dramatically change desalination performance. We here use models and experiments to study weak electrolyte surface groups which protonate and/or depropotante based on their acid/base dissociation constants and local pore pH. Net chemical surface charge and differential capacitance can thus vary during CDI operation. In this work, we present a CDI model based on weak electrolyte acid/base equilibria theory. Our model incorporates preferential cation (anion) adsorption for activated carbon with acidic (basic) surface groups. We validated our model with experiments on custom built CDI cells with a variety of functionalizations. To this end, we varied electrolyte pH and measured adsorption of individual anionic and cationic ions using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC) techniques. Our model shows good agreement with experiments and provides a framework useful in the design of CDI control schemes.

  4. Impedance function of a group of vertical piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.; Arx, G.A. von

    1978-01-01

    Impedance and transfer functions of a group of vertical piles located in any desired configuration in plan in a horizontally stratified soil layer are derived. Hysteretic and radiation damping are accounted for. The method separates the piles and the soil, introducing unknown interaction forces. The total flexibility matrix of the soil is constructed, superposing the (complex) flexibility coefficients caused by the interaction forces of a single pile only. The dependence of the impedance and transfer functions on the oscllating frequency for foundations with different numbers of piles is investigated. Pile-soil-pile interaction is shown to be very important for all modes of vibration. The procedure is used in the seismic analysis of a reactor building. (Author)

  5. Computing the effective action with the functional renormalization group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Percacci, Roberto; Rachwał, Lesław

    2016-01-01

    of such calculations at one-loop, both in renormalizable and in effective field theories. We reproduce the four-point scattering amplitude in the case of a real scalar field theory with quartic potential and in the case of the pion chiral Lagrangian. In the case of gauge theories, we reproduce the vacuum polarization......The “exact” or “functional” renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ k. The ordinary effective action Γ 0 can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k= Λ down to k= 0. We give several examples...... of QED and of Yang–Mills theory. We also compute the two-point functions for scalars and gravitons in the effective field theory of scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity....

  6. The field luminosity function and nearby groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huchra, J.

    1978-01-01

    A catalog of radial velocities and magnitudes on a homogeneous system (the corrected Harvard, B(o) magnitudes of de Vaucouleurs) has been assembled for over 4000 galaxies. Using this catalog, a magnitude limited sample of approximately 1000 galaxies with nearly complete radial velocity data was compiled. The magnitude limit is 13.0 and the galaxies are primarily from the Shapley-Ames catalog plus a few low and high surface brightness objects properly included in a magnitude limited sample. A new determination of the field luminosity function and density plus initial experiments with the use of a redshift catalog to select groups of galaxies, are briefly described. (Auth.)

  7. Multiloop Functional Renormalization Group That Sums Up All Parquet Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Fabian B.; von Delft, Jan

    2018-02-01

    We present a multiloop flow equation for the four-point vertex in the functional renormalization group (FRG) framework. The multiloop flow consists of successive one-loop calculations and sums up all parquet diagrams to arbitrary order. This provides substantial improvement of FRG computations for the four-point vertex and, consequently, the self-energy. Using the x-ray-edge singularity as an example, we show that solving the multiloop FRG flow is equivalent to solving the (first-order) parquet equations and illustrate this with numerical results.

  8. Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchena, Martin H. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Granada, Mara [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Bordoni, Andrea V. [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Joselevich, Maria [Asociacion Civil Expedicion Ciencia, Cabrera 4948, C1414BGP Buenos Aires (Argentina); Troiani, Horacio [Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro-Centro Atomico Bariloche-CNEA, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Williams, Federico J. [DQIAQyF-INQUIMAE FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon II, C1428EHA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wolosiuk, Alejandro, E-mail: wolosiuk@cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia Quimica, Centro Atomico Constituyentes, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Avda. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-03-15

    The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

  9. Functional renormalisation group approach for tensorial group field theory: a rank-3 model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedetti, Dario [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute,Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam, 14476 (Germany); Geloun, Joseph Ben [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute,Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam, 14476 (Germany); International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications, ICMPA-UNESCO Chair,University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou (Benin); Oriti, Daniele [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute,Am Mühlenberg 1, Potsdam, 14476 (Germany)

    2015-03-17

    We set up the Functional Renormalisation Group formalism for Tensorial Group Field Theory in full generality. We then apply it to a rank-3 model over U(1){sup 3}, endowed with a kinetic term linear in the momenta and with nonlocal interactions. The system of FRG equations turns out to be non-autonomous in the RG flow parameter. This feature is explained by the existence of a hidden scale, the radius of the group manifold. We investigate in detail the opposite regimes of large cut-off (UV) and small cut-off (IR) of the FRG equations, where the system becomes autonomous, and we find, in both case, Gaussian and non-Gaussian fixed points. We derive and interpret the critical exponents and flow diagrams associated with these fixed points, and discuss how the UV and IR regimes are matched. Finally, we discuss the evidence for a phase transition from a symmetric phase to a broken or condensed phase, from an RG perspective, finding that this seems to exist only in the approximate regime of very large radius of the group manifold, as to be expected for systems on compact manifolds.

  10. Evaluation of group electronegativities and hardness (softness) of group 14 elements and containing functional groups through density functional theory and correlation with NMR spectra data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivas-Reyes, R.; Aria, A.

    2008-01-01

    Quantum Chemical calculations for group 14 elements of Periodic Table (C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and their functional groups have been carried out using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based reactivity descriptors such as group electronegativities, hardness and softness. DFT calculations were performed for a large series of tetra coordinated Sn compounds of the CH 3 SnRR'X type, where X is a halogen and R and R' are alkyl, halogenated alkyl, alkoxy, or alkyl thio groups. The results were interpreted in terms of calculated electronegativity and hardness of the SnRR'X groups, applying a methodology previously developed by Geerlings and coworkers (J. Phys. Chem. 1993, 97, 1826). These calculations allowed to see the regularities concerning the influence of the nature of organic groups RR' and inorganic group X on electronegativities and hardness of the SnRR'X groups; in this case, it was found a very good correlation between the electronegativity of the fragment and experimental 119 Sn chemical shifts, a property that sensitively reflects the change in the valence electronic structure of molecules. This work was complemented with the study of some compounds of the EX and ER types, where E= C, Si, Ge, Sn and R= CH 3 , H, which was performed to study the influence that the central atom has on the electronegativity and hardness of molecules, or whether these properties are mainly affected for the type of ligand bound to the central atom. All these calculations were performed using the B3PW91 functional together with the 6-3 1 1 + + G basis set level for H, C, Si, Ge, F, Cl and Br atoms and the 3-21G for Sn and I atoms. (author)

  11. Functional, Responsive Materials Assembled from Recombinant Oleosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Daniel

    Biological cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane made primarily of phospholipids that form a bilayer. This membrane is permselective and compartmentalizes the cell. A simple form of artificial cell is the vesicle, in which a phospholipid bilayer membrane surrounds an aqueous solution. However, there is no a priori reason why a membrane needs to be made of phospholipids. It could be made of any surfactant that forms a bilayer. We have assembled membranes and other structures from the recombinant plant protein oleosin. The ability to assemble from a recombinant protein means that every molecule is identical, we have complete control over the sequence, and hence can build in designer functionality with high fidelity, including adhesion and enzymatic activity. Such incorporation is trivial using the tools of molecular biology. We find that while many variants of oleosin make membranes, others make micelles and sheets. We show how the type of supramolecular structure can be altered by the conditions of solvent, such as ionic strength, and the architecture of the surfactant itself. We show that protease cleavable domains can be incorporated within oleosin, and be engineered to protect other functional domains such as adhesive motifs, to make responsive materials whose activity and shape depend on the action of proteases. We will also present the idea of making ``Franken''-oleosins, where large domains of native oleosin are replaced with domains from other functional proteins, to make hybrids conferred by the donor protein. Thus, we can view oleosin as a template upon which a vast array of designer functionalities can be imparted..

  12. Sub-grouping and sub-functionalization of the RIFIN multi-copy protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnhammer Erik L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic protozoans possess many multicopy gene families which have central roles in parasite survival and virulence. The number and variability of members of these gene families often make it difficult to predict possible functions of the encoded proteins. The families of extra-cellular proteins that are exposed to a host immune response have been driven via immune selection to become antigenically variant, and thereby avoid immune recognition while maintaining protein function to establish a chronic infection. Results We have combined phylogenetic and function shift analyses to study the evolution of the RIFIN proteins, which are antigenically variant and are encoded by the largest multicopy gene family in Plasmodium falciparum. We show that this family can be subdivided into two major groups that we named A- and B-RIFIN proteins. This suggested sub-grouping is supported by a recently published study that showed that, despite the presence of the Plasmodium export (PEXEL motif in all RIFIN variants, proteins from each group have different cellular localizations during the intraerythrocytic life cycle of the parasite. In the present study we show that function shift analysis, a novel technique to predict functional divergence between sub-groups of a protein family, indicates that RIFINs have undergone neo- or sub-functionalization. Conclusion These results question the general trend of clustering large antigenically variant protein groups into homogenous families. Assigning functions to protein families requires their subdivision into meaningful groups such as we have shown for the RIFIN protein family. Using phylogenetic and function shift analysis methods, we identify new directions for the investigation of this broad and complex group of proteins.

  13. Effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and cutaneous irritation in four ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J; Gross, M; Sage, B; Davis, H T; Maibach, H I

    2000-08-01

    The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and irritation was investigated in four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Hispanics, Blacks and Asians). Forty healthy human volunteers were recruited according to specific entry criteria. Ten subjects, five males and five females, were assigned to each ethnic group. Skin barrier function was examined after 4 hours of saline iontophoresis at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm(2) on a 6.5 cm(2) area in terms of the measured responses: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, skin temperature and visual scores. There were significant differences in TEWL among the ethnic groups prior to patch application. TEWL at baseline in ethnic groups was in the rank order: Caucasian>Asian>Hispanic>Black. Iontophoresis was generally well tolerated, and skin barrier function was not irreversibly affected by iontophoresis in any group. There was no significant skin temperature change, compared to baseline, in any ethnic groups at any observation point. Edema was not observed. At patch removal, the erythema score was elevated in comparison to baseline in all ethnic groups; erythema resolved within 24 hours. Thus, saline iontophoresis produced reversible changes in skin barrier function and irritation in healthy human subjects.

  14. Group VII Ethylene Response Factors Coordinate Oxygen and Nitric Oxide Signal Transduction and Stress Responses in Plants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel J.; Conde, Jorge Vicente; Berckhan, Sophie; Prasad, Geeta; Mendiondo, Guillermina M.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have emerged as important regulators of abiotic and biotic stress responses, in particular, low-oxygen stress. A defining feature of ERFVIIs is their conserved N-terminal domain, which renders them oxygen- and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent substrates of the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis. In the presence of these gases, ERFVIIs are destabilized, whereas an absence of either permits their accumulation; ERFVIIs therefore coordinate plant homeostatic responses to oxygen availability and control a wide range of NO-mediated processes. ERFVIIs have a variety of context-specific protein and gene interaction partners, and also modulate gibberellin and abscisic acid signaling to regulate diverse developmental processes and stress responses. This update discusses recent advances in our understanding of ERFVII regulation and function, highlighting their role as central regulators of gaseous signal transduction at the interface of ethylene, oxygen, and NO signaling. PMID:25944828

  15. Omentin functions to attenuate cardiac hypertrophic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Rei; Ohashi, Koji; Kambara, Takahiro; Uemura, Yusuke; Hiramatsu-Ito, Mizuho; Enomoto, Takashi; Yuasa, Daisuke; Joki, Yusuke; Ito, Masanori; Hayakawa, Satoko; Ogawa, Hayato; Kihara, Shinji; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2015-02-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in many obesity-related conditions. Omentin is an adipose-derived plasma protein that is downregulated under obese conditions. Here, we investigated whether omentin modulates cardiac hypertrophic responses in vivo and in vitro. Systemic administration of an adenoviral vector expressing human omentin (Ad-OMT) to wild-type (WT) mice led to the attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and ERK phosphorylation induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or angiotensin II infusion. In cultured cardiomyocytes, stimulation with phenylephrine (PE) led to an increase in myocyte size, which was prevented by pretreatment with human omentin protein. Pretreatment of cardiomyocytes with omentin protein also reduced ERK phosphorylation in response to PE stimulation. Ad-OMT enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in the heart of WT mice after TAC operation. Blockade of AMPK activation by transduction with dominant-negative mutant forms of AMPK reversed the inhibitory effect of omentin on myocyte hypertrophy and ERK phosphorylation following PE stimulation. Moreover, fat-specific transgenic mice expressing human omentin showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and ERK phosphorylation following TAC surgery compared to littermate controls. These data suggest that omentin functions to attenuate the pathological process of myocardial hypertrophy via the activation of AMPK in the heart, suggesting that omentin may represent a target molecule for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Configuration analysis of three chiral polypyridines functionalized with pinene groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Qi, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Da-Shuai; Zhu, Lin-Hua; Wang, Xiang-Hui; Shi, Zai-Feng; Lin, Qiang

    2017-08-01

    Three polypyridines functionalized with pinene groups, (-)-'dipineno'-[4,5:4″,5″]-fused 2,2‧:6‧,2″-terpyridine ((-)-1), (-)-1,3-di-(2-(4,5-pinene)pyridyl)benzene ((-)-2) and (-)-4,5-pinene-6‧-phenyl-2,2‧-bipyridine ((-)-3) were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Although a small difference is exhibited for their molecular structures, a twisting configuration is observed for (-)-2 with a larger dihedral angle between aromatic planes relative to (-)-1 and (-)-3. Correspondingly, compound (-)-2 exhibits a shorter wavelength of low-energy absorption due to a lower planarity, while all compounds (-)-1, (-)-2 and (-)-3 show similar Cotton effects of ECD spectra.

  17. Functional Groups Based on Leaf Physiology: Are they Spatially and Temporally Robust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tammy E.; Brooks, J. Renee

    2004-01-01

    The functional grouping hypothesis, which suggests that complexity in ecosystem function can be simplified by grouping species with similar responses, was tested in the Florida scrub habitat. Functional groups were identified based on how species in fire maintained Florida scrub regulate exchange of carbon and water with the atmosphere as indicated by both instantaneous gas exchange measurements and integrated measures of function (%N, delta C-13, delta N-15, C-N ratio). Using cluster analysis, five distinct physiologically-based functional groups were identified in the fire maintained scrub. These functional groups were tested to determine if they were robust spatially, temporally, and with management regime. Analysis of Similarities (ANOSIM), a non-parametric multivariate analysis, indicated that these five physiologically-based groupings were not altered by plot differences (R = -0.115, p = 0.893) or by the three different management regimes; prescribed burn, mechanically treated and burn, and fire-suppressed (R = 0.018, p = 0.349). The physiological groupings also remained robust between the two climatically different years 1999 and 2000 (R = -0.027, p = 0.725). Easy-to-measure morphological characteristics indicating functional groups would be more practical for scaling and modeling ecosystem processes than detailed gas-exchange measurements, therefore we tested a variety of morphological characteristics as functional indicators. A combination of non-parametric multivariate techniques (Hierarchical cluster analysis, non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling, and ANOSIM) were used to compare the ability of life form, leaf thickness, and specific leaf area classifications to identify the physiologically-based functional groups. Life form classifications (ANOSIM; R = 0.629, p 0.001) were able to depict the physiological groupings more adequately than either specific leaf area (ANOSIM; R = 0.426, p = 0.001) or leaf thickness (ANOSIM; R 0.344, p 0.001). The ability of

  18. Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    Upper and lower thermal limits and temperature dependent growth were determined for a number of organisms (or populations) representing various functional groups of stream ecosystems (microconsumers, producers, and macroconsumers, shredders, collectors, scrapers, and predators). Although temperature functions as an overall control parameter, organic substrate (microconsumers) and inorganic nutrients (microconsumers and producers), light (producers) and food quality (macroconsumers) can modify thermal responses. Stream microorganisms typically grow below their thermal optima, community composition being determined by those that can manage the maximum growth at a given temperature utilizing a given organic substrate. Producers in first to third order streams are generally light limited (although nutrient availability is also important). Food quality, primarily a function of microbial biomass in the case of detritivores. can compensate for temperature dependent growth in non-predator macroinvertebrate functional groups. (U.S.)

  19. Evaluation of sexual function in a group of mastectomized women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabelle Quintiliano Montenegro Bomfim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sexual function of mastectomized women. Methods: crosssectional descriptive study conducted between September and October 2012 with 34mastectomized women, members of a support group, who were sexually active in the last six months. It was used an instrument for collecting sociodemographic (socioeconomic status, marital status and education and gynecological data (parity, post-surgical time and type of surgery in addition to the Female Sexual Quotient (FSQ questionnaire. Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, the Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman’s test with p≤0.05. Results: It was verified a sexual performance that ranged from null to bad in 35.3% (n=12 of women, while only 11.8% (n=4 had a favorable score on FSQ. It was observed a higher percentage of women presenting difficulty in sexual arousal, 88.2% (n=30. Regarding marital status and education, 47.1% (n=16 were married and 55.9% (n=19 had studied up to elementary school. Conclusion: The investigated mastectomized women presented low and unsatisfactory sexual function according to the FSQ; they were married and studied up to elementary school. doi:10.5020/18061230.2014.p77

  20. Functional renormalisation group equations for supersymmetric field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synatschke-Czerwonka, Franziska

    2011-01-11

    This work is organised as follows: In chapter 2 the basic facts of quantum field theory are collected and the functional renormalisation group equations are derived. Chapter 3 gives a short introduction to the main concepts of supersymmetry that are used in the subsequent chapters. In chapter 4 the functional RG is employed for a study of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, a supersymmetric model which are studied intensively in the literature. A lot of results have previously been obtained with different methods and we compare these to the ones from the FRG. We investigate the N=1 Wess-Zumino model in two dimensions in chapter 5. This model shows spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and an interesting fixed-point structure. Chapter 6 deals with the three dimensional N=1 Wess-Zumino model. Here we discuss the zero temperature case as well as the behaviour at finite temperature. Moreover, this model shows spontaneous supersymmetry breaking, too. In chapter 7 the two-dimensional N=(2,2) Wess-Zumino model is investigated. For the superpotential a non-renormalisation theorem holds and thus guarantees that the model is finite. This allows for a direct comparison with results from lattice simulations. (orig.)

  1. Functional renormalization group and Kohn-Sham scheme in density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haozhao; Niu, Yifei; Hatsuda, Tetsuo

    2018-04-01

    Deriving accurate energy density functional is one of the central problems in condensed matter physics, nuclear physics, and quantum chemistry. We propose a novel method to deduce the energy density functional by combining the idea of the functional renormalization group and the Kohn-Sham scheme in density functional theory. The key idea is to solve the renormalization group flow for the effective action decomposed into the mean-field part and the correlation part. Also, we propose a simple practical method to quantify the uncertainty associated with the truncation of the correlation part. By taking the φ4 theory in zero dimension as a benchmark, we demonstrate that our method shows extremely fast convergence to the exact result even for the highly strong coupling regime.

  2. Changes in bird functional diversity across multiple land uses: interpretations of functional redundancy depend on functional group identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W Luck

    Full Text Available Examinations of the impact of land-use change on functional diversity link changes in ecological community structure driven by land modification with the consequences for ecosystem function. Yet, most studies have been small-scale, experimental analyses and primarily focussed on plants. There is a lack of research on fauna communities and at large-scales across multiple land uses. We assessed changes in the functional diversity of bird communities across 24 land uses aligned along an intensification gradient. We tested the hypothesis that functional diversity is higher in less intensively used landscapes, documented changes in diversity using four diversity metrics, and examined how functional diversity varied with species richness to identify levels of functional redundancy. Functional diversity, measured using a dendogram-based metric, increased from high to low intensity land uses, but observed values did not differ significantly from randomly-generated expected values. Values for functional evenness and functional divergence did not vary consistently with land-use intensification, although higher than expected values were mostly recorded in high intensity land uses. A total of 16 land uses had lower than expected values for functional dispersion and these were mostly low intensity native vegetation sites. Relations between functional diversity and bird species richness yielded strikingly different patterns for the entire bird community vs. particular functional groups. For all birds and insectivores, functional evenness, divergence and dispersion showed a linear decline with increasing species richness suggesting substantial functional redundancy across communities. However, for nectarivores, frugivores and carnivores, there was a significant hump-shaped or non-significant positive linear relationship between these functional measures and species richness indicating less redundancy. Hump-shaped relationships signify that the most

  3. Changes in bird functional diversity across multiple land uses: interpretations of functional redundancy depend on functional group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Carter, Andrew; Smallbone, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Examinations of the impact of land-use change on functional diversity link changes in ecological community structure driven by land modification with the consequences for ecosystem function. Yet, most studies have been small-scale, experimental analyses and primarily focussed on plants. There is a lack of research on fauna communities and at large-scales across multiple land uses. We assessed changes in the functional diversity of bird communities across 24 land uses aligned along an intensification gradient. We tested the hypothesis that functional diversity is higher in less intensively used landscapes, documented changes in diversity using four diversity metrics, and examined how functional diversity varied with species richness to identify levels of functional redundancy. Functional diversity, measured using a dendogram-based metric, increased from high to low intensity land uses, but observed values did not differ significantly from randomly-generated expected values. Values for functional evenness and functional divergence did not vary consistently with land-use intensification, although higher than expected values were mostly recorded in high intensity land uses. A total of 16 land uses had lower than expected values for functional dispersion and these were mostly low intensity native vegetation sites. Relations between functional diversity and bird species richness yielded strikingly different patterns for the entire bird community vs. particular functional groups. For all birds and insectivores, functional evenness, divergence and dispersion showed a linear decline with increasing species richness suggesting substantial functional redundancy across communities. However, for nectarivores, frugivores and carnivores, there was a significant hump-shaped or non-significant positive linear relationship between these functional measures and species richness indicating less redundancy. Hump-shaped relationships signify that the most functionally diverse

  4. Analytical response function for planar Ge detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Juan A.; Maidana, Nora L.; Vanin, Vito R.; Fernández-Varea, José M.

    2016-04-01

    We model the response function (RF) of planar HPGe x-ray spectrometers for photon energies between around 10 keV and 100 keV. The RF is based on the proposal of Seltzer [1981. Nucl. Instrum. Methods 188, 133-151] and takes into account the full-energy absorption in the Ge active volume, the escape of Ge Kα and Kβ x-rays and the escape of photons after one Compton interaction. The relativistic impulse approximation is employed instead of the Klein-Nishina formula to describe incoherent photon scattering in the Ge crystal. We also incorporate a simple model for the continuous component of the spectrum produced by the escape of photo-electrons from the active volume. In our calculations we include external interaction contributions to the RF: (i) the incoherent scattering effects caused by the detector's Be window and (ii) the spectrum produced by photo-electrons emitted in the Ge dead layer that reach the active volume. The analytical RF model is compared with pulse-height spectra simulated using the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code.

  5. Periodic solution for the stochastic chemostat with general response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Jiang, Daqing

    2017-11-01

    This paper addresses a stochastic chemostat model with periodic dilution rate and general class of response functions. The general functional response is assumed to satisfy two classifications of conditions, and these assumptions on the functional response are relative weak that are valid for many forms of growth response. For the chemostat with periodic dilution rate, we derive the sufficient criteria for the existence of the stochastic nontrivial positive periodic solution, by utilizing Khasminskii's theory on periodic Markov process.

  6. Functional response of ungulate browsers in disturbed eastern hemlock forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Ungulate browsing in predator depleted North American landscapes is believed to be causing widespread tree recruitment failures. However, canopy disturbances and variations in ungulate densities are sources of heterogeneity that can buffer ecosystems against herbivory. Relatively little is known about the functional response (the rate of consumption in relation to food availability) of ungulates in eastern temperate forests, and therefore how “top down” control of vegetation may vary with disturbance type, intensity, and timing. This knowledge gap is relevant in the Northeastern United States today with the recent arrival of hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA; Adelges tsugae) that is killing eastern hemlocks (Tsuga canadensis) and initiating salvage logging as a management response. We used an existing experiment in central New England begun in 2005, which simulated severe adelgid infestation and intensive logging of intact hemlock forest, to examine the functional response of combined moose (Alces americanus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) foraging in two different time periods after disturbance (3 and 7 years). We predicted that browsing impacts would be linear or accelerating (Type I or Type III response) in year 3 when regenerating stem densities were relatively low and decelerating (Type II response) in year 7 when stem densities increased. We sampled and compared woody regeneration and browsing among logged and simulated insect attack treatments and two intact controls (hemlock and hardwood forest) in 2008 and again in 2012. We then used AIC model selection to compare the three major functional response models (Types I, II, and III) of ungulate browsing in relation to forage density. We also examined relative use of the different stand types by comparing pellet group density and remote camera images. In 2008, total and proportional browse consumption increased with stem density, and peaked in logged plots, revealing a Type I response. In 2012

  7. Plant species and functional group combinations affect green roof ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Macivor, J Scott; Macdougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-03-12

    Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms governing biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in green

  8. A conceptual basis to encode and detect organic functional groups in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, Punnaivanam; Krief, Alain; Vijayasarathi, Durairaj

    2013-06-01

    A conceptual basis to define and detect organic functional groups is developed. The basic model of a functional group is termed as a primary functional group and is characterized by a group center composed of one or more group center atoms bonded to terminal atoms and skeletal carbon atoms. The generic group center patterns are identified from the structures of known functional groups. Accordingly, a chemical ontology 'Font' is developed to organize the existing functional groups as well as the new ones to be defined by the chemists. The basic model is extended to accommodate various combinations of primary functional groups as functional group assemblies. A concept of skeletal group is proposed to define the characteristic groups composed of only carbon atoms to be regarded as equivalent to functional groups. The combination of primary functional groups with skeletal groups is categorized as skeletal group assembly. In order to make the model suitable for reaction modeling purpose, a Graphical User Interface (GUI) is developed to define the functional groups and to encode in XML format appropriate to detect them in chemical structures. The system is capable of detecting multiple instances of primary functional groups as well as the overlapping poly-functional groups as the respective assemblies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Decreased plant productivity resulting from plant group removal experiment constrains soil microbial functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ximei; Johnston, Eric R; Barberán, Albert; Ren, Yi; Lü, Xiaotao; Han, Xingguo

    2017-10-01

    Anthropogenic environmental changes are accelerating the rate of biodiversity loss on Earth. Plant diversity loss is predicted to reduce soil microbial diversity primarily due to the decreased variety of carbon/energy resources. However, this intuitive hypothesis is supported by sparse empirical evidence, and most underlying mechanisms remain underexplored or obscure altogether. We constructed four diversity gradients (0-3) in a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia, China, and quantified microbial taxonomic and functional diversity with shotgun metagenome sequencing. The treatments had little effect on microbial taxonomic diversity, but were found to decrease functional gene diversity. However, the observed decrease in functional gene diversity was more attributable to a loss in plant productivity, rather than to the loss of any individual plant functional group per se. Reduced productivity limited fresh plant resources supplied to microorganisms, and thus, intensified the pressure of ecological filtering, favoring genes responsible for energy production/conversion, material transport/metabolism and amino acid recycling, and accordingly disfavored many genes with other functions. Furthermore, microbial respiration was correlated with the variation in functional composition but not taxonomic composition. Overall, the amount of carbon/energy resources driving microbial gene diversity was identified to be the critical linkage between above- and belowground communities, contrary to the traditional framework of linking plant clade/taxonomic diversity to microbial taxonomic diversity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Prediction of functional sites in proteins using conserved functional group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innis, C Axel; Anand, A Prem; Sowdhamini, R

    2004-04-02

    A detailed knowledge of a protein's functional site is an absolute prerequisite for understanding its mode of action at the molecular level. However, the rapid pace at which sequence and structural information is being accumulated for proteins greatly exceeds our ability to determine their biochemical roles experimentally. As a result, computational methods are required which allow for the efficient processing of the evolutionary information contained in this wealth of data, in particular that related to the nature and location of functionally important sites and residues. The method presented here, referred to as conserved functional group (CFG) analysis, relies on a simplified representation of the chemical groups found in amino acid side-chains to identify functional sites from a single protein structure and a number of its sequence homologues. We show that CFG analysis can fully or partially predict the location of functional sites in approximately 96% of the 470 cases tested and that, unlike other methods available, it is able to tolerate wide variations in sequence identity. In addition, we discuss its potential in a structural genomics context, where automation, scalability and efficiency are critical, and an increasing number of protein structures are determined with no prior knowledge of function. This is exemplified by our analysis of the hypothetical protein Ydde_Ecoli, whose structure was recently solved by members of the North East Structural Genomics consortium. Although the proposed active site for this protein needs to be validated experimentally, this example illustrates the scope of CFG analysis as a general tool for the identification of residues likely to play an important role in a protein's biochemical function. Thus, our method offers a convenient solution to rapidly and automatically process the vast amounts of data that are beginning to emerge from structural genomics projects.

  11. GROUP DYNAMICS AND TEAM FUNCTIONING IN ORGANIZATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZOLTAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In all kind of organization many activities are done by groups and teams. But how are they formed? What factors influence their existence and development? How members of groups and teams are selected? Which are the consequences in organizational context? In order to answer these questions, in the present paper we describe and analyze the main approaches regarding the formation of work groups and work teams (sociometric approach and group dynamics approach, the main factors that affects group dynamics and the FIRO model for evaluation the team members’ needs.

  12. Tumor-suppressor effects of chemical functional groups in an in vitro co-culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Su-Ju; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2014-06-01

    Liver normal cells and cancer cells co-cultured on surfaces modified by different chemical functional groups, including mercapto (-SH), hydroxyl (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) groups. The results showed that different cells exhibited changes in response to different surfaces. Normal cells on -SH surface exhibited the smallest contact area with mostly rounded morphology, which led to the death of cancer cells, while cancer cells could not grow on -CH3 groups, which also died. In the co-culture system, the -CH3 group exhibited its unique effect that could trigger the death of cancer cells and had no effects on normal cells. Our findings provide useful information on strategies for the design of efficient and safe regenerative medicine materials.

  13. Do seedling functional groups reflect ecological strategies of woody plant species in Caatinga?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Gomes Calaça Menezes

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is assumed that morphological traits of seedlings reflect different strategies in response to environmental conditions. The ecological significance of this has been widely documented in rainforests, where habitat structure and species interactions play an important role in community assembly. However, in seasonally dry ecosystems, where environmental filtering is expected to strongly influence community structure, this relationship is poorly understood. We investigated this relationship between functional groups of seedlings and life history traits and tested whether functional group predicts the ecological strategies employed by woody species to deal with the stressful conditions in seasonally dry ecosystems. Seedling functional groups, life history traits and traits that reflect ecological strategies for occupying seasonally dry environments were described for twenty-six plant species. Seedlings of species from the Caatinga vegetation exhibited a functional profile different from that observed in rainforests ecosystems. Phanerocotylar-epigeal seedlings were the most frequently observed groups, and had the largest range of ecological strategies related to dealing with seasonally dry environments, while phanerocotylar-hypogeal-reserve seedlings exhibited an increase in frequency with seasonality. We discuss these results in relation to those observed in other tropical forests and their ecological significance in seasonally dry environments.

  14. Multi-taxa trait and functional responses to physical disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedley, Scott M; Dolman, Paul M

    2014-11-01

    . Trait-function linkage differed among taxa and was sometimes diffuse, with covariance among biological traits and the mapping of individual traits to multiple ecological functions. In particular, body size responses reflected correlations with life history, susceptibility to perturbation and dispersal ability that were inconsistent between the two arthropod groups. Selection of traits for assessment should therefore be taxa specific. Generalizations of trait responses across taxa should only be conducted where functional or ecological significance of assembly-level changes can be understood. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  15. Coping responses as predictors of psychosocial functioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: One hundred and seventy-two individuals suffering from chronic pain completed both the West Haven-Yale Multidimensional Pain Inventory and the Coping Responses Inventory – Adult Form. The prevalence of the use of Avoidance and Approach Coping, and the relationship between these responses and ...

  16. Perceived In-Group Homogeneity as a Function of Group Membership Salience and Stereotype Threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Ting; Ottati, Victor

    1995-01-01

    Considers two determinants--one cognitive and the other motivational--of perceptual fluctuations of in-group variation. Results indicate that when motivation to protect social or personal identity from threat is absent, priming the in-group social category promotes a homogeneous and cohesive view of the in-group. (RJM)

  17. Functional renormalization group study of fluctuation effects in fermionic superfluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberlein, Andreas

    2013-03-22

    This thesis is concerned with ground state properties of two-dimensional fermionic superfluids. In such systems, fluctuation effects are particularly strong and lead for example to a renormalization of the order parameter and to infrared singularities. In the first part of this thesis, the fermionic two-particle vertex is analysed and the fermionic renormalization group is used to derive flow equations for a decomposition of the vertex in charge, magnetic and pairing channels. In the second part, the channel-decomposition scheme is applied to various model systems. In the superfluid state, the fermionic two-particle vertex develops rich and singular dependences on momentum and frequency. After simplifying its structure by exploiting symmetries, a parametrization of the vertex in terms of boson-exchange interactions in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels is formulated, which provides an efficient description of the singular momentum and frequency dependences. Based on this decomposition of the vertex, flow equations for the effective interactions are derived on one- and two-loop level, extending existing channel-decomposition schemes to (i) the description of symmetry breaking in the Cooper channel and (ii) the inclusion of those two-loop renormalization contributions to the vertex that are neglected in the Katanin scheme. In the second part, the superfluid ground state of various model systems is studied using the channel-decomposition scheme for the vertex and the flow equations. A reduced model with interactions in the pairing and forward scattering channels is solved exactly, yielding insights into the singularity structure of the vertex. For the attractive Hubbard model at weak coupling, the momentum and frequency dependence of the two-particle vertex and the frequency dependence of the self-energy are determined on one- and two-loop level. Results for the suppression of the superfluid gap by fluctuations are in good agreement with the literature

  18. Zeta Functions, Renormalization Group Equations, and the Effective Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, D.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Molina-Paris, C.; Visser, M.

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate how to extract all the one-loop renormalization group equations for arbitrary quantum field theories from knowledge of an appropriate Seeley-DeWitt coefficient. By formally solving the renormalization group equations to one loop, we renormalization group improve the classical action and use this to derive the leading logarithms in the one-loop effective action for arbitrary quantum field theories. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Application of macrobenthos functional groups to estimate the ecosystem health in a semi-enclosed bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shitao; Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Shi, Honghua; Ding, Dewen

    2013-09-15

    In this study, the functional group concept was first applied to evaluate the ecosystem health of Bohai Bay. Macrobenthos functional groups were defined according to feeding types and divided into five groups: a carnivorous group (CA), omnivorous group (OM), planktivorous group (PL), herbivorous group (HE), and detritivorous group (DE). Groups CA, DE, OM, and PL were identified, but the HE group was absent from Bohai Bay. Group DE was dominant during the study periods. The ecosystem health was assessed using a functional group evenness index. The functional group evenness values of most sampling stations were less than 0.40, indicating that the ecosystem health was deteriorated in Bohai Bay. Such deterioration could be attributed to land reclamation, industrial and sewage effluents, oil pollution, and hypersaline water discharge. This study demonstrates that the functional group concept can be applied to ecosystem health assessment in a semi-enclosed bay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of nonsymmorphic space groups on correlation functions in iron-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourafkan, R.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2017-09-01

    The orbital basis is natural when one needs to calculate the effect of local interactions or to unravel the role of orbital physics in the response to external probes. In systems with nonsymmorphic point groups, such as the iron-based superconductors, we show that symmetries that emerge in observable response functions at certain wave vectors are absent from generalized susceptibilities calculated with tight-binding Hamiltonians in the orbital basis. Such symmetries are recovered only when the generalized susceptibilities are embeded back to the continuum using appropriate matrix elements between basis states. This is illustrated with the case of LiFeAs and is further clarified using a minimal tight-binding Hamiltonian with nonsymmorphic space group.

  1. Multi-Functional Stimuli-Responsive Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Supramolecular polymers based on non-covalent interactions can display a wide array of stimuli-responsive attributes. They can be tailored to change shape, actuate...

  2. Modification of Acute Radiation Response in Different Demographic Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    humans is taken into consideration together with the available experimental data in animals to provide quantitative estimates of dose modification...among experimental animals . Physical aspects of irradiation can impact the response to radiation as well. Furthermore, the quality of radiation...associated with radiation exposure, has been studied extensively in experimental animal studies and human populations exposed to radiation. From

  3. Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Animal Welfare Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Morgan, Carissa J; Croney, Candace C

    2018-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people's perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization's perceived social responsibility. Data from an online survey of 300 U.S. residents were used to explore relationships between demographics/lifestyle choices and perceptions of prominent animal welfare organizations (using best-worst scaling methodology). Overall, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was perceived to be the most socially responsible organization analyzed, followed by the Humane Society of the United States and the American Humane Association (AHA). Results suggest that the perceived social responsibility of animal protection organizations in this study was not strongly linked to personally (financially) supporting them, with 2 exceptions: the perceptions of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and AHA. Improved understanding of the perception of animal welfare or protection organizations can inform decision making by organizations interested in furthering animal welfare causes.

  4. The preparation of new functionalized [2.2]paracyclophane derivatives with N-containing functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Hopf

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The two isomeric bis(isocyanates 4,12- and 4,16-di-isocyanato[2.2]paracyclophane, 16 and 28, have been prepared from their corresponding diacids by simple routes. The two isomers are versatile intermediates for the preparation of various cyclophanes bearing substituents with nitrogen-containing functional groups, e.g., the pseudo-ortho diamine 8, the bis secondary amine 23, and the crownophanes 18 and 19. Several of these new cyclophane derivatives (18, 19, 22, 26, 28 have been characterized by X-ray structural analysis.

  5. Soybean yield response: planting date and maturity groups in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planting date is one of the main factors affecting soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr.)) yield. The environmental conditions in the U.S. Mid-South, combined with irrigated management, can allow for a wide planting window from late March to early July, and using cultivars from maturity group (MG) 3 to 6. ...

  6. Focus Groups on Traffic Safety Issues: Public Response to NCAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-23

    The objectives of this project are to: (1) assess, through the use of focus groups, vehicle-buyer perceptions, needs, and desires concerning the delivery and presentation of motor vehicle safety-performance data. This includes the existing frontal-ma...

  7. Functional Modification of Thioether Groups in Peptides, Polypeptides, and Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Timothy J

    2017-03-15

    Recent developments in the modification of methionine and other thioether-containing residues in peptides, polypeptides, and proteins are reviewed. Properties and potential applications of the resulting functionalized products are also discussed. While much of this work is focused on natural Met residues, modifications at other side-chain residues have also emerged as new thioether-containing amino acids have been incorporated into peptidic materials. Functional modification of thioether-containing amino acids has many advantages and is a complementary methodology to the widely utilized methods for modification at cysteine residues.

  8. Social skills group training in high-functioning autism: A qualitative responder study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Interplay of nonlocal response, damping, and low group velocity in surface-plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of metal structures down to the nanoscale has been accompanied with several recent studies demonstrating plasmonic effects not explainable by classical electromagnetic theory. Describing the optical properties of materials solely through the bulk dielectric function has been...... augmented with quantum mechanical corrections, such as the electron spill-out effect and nonlocal response. Here, we discuss the latter and its implications on the waveguiding characteristics, such as dispersion and group velocity, of the surface-plasmon polariton mode supported at a metal-air interface....

  10. Interplay of nonlocal response, damping, and low group velocity in surface-plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Søren; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-03-01

    The miniaturization of metal structures down to the nanoscale has been accompanied with several recent studies demonstrating plasmonic effects not explainable by classical electromagnetic theory. Describing the optical properties of materials solely through the bulk dielectric function has been augmented with quantum mechanical corrections, such as the electron spill-out effect and nonlocal response. Here, we discuss the latter and its implications on the waveguiding characteristics, such as dispersion and group velocity, of the surface-plasmon polariton mode supported at a metal-air interface.

  11. AGE STRUCTURE OR FUNCTIONAL RESPONSE? RECONCILING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, if the ECOSIM Arena is seen as a proxy for age structure rather than as a function of predator/prey behaviour, the original derivation of von Bertalanffy growth equations, applied as a modification of ECOSIM, may allow the predictions made by biomass dynamics ecosystem models to incorporate critical life-history ...

  12. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Left atrial size: physiologic determinants and clinical applications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006; 47(12): 2357-2363. 9. Harada K, Toyono M, Yamamoto F. Assessment of right ventricular function during exercise with quantitative. Doppler tissue imaging in children late after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2004 ...

  13. Group VII Ethylene Response Factors Coordinate Oxygen and Nitric Oxide Signal Transduction and Stress Responses in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Conde, Jorge Vicente; Berckhan, Sophie; Prasad, Geeta; Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The group VII ethylene response factors (ERFVIIs) are plant-specific transcription factors that have emerged as important regulators of abiotic and biotic stress responses, in particular, low-oxygen stress. A defining feature of ERFVIIs is their conserved N-terminal domain, which renders them oxygen- and nitric oxide (NO)-dependent substrates of the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis. In the presence of these gases, ERFVIIs are destabilized, whereas an absence of either permits their accumulation; ERFVIIs therefore coordinate plant homeostatic responses to oxygen availability and control a wide range of NO-mediated processes. ERFVIIs have a variety of context-specific protein and gene interaction partners, and also modulate gibberellin and abscisic acid signaling to regulate diverse developmental processes and stress responses. This update discusses recent advances in our understanding of ERFVII regulation and function, highlighting their role as central regulators of gaseous signal transduction at the interface of ethylene, oxygen, and NO signaling. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Alternatives for Pragmatic Responses to Group Work Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoly Bozan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group work can provide a valuable learning experience, one that is especially relevant for those preparing to enter the information system workforce. While much has been discussed about effective means of delivering the benefits of collaborative learning in groups, there are some problems that arise due to pragmatic environmental factors such as the part time work commitments of students. This study has identified a range of problems and reports on a longitudinal Action Research study in two universities (in Australia and the USA. Over three semesters problems were identified and methods trialed using collaborative tools. Several promising solutions are presented to the identified problems. These include the use of Google documents and color to ensure team contributions are more even.

  15. Social Information Processing and Group-Induced Response Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    reference group norms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1973, 26^, 159-165. Doise , W . Intergroup relations and polarization of individual and...Bateman, Ricky W . Griffin and David Rubenstein 1. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBCRfi; N00014-83-C-0025 ». PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND...Bateman Ricky W . Griffin David Rubenstein TR-ONR-DG-C January 1984 Office of Naval Research N00014-83-C-0025 NR 170-950 ORGANIZATIONS AS

  16. ARES: automated response function code. Users manual. [HPGAM and LSQVM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maung, T.; Reynolds, G.M.

    1981-06-01

    This ARES user's manual provides detailed instructions for a general understanding of the Automated Response Function Code and gives step by step instructions for using the complete code package on a HP-1000 system. This code is designed to calculate response functions of NaI gamma-ray detectors, with cylindrical or rectangular geometries.

  17. Perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility: Differences Across Industries and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John W.; And Others

    The concept of social responsibility as applied to business suggests that the corporation no longer has a responsibility only to the stockholder but must make decisions aimed toward balancing the interests of all clientele groups affected by actions of the corporation. These groups include managers, administrators, employees, and the general…

  18. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  19. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with -SO3H and -COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas -NH2 and -NR3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on -NR3 and -CHO surfaces. The -OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  20. Transformations of functional groups attached to cyclopentadienyl or related ligands in group 4 metal complexes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pinkas, Jiří; Lamač, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 296, JUL 2015 (2015), s. 45-90 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-08531S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Zirconium * Functionalized cyclopentadienyl ligands * Titanium Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 12.994, year: 2015

  1. Minimax passband group delay nonlinear FIR filter design without imposing desired phase response

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Ling, Wing-Kuen; Dam, Hai Huyen; Yeo, Kok-Lay

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filter is designed without imposing a desired phase response. The maximum passband group delay of the filter is minimized subject to a positivity constraint on the passband group delay response of the filter as well as a specification on the maximum absolute difference between the desired magnitude square response and the designed magnitude square response over both the passband and the stopband. This filter design problem is a no...

  2. Adaptive Feeding behavior and functional responses in pelagic copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Saiz, Enrico; Tiselius, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Zooplankton may modify their feeding behavior in response to prey availability and presence of predators with implications to populations of both predators and prey. Optimal foraging theory predicts that such responses result in a type II functional response for passive foragers and a type III re...

  3. Group functioning in child care centers: Conceptualization, measurement, and relation with structural characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.C.; Burk, W.J.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces and conceptually underpins an instrument to measure group functioning in child care groups, the Group Functioning Instrument for Child Care (GFI-CC). This instrument was applied in 44 Dutch child care groups (0- to 4-year-olds). The results of this first explorative

  4. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.mierczynska-vasilev@awri.com.au; Smith, Paul A., E-mail: paul.smith@awri.com.au

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO{sub 3}H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH{sub 2} and NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR{sub 3} and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO{sub 3}H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH{sub 2} and −NR{sub 3} groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR{sub 3} and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  5. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical surface composition affects behaviour of wine adsorption. • SO 3 H and COOH groups adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds. • NH 2 and NR 3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. • Red wine constituents after filtration adsorbed more on NR 3 and CHO surfaces. - Abstract: The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with −SO 3 H and –COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas −NH 2 and −NR 3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on −NR 3 and –CHO surfaces. The –OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  6. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  7. Summing parquet diagrams using the functional renormalization group: X-ray problem revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Philipp; Drukier, Casper; Sharma, Anand; Kopietz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    We present a simple method for summing so-called parquet diagrams of fermionic many-body systems with competing instabilities using the functional renormalization group. Our method is based on partial bosonization of the interaction using multi-channel Hubbard-Stratonovich transformations. A simple truncation of the resulting flow equations, retaining only the frequency-independent parts of the two-point and three-point vertices amounts to solving coupled Bethe-Salpeter equations for the effective interaction to leading logarithmic order. We apply our method by revisiting the X-ray problem and deriving the singular frequency dependence of the X-ray response function and the particle-particle susceptibility. Our method is quite general and should be useful in many-body problems involving strong fluctuations in several scattering channels.

  8. Unique transcriptomic response to sepsis is observed among patients of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Steven L; López, María Cecilia; Baker, Henry V; Larson, Shawn D; Efron, Philip A; Sweeney, Timothy E; Khatri, Purvesh; Moldawer, Lyle L; Wynn, James L

    2017-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, especially at the extremes of age. To understand the human age-specific transcriptomic response to sepsis, a multi-cohort, pooled analysis was conducted on adults, children, infants, and neonates with and without sepsis. Nine public whole-blood gene expression datasets (636 patients) were employed. Age impacted the transcriptomic host response to sepsis. Gene expression from septic neonates and adults was more dissimilar whereas infants and children were more similar. Neonates showed reductions in inflammatory recognition and signaling pathways compared to all other age groups. Likewise, adults demonstrated decreased pathogen sensing, inflammation, and myeloid cell function, as compared to children. This may help to explain the increased incidence of sepsis-related organ failure and death in adults. The number of dysregulated genes in septic patients was proportional to age and significantly differed among septic adults, children, infants, and neonates. Overall, children manifested a greater transcriptomic intensity to sepsis as compared to the other age groups. The transcriptomic magnitude for adults and neonates was dramatically reduced as compared to children and infants. These findings suggest that the transcriptomic response to sepsis is age-dependent, and diagnostic and therapeutic efforts to identify and treat sepsis will have to consider age as an important variable.

  9. Reactivity of the functional groups in functional polymers. Use of T-for-H exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Shinobu.

    1997-01-01

    In order to reveal the reactivity of several functional polymers, the following two experiments were carried out: observing the hydrogen-isotope exchange reaction (T-for-H exchange reaction) between one of T-labeled functional polymers and 0.500 mol·l -1 aniline dissolved in p-xylene, observing the degree of the T dispersed from the surface area of the polymer under the several conditions. Consequently, the following six matters have been quantitatively obtained. The T-for-H exchange reaction occurred between each T-labeled polymer and aniline, and is more predominant than other chemical reactions within the range of 50-90degC. The reactivity of the polymers are strongly affected by their matrix structures. The degree of the T dispersed from the surface area of each T-labeled polymer is hardly affected by humidity. The higher the temperature is, the larger is the degree of the T dispersed from the surface area. At the same temperature, the degree of the T dispersed from the surface area of each polymer is strongly affected by the physical form of the polymer even if the polymer has the same functional group as the others, and the T existing in the surface area of a T-labeled glassy polymer is less dispersed than that of a porous one. The degree of the T dispersed from the surface area of a T-labeled polymer is small when the degree of the polymerization of the polymer is high. (author)

  10. The messenger matters: Pollinator functional group influences mating system dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jennifer J

    2017-08-01

    The incredible diversity of plant mating systems has fuelled research in evolutionary biology for over a century. Currently, there is broad concern about the impact of rapidly changing pollinator communities on plant populations. Very few studies, however, examine patterns and mechanisms associated with multiple paternity from cross-pollen loads. Often, foraging pollinators collect a mixed pollen load that may result in the deposition of pollen from different sires to receptive stigmas. Coincident deposition of self- and cross-pollen leads to interesting mating system dynamics and has been investigated in numerous species. But, mixed pollen loads often consist of a diversity of cross-pollen and result in multiple sires of seeds within a fruit. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Rhodes, Fant, and Skogen () examine how pollinator identity and spatial isolation influence multiple paternity within fruits of a self-incompatible evening primrose. The authors demonstrate that pollen pool diversity varies between two pollinator types, hawkmoths and diurnal solitary bees. Further, progeny from more isolated plants were less likely to have multiple sires regardless of the pollinator type. Moving forward, studies of mating system dynamics should consider the implications of multiple paternity and move beyond the self- and cross-pollination paradigm. Rhodes et al. () demonstrate the importance of understanding the roles that functionally diverse pollinators play in mating system dynamics. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. METALLICITY DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS OF FOUR LOCAL GROUP DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [NOAO, 950 Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J., E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu, E-mail: holtz@nmsu.edu, E-mail: bjat@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color–color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color–color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%–50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution.

  12. Making Meaning: Individual and Group Response within a Book Club Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article positions a view of student responses with relation to current literacy expectations. Student responses to a single book, "The Egypt Game," are explored. The responses are analysed from a group and individual student perspectives. The responses demonstrate the complex understandings that young students created about this book.…

  13. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Chao [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Cao Ye [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China); Sun Kang, E-mail: ksun@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Lab of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China); Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong [Institute of Blood Transfusion, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Chengdu 610081 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO{sub 3}H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ({sup +}N((CH{sub 3}){sub 2})(CH{sub 2}){sub 3}SO{sub 3}{sup Circled-Minus }) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO{sub 3}H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  14. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Cao, Ye; Sun, Kang; Liu, Jiaxin; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO3H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group (⊕N((CH3)2)(CH2)3SO3⊖) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO3H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO3H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  15. Functional groups grafted nonwoven fabrics for blood filtration-The effects of functional groups and wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chao; Cao Ye; Sun Kang; Liu Jiaxin; Wang Hong

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the effects of grafted functional groups and surface wettability on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet were investigated by the method of blood filtration. The filter materials, poly(butylene terephthalate) nonwoven fabrics bearing different functional groups including hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), sulfonic acid group (SO 3 H) and zwitterionic sulfobetaine group ( + N((CH 3 ) 2 )(CH 2 ) 3 SO 3 ⊖ ) with controllable wettability were prepared by UV radiation grafting vinyl monomers with these functional groups. Our results emphasized that both surface functional groups and surface wettability had significant effects on the adhesion of leukocyte and platelet. In the case of filter materials with the same wettability, leukocytes adhering to filter materials decreased in the order: the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group > the surface bearing SO 3 H, while platelets adhering to filter materials decreased as the following order: the surface bearing SO 3 H > the surface bearing both OH and COOH > the surface bearing OH only > the surface bearing sulfobetaine group. As the wettability of filter materials increased, both leukocyte and platelet adhesion to filter materials declined, except that leukocyte adhesion to the surface bearing OH only remained unchanged.

  16. Collective Punishment Depends on Collective Responsibility and Political Organization of the Target Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, A.; Berent, J.; Falomir-Pichastor, J.M.; Staerklé, C.; Butera, F.

    2015-01-01

    What factors determine the willingness to inflict collective punishment upon a group for a misdeed committed by individual group members? This research investigates the effect of collective responsibility shared among group members and the moderating effect of the group's political organization

  17. Evaluation of the detector response function digital conventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arino Gil, A.; Hernandez Rodriguez, J.; Mateos Salvador, P.; Rodriguez Lopez, B.; Font Gelabert, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to obtain the response function that relates the air kerma at the entrance of the detector and pixel value, for a series of digital detectors of conventional Radiology model Optimus DigitalDiagnost Philips () and 6000 Definium General Electric. From the set of measurements is obtained a response function for each reference type of detector, and compared with those published in the literature for these teams. (Author)

  18. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  19. An investigation of the functional groups on the surface of activated carbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARYTE DERVINYTE

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were produced in the laboratory from wood using a 20-run Plackett–Burman experimental design for 19 factors. The obtained batches of activated carbon were analysed by potentiometric titration and FTIR spectroscopy to determine the surface functional groups. The results obtained by potentiometric titration displayed the distribution of individual acidity constants of those groups in the pK range. Considering this parameter, the surface functional groups were divided into carboxyl, lactone and phenol. The linear regression equations reflecting the influence of each operation used for the synthesis on the amount of these functional groups in the obtained activated carbons were generated. The FTIR spectra were used in parallel for the evaluation of the amount and the type of the surface functional groups. Relationships between the two data sets obtained by potentiometric titration and FTIR spectroscopy were evaluated by correlation analysis. It was established that the amount of surface functional groups determined by potentiometric titration positively correlates with the intensity of the peaks of hydrophilic functional groups in the FTIR spectra. At the same time, the negative correlation between potentiometrically determined amount of surface functional groups and the intensity of peaks of hydrophobic functional groups was observed. Most probably, these non-polar formations can take part in the interaction of carbon surface with H+/OH- ions and diminish the strength of existent functional groups.

  20. Functional Group of Spiders in Cultivated Landscape Dominated by Paddy Fields in West Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I WAYAN SUANA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of spiders in all colonized environments is limited by biotic and abiotic factors requiring adaptations with respect to, for example microhabitat choice and hunting behavior. These two factors were frequently used to group spiders into functional groups. In this study our objectives were to (i group of genera of spiders into functional group based on their microhabitat specificity, hunting behavior, and daily activity; and (ii compare the number and composition of functional group of spider at each habitat type and period of paddy growth. The study was conducted at a landscape dominated by paddy fields in Cianjur Watershed for a period of 9 months. Four different habitat types (paddy, vegetable, non-crop, and mixed garden, were sampled using five trapping techniques (pitfall traps, farmcop suction, sweep netting, yellow-pan traps, and sticky traps. The Unweighted Pair-Group Average and the Euclidean Distances were used to generate dendrogram of functional group of spider. We found 14 functional groups of spider at genus level. The number of functional group of spider at four habitat types was differing, but the composition was similar, because all habitats were closed to each other. Habitat structure diversity and disturbance level influenced the number of functional group of spider. Different architecture of vegetation and availability of differ prey during paddy growth, causing the composition of functional group of spider in each period of paddy growth was changed, although its number was unchanged.

  1. The response of electrostatic probes via the λ-function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup, T.O.; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    The response of an electrostatic probe is examined with reference to a planar spacer. The study involves the numerical calculation of the probe λ-function, from which response-related characteristic parameters can be derived. These parameters enable the probe detection sensitivity and spatial...

  2. Facile Synthesis of Benzaldehyde-Functionalized Ionic Liquids and Their Flexible Functional Group Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Qiang; Zheng, Baozhong

    2012-01-01

    Three benzaldehyde-functionalized ionic liquids were readily synthesized by quaternization of N-alkylimidazole with benzaldehyde-functionalized alkyl bromides under microwave irradiation in good yield. These aldehyde-functionalized ionic liquids could easily be oxidized in the presence of H2O2/KOH or be reduced by NaBH4 leading to the formation of the corresponding carboxyl-functionalized ionic liquids or benzylic alcohol-functionalized ionic liquids. In addition, the condensations of these f...

  3. Methodological substantiation of the professional functions of Responsible persons of pharmaceutical and hospital institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Vetiutneva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is the content analysis and methodological justification of the professional functions of the Responsible persons for quality assurance of medicines in pharmaceutical and hospital institutions. Materials and methods. The following research methods were used: system and comparative analysis, generalization, systematization, graphic modeling, observation. Research materials: normative legal acts, normative documents, recommendations of international organizations, information of wholesale and retail pharmaceutical companies, pharmaceutical and hospital institutions, professional non-governmental organizations, placed on official web-sites and collected in the process of direct observation. Results. The personnel and qualification aspects of professional activity of Responsible persons of pharmaceutical and hospital institutions were discussed. On the basis of analysis of the modern legal and regulatory framework, a general list of professional functions of the Responsible persons of health care institutions had been formed. The content analysis and comparison of the number of the functions of Responsible persons performed in health care institutions of different types is carried out. The new functions of the Responsible persons of health care institutions are considered. The managerial nature of the professional functions of the Responsible persons and the expediency of their complementing with the leadership functions are substantiated. On the basis of international management standards, requirements of GPP and GPEP, systematization of the functions of the Responsible persons of health care institutions in the groups and subgroups was performed. Conclusions. The generalization and systematization of the professional functions of the Responsible persons of health care institutions had been carried out for five classification groups of functions, namely: leadership, planning, organizational, control and information, of which the

  4. Listeners' Response to Music as a Function of Personality Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara E.; Schmidt, Charles P.

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of research concerning the relationship between listener response to music and personality variables. Reports that correlations were found among undergraduate music appreciation students between the Music Listener Response Scale and sensing intuition for the entire group and between judgment perception and the scale among…

  5. Functional Group Analysis for Diesel-like Mixing-Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Daniel J.; McCormick, Robert L.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Fioroni, Gina; George, Anthe; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-12-30

    This report addresses the suitability of hydrocarbon and oxygenate functional groups for use as a diesel-like fuel blending component in an advanced, mixing-controlled, compression ignition combustion engine. The functional groups are chosen from those that could be derived from a biomass feedstock, and represent a full range of chemistries. This first systematic analysis of functional groups will be of value to all who are pursuing new bio-blendstocks for diesel-like fuels.

  6. Tunable Oxygen Functional Groups as Electrocatalysts on Graphite Felt Surfaces for All-Vanadium Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estevez, Luis [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Reed, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Nie, Zimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Schwarz, Ashleigh M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Nandasiri, Manjula I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Kizewski, James P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Wang, Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Thomsen, Edwin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Liu, Jun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA; Li, Bin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999 Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-05-17

    We decorated the surfaces of graphite felts with some oxygen-containing functional groups, such as C-OH, O=C and HO-C=O. And the mole ratios and amounts of these functional groups were effectively adjusted on the graphite surface by a particular method. The catalytic effects of amounts and mole ratio of different kinds of functional groups on VRB electrode performances were investigated in detail.

  7. Placebo responses on cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory organ functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Karin

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that placebo responses are accompanied by physiological changes in the central nervous system, but little is known about placebo responses on end organ functions. The present chapter aims to fill this gap by reviewing the literature on peripheral placebo responses. Overall, there is a wide range of placebo and nocebo responses on various organ functions of the cardiovascular, the gastrointestinal system, and the respiratory system. Most of these studies used expectation paradigms to elicit placebo and nocebo responses. Expectations can affect heart rate, blood pressure, coronary diameter, gastric motility, bowel motility, and lung function. Classical conditioning can induce placebo respiratory depression after prior exposure to opioid drugs, and habitual coffee drinkers show physiological arousal in response to coffee-associated stimuli. Similar to findings in placebo pain research, peripheral placebo responses can be target specific. The autonomic nervous system is a likely candidate to mediate peripheral placebo responses. Further studies are necessary to identify the brain mechanisms and pathways involved in peripheral placebo responses.

  8. Impulse-response analysis of monetary policy – Visegád group countries case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Myšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on comparability of monetary policies of Visegrád group countries (V4. Main objective of central banks function in V4 countries lies in maintaining price stability. For this purpose, inflation targeting regime is realized in a medium-term focus in V4, which means that there is a certain lag between monetary policy operation and its influence on an inflation target. Central bank does not have a direct impact on its ultimate goals. Therefore, any monetary policy analysis and assumption of its effectiveness comes out from an essential existence of a working transmission mechanism. Thus, changes in settings of monetary policy instruments have to be able to inflict causal changes on intermediary markets and via these markets on target markets. This situation can be modeled by the vector autoregressive (VAR model with suitable variables. Our main task is to compare a relationship between VAR model responses to predefined impulses for all V4 pairs. We use calibration technique for this purpose. Specifically, we will utilize one-dimensional calibration model with a linear calibration function for deriving unknown parameters. Moreover, we will test a significance of estimated parameters. We distinguish between model parameters for before-crisis- and during-crisis- data, because we suppose that financial crisis affects VAR model parameters significantly. Different responses in each country can mean the inability of the common monetary policy for V4 at present.

  9. Defining planktonic protist functional groups on mechanisms for energy and nutrient acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Aditee; Flynn, Kevin J.; Tillmann, Urban

    2016-01-01

    Arranging organisms into functional groups aids ecological research by grouping organisms (irrespective of phylogenetic origin) that interact with environmental factors in similar ways. Planktonic protists traditionally have been split between photoautotrophic “phytoplankton” and phagotrophic...

  10. The performance of gilts in a new group housing system: endocrinological and immunological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Borell, E; Morris, J R; Hurnik, J F; Mallard, B A; Buhr, M M

    1992-09-01

    The effect of a new group housing system on performance (132 gilts and litters) and endocrinological (35 gilts) and immunological functions (28 gilts) was studied. Animals were randomly assigned to a conventional system (control), involving greater than 2 mo in individual stalls, or to the Hurnik-Morris (H-M) housing system, involving continuous housing in small groups, for breeding-gestating swine. The gilts were reared throughout gestation in their respective housing systems and moved 3 to 5 d prefarrowing to a common farrowing facility. Various production data were collected, including sow weight and backfat measurements, number of pigs born, number born alive, number weaned, litter birth weight, and litter weaning weight. An adrenal function test using dexamethasone pretreatment and ACTH1-24 challenge was imposed on gilts 5 d prebreeding and once between d 81 to 87 of gestation. Plasma progesterone was measured at the same time. Immune function was measured by serum antibody response to hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to tuberculin. Gilts reared in the H-M housing system exhibited a number of pigs weaned per litter and litter weaning weights comparable to the number and weights in the control system (7.3 +/- .33 vs 6.9 +/- .38, P = .421 and 56.9 +/- 2.42 kg vs 51.3 +/- 2.76 kg, P = .132, respectively). Prefarrowing and weaning backfat measurements were significantly reduced in group-housed gilts (15.8 +/- .45 mm vs 17.8 +/- .55 mm, P = .005 and 14.6 +/- .4 mm vs 16.2 +/- .42 mm, P = .008, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. 34 CFR 75.129 - Legal responsibilities of each member of the group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Legal responsibilities of each member of the group. 75.129 Section 75.129 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS How To Apply for a Grant Group Applications § 75.129 Legal responsibilities of each member of the...

  12. Testing functional trait-based mechanisms underpinning plant responses to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning in grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, S. X.; Li, W. H.; Lan, Z. C.; Ren, H. Y.; Wang, K. B.; Bai, Y. F.

    2014-09-01

    Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, ecological strategies, community structure, and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have examined how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and functional group identity. We test functional trait-based mechanisms underlying the responses of different life forms to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning along a soil moisture gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on 9 traits × 276 species matrix showed that the plant size spectrum (i.e., individual biomass), leaf economics spectrum (leaf N content and leaf density), and light competition spectrum (height and stem-leaf biomass ratio) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The three life forms exhibited differential strategies as indicated by trait responses to grazing. The annuals and biennials adopted grazing-tolerant strategies associated with high growth rate, reflected by high leaf N content and specific leaf area. The perennial grasses exhibited grazing-tolerant strategies associated with great regrowth capacity and high palatability scores, whereas perennial forbs showed grazing-avoidant strategies with short stature and low palatability scores. In addition, the dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance-resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive-conservative strategies in resource utilization. Grazing increased the relative abundance of perennial forbs with low palatability in the wet and fertile meadow, but it promoted perennial grasses with high palatability in the dry and infertile typical steppe. Our findings suggest that the effects of grazing on plant functional traits are dependent on both the abiotic (e.g., soil moisture) and biotic (e.g., plant functional group identity and composition) factors. Grazing-induced shifts in functional group composition are largely dependent on resource

  13. DFT studies on the heterogeneous oxidation of SO2 by oxygen functional groups on graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guangzhi; He, Hong

    2016-11-23

    The heterogeneous oxidation of SO 2 has been the subject of intense scrutiny in atmospheric chemistry because of the adverse effects of sulfate particles. Although it has been found that the soot particles with a graphene-like structure play an important role in the oxidation of SO 2 , little is known about the atomic-level mechanism involved. Here, we studied the oxidation of SO 2 on oxygen-functionalized graphene using density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The results showed that SO 2 is oxidized by the epoxide group via a two-step mechanism, where the C-O bond away from the SO 2 is broken first, followed by the breaking of the other C-O bond and the synchronous formation of a new S-O bond. The energy barriers are significantly decreased when solvation free energies are involved, suggesting that humidity is favorable for promoting the oxidation by reducing the reaction barrier. The energy barriers for H 2 SO 3 oxidation are much higher than that for SO 2 oxidation, indicating that the direct conversion of SO 2 to SO 3 is the main pathway for the oxidation of SO 2 by oxygen-functionalized graphene sheets in both the gas phase and solution. The reduced density gradient (RDG) analysis showed that the hydrogen bond formed between H 2 SO 3 and epoxide groups enhances the stability of the reaction complex, and is responsible for the high energy barrier that has to be overcome for the reaction to proceed. These atomistic studies proposed a two-step mechanism for the oxidation of SO 2 on the oxygen-functionalized graphene-like carbonaceous surfaces under ambient conditions.

  14. Measurement and structure of spiral wave response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, Hans; Verschelde, Henri; Panfilov, Alexander V.

    2017-09-01

    The rotating spiral waves that emerge in diverse natural and man-made systems typically exhibit a particle-like behaviour since their adjoint critical eigenmodes (response functions) are often seen to be localised around the spiral core. We present a simple method to numerically compute response functions for circular-core and meandering spirals by recording their drift response to many elementary perturbations. Although our method is computationally more expensive than solving the adjoint system, our technique is fully parallellisable, does not suffer from memory limitations and can be applied to experiments. For a cardiac tissue model with the linear spiral core, we find that the response functions are localised near the turning points of the trajectory.

  15. Dynamic response function and large-amplitude dissipative collective motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xizhen; Zhuo Yizhong; Li Zhuxia; Sakata, Fumihiko.

    1993-05-01

    Aiming at exploring microscopic dynamics responsible for the dissipative large-amplitude collective motion, the dynamic response and correlation functions are introduced within the general theory of nuclear coupled-master equations. The theory is based on the microscopic theory of nuclear collective dynamics which has been developed within the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) theory for disclosing complex structure of the TDHF-manifold. A systematic numerical method for calculating the dynamic response and correlation functions is proposed. By performing numerical calculation for a simple model Hamiltonian, it is pointed out that the dynamic response function gives an important information in understanding the large-amplitude dissipative collective motion which is described by an ensemble of trajectories within the TDHF-manifold. (author)

  16. Conflict's consequences: effects of social motives on postnegotiation creative and convergent group functioning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beersma, Bianca; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2005-09-01

    Two studies tested the effects of social motives during negotiation on postnegotiation group performance. In both experiments, a prosocial or a proself motivation was induced, and participants negotiated in 3-person groups about a joint market. In Experiment 1, groups subsequently performed an advertisement task. Consistent with the authors' predictions, results showed that proself groups performed worse on the convergent aspects of this task but better on the divergent aspects than prosocial groups. In Experiment 2, the authors manipulated social motive and negotiation (negotiation vs. no negotiation), and groups performed a creativity task (requiring divergent performance) or a planning task (requiring convergent performance). Proself groups showed greater dedication, functioned more effectively, and performed better than prosocial groups on the creativity task, whereas prosocial groups showed greater dedication, functioned more effectively, and performed better than proself groups on the planning task, and these effects only occurred when the task was preceded by group negotiation.

  17. Silicon Drift Detector response function for PIXE spectra fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzolai, G.; Tapinassi, S.; Chiari, M.; Giannoni, M.; Nava, S.; Pazzi, G.; Lucarelli, F.

    2018-02-01

    The correct determination of the X-ray peak areas in PIXE spectra by fitting with a computer program depends crucially on accurate parameterization of the detector peak response function. In the Guelph PIXE software package, GUPIXWin, one of the most used PIXE spectra analysis code, the response of a semiconductor detector to monochromatic X-ray radiation is described by a linear combination of several analytical functions: a Gaussian profile for the X-ray line itself, and additional tail contributions (exponential tails and step functions) on the low-energy side of the X-ray line to describe incomplete charge collection effects. The literature on the spectral response of silicon X-ray detectors for PIXE applications is rather scarce, in particular data for Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) and for a large range of X-ray energies are missing. Using a set of analytical functions, the SDD response functions were satisfactorily reproduced for the X-ray energy range 1-15 keV. The behaviour of the parameters involved in the SDD tailing functions with X-ray energy is described by simple polynomial functions, which permit an easy implementation in PIXE spectra fitting codes.

  18. Building functional groups of marine benthic macroinvertebrates on the basis of general community assembly mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Nikolaos; Bacher, Cédric; Desroy, Nicolas; Jean, Fred

    2017-03-01

    The accurate reproduction of the spatial and temporal dynamics of marine benthic biodiversity requires the development of mechanistic models, based on the processes that shape macroinvertebrate communities. The modelled entities should, accordingly, be able to adequately represent the many functional roles that are performed by benthic organisms. With this goal in mind, we applied the emergent group hypothesis (EGH), which assumes functional equivalence within and functional divergence between groups of species. The first step of the grouping involved the selection of 14 biological traits that describe the role of benthic macroinvertebrates in 7 important community assembly mechanisms. A matrix of trait values for the 240 species that occurred in the Rance estuary (Brittany, France) in 1995 formed the basis for a hierarchical classification that generated 20 functional groups, each with its own trait values. The functional groups were first evaluated based on their ability to represent observed patterns of biodiversity. The two main assumptions of the EGH were then tested, by assessing the preservation of niche attributes among the groups and the neutrality of functional differences within them. The generally positive results give us confidence in the ability of the grouping to recreate functional diversity in the Rance estuary. A first look at the emergent groups provides insights into the potential role of community assembly mechanisms in shaping biodiversity patterns. Our next steps include the derivation of general rules of interaction and their incorporation, along with the functional groups, into mechanistic models of benthic biodiversity.

  19. Chemical transferability of functional groups follows from the nearsightedness of electronic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fias, Stijn; Heidar-Zadeh, Farnaz; Geerlings, Paul; Ayers, Paul W

    2017-10-31

    We establish the physical origins of chemical transferability from the perspective of the nearsightedness of electronic matter. To do this, we explicitly evaluate the response of electron density to a change in the system, at constant chemical potential, by computing the softness kernel, [Formula: see text] The softness kernel is nearsighted, indicating that under constant-chemical-potential conditions like dilute solutions changing the composition of the molecule at [Formula: see text] has only local effects and does not have any significant impact on the reactivity at positions [Formula: see text] far away from point [Formula: see text] This locality principle elucidates the transferability of functional groups in chemistry. Published under the PNAS license.

  20. A CRM domain protein functions dually in group I and group II intron splicing in land plant chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Barkan, Alice

    2007-12-01

    The CRM domain is a recently recognized RNA binding domain found in three group II intron splicing factors in chloroplasts, in a bacterial protein that associates with ribosome precursors, and in a family of uncharacterized proteins in plants. To elucidate the functional repertoire of proteins with CRM domains, we studied CFM2 (for CRM Family Member 2), which harbors four CRM domains. RNA coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that CFM2 in maize (Zea mays) chloroplasts is associated with the group I intron in pre-trnL-UAA and group II introns in the ndhA and ycf3 pre-mRNAs. T-DNA insertions in the Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog condition a defective-seed phenotype (strong allele) or chlorophyll-deficient seedlings with impaired splicing of the trnL group I intron and the ndhA, ycf3-int1, and clpP-int2 group II introns (weak alleles). CFM2 and two previously described CRM proteins are bound simultaneously to the ndhA and ycf3-int1 introns and act in a nonredundant fashion to promote their splicing. With these findings, CRM domain proteins are implicated in the activities of three classes of catalytic RNA: group I introns, group II introns, and 23S rRNA.

  1. Science in Emergency Response at CDC: Structure and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskander, John; Rose, Dale A; Ghiya, Neelam D

    2017-09-01

    Recent high-profile activations of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Emergency Operations Center (EOC) include responses to the West African Ebola and Zika virus epidemics. Within the EOC, emergency responses are organized according to the Incident Management System, which provides a standardized structure and chain of command, regardless of whether the EOC activation occurs in response to an outbreak, natural disaster, or other type of public health emergency. By embedding key scientific roles, such as the associate director for science, and functions within a Scientific Response Section, the current CDC emergency response structure ensures that both urgent and important science issues receive needed attention. Key functions during emergency responses include internal coordination of scientific work, data management, information dissemination, and scientific publication. We describe a case example involving the ongoing Zika virus response that demonstrates how the scientific response structure can be used to rapidly produce high-quality science needed to answer urgent public health questions and guide policy. Within the context of emergency response, longer-term priorities at CDC include both streamlining administrative requirements and funding mechanisms for scientific research.

  2. Structure and function studies on enzymes with a catalytic carboxyl group(s): from ribonuclease T1 to carboxyl peptidases

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKAHASHI, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A group of enzymes, mostly hydrolases or certain transferases, utilize one or a few side-chain carboxyl groups of Asp and/or Glu as part of the catalytic machinery at their active sites. This review follows mainly the trail of studies performed by the author and his colleagues on the structure and function of such enzymes, starting from ribonuclease T1, then extending to three major types of carboxyl peptidases including aspartic peptidases, glutamic peptidases and serine-carboxyl peptidases. PMID:23759941

  3. Biodegradable polyglycerols with randomly distributed ketal groups as multi-functional drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, Rajesh A; Lai, Benjamin F L; Imran ul-haq, Muhammad; Brooks, Donald E; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2013-08-01

    Biodegradable multi-functional polymeric nanostructures that undergo controlled degradation in response to physiological cues are important in numerous biomedical applications including drug delivery, bio-conjugation and tissue engineering. In this paper, we report the development of a new class of water soluble multi-functional branched biodegradable polymer with high molecular weight and biocompatibility which demonstrates good correlation of in vivo biodegradation and in vitro hydrolysis. Main chain degradable hyperbranched polyglycerols (HPG) (20-100 kDa) were synthesized by the introduction of acid labile groups within the polymer structure by an anionic ring opening copolymerization of glycidol with ketal-containing epoxide monomers with different ketal structures. The water soluble biodegradable HPGs with randomly distributed ketal groups (RBHPGs) showed controlled degradation profiles in vitro depending on the pH of solution, temperature and the structure of incorporated ketal groups, and resulted in non-toxic degradation products. NMR studies demonstrated the branched nature of RBHPGs which is correlating with their smaller hydrodynamic radii. The RBHPGs and their degradation products exhibited excellent blood compatibility and tissue compatibility based on various analyses methods, independent of their molecular weight and ketal group structure. When administered intravenously in mice, tritium labeled RBHPG of molecular weight 100 kDa with dimethyl ketal group showed a circulation half life of 2.7 ± 0.3 h, correlating well with the in vitro polymer degradation half life (4.3 h) and changes in the molecular weight profile during the degradation (as measured by gel permeation chromatography) in buffer conditions at 37 °C. The RBHPG degraded into low molecular weight fragments that were cleared from circulation rapidly. The biodistribution and excretion studies demonstrated that RBHPG exhibited significantly lower tissue accumulation and enhanced urinary

  4. Local and linear chemical reactivity response functions at finite temperature in density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Pérez, Marco; Ayers, Paul W.; Gázquez, José L.; Vela, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    We explore the local and nonlocal response functions of the grand canonical potential density functional at nonzero temperature. In analogy to the zero-temperature treatment, local (e.g., the average electron density and the local softness) and nonlocal (e.g., the softness kernel) intrinsic response functions are defined as partial derivatives of the grand canonical potential with respect to its thermodynamic variables (i.e., the chemical potential of the electron reservoir and the external potential generated by the atomic nuclei). To define the local and nonlocal response functions of the electron density (e.g., the Fukui function, the linear density response function, and the dual descriptor), we differentiate with respect to the average electron number and the external potential. The well-known mathematical relationships between the intrinsic response functions and the electron-density responses are generalized to nonzero temperature, and we prove that in the zero-temperature limit, our results recover well-known identities from the density functional theory of chemical reactivity. Specific working equations and numerical results are provided for the 3-state ensemble model

  5. Fish functional groups in a tropical wetland of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Córdova-Tapia

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The characterization of species' functional traits is a major step in the understanding and description of communities in natural habitats. The classification of species into functional groups is a useful tool to identify redundancy and uniqueness. We studied the fish community of a pristine freshwater wetland in the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve by analysing two multidimensional functions: food acquisition and locomotion. We investigated changes in the functional group structure between habitats (permanent and temporary pools and seasons (dry and wet. Six functional groups with different ecological characteristics were detected, two of which had high functional redundancy and three of them were represented by single species with unique ecological functions. In permanent pools during the dry season, functional group richness and diversity were lower, while evenness was higher. During the wet season, all functional groups were detected and similar functional group structure was found between habitats. These results suggest an effect of environmental filtering during the dry season and niche complementarity during the wet season.

  6. Calculating the knowledge-based similarity of functional groups using crystallographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Paul; Willett, Peter; Gillet, Valerie J.; Verdonk, Marcel L.

    2001-09-01

    A knowledge-based method for calculating the similarity of functional groups is described and validated. The method is based on experimental information derived from small molecule crystal structures. These data are used in the form of scatterplots that show the likelihood of a non-bonded interaction being formed between functional group A (the `central group') and functional group B (the `contact group' or `probe'). The scatterplots are converted into three-dimensional maps that show the propensity of the probe at different positions around the central group. Here we describe how to calculate the similarity of a pair of central groups based on these maps. The similarity method is validated using bioisosteric functional group pairs identified in the Bioster database and Relibase. The Bioster database is a critical compilation of thousands of bioisosteric molecule pairs, including drugs, enzyme inhibitors and agrochemicals. Relibase is an object-oriented database containing structural data about protein-ligand interactions. The distributions of the similarities of the bioisosteric functional group pairs are compared with similarities for all the possible pairs in IsoStar, and are found to be significantly different. Enrichment factors are also calculated showing the similarity method is statistically significantly better than random in predicting bioisosteric functional group pairs.

  7. Different pain responses to chronic and acute pain in various ethnic/racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahavard, Behnoosh B; Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick

    2017-09-01

    Our goal in this study was to review the similarities and differences among ethnic groups and their respective responses to acute and chronic clinically related and experimentally induced pain. In this review, the PUBMED and Google-Scholar databases were searched to analyze articles that have assessed the variations in both acute and chronic pain responses among different ethnic/racial groups. According to the results from 42 reviewed articles, significant differences exist among ethnic-racial groups for pain prevalence as well as responses to acute and chronic pain. Compared with Caucasians, other ethnic groups are more susceptible to acute pain responses to nociceptive stimulation and to the development of long-term chronic pain. These differences need to be addressed and assessed more extensively in the future in order to minimize the pain management disparities among various ethnic-racial groups and also to improve the relationship between pain management providers and their patients.

  8. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie A Wieters

    Full Text Available We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km and local (10's m scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against

  9. Power and status within small groups: An analysis of students' verbal and nonverbal behavior and responses to one another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lynnae Carol

    The purpose of this research has been to determine the influence of verbal and nonverbal behavior on power and status within small groups. The interactions which took place within five small groups of students in a middle school spatial reasoning elective were analyzed. Verbal responses to requests for help were analyzed using sequential analysis techniques. Results indicated that the identity of the student asking a question or requesting help in some form or another is a better predictor of whether he/she will receive help than the type of questions he/she asks. Nonverbal behavior was analyzed for social gestures, body language, and shifts in possession of tools. Each nonverbal act was coded as either "positive" (encouraging participation) or "negative" (discouraging participation); and, the researchers found that in groups in which there was unequal participation and less "help" provided among peers (according to the verbal analysis results) there tended to be more "negative" nonverbal behavior demonstrated than in groups in which "shared talk time" and "helping behavior" were common characteristics of the norm. The combined results from the analyses of the verbal and nonverbal behavior of students within small groups were then reviewed through the conflict, power, status perspective of small group interactions in order to determine some common characteristics of high functioning (collaborative) and low functioning (non-collaborative) groups. Some common characteristics of the higher functioning groups include: few instances of conflict, shared "talk time" and decision making, inclusive leadership, frequent use of encouraging social gestures and body language, and more sharing of tools than seizing. Some shared traits among the lower functioning groups include: frequent occurrences of interpersonal conflict, a focus on process (rather than content), persuasive or alienating leadership, unequal participation and power, frequent use of discouraging social gestures

  10. Grouping, Overlap, and Generalized Bientropic Functions for Fuzzy Modeling of Pairwise Comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bustince, H.; Pagola, M.; Mesiar, Radko; Hullermeier, E.; Herrera, F.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2012), s. 405-415 ISSN 1063-6706 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : decision making * grouping function * overlap function Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 5.484, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/E/mesiar-grouping overlap and general bientropic functions for fuzzy modelling of pairwise comparisons.pdf

  11. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single...... functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001......) surface with plasmon energies deviating by less than 0.2 eV. Finally, the method is applied to study the influence of substrates on the plasmon excitations in graphene....

  12. Detecting the Subtle Shape Differences in Hemodynamic Responses at the Group Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the hemodynamic response (HDR is still not fully understood due to the multifaceted processes involved. Aside from the overall amplitude, the response may vary across cognitive states, tasks, brain regions, and subjects with respect to characteristics such as rise and fall speed, peak duration, undershoot shape, and overall duration. Here we demonstrate that the fixed-shape or adjusted-shape methods may fail to detect some shape subtleties. In contrast, the estimated-shape method (ESM through multiple basis functions can provide the opportunity to identify some subtle shape differences and achieve higher statistical power at both individual and group levels. Previously, some dimension reduction approaches focused on the peak magnitude, or made inferences based on the area under the curve or interaction, which can lead to potential misidentifications. By adopting a generic framework of multivariate modeling (MVM, we showcase a hybrid approach that is validated by simulations and real data. Unlike the few analyses that were limited to main effect, two- or three-way interactions, we extend the approach to an inclusive platform that is more adaptable than the conventional GLM, achieving a practical equipoise among representation, false positive control, statistical power, and modeling flexibility.

  13. Mortality salience enhances racial in-group bias in empathic neural responses to others' suffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyang; Liu, Yi; Luo, Siyang; Wu, Bing; Wu, Xinhuai; Han, Shihui

    2015-09-01

    Behavioral research suggests that mortality salience (MS) leads to increased in-group identification and in-group favoritism in prosocial behavior. What remains unknown is whether and how MS influences brain activity that mediates emotional resonance with in-group and out-group members and is associated with in-group favoritism in helping behavior. The current work investigated MS effects on empathic neural responses to racial in-group and out-group members' suffering. Experiments 1 and 2 respectively recorded event related potentials (ERPs) and blood oxygen level dependent signals to pain/neutral expressions of Asian and Caucasian faces from Chinese adults who had been primed with MS or negative affect (NA). Experiment 1 found that an early frontal/central activity (P2) was more strongly modulated by pain vs. neutral expressions of Asian than Caucasian faces, but this effect was not affected by MS vs. NA priming. However, MS relative to NA priming enhanced racial in-group bias in long-latency neural response to pain expressions over the central/parietal regions (P3). Experiment 2 found that MS vs. NA priming increased racial in-group bias in empathic neural responses to pain expression in the anterior and mid-cingulate cortex. Our findings indicate that reminding mortality enhances brain activity that differentiates between racial in-group and out-group members' emotional states and suggest a neural basis of in-group favoritism under mortality threat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Social functioning of patients with psychotic disorders in long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy: preliminary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Gregurek, Rudolf; Petrović, Ratimir; Orešković-Krezler, Nataša; Mihanović, Mate; Ivezić, Ena

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, social functioning of patients has increasingly been used as a criterion for assessing therapeutic efficacy of the group psychotherapy. The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether social functioning of patients with diagnosed psychotic disorders changes during their participation in psychodynamic group psychotherapy. The sample consisted of 30 patients involved in the psychodynamic group psychotherapy (PGP), and a comparative group of 30 patients treated only with antipsychotic medication therapy (treatment as usual; TAU). After two years of therapy, the instruments designed for this study (self-assessment and therapist-assessment questionnaire) were applied to examine changes in patient communication in their interpersonal relations, romantic and working functioning, and overall social functioning. The research also included data as to whom patients turned to for help, and the number of hospitalisations in the observed period. The majority of patients from both groups assessed their social functioning as improved, with significant differences found only in the area of romantic relations: more patients in the TAU group assessed their functioning as worsened. Nevertheless, a significantly higher number of patients in the PGP group were assessed by their therapists to have improved social functioning in all dimensions, except in the area of romantic relations, where there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. In comparison with the TAU group, twice as many patients in the PGP group turned to their psychiatrist for help and had four times fewer hospitalisations. Considering the limitations of this preliminary study, it can be concluded that the findings are promising, although further research is required to determine whether a psychodynamic approach to group psychotherapy truly leads to improved social functioning of patients with psychotic disorders.

  15. Nest Digging by Leaf-Cutting Ants: Effect of Group Size and Functional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto da Silva Camargo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-cutting ant workers dig underground chambers, for housing their symbiotic fungus, interconnected by a vast quantity of tunnels whose function is to permit the entrance of food (leaves, gaseous exchanges, and movement of workers, offspring, and the queen. Digging is a task executed by a group of workers, but little is known about the group effect and group-constructed functional structures. Thus, we analyzed the structures formed by worker groups (5, 10, 20, and 40 individuals of the leaf-cutting ant, Atta sexdens rubropilosa, for 2 days of excavation. The digging arena was the same for the 4 groups, with each group corresponding to a different density. Our results verified a pattern of tunneling by the workers, but no chamber was constructed. The group effect is well known, since the 40-worker group dug significantly more than the groups of 5, 10, and 20. These groups did not differ statistically from each other. Analysis of load/worker verified that workers of the smallest group carried the greatest load. Our paper demonstrates the group effect on the digging of nests, namely, that excavation is proportional to group size, but without emergence of a functional structure such as a chamber.

  16. Facile fabrication of siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with different functional groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zheng-Bai; Tai, Li; Zhang, Da-Ming; Jiang, Yong, E-mail: yj@seu.edu.cn [Southeast University, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2017-02-15

    Siloxane @ poly (methylacrylic acid) core-shell microparticles with functional groups were prepared by a facile hydrolysis-condensation method in this work. Three different silane coupling agents 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS), 3-triethoxysilylpropylamine (APTES), and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were added along with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) into the polymethylacrylic acid (PMAA) microparticle ethanol dispersion to form the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with different functional groups. The core-shell structure and the surface special functional groups of the resulting microparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy and FTIR. The sizes of these core-shell microparticles were about 350–400 nm. The corresponding preparation conditions and mechanism were discussed in detail. This hydrolysis-condensation method also could be used to functionalize other microparticles which contain active groups on the surface. Meanwhile, the Si@PMAA core-shell microparticles with carbon-carbon double bonds and amino groups have further been applied to prepare hydrophobic coatings.

  17. Group Theory of Wannier Functions Providing the Basis for a Deeper Understanding of Magnetism and Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Krüger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the group theory of optimally-localized and symmetry-adapted Wannier functions in a crystal of any given space group G or magnetic group M. Provided that the calculated band structure of the considered material is given and that the symmetry of the Bloch functions at all of the points of symmetry in the Brillouin zone is known, the paper details whether or not the Bloch functions of particular energy bands can be unitarily transformed into optimally-localized Wannier functions symmetry-adapted to the space group G, to the magnetic group M or to a subgroup of G or M. In this context, the paper considers usual, as well as spin-dependent Wannier functions, the latter representing the most general definition of Wannier functions. The presented group theory is a review of the theory published by one of the authors (Ekkehard Krüger in several former papers and is independent of any physical model of magnetism or superconductivity. However, it is suggested to interpret the special symmetry of the optimally-localized Wannier functions in the framework of a nonadiabatic extension of the Heisenberg model, the nonadiabatic Heisenberg model. On the basis of the symmetry of the Wannier functions, this model of strongly-correlated localized electrons makes clear predictions of whether or not the system can possess superconducting or magnetic eigenstates.

  18. Variation of phytoplankton functional groups modulated by hydraulic controls in Hongze Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Hao, Daping; Doblin, Martina A; Ren, Ying; Wei, Jielin; Feng, Yawei

    2015-11-01

    Hongze Lake is a large, shallow, polymictic, eutrophic lake in the eastern China. Phytoplankton functional groups in this lake were investigated from March 2011 to February 2013, and a comparison was made between the eastern, western, and northern regions. The lake shows strong fluctuations in water level caused by monsoon rains and regular hydraulic controls. By application of the phytoplankton functional group approach, this study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics and analyze their influencing factors. Altogether, 18 functional groups of phytoplankton were identified, encompassing 187 species. In order to seek the best variable describing the phytoplankton functional group distribution, 14 of the groups were analyzed in detail using redundancy analysis. Due to the turbid condition of the lake, the dominant functional groups were those tolerant of low light. The predominant functional groups in the annual succession were D (Cyclotella spp. and Synedra acus), T (Planctonema lauterbornii), P (Fragilaria crotonensis), X1 (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa), C (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cyclotella ocellata), and Y (Cryptomonas erosa). An opposite relationship between water level and the biomass of predominant groups was observed in the present study. Water level fluctuations, caused by monsoonal climate and artificial drawdown, were significant factors influencing phytoplankton succession in Hongze Lake, since they alter the hydrological conditions and influence light and nutrient availability. The clearly demonstrated factors, which significantly influence phytoplankton dynamics in Hongze Lake, will help government manage the large shallow lakes with frequent water level fluctuations.

  19. Response inhibition and immediate arousal in children with high-functioning autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raymaekers, Ruth; van der Meere, Jaap; Roeyers, Herbert

    The current study compared high-functioning children with autism (HFA) and a peer control group on an immediate arousal task measuring response inhibition. In one condition go stimuli were presented whereas in another condition a tone preceded the go stimulus. The tone caused an immediate arousal

  20. Functional outcomes of inpatient rehabilitation in very elderly patients with stroke: differences across three age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutai, Hitoshi; Furukawa, Tomomi; Wakabayashi, Ayumi; Suzuki, Akihito; Hanihara, Tokiji

    2018-05-01

    Background As the population continues to age rapidly, clarifying the factors affecting the prognosis in very elderly stroke patients is essential to enhance the quality of their rehabilitation. Objectives To compare the functional recovery of elderly stroke patients classified into three age groups and to identify the predictors of functional recovery in the very elderly following acute inpatient rehabilitation. Methods Observational study: We collected data on 461 stroke patients in the neurology and neurosurgery ward and classified them into three age groups (65-74, 75-84, and ≥ 85 years). Functional recovery was compared among groups using the functional independence measure (FIM) at discharge and ADL recovery rate was compared using the Montebello rehabilitation factor score (MRFS). Multiple regression analysis was used to identify and compare the factors associated with functional recovery in each age group. Results Functional recovery in the ≥ 85 years group was lower than that in other age groups. Factors associated with activities of daily living (ADL) status (FIM at discharge) in the ≥ 85 years group were premorbid dependence (β = -0.183, p = 0.011), motor paralysis (β = -0.238, p = 0.001), and cognitive function (β = 0.586, p age increased. Factors associated with ADL recovery rates (MRFS) in the ≥ 85 years group were non-paretic limb function (β = -0.294, p = 0.004) and cognitive function (β = 0.201, p = 0.047). Conclusions This study identified the factors associated with functional recovery among very elderly stroke patients. Effective forms of rehabilitation for very elderly stroke patients that take these factors into consideration need to be investigated.

  1. Functional response of Xylocoris falvipes , a biological control agent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The warehouse pirate bug Xylocoris falvipes is an opportunist predator of many stored product insect pests. Its functional response in relationship with variable densities of prey appears as the Holling\\'s type II model. The predator X. falvipes, collected within small holder granaries in Mayo Danay division in the far North ...

  2. Fitting of transfer functions to frequency response measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moret, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    An algorithm for approximating a given complex frequency response with a rational function of two polynomials with real coefficients is presented, together with its extension to distributed parameter systems, the corresponding error analysis and its application to a real case. (author) 5 figs., 4 refs

  3. Functional MRI of food-induced brain responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this research was to find central biomarkers of satiety, i.e., physiological measures in the brain that relate to subjectively rated appetite, actual food intake, or both. This thesis describes the changes in brain activity in response to food stimuli as measured by functional

  4. Helping as a Function of Empathic Responses and Sociopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Edward L.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated helping as a function of empathic anxiety (anxiety in response to modeled distress) and individual differences in sociopathic tendencies. Results indicated modeled distress produces increases in anxiety which are positively associated with helping and sociopathic individuals are less likely to help than are nonsociopathic individuals.…

  5. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, S.S.H.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Weerth, C. de

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (Mage = 6.09 years; 70 girls)

  6. Ventilatory functions response to breathing training versus aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Ventilatory functions response to breathing training versus aerobic training in asthmatic children. INTRODUCTION. Pharmacologic therapy remains the primary mode of treatment for patients with asthma and despite recent advances in pharmacological intervention, there is worldwide public interest in physical therapies for ...

  7. Functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles for stimuli-responsive and targeted

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, Nikola [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Construction of functional supramolecular nanoassemblies has attracted great deal of attention in recent years for their wide spectrum of practical applications. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) in particular were shown to be effective scaffolds for the construction of drug carriers, sensors and catalysts. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of stimuli-responsive, controlled release MSN-based assemblies for drug delivery.

  8. Functional diversity and community assembly of river invertebrates show globally consistent responses to decreasing glacier cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lee E; Khamis, Kieran; Wilkes, Martin; Blaen, Phillip; Brittain, John E; Carrivick, Jonathan L; Fell, Sarah; Friberg, Nikolai; Füreder, Leopold; Gislason, Gisli M; Hainie, Sarah; Hannah, David M; James, William H M; Lencioni, Valeria; Olafsson, Jon S; Robinson, Christopher T; Saltveit, Svein J; Thompson, Craig; Milner, Alexander M

    2018-02-01

    Global change threatens invertebrate biodiversity and its central role in numerous ecosystem functions and services. Functional trait analyses have been advocated to uncover global mechanisms behind biodiversity responses to environmental change, but the application of this approach for invertebrates is underdeveloped relative to other organism groups. From an evaluation of 363 records comprising >1.23 million invertebrates collected from rivers across nine biogeographic regions on three continents, consistent responses of community trait composition and diversity to replicated gradients of reduced glacier cover are demonstrated. After accounting for a systematic regional effect of latitude, the processes shaping river invertebrate functional diversity are globally consistent. Analyses nested within individual regions identified an increase in functional diversity as glacier cover decreases. Community assembly models demonstrated that dispersal limitation was the dominant process underlying these patterns, although environmental filtering was also evident in highly glacierized basins. These findings indicate that predictable mechanisms govern river invertebrate community responses to decreasing glacier cover globally.

  9. Dissecting stimulus-response binding effects: Grouping by color separately impacts integration and retrieval processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laub, Ruth; Frings, Christian; Moeller, Birte

    2018-04-23

    In selection tasks, target and distractor features can be encoded together with the response into the same short-lived memory trace, or event file (see Hommel, 2004), leading to bindings between stimulus and response features. The repetition of a stored target or distractor feature can lead to the retrieval of the entire episode, including the response-so-called "binding effects." Binding effects due to distractor repetition are stronger for grouped than for nongrouped target and distractor stimulus configurations. Modulation of either of two mechanisms that lead to the observed binding effects might be responsible here: Grouping may influence either stimulus-response integration or stimulus-response retrieval. In the present study we investigated the influences of grouping on both mechanisms independently. In two experiments, target and distractor letters were grouped (or nongrouped) via color (dis)similarity separately during integration and retrieval. Grouping by color similarity affected integration and retrieval mechanisms independently and in different ways. Color dissimilarity enhanced distractor-based retrieval, whereas color similarity enhanced distractor integration. We concluded that stimulus grouping is relevant for binding effects, but that the mechanisms that contribute to binding effects should be carefully separated.

  10. Time-dependent density-functional calculation of nuclear response functions

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsukasa, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Basic issues of the time-dependent density-functional theory are discussed, especially on the real-time calculation of the linear response functions. Some remarks on the derivation of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations and on the numerical methods are given.

  11. The influence of percutaneous nephrolithotomy on human systemic stress response, SIRS and renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pengfei; Wei, Wuran; Yang, Xiaochun; Zeng, Hao; Li, Xiong; Yang, Jie; Wang, Jia; Huang, Jiaoti

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and open surgery nephrolithotomy on the systemic stress response, SIRS and renal function. Forty patients with kidney calculi were enrolled in the study. Twenty cases were randomized to the PNL group and the other twenty cases to the open surgery group. Levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6(IL-6), β(2)-microglobulin (β(2)-MG), respiration rate, heart rate, body temperature and white blood cell counts were examined. CRP and IL-6 were measured in all patients pre-operatively and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 6, respectively. There was significant difference in their pre- and post-operation levels (P PNL group and 12 cases in open surgery group; there was significant difference between the two groups (P 0.05). Urine β(2)-MG levels were also measured. There was significant difference between pre- and the first day post-PNL (P PNL (P > 0.05). There was significant difference between pre- and first and third day post-open surgery (P 0.05). There was significant difference between two groups at the first, third and sixth days (P PNL group and open surgery group to some extent. The degree of stress response of PNL is lower than that of open surgery, proving the advantages of PNL with reference to serum immunology. There were cases in both the groups with SIRS, but the degree of SIRS in PNL group was lesser than the other group. Both the groups have no obvious effect on glomerular filtration function after operation and have effect on renal tubular reabsorption in the early stage after operation; but the recovery of the PNL group is faster than the open surgery group. It is thus shown that PNL is much safer and more feasible and has lesser effect on renal function.

  12. Serotonin transporter genotype and function in relation to antidepressant response in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Woojae; Lim, Shinn-Won; Kim, Seonwoo; Kim, Hyeran; Chung, Jae Won; Seo, Min Young; Kim, Jong-Won; Carroll, Bernard J; Kim, Doh Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms are linked with antidepressant response to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs (SSRIs), though the favorable allelic variant differs by ethnic group (Caucasian versus Korean or Japanese). In Caucasian patients, response also is linked to measures of platelet 5-HTT function. Here, we study both 5-HTT gene polymorphisms and 5-HTT function as determinants of antidepressant response to SSRIs in Korean patients. We enrolled 99 patients with major depression and 48 control subjects. For statistical power, both samples were enriched with the l/l 5-HTTLPR polymorphism, which is uncommon in Koreans. Patients were treated with fluoxetine or sertraline. Response was assessed at 6 weeks. Subjects were genotyped for s/l polymorphism in the 5-HTT promoter region (5-HTTLPR). Platelet 5-HTT activity was determined as maximal uptake rate (Vmax) and affinity constant (Km). Response was differentially associated with the s allele of 5-HTTLPR, which also was significantly associated with Vmax. These associations are opposite to those reported in Caucasian populations. Responders had significantly higher Vmax and Km than nonresponders. In Koreans as well as Caucasians, high Vmax is related to antidepressant response to SSRIs, though the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism associations with both response and function differ by ethnicity. Both ethnicity and function must be considered in evaluating candidate gene biomarkers of response to SSRIs in depression.

  13. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahmad Kamran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650-950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF is modeled by using two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters. The HRF model is supposed to be linear combination of HRF, baseline and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown. An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on twelve free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using ten real and fifteen simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis, i.e., (t-value >tcritical and p-value < 0.05.

  14. Functional Associations by Response Overlap (FARO), a functional genomics approach matching gene expression phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Mundy, J.; Willenbrock, Hanni

    2007-01-01

    for deriving 'Functional Association(s) by Response Overlap' (FARO) between microarray gene expression studies. The transcriptional response is defined by the set of differentially expressed genes independent from the magnitude or direction of the change. This approach overcomes the limited comparability...... to confirm and further delineate the functions of Arabidopsis MAP kinase 4 in disease and stress responses. Furthermore, we find that a large, well-defined set of genes responds in opposing directions to different stress conditions and predict the effects of different stress combinations. This demonstrates...

  15. Variation in Plant Response to Herbivory Underscored by Functional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Aspen T; Ames, Gregory M; Wright, Justin P

    2016-01-01

    The effects of herbivory can shape plant communities and evolution. However, the many forms of herbivory costs and the wide variation in herbivory pressure, including across latitudinal gradients, can make predicting the effects of herbivory on different plant species difficult. Functional trait approaches may aid in contextualizing and standardizing the assessment of herbivory impacts. Here we assessed the response of 26 old-field plant species to simulated defoliation in a greenhouse setting by measuring whole plant and leaf level traits in control and treated individuals. Simulated defoliation had no significant effects on any plant traits measured. However, the baseline leaf level traits of healthy plants consistently predicted the log response ratio for these species whole plant response to defoliation. The latitudinal mid-point of species' distributions was also significantly correlated with aboveground biomass and total leaf area responses, with plants with a more northern distribution being more negatively impacted by treatment. These results indicate that even in the absence of significant overall impacts, functional traits may aid in predicting variability in plant responses to defoliation and in identifying the underlying limitations driving those responses.

  16. Variation in Plant Response to Herbivory Underscored by Functional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspen T Reese

    Full Text Available The effects of herbivory can shape plant communities and evolution. However, the many forms of herbivory costs and the wide variation in herbivory pressure, including across latitudinal gradients, can make predicting the effects of herbivory on different plant species difficult. Functional trait approaches may aid in contextualizing and standardizing the assessment of herbivory impacts. Here we assessed the response of 26 old-field plant species to simulated defoliation in a greenhouse setting by measuring whole plant and leaf level traits in control and treated individuals. Simulated defoliation had no significant effects on any plant traits measured. However, the baseline leaf level traits of healthy plants consistently predicted the log response ratio for these species whole plant response to defoliation. The latitudinal mid-point of species' distributions was also significantly correlated with aboveground biomass and total leaf area responses, with plants with a more northern distribution being more negatively impacted by treatment. These results indicate that even in the absence of significant overall impacts, functional traits may aid in predicting variability in plant responses to defoliation and in identifying the underlying limitations driving those responses.

  17. Group-ICA model order highlights patterns of functional brain connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed eAbou Elseoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Resting-state networks (RSNs can be reliably and reproducibly detected using independent component analysis (ICA at both individual subject and group levels. Altering ICA dimensionality (model order estimation can have a significant impact on the spatial characteristics of the RSNs as well as their parcellation into sub-networks. Recent evidence from several neuroimaging studies suggests that the human brain has a modular hierarchical organization which resembles the hierarchy depicted by different ICA model orders. We hypothesized that functional connectivity between-group differences measured with ICA might be affected by model order selection. We investigated differences in functional connectivity using so-called dual-regression as a function of ICA model order in a group of unmedicated seasonal affective disorder (SAD patients compared to normal healthy controls. The results showed that the detected disease-related differences in functional connectivity alter as a function of ICA model order. The volume of between-group differences altered significantly as a function of ICA model order reaching maximum at model order 70 (which seems to be an optimal point that conveys the largest between-group difference then stabilized afterwards. Our results show that fine-grained RSNs enable better detection of detailed disease-related functional connectivity changes. However, high model orders show an increased risk of false positives that needs to be overcome. Our findings suggest that multilevel ICA exploration of functional connectivity enables optimization of sensitivity to brain disorders.

  18. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J

    2002-10-25

    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  19. Density functional theory calculations on azobenzene derivatives: a comparative study of functional group effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyanzina, Irina; Minisini, Benoit; Tayurskii, Dmitrii; Bardeau, Jean-François

    2015-02-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate the structural properties, dipole moments, polarizabilities, Gibbs energies, hardness, electronegativity, HOMO/LUMO energies, and chemical potentials of trans and cis configurations of eight para-substituted azobenzene derivatives. All properties have been obtained using the B3LYP functional and 6-31++G(d,p) basis set. The planar structures have been obtained for all optimized trans configurations. The energy difference between trans and cis configurations for considered derivatives was found to be between 64.2-73.1 kJ/mole. It has been obtained that the p-aminodiazo-benzene (ADAB) has the difference in the dipole moments between trans and cis forms higher than for trans and cis azobenzene.

  20. Anderson-Type Polyoxometalates Functionalized by Tetrathiafulvalene Groups: Synthesis, Electrochemical Studies, and NLO Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulmier, Amandine; Vacher, Antoine; Zang, Dejin; Yang, Shu; Saad, Ali; Marrot, Jérôme; Oms, Olivier; Mialane, Pierre; Ledoux, Isabelle; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Lorcy, Dominique; Dolbecq, Anne

    2018-04-02

    Three polyoxometalates (POMs) functionalized by tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) molecules have been synthesized by a coupling reaction between the Anderson-type POMs [MnMo 6 O 18 {(OCH 2 ) 3 CNH 2 } 2 ] 3- or [AlMo 6 O 18 (OH) 3 {(OCH 2 ) 3 CNH 2 }] 3- and the TTF carboxylic acid derivative (MeS) 3 TTF(S-CH 2 -CO 2 H). The monofunctionalized TTF-AlMo 6 POM contains one TTF group covalently grafted on an Al Anderson platform. The symmetrical TTF-MnMo 6 -TTF POM possesses two TTF groups grafted on each side of a Mn Anderson derivative while the asymmetrical TTF-MnMo 6 -SP POM contains a TTF and a spiropyran groups. These three trianionic species have been characterized by elemental analysis, 1 H and 13 C NMR, FT-IR spectroscopy, ESI-MS spectrometry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (for TTF-MnMo 6 -TTF). In the solid state, the grafted TTF molecules of TTF-MnMo 6 -TTF POMs interact via S···S and π···π interactions and form chains. The electrochemical properties of the complexes reflect the contributions of both the inorganic POM and the TTF moieties. Despite adsorption of the oxidized hybrid species on the Pt grid working electrode, UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemical investigations evidence peaks characteristic of the oxidation of the TTF units. Finally, hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) measurements show that the three novel TTF derivatives exhibit β values between 20 and 37 × 10 -30 esu. Moreover it is observed that the oxidation of the TTF moieties by Fe 3+ ions increases the NLO response. These values are in the order of magnitude of that found for the well-known 4-dimethylamino- N-methyl-4-stilbazolium (DAS + ) cation (β = 60 × 10 -30 esu).

  1. Development of thermo-responsive hydrogels with immobilized metal affinity groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young-Seo

    A Hydrogel is defined as a polymeric material which possesses the ability to swell in water and retain a significant fraction of water within its structure, but which will not dissolve in water. Hydrogels have been studied by many researchers because they have many useful applications in bio related fields such as drug delivery, bioseparation, and etc. In this thesis, a new hydrogel system that possesses the characteristics of thermo-responsive swelling property and immobilized metal affinity was developed. This affinity material consists of a hydrogel with stimuli responsive swelling characteristics to provide modulated diffusivity and size selectivity. Covalently bound ligands within hydrogels provide highly selective and tunable affinity-based separation. Swelling and affinity properties can be independently controlled by regulating the temperature or pH of the solution to provide a sequential separations scheme. The developed affinity hydrogels incorporate multiple modes of separations or recovery and concentrate specific solutes in chromatographic systems. Thermal sensitive affinity hydrogels were synthesized from a N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) monomer, a crosslinker (1,4-bismethylene acrylamide) and a ligand attachable co-monomer acrylamide (AAm), using free radical chemistry. The ligand of choice is the metal affinity iminodiacetic acid (IDA) which is bound to hydrogel backbone via a spacer arm. The challenge lay in incorporating affinity ligands without affecting the temperature induced swelling of the hydrogel. Thus, PNIPAAm-Am hydrogels are functionalized with a spacer arm (1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether), the chelating ligand IDA and a divalent metal ion (Cu2+). This ligand binds histidine groups at high pH and releases them upon protonation of histidine at low pH. This can be used to separate proteins based on the occurrence of surface histidine residues in them. The resulting affinity hydrogel was shown to adsorb the protein chicken egg white

  2. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selig, W.

    1977-11-08

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references.

  3. Ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, W.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the use of ion-selective electrodes in organic elemental and functional group analysis is surveyed in some detail. The survey is complete through Chemical Abstracts, Vol. 83 (1975). 40 figures, 52 tables, 236 references

  4. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  5. Thermal-nutritional regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Technical progress report, October 1, 1978-November 1, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, K.W.

    1980-11-01

    The research encompassed three general areas: (1) characterization of stream macroinvertebrate functional feeding groups (shredders, collectors, scrapers, and predators) based on morphological and behavioral adaptations and food-source-specific growth responses of selected species; (2) demonstration of the relative importance of temperature and food quality (in which maximum quality is defined as that producing the most growth) in controlling growth rate and survivorship of stream functional groups; and (3) derivation and refinement of conceptual and quantitative models of stream ecosystem structure and function, with particular emphasis on detrital processing. Verification of the functional group concept as a tool for assessing and predicting is reflected in alterations of the relative dominance of various functional groups. Food quality can strongly influence the growth rates of shredders, collectors and scrapers and override the effects of temperature in a number of cases. Gathering collectors may select food particles by size (or at least be restricted to a limited portion of the total range available) but representative species do not appear to select for quality.

  6. ABO blood group is associated with response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates with respiratory failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T El-Ferzli

    Full Text Available Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO reduces death or need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO in infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN. However, the response to iNO is variable and only 50-60% of infants demonstrate a response to iNO. It is not known why only some infants respond to iNO. Adults and children with blood groups B or AB do not respond as well to iNO as those with blood groups O/A.To determine if blood group was associated with iNO response in newborn infants, a retrospective medical record review was done of infants admitted to a regional NICU from 2002-9 with a diagnosis of PPHN. Data were collected during the first twelve hours post-initiation of treatment. Of 86 infants diagnosed with PPHN, 23 infants had blood group A [18 received iNO], 21 had group B [18 with iNO], 40 had group O [36 with iNO], and 2 had group AB [both received iNO]. Change in PaO(2/FiO(2 was less in infants with blood group A, of whom less than half were responders (ΔPaO(2/FiO(2>20% at 12 h versus 90% of infants with either O or B. Race, sex, birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and baseline PaO(2/FiO(2 were similar among groups. Outcomes including need for ECMO, death, length of ventilatory support, length of iNO use, and hospital stay were statistically not different by blood groups.Our results indicate that blood group influences iNO response in neonates. We hypothesize that either there is genetic linkage of the ABO gene locus with vasoregulatory genes, or that blood group antigens directly affect vascular reactivity.

  7. Response of Korean pine's functional traits to geography and climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichen Dong

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis functional trait responses to geographic and climatic factors in the eastern region of Northeast China (41°-48°N and the linear relationships among Korean pine functional traits, to explore this species' adaptability and ecological regulation strategies under different environmental conditions. Korean pine samples were collected from eight sites located at different latitudes, and the following factors were determined for each site: geographic factors-latitude, longitude, and altitude; temperature factors-mean annual temperature (MAT, growth season mean temperature (GST, and mean temperature of the coldest month (MTCM; and moisture factors-annual precipitation (AP, growth season precipitation (GSP, and potential evapotranspiration (PET. The Korean pine functional traits examined were specific leaf area (SLA, leaf thickness (LT, leaf dry matter content (LDMC, specific root length (SRL, leaf nitrogen content (LNC, leaf phosphorus content (LPC, root nitrogen content (RNC, and root phosphorus content (RPC. The results showed that Korean pine functional traits were significantly correlated to latitude, altitude, GST, MTCM, AP, GSP, and PET. Among the Korean pine functional traits, SLA showed significant linear relationships with LT, LDMC, LNC, LPC, and RPC, and LT showed significant linear relationships with LDMC, SRL, LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC; the linear relationships between LNC, LPC, RNC, and RPC were also significant. In conclusion, Korean pine functional trait responses to latitude resulted in its adaptation to geographic and climatic factors. The main limiting factors were precipitation and evapotranspiration, followed by altitude, latitude, GST, and MTCM. The impacts of longitude and MAT were not obvious. Changes in precipitation and temperature were most responsible for the close correlation among Korean pine functional traits, reflecting its adaption to habitat

  8. Quantitative determination of acidic groups in functionalized graphene by direct titration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ederer, J.; Janoš, P.; Ecorchard, Petra; Štengl, Václav; Bělčická, Zuzana; Šťastný, Martin; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Dohnal, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 103, JUN (2016), s. 44-53 ISSN 1381-5148 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Acid-base titration * Carboxylic functional groups * Graphene oxide * Phenolic functional groups * Proton-binding model Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 3.151, year: 2016

  9. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-01-01

    The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups ...

  10. Few-body hierarchy in non-relativistic functional renormalization group equations and a decoupling theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    For non-relativistic quantum field theory in the few-body limit with instantaneous interactions it is shown within the functional renormalization group formalism that propagators are not renormalized and that the renormalization group equations of one-particle irreducible vertex functions are governed by a hierarchical structure. This hierarchy allows to solve the equations in the n-body sector without knowledge or assumptions about the m-body sectors where m>n.

  11. Expression of plant group 2 and group 3 lea genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed functional divergence among LEA proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Ohta, A; Takagi, M; Imai, R

    2000-04-01

    To study functions of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, which accumulate in plant cells under water deficit conditions, in vivo functional analyses were carried out using a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) heterologous expression system. Two lea genes, tomato le4 (group 2) and barley HVA1 (group 3), were expressed under the GAL1 promoter, and the gene products were detected using specific antisera. The growth of the transformants was scored and compared with a control strain to analyze the effect of these proteins on yeast cells under stress conditions. The yeast cells expressing HVA1 showed shorter lag period when transferred to a medium containing 1.2 M NaCl as compared to a control strain, while the cells expressing le4 did not show improved growth. Attenuated growth inhibition in a medium containing 1.2 M KCl was observed in the yeast cells expressing le4 and HVA1. No obvious growth improvement was observed in a high sorbitol medium in the cells expressing either le4 or HVA1. Increased freezing tolerance was observed in both lea-expressing cells, while no effect on heat tolerance was observed. These results support the hypothesis that different LEA proteins play a distinctive role in the protection against cellular dehydration.

  12. Numerical integration of detector response functions via Monte Carlo simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, K. J.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Gomez, J. A.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Devlin, M.; Haight, R. C.; White, M. C.; Mosby, S. M.; Neudecker, D.; Buckner, M. Q.; Wu, C. Y.; Lee, H. Y.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations of detector response functions are complicated because they include the intricacies of signal creation from the detector itself as well as a complex interplay between the detector, the particle-emitting target, and the entire experimental environment. As such, these functions are typically only accessible through time-consuming Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, the output of thousands of Monte Carlo simulations can be necessary in order to extract a physics result from a single experiment. Here we describe a method to obtain a full description of the detector response function using Monte Carlo simulations. We also show that a response function calculated in this way can be used to create Monte Carlo simulation output spectra a factor of ∼ 1000 × faster than running a new Monte Carlo simulation. A detailed discussion of the proper treatment of uncertainties when using this and other similar methods is provided as well. This method is demonstrated and tested using simulated data from the Chi-Nu experiment, which measures prompt fission neutron spectra at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center.

  13. Effects of the Functional Group on the Lithium Irons Across the Port of Carbon Nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xie; Geng, Luo; Cheng-Bing, Yang; Chong, Luo; Chao, Liu

    2016-07-01

    The mean axial velocity of lithium irons across the entrance of carbon nanotube VLi is an important factor for the charge-discharge performances of rechargeable Lithium battery. The molecular dynamics simulation method is adopted to evaluate the factors and their effects on VLi which include the diameter of carbon nanotube, functional group type on the port and the number of a given type of functional group. The statistical analysis of the calculation results shows that: In the selected carbon nanotubes of four different diameters, VLi will gradually rise with the increase of CNT diameter due to lithium irons migration resistance decreasing; as the port of CNT is successively modified to hydrogen (-H), hydroxyl (-OH), amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH), the corresponding migration resistance of lithium ions is enhanced resulting in the dropping of VLi; in comparison to the effect strength of four types of functional groups on VLi, -COOH shows strongest, -NH2 and -OH perform relatively weaker, and the effect difference between -NH2 and -OH is very small, -H displays weakest; When the number of a given non-hydrogen functional group on the port sequentially increases, it also shows a trend that lithium ion migration resistance gradually increases which makes VLi decreases in turn. The more influential the functional group, the greater the impact of functional group number changes on VLi. The results of this paper have some significance on the precise production of lithium-ion battery electrode materials, enhancing the overall battery cycle efficiency and charging speed.

  14. The backward crosstalk effect or response grouping in the psychological refractory period paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kavyani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the psychological refractory period paradigm, the second response time is increased as the interval between the first and second stimulus is decreased. The response delay for the second stimulus is called the psychological refractory period. In contrast with these findings, some evidence of the backward crosstalk effect has shown that the first reaction time is affected by the second stimulus. The capacity sharing models, in which multiple stimuli can be processed simultaneously, unlike central bottleneck models, are able to provide some explanations for the changes in the reaction time to the first stimulus. However, sometimes these changes could be arisen from response grouping; the first response remains on the processing buffer until the response to the second stimulus is prepared, then both stimuli are responded simultaneously. The questions of this study were whether the second task difficulty and time interval manipulation would affect the first task response or not and in what extend changes are because of response grouping? Materials and Methods: Detection, discrimination and choice tasks were used as the second task in the psychological refractory period paradigm and the time interval between stimuli was 50, 100, 200, 400, or 1000 ms. Results: The type of the second stimulus and time interval between stimuli had an effect on the second-task and first-task reaction times. Conclusion: In the detection group, the first task response time changes were consistent with grouping between the two responses, but in the discrimination group the changes would arise from capacity limitation and were consistent with the backward crosstalk effect.

  15. Incorporating social groups' responses in a descriptive model for second- and higher-order impact identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutheerawatthana, Pitch; Minato, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The response of a social group is a missing element in the formal impact assessment model. Previous discussion of the involvement of social groups in an intervention has mainly focused on the formation of the intervention. This article discusses the involvement of social groups in a different way. A descriptive model is proposed by incorporating a social group's response into the concept of second- and higher-order effects. The model is developed based on a cause-effect relationship through the observation of phenomena in case studies. The model clarifies the process by which social groups interact with a lower-order effect and then generate a higher-order effect in an iterative manner. This study classifies social groups' responses into three forms-opposing, modifying, and advantage-taking action-and places them in six pathways. The model is expected to be used as an analytical tool for investigating and identifying impacts in the planning stage and as a framework for monitoring social groups' responses during the implementation stage of a policy, plan, program, or project (PPPPs).

  16. Restoration using Azolla imbricata increases nitrogen functional bacterial groups and genes in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Ming; Lu, Peng-Zhen; Yang, Ke

    2017-05-01

    Microbial groups are major factors that influence soil function. Currently, there is a lack of studies on microbial functional groups. Although soil microorganisms play an important role in the nitrogen cycle, systematic studies of the effects of environmental factors on microbial populations in relation to key metabolic processes in the nitrogen cycle are seldom reported. In this study, we conducted a systematic analysis of the changes in nitrogen functional groups in mandarin orange garden soil treated with Azolla imbricata. The structures of the major functional bacterial groups and the functional gene abundances involved in key processes of the soil nitrogen cycle were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. The results indicated that returning A. imbricata had an important influence on the composition of soil nitrogen functional bacterial communities. Treatment with A. imbricata increased the diversity of the nitrogen functional bacteria. The abundances of nitrogen functional genes were significantly higher in the treated soil compared with the control soil. Both the diversity of the major nitrogen functional bacteria (nifH bacteria, nirK bacteria, and narG bacteria) and the abundances of nitrogen functional genes in the soil showed significant positive correlations with the soil pH, the organic carbon content, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N contents. Treatment with 12.5 kg fresh A. imbricata per mandarin orange tree was effective to improve the quality of the mandarin orange garden soil. This study analyzed the mechanism of the changes in functional bacterial groups and genes involved in key metabolic processes of the nitrogen cycle in soil treated by A. imbricata.

  17. Ecosystem functional response across precipitation extremes in a sagebrush steppe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Tredennick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Precipitation is predicted to become more variable in the western United States, meaning years of above and below average precipitation will become more common. Periods of extreme precipitation are major drivers of interannual variability in ecosystem functioning in water limited communities, but how ecosystems respond to these extremes over the long-term may shift with precipitation means and variances. Long-term changes in ecosystem functional response could reflect compensatory changes in species composition or species reaching physiological thresholds at extreme precipitation levels. Methods We conducted a five year precipitation manipulation experiment in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem in Idaho, United States. We used drought and irrigation treatments (approximately 50% decrease/increase to investigate whether ecosystem functional response remains consistent under sustained high or low precipitation. We recorded data on aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP, species abundance, and soil moisture. We fit a generalized linear mixed effects model to determine if the relationship between ANPP and soil moisture differed among treatments. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling to quantify community composition over the five years. Results Ecosystem functional response, defined as the relationship between soil moisture and ANPP, was similar among irrigation and control treatments, but the drought treatment had a greater slope than the control treatment. However, all estimates for the effect of soil moisture on ANPP overlapped zero, indicating the relationship is weak and uncertain regardless of treatment. There was also large spatial variation in ANPP within-years, which contributes to the uncertainty of the soil moisture effect. Plant community composition was remarkably stable over the course of the experiment and did not differ among treatments. Discussion Despite some evidence that ecosystem functional response became more

  18. Retrieving impulse response function amplitudes from the ambient seismic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viens, Loïc; Denolle, Marine; Miyake, Hiroe; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Nakagawa, Shigeki

    2017-07-01

    Seismic interferometry is now widely used to retrieve the impulse response function of the Earth between two distant seismometers. The phase information has been the focus of most passive imaging studies, as conventional seismic tomography uses traveltime measurements. The amplitude information, however, is harder to interpret because it strongly depends on the distribution of ambient seismic field sources and on the multitude of processing methods. Our study focuses on the latter by comparing the amplitudes of the impulse response functions calculated between seismic stations in the Kanto sedimentary basin, Japan, using several processing techniques. This region provides a unique natural laboratory to test the reliability of the amplitudes with complex wave propagation through the basin, and dense observations from the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network. We compute the impulse response functions using the cross correlation, coherency and deconvolution techniques of the raw ambient seismic field and the cross correlation of 1-bit normalized data. To validate the amplitudes of the impulse response functions, we use a shallow Mw 5.8 earthquake that occurred on the eastern edge of Kanto Basin and close to a station that is used as the virtual source. Both S and surface waves are retrieved in the causal part of the impulse response functions computed with all the different techniques. However, the amplitudes obtained from the deconvolution method agree better with those of the earthquake. Despite the expected wave attenuation due to the soft sediments of the Kanto Basin, seismic amplification caused by the basin geometry dominates the amplitudes of S and surface waves and is captured by the ambient seismic field. To test whether or not the anticausal part of the impulse response functions from deconvolution also contains reliable amplitude information, we use another virtual source located on the western edge of the basin. We show that the surface wave amplitudes

  19. Overview on the Surface Functionalization Mechanism and Determination of Surface Functional Groups of Plasma Treated Carbon Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Cafer

    2018-01-02

    The use of carbon materials for many applications is due to the unique diversity of structures and properties ranging from chemical bonds between the carbon atoms of the materials to nanostructures, crystallite alignment, and microstructures. Carbon nanotubes and other nanoscale carbonaceous materials draw much attention due to their physical and chemical properties, such as high strength, high resistance to corrosion, electrical and thermal conductivity, stability and a qualified adsorbent. Carbon-based nanomaterials, which have a relatively large specific area and layered structure, can be used as an adsorbent for efficient removal of organic and inorganic contaminants. However, one of the biggest obstacles to the development of carbon-based nanomaterials adsorbents is insolubility and the lack of functional groups on the surface. There are several approaches to introduce functional groups on carbon nanotubes. One of these approaches, plasma applications, now has an important place in the creation of surface functional groups as a flexible, fast, and environmentally friendly method. This review focuses on recent information concerning the surface functionalization and modification of plasma treated carbon nanotube. This review considers the surface properties, advantages, and disadvantages of plasma-applied carbon nanotubes. It also examines the reaction mechanisms involved in the functional groups on the surface.

  20. [Effect of obesity on pulmonary function in asthmatic children of different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xue-Li; Liang, Fan-Mei; Luo, Rong

    2017-05-01

    To study the effect of obesity on pulmonary function in newly diagnosed asthmatic children of different age groups. Two hundred and ninety-four children with newly diagnosed asthma were classified into preschool-age (age (6 to 12.5 years) groups. They were then classified into obese, overweight, and normal-weight subgroups based on their body mass index (BMI). All the children underwent pulmonary function tests, including large airway function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC%) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1%)] and small airway function tests [maximal expiratory flow at 25% of vital capacity (MEF25%), maximal expiratory flow at 50% of vital capacity (MEF50%), and maximal expiratory flow at 75% of vital capacity (MEF75%)]. The school-age group showed lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% than the preschool-age group (Page group had lower FEV1%, MEF25%, and MEF50% compared with their counterparts in the preschool-age group (Page group showed lower FVC% and MEF50% than those in the preschool-age group. However, all the pulmonary function parameters showed no significant differences between the obese children in the preschool-age and school-age groups. In the preschool-age group, FVC%, FEV1%, and MEF75% of the obese children were lower than those of the normal-weight children. In the school-age group, only FVC% and FEV1% showed differences between the obese and normal-weight children (Page in children with asthma, and the effect is more obvious in those of preschool age.

  1. Why one needs a functional renormalization group to survive in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We can not thus restrict ourselves to keeping solely the first moments of the disorder, but have to keep the whole disorder-distribution func- tion R(u). Thus we need a functional renormalization group (FRG) treatment. Functional renormalization is an old idea going back to the seventies, and can. e.g. be found in Wegner and ...

  2. Loop expansion of the average effective action in the functional renormalization group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Peter M.; Merzlikin, Boris S.

    2015-10-01

    We formulate a perturbation expansion for the effective action in a new approach to the functional renormalization group method based on the concept of composite fields for regulator functions being their most essential ingredients. We demonstrate explicitly the principal difference between the properties of effective actions in these two approaches existing already on the one-loop level in a simple gauge model.

  3. Versatile Synthesis of Amino Acid Functional Polymers without Protection Group Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Emma R L; Xiao, Zeyun; Franks, George V; Connal, Luke A

    2017-01-09

    The copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAm) with aldehyde functional monomers facilitates postpolymerization functionalization with amino acids via reductive amination, negating the need for protecting groups. In reductive amination, the imine formed from the condensation reaction between an amine and an aldehyde is reduced to an amine. In this work, we categorize amino acids into four classes based on the functionality of their side chains (acidic, polar neutral, neutral, and basic) and use their amine groups in condensation reactions with aldehyde functional polymers. The dynamic nature of the imine as well as the versatility of reductive amination to functionalize a polymer with a range of amino acids is highlighted. In this manner, amino acid functional polymers are synthesized without the use of protecting groups with high yields, demonstrating the high functional group tolerance of carbonyl condensation chemistry and the subsequent reduction of the imine. Prior to the reduction of the imine bond, transimination reactions are used to demonstrate dynamic polymers that shuffle from a glycine- to a histidine-functional polymer.

  4. Identification of differential item functioning in multiple-group settings: a multivariate outlier detection approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magis, D.; de Boeck, P.

    2011-01-01

    We focus on the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) when more than two groups of examinees are considered. We propose to consider items as elements of a multivariate space, where DIF items are outlying elements. Following this approach, the situation of multiple groups is a quite

  5. The impact of attitude functions on luxury brand consumption: An age-based group comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schade, Michael; Hegner, Sabrina; Hegner, Sabrina; Horstmann, Florian; Brinkmann, Nora

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand the consumption of luxury brands in different age groups. Attitude functions (social-adjustive, value-expressive, hedonic, utilitarian) explain luxury brand consumption among three age groups. A total of 297 respondents between the age of 16 and 59

  6. Diversity, mobility, and structural and functional evolution of group II introns carrying an unusual 3' extension

    OpenAIRE

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Stabell, Fredrik B; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    2011-01-01

    Background Group II introns are widespread genetic elements endowed with a dual functionality. They are catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) that are able of self-splicing and they are also mobile retroelements that can invade genomic DNA. The group II intron RNA secondary structure is typically made up of six domains. However, a number of unusual group II introns carrying a unique extension of 53-56 nucleotides at the 3' end have been identified previously in bacteria of the Bacillu...

  7. Potentiation of NMDA receptor-dependent cell responses by extracellular high mobility group box 1 protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pedrazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extracellular high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1 protein can operate in a synergistic fashion with different signal molecules promoting an increase of cell Ca(2+ influx. However, the mechanisms responsible for this effect of HMGB1 are still unknown. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that, at concentrations of agonist per se ineffective, HMGB1 potentiates the activation of the ionotropic glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR in isolated hippocampal nerve terminals and in a neuroblastoma cell line. This effect was abolished by the NMDA channel blocker MK-801. The HMGB1-facilitated NMDAR opening was followed by activation of the Ca(2+-dependent enzymes calpain and nitric oxide synthase in neuroblastoma cells, resulting in an increased production of NO, a consequent enhanced cell motility, and onset of morphological differentiation. We have also identified NMDAR as the mediator of HMGB1-stimulated murine erythroleukemia cell differentiation, induced by hexamethylenebisacetamide. The potentiation of NMDAR activation involved a peptide of HMGB1 located in the B box at the amino acids 130-139. This HMGB1 fragment did not overlap with binding sites for other cell surface receptors of HMGB1, such as the advanced glycation end products or the Toll-like receptor 4. Moreover, in a competition assay, the HMGB1((130-139 peptide displaced the NMDAR/HMGB1 interaction, suggesting that it comprised the molecular and functional site of HMGB1 regulating the NMDA receptor complex. CONCLUSION: We propose that the multifunctional cytokine-like molecule HMGB1 released by activated, stressed, and damaged or necrotic cells can facilitate NMDAR-mediated cell responses, both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues, independently of other known cell surface receptors for HMGB1.

  8. Functional stimuli responsive hydrogel devices by self-folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, ChangKyu; Xiao, Rui; Nguyen, Thao D; Park, JaeHyun; Gracias, David H; Cha, Jaepyeong

    2014-01-01

    We describe a photolithographic approach to create functional stimuli responsive, self-folding, microscale hydrogel devices using thin, gradient cross-linked hinges and thick, fully cross-linked panels. The hydrogels are composed of poly (N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) (pNIPAM-AAc) with reversible stimuli responsive properties just below physiological temperatures. We show that a variety of three-dimensional structures can be formed and reversibly actuated by temperature or pH. We experimentally characterized the swelling and mechanical properties of pNIPAM-AAc and developed a finite element model to rationalize self-folding and its variation with hinge thickness and swelling ratio. Finally, we highlight applications of this approach in the creation of functional devices such as self-folding polymeric micro-capsules, untethered micro-grippers and thermally steered micro-mirror systems. (paper)

  9. Neutron response function characterization of {sup 4}He scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Ryan P.; Rolison, Lucas M.; Lewis, Jason M. [University of Florida, Nuclear Engineering Program, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States); Murer, David [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., Räffelstrasse 11, 8045 Zürich (Switzerland); Massey, Thomas N. [Ohio University, Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A. [University of Florida, Nuclear Engineering Program, Gainesville, FL 32611-6400 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Time-of-flight measurements were conducted to characterize the neutron energy response of pressurized {sup 4}He fast neutron scintillation detectors for the first time, using the Van de Graaff generator at Ohio University. The time-of-flight spectra and pulse height distributions were measured. This data was used to determine the light output response function, which was found to be linear at energies below 3.5 MeV. The intrinsic efficiency of the detector as a function of incident energy was also calculated: the average efficiency up to 10 MeV was 3.1%, with a maximum efficiency of 6.6% at 1.05 MeV. These results will enable development of neutron spectrum unfolding algorithms for neutron spectroscopy applications with these detectors.

  10. Neutron response function characterization of 4He scintillation detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ryan P.; Rolison, Lucas M.; Lewis, Jason M.; Murer, David; Massey, Thomas N.; Enqvist, Andreas; Jordan, Kelly A.

    2015-09-01

    Time-of-flight measurements were conducted to characterize the neutron energy response of pressurized 4He fast neutron scintillation detectors for the first time, using the Van de Graaff generator at Ohio University. The time-of-flight spectra and pulse height distributions were measured. This data was used to determine the light output response function, which was found to be linear at energies below 3.5 MeV. The intrinsic efficiency of the detector as a function of incident energy was also calculated: the average efficiency up to 10 MeV was 3.1%, with a maximum efficiency of 6.6% at 1.05 MeV. These results will enable development of neutron spectrum unfolding algorithms for neutron spectroscopy applications with these detectors.

  11. Lung function decline rates according to GOLD group in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joohae; Yoon, Ho Il; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Lee, Sang Yeub; Lee, Jin Hwa; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Chang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Since the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) groups A-D were introduced, the lung function changes according to group have been evaluated rarely. We investigated the rate of decline in annual lung function in patients categorized according to the 2014 GOLD guidelines. Patients with COPD included in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) prospective study, who underwent yearly postbronchodilator spirometry at least three times, were included. The main outcome was the annual decline in postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), which was analyzed by random-slope and random-intercept mixed linear regression. A total 175 participants were included. No significant postbronchodilator FEV1 decline was observed between the groups (-34.4±7.9 [group A]; -26.2±9.4 [group B]; -22.7±16.0 [group C]; and -24.0±8.7 mL/year [group D]) (P=0.79). The group with less symptoms (-32.3±7.2 vs -25.0±6.5 mL/year) (P=0.44) and the low risk group (-31.0±6.1 vs -23.6±7.7 mL/year) (P=0.44) at baseline showed a more rapid decline in the postbronchodilator FEV1, but the trends were not statistically significant. However, GOLD stages classified by FEV1 were significantly related to the annual lung function decline. There was no significant difference in lung function decline rates according to the GOLD groups. Prior classification using postbronchodilator FEV1 predicts decline in lung function better than does the new classification.

  12. Determination of surface functional groups on mechanochemically activated carbon cloth by Boehm method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Anđelka B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve sorption properties of activated carbon cloth that can be used for wastewater purification, mechanochemical activation was performed in both inert and air atmosphere. Boehm method was used to follow the changes in the number and types of surface groups induced by mechanical milling. The number of the base groups of 0,2493 mmol/g is significantly smaller than the total amount of acidic functional groups, 2,5093 mmol/g. Among the acidic groups present on the surface, the most represented are phenolic groups (2.3846 mmol/g , ie . > 95 % , the carboxylic groups are present far less (0.1173 mmol /g, ie. 4.5 %, while the presence of the lactone group on the surface of ACC is negligible (0.0074 mmol/g ie. under 0.3 %. Mechanochemical activation lead to an increase in the number of acidic and basic groups on the surface of the ACC. The milling in inert atmosphere has dominant effect with respect to the changes in the total number of basic functional groups (compared to milling in an air atmosphere: the number of basic groups of the ACC was 0.8153 mmol/g milled under argon, 0.7933 mmol/g in the air; the number of acidic groups is 2.9807 mmol/g for a sample milled under argon and 3.5313 mmol/g for one milled in the air.

  13. Finite element model updating of the UCF grid benchmark using measured frequency response functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipple, Jesse D.; Sanayei, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    A frequency response function based finite element model updating method is presented and used to perform parameter estimation of the University of Central Florida Grid Benchmark Structure. The proposed method is used to calibrate the initial finite element model using measured frequency response functions from the undamaged, intact structure. Stiffness properties, mass properties, and boundary conditions of the initial model were estimated and updated. Model updating was then performed using measured frequency response functions from the damaged structure to detect physical structural change. Grouping and ungrouping were utilized to determine the exact location and magnitude of the damage. The fixity in rotation of two boundary condition nodes was accurately and successfully estimated. The usefulness of the proposed method for finite element model updating is shown by being able to detect, locate, and quantify change in structural properties.

  14. Functional group quantification of polymer nanomembranes with soft x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunday, Daniel F.; Chan, Edwin P.; Orski, Sara V.; Nieuwendaal, Ryan C.; Stafford, Christopher M.

    2018-03-01

    Polyamide nanomembranes are at the heart of water desalination, a process which plays a critical role in clean water production. Improving their efficiency requires a better understanding of the relationship between chemistry, network structure, and performance but few techniques afford compositional information in ultrathin films (<100 nm). Here, we leverage resonant soft x-ray reflectivity, a measurement that is sensitive to the specific chemical bonds in organic materials, to quantify the functional group concentration in these polyamides. We first employ reference materials to establish quantitative relationships between changes in the optical constants and functional group density, and then use the results to evaluate the functional group concentrations of polyamide nanomembranes. We demonstrate that the difference in the amide carbonyl and carboxylic acid group concentrations can be used to calculate the crosslink density, which is shown to vary significantly across three different polyamide chemistries. A clear relationship is established between the functional group density and the permselectivity (α ), indicating that more densely crosslinked materials result in a higher α of the nanomembranes. Finally, measurements on a polyamide/poly(acrylic acid) bilayer demonstrate the ability of this approach to quantify depth-dependent functional group concentrations in thin films.

  15. Quenching of the elastic magnetic response function of 49Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, A.M.; Suzuki, T.; Lapikas, L.; Witt Huberts, P.K.A. de; Platchkov, S.K.; Frois, B.; Mooy, R.B.M.; Zybert, L.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cross sections for elastic magnetic electron scattering from 49 Ti have been obtained in the momentum transfer range 0.75 -1 . Apart from the M1 and M7 moments the observed quenching of the response function cannot be described by the present large space shell-model calculations. Core-polarization calculations including the effect of meson-exchange currents yield a considerably better description of the present data. (orig.)

  16. Time dependent density functional calculation of plasmon response in clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Eric, Suraud

    2003-02-01

    We have introduced a theoretical scheme for the efficient description of the optical response of a cluster based on the time-dependent density functional theory. The practical implementation is done by means of the fully fledged time-dependent local density approximation scheme, which is solved directly in the time domain without any linearization. As an example we consider the simple Na2 cluster and compute its surface plasmon photoabsorption cross section, which is in good agreement with the experiments.

  17. Variation in Plant Response to Herbivory Underscored by Functional Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Reese, Aspen T.; Ames, Gregory M.; Wright, Justin P.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of herbivory can shape plant communities and evolution. However, the many forms of herbivory costs and the wide variation in herbivory pressure, including across latitudinal gradients, can make predicting the effects of herbivory on different plant species difficult. Functional trait approaches may aid in contextualizing and standardizing the assessment of herbivory impacts. Here we assessed the response of 26 old-field plant species to simulated defoliation in a greenhouse settin...

  18. Resolving Microzooplankton Functional Groups In A Size-Structured Planktonic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, D.; Dutkiewicz, S.; Follows, M. J.; Jahn, O.; Menden-Deuer, S.

    2016-02-01

    Microzooplankton are important marine grazers, often consuming a large fraction of primary productivity. They consist of a great diversity of organisms with different behaviors, characteristics, and rates. This functional diversity, and its consequences, are not currently reflected in large-scale ocean ecological simulations. How should these organisms be represented, and what are the implications for their biogeography? We develop a size-structured, trait-based model to characterize a diversity of microzooplankton functional groups. We compile and examine size-based laboratory data on the traits, revealing some patterns with size and functional group that we interpret with mechanistic theory. Fitting the model to the data provides parameterizations of key rates and properties, which we employ in a numerical ocean model. The diversity of grazing preference, rates, and trophic strategies enables the coexistence of different functional groups of micro-grazers under various environmental conditions, and the model produces testable predictions of the biogeography.

  19. Functional groups in phytoecology: an application to the study of isolated plant communities in Mediterranean France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Médail, Frédéric; Roche, Philip; Tatoni, Thierry

    1998-05-01

    The main objective of this study is to compare functional patterns versus plant composition in holm-oak forest isolates from two sites of Provence (Mediterranean France), on siliceous (Maures) or calcareous substrates (Luberon). In order to define plant functional groups, 9 traits out of a total of 71 attributes, were used. Twenty functional groups were defined with predominantly vegetative traits. Within each site, edges and forested core areas refer to different functional groups, in relation to the isolate structure and disturbance effects. In siliceous Provence, a higher structural and functional diversity occurs inside isolates, whereas on calcareous substrate, the diversity of plant functional groups which characterizes edges, is as important as in internal parts of isolates. Functional diversity does not necessarily follow the same patterns as the specific diversity, which is always greater in edges. Thus, the use of some sets of attributes, resulting from evolutionary trade-off between plants and their environment, can provide a better understanding of ecological consequences of disturbances.

  20. Classification of ion mobility spectra by functional groups using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, S.; Nazarov, E.; Wang, Y. F.; Eiceman, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Neural networks were trained using whole ion mobility spectra from a standardized database of 3137 spectra for 204 chemicals at various concentrations. Performance of the network was measured by the success of classification into ten chemical classes. Eleven stages for evaluation of spectra and of spectral pre-processing were employed and minimums established for response thresholds and spectral purity. After optimization of the database, network, and pre-processing routines, the fraction of successful classifications by functional group was 0.91 throughout a range of concentrations. Network classification relied on a combination of features, including drift times, number of peaks, relative intensities, and other factors apparently including peak shape. The network was opportunistic, exploiting different features within different chemical classes. Application of neural networks in a two-tier design where chemicals were first identified by class and then individually eliminated all but one false positive out of 161 test spectra. These findings establish that ion mobility spectra, even with low resolution instrumentation, contain sufficient detail to permit the development of automated identification systems.

  1. Optimal hemodynamic response model for functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, Muhammad A; Jeong, Myung Yung; Mannan, Malik M N

    2015-01-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging non-invasive brain imaging technique and measures brain activities by means of near-infrared light of 650-950 nm wavelengths. The cortical hemodynamic response (HR) differs in attributes at different brain regions and on repetition of trials, even if the experimental paradigm is kept exactly the same. Therefore, an HR model that can estimate such variations in the response is the objective of this research. The canonical hemodynamic response function (cHRF) is modeled by two Gamma functions with six unknown parameters (four of them to model the shape and other two to scale and baseline respectively). The HRF model is supposed to be a linear combination of HRF, baseline, and physiological noises (amplitudes and frequencies of physiological noises are supposed to be unknown). An objective function is developed as a square of the residuals with constraints on 12 free parameters. The formulated problem is solved by using an iterative optimization algorithm to estimate the unknown parameters in the model. Inter-subject variations in HRF and physiological noises have been estimated for better cortical functional maps. The accuracy of the algorithm has been verified using 10 real and 15 simulated data sets. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment and their HRF for finger-tapping tasks have been estimated and analyzed. The statistical significance of the estimated activity strength parameters has been verified by employing statistical analysis (i.e., t-value > t critical and p-value < 0.05).

  2. B cells and functional antibody responses to combat influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eLofano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination against influenza (Flu is the most effective way to protect the population. Current vaccines provide protection by stimulating functional B- and T-cell responses, however, they are poorly immunogenic in particular segments of the population and need to be reformulated almost every year due to the genetic instability of the virus. Next generation Flu vaccines should be designed to induce cross-reactivity, confer protection against pandemic outbreaks, and promote long-lasting immune responses among individuals at higher risk of infection. Multiple strategies are being developed for the induction of broad functional humoral immunity, including the use of adjuvants, heterologous prime-boost strategies, and epitope-based antigen design. The basic approach is to mimic natural responses to influenza virus infection by promoting cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies that directly prevent the infection. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms underlying humoral responses to influenza vaccination or natural infection, and discusses promising strategies to control influenza virus.

  3. Cortisol stress responses and children's behavioral functioning at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Sterre S H; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether cortisol stress responses of 6-year-olds were associated with their behavioral functioning at school. Additionally, the moderating role of stress in the family environment was examined. To this end, 149 healthy children (M age  = 6.09 years; 70 girls) participated in an age-appropriate innovative social evaluative stress test. Saliva cortisol samples were collected six times during the stress test to calculate two indices of the cortisol stress response: cortisol stress reactivity and total stress cortisol. Teachers assessed children's internalizing, externalizing, and prosocial behaviors. Stress in the family environment was operationalized as maternally reported parenting stress. Results indicated a significant increase in cortisol concentrations in response to the stressor. No significant associations were found between cortisol stress responses and behavioral functioning at school and there was no evidence for moderation by maternal parenting stress. Potential theoretical and methodological explanations for these results are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Global biodiversity, stoichiometry and ecosystem function responses to human-induced C-N-P imbalances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Sardans, Jordi; Stefanescu, Constantí; Ubach, Andreu; Bartrons, Mireia; Asensio, Dolores; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Global change analyses usually consider biodiversity as a global asset that needs to be preserved. Biodiversity is frequently analysed mainly as a response variable affected by diverse environmental drivers. However, recent studies highlight that gradients of biodiversity are associated with gradual changes in the distribution of key dominant functional groups characterized by distinctive traits and stoichiometry, which in turn often define the rates of ecosystem processes and nutrient cycling. Moreover, pervasive links have been reported between biodiversity, food web structure, ecosystem function and species stoichiometry. Here we review current global stoichiometric gradients and how future distributional shifts in key functional groups may in turn influence basic ecosystem functions (production, nutrient cycling, decomposition) and therefore could exert a feedback effect on stoichiometric gradients. The C-N-P stoichiometry of most primary producers (phytoplankton, algae, plants) has been linked to functional trait continua (i.e. to major axes of phenotypic variation observed in inter-specific analyses of multiple traits). In contrast, the C-N-P stoichiometry of higher-level consumers remains less precisely quantified in many taxonomic groups. We show that significant links are observed between trait continua across trophic levels. In spite of recent advances, the future reciprocal feedbacks between key functional groups, biodiversity and ecosystem functions remain largely uncertain. The reported evidence, however, highlights the key role of stoichiometric traits and suggests the need of a progressive shift towards an ecosystemic and stoichiometric perspective in global biodiversity analyses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. REFLECTING TOGETHER: REFLECTIVE FUNCTIONING AS A FOCUS FOR DEEPENING GROUP SUPERVISION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Mary Claire; Reynolds, Diane; Talbot, Bronwyn

    2016-11-01

    This article proposes how group reflective supervision, informed by the theory of reflective functioning, may provide a powerful method for developing reflective capacity of staff serving families, infants, and young children in multidisciplinary settings. An explanation of reflective functioning, related research, and its relevance to relational treatment and preventive intervention are discussed. Other approaches to reflective practice are referenced. We describe the necessary tension and encounters with distressing affect that mark reflective supervision groups using this focus. In addition, we identify areas of heightened difficulty in infant family work and describe how a group supervision process that enables use of self alongside perspectives of others may address these challenges while leading to increased reflective capacity among participants. Finally, we touch on relevant research on group supervision and parameters of size and focus, and highlight facilitation skills needed to create group safety and coherence. Areas for further study are proposed. © 2016 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  6. Four families of Weyl group orbit functions of B3 and C3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háková, Lenka; Hrivnák, Jiří; Patera, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    The properties of the four families of special functions of three real variables, called here C-, S-, Ss-, and Sl-functions, are studied. The Ss- and Sl-functions are considered in all details required for their exploitation in Fourier expansions of digital data, sampled on finite fragment of lattices of any density and of the 3D symmetry imposed by the weight lattices of B3 and C3 simple Lie algebras/groups. The continuous interpolations, which are induced by the discrete expansions, are exemplified and compared for some model functions.

  7. Functional renormalization group approach to SU(N ) Heisenberg models: Real-space renormalization group at arbitrary N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buessen, Finn Lasse; Roscher, Dietrich; Diehl, Sebastian; Trebst, Simon

    2018-02-01

    The pseudofermion functional renormalization group (pf-FRG) is one of the few numerical approaches that has been demonstrated to quantitatively determine the ordering tendencies of frustrated quantum magnets in two and three spatial dimensions. The approach, however, relies on a number of presumptions and approximations, in particular the choice of pseudofermion decomposition and the truncation of an infinite number of flow equations to a finite set. Here we generalize the pf-FRG approach to SU (N )-spin systems with arbitrary N and demonstrate that the scheme becomes exact in the large-N limit. Numerically solving the generalized real-space renormalization group equations for arbitrary N , we can make a stringent connection between the physically most significant case of SU(2) spins and more accessible SU (N ) models. In a case study of the square-lattice SU (N ) Heisenberg antiferromagnet, we explicitly demonstrate that the generalized pf-FRG approach is capable of identifying the instability indicating the transition into a staggered flux spin liquid ground state in these models for large, but finite, values of N . In a companion paper [Roscher et al., Phys. Rev. B 97, 064416 (2018), 10.1103/PhysRevB.97.064416] we formulate a momentum-space pf-FRG approach for SU (N ) spin models that allows us to explicitly study the large-N limit and access the low-temperature spin liquid phase.

  8. Modeling phytoplankton community in reservoirs. A comparison between taxonomic and functional groups-based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maggio, Jimena; Fernández, Carolina; Parodi, Elisa R; Diaz, M Soledad; Estrada, Vanina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the formulation of two mechanistic water quality models that differ in the way the phytoplankton community is described. We carry out parameter estimation subject to differential-algebraic constraints and validation for each model and comparison between models performance. The first approach aggregates phytoplankton species based on their phylogenetic characteristics (Taxonomic group model) and the second one, on their morpho-functional properties following Reynolds' classification (Functional group model). The latter approach takes into account tolerance and sensitivity to environmental conditions. The constrained parameter estimation problems are formulated within an equation oriented framework, with a maximum likelihood objective function. The study site is Paso de las Piedras Reservoir (Argentina), which supplies water for consumption for 450,000 population. Numerical results show that phytoplankton morpho-functional groups more closely represent each species growth requirements within the group. Each model performance is quantitatively assessed by three diagnostic measures. Parameter estimation results for seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton community and main biogeochemical variables for a one-year time horizon are presented and compared for both models, showing the functional group model enhanced performance. Finally, we explore increasing nutrient loading scenarios and predict their effect on phytoplankton dynamics throughout a one-year time horizon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of chemical functional groups on elemental mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Jing, E-mail: liujing27@mail.hust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Cheney, Marcos A. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Maryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, MD 21853 (United States); Wu Fan; Li Meng [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2011-02-15

    A systematic theoretical study using density functional theory is performed to provide molecular-level understanding of the effects of chemical functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surfaces. The zigzag and armchair edges were used in modeling the carbonaceous surfaces to simulate different adsorption sites. The edge atoms on the upper side of the models are unsaturated to simulate active sites. All calculations (optimizations, energies, and frequencies) were made at B3PW91 density functional theory level, using RCEP60VDZ basis set for mercury and 6-31G(d) pople basis set for other atoms. The results indicate that the embedding of halogen atom can increase the activity of its neighboring site which in turn increases the adsorption capacity of the carbonaceous surface for Hg{sup 0}. The adsorption belongs to chemisorptions, which is in good agreement with the experimental results. For the effects of oxygen functional groups, lactone, carbonyl and semiquinone favor Hg{sup 0} adsorption because they increase the neighboring site's activity for mercury adsorption. On the contrary, phenol and carboxyl functional groups show a physisorption of Hg{sup 0}, and reduce Hg capture. This result can explain the seemingly conflicting experimental results reported in the literature concerning the influence of oxygen functional groups on mercury adsorption on carbonaceous surface.

  10. Diel dynamic of phytoplankton functional groups in a tropical water supply, Extremoz Lake, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thársia da Silva Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study analyzed - the diel and vertical dynamics of phytoplankton functional groups in a natural tropical lake (Extremoz Lake, northeast Brazil, to investigate and understand the driver factors of the community during a severe drought period. METHODS: Sampling of the abiotic variables and phytoplankton was performed at intervals of 6 hours over 24 hours in vertical profiles, in dry and rainy seasons (according to the historical average. The phytoplankton species were grouped according to the functional groups' approach sensu Reynolds et al. (2002. RESULTS: October/12 was considered as a dry period (18.4 mm, while March/13, due to the historical average, as a rainy season, due to the low rainfall during the study period (15.7 mm, it was called severe drought. The lake showed thermal and chemical destratification in both periods. Phytoplankton biomass was higher in the dry season and their vertical distribution was stratified in both periods. In both samplings there were less algal biomass during the night. Phytoplankton functional groups of mixed and shallow systems (S1, L0 and K were descriptors throughout the study period with higher biomass always registered in the group S1, represented by Planktolyngbya limnetica (Cyanobacteria. CONCLUSION: The lack of seasonality observed in this study, due to prolonged drought, may have influenced the pattern of homogeneous behavior in both samplings. This pattern strongly influenced the vertical distribution of phytoplankton in the two periods, with a constancy of dominance of functional descriptors groups.

  11. 2015 Focus Groups on Sexual Assualt and Response Among Active Duty Members (2015 FGSAPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Suggestions to Prevent/Mitigate Sexist Behaviors/ Discrimination ...................................88 Repercussions for Reporting Sexual Harassment and Sexist... Discrimination usually comes from the supervisor. They kind of tag you.” (E1–E4 Female) 2015 Focus Groups on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Among...the topics of sexual harassment, sexual assault, gender discrimination , and retaliation. As this alternative year survey-focus group assessment

  12. Response function of a p type - HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pino, Neivy; Cabral, Fatima Padilla; D'Alessandro, Katia; Maidana, Nora Lia; Vanin, Vito Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The response function of a HPGe detector depends on Ge crystal dimensions and dead layers thicknesses; most of them are not given by the manufacturers or change with detector damage from neutrons or contact with the atmosphere and therefore must be experimentally determined. The response function is obtained by a Monte-Carlo simulation procedure based on the Ge crystal characteristics. In this work, a p-type coaxial HPGe detector with 30% efficiency, manufactured in 1989, was investigated. The crystal radius and length and the inner hole dimensions were obtained scanning the capsule both in the radial and axial directions using 4 mm collimated beams from 137 Cs, 207 Bi point sources placed on a x-y table in steps of 2,00 mm. These dimensions were estimated comparing the experimental peak areas with those obtained by simulation using several hole configurations. In a similar procedure, the frontal dead layer thickness was determined using 2 mm collimated beams of the 59 keV gamma-rays from 241 Am and 81 keV from 133 Ba sources hitting the detector at 90 deg and 45 deg with respect to the capsule surface. The Monte Carlo detector model included, besides the crystal, hole and capsules sizes, the Ge dead-layers. The obtained spectra were folded with a gaussian resolution function to account for electronic noise. The comparison of simulated and experimental response functions for 4 mm collimated beams of 60 Co, 137 Cs, and 207 Bi points sources placed at distances of 7, 11 and 17 cm from the detector end cap showed relative deviations of about 10% in general and below 10% in the peak. The frontal dead layer thickness determined by our procedure was different from that specified by the detector manufacturer. (author)

  13. Functional diversification within bacterial lineages promotes wide functional overlapping between taxonomic groups in a Mediterranean forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Antonio José; Fernandez-Lopez, Manuel; Ogaya, Romá; Penuelas, Josep; Lloret, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the relationship between taxonomy and functioning of soil bacterial communities in soils from a Mediterranean holm oak forest using a high-throughput DNA pyrosequencing technique. We used nonparametric tests (Mann-Whitney U-test) to evaluate the sensitivity of each single bacterial genus within the community to the fluctuations of plant physiological and environmental abiotic variables, as well as to fluctuations in soil microbial respiration. Within-lineage (phylum/class) functional similarities were evaluated by the distribution of the Mann-Whitney U-test standardized coefficients (z) obtained for all genera within a given lineage. We further defined different ecological niches and within-lineage degree of functional diversification based on multivariate analyses (principal component analyses, PCA). Our results indicate that strong within-lineage functional diversification causes extensive functional overlapping between lineages, which hinders the translation of taxonomic diversity into a meaningful functional classification of bacteria. Our results further suggest a widespread colonization of possible ecological niches as taxonomic diversity increases. While no strong functional differentiation could be drawn from the analyses at the phylum/class level, our results suggest a strong ecological niche differentiation of bacteria based mainly on the distinct response of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to fluctuations in soil moisture. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N. [Univ Aix Marseille, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence, Equipe Instrumentat and React Atmospher, UMR 6264, F-13331 Marseille 3 (France); Jaffrezo, J.L. [Univ Grenoble 1, CNRS, UMR 5183, Lab Glaciol and Geophys Environm, F-38402 St Martin Dheres (France)

    2010-07-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCIMS/MS). The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R' respectively) and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO{sub 2}) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation) of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalization rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional

  15. How linear features alter predator movement and the functional response.

    KAUST Repository

    McKenzie, Hannah W

    2012-01-18

    In areas of oil and gas exploration, seismic lines have been reported to alter the movement patterns of wolves (Canis lupus). We developed a mechanistic first passage time model, based on an anisotropic elliptic partial differential equation, and used this to explore how wolf movement responses to seismic lines influence the encounter rate of the wolves with their prey. The model was parametrized using 5 min GPS location data. These data showed that wolves travelled faster on seismic lines and had a higher probability of staying on a seismic line once they were on it. We simulated wolf movement on a range of seismic line densities and drew implications for the rate of predator-prey interactions as described by the functional response. The functional response exhibited a more than linear increase with respect to prey density (type III) as well as interactions with seismic line density. Encounter rates were significantly higher in landscapes with high seismic line density and were most pronounced at low prey densities. This suggests that prey at low population densities are at higher risk in environments with a high seismic line density unless they learn to avoid them.

  16. Multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory: barrier heights and main group and transition metal energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Rebecca K; Li Manni, Giovanni; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-01-13

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory, resting on the representation of the electronic density and kinetic energy by a single Slater determinant, has revolutionized chemistry, but for open-shell systems, the Kohn-Sham Slater determinant has the wrong symmetry properties as compared to an accurate wave function. We have recently proposed a theory, called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), in which the electronic kinetic energy and classical Coulomb energy are calculated from a multiconfiguration wave function with the correct symmetry properties, and the rest of the energy is calculated from a density functional, called the on-top density functional, that depends on the density and the on-top pair density calculated from this wave function. We also proposed a simple way to approximate the on-top density functional by translation of Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functionals. The method is much less expensive than other post-SCF methods for calculating the dynamical correlation energy starting with a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field wave function as the reference wave function, and initial tests of the theory were quite encouraging. Here, we provide a broader test of the theory by applying it to bond energies of main-group molecules and transition metal complexes, barrier heights and reaction energies for diverse chemical reactions, proton affinities, and the water dimerization energy. Averaged over 56 data points, the mean unsigned error is 3.2 kcal/mol for MC-PDFT, as compared to 6.9 kcal/mol for Kohn-Sham theory with a comparable density functional. MC-PDFT is more accurate on average than complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) for main-group small-molecule bond energies, alkyl bond dissociation energies, transition-metal-ligand bond energies, proton affinities, and the water dimerization energy.

  17. Hydroxyapatite nucleation and growth mechanism on electrospun fibers functionalized with different chemical groups and their combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wenguo; Li, Xiaohong; Xie, Chengying; Zhuang, Huihui; Zhou, Shaobing; Weng, Jie

    2010-06-01

    Controlled nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals on electrospun fibers should play important roles in fabrication of composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, but no attempt has been made to clarify the effects of chemical group densities and the cooperation of two and more groups on the biomineralization process. The aim of the current study was to investigate into HA nucleation and growth on electrospun poly(dl-lactide) fibers functionalized with carboxyl, hydroxyl and amino groups and their combinations. Electrospun fibers with higher densities of carboxyl groups, combination of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups with the ratio of 3/7, and combination of amino, hydroxyl and carboxyl groups with the ratio of 2/3/5 were favorable for HA nucleation and growth, resulting in higher content and lower crystal size of formed HA. Carboxyl groups were initially combined with calcium ions through electrostatic attraction, and the introduction of hydroxyl groups could modulate the distance between carboxyl groups. The introduction of amino groups may lead to the inner ionic bonding with carboxyl groups, but can accelerate phosphate ions to form HA through a chelate ring with the calcium ion and carbonyl oxygen. The biological evaluation indicated that the mineralized scaffolds acted as an excellent cell support to maintain desirable cell-substrate interactions, to provide favorable conditions for cell proliferation and to stimulate the osteogenic differentiation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands.

  19. Functional response of cerebral blood flow induced by somatosensory stimulation in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Huang, Qin; Liu, Peng; Li, Pengcheng; Ma, Lianting; Lu, Jinling

    2015-09-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is often accompanied by cerebral vasospasm (CVS), which is the phenomenon of narrowing of large cerebral arteries, and then can produce delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) such as lateralized sensory dysfunction. CVS was regarded as a major contributor to DIND in patients with SAH. However, therapy for preventing vasospasm after SAH to improve the outcomes may not work all the time. It is important to find answers to the relationship between CVS and DIND after SAH. How local cerebral blood flow (CBF) is regulated during functional activation after SAH still remains poorly understood, whereas, the regulation of CBF may play an important role in weakening the impact of CVS on cortex function. Therefore, it is worthwhile to evaluate the functional response of CBF in the activated cortex in an SAH animal model. Most evaluation of the effect of SAH is presently carried out by neurological behavioral scales. The functional imaging of cortical activation during sensory stimulation may help to reflect the function of the somatosensory cortex more locally than the behavioral scales do. We investigated the functional response of CBF in the somatosensory cortex induced by an electrical stimulation to contralateral forepaw via laser speckle imaging in a rat SAH model. Nineteen Sprague-Dawley rats from two groups (control group, n=10 and SAH group, n=9) were studied. SAH was induced in rats by double injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna after CSF aspiration. The same surgical procedure was applied in the control group without CSF aspiration or blood injection. Significant CVS was found in the SAH group. Meanwhile, we observed a delayed peak of CBF response in rats with SAH compared with those in the control group, whereas no significant difference was found in magnitude, duration, and areas under curve of relative CBF changes between the two groups. The results suggest that the regulation function of local CBF during

  20. Pentafluorobenzene end-group as a versatile handle for para fluoro "click" functionalization of polythiophenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufflet, Pierre; Casey, Abby; Xia, Yiren; Stavrinou, Paul N; Heeney, Martin

    2017-03-01

    A convenient method of introducing pentafluorobenzene (PFB) as a single end-group in polythiophene derivatives is reported via in situ quenching of the polymerization. We demonstrate that the PFB-group is a particularly useful end-group due to its ability to undergo fast nucleophilic aromatic substitutions. Using this molecular handle, we are able to quantitatively tether a variety of common nucleophiles to the polythiophene backbone. The mild conditions required for the reaction allows sensitive functional moieties, such as biotin or a cross-linkable trimethoxysilane, to be introduced as end-groups. The high yield enabled the formation of a diblock rod-coil polymer from equimolar reactants under transition metal-free conditions at room temperature. We further demonstrate that water soluble polythiophenes end-capped with PFB can be prepared via the hydrolysis of an ester precursor, and that such polymers are amenable to functionalization under aqueous conditions.

  1. Group VII Ethylene Response Factor diversification and regulation in four species from flood-prone environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van H.; Akman, M.; Jamar, D.C.L.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Kooiker, M.; Tienderen, van P.H.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Schranz, M.E.; Sasidharan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding events negatively affect plant performance and survival. Flooding gradients thereby determine the dynamics in vegetation composition and species abundance. In adaptation to flooding, the group VII Ethylene Response Factor genes (ERF-VIIs) play pivotal roles in rice and Arabidopsis through

  2. TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE program. The technology which was demonstrated was a solvent extraction technology developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group. Inc. to remove organic contaminants from soil. The technology employs...

  3. Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. Solvent Extraction Technology Rapid Commercialization Initiative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra-Kleen Response Group Inc. (Terra-Kleen), has commercialized a solvent extraction technology that uses a proprietary extraction solvent to transfer organic constituents from soil to a liquid phase in a batch process at ambient temperatures. The proprietary solvent has a rel...

  4. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TERRA KLEEN SOLVENT EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY - TERRA-KLEEN RESPONSE GROUP, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Terra-Kleen Solvent Extraction Technology was developed by Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc., to remove polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and other organic constituents from contaminated soil. This batch process system uses a proprietary solvent at ambient temperatures to treat ...

  5. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) functionalized with amino groups by reacting with supercritical ammonia fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lu; Bai Yongping; Huang Xu; Gao Zhangfei; Meng Linghui; Huang Yudong; Ma Jun

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, supercritical ammonia fluid was utilized to simply functionalize multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) with amino groups. The successful amino functionalization of MWCNTs was proven and the physicochemical properties of MWCNTs before and after supercritical ammonia fluids modifications were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results also indicated that the supercritical ammonia fluids had the visible effects on the nanostructure of carbon nanotubes. Our novel modification approach provides an easy way to modify MWCNTs with amino groups, which is very useful for realizing 'carbon nanotube economy' in the near future.

  6. Linking Keystone Species and Functional Groups: A New Operational Definition of the Keystone Species Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D. Davic

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the "keystone species" is redefined to allow for the a priori prediction of these species within ecosystems. A keystone species is held to be a strongly interacting species whose top-down effect on species diversity and competition is large relative to its biomass dominance within a functional group. This operational definition links the community importance of keystone species to a specific ecosystem process, e.g., the regulation of species diversity, within functional groups at lower trophic levels that are structured by competition for a limited resource. The a priori prediction of keystone species has applied value for the conservation of natural areas.

  7. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard; Fink, Per

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve functioning in FSS, but their effect on work ability is unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term effect of group CBT on work ability in patients with severe FSS. Methods: 120 Pa...

  8. Chemoselective Reduction and Alkylation of Carbonyl Functions Using Phosphonium Salts as an in Situ Protecting Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Reiya; Fujioka, Hiromichi

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in the chemoselective reduction and alkylation of carbonyl functions using our in situ protection method is described. Methods that enable reversal or control of the reactivity of a carbonyl functional group are potentially useful. They open up new areas of synthetic organic chemistry and change the concept of retrosynthesis because they remove the need for complicated protection/deprotection sequences. In this account, we discuss the strategy and applications of our in situ protection method using phosphonium salts.

  9. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Hema A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  10. Changes in Defense Mechanism Functioning During Group Therapy for Binge-Eating Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert; Tasca, Giorgio A; Presniak, Michelle; Francis, Kylie; Palardy, Melissa; Grenon, Renee; Mcquaid, Nancy; Hayden, Genevieve; Gick, Mary; Bissada, Hany

    2015-01-01

    This study examined change in defensive mechanism functioning during group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy (GPIP) for women with binge-eating disorder (BED). Women with BED (N = 85) received 16 weeks of GPIP. Five group therapy sessions (sessions 1, 3, 8, 12, and 16) from each of the 12 groups were video recorded and transcribed. Participants were rated on an observer-based measure of defensive functioning, the Defense Mechanism Rating Scale (DMRS). Symptom outcomes were assessed pre- and posttreatment. Overall defensive functioning (ODF) scores improved significantly during group treatment, with specific defense level improvements in high adaptive, major image distorting, and action defenses. The linear increase in ODF mediated a decrease in binge-eating episodes and depressive symptoms. Reverse mediation was also noted. A cubic growth curve best modeled ODF data such that ODF improved in the early stage, followed by a slower rate of improvement in the middle stage, and a further increase in rate of improvement at the end of treatment. Change in defense mechanism functioning may be an important aspect of group psychotherapy that is related to improved symptoms for women with BED who receive GPIP. The cubic trend that represented nonlinear growth in ODF is consistent with psychodynamic theory and a stage model of psychotherapy.

  11. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dron

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS. The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R´ respectively and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO2 scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60

  12. Qualitative Comparison of Women's Perspectives on the Functions and Benefits of Group and Individual Prenatal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Emily C; Picklesimer, Amy H; Billings, Deborah L; Covington-Kolb, Sarah; Farber, Naomi; Frongillo, Edward A

    2016-01-01

    Women's definitions and experiences of the functions and benefits of their routine prenatal care are largely absent from research and public discourse on prenatal care outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to develop a framework of women's prenatal care experiences by comparing the experiences of women in individual and group prenatal care. We conducted serial qualitative interviews with racially diverse low-income women receiving individual prenatal care (n = 14) or group prenatal care (n = 15) through pregnancy and the early postpartum period. We completed 42 second-trimester, 48 third-trimester, and 44 postpartum interviews. Using grounded theory, the semistructured interviews were coded for themes, and the themes were integrated into an explanatory framework of prenatal care functions and benefits. Individual and group participants described similar benefits in 3 prenatal care functions: confirming health, preventing and monitoring medical complications, and building supportive provider relationships. For the fourth function, educating and preparing, group care participants experienced more benefits and different benefits. The benefits for group participants were enhanced by the supportive group environment. Group participants described greater positive influences on stress, confidence, knowledge, motivation, informed decision making, and health care engagement. Whereas pregnant women want to maximize their probability of having a healthy newborn, other prenatal care outcomes are also important: reducing pregnancy-related stress; developing confidence and knowledge for improving health; preparing for labor, birth, and newborn care; and having supportive relationships. Group prenatal care may be more effective in attaining these outcomes. Achieving these outcomes is increasingly relevant in health care systems prioritizing woman-centered care and improved birth outcomes. How to achieve them should be part of policy development and research. © 2016 by the

  13. Pyrrolic tripodal receptors for carbohydrates. Role of functional groups and binding geometry on carbohydrate recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciarini, Martina; Nativi, Cristina; Norcini, Martina; Staderini, Samuele; Francesconi, Oscar; Roelens, Stefano

    2011-02-21

    The contribution from several H-bonding groups and the impact of geometric requirements on the binding ability of benzene-based tripodal receptors toward carbohydrates have been investigated by measuring the affinity of a set of structures toward octyl β-D-glucopyranoside, selected as a representative monosaccharide. The results reported in the present study demonstrate that a judicious choice of correct geometry and appropriate functional groups is critical to achieve the complementary hydrogen bonding interactions required for an effective carbohydrate recognition.

  14. Aldehyde Recognition and Discrimination by Mammalian Odorant Receptors via Functional Group-Specific Hydration Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-02

    effect which should suppress gem-diol formation compared to octanal. Though methyl groups are the smallest electron-releasing groups we can use, they are...dipoles, and carbonyl-specific ORs unable to accommodate the two methyls of compound 3. The synthesis of compounds 2−4 is outlined in Scheme 2...Vogel, H., and Pick, H. (2011) The mouse eugenol odorant receptor: Structural and functional plasticity of a broadly tuned odorant binding pocket

  15. Changes in intrinsic functional connectivity and group relevant salience: The case of sport rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Zargol; Mantini, Dante; Yankouskaya, Alla; Hewstone, Miles; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2017-08-14

    Studies have shown that attending to salient group relevant information could increase the BOLD activity across distributed neural networks. However, it is unclear how attending to group relevant information changes the functional connectivity across these networks. We investigated this issue combining resting states and task-based fMRI experiment. The task involved football fans learning associations between arbitrary geometric shapes and the badges of in-group, the rival and the neutral football teams. Upon learning, participants viewed different badge/shape pairs and their task was to judge whether the viewed pair was a match or a mismatch. For whole brain analyses increased activity was found in the IFG, DLPFC, AI, fusiform gyrus, precuneus and pSTS (all in the left hemisphere) for the rival over the in-group mismatch. Further, the ROI analyses revealed larger beta-values for the rival badge in the left pSTS, left AI and the left IFG. However, larger beta-values were found in the left pSTS and the left IFG (but not AI) for the in-group shape. The intrinsic functional connectivity analyses revealed that compare to the pre-task, post task functional connectivity was decreased between the left DLPFC and the left AI. In contrast, it was increased between the left IFG and the left AI and this was correlated with the difference in RT for the rival vs. in-group team. Our findings suggest that attending to group relevant information differentially affects the strength of functional coupling in attention networks and this can be explained by the saliency of the group relevant information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Utility Function for modeling Group Multicriteria Decision Making problems as games

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Bevilacqua Leoneti

    2016-01-01

    To assist in the decision making process, several multicriteria methods have been proposed. However, the existing methods assume a single decision-maker and do not consider decision under risk, which is better addressed by Game Theory. Hence, the aim of this research is to propose a Utility Function that makes it possible to model Group Multicriteria Decision Making problems as games. The advantage of using Game Theory for solving Group Multicriteria Decision Making problems is to evaluate th...

  17. Community responses to communication campaigns for influenza A (H1N1: a focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Lesley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study contributed to the initiative by providing qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behavioural change and the differential impact on vulnerable groups in New Zealand. Methods Qualitative data were collected on community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 Ministry of Health H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behaviour and the differential impact on vulnerable groups. Eight focus groups were held in the winter of 2010 with 80 participants from groups identified by the Ministry of Health as vulnerable to the H1N1 virus, such as people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, children, Pacific Peoples and Māori. Because this study was part of a rapid response initiative, focus groups were selected as the most efficient means of data collection in the time available. For Māori, focus group discussion (hui is a culturally appropriate methodology. Results Thematic analysis of data identified four major themes: personal and community risk, building community strategies, responsibility and information sources. People wanted messages about specific actions that they could take to protect themselves and their families and to mitigate any consequences. They wanted transparent and factual communication where both good and bad news is conveyed by people who they could trust. Conclusions The responses from all groups endorsed the need for community based risk management including information dissemination. Engaging

  18. Response matrix method for neutron transport in reactor lattices using group symmetry properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a response matrix method for the approximate solution of one-velocity, multi-dimensional transport problems in reactor lattices, with isotropic neutron scattering. The transport equation is solved on a homogeneous cell by using a Petrov-Galerkin technique based on a set of trial and test functions (including polynomials and exponential functions) closely related to transport problems in infinite media. The number of non-zero elements of the response matrices reduces to a minimum when the symmetry properties of the cell are included ab initio in the span of the basis functions. To include these properties, use is made of projection operations which are performed very efficiently on symbolic manipulation programs. Numerical results of model problems in square geometry show a good agreement with reference solutions

  19. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estate M Sokhadze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on rTMS will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. Methods: The current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in 2 groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group [WTL]. We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched wait-list group. We used 18 sessions of 1Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched ASD subjects. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity and decreased stereotypic behaviors. Following rTMS we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the fronto-central ERPs to non-targets in the TMS group. These ERP changes along with increased centro-parietal ERPs to targets are indicative of more efficient processing of information post-TMS. Another finding was increased magnitude of error-related negativity (ERN during commission errors. We calculated normative post-error reaction time (RT slowing response in both groups and found that rTMS was accompanied by post-error RT slowing and higher accuracy of responses, whereas the WTL group kept on showing typical for ASD post-error RT speeding and had higher error rate. Conclusion: Results from our study indicate that rTMS improves executive functioning in ASD as evidenced by normalization of ERP responses and behavioral reactions during executive function test, and also by improvements in clinical behavioral evaluations.

  20. Nuclear response functions at large energy and momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertozzi, W.; Moniz, E.J.; Lourie, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Quasifree nucleon processes are expected to dominate the nuclear electromagnetic response function for large energy and momentum transfers, i.e., for energy transfers large compared with nuclear single particle energies and momentum transfers large compared with typical nuclear momenta. Despite the evident success of the quasifree picture in providing the basic frame work for discussing and understanding the large energy, large momentum nuclear response, the limits of this picture have also become quite clear. In this article a selected set of inclusive and coincidence data are presented in order to define the limits of the quasifree picture more quantitatively. Specific dynamical mechanisms thought to be important in going beyond the quasifree picture are discussed as well. 75 refs, 37 figs

  1. Single-particle response function in finite nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlomo, S.; Texas A and M Univ., College Station

    1982-01-01

    I derive expressions for the single-particle response (structure) function S(E, q) and its sum rule, (Pauli blocking factor) P(q) = ∫ dE S(E, q), in terms of the Wiqner transforms (WTs) of the single-particle wave functions and the scattering probe sigma(q, r) and discuss the semi-classical phase-space interpretation of the results. For sigma(q, r) = esup(iq x r), I derive simple expressions for S(E, q) and P(q) for finite nuclei within the harmonic-oscillator model and compare the results with the well-known results of the Fermi-gas model. (orig.)

  2. Surface functional group characterization using chemical derivatization X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagst, Eda

    2011-03-18

    Chemical derivatization - X-ray photolectron spectroscopy (CD-XPS) was applied successfully in order to determine different functional groups on thin film surfaces. Different amino group carrying surfaces, prepared by spin coating, self-assembly and plasma polymerization, were successfully investigated by (XPS) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Amino groups were derivatized with the widely used primary amino group tags, pentafluorobenzaldehyde (PFB) and 4-(trifluoromethyl)-benzaldehyde (TFBA), prior to analysis. Primary amino group quantification was then carried out according to the spectroscopical data. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of different terminal groups were prepared and investigated with XPS and spectra were compared with reference surfaces. An angle resolved NEXAFS measurement was applied to determine the orientation of SAMs. Plasma polymerized allylamine samples with different duty cycle, power and pressure values were prepared in order to study the effects of external plasma parameters on the primary amino group retention. CD-XPS was used to quantify the amino groups and experiments show, that the milder plasma conditions promote the retention of amino groups originating from the allylamine monomer. An interlaboratory comparison of OH group determination on plasma surfaces of polypropylene treated with oxygen plasma, was studied. The surfaces were investigated with XPS and the [OH] amount on the surfaces was calculated. (orig.)

  3. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunisato Yoshihiko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one year. Methods Forty-three patients with TRD were treated with 12 weekly sessions of group-CBT. Patients were assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS, and the Automatic Thought Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R at baseline, at the termination of treatment, and at the 12-month follow-up. Results Thirty-eight patients completed treatment; five dropped out. For the patients who completed treatment, post-treatment scores on the GAF and SF-36 were significantly higher than baseline scores. Scores on the HRSD, DAS, and ATQ-R were significantly lower after the treatment. Thus patients improved on all measurements of psychosocial functioning and mood symptoms. Twenty patients participated in the 12-month follow-up. Their improvements for psychosocial functioning, depressive symptoms, and dysfunctional cognitions were sustained at 12 months following the completion of group-CBT. Conclusions These findings suggest a positive effect that the addition of cognitive behavioural group therapy to medication on depressive symptoms and social functioning of mildly depressed patients, showing treatment resistance.

  4. Predator-dependent functional response in wolves: from food limitation to surplus killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Barbara; Sand, Håkan; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof; Andreassen, Harry Peter

    2015-01-01

    The functional response of a predator describes the change in per capita kill rate to changes in prey density. This response can be influenced by predator densities, giving a predator-dependent functional response. In social carnivores which defend a territory, kill rates also depend on the individual energetic requirements of group members and their contribution to the kill rate. This study aims to provide empirical data for the functional response of wolves Canis lupus to the highly managed moose Alces alces population in Scandinavia. We explored prey and predator dependence, and how the functional response relates to the energetic requirements of wolf packs. Winter kill rates of GPS-collared wolves and densities of cervids were estimated for a total of 22 study periods in 15 wolf territories. The adult wolves were identified as the individuals responsible for providing kills to the wolf pack, while pups could be described as inept hunters. The predator-dependent, asymptotic functional response models (i.e. Hassell-Varley type II and Crowley-Martin) performed best among a set of 23 competing linear, asymptotic and sigmoid models. Small wolf packs acquired >3 times as much moose biomass as required to sustain their field metabolic rate (FMR), even at relatively low moose abundances. Large packs (6-9 wolves) acquired less biomass than required in territories with low moose abundance. We suggest the surplus killing by small packs is a result of an optimal foraging strategy to consume only the most nutritious parts of easy accessible prey while avoiding the risk of being detected by humans. Food limitation may have a stabilizing effect on pack size in wolves, as supported by the observed negative relationship between body weight of pups and pack size. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Ecological Society.

  5. ESTIMATION OF RIGHT VENTRICULAR DIASTOLIC FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Gajfulin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the parameters of diastolic function of the right ventricle (RV in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD in different age groups. Material and methods. Patients (n=678 with IHD aged 38 to 85 years were included into the study. They underwent echocardiography with assessment of RV diastolic function. The following parameters were assessed: rate of early and late diastolic RV filling (Et and At, rate of early and late diastolic motion of the ring of the tricuspid valve (e't and a't, the propagation velocity of RV early filling flow (Vpt. All patients were divided into 2 groups: 1st one - patients up to 60 years old (n=282 and the 2nd group - patients 60 years and older (n=396. Results. In IHD patients RV diastolic dysfunction was detected more often in older age group (34.3% than in group of patients younger than 60 years (22.3%, p=0.008. The next findings were found in the 2nd group: increase in At; reduction in Et/At ratio and e't/a't, as well as higher levels of systolic and mean pulmonary arterial pressure and the greater the thickness of the RV wall. The following parameters of diastolic RV function correlated with age: At (p=0.004; Et/At (p=0.001; Vpt (p=0.002 and e't/a't ratio (p=0.004. Conclusion. The results should be used in assessment of diastolic RV function in patients of different age groups.

  6. Antibody Responses with Fc-Mediated Functions after Vaccination of HIV-Infected Subjects with Trivalent Influenza Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anne B; Lay, William N; Ana-Sosa-Batiz, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to assess the ability of seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) to induce nonneutralizing antibodies (Abs) with Fc-mediated functions in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects. Functional influenza-specific Ab responses were studied in 30 HIV-negative and 27 HIV......-positive subjects immunized against seasonal influenza. All 57 subjects received the 2015 TIV. Fc-mediated antihemagglutinin (anti-HA) Ab activity was measured in plasma before and 4 weeks after vaccination using Fc-receptor-binding assays, NK cell activation assays, and phagocytosis assays. At baseline, the HIV......-positive group had detectable but reduced functional Ab responses to both vaccine and nonvaccine influenza antigens. TIV enhanced Fc-mediated Ab responses in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups. A larger rise was generally observed in the HIV-positive group, such that there was no difference in functional...

  7. New Dimensions in Microbial Ecology—Functional Genes in Studies to Unravel the Biodiversity and Role of Functional Microbial Groups in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in the possibilities to study the diversity of microbial communities in the environment. The development of methods to study these communities on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis was a first step into the molecular analysis of environmental communities and the study of biodiversity in natural habitats. A new dimension in this field was reached with the introduction of functional genes of ecological importance and the establishment of genetic tools to study the diversity of functional microbial groups and their responses to environmental factors. Functional gene approaches are excellent tools to study the diversity of a particular function and to demonstrate changes in the composition of prokaryote communities contributing to this function. The phylogeny of many functional genes largely correlates with that of the 16S rRNA gene, and microbial species may be identified on the basis of functional gene sequences. Functional genes are perfectly suited to link culture-based microbiological work with environmental molecular genetic studies. In this review, the development of functional gene studies in environmental microbiology is highlighted with examples of genes relevant for important ecophysiological functions. Examples are presented for bacterial photosynthesis and two types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, with genes of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson-protein (fmoA) as target for the green sulfur bacteria and of two reaction center proteins (pufLM) for the phototrophic purple bacteria, with genes of adenosine-5′phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (aprA), sulfate thioesterase (soxB) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) for sulfur oxidizing and sulfate reducing bacteria, with genes of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) for nitrifying/ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, with genes of particulate nitrate reductase and nitrite reductases (narH/G, nirS, nirK) for denitrifying bacteria and with genes of methane

  8. New Dimensions in Microbial Ecology—Functional Genes in Studies to Unravel the Biodiversity and Role of Functional Microbial Groups in the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes F. Imhoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in the possibilities to study the diversity of microbial communities in the environment. The development of methods to study these communities on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis was a first step into the molecular analysis of environmental communities and the study of biodiversity in natural habitats. A new dimension in this field was reached with the introduction of functional genes of ecological importance and the establishment of genetic tools to study the diversity of functional microbial groups and their responses to environmental factors. Functional gene approaches are excellent tools to study the diversity of a particular function and to demonstrate changes in the composition of prokaryote communities contributing to this function. The phylogeny of many functional genes largely correlates with that of the 16S rRNA gene, and microbial species may be identified on the basis of functional gene sequences. Functional genes are perfectly suited to link culture-based microbiological work with environmental molecular genetic studies. In this review, the development of functional gene studies in environmental microbiology is highlighted with examples of genes relevant for important ecophysiological functions. Examples are presented for bacterial photosynthesis and two types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, with genes of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson-protein (fmoA as target for the green sulfur bacteria and of two reaction center proteins (pufLM for the phototrophic purple bacteria, with genes of adenosine-5′phosphosulfate (APS reductase (aprA, sulfate thioesterase (soxB and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB for sulfur oxidizing and sulfate reducing bacteria, with genes of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA for nitrifying/ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, with genes of particulate nitrate reductase and nitrite reductases (narH/G, nirS, nirK for denitrifying bacteria and with genes

  9. New Dimensions in Microbial Ecology-Functional Genes in Studies to Unravel the Biodiversity and Role of Functional Microbial Groups in the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Johannes F

    2016-05-24

    During the past decades, tremendous advances have been made in the possibilities to study the diversity of microbial communities in the environment. The development of methods to study these communities on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences analysis was a first step into the molecular analysis of environmental communities and the study of biodiversity in natural habitats. A new dimension in this field was reached with the introduction of functional genes of ecological importance and the establishment of genetic tools to study the diversity of functional microbial groups and their responses to environmental factors. Functional gene approaches are excellent tools to study the diversity of a particular function and to demonstrate changes in the composition of prokaryote communities contributing to this function. The phylogeny of many functional genes largely correlates with that of the 16S rRNA gene, and microbial species may be identified on the basis of functional gene sequences. Functional genes are perfectly suited to link culture-based microbiological work with environmental molecular genetic studies. In this review, the development of functional gene studies in environmental microbiology is highlighted with examples of genes relevant for important ecophysiological functions. Examples are presented for bacterial photosynthesis and two types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, with genes of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson-protein (fmoA) as target for the green sulfur bacteria and of two reaction center proteins (pufLM) for the phototrophic purple bacteria, with genes of adenosine-5'phosphosulfate (APS) reductase (aprA), sulfate thioesterase (soxB) and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrAB) for sulfur oxidizing and sulfate reducing bacteria, with genes of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) for nitrifying/ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, with genes of particulate nitrate reductase and nitrite reductases (narH/G, nirS, nirK) for denitrifying bacteria and with genes of methane

  10. Self-consistent embedding of density-matrix renormalization group wavefunctions in a density functional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Neugebauer, Johannes; Knecht, Stefan; Keller, Sebastian; Ma, Yingjin; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-28

    We present the first implementation of a density matrix renormalization group algorithm embedded in an environment described by density functional theory. The frozen density embedding scheme is used with a freeze-and-thaw strategy for a self-consistent polarization of the orbital-optimized wavefunction and the environmental densities with respect to each other.

  11. Functional group, biomass, and climate change effects on ecological drought in semiarid grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.; Duniway, Michael C.; Hall, Sonia A.; Jamiyansharav, Khishigbayar; Jia, Gensuo; Lkhagva, Ariuntsetseg; Munson, Seth M.; Pyke, David A.; Tietjen, Britta

    2018-01-01

    Water relations in plant communities are influenced both by contrasting functional groups (grasses, shrubs) and by climate change via complex effects on interception, uptake and transpiration. We modelled the effects of functional group replacement and biomass increase, both of which can be outcomes of invasion and vegetation management, and climate change on ecological drought (soil water potential below which photosynthesis stops) in 340 semiarid grassland sites over 30‐year periods. Relative to control vegetation (climate and site‐determined mixes of functional groups), the frequency and duration of drought were increased by shrubs and decreased by annual grasses. The rankings of shrubs, control vegetation, and annual grasses in terms of drought effects were generally consistent in current and future climates, suggesting that current differences among functional groups on drought effects predict future differences. Climate change accompanied by experimentally‐increased biomass (i.e. the effects of invasions that increase community biomass, or management that increases productivity through fertilization or respite from grazing) increased drought frequency and duration, and advanced drought onset. Our results suggest that the replacement of perennial temperate semiarid grasslands by shrubs, or increased biomass, can increase ecological drought both in current and future climates.

  12. Functional groups of fossil marattialeans: chemotaxonomic implications for Pennsylvanian tree ferns and pteridophylls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pšenička, J.; Zodrow, E. L.; Mastalerz, M.; Bek, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2005), s. 259-280 ISSN 0166-5162 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA3013902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : interdisciplinary approach * functional groups * FTIR Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.397, year: 2005

  13. 14 CFR Section 10 - Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND... Classification—Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers 5100Flying Operations. (a) This function shall include... repair of property and equipment, of all types and classes, regardless of the location at which incurred...

  14. An Epistemological Inquiry into Organic Chemistry Education: Exploration of Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…

  15. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  16. Wetland macroinvertebrates of Prentiss Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan: diversity and functional group composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, R.W.; Benbow, M.E.; Hudson, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Lakes support many fish and waterbirds that depend directly or indirectly on coastal wetlands during some portion of their life cycle. It is known that macroinvertebrates make up an important part of wetland food webs and ecosystem function; however, our understanding of species distribution within and among wetlands has only recently received attention. We investigated the macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh (Prentiss Bay) in the Les Chenaux Island Area of Northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Macroinvertebrate taxa diversity and functional feeding group composition were compared between two habitats. A shallow depositional habitat with higher vegetation diversity and little wave action was compared to a deeper erosional habitat with fewer plant species and more wave action. A total of 83 taxa were collected over the summer of 1996, representing two phyla (Arthropoda and Mollusca) and five classes (Arachnida, Bivalvia, Malacostraca, Gastropoda and Insecta). A total of 79 genera were identified, with 92% being insects (39 families composed of at least 73 genera). Of the total, 42 insect genera were common to both habitats,while relatively fewer were collected exclusively from the erosional compared the depositional habitat. When habitats were pooled, predators comprised about 50% of the functional group taxa, while gathering collectors and shredders each were about 20%. Filtering collectors and scrapers each represented groups were lower. These data suggest that vegetation diversity, depth and wave action affect taxa composition and functional group organization of the Prentiss Bay marsh.

  17. Vestibular function in a group of adults with HIV/AIDS on HAART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The high prevalence of HIV/AIDS and the established otological manifestations of the disease have important implications for research into vestibular function in this population. Materials and Methods: The main aim of the current study was to investigate and monitor the vestibular status in a group of adult ...

  18. Functional groups in areas with fire history in a savanna area in Brazilian Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Naves da Silva Rios

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the formation of functional groups, in 1994 and 2012, in two areas of savanna with different fire history in Planaltina, Federal District, Brazil. In the Area 1 biennial burnings were applied in August 1988, 1990 and 1992; there was fire protection until July 1994 in the Area 2, the control area. Accidental fire occurred in both areas in August 1994, but from September 1994 to 2012 they were protected. These analysis included individuals with abundance ≥ 5 using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA. The groups were defined according to the following attributes: dispersal and pollination syndromes, leaf phenology, life form, type of bark and ability to sprouting after fire. Both areas presented differences in the formation of functional groups in 1994 and 2012. Species functionally similar and with lower diversity of attributes were observed in Area 1, in 1994. The exclusion of fire favored the recruitment of other species and greater diversity of functional attributes in 2012.

  19. A FUNCTIONAL GROUP CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC PM 2.5 EXPOSURE: RESULTS FROM THE RIOPA STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The functional group (FG) composition of urban residential outdoor, indoor, and personal fine particle (PM2.5) samples is presented and used to provide insights relevant to organic PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 samples (48 h) were collected during the Rel...

  20. Grouping notes through nodes: The functions of Post-It notes in design team cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the way Post-It notes support creative design team practice, focusing on how they function as cognitive externalisations that, through grouping activities, support categorisation qualities associated with semantic long-term memory. We use a multimodal approach, drawing...

  1. Managing the Impact of Smoke Haze Disaster: Response of Civil Society Groups Towards Jambi Provincial Government Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smoke haze from forest and land fires in Jambi in 2015 had led to various reactions. The low response from the provincial government led by an Acting Governor received various criticism and protests from civil society groups. This study examines the impact of 2015’ haze in Jambi and describes civil society groups’ responses toward the government “transition” of Jambi province performances regarding 2015 smoke haze. Through observation of the relation and activities of the two sides: government and civil society, and open-ended interview with a representative of civil society groups, the results showed that the barrier is the absence of a national disaster status. Acting Governor and Regional Working Unit (SKPD have a limitation in funding, equipment, and human resources to conduct fire fighting and are unresponsive in treating the haze victims. The persistence of civil society groups which work independently to helpvictims and encourage the government to be more responsive led to the issuance of Local Regulation on Forest and Land Fires. Finally, this study recommends the government of the Republic of Indonesia to formulate task and function certainty of the central government and Acting Governor in the handling of smoke haze under the condition without national disaster status.

  2. Parameterization of Leaf-Level Gas Exchange for Plant Functional Groups From Amazonian Seasonal Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, T. F.; Berry, J. A.; Ometto, J. P.; Martinelli, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2004-12-01

    Plant communities exert strong influence over the magnitude of carbon and water cycling through ecosystems by controlling photosynthetic gas exchange and respiratory processes. Leaf-level gas exchange fluxes result from a combination of physiological properties, such as carboxylation capacity, respiration rates and hydraulic conductivity, interacting with environmental drivers such as water and light availability, leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit, and temperature. Carbon balance models concerned with ecosystem-scale responses have as a common feature the description of eco-physiological properties of vegetation. Here we focus on the parameterization of ecophysiological gas-exchange properties of plant functional groups from a pristine Amazonian seasonally dry tropical rain forest ecosystem (FLONA-Tapajós, Santarém, PA, Brazil). The parameters were specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, photosynthetic carboxylation capacity, dark respiration rates, and stomatal conductance to water vapor. Our plant functional groupings were lianas at the top of the canopy, trees at the top of the canopy, mid-canopy trees and undestory trees. Within the functional groups, we found no evidence that leaves acclimated to seasonal changes in precipitation. However, there were life-form dependent distinctions when a combination of parameters was included. Top-canopy lianas were statistically different from top-canopy trees for leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and stomatal conductance to water vapor, suggesting that lianas are more conservative in the use of water, causing a stomatal limitation on photosynthetic assimilation. Top-canopy, mid canopy and understory groupings were distinct for specific leaf weight, leaf nitrogen content, leaf carbon isotope ratio, maximum photosynthetic assimilation rate, and photosynthetic carboxylation capacity. The recognition that plant

  3. Isolation and characterization of functional tripartite group II introns using a Tn5-based genetic screen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ritlop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Group II introns are RNA enzymes that splice themselves from pre-mRNA transcripts. Most bacterial group II introns harbour an open reading frame (ORF, coding for a protein with reverse transcriptase, maturase and occasionally DNA binding and endonuclease activities. Some ORF-containing group II introns were shown to be mobile retroelements that invade new DNA target sites. From an evolutionary perspective, group II introns are hypothesized to be the ancestors of the spliceosome-dependent nuclear introns and the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs--U1, U2, U4, U5 and U6 that are important functional elements of the spliceosome machinery. The ability of some group II introns fragmented in two or three pieces to assemble and undergo splicing in trans supports the theory that spliceosomal snRNAs evolved from portions of group II introns. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a transposon-based genetic screen to explore the ability of the Ll.LtrB group II intron from the Gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis to be fragmented into three pieces in vivo. Trans-splicing tripartite variants of Ll.LtrB were selected using a highly efficient and sensitive trans-splicing/conjugation screen. We report that numerous fragmentation sites located throughout Ll.LtrB support tripartite trans-splicing, showing that this intron is remarkably tolerant to fragmentation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work unveils the great versatility of group II intron fragments to assemble and accurately trans-splice their flanking exons in vivo. The selected introns represent the first evidence of functional tripartite group II introns in bacteria and provide experimental support for the proposed evolutionary relationship between group II introns and snRNAs.

  4. The role of ABO blood groups in Crohn's disease and in monitoring response to infliximab treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiao; Wang, Lingyun; Zhang, Shenghong; Feng, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Baili; Chen, Minhu

    2016-09-01

    The variation in ABO blood groups is reported to be associated with multiple diseases. Infliximab (IFX) has been widely used in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD). We aim to investigate the distribution of ABO blood groups in Chinese patients with CD and to explore its impact on response to IFX. Patients with CD were consecutively recruited to the study between 2007 and 2014. CD patients receiving IFX therapy were followed for at least two years. In 293 patients with CD, most patients (40.6%) had blood type O (119/293). The odds ratio (OR) of CD in blood type O patients was 1.06 (95%CI: 0.6-1.86; p=0.84) compared to all other blood types. Among those CD patients, 107 patients received IFX treatment. One year after the first course of IFX, a significant association was found between the overall ABO system and outcomes of IFX treatment (pblood type AB (OR=4.42, 95% CI: 1.04-18.76; p=0.044) were more likely to achieve mucosal healing, while CD patients with blood type A had a high risk of losing response (OR=0.38, 95% CI: 0.15-0.96; p=0.040). ABO blood groups are not associated with prevalence of CD. Patients with blood type AB had a better response to IFX while those with blood type A appeared to have a risk of losing response to IFX.

  5. Functions of microRNA in response to cocaine stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L-F; Wang, J; Lv, F B; Song, Q

    2013-12-04

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a type of non-protein-coding single-stranded RNA, which are typically 20-25 nt in length. miRNAs play important roles in various biological processes, including development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. We aimed to detect the miRNA response to cocaine stimulations and their target genes. Using the miRNA expression data GSE21901 downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, we screened out the differentially expressed miRNA after short-term (1 h) and longer-term (6 h) cocaine stimulations based on the fold change >1.2. Target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs were retrieved from TargetScan database with the context score -0.3. Functional annotation enrichment analysis was performed for all the target genes with DAVID. A total of 121 differentially expressed miRNAs between the 1-h treatment and the control samples, 58 between the 6-h treatment and the control samples, and 69 between the 1-h and the 6-h treatment samples. Among them, miR-212 results of particular interest, since its expression level was constantly elevated responding to cocaine treatment. After functional and pathway annotations of target genes, we proved that miR-212 was a critical element in cocaine-addiction, because of its involvement in regulating several important cell cycle events. The results may pave the way for further understanding the regulatory mechanisms of cocaine-response in human bodies.

  6. Organic functional group transformations in water at elevated temperature and pressure: Reversibility, reactivity, and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Jessie; Gould, Ian R.; Herckes, Pierre; Shock, Everett L.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2013-03-01

    Many transformation reactions involving hydrocarbons occur in the presence of H2O in hydrothermal systems and deep sedimentary systems. We investigate these reactions using laboratory-based organic chemistry experiments at high temperature and pressure (300 °C and 100 MPa). Organic functional group transformation reactions using model organic compounds based on cyclohexane with one or two methyl groups provided regio- and stereochemical markers that yield information about reversibility and reaction mechanisms. We found rapidly reversible interconversion between alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alcohols, ketones, and enones. The alkane-to-ketone reactions were not only completely reversible, but also exhibited such extensive reversibility that any of the functional groups along the reaction path (alcohol, ketone, and even the diene) could be used as the reactant and form all the other groups as products. There was also a propensity for these ring-based structures to dehydrogenate; presumably from the alkene, through a diene, to an aromatic ring. The product suites provide strong evidence that water behaved as a reactant and the various functional groups showed differing degrees of reactivity. Mechanistically-revealing products indicated reaction mechanisms that involve carbon-centered cation intermediates. This work therefore demonstrates that a wide range of organic compound types can be generated by abiotic reactions at hydrothermal conditions.

  7. Cortisol Responses to a Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents: Variations by Age, Gender, and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; McQuillan, Mollie T.; Mirous, Heather J.; Grant, Kathryn E.; Adam, Emma K.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N = 191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M = 14.4 years, SD = 1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of 5 adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. PMID:25218656

  8. Cortisol responses to a group public speaking task for adolescents: variations by age, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; McQuillan, Mollie T; Mirous, Heather J; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2014-12-01

    Laboratory social stress tests involving public speaking challenges are widely used for eliciting an acute stress response in older children, adolescents, and adults. Recently, a group protocol for a social stress test (the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups, TSST-G) was shown to be effective in adults and is dramatically less time-consuming and resource-intensive compared to the single-subject version of the task. The present study sought to test the feasibility and effectiveness of an adapted group public speaking task conducted with a racially diverse, urban sample of U.S. adolescents (N=191; 52.4% female) between the ages of 11 and 18 (M=14.4 years, SD=1.93). Analyses revealed that this Group Public Speaking Task for Adolescents (GPST-A) provoked a significant increase in cortisol production (on average, approximately 60% above baseline) and in self-reported negative affect, while at the same time avoiding excessive stress responses that would raise ethical concerns or provoke substantial participant attrition. Approximately 63.4% of participants exhibited an increase in cortisol levels in response to the task, with 59.2% of the total sample showing a 10% or greater increase from baseline. Results also suggested that groups of five adolescents might be ideal for achieving more uniform cortisol responses across various serial positions for speech delivery. Basal cortisol levels increased with age and participants belonging to U.S. national minorities tended to have either lower basal cortisol or diminished cortisol reactivity compared to non-Hispanic Whites. This protocol facilitates the recruitment of larger sample sizes compared to prior research and may show great utility in answering new questions about adolescent stress reactivity and development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Age group analysis of psychological, physical and functional deterioration in patients hospitalized for pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Salvador, Adelina; Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Sáez-Roca, Germán; López-Torres, Isabel; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-10-01

    Hospital admissions due to pneumonia range from 1.1 to 4 per 1,000 patients and this figure increases with age. Hospitalization causes a decline in functional status. Physical impairment impedes recovery and constitutes a higher risk of disability and mortality in elderly people. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of hospital stay in patients with pneumonia related with age. A total of 116 patients with pneumonia were included in this study, and divided into two age groups:psychological and emotional profile were evaluated. Pneumonia severity, nutritional status, independence and comorbidities were also assessed. Statistical analyses revealed significant differences between both age groups in pneumonia severity and comorbidities. Significant improvements between admission and discharge were found in lung function in both groups (pgroup. Hospitalization leads to a significant physical impairment in patients admitted for pneumonia. This deterioration increases with age. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Responses of bat social groups to roost loss: More questions than answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, Alexander; Abaid, Nicole; Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Ortega, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Though characterization of, and understanding determinants of, social structure in bats is increasing, little is known about how bat social groups respond to disturbance resulting in roost loss. Given that many species of bats roost in ephemeral or transitory resources such as plants, it is clear that bat social groups can tolerate some level of roost loss. Understanding responses of bat social groups to roost loss can provide insight into social structure that have applied conservation use. Herein, we review the existing literature on the effects of disturbance on bat social groups, and present a parameterizable agent-based model that can be used to explore the relationships among roost dynamics, population dynamics, and social behavior.

  11. Bronchodilator response of advanced lung function parameters depending on COPD severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarenbäck L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Linnea Jarenbäck,1 Göran Eriksson,1 Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson1 1Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Background: COPD is defined as partly irreversible airflow obstruction. The response pattern of bronchodilators has not been followed in advanced lung function parameters. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate bronchodilator response pattern in advanced lung function parameters in a continuous fashion along forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 percent predicted (%p in COPD patients and controls. Patients and methods: Eighty-one smokers/ex-smokers (41 controls and 40 COPD performed spirometry, body plethysmography, impulse oscillometry and single-breath helium dilution carbon monoxide diffusion at baseline, after salbutamol inhalation and then after an additional inhalation of ipratropium. Results: Most pulmonary function parameters showed a linear increase in response to decreased FEV1%p. The subjects were divided into groups of FEV1%p <65 and >65, and the findings from continuous analysis were verified. The exceptions to this linear response were inspiratory capacity (IC, forced vital capacity (FVC, FEV1/FVC and expiratory resistance (Rex, which showed a segmented response relationship to FEV1%p. IC and FVC, with break points (BP of 57 and 58 FEV1%p respectively, showed no response above, but an incresed slope below the BP. In addition, in patients with FEV1%p <65 and >65, response of FEV1%p did not correlate to response of volume parameters. Conclusion: Response of several advanced lung function parameters differs depending on patients’ baseline FEV1%p, and specifically response of volume parameters is most pronounced in COPD patients with FEV1%p <65. Volume and resistance responses do not follow the flow response measured with FEV1 and may thus be used as a

  12. Response Function of the Crayfish Caudal Photoreceptor to Hydrodynamic Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breite, Sally; Bahar, Sonya; Neiman, Alexander; Moss, Frank

    2002-03-01

    In its abdominal 6th ganglion the crayfish houses 2 light-sensitive neurons (caudal photoreceptors, or CPRs). It is known that these neurons work in tandem with a mechanosensory system of tiny hairs spread across the tailfan, which make synaptic contact with the photoreceptors. A stochastic resonance effect has been shown in this system in which light enhances the transduction of a weak, periodic mechanosensory (hydrodynamic) stimulus. It is not known, however, whether an optimal response from the CPR is induced by a single sine wave cycle or some other waveform. We have experimentally investigated this favorable waveform by driving a tailfan preparation with mechanical 10 Hz correlated Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noise and calculating the response function from the spike-triggered average of the applied noise waveform. We will discuss differences in the shape of the optimal waveform under dark and light conditions, as well as what seems to be a noticeable difference in the magnitude of the animals' response to a noisy stimulus in comparison with a periodic stimulus.

  13. Nystagmus responses in a group of normal humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal eye movement responses to earth-horizontal yaw axis rotation were evaluated in 50 normal human subjects who were uniformly distributed in age (20-69 years) and each age group was then divided by gender. Subjects were rotated with eyes open in the dark, using clockwise and counter-clockwise 60 deg velocity trapezoids. The nystagmus slow component velocity is analyzed. It is shown that, despite large intersubject variability, parameters which describe earth-horizontal yaw axis responses are loosely interrelated, and some of them vary significantly with gender and age.

  14. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus P Deikumah

    Full Text Available Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  15. Comparison of key indicators of external respiration function in students of three health groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gainullin RA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define key indicators of function of external breath of students of three groups of health taking into account various total sizes of a body. Material and Methods. For an assessment of breathing function, volume and highspeed characteristics the diagnosing Eton installations (Russia and Schiller (Switzerland were used. Results. Age peculiarities of respiratory ventilation disorders and differentiated assessment of circulatory and metabolic parameters according to the total body size in the special health groups (SHG are analyzed in the article. Breathing volumetric characteristics were examined among the 17-18 aged students in the different health groups. Special attention is paid to the effect of the long-term severe bronchial patency disorders which lead to the respiratory muscles overstrain and the decrease of their strength endurance. This results in the lungs capacity decrease which is typical for the special health groups' students. Conclusion. It is shown that the students of the 1st health group had lower body weight and the same body length in comparison with the 2nd and 3rd groups. This determined unequal role of respiration in providing vital processes in terms of educational activities, especially in case of disorders of musculoskeletal and cardio-respiratory systems.

  16. Fuzzy mutual information based grouping and new fitness function for PSO in selection of miRNAs in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2017-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are one of the important regulators of cell division and also responsible for cancer development. Among the discovered miRNAs, not all are important for cancer detection. In this regard a fuzzy mutual information (FMI) based grouping and miRNA selection method (FMIGS) is developed to identify the miRNAs responsible for a particular cancer. First, the miRNAs are ranked and divided into several groups. Then the most important group is selected among the generated groups. Both the steps viz., ranking of miRNAs and selection of the most relevant group of miRNAs, are performed using FMI. Here the number of groups is automatically determined by the grouping method. After the selection process, redundant miRNAs are removed from the selected set of miRNAs as per user's necessity. In a part of the investigation we proposed a FMI based particle swarm optimization (PSO) method for selecting relevant miRNAs, where FMI is used as a fitness function to determine the fitness of the particles. The effectiveness of FMIGS and FMI based PSO is tested on five data sets and their efficiency in selecting relevant miRNAs are demonstrated. The superior performance of FMIGS to some existing methods are established and the biological significance of the selected miRNAs is observed by the findings of the biological investigation and publicly available pathway analysis tools. The source code related to our investigation is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIGS.html. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Grouping Notes Through NodesThe Functions of Post-It™ Notes in Design Team Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    The Post-It™ note is a frequently used, and yet seldom studied, design material. We investigate the functions Post-It™ notes serve when providing cognitive support for creative design team practice. Our investigation considers the ways in which Post-It™ notes function as design externalisations......, both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-It™ notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-It™ note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  18. Lack of Knowledge Sharing Amongst Institutions in Denmark Responsible for Vulnerable Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Ann Kristina Mikkelsen

    as full-size hazards. Additionally, the inclusion of risk understanding is a necessary part and an essential prerequisites to learn more about risk identification in order to safeguard lives and property, reduce disaster losses as well as ensure sustainable institution management and leadership. However......Lack of Knowledge Sharing Amongst Institutions in Denmark Responsible for Vulnerable Groups Ann Bojsen, Senior Lecturer Emergency and Risk Management Department, Metropolitan University College, Copenhagen, Denmark Even though understanding risk and how it is enacted is regarded as a crucial step...... they share their knowledge about risk and policy management. In order to protect vulnerable groups such as children, disabled, sick and elderly people, we need to learn more about the general risk understanding and sharing of such according to region, responsibility, common events and hazards...

  19. Affective divergence: automatic responses to others' emotions depend on group membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, Max; Ambady, Nalini

    2008-11-01

    Extant research suggests that targets' emotion expressions automatically evoke similar affect in perceivers. The authors hypothesized that the automatic impact of emotion expressions depends on group membership. In Experiments 1 and 2, an affective priming paradigm was used to measure immediate and preconscious affective responses to same-race or other-race emotion expressions. In Experiment 3, spontaneous vocal affect was measured as participants described the emotions of an ingroup or outgroup sports team fan. In these experiments, immediate and spontaneous affective responses depended on whether the emotional target was ingroup or outgroup. Positive responses to fear expressions and negative responses to joy expressions were observed in outgroup perceivers, relative to ingroup perceivers. In Experiments 4 and 5, discrete emotional responses were examined. In a lexical decision task (Experiment 4), facial expressions of joy elicited fear in outgroup perceivers, relative to ingroup perceivers. In contrast, facial expressions of fear elicited less fear in outgroup than in ingroup perceivers. In Experiment 5, felt dominance mediated emotional responses to ingroup and outgroup vocal emotion. These data support a signal-value model in which emotion expressions signal environmental conditions. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Mohd Zamri, E-mail: zamriab@petronas.com.my; Ismail, Siti Salwa [Chemical Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent. From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature.

  1. Modifications of chemical functional groups of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb and its effect towards biosorption of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mohd. Zamri; Ismail, Siti Salwa

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of non-living biomass as an alternative biosorbent for heavy metal removal has gain a tremendous consideration through the years. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb or pandan leaves, which is widely used as food additives in the South East Asia region, has been selected for its viability in the said effort due to the presence of chemical functional groups on its cellular network that enables the sorption to occur. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms participated during the heavy metal removal process, the biosorbent undergone a series of modification techniques to alter the chemical functional groups present on its constituent. From the outcome of the chemically-modified biosorbent being subjected to the contact with metal cations, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing groups present on the biosorbent are believed to be responsible for the metal uptake to occur through complexation mechanism. Modifying amine groups causes 14% reduction of Cu(II) uptake, whereas removing protein element increases the uptake to 26% as compared to the unmodified biosorbent. Also, scanning electron micrographs further suggested that the adsorption mechanism could perform in parallel, as attributed to the evidence of porous structure throughout the biosorbent fibrous nature.

  2. Assessing the reliability of predictive activity coefficient models for molecules consisting of several functional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Gerber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most successful predictive models for activity coefficients are those based on functional groups such as UNIFAC. In contrast, these models require a large amount of experimental data for the determination of their parameter matrix. A more recent alternative is the models based on COSMO, for which only a small set of universal parameters must be calibrated. In this work, a recalibrated COSMO-SAC model was compared with the UNIFAC (Do model employing experimental infinite dilution activity coefficient data for 2236 non-hydrogen-bonding binary mixtures at different temperatures. As expected, UNIFAC (Do presented better overall performance, with a mean absolute error of 0.12 ln-units against 0.22 for our COSMO-SAC implementation. However, in cases involving molecules with several functional groups or when functional groups appear in an unusual way, the deviation for UNIFAC was 0.44 as opposed to 0.20 for COSMO-SAC. These results show that COSMO-SAC provides more reliable predictions for multi-functional or more complex molecules, reaffirming its future prospects.

  3. Effect of functional groups on thermal conductivity of graphene/paraffin nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabihi, Zabiholah; Araghi, Houshang, E-mail: araghi@aut.ac.ir

    2016-11-25

    In this paper, thermal conductivity of graphene/paraffin nanocomposite using micromechanical model has been studied. The behavior of thermal conductivity of nanocomposite as a function of volume fraction of graphene is studied. Then is shown that as the interfacial thermal resistance at the graphene–paraffin interface decreases, the thermal conductivity of nanocomposite increases. In order to reduce the interfacial thermal resistance, functional groups in the interface between graphene and paraffin are used. It can be observed that using functional groups of hydrogen, methyl and phenyl in the interface of nanocomposite, contributes to the improvement of the thermal conductivity. Moreover, as the rate of coverage of the surface of graphene with functional groups of H, CH{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 5} increases, the thermal conductivity of nanocomposite improves. - Highlights: • Thermal conductivity nanocomposite exhibit nonlinear behavior with volume faction. • Phenyl is better to form the thermal conductivity network in paraffin. • The thickness of interfacial layer can be obtained 12.75 nm.

  4. Tunable Oxygen Functional Groups as Electrocatalysts on Graphite Felt Surfaces for All-Vanadium Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Luis; Reed, David; Nie, Zimin; Schwarz, Ashleigh M; Nandasiri, Manjula I; Kizewski, James P; Wang, Wei; Thomsen, Edwin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent; Li, Bin

    2016-06-22

    A dual oxidative approach using O2 plasma followed by treatment with H2 O2 to impart oxygen functional groups onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode. When used as electrodes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) system, the energy efficiency of the cell is enhanced by 8.2 % at a current density of 150 mA cm(-2) compared with one oxidized by thermal treatment in air. More importantly, by varying the oxidative techniques, the amount and type of oxygen groups was tailored and their effects were elucidated. It was found that O-C=O groups improve the cells performance whereas the C-O and C=O groups degrade it. The reason for the increased performance was found to be a reduction in the cell overpotential after functionalization of the graphite felt electrode. This work reveals a route for functionalizing carbon electrodes to improve the performance of VRB cells. This approach can lower the cost of VRB cells and pave the way for more commercially viable stationary energy storage systems that can be used for intermittent renewable energy storage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  6. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF 3 /methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L -1 . Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices

  7. The Functional Model Approach to the Consulting for Vertically - Integrated Construction Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimenova Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managerial decision making in the framework of functional modeling of the consulting process have a direct effect on other business - processes of vertically - integrated group of construction companies. As a result, the experience of consulting companies tends to be used for the making managerial solutions. Consultancy is known as one of the most complicated types of buisiness process. It requires a huge and deep examines and researches of targeting area, therefore need to be provided with special methodology, included internal standards of the consulting companies. Correct methodological support, planning process and implementation of managerial solutions should be based on the survey of the direct and inverse connections and interdependence of all group’s business – processes. Functional - process modeling of the vertically - integrated construction group could be considered as an instrument of examination and analysis of the issue how the managerial solution impact on the business-process for the construction group functioning. The main result of the research is the formalized process-oriented model – prototype of the business - processes of vertically - integrated group of construction companies.

  8. Responses to task 1 questionnaire of INFCE Working Group 6 supplied by participating states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Responses to Task 1 Questionnaire of INFCE Working Group 6 supplied by participating states (Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, USSR, United Kingdom, United States, Yugoslavia). Data and information are given on nuclear power forecast, spent fuel requirements for AR and AFR storage, current programmes for storage, future spent fuel disposition plans and transport

  9. A simple one-step modification of various materials for introducing effective multi-functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Li, Xin; Yang, Zhilu; Zhou, Shuo; Luo, Rifang; Maitz, Manfred F; Zhao, Yuancong; Wang, Jin; Xiong, Kaiqin; Huang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Covalent immobilization of various biomolecules is a desired strategy for bio-multifunctional surface modification. Multi-functionalization of a material surface is considered to be the premise of immobilizing a variety of biomolecules. However, currently adopted methods, used to introduce proper reactive functional groups on material surfaces, mostly are hard to be carried out and frequently can only introduce insufficient functional groups. In this work, we successfully develop the films (GAHD films) prepared via the simple copolymerization of gallic acid (GA) and hexamethylenediamine (HD), which can be deposited on different kinds of material surfaces including metals, ceramics and polymers by a one-step dip-coating method. Moreover, these copolymerized GAHD films possess high concentration of multi-functional groups like carboxyl (COOH), primary amine (-NH2) and quinone groups on the surfaces. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results prove either the occurrence of Michael addition reaction, Schiff base reaction in the film-forming process, or the existence of COOH, NH2 and quinone groups on the surfaces. The maximum contents of carboxyl and amine on the GAHD film are 24.9 nmol/cm(2) and 31.7 nmol/cm(2) respectively. After dynamical immersion for 30 days, slight swellings can be observed, which reveals that the GAHD films possess good stability. Moreover, Heparin (Hep), fibronectin (Fn) and laminin (Ln) are successfully immobilized on the GAHD film surfaces. The results of cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and rhodamine fluorescence photograph indicate that the 1:1.62 GAHD film has good cytocompatibility. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Quantification of amine functional groups and their influence on OM/OC in the IMPROVE network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Takahama, Satoshi; Dillner, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we developed a method using FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression to measure the four most abundant organic functional groups, aliphatic C-H, alcohol OH, carboxylic acid OH and carbonyl C=O, in atmospheric particulate matter. These functional groups are summed to estimate organic matter (OM) while the carbon from the functional groups is summed to estimate organic carbon (OC). With this method, OM and OM/OC can be estimated for each sample rather than relying on one assumed value to convert OC measurements to OM. This study continues the development of the FT-IR and PLS method for estimating OM and OM/OC by including the amine functional group. Amines are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and come from motor vehicle exhaust, animal husbandry, biomass burning, and vegetation among other sources. In this study, calibration standards for amines are produced by aerosolizing individual amine compounds and collecting them on PTFE filters using an IMPROVE sampler, thereby mimicking the filter media and collection geometry of ambient standards. The moles of amine functional group on each standard and a narrow range of amine-specific wavenumbers in the FT-IR spectra (wavenumber range 1 550-1 500 cm-1) are used to develop a PLS calibration model. The PLS model is validated using three methods: prediction of a set of laboratory standards not included in the model, a peak height analysis and a PLS model with a broader wavenumber range. The model is then applied to the ambient samples collected throughout 2013 from 16 IMPROVE sites in the USA. Urban sites have higher amine concentrations than most rural sites, but amine functional groups account for a lower fraction of OM at urban sites. Amine concentrations, contributions to OM and seasonality vary by site and sample. Amine has a small impact on the annual average OM/OC for urban sites, but for some rural sites including amine in the OM/OC calculations increased OM/OC by 0.1 or more.

  11. Effect of functional groups on sludge for biosorption of reactive dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Junxiong; Cui, Longzhe; Wang, Yanxin; Liu, Chengfu

    2009-01-01

    The sludge, which was collected from a biological coke wastewater treatment plant, was used as a low-cost adsorbent in the removal of reactive dyes (Methylene Blue (MB) and Reactive Red 4 (RR4)) from aqueous solution. The pH of dye solution played an important role on the dye uptake. With the solution pH increase, the MB uptake increased; whereas the RR4 uptake decreased. The maximum uptake of RR4 by protonated sludge was 73.7 mg/g at pH 1, and the maximum uptake of MB by sludge was 235.3 mg/g at pH 9. Three functional groups, including carboxyl, phosphonate, and amine group, were identified by potentiometric titration, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The anionic functional groups, phosphonate and carboxyl group, were identified as the binding sites for the cationic MB. Amine groups were identified to bind RR4. The main mechanism of the reactive dyestuffs adsorption is electrostatic interaction.

  12. A first approach to a faunistic crenon typology based on functional feeding groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter NAGEL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Springs are ecomorphologically and faunistically diverse freshwater ecosystems. Their limnological classification has been a focus of interest since crenic research began. Despite many attempts to include the crenic fauna in the classification of springs, there is no faunistic crenon typology. Over a three-year period we investigated the macroinvertebrate assemblages and the physical, chemical and ecomorphological conditions of 82 springs in the Swiss Jura Mountains, north-western Switzerland. Based on these data we selected the 25 least-disturbed springs to develop a faunistic crenon classification. Based on functional feeding groups we differentiated three crenon groups. An analysis of similarities and nonmetric multidimensional scaling for the substratum types supported the crenon groupings. In general we can distinguish between springs that are dominated by scrapers and characterized by a lotic environment, and those that are mostly inhabited by filtering collectors, associated with a lentic environment. Those two crenon types are the extremes of a continuum. Particular crenon forms, such as those with extensive carbonate deposits, lie between these extremes. This third group is characterized by gathering collectors and shredders. Using this approach we can distinguish faunistic crenon types, based on functional feeding groups, which reflect the abiotic conditions within the springs. We provide a foundation for a faunistic crenon typology which now can be tested in other landscapes and will then be applicable to other low mountain ranges in Europe.

  13. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Dongni; Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling, E-mail: biomater@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH{sub 2} and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH{sub 2} and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  14. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Dongni; Li Zhuo; Gao Yonghua; Feng Qingling

    2010-01-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH 2 and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH 2 and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  15. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongni; Li, Zhuo; Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling

    2010-10-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different.

  16. Computation of Schenberg response function by using finite element modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frajuca, C; Bortoli, F S; Magalhaes, N S

    2016-01-01

    Schenberg is a detector of gravitational waves resonant mass type, with a central frequency of operation of 3200 Hz. Transducers located on the surface of the resonating sphere, according to a distribution half-dodecahedron, are used to monitor a strain amplitude. The development of mechanical impedance matchers that act by increasing the coupling of the transducers with the sphere is a major challenge because of the high frequency and small in size. The objective of this work is to study the Schenberg response function obtained by finite element modeling (FEM). Finnaly, the result is compared with the result of the simplified model for mass spring type system modeling verifying if that is suitable for the determination of sensitivity detector, as the conclusion the both modeling give the same results. (paper)

  17. Functional diversity of benthic ciliate communities in response to environmental gradients in a wetland of Yangtze Estuary, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuan; Fan, Xinpeng; Warren, Alan; Zhang, Liquan; Xu, Henglong

    2018-02-01

    Researches on the functional diversity of benthic ecosystems have mainly focused on macrofauna, and studies on functional structure of ciliate communities have been based only on trophic- or size-groups. Current research was carried out on the changing patterns of classical and functional diversity of benthic ciliates in response to environmental gradients at three sites in a wetland in Yangtze Estuary. The results showed that changes of environmental factors (e.g. salinity, sediment grain size and hydrodynamic conditions) in the Yangtze Estuary induce variability in species composition and functional trait distribution. Furthermore, increased species richness and diversity did not lead to significant changes in functional diversity due to functional redundancy. However, salt water intrusion of Yangtze Estuary during the dry season could cause reduced functional diversity of ciliate communities. Current study provides the first insight into the functional diversity of ciliate communities in response to environmental gradients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Using Synchronous Online Peer Response Groups in EFL Writing: Revision-Related Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Ya Liang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, synchronous online peer response groups have been increasingly used in English as a foreign language (EFL writing. This article describes a study of synchronous online interaction among three small peer groups in a Taiwanese undergraduate EFL writing class. An environmental analysis of students’ online discourse in two writing tasks showed that meaning negotiation, error correction, and technical actions seldom occurred and that social talk, task management, and content discussion predominated the chat. Further analysis indicates that relationships among different types of online interaction and their connections with subsequent writing and revision are complex and depend on group makeup and dynamics. Findings suggest that such complex activity may not guarantee revision. Writing instructors may need to proactively model, scaffold and support revision-related online discourse if it is to be of benefit.

  19. A Systematic Review of Group Social Skills Interventions, and Meta-analysis of Outcomes, for Children with High Functioning ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, J; Robinson, L; Srinivasan, R; Kerry, E; Mandy, W; Skuse, D

    2018-02-08

    Group social skills interventions (GSSIs) are a commonly offered treatment for children with high functioning ASD. We critically evaluated GSSI randomised controlled trials for those aged 6-25 years. Our meta-analysis of outcomes emphasised internal validity, thus was restricted to trials that used the parent-report social responsiveness scale (SRS) or the social skills rating system (SSRS). Large positive effect sizes were found for the SRS total score, plus the social communication and restricted interests and repetitive behaviours subscales. The SSRS social skills subscale improved with moderate effect size. Moderator analysis of the SRS showed that GSSIs that include parent-groups, and are of greater duration or intensity, obtained larger effect sizes. We recommend future trials distinguish gains in children's social knowledge from social performance.

  20. The Effect of Functional Groups in Bio-Derived Fuel Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rhodri W; Moore, Cameron M; Semelsberger, Troy A; Chuck, Christopher J; Gordon, John C; Sutton, Andrew D

    2016-05-10

    Interest in developing renewable fuels is continuing to grow and biomass represents a viable source of renewable carbon with which to replace fossil-based components in transportation fuels. During our own work, we noticed that chemists think in terms of functional groups whereas fuel engineers think in terms of physical fuel properties. In this Concept article, we discuss the effect of carbon and oxygen functional groups on potential fuel properties. This serves as a way of informing our own thinking and provides us with a basis with which to design and synthesize molecules from biomass that could provide useful transportation fuels. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL GROUP TREATMENT IMPROVED WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE FUNCTIONAL SOMATIC SYNDROMES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Ørnbøl, Eva; Jensen, Jens Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Functional somatic syndromes (FSS) such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel and chronic fatigue syndrome often disrupt employment and may lead to long-term dependence on social benefits and permanently reduced work ability. Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) relief symptoms and improve...... functioning in FSS, but their effect on work ability is unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the long-term effect of group CBT on work ability in patients with severe FSS. Methods: 120 Patients from a recently published randomised controlled trial comparing group CBT with enhanced usual care (EUC...... before to 3 years after treatment by means of random effects modelling allowing individual levels and slopes. Results: Compared with the general population, FSS patients showed a continuous decline in self-support, leading to markedly reduced work ability at trial entry. In the following years, EUC...

  2. Modification of Hypoxic Respiratory Response by Protein Tyrosine Kinase in Brainstem Ventral Respiratory Neuron Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Huai, Ruituo; Yang, Junqing; Li, Yanchun

    2016-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) mediated the tyrosine phosphorylation modification of neuronal receptors and ion channels. Whether such modification resulted in changes of physiological functions was not sufficiently studied. In this study we examined whether the hypoxic respiratory response-which is the enhancement of breathing in hypoxic environment could be affected by the inhibition of PTK at brainstem ventral respiratory neuron column (VRC). Experiments were performed on urethane anesthetized adult rabbits. Phrenic nerve discharge was recorded as the central respiratory motor output. Hypoxic respiratory response was produced by ventilating the rabbit with 10% O2-balance 90% N2 for 5 minutes. The responses of phrenic nerve discharge to hypoxia were observed before and after microinjecting PTK inhibitor genistein, AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX, or inactive PTK inhibitor analogue daidzein at the region of ambiguus nucleus (NA) at levels 0-2 mm rostral to obex where the inspiratory subgroup of VRC were recorded. Results were as follows: 1. the hypoxic respiratory response was significantly attenuated after microinjection of genistein and/or CNQX, and no additive effect (i.e., further attenuation of hypoxic respiratory response) was observed when genistein and CNQX were microinjected one after another at the same injection site. Microinjection of daidzein had no effect on hypoxic respiratory response. 2. Fluorescent immunostaining showed that hypoxia significantly increased the number of phosphotyrosine immunopositive neurons in areas surrounding NA and most of these neurons were also immunopositive to glutamate AMPA receptor subunit GluR1. These results suggested that PTK played an important role in regulating the hypoxic respiratory response, possibly through the tyrosine phosphorylation modification of glutamate AMPA receptors on the respiratory neurons of ventral respiratory neuron column.

  3. A surrogate model for acid functional group conversion in alkyd reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Chigozie Francolins Uzoh; Okechukwu Dominic Onukwuli

    2016-01-01

    Due to lack of detailed kinetic model, the alkyd resin polymerization reactor problem has been a subject of extensive theoretical, simulation and experimental studies, given the demand of processes with better compromises between safety, productivity and quality, and the development of control methods. In this study, a novel linear integral kinetic model for the conversion of acid functional group have been developed for predicting the progress of the reaction in the alkyd batch reactor on th...

  4. Exploiting end group functionalization for the design of antifouling bioactive brushes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzmyn, Andrii; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Bruns, M.; Brynda, Eduard; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 13 (2014), s. 4124-4131 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1857; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : click chemistry * end-group functionalization * non-fouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.520, year: 2014

  5. Renormalization-group decimation technique for spectra, wave-functions and density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.

    1983-09-01

    The Renormalization Group decimation technique is very useful for problems described by 1-d nearest neighbour tight-binding model with or without translational invariance. We show how spectra, wave-functions and density of states can be calculated with little numerical work from the renormalized coefficients upon iteration. The results of this new procedure are verified using the model of Soukoulis and Economou. (author)

  6. Functional Group Interconversion: Decarbonylative Borylation of Esters for the Synthesis of Organoboronates

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Lin

    2016-09-26

    A new and efficient nickel-catalyzed decarbonylative borylation reaction of carboxylic acid esters with bis(pinacolato)-diboron has been developed. This transformation allows access to structurally diverse aryl as well as alkenyl and alkyl boronate esters with high reactivity, broad substrate scope, and excellent functional-group tolerance. Further experiments show that this protocol can be carried out on a gram scale and applied to orthogonal synthetic strategies.

  7. Application of the renormalization group to the study of structure function in the deep inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    The transformation law of truncated pertubation theory observables under changes of renormalization scheme is deduced. Based on this, a criticism of the calculus of the moments of structure functions in deep inelastic scattering, obtaining that the A 2 coefficient not renormalization group invariant is done. The PMS criterion is used to optimize the perturbative productions of the moments, truncated to 2nd order. (author) [pt

  8. Patterns of functional diversity of two trophic groups after canopy thinning in an abandoned coppice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šipoš, Jan; Hédl, Radim; Hula, V.; Chudomelová, Markéta; Košulič, O.; Niedobová, J.; Riedl, Vladan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 1 (2017), s. 45-58 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : coppice restoration * functional diversity * trophic groups Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  9. Lack of institutional support entails disruption in cortisol awakening response in caregivers of people with high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; González-Bono, Esperanza; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have found disruptions in cortisol awakening response in informal caregivers. Institutional support may modulate these effects, and this study analyses how the health of caregivers is affected when institutional support is provided for families of people with high-functioning autism. Self-reported health, depression and cortisol awakening response were analysed in three groups: supported caregivers, non-supported caregivers and non-caregivers. Non-supported caregivers presented higher somatic symptoms and lower cortisol awakening response than the supported caregiver and non-caregiver groups. A high number of somatic symptoms and low functionality of offspring were related to a lower cortisol awakening response only in the non-supported caregiver group. These findings demonstrate the importance of institutional support for improving the health of caregivers. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Competing failure analysis in phased-mission systems with multiple functional dependence groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chaonan; Xing, Liudong; Peng, Rui; Pan, Zhusheng

    2017-01-01

    A phased-mission system (PMS) involves multiple, consecutive, non-overlapping phases of operation. The system structure function and component failure behavior in a PMS can change from phase to phase, posing big challenges to the system reliability analysis. Further complicating the problem is the functional dependence (FDEP) behavior where the failure of certain component(s) causes other component(s) to become unusable or inaccessible or isolated. Previous studies have shown that FDEP can cause competitions between failure propagation and failure isolation in the time domain. While such competing failure effects have been well addressed in single-phase systems, only little work has focused on PMSs with a restrictive assumption that a single FDEP group exists in one phase of the mission. Many practical systems (e.g., computer systems and networks), however may involve multiple FDEP groups during the mission. Moreover, different FDEP groups can be dependent due to sharing some common components; they may appear in a single phase or multiple phases. This paper makes new contributions by modeling and analyzing reliability of PMSs subject to multiple FDEP groups through a Markov chain-based methodology. Propagated failures with both global and selective effects are considered. Four case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the proposed method. - Highlights: • Reliability of phased-mission systems subject to competing failure propagation and isolation effects is modeled. • Multiple independent or dependent functional dependence groups are considered. • Propagated failures with global effects and selective effects are studied. • Four case studies demonstrate generality and application of the proposed Markov-based method.

  11. String partition functions, Hilbert schemes and affine Lie algebra representations on homology groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, Loriano; Bytsenko, Andrey; Elizalde, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    This review paper contains a concise introduction to highest weight representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras, vertex operator algebras and Hilbert schemes of points, together with their physical applications to elliptic genera of superconformal quantum mechanics and superstring models. The common link of all these concepts and of the many examples considered in this paper is to be found in a very important feature of the theory of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras: the modular properties of the characters (generating functions) of certain representations. The characters of the highest weight modules represent the holomorphic parts of the partition functions on the torus for the corresponding conformal field theories. We discuss the role of the unimodular (and modular) groups and the (Selberg-type) Ruelle spectral functions of hyperbolic geometry in the calculation of elliptic genera and associated q-series. For mathematicians, elliptic genera are commonly associated with new mathematical invariants for spaces, while for physicists elliptic genera are one-loop string partition function. (Therefore, they are applicable, for instance, to topological Casimir effect calculations.) We show that elliptic genera can be conveniently transformed into product expressions, which can then inherit the homology properties of appropriate polygraded Lie algebras. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of Stuart Dowker’s 75th birthday devoted to ‘Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics’. (review)

  12. Functional renormalization group approach to interacting three-dimensional Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anand; Scammell, Arthur; Krieg, Jan; Kopietz, Peter

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the effect of long-range Coulomb interaction on the quasiparticle properties and the dielectric function of clean three-dimensional Weyl semimetals at zero temperature using a functional renormalization group (FRG) approach. The Coulomb interaction is represented via a bosonic Hubbard-Stratonovich field which couples to the fermionic density. We derive truncated FRG flow equations for the fermionic and bosonic self-energies and for the three-legged vertices with two fermionic and one bosonic external legs. We consider two different cutoff schemes—cutoff in fermionic or bosonic propagators—in order to calculate the renormalized quasiparticle velocity and the dielectric function for an arbitrary number of Weyl nodes and the interaction strength. If we approximate the dielectric function by its static limit, our results for the velocity and the dielectric function are in good agreement with that of A. A. Abrikosov and S. D. Beneslavskiĭ [Sov. Phys. JETP 32, 699 (1971)] exhibiting slowly varying logarithmic momentum dependence for small momenta. We extend their result for an arbitrary number of Weyl nodes and finite frequency by evaluating the renormalized velocity in the presence of dynamic screening and calculate the wave function renormalization.

  13. Microstructures and functional groups of Nannochloropsis sp. cells with arsenic adsorption and lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Cheng, Jun; Yang, Zongbo; Li, Ke; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-10-01

    The pore structures and surface morphological characteristics of Nannochloropsis sp. cells with arsenic adsorption were initially investigated by N2-adsorption analysis and scanning electronic microscopy. Functional groups of cells were analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Total surface area of microalgal cells increased from 0.54 m(2)/g to 1.80 m(2)/g upon arsenic adsorption. The external cell surface area increased. More wrinkles and measles-like granules formed on the surfaces as a result of arsenic toxicity. Arsenic ions blocked cell pores and decreased the average pore diameter and total pore volume. Ether cross-linked structures in the algaenan layer of cell walls were disrupted as the percentage of C-O functional groups decreased. These functional groups underwent complexation reactions with arsenic ions. Accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased because of oxidative stresses induced by arsenic. The increase in generation of short-chain saturated fatty acids was favourable for the production of quality biodiesel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Algae as hosts for epifaunal bryozoans: Role of functional groups and taxonomic relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liuzzi, María G.; López Gappa, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Macroalgae build biogenic habitats which give shelter and provide a suitable physical environment for a great variety of organisms. Structural complexity of algal substrates may influence the composition of their attached epifauna. The aim of this study is to test whether the taxonomic relatedness of the algal hosts and the functional groups to which they belong influence the species richness and composition of their epifaunal bryozoans. We analysed 36 algal genera from the Atlantic coast of South America between 42°S and Cape Horn. Changes in bryozoan species richness (number of species) among different algal functional groups (filamentous algae, foliose algae, corticated foliose algae, corticated macrophytes) were non-significant. The composition of the epifaunal assemblages differed significantly only between filamentous and foliose algae. Sheet-like bryozoans (i.e. encrusting, pluriserial colonies) were more frequent on foliose than on filamentous algae, while runner-like species (i.e. uniserial stolons) were characteristic epibionts on filamentous thallii. Similarity of bryozoan assemblages increased with increasing taxonomic relatedness of their hosts. As most filamentous seaweeds analysed in this study are members of the Order Ceramiales, the influence of algal taxonomic relatedness and functional groups on the composition of their bryozoan assemblages can be viewed as two different aspects of the same phenomenon.

  15. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid-liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  16. Roles of acidic functional groups of carbon fiber surfaces in enhancing interfacial adhesion behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Byung-Joo

    2005-01-01

    The gas phase ozone treatment was used as a method to bind acidic oxygen functional groups on carbon fiber surfaces. The ozone treatment on carbon fibers was varied with the ozone concentration and treatment time. Surface analyses of the carbon fibers before and after treatments were performed by FT-IR, X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), and dynamic contact angle measurements. Mechanical interfacial properties of the fibers/polymer composites were investigated by using critical stress intensity factor (K IC ) and critical energy release rate (G IC ) measurements. From the results of FT-IR and XPS, it was observed that the oxygen functional groups, such as -OH, O-C=O, C=O, and C-O, were attached on the carbon fiber surfaces after the ozone treatment. The mechanical interfacial properties of the composites also showed higher values than those of untreated composites. Ozone treatment is attributed to the increase of both the acidic functional groups and the degree of adhesion at interfaces between the fibers and polymeric resin in composites

  17. Influence of Reprocessing in the formation of functional groups during low density polyethylene aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício M. Selonke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the interest in polymer recycling has increased. However, in every reprocessing step the material undergoes shear stress and is affected by temperature and oxygen. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of multiple extrusion in the generation of functional groups, namely hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and transvinylene. Low density polyethylene was reprocessed three times in a single screw extruder. In each recycling step hot pressed films were prepared. These films were submitted to a heat treatment in an oven with air circulation and renovation to proceed with aging tests at different times and temperatures. The results obtained showed that all functional groups had their concentration increased with the increase in number of reprocessing, the aging time and temperature of the heat treatment. The factorial design was applied to verify the influence of these parameters. All the parameters had significant effects, since their regression coefficients had the same order of magnitude, with the most influential parameter being the aging temperature, followed by the aging time and number of extrusions. Most of the interactions were influential, indicating that the formation of functional groups depends upon their interaction, and not only on their isolated effects.

  18. Functional groups in North Chilean desert shrub species, based on the water sources used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squeo, Francisco A; Olivares, Nancy; Olivares, Sandra; Jorquera, Carmen; Pollastri, Alberto; Aguirre, Evelyn; Aravena, Ramon; Ehleringer, James R

    1999-01-01

    Primary productivity and vegetation structure in arid ecosystems are determined by water availability. In studies conducted in the coastal dry land of North Central Chile (29 degrees 43'S; 71degrees 14'0, 300m), the mechanisms to use different water sources by shrubs species, in two contrasting rainfall years were compared. Information on pheno logical studies, root architecture and water sources used by shrubs through the use of stable isotopes is are discussed. Six functional groups based on water uptake and water use are recognized. The functional groups were defined based on their habits (deciduous and evergreen), their root systems, (shallow, dimorphic and deep), and their ability to use different water sources (surficial and/or deep). Because of the differential impact of the goat overgrazing on different functional groups, this would result on a lower utilization of surficial waters. A management and/or restoration plan should maximize the use of all water sources available to recover the primary productivity and the system stability

  19. Interpersonal distance regulates functional grouping tendencies of agents in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Pedro; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia; Borges, João; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined whether, similar to collective agent behaviors in complex, biological systems (e.g., schools of fish and colonies of ants), performers in team sports displayed functional coordination tendencies, based on local interaction rules during performance. To investigate this issue, they used videogrammetry and digitizing procedures to observe interpersonal interactions in common 4 versus 2 + 2 subphases of the team sport of rugby union, involving 16 participants aged between 16 and 17 years of age. They observed pattern-forming dynamics in attacking subunits (n = 4 players) attempting to penetrate 2 defensive lines (n = 2 players in each). Data showed that within each attacking subunit, the 4 players displayed emergent functional grouping tendencies that differed between the 2 defensive lines. Results confirmed that grouping tendencies in attacking subunits of team games are sensitive to different task constraints, such as relative positioning to nearest defenders. It was concluded that running correlations were particularly useful for measuring the level of interpersonal coordination in functional grouping tendencies within attacking subunits.

  20. Decision-making and prepotent response inhibition functions in excessive internet users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Lin; Chen, Zu-Ji; Ma, Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Chu; Fu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Da-Ren

    2009-02-01

    Excessive Internet use (EIU), also described as Internet addiction or pathological Internet use, has already become a serious social problem around the world. Some researchers consider EIU as a kind of behavioral addiction. However, there are few experimental studies on the cognitive functions of excessive Internet users (EIUers) and limited data are available to compare EIU with other addictive behaviors, such as drug abuse and pathological gambling. In the present study, we examined EIUers' functions of decision-making and prepotent response inhibition. Two groups of participants, EIUers and controls, were compared on these two functions by using a Gambling Task and a Go/no-go Task, respectively. Compared with controls, EIUers selected significantly less net decks in the Gambling Task (P=.007). Furthermore, the EIUers made progress in selecting strategy, but more slowly than did the control group (EIUers, chunk 3 > chunk 1, P chunk 1, Paddictive behaviors such as drug abuse and pathological gambling. The findings from the Gambling Task indicated that EIUers have deficits in decision-making function, which are characterized by a strategy learning lag rather than an inability to learn from task contingencies. EIUers' better performance in the Go/no-go Task suggested some dissociation between mechanisms of decision-making and those of prepotent response inhibition. However, EIUers could hardly suppress their excessive online behaviors in real life. Their ability of inhibition still needs to be further studied with more specific assessments.

  1. Determination of arterial input function in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI using group independent component analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, H.-L.; Yang Yihong; Hsu, Y.-Y.; Chuang, K.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the determination of the arterial input function (AIF). The segmentation of surrounding tissue by manual selection is error-prone due to the partial volume artifacts. Independent component analysis (ICA) has the advantage in automatically decomposing the signals into interpretable components. Recently group ICA technique has been applied to fMRI study and showed reduced variance caused by motion artifact and noise. In this work, we investigated the feasibility and efficacy of the use of group ICA technique to extract the AIF. Both simulated and in vivo data were analyzed in this study. The simulation data of eight phantoms were generated using randomized lesion locations and time activity curves. The clinical data were obtained from spin-echo EPI MR scans performed in seven normal subjects. Group ICA technique was applied to analyze data through concatenating across seven subjects. The AIFs were calculated from the weighted average of the signals in the region selected by ICA. Preliminary results of this study showed that group ICA technique could not extract accurate AIF information from regions around the vessel. The mismatched location of vessels within the group reduced the benefits of group study

  2. Sequential Linker Installation: Precise Placement of Functional Groups in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, S; Lu, WG; Chen, YP; Zhang, Q; Liu, TF; Feng, DW; Wang, X; Qin, JS; Zhou, HC

    2015-03-11

    A unique strategy, sequential linker installation (SLI), has been developed to construct multivariate MOFs with functional groups precisely positioned. PCN-700, a Zr-MOF with eight-connected Zr6O4(OH)(8)(H2O)(4) clusters, has been judiciously designed; the Zr-6 clusters in this MOF are arranged in such a fashion that, by replacement of terminal OH-/H2O ligands, subsequent insertion of linear dicarboxylate linkers is achieved. We demonstrate that linkers with distinct lengths and functionalities can be sequentially installed into PCN-700. Single-crystal to single-crystal transformation is realized so that the positions of the subsequently installed linkers are pinpointed via single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. This methodology provides a powerful tool to construct multivariate MOFs with precisely positioned functionalities in the desired proximity, which would otherwise be difficult to achieve.

  3. Renormalization group functions of the φ4 theory in the strong coupling limit: Analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I. M.

    2008-01-01

    The previous attempts of reconstructing the Gell-Mann-Low function β(g) of the φ 4 theory by summing perturbation series give the asymptotic behavior β(g) = β ∞ g in the limit g → ∞, where α = 1 for the space dimensions d = 2, 3, 4. It can be hypothesized that the asymptotic behavior is β(g) ∼ g for all d values. The consideration of the zero-dimensional case supports this hypothesis and reveals the mechanism of its appearance: it is associated with vanishing of one of the functional integrals. The generalization of the analysis confirms the asymptotic behavior β(g) ∼ g in the general d-dimensional case. The asymptotic behaviors of other renormalization group functions are constant. The connection with the zero-charge problem and triviality of the φ 4 theory is discussed

  4. Technical Note: Development of chemoinformatic tools to enumerate functional groups in molecules for organic aerosol characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Functional groups (FGs) can be used as a reduced representation of organic aerosol composition in both ambient and controlled chamber studies, as they retain a certain chemical specificity. Furthermore, FG composition has been informative for source apportionment, and various models based on a group contribution framework have been developed to calculate physicochemical properties of organic compounds. In this work, we provide a set of validated chemoinformatic patterns that correspond to (1) a complete set of functional groups that can entirely describe the molecules comprised in the α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene MCMv3.2 oxidation schemes, (2) FGs that are measurable by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (3) groups incorporated in the SIMPOL.1 vapor pressure estimation model, and (4) bonds necessary for the calculation of carbon oxidation state. We also provide example applications for this set of patterns. We compare available aerosol composition reported by chemical speciation measurements and FTIR for different emission sources, and calculate the FG contribution to the O : C ratio of simulated gas-phase composition generated from α-pinene photooxidation (using the MCMv3.2 oxidation scheme).

  5. Magneto-Sensitive Adsorbents Modified by Functional Nitrogen-Containing Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Inna V.; Gdula, Karolina; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Zub, Yuriy L.

    2016-02-01

    In order to obtain amino-functionalized silica materials with magnetic core, one-step synthesis was carried out. Several materials, differ in number and structure of amino groups, were synthesized on the basis of sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were examined by several analytical techniques. The presence and content of amino groups were measured by using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and acid-base titration, respectively. Specific surface areas were measured by nitrogen/adsorption desorption isotherms. It was proved that sol-gel approach leads to obtain materials with high content of amino groups built into their surfaces (in the range 1.6-2.7 mmol/g). As-obtained materials were tested as potential adsorbents for copper(II) ions. The received maximum adsorption capacities were in the range 0.4-0.7 mmol/g.

  6. Glycaemic responses to liquid food supplements among three Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Siew Ling; Van Helvoort, Ardy; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-12-01

    A limited number of studies have compared the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic responses (GR) to solid foods between Caucasians and Asians. These studies have demonstrated that Asians have greater GI and GR values for solid foods than Caucasians. However, no study has compared the GI and GR to liquids among various Asian ethnic groups. A total of forty-eight males and females (16 Chinese, 16 Indians, and 16 Malay) took part in this randomised, crossover study. Glycaemic response to the reference food (glucose beverage) was measured on three occasions, and GR to three liquids were measured on one occasion each. Liquids with different macronutrient ratio's and carbohydrate types were chosen to be able to evaluate the response to products with different GIs. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in duplicate at baseline (-5 and 0 min) and once at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the commencement of beverage consumption. There were statistically significant differences in GI and GR between the three liquids (P Chinese vs. Indian vs. Malay). The GR for three different types of liquid nutritional supplements did not differ between the three main ethnic groups in Asia. It appears that the GI of liquid food derived from one Asian ethnicity can be applicable to other Asian populations.

  7. Effects of plant diversity, functional group composition, and fertilization on soil microbial properties in experimental grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Tanja; Barnard, Romain L; Niklaus, Pascal A; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Weigelt, Alexandra; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Loss of biodiversity and increased nutrient inputs are two of the most crucial anthropogenic factors driving ecosystem change. Although both received considerable attention in previous studies, information on their interactive effects on ecosystem functioning is scarce. In particular, little is known on how soil biota and their functions are affected by combined changes in plant diversity and fertilization. We investigated the effects of plant diversity, functional community composition, and fertilization on the biomass and respiration of soil microbial communities in a long-term biodiversity experiment in semi-natural grassland (Jena Experiment). Plant species richness enhanced microbial basal respiration and microbial biomass, but did not significantly affect microbial specific respiration. In contrast, the presence of legumes and fertilization significantly decreased microbial specific respiration, without altering microbial biomass. The effect of legumes was superimposed by fertilization as indicated by a significant interaction between the presence of legumes and fertilization. Further, changes in microbial stoichiometry (C-to-N ratio) and specific respiration suggest the presence of legumes to reduce N limitation of soil microorganisms and to modify microbial C use efficiency. Our study highlights the role of plant species and functional group diversity as well as interactions between plant community composition and fertilizer application for soil microbial functions. Our results suggest soil microbial stoichiometry to be a powerful indicator of microbial functioning under N limited conditions. Although our results support the notion that plant diversity and fertilizer application independently affect microbial functioning, legume effects on microbial N limitation were superimposed by fertilization, indicating significant interactions between the functional composition of plant communities and nutrient inputs for soil processes.

  8. Enhancing the efficiency of lithium intercalation in carbon nanotube bundles using surface functional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shiyan; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Lei; Chen, Liping; Liang, Haojun

    2014-08-14

    The effect of surface functionalization on the ability and kinetics of lithium intercalation in carbon nanotube (CNT) bundles has been studied by comparing the dynamical behaviors of lithium (Li) ions in pristine and -NH2 functionalized CNTs via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. It was observed that lithium intercalation has been achieved quickly for both the pristine and surface functionalized CNT bundle. Our calculations demonstrated for the first time that CNT functionalization improved the efficiency of lithium intercalation significantly at both low and high Li ion density. Moreover, we found that keeping the nanotubes apart with an appropriate distance and charging the battery at a rational rate were beneficial to achieve a high rate of lithium intercalation. Besides, the calculated adsorption energy curves indicated that the potential wells in the system of -NH2 functionalized CNT were deeper than that of the pristine CNT bundle by 0.74 eV, and a third energy minimum with a value of 2.64 eV existed at the midpoint of the central axis of the nanotube. Thus, it would be more difficult to remove Li ions from the nanotube interior after surface functionalization. The barrier for lithium diffusion in the interior of the nanotube is greatly decreased because of the surface functional groups. Based on these results, we would suggest to "damage" the nanotube by introducing defects at its sidewall in order to improve not only the capacity of surface functionalized CNTs but also the efficiency of lithium intercalation and deintercalation processes. Our results presented here are helpful in understanding the mechanism of lithium intercalation into nanotube bundles, which may potentially be applied in the development of CNT based electrodes.

  9. The rate of training response to aerobic exercise affects brain function of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika; Takeda, Masaki; Mimura, Tatsuya; Pajk, Melitta; Abraham, Dora; Koch, Lauren Gerard; Britton, Steven L; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2016-10-01

    There is an increasing volume of data connecting capacity to respond to exercise training with quality of life and aging. In this study, we used a rat model in which animals were selectively bred for low and high gain in running distance to test t whether genetic segregation for trainability is associated with brain function and signaling processes in the hippocampus. Rats selected for low response (LRT) and high response training (HRT) were randomly divided into control or exercise group that trained five times a week for 30 min per day for three months at 70% VO2max. All four groups had similar running distance before training. With training, HRT rats showed significantly greater increases in VO2max and running distance than LRT rats (p brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ratio of phospho and total cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), and apoptotic index, also showed significant differences between LRT and HRT groups. These findings suggest that aerobic training responses are not localized to skeletal muscle, but differently involve signaling processes in the brain of LRT and HRT rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear Safety: Our Overriding Priority. EDF Group Report 2015 in response to FTSE4Good Nuclear Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillart, H.

    2015-01-01

    EDF is the world's leading nuclear operator with 74.8 GW of installed capacity in France, the United Kingdom and the United States, an EPR under construction in France, and 2 EPRs under construction in China through TNPJVC (EDF 30%), a joint venture with CGNPC. As such, EDF acts at all stages in the life of its power plants (design, construction, operation, decommissioning) to: - ensure rigorous operation of facilities; - prevent all incidents and accidents; - reduce the impact of any incidents or accidents that might nevertheless occur. The main safety measures were published in a single document in 2015 setting out the Group's nuclear safety policy. Each nuclear operating company inside the Group acts in compliance with the legal obligations and regulations specific to its host country. Each company works to ensure and continuously improve its safety performance with its own methods, skills and values. The EDF Group respects national differences. At the same time it frames common principles to deliver the highest level of incident prevention and protection of the public, workers and the environment. This policy applies to new projects (overall architecture, design and construction) and all existing plants (operation, maintenance, waste management, decommissioning and engineering). The Group works closely with its industrial partners to deliver these objectives. Each company is responsible for the proper operation of its nuclear activities, and delegates responsibilities appropriately to each level of management or operation. The Group guarantees the allocation of resources needed to ensure nuclear safety. An in-house independent nuclear safety function is in place at power plant level, company level and Group level. Each has a duty to alert senior management of inappropriate or inadequate line management response. Nuclear safety is the absolute priority for the EDF Group at every stage of the plant life-cycle. Each company is responsible for ensuring

  11. Diversity, mobility, and structural and functional evolution of group II introns carrying an unusual 3' extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tourasse Nicolas J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Group II introns are widespread genetic elements endowed with a dual functionality. They are catalytic RNAs (ribozymes that are able of self-splicing and they are also mobile retroelements that can invade genomic DNA. The group II intron RNA secondary structure is typically made up of six domains. However, a number of unusual group II introns carrying a unique extension of 53-56 nucleotides at the 3' end have been identified previously in bacteria of the Bacillus cereus group. Methods In the present study, we conducted combined sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses of introns, host gene, plasmid and chromosome of host strains in order to gain insights into mobility, dispersal, and evolution of the unusual introns and their extension. We also performed in vitro mutational and kinetic experiments to investigate possible functional features related to the extension. Results We report the identification of novel copies of group II introns carrying a 3' extension including the first two copies in bacteria not belonging to the B. cereus group, Bacillus pseudofirmus OF4 and Bacillus sp. 2_A_57_CT2, an uncharacterized species phylogenetically close to B. firmus. Interestingly, the B. pseudofirmus intron has a longer extension of 70 bases. From sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analyses, several possible separate events of mobility involving the atypical introns could be identified, including both retrohoming and retrotransposition events. In addition, identical extensions were found in introns that otherwise exhibit little sequence conservation in the rest of their structures, with the exception of the conserved and catalytically critical domains V and VI, suggesting either separate acquisition of the extra segment by different group II introns or a strong selection pressure acting on the extension. Furthermore, we show by in vitro splicing experiments that the 3' extension affects the splicing properties differently in

  12. School Functioning of a Particularly Vulnerable Group: Children and Young People in Residential Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla González-García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the children and young people in residential child care in Spain are there as a consequence of abuse and neglect in their birth families. Research has shown that these types of adverse circumstances in childhood are risk factors for emotional and behavioral problems, as well as difficulties in adapting to different contexts. School achievement is related to this and represents one of the most affected areas. Children in residential child care exhibit extremely poor performance and difficulties in school functioning which affects their transition to adulthood and into the labor market. The main aim of this study is to describe the school functioning of a sample of 1,216 children aged between 8 and 18 living in residential child care in Spain. The specific needs of children with intellectual disability and unaccompanied migrant children were also analyzed. Relationships with other variables such as gender, age, mental health needs, and other risk factors were also explored. In order to analyze school functioning in this vulnerable group, the sample was divided into different groups depending on school level and educational needs. In the vast majority of cases, children were in primary or compulsory secondary education (up to age 16, this group included a significant proportion of cases in special education centers. The rest of the sample were in vocational training or post-compulsory secondary school. Results have important implications for the design of socio-educative intervention strategies in both education and child care systems in order to promote better school achievement and better educational qualifications in this vulnerable group.

  13. Effects of methotrexate combined with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and prednisone acetate on inflammatory response, immune function and liver and renal function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Li Xia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effects of methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate and prednisone on inflammatory response, immune function, liver and renal function in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods: A total of 80 cases of SLE patients according to the random data table were divided into the control group (n=40 and observation group (n=40, the control group were treated with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and prednisone treatment, on the basis of treatment of the control group, patients in the observation group in the control group were treated with methotrexate, the levels of inflammatory factors, immune function, liver and kidney function indexes in the two groups between the before treatment and after treatment were compared. Results: Comparison of the levels before treatment, the difference of the CRP, WBC, ESR, IgA, IgG, complement C3, complement C4, ALT, AST, SCr and BUN levels were not statistically significant. After treatment, the levels of CRP, ESR, IgA, IgG, ALT, AST, SCr and BUN in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. The levels of WBC and complement C4 in the observation group [(5.18±1.08伊10 9 /L, (0.22±0.05 g/L] were significantly higher than those in the control group [(4.51±0.52伊10 9 /L, (0.18±0.03 g/L], and there was no significant difference in the level of complement C3 between the two groups after treatment. Conclusion: Methotrexate combined with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and prednisone for the treatment of SLE can effectively reduce inflammation, improve immune function, has little effect on kidney function, high safety, which has an important clinical value.

  14. Effects of group status and victim sex on female bystanders' responses to a potential party rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jennifer; Colbert, Samuel; Colangelo, Liane

    2015-01-01

    This research examined bystander responses to 1 of 4 potential party rape scenarios. Undergraduate women (N = 249) imagined attending a party either alone or with three friends where a sober man led an intoxicated potential victim (either male or female) into a bedroom. After random assignment to conditions, participants reported on intent to help and barriers to helping the potential victim. In contrast to the classic bystander effect, bystanders in groups intended to offer more help than lone bystanders. Bystanders also intended to offer more help to potential female than male victims and experienced more barriers to helping male victims. Two of these barriers (lack of personal responsibility to help and identifying risk) explained the lower intentions to help potential male victims. Potential male victims were more likely than female victims to be perceived as gay, and bystanders reported the least intentions to help presumably gay men at risk.

  15. Pattern analysis of defecography in patients with chronic functional constipation: is it predictable for the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hye Rin; Kim, Ah Young; Hong, Seong Sook; Byun, Jae Ho; Myung Seung Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2005-01-01

    To determine of pattern analysis of defecography can predict the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic functional constipation. Over a two-year period, 104 patients with chronic functional constipation underwent defecography and biofeedback therapy. Two blinded readers analyzed the defecographic findings and classified them into six types; I = normal defecation, II = hypertonic lower anal sphincter (poor anal opening due to a persistent contraction of the lower anal sphincter), III dyskinetic puborectal sling (inadequate laxity of the puborectal sling), IV spastic pelvic floor syndrome (persistent contraction of both the puborectal sling and the lower and sphincter), V unclassified (including paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter), VI anatomical obstruction. In addition, the degree of rectal contraction during defecation was scored (grade 0 to 3). After biofeedback therapy, the differences in the defecography patterns or rectal contraction between the two groups, the responsive or non-responsive group, were analyzed. The defecograms revealed that the type IV of the spastic pelvic floor syndrome was most common (50 of 104 patients, 48%), followed by II (21/104, 20%), III (12/104, 11.5%), V (9/104, 9%) and VI (12/104, 11.5%). Biofeedback therapy showed a therapeutic response in 71 out of 104 patients (68%) but failed in 33 patients (32%). However, there were no significant differences in the defecographic pattern between the responsive and non-responsive groups (ρ = 0.630). The defecograms revealed contractions in 78 patients (75%) and moderate to vigorous contractions (more than grade 2) in 66 patients. Most of the biofeedback-responsive group showed rectal contractions (66 of 71 patients, 93%, ρ < 0.001). In patients with chronic functional constipation, there was no significant difference in the morphological patterns of the defecogram between the responsive and non-responsive biofeedback groups. However, the presence of rectal

  16. Pattern analysis of defecography in patients with chronic functional constipation: is it predictable for the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Hye Rin; Kim, Ah Young; Hong, Seong Sook; Byun, Jae Ho; Myung Seung Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon [University of Ulsan of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-15

    To determine of pattern analysis of defecography can predict the responsiveness of biofeedback therapy in patients with chronic functional constipation. Over a two-year period, 104 patients with chronic functional constipation underwent defecography and biofeedback therapy. Two blinded readers analyzed the defecographic findings and classified them into six types; I = normal defecation, II = hypertonic lower anal sphincter (poor anal opening due to a persistent contraction of the lower anal sphincter), III dyskinetic puborectal sling (inadequate laxity of the puborectal sling), IV spastic pelvic floor syndrome (persistent contraction of both the puborectal sling and the lower and sphincter), V unclassified (including paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter), VI anatomical obstruction. In addition, the degree of rectal contraction during defecation was scored (grade 0 to 3). After biofeedback therapy, the differences in the defecography patterns or rectal contraction between the two groups, the responsive or non-responsive group, were analyzed. The defecograms revealed that the type IV of the spastic pelvic floor syndrome was most common (50 of 104 patients, 48%), followed by II (21/104, 20%), III (12/104, 11.5%), V (9/104, 9%) and VI (12/104, 11.5%). Biofeedback therapy showed a therapeutic response in 71 out of 104 patients (68%) but failed in 33 patients (32%). However, there were no significant differences in the defecographic pattern between the responsive and non-responsive groups ({rho} = 0.630). The defecograms revealed contractions in 78 patients (75%) and moderate to vigorous contractions (more than grade 2) in 66 patients. Most of the biofeedback-responsive group showed rectal contractions (66 of 71 patients, 93%, {rho} < 0.001). In patients with chronic functional constipation, there was no significant difference in the morphological patterns of the defecogram between the responsive and non-responsive biofeedback groups. However, the presence of

  17. Characterization of the equine skeletal muscle transcriptome identifies novel functional responses to exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacHugh David E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T1 - untrained, (9 ± 0.5 months old and T2 - trained (20 ± 0.7 months old. Results The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease. Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P Conclusion Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  18. Function of the triceps surae muscle group in low and high arched feet: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branthwaite, Helen; Pandyan, Anand; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2012-06-01

    The Achilles tendon has been shown to be comprised of segmental components of tendon arising from the tricpes surae muscle group. Motion of the foot joints in low and high arched feet may induce a change in behaviour of the triceps surae muscle group due to altered strain on the tendon. Surface electromyogram of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius and the soleus muscle from 12 subjects (with 6 low arched and 6 high arched feet) (1:1) was recorded whilst walking at a self selected speed along a 10m walkway. The results showed a high variability in muscle activity between groups with patterns emerging within groups. Soleus was more active in 50% of the low arch feet at forefoot loading and there was a crescendo of activity towards heel lift in 58% of all subjects. This observed variability between groups and foot types emphasises the need for further work on individual anatomical variation and foot function to help in the understanding and management of Achilles tendon pathologies and triceps surae dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Influence of surface functional groups on lithium ion intercalation of carbon cloth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventosa, Edgar; Xia, Wei; Klink, Stefan; La Mantia, Fabio; Muhler, Martin; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Commercial carbon cloth made of PAN-based carbon fibres was used as free-standing anode for lithium intercalation. The role of surface functional groups on the specific irreversible charge loss and reversible charge during the intercalation and de-intercalation of lithium ions into carbon cloth has been investigated. Oxygen groups have been introduced by nitric acid vapour treatment and subsequently gradually removed by thermal treatment at different temperatures in He or H 2 atmosphere as confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A clear correlation between the amount of surface-bound oxygen groups and the irreversible specific charge was observed. Three irreversible processes were distinguished during the first cathodic scan: (i) reduction of oxygen groups, (ii) formation of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and (iii) presumably exfoliation. The latter one was only observed for samples with low surface oxygen concentration, and its contribution to the irreversible capacity was small due to the low graphitization degree of the samples. An increased specific reversible charge upon increasing the amount of oxygen-containing groups was observed with the main improvement above 1.5 V.

  20. Response function of semiconductor detectors, Ge and Si(Li)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevallos Chavez, Juan Yury

    2003-01-01

    The Response Function (RF) for Ge and Si(Li) semiconductor detectors was obtained. The RF was calculated for five detectors, four Hp Ge with active volumes of 89 cm 3 , 50 cm 3 , 8 cm 3 and 5 cm 3 , and one Si(Li) with 0.143 cm 3 of active volume. The interval of energy studied ranged from 6 keV up to 1.5 MeV. Two kinds of studies were done in this work. The first one was the RF dependence with the detection geometry. Here the calculation of the RF for a geometry named as simple and an extrapolation of that RF, were both done. The extrapolation process analyzed both, spectra obtained with a shielding geometry and spectra where the source-detector distance was modified. The second one was the RF dependence with the detection electronics. This study was done varying the shaping time of the pulse in the detection electronics. The purpose was to verify the effect of the ballistic deficit in the resolution of the detector. This effect was not observed. The RF components that describe the region of the total absorption of the energy of the incident photons, and the partial absorption of this energy, were both treated. In particular, empirical functions were proposed for the treatment of both, the multiple scattering originated in the detector (crystal), and the photon scattering originated in materials of the neighborhood of the crystal. Another study involving Monte Carlo simulations was also done in order to comprehend the photon scattering structures produced in an iron shield. A deconvolution method is suggested, for spectra related to scattered radiation in order to assess the dose delivered to the scatterer. (author)

  1. Brainstem auditory evoked response characteristics in normal-hearing subjects with chronic tinnitus and in non-tinnitus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadman Nemati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: While most of the people with tinnitus have some degrees of hearing impairment, a small percent of patients admitted to ear, nose and throat clinics or hearing evaluation centers are those who complain of tinnitus despite having normal hearing thresholds. This study was performed to better understanding of the reasons of probable causes of tinnitus and to investigate possible changes in the auditory brainstem function in normal-hearing patients with chronic tinnitus.Methods: In this comparative cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study, 52 ears (26 with and 26 without tinnitus were examined. Components of the auditory brainstem response (ABR including wave latencies and wave amplitudes were determined in the two groups and analyzed using appropriate statistical methods.Results: The mean differences between the absolute latencies of waves I, III and V was less than 0.1 ms between the two groups that was not statistically significant. Also, the interpeak latency values of waves I-III, III-V and I-V in both groups had no significant difference. Only, the V/I amplitude ratio in the tinnitus group was significantly higher (p=0.04.Conclusion: The changes observed in amplitude of waves, especially in the latter ones, can be considered as an indication of plastic changes in neuronal activity and its possible role in generation of tinnitus in normal-hearing patients.

  2. Toward a standardized structural-functional group connectome in MNI space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Andreas; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the structural architecture of the human brain in terms of connectivity between its subregions has provided profound insights into its underlying functional organization and has coined the concept of the "connectome", a structural description of the elements forming the human brain and the connections among them. Here, as a proof of concept, we introduce a novel group connectome in standard space based on a large sample of 169 subjects from the Enhanced Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (eNKI-RS). Whole brain structural connectomes of each subject were estimated with a global tracking approach, and the resulting fiber tracts were warped into standard stereotactic (MNI) space using DARTEL. Employing this group connectome, the results of published tracking studies (i.e., the JHU white matter and Oxford thalamic connectivity atlas) could be largely reproduced directly within MNI space. In a second analysis, a study that examined structural connectivity between regions of a functional network, namely the default mode network, was reproduced. Voxel-wise structural centrality was then calculated and compared to others' findings. Furthermore, including additional resting-state fMRI data from the same subjects, structural and functional connectivity matrices between approximately forty thousand nodes of the brain were calculated. This was done to estimate structure-function agreement indices of voxel-wise whole brain connectivity. Taken together, the combination of a novel whole brain fiber tracking approach and an advanced normalization method led to a group connectome that allowed (at least heuristically) performing fiber tracking directly within MNI space. Such an approach may be used for various purposes like the analysis of structural connectivity and modeling experiments that aim at studying the structure-function relationship of the human connectome. Moreover, it may even represent a first step toward a standard DTI template of the human brain

  3. Nitrogen Fixation Aligns with nifH Abundance and Expression in Two Coral Trophic Functional Groups

    KAUST Repository

    Pogoreutz, Claudia

    2017-06-28

    Microbial nitrogen fixation (diazotrophy) is a functional trait widely associated with tropical reef-building (scleractinian) corals. While the integral role of nitrogen fixation in coral nutrient dynamics is recognized, its ecological significance across different coral functional groups remains yet to be evaluated. Here we set out to compare molecular and physiological patterns of diazotrophy (i.e., nifH gene abundance and expression as well as nitrogen fixation rates) in two coral families with contrasting trophic strategies: highly heterotrophic, free-living members of the family Fungiidae (Pleuractis granulosa, Ctenactis echinata), and mostly autotrophic coral holobionts with low heterotrophic capacity (Pocilloporidae: Pocillopora verrucosa, Stylophora pistillata). The Fungiidae exhibited low diazotroph abundance (based on nifH gene copy numbers) and activity (based on nifH gene expression and the absence of detectable nitrogen fixation rates). In contrast, the mostly autotrophic Pocilloporidae exhibited nifH gene copy numbers and gene expression two orders of magnitude higher than in the Fungiidae, which coincided with detectable nitrogen fixation activity. Based on these data, we suggest that nitrogen fixation compensates for the low heterotrophic nitrogen uptake in autotrophic corals. Consequently, the ecological importance of diazotrophy in coral holobionts may be determined by the trophic functional group of the host.

  4. Argos and Spitz group genes function to regulate midline glial cell number in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemerdink, C; Jacobs, J R

    1997-10-01

    The midline glia of the Drosophila embryonic nerve cord undergo a reduction in cell number after facilitating commissural tract morphogenesis. The numbers of midline glia entering apoptosis at this stage can be increased by a loss or reduction of function in genes of the spitz group or Drosophila EGF receptor (DER) pathway. Argos, a secreted molecule with an atypical EGF motif, is postulated to function as a DER antagonist. In this work, we assess the role of argos in the determination of midline glia cell number. Although all midline glia express DER, argos expression is restricted to the midline glia which do not enter apoptosis. Fewer midline glia enter apoptosis in embryos lacking argos function. Ectopic expression of argos is sufficient to remove all DER-expressing midline glia from the nerve cord, even those that already express argos. DER expression is not terminated in the midline glia after spitz group signaling triggers changes in gene expression. It is therefore likely that an attenuation of DER signaling by Argos is integrated with the augmentation of DER signaling by Spitz throughout the period of reduction of midline glia number. We suggest that signaling by Spitz but not Argos is restricted to adhesive junctions. In this manner, midline glia not forming signaling junctions remain sensitive to juxtacrine Argos signaling, while an autocrine Argos signal is excluded by the adhesive junction.

  5. Context-dependent species identity effects within a functional group of filter-feeding bivalves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Caryn C; Spooner, Daniel E; Galbraith, Heather S

    2007-07-01

    We asked whether species richness or species identity contributed more to ecosystem function in a trait-based functional group, burrowing, filter-feeding bivalves (freshwater mussels: Unionidae), and whether their importance changed with environmental context and species composition. We conducted a manipulative experiment in a small river examining the effects of mussel assemblages varying from one to eight species on benthic algal standing crop across two sets of environmental conditions: extremely low discharge and high water temperature (summer); and moderate discharge and water temperature (fall). We found strong species identity effects within this guild, with one species (Actinonaias ligamentina) influencing accrual of benthic algae more than other species, but only under summer conditions. We suspect that this effect is due to a combination of the greater biomass of this species and its higher metabolic and excretion rates at warm summer temperatures, resulting in increased nitrogen subsidies to benthic algae. We also found that Actinonaias influenced the condition of other mussel species, likely through higher consumption, interference, or both. This study demonstrates that species within trait-based functional groups do not necessarily have the same effects on ecosystem properties, particularly under different environmental conditions.

  6. The synthesis of desired functional groups on PEI microgel particles for biomedical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Demirci, Sahin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Al-Lohedan, Hamad

    2015-11-01

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) microgels were synthesized by micro emulsion polymerization technique and converted to positively charged forms by chemical treatments with various modifying agents with different functional groups, such as 2-bromoethanol (-OH), 4-bromobutyronitrile (-CN), 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide (-NH2), and glycidol (-OH). The functionalization of PEI microgels was confirmed by FT-IR, TGA and zeta potential measurements. Furthermore, a second modification of the modified PEI microgels was induced on 4-bromo butyronitrile-modified PEI microgels (PEI-CN) by amidoximation, to generate new functional groups on the modified PEI microgels. The PEI and modified PEI microgels were also tested for their antimicrobial effects against various bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25323. Moreover, the PEI-based particles were used for removal of organic dyes such as methyl orange (MO) and congo red (CR). The absorption capacity of PEI-based microgels increased with modification from 101.8 mg/g to 218.8 mg/g with 2-bromoethylamine, 216.2 m/g with 1-bromoethanol, and 224.5 mg/g with 4-bromobutyronitrile for MO. The increase in absorption for CR dyes was from 347.3 mg/g to 390.4 mg/g with 1-bromoethanol, 399.6 mg/g with glycidol, and 349.9 mg/g with 4-bromobutyronitrile.

  7. POLITENESS ON WHATSAPP: THE RESPONSES TO GREETINGS AND CONGRATULATIONS BY ENGLISH SPEAKING GROUPS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Purnomo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last three years, WhatsApp (WA has become one of the most popular means of instant communication between individuals and the most preferred medium for contact among people who belong to a specific group. This tool provides the opportunity to send and receive text, audio and visual messages. Guidelines for writing WA messages are not available, and people may often be unsure which politeness and languages are appropriate. This research is intended to investigate the politeness markers used by English speaking groups in Indonesia to respond greetings and congratulations. This study is of a qualitative and descriptive nature. The data were the responses on behalf of 50 group members of English Student Club, 200 ones of English Teachers and 50 ones of English Lecturers, as evidenced in the politeness markers they respond to greetings and congratulations posted on the WA. Furthermore, the data were analyzed by using the parameter of politeness markers (Spencer-Oatey, 2008. The research findings show that the group members used various politeness markers on one occasion, but violate them on another occasion. The politeness markers they used from the most to the least frequency are politeness markers to greet, to agree, to give compliments, to express gratitude, to give notice, to apologize, to request, to give alternative suggestions, to command and to refuse. The value of this study contributes towards understanding politeness in online environments, such as WA, which is used for smooth communication through the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal relationships.

  8. Impact of weather on dynamics of plant functional groups in an abandoned limestone grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Dzwonko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined to what extend the rate and direction of changes in unmanaged grassland depend on fluctuations in climatic conditions. Vegetation data from permanent plots in a semi-natural grassland in southern Poland collected over 12 years were used. Relations between weather variables, time, and the cover of 41 more frequent species and 14 plant functional groups were analysed. The greatest effect on the dynamics of species and functional groups had precipitation in spring and/or early summer, particularly in the current year. The majority of plant groups were significantly affected also by the temperature in spring and early summer in one of the three previous years. During 12 years, the cover of annuals and biennials, short plants, and plants with small leaves decreased, while the cover of taller plants, plants with larger leaves, and with vegetative spread increased. The analyses suggest that these successional changes were not directly associated with climatic conditions but were affected by them indirectly through interspecific competition. The fluctuations in climatic conditions, chiefly precipitation, had a significant effect on both the composition and the rate of changes in abandoned grassland. The increase in the cover of tall perennial species with broad leaves hindered succession towards woodland despite of the presence of woods in the closed vicinity. It can be expected that during drier periods colonisation of grassland by later successional species could be easier.

  9. Risk associated with toxic blooms of marine phytoplankton functional groups on Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D’ors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study mortality of copepod Artemia franciscana against the occurrence of harmful marine algae and possible toxicological changes exhibited by binary and tertiary combinations of these harmful algae toxins. Methods: Tweenty four hours acute toxicity assays were performed with selected concentrations of Alexandrium minutum, Prorocentrum lima and Nitzschia N1c1 living cells. Additionally, the results were analyzed using the median-effect/combination index (CI-isobologram equation to assess possible changes in the toxic effect induced by phytoplankton functional groups. Results: Biotoxin equivalent values obtained by immunodetection were (2.12±0.10, (8.60±1.30 and (4.32±1.67 pg/cell for saxitoxin, okadaic acid and domoic acid, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values estimated to saxitoxin and okadaic acid equivalents were 4.06 and 6.27 µg/L, significantly below the value obtained for Nitzschia N1c1, which was established at 467.33 µg/L. CI analysis applied on phytoplankton assemblages showed that both ternary mixture as the binary combinations exhibited antagonic action on toxic effects in Artemia nauplii, which were significantly lower than the toxic effect exhibited by each species studied. Conclusions: These results show that, although these harmful algae represent a serious risk to estuarine zooplankton community, the presence of phytoplankton functional groups within the same bloom can reduce the potential risk compared to the expected risk when each of the phytoplankton groups are evaluated individually.

  10. Violent Dynamics: Exploring Responsibility-Attribution for Harms Inflicted During Spontaneous Group Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje du Bois Pedain

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Violent encounters between groups of individuals often leave one or more of the participants dead, and it may be clear from the evidence that the physical cause of death was set by the single, deliberate act of one of the participants only. When this happens, the question arises whether, and how, responsibility for the fatal act and/or for its consequences can be attributed to other participants in the punch-up. Criminal law has long sought – and found – ways of holding others apart from the direct agent responsible for the harms caused in such encounters, although the legal constructions used differ between legal systems and often change significantly over time even within the same jurisdiction. This paper investigates the appropriateness of different criminal-law responses to these cases from two directions: first, by exploring the possible doctrinal grounds within the criminal law for attributing responsibility for the fatal act/outcome to all participants; and then by investigating the extent to which these responsibility-ascriptions are supported or challenged by insights from psychological studies of group action. Los encuentros violentos entre grupos de individuos a menudo acaban con la muerte de uno o más de los participantes, y las pruebas pueden demostrar que la causa física de la muerte fue el acto único deliberado de uno solo de los participantes. Cuando esto ocurre, se plantea la pregunta de si se puede atribuir a otros participantes en la pelea la responsabilidad por el acto fatal y/o sus consecuencias, y cómo hacerlo. Durante mucho tiempo, el derecho penal ha buscado, y encontrado, formas de retener a otros participantes, además del responsable directo de los daños causados, aunque las construcciones legales utilizadas difieren entre sistemas jurídicos y a menudo cambian significativamente a lo largo del tiempo, incluso dentro de la misma jurisdicción. Este artículo investiga la conveniencia de diferentes respuestas

  11. 14 CFR Section 11 - Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group II and Group III Air Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... repair of property and equipment shall be recorded on running job orders or tickets covering repairs and... accounting year. Allocations of maintenance burden to capital projects, and service sales to others shall be... expenses shall be included in functions 6400 Aircraft and Traffic Servicing and 6700 Promotion and Sales...

  12. Decomposing the land-use specific response of plant functional traits along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Veronika; Kohler, Marina; Niedrist, Georg; Bahn, Michael; Tappeiner, Ulrike; Frenck, Georg

    2017-12-01

    Environmental conditions affect functional trait variability within communities and thus shape ecosystem properties. With the ability of plants to adapt morphologically and physiologically to changing abiotic conditions, gradient analysis was shown to be a suitable tool to identify the drivers which determine trait values. Apart from direct environmental drivers and indirect gradients such as elevation, also anthropogenic effects (e.g. irrigation, grazing) can influence trait variability. Our aim was to assess the interactive effects of different environmental drivers on major plant traits and to investigate how these are modulated within two different land-use types (hay meadow vs. pasture). An elevational gradient spanning 1000m was decomposed into its underlying direct components (temperature, water input, length of growing season) for the investigation of gradual responses of five prominent functional traits (aboveground dry weight (AGDW), vegetative height (VegHt), specific leaf area (SLA), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf nitrogen concentration (LNC)) for key species from two functional groups (grasses, forbs) in the two land-use/management regimes. The present study revealed that the detailed analysis of single direct gradients provides substantial additional information on trait response which remains hidden or is even reversed if only indirect gradients such as elevation are analysed. However, trait response to the combination of the three direct gradients aligned surprisingly well with trait response to the indirect gradient underpinning the adequate representation of temperature, water input and length of growing season by elevation. The response of traits significantly depended on the management regime and corresponding intensity which was shown to play an overriding role and constrained and attenuated response ranges of traits to climatic gradients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Challenging emotional prejudice by changing self-concept: priming independent self-construal reduces racial in-group bias in neural responses to other's pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenbo; Wu, Bing; Liu, Yi; Wu, Xinhuai; Han, Shihui

    2015-09-01

    Humans show stronger empathy for in-group compared with out-group members' suffering and help in-group members more than out-group members. Moreover, the in-group bias in empathy and parochial altruism tend to be more salient in collectivistic than individualistic cultures. This work tested the hypothesis that modifying self-construals, which differentiate between collectivistic and individualistic cultural orientations, affects in-group bias in empathy for perceived own-race vs other-race pain. By scanning adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found stronger neural activities in the mid-cingulate, left insula and supplementary motor area (SMA) in response to racial in-group compared with out-group members' pain after participants had been primed with interdependent self-construals. However, the racial in-group bias in neural responses to others' pain in the left SMA, mid-cingulate cortex and insula was significantly reduced by priming independent self-construals. Our findings suggest that shifting an individual's self-construal leads to changes of his/her racial in-group bias in neural responses to others' suffering. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Zero-field magnetic response functions in Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Niu, Qian

    2017-07-01

    We present a fresh perspective on the Landau level quantization rule; that is, by successively including zero-field magnetic response functions at zero temperature, such as zero-field magnetization and susceptibility, the Onsager’s rule can be corrected order by order. Such a perspective is further reinterpreted as a quantization of the semiclassical electron density in solids. Our theory not only reproduces Onsager’s rule at zeroth order and the Berry phase and magnetic moment correction at first order but also explains the nature of higher-order corrections in a universal way. In applications, those higher-order corrections are expected to curve the linear relation between the level index and the inverse of the magnetic field, as already observed in experiments. Our theory then provides a way to extract the correct value of Berry phase as well as the magnetic susceptibility at zero temperature from Landau level fan diagrams in experiments. Moreover, it can be used theoretically to calculate Landau levels up to second-order accuracy for realistic models.

  15. In-Flight Retrieval of SCIAMACHY Instrument Spectral Response Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Hamidouche

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The instrument Spectral Response Function (ISRF has a strong impact on spectral calibration and the atmospheric trace gases retrievals. An accurate knowledge or a fine characterization of the ISRF shape and its FWHM (Full width at half maximum as well as its temporal behavior is therefore crucial. Designing a strategy for the characterization of the ISRF both on ground and in-flight is critical for future missions, such as the spectral imagers in the Copernicus program. We developed an algorithm to retrieve the instrument ISRF in-flight. Our method uses solar measurements taken in-flight by the instrument to fit a parameterized ISRF from on ground based calibration, and then retrieves the shape and FWHM of the actual in-flight ISRF. With such a strategy, one would be able to derive and monitor the ISRF during the commissioning and operation of spectrometer imager missions. We applied our method to retrieve the SCIAMACHY instrument ISRF in its different channels. We compared the retrieved ones with the on ground estimated ones. Besides some peculiarities found in SCIAMACHY channel 8, the ISRF results in other channels were relatively consistent and stable over time in most cases.

  16. Thermal regulation of functional groups in running water ecosystems. Progress report, October 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, K.W.; Klug, M.J.

    1976-07-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: characterization of functional groups of running water organisms, particularly macroconsumers; studies on relationship of functional groups to qualitative and quantitative characteristics of organic inputs to stream ecosystems; studies on relationship of functional groups to thermal regimes; and dimensioning the control of feeding and growth by temperature and food quality and quantity and determining the extent of compensatory action of each. (HLW)

  17. Healthy elderly people lack neutrophil-mediated functional activity to type V group B Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Rene A; Baker, Carol J; Keitel, Wendy A; Edwards, Morven S

    2004-01-01

    To determine the function of capsular polysaccharide (CPS)-specific immunoglobulin-G (IgG) and neutrophils from older adults in increasing ingestion and killing of type V group B Streptococcus (GBS). Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic at Baylor College of Medicine. The subjects were 40 healthy, community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older from Houston, Texas. The serum level of type V GBS CPS-specific IgG was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Functional activity was evaluated using an opsonophagocytosis assay. Sera from four subjects promoted efficient neutrophil-mediated phagocytosis and killing of type V GBS (mean log10 reduction+/-standard deviation in colony-forming units (cfu)=1.51+/-0.39). Each had serum CPS-specific IgG concentrations exceeding 1 microg/mL. Sera from 36 subjects did not promote neutrophil-mediated functional activity (mean log10 reduction in cfu=-0.09+/-0.06; P=.025). Only one of these 36 had a CPS-specific IgG concentration exceeding 1 microg/mL. When pooled sera from young adults given type V GBS conjugate vaccine was added at CPS-specific IgG concentrations of 4 microg/mL or 0.4 microg/mL, sera from all subjects promoted neutrophil-mediated killing of type V GBS. No impairment was evident in the neutrophil function of elderly subjects when it was compared with that of young adults. CPS-specific IgG and neutrophils from healthy older adults function to ingest and kill type V GBS, but these antibodies are not present in sufficient amounts in most individuals. Further studies should determine whether a type V GBS vaccine induces functionally active antibodies in older people.

  18. ARGX-87: Accident Response Group Exercise, 1987: A Broken Arrow mini exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuld, E.P.; Cruff, D.F.

    1987-07-01

    A Broken Arrow mini exercise dubbed ''Accident Response Group Exercise - 1987'' (ARGX-87) was conducted on June 1, 1987 at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore (SNLL). The exercise started at 0445 PDT with a call from the Department of Energy (DOE) - EOC in Washington, DC, to the Albuquerque Operations (AL - ) - EOC. AL, in turn, called the Laboratory off-hour emergency number (Fire Dispatcher), who called the Laboratory Emergency Duty Officer (LEDO). The LEDO then contacted the Accident Response Group (ARG) Senior Scientific Advisor. Calls were placed to assemble appropriate members of the ARG in the ALERT Center. No phone number for SNLL was available at the Albuquerque Operations EOC, so a controller injected a message to SNLL to get them involved in the exercise. The messages received at the Laboratory identified the Air Force line item weapon system involved in the accident and the accident location. As people arrived at the ALERT Center they began discussing the details of the accident. They also started working the deployment logistics and other issues. Travel arrangements for the HOT SPOT equipment and ARG personnel were made for immediate deployment to the accident site in North Dakota. The exercise was terminated at 0840 as planned. While certain procedural deficiencies were noted, the exercise was considered a valuable learning experience. The results and observations from this experience will be used to refine the operating procedures and the training program

  19. The Effectiveness of a Multidisciplinary Group Rehabilitation Program on the Psychosocial Functioning of Elderly People Who Are Visually Impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alma, Manna A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Melis-Dankers, Bart J. M.; Suurmeijer, Theodorus; van der Mei, Sijrike F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The pilot study reported here determined the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary group rehabilitation program, Visually Impaired Elderly Persons Participating (VIPP), on psychosocial functioning. Methods: The single-group pretest-posttest pilot study included 29 persons with visual

  20. The Electronic Structure and Spectra of Triphenylamines Functionalized by Phenylethynyl Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, G. V.; Minaeva, V. A.; Minaev, B. F.; Grigoras, M.

    2018-01-01

    We study the features of the electronic structure and the IR, UV, and visible spectra of a series of triphenylamines substituted with phenylethynyl groups. The analysis is performed at the level of the density functional theory (DFT) and its nonstationary version in comparison with the experimental data of IR and electron spectroscopy. It is shown that, in the excited state, there is a change in the alternation of single, double, and triple bonds in accordance with the character of bonding and antibonding in the lowest vacant molecular orbital. The gradual introduction of additional phenylethynyl groups does not cause frequency shifts in the IR spectra of the molecules under study, but significantly affects the intensity of the corresponding IR bands. A similar effect is also observed in the electronic-absorption spectra of these compounds. This can be used for optical tuning of triphenylamines as promising materials for organic light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  1. Biomass Vanillin-Derived Polymeric Microspheres Containing Functional Aldehyde Groups: Preparation, Characterization, and Application as Adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanyu; Yong, Xueyong; Zhou, Jinyong; Deng, Jianping; Wu, Youping

    2016-02-03

    The contribution reports the first polymeric microspheres derived from a biomass, vanillin. It reacted with methacryloyl chloride, providing monomer vanillin methacrylate (VMA), which underwent suspension polymerization in aqueous media and yielded microspheres in high yield (>90 wt %). By controlling the N2 bubbling mode and by optimizing the cosolvent for dissolving the solid monomer, the microspheres were endowed with surface pores, demonstrated by SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurement. Taking advantage of the reactive aldehyde groups, the microspheres further reacted with glycine, thereby leading to a novel type of Schiff-base chelating material. The functionalized microspheres demonstrated remarkable adsorption toward Cu(2+) (maximum, 135 mg/g) which was taken as representative for metal ions. The present study provides an unprecedented class of biobased polymeric microspheres showing large potentials as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Also importantly, the reactive aldehyde groups may enable the microspheres to be used as novel materials for immobilizing biomacromolecules, e.g. enzymes.

  2. Pairing in asymmetric many-fermion systems: Functional renormalisation group approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Krippa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional renormalisation group approach is applied to a imbalanced many-fermion system with a short-range attractive force. We introduce a composite boson field to describe pairing effects, and assume a simple ansatz for the effective action. A set of approximate flow equations for the effective coupling including boson and fermionic fluctuations is derived and solved. We identify the critical values of particle number density mismatch when the system undergoes a normal state. We determine the phase diagram both at unitarity and around. The obtained phase diagram is in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  3. Positive experience in introduction of functional group control at NPPs. What are the future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, O.M.; Antonyuk, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Experience in introduction of functional group control (FGC) on the basis of the ULU2-computer at the Rovno-3 NPP unit is generalized. A list of additional improvements realized during subsystems RY (steam generator blowing through) and TZ (special waste water system) introduction in the NPP reactor compartment is given. Reguirements to equipment, FGC actuating mechanisms, technological part of the design, necessary for FGC realization, are formulated. FGC relieves NPP operator of routine operations, reduces his fatigue and increases sharply the technological discipline. Rigorous standardization of designs and equipment and centralized management are reguired for FGC introduction at the operating NPPs

  4. A functional renormalization group application to the scanning tunneling microscopy experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Juan Ramos Cárdenas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of a system composed of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM tip coupled to an absorbed impurity on a host surface using the functional renormalization group (FRG. We include the effect of the STM tip as a correction to the self-energy in addition to the usual contribution of the host surface in the wide band limit. We calculate the differential conductance curves at two different lateral distances from the quantum impurity and find good qualitative agreement with STM experiments where the differential conductance curves evolve from an antiresonance to a Lorentzian shape.

  5. Nonperturbative Functional Renormalization Group for Random-Field Models: The Way Out of Dimensional Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarjus, Gilles; Tissier, Matthieu

    2004-12-01

    We develop a nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach for the random-field O(N) model that allows us to investigate the ordering transition in any dimension and for any value of N including the Ising case. We show that the failure of dimensional reduction and standard perturbation theory is due to the nonanalytic nature of the zero-temperature fixed point controlling the critical behavior, nonanalyticity, which is associated with the existence of many metastable states. We find that this nonanalyticity leads to critical exponents differing from the dimensional reduction prediction only below a critical dimension dc(N)3.

  6. Towards a quantization of gauge fields on de Sitter group by functional integral method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiritoiu, Viorel; Zet, Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    A formulation of the de Sitter symmetry as a purely inner symmetry defined on a fixed Minkowski space-time is presented. We define the generators of the de Sitter group and write the structure equations using a constant deformation parameter λ. The conserved gauge currents are calculated, and their physical meaning is given. Local gauge transformations and the corresponding covariant derivative depending on the gauge fields are also obtained. We study the behavior of gauge fields, the torsion and curvature tensors and give a regularization technique in terms of the ζ function. (orig.)

  7. Intracellular localization of a group II chaperonin indicates a membrane-related function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Paavola, Chad D.; McMillan, R. Andrew; Howard, Jeanie; Jahnke, Linda; Lavin, Colleen; Embaye, Tsegereda; Henze, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Chaperonins are protein complexes that are believed to function as part of a protein folding system in the cytoplasm of the cell. We observed, however, that the group II chaperonins known as rosettasomes in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, are not cytoplasmic but membrane associated. This association was observed in cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C by using immunofluorescence microscopy and in thick sections of rapidly frozen cells grown at 76 degrees C by using immunogold electron microscopy. We observed that increased abundance of rosettasomes after heat shock correlated with decreased membrane permeability at lethal temperature (92 degrees C). This change in permeability was not seen in cells heat-shocked in the presence of the amino acid analogue azetidine 2-carboxylic acid, indicating functional protein synthesis influences permeability. Azetidine experiments also indicated that observed heat-induced changes in lipid composition in S. shibatae could not account for changes in membrane permeability. Rosettasomes purified from cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C bind to liposomes made from either the bipolar tetraether lipids of Sulfolobus or a variety of artificial lipid mixtures. The presence of rosettasomes did not significantly change the transition temperature of liposomes, as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry, or the proton permeability of liposomes, as indicated by pyranine fluorescence. We propose that these group II chaperonins function as a structural element in the natural membrane based on their intracellular location, the correlation between their functional abundance and membrane permeability, and their potential distribution on the membrane surface.

  8. A small-group functional balance intervention for individuals with Alzheimer disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Julie D; Drake, Jamie Michelle; Marino, Christopher

    2010-03-01

    Individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) have a higher risk of falls than their cognitively intact peers. This pilot study was designed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a small-group balance exercise program for individuals with AD in a day center environment. Seven participants met the inclusion criteria: diagnosis of AD or probable AD, medical stability, and ability to walk (with or without assistive device). We used an exploratory pre- and post-test study design. Participants engaged in a functional balance exercise program in two 45-minute sessions each week for eight weeks. Balance activities were functional and concrete, and the intervention was organized into constant, blocked, massed practice. Outcome measures included Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and gait speed (GS; self-selected and fast assessed by an instrumented walkway). Data were analyzed by comparing individual change scores with previously identified minimal detectable change scores at the 90% confidence level (MDC90). Pre- and post-test data were acquired for five participants (two participants withdrew). The BBS improved in all five participants, and improved > or = 6.4 points (the MDC90 for the BBS in three participants. Four participants improved their performance on the TUG, and three participants improved > or = 4.09 seconds (the MDC90 for the TUG). Self-selected GS increased > or = 9.44 cm/sec (the MDC90 for gait speed) in three participants. Two participants demonstrated post-test self-selected GS comparable with their pretest fast GS. This pilot study suggests that a small-group functional balance intervention for individuals with AD is feasible and effective. Although participants had no explicit memory of the program, four of five improved in at least two outcome measures. Larger scale functional balance intervention studies with individuals with AD are warranted.

  9. Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Dueñas, María Teresa; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Wheat contains various essential nutrients including the B group of vitamins. However, B group vitamins, normally present in cereals-derived products, are easily removed or destroyed during milling, food processing or cooking. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of foods and can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value, flavor and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the identification and application of strains delivering health-promoting compounds is a fascinating field. Besides their key role in food fermentations, several LAB found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals are commercially used as probiotics and possess generally recognized as safe status. LAB are usually auxotrophic for several vitamins although certain strains of LAB have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B group. In recent years, a number of biotechnological processes have been explored to perform a more economical and sustainable vitamin production than that obtained via chemical synthesis. This review article will briefly report the current knowledge on lactic acid bacteria synthesis of vitamins B2, B11 and B12 and the potential strategies to increase B-group vitamin content in cereals-based products, where vitamins-producing LAB have been leading to the elaboration of novel fermented functional foods. In addition, the use of genetic strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will be also discussed.

  10. Submerged vegetation removal promotes shift of dominant phytoplankton functional groups in a eutrophic lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Yang, Kai; Li, Shuangshuang; Li, Genbao; Song, Lirong

    2014-08-01

    Historical data indicate that the dominance of submerged plants in Dianchi Lake in the 1960s was characterized by low algal density with dominance of non-toxic group J (Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, etc.). The removal of submerged plants, which began in the 1970s, resulted in the expansion of bloom-forming Microcystis (group M). Laboratory experiments suggested that Microcystis aeruginosa was inclined to grow and develop at elevated temperatures. The growth of Scenedesmus obliquus was slower than that of co-cultivated M. aeruginosa in the absence of Ceratophyllum demersum, especially at higher temperatures. The existence of submerged plant C. demersum could inhibit the growth of the harmful algae M. aeruginosa and this inhibitory effect by C. demersum was enhanced with an increase in temperature. Instead, with C. demersum, the growth of S. obliquus was not inhibited, but the co-cultivated M. aeruginosa was eliminated in a short time. Combined with the historical data and laboratory experiments, it was indicated that the submerged plants might play important roles in the dominance of the non-toxic group J in the historical succession. Consequently, the introduction of the submerged plant such as C. demersum might alter the dominant phytoplankton functional groups from M to J and benefit the restoration of the eutrophic lake. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Grafting of phosphorylcholine functional groups on polycarbonate urethane surface for resisting platelet adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bin [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Feng, Yakai, E-mail: yakaifeng@hotmail.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Weijin Road 92, 300072 Tianjin (China); Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lu, Jian; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Miao; Shi, Changcan; Khan, Musammir [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Guo, Jintang [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Weijin Road 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin University-Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Joint Laboratory for Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Weijin Road 92, 300072 Tianjin (China)

    2013-07-01

    In order to improve the resistance of platelet adhesion on material surface, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) was grafted onto polycarbonate urethane (PCU) surface via Michael reaction to create biomimetic structure. After introducing primary amine groups via coupling tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (TAEA) onto the polymer surface, the double bond of MPC reacted with the amino group to obtain MPC modified PCU. The modified surface was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results verified that MPC was grafted onto PCU surface by Michael reaction method. The MPC grafted PCU surface had a low water contact angle and a high water uptake. This means that the hydrophilic PC functional groups improved the surface hydrophilicity significantly. In addition, surface morphology of MPC grafted PCU film was imaged by atomic force microscope (AFM). The results showed that the grafted surface was rougher than the blank PCU surface. In addition, platelet adhesion study was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation. The PCU films after treated with platelet-rich plasma demonstrated that much fewer platelets adhered to the MPC-grafted PCU surface than to the blank PCU surface. The antithrombogenicity of the MPC-grafted PCU surface was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT). The result suggested that the MPC modified PCU may have potential application as biomaterials in blood-contacting and some subcutaneously implanted devices. - Highlights: • MPC was successfully grafted onto polycarbonate urethane surface via Michael reaction. • High concentration of PC functional groups on the surface via TAEA molecule • Biomimetic surface modification • The modified surface showed high hydrophilicity and anti-platelet adhesion.

  12. Characterization of the equine skeletal muscle transcriptome identifies novel functional responses to exercise training.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGivney, Beatrice A

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Digital gene expression profiling was used to characterize the assembly of genes expressed in equine skeletal muscle and to identify the subset of genes that were differentially expressed following a ten-month period of exercise training. The study cohort comprised seven Thoroughbred racehorses from a single training yard. Skeletal muscle biopsies were collected at rest from the gluteus medius at two time points: T(1) - untrained, (9 +\\/- 0.5 months old) and T(2) - trained (20 +\\/- 0.7 months old). RESULTS: The most abundant mRNA transcripts in the muscle transcriptome were those involved in muscle contraction, aerobic respiration and mitochondrial function. A previously unreported over-representation of genes related to RNA processing, the stress response and proteolysis was observed. Following training 92 tags were differentially expressed of which 74 were annotated. Sixteen genes showed increased expression, including the mitochondrial genes ACADVL, MRPS21 and SLC25A29 encoded by the nuclear genome. Among the 58 genes with decreased expression, MSTN, a negative regulator of muscle growth, had the greatest decrease.Functional analysis of all expressed genes using FatiScan revealed an asymmetric distribution of 482 Gene Ontology (GO) groups and 18 KEGG pathways. Functional groups displaying highly significant (P < 0.0001) increased expression included mitochondrion, oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid metabolism while functional groups with decreased expression were mainly associated with structural genes and included the sarcoplasm, laminin complex and cytoskeleton. CONCLUSION: Exercise training in Thoroughbred racehorses results in coordinate changes in the gene expression of functional groups of genes related to metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and muscle structure.

  13. Group behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. to light, infrasound and sound stimuli.

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    Samantha Bui

    Full Text Available Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331 ± 364 g to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low or no light (control. Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz, a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices.

  14. Pulmonary function responses to ozone in smokers with a limited smoking history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, Melissa L.; Brenza, Timothy M.; Ben-Jebria, Abdellaziz; Bascom, Rebecca; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Ultman, James S.

    2014-01-01

    In non-smokers, ozone (O 3 ) inhalation causes decreases in forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ) and dead space (V D ) and increases the slope of the alveolar plateau (S N ). We previously described a population of smokers with a limited smoking history that had enhanced responsiveness to brief O 3 boluses and aimed to determine if responsiveness to continuous exposure was also enhanced. Thirty smokers (19 M, 11 F, 24 ± 4 years, 6 ± 4 total years smoking,4 ± 2 packs/week) and 30 non-smokers (17 M, 13 F, 25 ± 6 years) exercised for 1 h on a cycle ergometer while breathing 0.30 ppm O 3 . Smokers and non-smokers were equally responsive in terms of FEV 1 (− 9.5 ± 1.8% vs − 8.7 ± 1.9%). Smokers alone were responsive in terms of V D (− 6.1 ± 1.2%) and S N (9.1 ± 3.4%). There was no difference in total delivered dose. Dead space ventilation (V D /V T ) was not initially different between the two groups, but increased in the non-smokers (16.4 ± 2.8%) during the exposure, suggesting that the inhaled dose may be distributed more peripherally in smokers. We also conclude that these cigarette smokers retain their airway responsiveness to O 3 and, uniquely, experience changes in V D that lead to heterogeneity in airway morphometry and an increase in S N . - Highlights: • We previously found lung function responses to O 3 bolus exposure in smokers. • Here, we describe their responsiveness to continuous O 3 exposure with exercise. • Spirometry and capnography were used to assess pulmonary function changes. • Enhanced bronchoconstriction in smokers increases parenchymal delivery of O 3

  15. From neural responses to population behavior: neural focus group predicts population-level media effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Emily B; Berkman, Elliot T; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-05-01

    Can neural responses of a small group of individuals predict the behavior of large-scale populations? In this investigation, brain activations were recorded while smokers viewed three different television campaigns promoting the National Cancer Institute's telephone hotline to help smokers quit (1-800-QUIT-NOW). The smokers also provided self-report predictions of the campaigns' relative effectiveness. Population measures of the success of each campaign were computed by comparing call volume to 1-800-QUIT-NOW in the month before and the month after the launch of each campaign. This approach allowed us to directly compare the predictive value of self-reports with neural predictors of message effectiveness. Neural activity in a medial prefrontal region of interest, previously associated with individual behavior change, predicted the population response, whereas self-report judgments did not. This finding suggests a novel way of connecting neural signals to population responses that has not been previously demonstrated and provides information that may be difficult to obtain otherwise.

  16. Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice: a guideline developed by a working group of the Netherlands Epidemiological Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaen, Gerard M H; Langendam, Miranda; Weyler, Joost; Burger, Huibert; Siesling, Sabine; Atsma, Willem Jan; Bouter, Lex

    2018-02-10

    To develop a guideline on Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice that will increase value and transparency, increase the accountability of the epidemiologists, and reduce research waste. A working group of the Netherland Epidemiological Society was given the task of developing a guideline that would meet these objectives. Several publications about the need to prevent Detrimental Research Practices triggered this work. Among these were a series in the Lancet on research waste and a subsequent series on transparency in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. The reputation and trust in epidemiologic research is still high, and the Netherlands Epidemiological Society wishes to keep it that way. The guideline deals with how epidemiologic research should be conducted, archived, and disclosed. It does not deal with the more technical aspects, such as required sample size, choice of study design, and so forth. The guideline describes each step in the process of conducting an epidemiologic study, from the first idea to the ultimate publication and beyond. The working group reviewed the literature on responsible research conduct, including the various existing codes of conduct. It applied the general principles from these codes to the elements of an epidemiologic study and formulated specific recommendations for each of these. Next step was to draft the guideline. Preceding the 2016 annual national epidemiology conference in Wageningen, a preconference was organized to discuss the draft guideline and to assess support. Support was clearly present, and the provided recommendations were incorporated into the draft guideline. In March 2017, a draft version of the guideline was sent to all 1,100 members of the society with the request to review and provide comments. All received responses were positive, and some minor additions were made. The Responsible Epidemiologic Research Practice guideline has now been approved by the board of the Netherlands Epidemiological Society

  17. Age Group Comparisons of TENS Response among Individuals with Chronic Axial Low Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Corey B.; Riley, Joseph L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bishop, Mark D.; George, Steven Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a highly prevalent and disabling musculoskeletal pain condition among older adults. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat CLBP, however, TENS response for older adults compared to younger adults is untested. In a dose-response study stratified by age, sixty participants with axial CLBP (20 young, 20 middle-aged, 20 older) received four 20-minute sessions of high frequency, high intensity TENS over a two to three-week period in a laboratory-controlled setting. Experimental measures of pain sensitivity (mechanical pressure pain detection threshold, PPT) and central pain excitability (phasic heat temporal summation, TS; heat aftersensations, AS) were assessed before and after TENS. Episodic or immediate axial CLBP relief was assessed after TENS via measures of resting pain, movement-evoked-pain, and self-reported disability. Cumulative or prolonged axial CLBP relief was assessed by comparing daily pain report across sessions. Independent of age, individuals experienced episodic increase in PPT and reduction in AS following TENS application. Similarly, all groups, on average, experienced episodic axial CLBP relief via improved resting pain, movement-evoked pain, and disability report. Under this design, no cumulative effect was observed as daily pain did not improve for any age group across the four sessions. However, older adults received higher TENS amplitude across all sessions in achieving similar TENS responses to younger adults. These findings suggest that older adults experience similar episodic axial CLBP relief as younger individuals following high frequency, high intensity TENS when higher dosage parameters are used. PMID:26342650

  18. Effects of Plant Functional Group Loss on Soil Microbial Community and Litter Decomposition in a Steppe Vegetation

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    Chunwang Xiao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally, many terrestrial ecosystems are experiencing a rapid loss of biodiversity. Continued improvements in our understanding of interrelationships between plant diversity and soil microbes are critical to address the concern over the consequences of the decline in biodiversity on ecosystem functioning and services. By removing forbs, or grasses, or, to an extreme scenario, both forbs and grasses in a steppe vegetation in Inner Mongolia, we studied how plant functional group (PFG loss affects soil microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA and litter decomposition using a litter-bag method. PFG loss significantly decreased above- and below-ground plant biomass, soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC and nitrogen (SMBN, but had no effect on the ratio of SMBC to SMBN. Although the ratio of fungal to bacterial PLFAs remained unaffected, PFG loss significantly reduced the amount of bacterial, fungal, and total PLFAs. PFG loss decreased litter monthly mass loss and decay constant, and such decrease was significant when both forbs and grasses were removed. Our results provide robust evidence that PFG loss in grassland ecosystem can lead to a rapid response of soil microbial activity which may affect litter decomposition and soil nutrient cycling, suggesting that the assessment of plant–microbe interactions in soils is an integral component of ecosystem response to biodiversity loss.

  19. Functional characterisation of letter-specific responses in time, space and current polarity using magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwilliams, L; Lewis, G A; Marantz, A

    2016-05-15

    Recent neurophysiological evidence suggests that a hierarchical neural network of low-to-high level processing subserves written language comprehension. While a considerable amount of research has identified distinct regions and stages of processing, the relations between them and to this hierarchical model remain unclear. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a technique frequently employed in such investigations; however, no studies have sought to test whether the conventional method of reconstructing currents at the source of the magnetic field is best suited for such across-subject designs. The present study details the results of three MEG experiments addressing these issues. Neuronal populations supporting responses to low-level orthographic properties were housed posteriorly near the primary visual cortex. More anterior regions along the fusiform gyrus encoded higher-level processes and became active ~80ms later. A functional localiser of these early letter-specific responses was developed for the production of functional regions of interest in future studies. Previously established response components were successfully grouped based on proximity to the localiser, which characterised location, latency and functional sensitivity. Unconventional anatomically constrained signed minimum norm estimates of MEG data were most sensitive to the primary experimental manipulation, suggesting that the conventional unsigned unconstrained method is sub-optimal for studying written word processing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Group differences in physician responses to handheld presentation of clinical evidence: a verbal protocol analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlovic Nada J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify individual differences in physicians' needs for the presentation of evidence resources and preferences for mobile devices. Methods Within-groups analysis of responses to semi-structured interviews. Interviews consisted of using prototypes in response to task-based scenarios. The prototypes were implemented on two different form factors: a tablet style PC and a pocketPC. Participants were from three user groups: general internists, family physicians and medicine residents, and from two different settings: urban and semi-urban. Verbal protocol analysis, which consists of coding utterances, was conducted on the transcripts of the testing sessions. Statistical relationships were investigated between staff physicians' and residents' background variables, self-reported experiences with the interfaces, and verbal code frequencies. Results 47 physicians were recruited from general internal medicine, family practice clinics and a residency training program. The mean age of participants was 42.6 years. Physician specialty had a greater effect on device and information-presentation preferences than gender, age, setting or previous technical experience. Family physicians preferred the screen size of the tablet computer and were less concerned about its portability. Residents liked the screen size of the tablet, but preferred the portability of the pocketPC. Internists liked the portability of the pocketPC, but saw less advantage to the large screen of the tablet computer (F[2,44] = 4.94, p = .012. Conclusion Different types of physicians have different needs and preferences for evidence-based resources and handheld devices. This study shows how user testing can be incorporated into the process of design to inform group-based customization.

  1. Effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems in preventing functional decline among the elderly

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    Florent Lachal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The elderly population is at high risk of functional decline, which will induce significant costs due to long-term care. Dependency could be delayed by preventing one of its major determinants: falls. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems could prevent the functional decline through fall prevention. Methods: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems on the functional decline in an elderly population living at home. It is a secondary analysis on data from a previous cohort. In all, 190 older adults (aged 65 years or more living at home participated. Participants in the exposed group were equipped with home-based technologies: light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems. The participants’ functional status was assessed using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System scale at baseline (T0 and at the end of the study (T12-month. Baseline characteristics were evaluated by a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Results: After 1 year, 43% of the unexposed group had functional decline versus 16% of the exposed group. Light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems were significantly associated with a decrease in the functional decline (Δ Functional Autonomy Measurement System ⩾ 5 at home (odds ratio = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (0.11–0.54, p = 0.002. Discussion: This study suggests that light paths coupled with personal emergency response systems prevent the functional decline over 12 months. This result may encourage the prescription and use of home-based technologies to postpone dependency and institutionalization, but they need a larger cost-effectiveness study to demonstrate the efficiency of these technologies.

  2. Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: Treatment Response and Resistance in Psychosis (TRRIP) Working Group Consensus Guidelines on Diagnosis and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Oliver D; McCutcheon, Rob; Agid, Ofer; de Bartolomeis, Andrea; van Beveren, Nico J M; Birnbaum, Michael L; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Buchanan, Robert W; Carpenter, William T; Castle, David J; Citrome, Leslie; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Davidson, Michael; Drake, Richard J; Dursun, Serdar; Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Elkis, Helio; Falkai, Peter; Fleischacker, W Wolfgang; Gadelha, Ary; Gaughran, Fiona; Glenthøj, Birte Y; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel; Hallak, Jaime E C; Honer, William G; Kennedy, James; Kinon, Bruce J; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lee, Jimmy; Leweke, F Markus; MacCabe, James H; McNabb, Carolyn B; Meltzer, Herbert; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Nakajima, Shinchiro; Pantelis, Christos; Reis Marques, Tiago; Remington, Gary; Rossell, Susan L; Russell, Bruce R; Siu, Cynthia O; Suzuki, Takefumi; Sommer, Iris E; Taylor, David; Thomas, Neil; Üçok, Alp; Umbricht, Daniel; Walters, James T R; Kane, John; Correll, Christoph U

    2017-03-01

    Research and clinical translation in schizophrenia is limited by inconsistent definitions of treatment resistance and response. To address this issue, the authors evaluated current approaches and then developed consensus criteria and guidelines. A systematic review of randomized antipsychotic clinical trials in treatment-resistant schizophrenia was performed, and definitions of treatment resistance were extracted. Subsequently, consensus operationalized criteria were developed through 1) a multiphase, mixed methods approach, 2) identification of key criteria via an online survey, and 3) meetings to achieve consensus. Of 2,808 studies identified, 42 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 21 studies (50%) did not provide operationalized criteria. In the remaining studies, criteria varied considerably, particularly regarding symptom severity, prior treatment duration, and antipsychotic dosage thresholds; only two studies (5%) utilized the same criteria. The consensus group identified minimum and optimal criteria, employing the following principles: 1) current symptoms of a minimum duration and severity determined by a standardized rating scale; 2) moderate or worse functional impairment; 3) prior treatment consisting of at least two different antipsychotic trials, each for a minimum duration and dosage; 4) systematic monitoring of adherence and meeting of minimum adherence criteria; 5) ideally at least one prospective treatment trial; and 6) criteria that clearly separate responsive from treatment-resistant patients. There is considerable variation in current approaches to defining treatment resistance in schizophrenia. The authors present consensus guidelines that operationalize criteria for determining and reporting treatment resistance, adequate treatment, and treatment response, providing a benchmark for research and clinical translation.

  3. Probing functional groups at the gas-aerosol interface using heterogeneous titration reactions: a tool for predicting aerosol health effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyan, Ari; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Guillemin, Michel; Riediker, Michael; Demirdjian, Benjamin; Rossi, Michel J

    2010-12-17

    The complex chemical and physical nature of combustion and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) in general precludes the complete characterization of both bulk and interfacial components. The bulk composition reveals the history of the growth process and therefore the source region, whereas the interface controls--to a large extent--the interaction with gases, biological membranes, and solid supports. We summarize the development of a soft interrogation technique, using heterogeneous chemistry, for the interfacial functional groups of selected probe gases [N(CH(3))(3), NH(2)OH, CF(3)COOH, HCl, O(3), NO(2)] of different reactivity. The technique reveals the identity and density of surface functional groups. Examples include acidic and basic sites, olefinic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) sites, and partially and completely oxidized surface sites. We report on the surface composition and oxidation states of laboratory-generated aerosols and of aerosols sampled in several bus depots. In the latter case, the biomarker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, signaling oxidative stress caused by aerosol exposure, was isolated. The increase in biomarker levels over a working day is correlated with the surface density N(i)(O3) of olefinic and/or PAH sites obtained from O(3) uptakes as well as with the initial uptake coefficient, γ(0), of five probe gases used in the field. This correlation with γ(0) suggests the idea of competing pathways occurring at the interface of the aerosol particles between the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for oxidative stress and cellular antioxidants.

  4. Physiological responses to taste signals of functional food components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka

    2018-02-01

    The functions of food have three categories: nutrition, palatability, and bioregulation. As the onset of lifestyle-related diseases has increased, many people have shown interest in functional foods that are beneficial to bioregulation. We believe that functional foods should be highly palatable for increased acceptance from consumers. In order to design functional foods with a high palatability, we have investigated about the palatability, especially in relation to the taste of food. In this review, we discuss (1) the identification of taste receptors that respond to functional food components; (2) an analysis of the peripheral taste transduction system; and (3) the investigation of the relationship between physiological functions and taste signals.

  5. Gender differences in autonomic functional status in response to stress

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    Sahera Shabnam S, Gopathy Sridevi, Prema Sembulingam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Men and women are similar in their cognitive appraisal of a stress. But their behavior is different when exposed to stress. As stress responses and cognitive abilities are closely associated with autonomic nervous system, an attempt had been made to evaluate the behavioral pattern of autonomic functional status in males and females under stressed conditions. Methodology: 30 normal young male and female students (15 each participated in this study. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, heart rate (HR and heart rate variation (HRV were recorded before and after postural change, Valsalva maneuver and cold exposure. Results: SBP and DBP decreased and HR increased after standing from lying posture (p < 0.000 in both the genders. But the changes were less in males than in females (SBP and HR – non significant, DBP p < 0.008, 30:15 ratio was higher in males (p < 0.001 upon standing. After Valsalva maneuver, SBP decreased (p < 0.05 and DBP increased (p < 0.000 with a higher Valsalva ratio (p < 0.002 in females than in males. After exposure to cold, males showed more decrease in SBP and DBP and less increase in HR (non-significant than females. Discussion: Results reveal more sympathetic activity in males than in females when exposed to stress. This may be because of the altered baroreceptor mechanism, male-female type of fat distribution, difference in vascular bed resistance, influence of cortisol and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Conclusion: The fact that females have less tolerance to stress may help us in understanding the sex linked pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases and developing a different approach in treating the similar cardiovascular disease in men and women.

  6. Investigation of stingray spines by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis to recognize functional groups

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    Muthuramalingam Uthaya Siva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate functional groups of toxic spines in stingray by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Methods: The venom extract of Himantura gerrardi, Himantura imbricata and Pastinachus sephen were centrifuged at 6 000 r/min for 10 min. The supernatant was collected and preserved separately in methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetone (1:2 and then soaked in the mentioned solvents for 48 h. Then extracts were filtered and used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. Results: The results identified that the presence of free amino acids and protein having β-sheet and random coiled secondary structure. The presence of O-H stretch, C=O stretch, C-H stretch, N-H deformation, O-H deformation and C-O stretch in the sample aligned with standard bovine serum albumin. The influence of functional groups within the molecule was because of the impact of preferred spatial orientation, chemical and physical interaction on the molecule. In conclusion, compared to bovine serum albumin, Himantura imbricata consists of two C=O stretch, are involved in the hydrogen bonding that takes place between the different elements of secondary structure. Conclusions: The venom of poisonous animals has been extensively studied, since standard medicine not available for treatment against injuries causing stingray. Therefore, it's the baseline study, to motivate further process and produce effective antibiotics.

  7. Voluntary leadership roles in religious groups and rates of change in functional status during older adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2014-06-01

    Linear growth curve modeling was used to compare rates of change in functional status between three groups of older adults: Individuals holding voluntary lay leadership positions in a church, regular church attenders who were not leaders, and those not regularly attending church. Functional status was tracked longitudinally over a 4-year period in a national sample of 1,152 Black and White older adults whose religious backgrounds were either Christian or unaffiliated. Leaders had significantly slower trajectories of increase in both the number of physical impairments and the severity of those impairments. Although regular church attenders who were not leaders had lower mean levels of impairment on both measures, compared with those not regularly attending church, the two groups of non-leaders did not differ from one another in their rates of impairment increase. Leadership roles may contribute to longer maintenance of physical ability in late life, and opportunities for voluntary leadership may help account for some of the health benefits of religious participation.

  8. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Zhao, Haizhou

    2009-05-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-1-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  9. Neural Substrate of Group Mental Health: Insights from Multi-Brain Reference Frame in Functional Neuroimaging

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    Dipanjan Ray

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary mental health practice primarily centers around the neurobiological and psychological processes at the individual level. However, a more careful consideration of interpersonal and other group-level attributes (e.g., interpersonal relationship, mutual trust/hostility, interdependence, and cooperation and a better grasp of their pathology can add a crucial dimension to our understanding of mental health problems. A few recent studies have delved into the interpersonal behavioral processes in the context of different psychiatric abnormalities. Neuroimaging can supplement these approaches by providing insight into the neurobiology of interpersonal functioning. Keeping this view in mind, we discuss a recently developed approach in functional neuroimaging that calls for a shift from a focus on neural information contained within brain space to a multi-brain framework exploring degree of similarity/dissimilarity of neural signals between multiple interacting brains. We hypothesize novel applications of quantitative neuroimaging markers like inter-subject correlation that might be able to evaluate the role of interpersonal attributes affecting an individual or a group. Empirical evidences of the usage of these markers in understanding the neurobiology of social interactions are provided to argue for their application in future mental health research.

  10. Abstract structure of partial function $*$-algebras over semi-direct product of locally compact groups

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    Arash Ghaani Farashahi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a unified approach to the abstract notions of partial convolution and involution in $L^p$-function spaces over semi-direct product of locally compact groups. Let $H$ and $K$ be locally compact groups and $tau:Hto Aut(K$ be a continuous homomorphism.  Let $G_tau=Hltimes_tau K$ be the semi-direct product of $H$ and $K$ with respect to $tau$. We define left and right $tau$-convolution on $L^1(G_tau$ and we show that, with respect to each of them, the function space $L^1(G_tau$ is a Banach algebra. We define $tau$-convolution as a linear combination of the left and right $tau$-convolution and we show that the $tau$-convolution is commutative if and only if $K$ is abelian. We prove that there is a $tau$-involution on $L^1(G_tau$ such that with respect to the $tau$-involution and $tau$-convolution, $L^1(G_tau$ is a non-associative Banach $*$-algebra. It is also shown that when $K$ is abelian, the $tau$-involution and $tau$-convolution make $L^1(G_tau$ into a Jordan Banach $*$-algebra. Finally, we also present the generalized notation of $tau$-convolution for other $L^p$-spaces with $p>1$.

  11. An experimental investigation of the consequences and social functions of fat talk in friendship groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Leverington, Carly T; Sheldon, Anne M

    2016-01-01

    Fat talk is a form of self-degrading, thin-ideal endorsing communication that occurs within female friendship groups. Previous studies have suggested negative associations with wellbeing, but have been predominantly correlational and based on self-report. This study aimed to assess the causal relationship between fat talk and the correlates of disordered eating (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, negative affect, and dieting intentions) by experimentally manipulating fat talk in existing friendship groups and measuring naturalistic expression of fat talk and its effects. Participants were 85 women aged 17-25 who completed the experiment in friendship pairs. They were randomly assigned to a condition in which their friend expressed fat talk, positive body talk, or neutral talk. This study found evidence of a causal link between listening to friends fat talk and increased correlates of disordered eating. The negative effects of listening to fat talk were fully mediated by fat talk expression. This study also revealed a social function of fat talk, whereby participants rated their friends more positively when they were perceived to behave consistently with group norms, either pro- or anti-fat talk. Positive body talk showed none of the negative effects of fat talk, and was considered socially acceptable regardless of existing friendship group norms. These findings indicate that fat talk is a mechanism through which the thin ideal is transmitted between individuals. Interventions at the level of the friendship group to challenge norms and communication styles may break the link between societal risk factors and individual risk of eating disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  13. Measurement of transverse response functions, longitudinal response functions and transverse-longitudinal response functions in the reaction 3He(e,e'p)2H for q transferred moments ≤1.GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakehal-Ayat, L.

    1991-01-01

    The cross-sections of the 3 He(e,e'p) 2 H reaction have been measured for q transfer moments between 250 and 880 MeV/c and PR recoil momentum between 0 and 210 MeV/c. We have deduced the values of the transverse (magnetic) response functions (T), of the longitudinal (Coulomb) response functions (L) and transverse-longitudinal response functions (TL). The study of the T response functions has shown that the electron-proton operator inside the 3 He nucleus behaves like a free operator for q values above 500 MeV/c. The ratio L/T is close to 1, and the absolute values of the 2 response functions agree well with theoretical prediction of the plane wave (PWIA). For q values below 400 MeV/c, some deviations from PWIA predictions appear for L and T response functions with L/T 3 He can be easily interpreted within the frame of the PWIA for q transfers ranging from 500 to 900 MeV/c. [fr

  14. Polyester textile functionalization through incorporation of pH/thermo-responsive microgels. Part II: polyester functionalization and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glampedaki, P.; Calvimontes, A.; Dutschk, Victoria; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to functionalize the surface of polyester textiles is described in this study. Functionalization was achieved by incorporating pH/temperature-responsive polyelectrolyte microgels into the textile surface layer using UV irradiation. The aim of functionalization was to regulate

  15. Electronic and optical response of functionalized Ru(II) complexes: joint theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilina, Svetlana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tretiak, Sergei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sykora, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albert, Victor [UNIV OF FLORIDA; Badaeva, Ekaterina [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Koposov, Alexey [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2008-01-01

    New photovoltaic and photocatalysis applications have been recently proposed based on the hybrid Ru(II)-bipyridine-complex/semiconductor quantum dot systems. In order to attach the Ru(II) complex to the surface of a semiconductor, a linking bridge -- a carboxyl group -- needs to be added to one or two of the 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) ligands. Such changes in the ligand structure affect electronic and optical properties and, consequently, the charge transfer reactivity of Ru(II)-systems. In this study, we analyze the effects brought by functionalization of bipyridine ligands with the methyl, carboxyl, and carboxilate groups on the electronic structure and optical response of the [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} complex. First principle calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent DFT (TDDFT) are used to simulate the ground and excited-state properties, respectively, of functionalized Ru-complexes in the gas phase and acetonitrile solution. In addition, an effective Frenkel exciton model is used to explain the optical activity and splitting patterns of the low-energy excited states in all molecules. All theoretical results nicely complement and allow for detailed interpretation of experimental absorption spectra of Ru-complexes that have been done in parallel with our theoretical investigations. We found that the carboxyl group breaks the degeneracy of two low-energy optically bright excited states and red-shifts the absorption spectrum, while leaves ionization and affinity energies of complexes almost unchanged. Experimental studies show that deprotonation of the carboxyl group in the Ru-complexes results in a slight blue shift and decrease of oscillator strengths of the low energy absorption peaks. Comparison of experimental and theoretical linear response spectra of deprotonated complexes demonstrate strong agreement if the theoretical calculations are performed with the addition of a dielectric continuum model. A polar solvent is found to

  16. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Influence of functional groups on the photophysical properties of dimethylamino chalcones as laser dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibnaouf, K. H.; Elzupir, A. O.; AlSalhi, M. S.; Alaamer, Abdulaziz S.

    2018-02-01

    In this report, a series of 3-(4-(Dimethylamino) phenyl)-1-(4,3 di-substituted phenyl)-(2E) - propen -1-one chalcones was synthesised and examined as optical materials. The influence of functional groups (FG) and solvents on their photophysical properties was investigated. These include absorption, fluorescence, Stokes shift, and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). The absorption spectra of all compounds showed a wavelength band in the range 404-429 nm, whereas the fluorescence spectra exhibited a band at 470-535 nm. We found that the fluorescence intensity was inversely proportional to the concentration of chalcones. The FGs and solvents had an amazing effect on the photophysical properties of the synthesised materials. Unexpectedly, the electron withdrawing group showed a highly red shift, whereas the electron donating group exhibited a blue shift. Further, these compounds showed large Stokes shifts (up to 5800 cm-1). ASE was observed under pump pulse laser excitation, and the wavelengths were tuned from 509 to 566 nm.

  18. A pharmacogenetic study of CD4 recovery in response to HIV antiretroviral therapy in two South African population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parathyras, John; Gebhardt, Stefan; Hillermann-Rebello, Renate; Grobbelaar, Nelis; Venter, Mauritz; Warnich, Louise

    2009-05-01

    South Africa, like many other Southern African countries, has one of the highest HIV infection rates in the world and many individuals consequently receive antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, knowledge regarding (i) the prevalence of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pharmacologically relevant genes, and (ii) variance in pharmacotherapy both within and between different populations and ethnic groups is limited. The aim of this study was to determine whether selected polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes (CYP2B6 and CYP3A4) and the multidrug-resistance 1 (ABCB1) gene underlie altered antiretroviral (ARV) drug response in two South African populations. DNA samples from 182 HIV-positive individuals of Mixed-Ancestry and Xhosa ethnicity on ART were genotyped for the A-392G SNP in CYP3A4, the G516T and A785G SNPs in CYP2B6, and the T-129C, C1236T, G2677T/A and C3435T SNPs in ABCB1. Univariate two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) testing revealed no apparent effect of ethnicity on immune recovery (in terms of CD4-cell count) in response to ART. Univariate one-way ANOVA testing revealed a discernible effect of genotype on immune recovery in the cases of the T-129C (P=0.03) and G2677A (P<0.01) polymorphisms in the ABCB1 gene. This study serves as a basis for better understanding and possible prediction of pharmacogenetic risk profiles and drug response in individuals and ethnic groups in South Africa.

  19. 33 CFR 155.1052 - Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. 155.1052 Section 155.1052....1052 Response plan development and evaluation criteria for vessels carrying group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo. (a) Owners and operators of vessels that carry group V petroleum oil as a primary cargo...

  20. Birds in Anthropogenic Landscapes: The Responses of Ecological Groups to Forest Loss in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Morante-Filho

    Full Text Available Habitat loss is the dominant threat to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in terrestrial environments. In this study, we used an a priori classification of bird species based on their dependence on native forest habitats (forest-specialist and habitat generalists and specific food resources (frugivores and insectivores to evaluate their responses to forest cover reduction in landscapes in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. From the patch-landscapes approach, we delimited 40 forest sites, and quantified the percentage of native forest within a 2 km radius around the center of each site (from 6 - 85%. At each site, we sampled birds using the point-count method. We used a null model, a generalized linear model and a four-parameter logistic model to evaluate the relationship between richness and abundance of the bird groups and the native forest amount. A piecewise model was then used to determine the threshold value for bird groups that showed nonlinear responses. The richness and abundance of the bird community as a whole were not affected by changes in forest cover in this region. However, a decrease in forest cover had a negative effect on diversity of forest-specialist, frugivorous and insectivorous birds, and a positive effect on generalist birds. The species richness and abundance of all ecological groups were nonlinearly related to forest reduction and showed similar threshold values, i.e., there were abrupt changes in individuals and species numbers when forest amount was less than approximately 50%. Forest sites within landscapes with forest cover that was less than 50% contained a different bird species composition than more extensively forested sites and had fewer forest-specialist species and higher beta-diversity. Our study demonstrated the pervasive effect of forest reduction on bird communities in one of the most important hotspots for bird conservation and shows that many vulnerable species require extensive forest cover to persist.

  1. Comparative study of hematological responses to platinum group metals, antimony and silver nanoparticles in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, Catherine E; Gagnon, Zofia E; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E

    2014-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the hematological effects of heavy metals (platinum (Pt ((IV))), palladium (Pd ((II))), rhodium (Rh ((III))), antimony (Sb ((III)) and Sb ((V))), and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)) on white blood cells in mammalian (rat) and avian (chick embryo) models. These metals are used in many everyday products and are accumulating in our environment. Six-week old Sprague-Dawley female rats were treated daily by gavage and six-day old, fertile, specific pathogen-free white leghorn strain chick embryos' eggs were injected on days 7 and 14 of incubation with 0.0, 1.0, 5.0 or 10.0 ppm concentrations of Pt ((IV)) and a platinum group metal (PGM) mix of Pt ((IV)), Pd ((II)) and Rh ((III)). Chick embryos were also tested with 1.0 or 5.0 ppm of antimony compounds (Sb ((III)) and Sb ((V))) and 0.0, 15.0, 30.0, 60.0, or 100.0 ppm of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). After 8 weeks of treatment, blood was obtained from the rats by jugular cut down and from chick embryos on day 20 of incubation by heart puncture. Blood smears were made and stained and a differential white cell count was performed on each. Examination of the smears revealed unconventional dose responses, stimulation of the immune response, and decreases in leukocyte production with various metals and concentrations. Chick embryos responded differently than rats to Pt and the PGM mix; suggesting that species differences and/or stage of development are important components of response to heavy metals. Route of administration of the metals might also influence the response. All of the heavy metals tested affected the immune responses of the tested animals as demonstrated by changes in the types and numbers of leukocytes. Our findings warrant further research to determine the mechanism of these effects and to understand and prevent toxicological effects in humans and other living organisms.

  2. Characterization of functional microorganism groups and substrate in activated sludge and wastewater by AUR, NUR and OUR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, G. Holm; Jørgensen, P. Elberg; Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Activated sludge functional microorganism groups: nitrifiers, denitrifiers and heterotrophs, were characterized through determinations of maximum specific utilization rates of ammonia (AUR) nitrate (NUR) and oxygen (OUR). Characterizations of the functional groups were done on activated sludges f...... that hydrolysis of activated sludge COD takes place with the same rate under anoxic and aerobic process conditions....

  3. Acid-base properties and the chemical imaging of surface-bound functional groups studied with scanning force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegte, E.W.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a scanning force microscopy (SFM) study on electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions between chemically modified SFM probes and surface functional groups. pH-dependent adhesion force measurements in aqueous media between various ionizable functional groups showed a

  4. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general......, the old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory...... and deteriorated memory consolidation and executive functioning. These results add to the body of evidence supporting the utility of Macaca fascicularis in studies of cognition and as a potential translational model for age-associated memory impairment/dementia-related disorders....

  5. Intermittent fasting could ameliorate cognitive function against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaie, Marjan; Ghanbari, Farzane; Shojaie, Nasrin

    2017-11-01

    Undesirable and desirable effects of stressors on the body are assigned to distress and eustress, respectively. Immune system and brain are the most susceptible parts to stressful conditions, whereas long-lasting alterations in putative immune proteins involved in tension such as corticosterone (CORT), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) can impact learning and memory. Intermittent fasting (IF) is a repeated regular cycle of dietary restriction with well-known beneficial properties on the body. The aim of this study was to identify the eustress effects of IF on cognitive function by assessing the critical inflammatory factors in chronic distress. Forty male mice were divided into four groups (n = 10/group). Distress and control normally received food and water, whereas IF and IF with distress groups were daily deprived of food and water for two hours. In the second week, the electrical foot shock was induced to distress and IF with distress groups. Finally, the cognitive functions of all mice were evaluated by Barnes maze, their blood samples were taken to determine the plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the removed brain and adrenal glands were weighed in the third week. A significant gain in plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α with a considerable brain hypotrophy and adrenal hypertrophy was found in distress group, whereas IF caused a remarkable reduction of the plasma inflammatory factors, especially in IF with distress mice ( P  ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, IF could improve cognitive function and preserve the brain against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway.

  6. Intermittent fasting could ameliorate cognitive function against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Shojaie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Undesirable and desirable effects of stressors on the body are assigned to distress and eustress, respectively. Immune system and brain are the most susceptible parts to stressful conditions, whereas long-lasting alterations in putative immune proteins involved in tension such as corticosterone (CORT, interleukin 6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α can impact learning and memory. Intermittent fasting (IF is a repeated regular cycle of dietary restriction with well-known beneficial properties on the body. The aim of this study was to identify the eustress effects of IF on cognitive function by assessing the critical inflammatory factors in chronic distress. Forty male mice were divided into four groups (n = 10/group. Distress and control normally received food and water, whereas IF and IF with distress groups were daily deprived of food and water for two hours. In the second week, the electrical foot shock was induced to distress and IF with distress groups. Finally, the cognitive functions of all mice were evaluated by Barnes maze, their blood samples were taken to determine the plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α, and the removed brain and adrenal glands were weighed in the third week. A significant gain in plasma level of CORT, IL-6 and TNF-α with a considerable brain hypotrophy and adrenal hypertrophy was found in distress group, whereas IF caused a remarkable reduction of the plasma inflammatory factors, especially in IF with distress mice (P ≤ 0.05. In conclusion, IF could improve cognitive function and preserve the brain against distress by regulation of inflammatory response pathway.

  7. Babcock and Wilcox Owners' Group program: Trip reduction and transient response improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, W.T.; Mercado, A.L.; Ganthner, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, the average trip frequency for the industry was 4.3 trips per plant per year while Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W)-designed plants had 4.5 trips. In early 1986, the B ampersand W Owners' Group (B ampersand WOG) established goals to reduce trip frequency and improve posttrip transient response. Through the recommendations of the B ampersand WOG Trip Reduction and Transient Response Improvement Program (TR/TRIP) and other utility initiatives, the trip frequency for the B ampersand WOG plants has been on a progressive downward trend and has been consistently below the industry average since 1986. The successful results in trip reduction for the B ampersand WOG plants are shown. The B ampersand WOG has implemented several programs that have resulted in fewer trips per plant. This success can be attributed to the following: (1) a comprehensive program to evaluate each trip and transient for root-cause determination, define corrective actions, share information, and peer reviews; (2) a broad program to review systems and components that contribute to trips and transients, identify specific recommendations to correct deficiencies, utility commitment to implementation, conduct internal monitoring and indirectly exert peer pressure; (3) an awareness of the goals at all levels in the organization coupled with strong executive-level involvement; and (4) timely implementation of recommendations

  8. Global differential gene expression in response to growth temperature alteration in group A Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, L M; Smoot, J C; Graham, M R; Somerville, G A; Sturdevant, D E; Migliaccio, C A; Sylva, G L; Musser, J M

    2001-08-28

    Pathogens are exposed to different temperatures during an infection cycle and must regulate gene expression accordingly. However, the extent to which virulent bacteria alter gene expression in response to temperatures encountered in the host is unknown. Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific pathogen that is responsible for illnesses ranging from superficial skin infections and pharyngitis to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. GAS survives and multiplies at different temperatures during human infection. DNA microarray analysis was used to investigate the influence of temperature on global gene expression in a serotype M1 strain grown to exponential phase at 29 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Approximately 9% of genes were differentially expressed by at least 1.5-fold at 29 degrees C relative to 37 degrees C, including genes encoding transporter proteins, proteins involved in iron homeostasis, transcriptional regulators, phage-associated proteins, and proteins with no known homologue. Relatively few known virulence genes were differentially expressed at this threshold. However, transcription of 28 genes encoding proteins with predicted secretion signal sequences was altered, indicating that growth temperature substantially influences the extracellular proteome. TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-PCR assays confirmed the microarray data. We also discovered that transcription of genes encoding hemolysins, and proteins with inferred roles in iron regulation, transport, and homeostasis, was influenced by growth at 40 degrees C. Thus, GAS profoundly alters gene expression in response to temperature. The data delineate the spectrum of temperature-regulated gene expression in an important human pathogen and provide many unforeseen lines of pathogenesis investigation.

  9. Clinical responsiveness of self-report functional assessment measures for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis undergoing intraarticular corticosteroid injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, G Ted; Wright, F Virginia; Lang, Bianca A; Birdi, Nina; Oen, Kim; Stephens, Derek; McComas, Joan; Feldman, Brian M

    2005-12-15

    The Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), Juvenile Arthritis Functional Assessment Report (JAFAR), and Juvenile Arthritis Functional Status Index (JASI) are widely used functional measures for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) that differ in content, format, and completion time. We compared the responsiveness and child-parent agreement of the JAFAR, CHAQ, and JASI in a prospective, multicenter study. Children and adolescents from 5 rheumatology centers were enrolled. Subjects were about to undergo therapy (intraarticular corticosteroid injections [IAS] and methotrexate or hip surgery (MTX/hip]) expected to produce a functional improvement. All subjects were studied before the intervention and at 6 weeks and 6 months posttreatment. At each study visit, the 3 measures were administered in randomized, balanced order to both parents and children. A total of 92 subjects (mean age 12.8 years) were enrolled in the study, 74 of which were in the IAS group. The responsiveness of all 3 measures was moderate to strong. The standardized response mean at 6 weeks for the IAS group on the JAFAR, CHAQ, and JASI was 0.41 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.18, 0.64), 0.70 (95% CI 0.47, 0.93), and 0.36 (95% CI 0.13, 0.59), respectively. The CHAQ was somewhat more responsive to change at 6 weeks (IAS group: relative efficiency 0.34 [JAFAR], 0.27 [JASI]), but less responsive at 6 months (MTX/hip group: relative efficiency 5.1 [JAFAR], 3.9 [JASI]). All 3 questionnaires showed acceptable parent-child agreement, and overall, there were few differences between the 3 questionnaires. The functional outcome measures currently used for JIA are all adequately responsive for use in trials or in the clinic setting. The choice of which measure to use should therefore be based on the time available for completion, the intended clinical/research use, and the depth of content required.

  10. Frequency Response Function Based Damage Identification for Aerospace Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Joseph Acton

    Structural health monitoring technologies continue to be pursued for aerospace structures in the interests of increased safety and, when combined with health prognosis, efficiency in life-cycle management. The current dissertation develops and validates damage identification technology as a critical component for structural health monitoring of aerospace structures and, in particular, composite unmanned aerial vehicles. The primary innovation is a statistical least-squares damage identification algorithm based in concepts of parameter estimation and model update. The algorithm uses frequency response function based residual force vectors derived from distributed vibration measurements to update a structural finite element model through statistically weighted least-squares minimization producing location and quantification of the damage, estimation uncertainty, and an updated model. Advantages compared to other approaches include robust applicability to systems which are heavily damped, large, and noisy, with a relatively low number of distributed measurement points compared to the number of analytical degrees-of-freedom of an associated analytical structural model (e.g., modal finite element model). Motivation, research objectives, and a dissertation summary are discussed in Chapter 1 followed by a literature review in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 gives background theory and the damage identification algorithm derivation followed by a study of fundamental algorithm behavior on a two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with generalized damping. Chapter 4 investigates the impact of noise then successfully proves the algorithm against competing methods using an analytical eight degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with non-proportional structural damping. Chapter 5 extends use of the algorithm to finite element models, including solutions for numerical issues, approaches for modeling damping approximately in reduced coordinates, and analytical validation using a composite

  11. Susceptibility of functional impairment scales to noncredible responses in the clinical evaluation of adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Oliver; Koerts, Janneke; Butzbach, Marah; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Tucha, Lara

    2017-11-23

    A growing body of research questions the reliance of symptom self-reports in the clinical evaluation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. A recent study suggested that also impairment reports are vulnerable to noncredible responses, as derived from a simulation design using a global functional impairment scale. The present study aims to add evidence to this issue, by using an ADHD specific impairment scale in a simulation design on large samples. Impairment ratings on the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale (WFIRS) of 62 patients with ADHD were compared to 142 healthy individuals who were instructed to show normal behavior. Furthermore, impairment ratings of patients with ADHD were compared to ratings of 330 healthy individuals who were randomly assigned to one of four simulation conditions that were instructed to complete the scale as if they had ADHD. Patients with ADHD reported higher levels of impairment than the healthy control group in all domains of life. Furthermore, individuals instructed to feign ADHD indicated higher levels of impairments in most domains of life compared to control participants and genuine patients with ADHD. The group differences between individuals feigning ADHD and individuals with genuine ADHD, however, were only small to moderate. Further analyses revealed that the WFRIS was not useful to successfully differentiate genuine from feigned ADHD. The present study confirms the conclusion that self-reported impairments are susceptible to noncredible responses and should be used with caution in the clinical evaluation of adult ADHD.

  12. Nonparametric Item Response Function Estimates with the EM Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Natasha; Wang, Xiaohui; Ramsay, James O.

    2002-01-01

    Combined several developments in statistics and item response theory to develop a procedure for analysis of dichotomously scored test data. This version of nonparametric item response analysis, as illustrated through simulation and with data from other studies, marginalizes the role of the ability parameter theta. (SLD)

  13. Optimal function explains