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Sample records for group population-based research

  1. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Aquiles; Rodriguez Juan; McKeigue Paul; Jacob KS; Krishnamoorthy ES; Huang Yueqin; Guerra Mariella; Gavrilova Svetlana I; Dewey Michael; Arizaga Raul; Albanese Emiliano; Acosta Daisy; Ferri Cleusa P; Prince Martin; Sosa Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Meth...

  2. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Dewey, Michael; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Krishnamoorthy, E S; McKeigue, Paul; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata M M; Stewart, Robert; Uwakwe, Richard

    2007-07-20

    Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina), with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000). Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain). Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815). A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina) to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our aim is to create an evidence base to empower advocacy, raise

  3. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Aquiles

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Methods/design Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina, with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000. Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain. Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815. A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. Discussion The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our

  4. Dementia incidence and mortality in middle-income countries, and associations with indicators of cognitive reserve: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Dewey, Michael E; Acosta, Isaac; Jotheeswaran, Amuthavalli T; Liu, Zhaorui

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Results of the few cohort studies from countries with low incomes or middle incomes suggest a lower incidence of dementia than in high-income countries. We assessed incidence of dementia according to criteria from the 10/66 Dementia Research Group and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) IV, the effect of dementia at baseline on mortality, and the independent effects of age, sex, socioeconomic position, and indicators of cognitive reserve. Methods We did a population-based cohort study of all people aged 65 years and older living in urban sites in Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela, and rural and urban sites in Peru, Mexico, and China, with ascertainment of incident 10/66 and DSM-IV dementia 3–5 years after cohort inception. We used questionnaires to obtain information about age in years, sex, educational level, literacy, occupational attainment, and number of household assets. We obtained information about mortality from all sites. For participants who had died, we interviewed a friend or relative to ascertain the likelihood that they had dementia before death. Findings 12 887 participants were interviewed at baseline. 11 718 were free of dementia, of whom 8137 (69%) were reinterviewed, contributing 34 718 person-years of follow-up. Incidence for 10/66 dementia varied between 18·2 and 30·4 per 1000 person-years, and were 1·4–2·7 times higher than were those for DSM-IV dementia (9·9–15·7 per 1000 person-years). Mortality hazards were 1·56–5·69 times higher in individuals with dementia at baseline than in those who were dementia-free. Informant reports suggested a high incidence of dementia before death; overall incidence might be 4–19% higher if these data were included. 10/66 dementia incidence was independently associated with increased age (HR 1·67; 95% CI 1·56–1·79), female sex (0·72; 0·61–0·84), and low education (0·89; 0·81–0·97), but not with occupational attainment (1

  5. Managing incidental findings in population based biobank research

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    Berge Solberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of whole genome sequencing in medical research, the debate on how to handle incidental findings is becoming omnipresent. Much of the literature on the topic so far, seems to defend the researcher’s duty to inform, the participant’s right to know combined with a thorough informed consent in order to protect and secure high ethical standards in research. In this paper, we argue that this ethical response to incidental findings and whole genome sequencing is appropriate in a clinical context, in what we call therapeutic research. However, we further argue, that it is rather inappropriate in basic research, like the research going on in public health oriented population based biobanks. Our argument is based on two premises: First, in population based biobank research the duties and rights involved are radically different from a clinical based setting. Second, to introduce the ethical framework from the clinical setting into population based basic research, is not only wrong, but it may lead to unethical consequences. A Norwegian population based biobank and the research-ethical debate in Norway on the regulation of whole genome sequencing is used as an illustrative case to demonstrate the pitfalls when approaching the debate on incidental findings in population based biobank research.

  6. Chronic diseases among older people and co-resident psychological morbidity: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honyashiki, Mina; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Llibre-Rodrigues, Juan J; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Prince, Martin J

    2011-11-01

    This is the first study to investigate the associations between chronic health conditions of older people and their impact on co-resident psychological morbidity using population-based samples in low and middle income countries (LAMICs). Single-phase cross-sectional catchment area surveys were undertaken in urban sites in Cuba, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, and in rural and urban catchment areas in Mexico, Peru, India and China. All residents aged 65 years and over were interviewed with a co-resident key informant. Exposures were structured clinical diagnoses (10/66 and DSM-IV dementia and ICD-10 depression), self-reported diagnosis (stroke) and physical impairments. Mediating variables were dependence and disability (WHODAS 2.0), and the outcome was co-resident psychological morbidity assessed using SRQ-20. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the prevalence ratios (PRs) for the associations between health conditions and psychological morbidity in each site, and meta-analysis was used to pool the estimates. 11,988 pairs comprising a participant and a co-resident informant were included in the analysis. After meta-analysis, independent effects were noted for depression (PR2.11; 95% CI 1.82-2.45), dementia (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.72-2.28), stroke (PR 1.42; 95% CI 1.17-1.71) and physical impairments (PR 1.17; 95% CI 1.13-1.21). The effects were partly mediated through disability and dependence. The mean population attributable fraction of total chronic conditions was 30.1%. The prevalence of co-resident psychological morbidity is higher among co-residents of older people with chronic conditions. This effect was prominent for, but not confined to, depression and dementia. Attention needs to be directed to chronic conditions.

  7. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquiles Salas

    Full Text Available Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria.Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7 mmol/L.Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116, Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197, and urban (27.0%, 125, and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111 already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100 is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%, rural India (6.6% and Nigeria (6.0%. and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes.Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control.

  8. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J; Sosa, Ana L; Uwakwe, Richard; Williams, Joseph D; Jotheeswaran, A T; Liu, Zhaorui; Lopez Medina, A M; Salinas-Contreras, Rosa Maria; Prince, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria. Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7 mmol/L). Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116), Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197), and urban (27.0%, 125), and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111) already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100) is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%), rural India (6.6%) and Nigeria (6.0%). and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed) was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes. Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control.

  9. The Prevalence, Correlates, Detection and Control of Diabetes among Older People in Low and Middle Income Countries. A 10/66 Dementia Research Group Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Aquiles; Acosta, Daisy; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K. S.; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Sosa, Ana L.; Uwakwe, Richard; Williams, Joseph D.; Jotheeswaran, A. T.; Liu, Zhaorui; Lopez Medina, A. M.; Salinas-Contreras, Rosa Maria; Prince, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known of the epidemiology of diabetes among older people in low and middle income countries. We aimed to study and compare prevalence, social patterning, correlates, detection, treatment and control of diabetes among older people in Latin America, India, China and Nigeria. Methods Cross-sectional surveys in 13 catchment area sites in nine countries. Diagnosed diabetes was assessed in all sites through self-reported diagnosis. Undiagnosed diabetes was assessed in seven Latin American sites through fasting blood samples (glucose > = 7mmol/L). Results Total diabetes prevalence in catchment sites in Cuba (prevalence 24.2%, SMR 116), Puerto Rico (43.4%, 197), and urban (27.0%, 125), and rural Mexico (23.7%, 111) already exceeds that in the USA, while that in Venezuela (20.9%, 100) is similar. Diagnosed diabetes prevalence varied very widely, between low prevalences in sites in rural China (0.9%), rural India (6.6%) and Nigeria (6.0%). and 32.1% in Puerto Rico, explained mainly by access to health services. Treatment coverage varied substantially between sites. Diabetes control (40 to 61% of those diagnosed) was modest in the Latin American sites where this was studied. Diabetes was independently associated with less education, but more assets. Hypertension, central obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia, but not hypercholesterolaemia were consistently associated with total diabetes. Conclusions Diabetes prevalence is already high in most sites. Identifying undiagnosed cases is essential to quantify population burden, particularly in least developed settings where diagnosis is uncommon. Metabolic risk factors and associated lifestyles may play an important part in aetiology, but this requires confirmation with longitudinal data. Given the high prevalence among older people, more population research is indicated to quantify the impact of diabetes, and to monitor the effect of prevention and health system strengthening on prevalence, treatment and control

  10. Contribution of chronic diseases to disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Renata M; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Jotheeswaran, A T; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Pichardo, Guillermina Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Marina Calvo; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Zuniga, Tirso; Prince, Martin

    2009-11-28

    Disability in elderly people in countries with low and middle incomes is little studied; according to Global Burden of Disease estimates, visual impairment is the leading contributor to years lived with disability in this population. We aimed to assess the contribution of physical, mental, and cognitive chronic diseases to disability, and the extent to which sociodemographic and health characteristics account for geographical variation in disability. We undertook cross-sectional surveys of residents aged older than 65 years (n=15 022) in 11 sites in seven countries with low and middle incomes (China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, and Peru). Disability was assessed with the 12-item WHO disability assessment schedule 2.0. Dementia, depression, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were ascertained by clinical assessment; diabetes, stroke, and heart disease by self-reported diagnosis; and sensory, gastrointestinal, skin, limb, and arthritic disorders by self-reported impairment. Independent contributions to disability scores were assessed by zero-inflated negative binomial regression and Poisson regression to generate population-attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF). In regions other than rural India and Venezuela, dementia made the largest contribution to disability (median PAPF 25.1% [IQR 19.2-43.6]). Other substantial contributors were stroke (11.4% [1.8-21.4]), limb impairment (10.5% [5.7-33.8]), arthritis (9.9% [3.2-34.8]), depression (8.3% [0.5-23.0]), eyesight problems (6.8% [1.7-17.6]), and gastrointestinal impairments (6.5% [0.3-23.1]). Associations with chronic diseases accounted for around two-thirds of prevalent disability. When zero inflation was taken into account, between-site differences in disability scores were largely attributable to compositional differences in health and sociodemographic characteristics. On the basis of empirical research, dementia, not blindness, is overwhelmingly the most important

  11. Population based allele frequencies of disease associated polymorphisms in the Personalized Medicine Research Project.

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    Cross, Deanna S; Ivacic, Lynn C; Stefanski, Elisha L; McCarty, Catherine A

    2010-06-17

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the frequency of disease associated polymorphisms in populations and population attributable risk for many populations remains unknown. Factors that could affect the association of the allele with disease, either positively or negatively, such as race, ethnicity, and gender, may not be possible to determine without population based allele frequencies.Here we used a panel of 51 polymorphisms previously associated with at least one disease and determined the allele frequencies within the entire Personalized Medicine Research Project population based cohort. We compared these allele frequencies to those in dbSNP and other data sources stratified by race. Differences in allele frequencies between self reported race, region of origin, and sex were determined. There were 19544 individuals who self reported a single racial category, 19027 or (97.4%) self reported white Caucasian, and 11205 (57.3%) individuals were female. Of the 11,208 (57%) individuals with an identifiable region of origin 8337 or (74.4%) were German.41 polymorphisms were significantly different between self reported race at the 0.05 level. Stratification of our Caucasian population by self reported region of origin revealed 19 polymorphisms that were significantly different (p = 0.05) between individuals of different origins. Further stratification of the population by gender revealed few significant differences in allele frequencies between the genders. This represents one of the largest population based allele frequency studies to date. Stratification by self reported race and region of origin revealed wide differences in allele frequencies not only by race but also by region of origin within a single racial group. We report allele frequencies for our Asian/Hmong and American Indian populations; these two minority groups are not typically selected for population allele frequency detection. Population wide allele frequencies are important for the design and

  12. "The contribution of chronic diseases to the prevalence of dependence among older people in Latin America, China and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salas Aquiles

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of older people is set to increase dramatically worldwide. Demographic changes are likely to result in the rise of age-related chronic diseases which largely contribute to years lived with a disability and future dependence. However dependence is much less studied although intrinsically linked to disability. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of dependence among older people from middle income countries. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey was carried out at 11 sites in seven countries (urban sites in Cuba, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic, urban and rural sites in Peru, Mexico, China and India. All those aged 65 years and over living in geographically defined catchment areas were eligible. In all, 15,022 interviews were completed with an informant interview for each participant. The full 10/66 Dementia Research Group survey protocol was applied, including ascertainment of depression, dementia, physical impairments and self-reported diagnoses. Dependence was interviewer-rated based on a key informant's responses to a set of open-ended questions on the participant's needs for care. We estimated the prevalence of dependence and the independent contribution of underlying health conditions. Site-specific prevalence ratios were meta-analysed, and population attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF calculated. Results The prevalence of dependence increased with age at all sites, with a tendency for the prevalence to be lower in men than in women. Age-standardised prevalence was lower in all sites than in the USA. Other than in rural China, dementia made the largest independent contribution to dependence, with a median PAPF of 34% (range 23%-59%. Other substantial contributors were limb impairment (9%, 1%-46%, stroke (8%, 2%-17%, and depression (8%, 1%-27%. Conclusion The demographic and health transitions will lead to large and rapid increases in the numbers of dependent older people particularly in

  13. The contribution of chronic diseases to the prevalence of dependence among older people in Latin America, China and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Renata M; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, Ks; Jotheeswaran, At; Hernandez, Milagros A Guerra; Liu, Zhaorui; Pichardo, Guillermina Rodriguez; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph; Zuniga, Tirso; Prince, Martin

    2010-08-06

    The number of older people is set to increase dramatically worldwide. Demographic changes are likely to result in the rise of age-related chronic diseases which largely contribute to years lived with a disability and future dependence. However dependence is much less studied although intrinsically linked to disability. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of dependence among older people from middle income countries. A one-phase cross-sectional survey was carried out at 11 sites in seven countries (urban sites in Cuba, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic, urban and rural sites in Peru, Mexico, China and India). All those aged 65 years and over living in geographically defined catchment areas were eligible. In all, 15,022 interviews were completed with an informant interview for each participant. The full 10/66 Dementia Research Group survey protocol was applied, including ascertainment of depression, dementia, physical impairments and self-reported diagnoses. Dependence was interviewer-rated based on a key informant's responses to a set of open-ended questions on the participant's needs for care. We estimated the prevalence of dependence and the independent contribution of underlying health conditions. Site-specific prevalence ratios were meta-analysed, and population attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF) calculated. The prevalence of dependence increased with age at all sites, with a tendency for the prevalence to be lower in men than in women. Age-standardised prevalence was lower in all sites than in the USA. Other than in rural China, dementia made the largest independent contribution to dependence, with a median PAPF of 34% (range 23%-59%). Other substantial contributors were limb impairment (9%, 1%-46%), stroke (8%, 2%-17%), and depression (8%, 1%-27%). The demographic and health transitions will lead to large and rapid increases in the numbers of dependent older people particularly in middle income countries (MIC). The prevention and control of

  14. "The contribution of chronic diseases to the prevalence of dependence among older people in Latin America, China and India: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based survey"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The number of older people is set to increase dramatically worldwide. Demographic changes are likely to result in the rise of age-related chronic diseases which largely contribute to years lived with a disability and future dependence. However dependence is much less studied although intrinsically linked to disability. We investigated the prevalence and correlates of dependence among older people from middle income countries. Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey was carried out at 11 sites in seven countries (urban sites in Cuba, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic, urban and rural sites in Peru, Mexico, China and India). All those aged 65 years and over living in geographically defined catchment areas were eligible. In all, 15,022 interviews were completed with an informant interview for each participant. The full 10/66 Dementia Research Group survey protocol was applied, including ascertainment of depression, dementia, physical impairments and self-reported diagnoses. Dependence was interviewer-rated based on a key informant's responses to a set of open-ended questions on the participant's needs for care. We estimated the prevalence of dependence and the independent contribution of underlying health conditions. Site-specific prevalence ratios were meta-analysed, and population attributable prevalence fractions (PAPF) calculated. Results The prevalence of dependence increased with age at all sites, with a tendency for the prevalence to be lower in men than in women. Age-standardised prevalence was lower in all sites than in the USA. Other than in rural China, dementia made the largest independent contribution to dependence, with a median PAPF of 34% (range 23%-59%). Other substantial contributors were limb impairment (9%, 1%-46%), stroke (8%, 2%-17%), and depression (8%, 1%-27%). Conclusion The demographic and health transitions will lead to large and rapid increases in the numbers of dependent older people particularly in middle income countries

  15. The association between social capital and loneliness in different age groups: a population-based study in Western Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyqvist, Fredrica; Victor, Christina R; Forsman, Anna K; Cattan, Mima

    2016-07-11

    Previous studies of loneliness have largely focused on establishing risk factors in specific age groups such as in later life or in young people. Researchers have paid less attention to the link between social capital and loneliness across different age groups. The aim of this study was to examine the association between social capital and experienced loneliness in different age groups in a Finnish setting. The data originates from a population-based cross-sectional survey conducted among 4618 people aged 15-80 in Western Finland in 2011. The response rate was 46.2 %. The association between social capital, measured by frequency of social contacts, participation in organisational activities, trust and sense of belonging to the neighbourhood and loneliness was tested by logistic regression analyses stratified by four age groups. Frequent loneliness (defined as experienced often or sometimes) was higher among younger people (39.5 %) compared to older people (27.3 %). Low levels of trust were linked to loneliness in all four age groups. The association between other aspects of social capital and loneliness varied across age groups. Frequent loneliness is common among the general adult population and could be seen as a public health issue. Our findings imply that low social capital, especially in terms of low trust, may be a risk factor for loneliness. However, further research is needed to assess the influence of poor health and reverse causality as explanations for the findings.

  16. Clinical governance and research ethics as barriers to UK low-risk population-based health research?

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    Douglas Flora

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the Helsinki Declaration was introduced in 1964 as a code of practice for clinical research, it has generally been agreed that research governance is also needed in the field of public health and health promotion research. Recently, a range of factors led to the development of more stringent bureaucratic procedures, governing the conduct of low-risk population-based health research in the United Kingdom. Methods Our paper highlights a case study of the application process to medical research ethics committees in the United Kingdom for a study of the promotion of physical activity by health care providers. The case study presented here is an illustration of the challenges in conducting low-risk population-based health research. Results Our mixed-methods approach involved a questionnaire survey of and semi-structured interviews with health professionals (who were all healthy volunteers. Since our study does not involve the participation of either patients or the general population, one would expect the application to the relevant research ethics committees to be a formality. This proved not to be the case! Conclusion Research ethics committees could be counter-productive, rather than protecting the vulnerable in the research process, they can stifle low-risk population-based health research. Research ethics in health services research is first and foremost the responsibility of the researcher(s, and we need to learn to trust health service researchers again. The burden of current research governance regulation to address the perceived ethical problems is neither appropriate nor adequate. Senior researchers/academics need to educate and train students and junior researchers in the area of research ethics, whilst at the same time reducing pressures on them that lead to unethical research, such as commercial funding, inappropriate government interference and the pressure to publish. We propose that non-invasive low

  17. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in a Minor Ethnic Group of Vietnam: A Multiethnic, Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, Tran Thanh; Tuan, Vo Phuoc; Dung, Ho Dang Quy; Tung, Pham Huu; Tri, Tran Dinh; Thuan, Ngo Phuong Minh; Tam, Le Quang; Nam, Bui Chi; Giang, Do Anh; Hoan, Phan Quoc; Uchida, Tomohisa; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2018-03-01

    The Helicobacter pylori -induced burden of gastric cancer varies based on geographical regions and ethnic grouping. Vietnam is a multiethnic country with the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Southeast Asia, but previous studies focused only on the Kinh ethnic group. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 494 volunteers (18-78 years old), from 13 ethnic groups in Daklak and Lao Cai provinces, Vietnam. H. pylori status was determined by multiple tests (rapid urease test, culture, histology, and serology). cagA and vacA genotypes were determined by PCR-based sequencing. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 38.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that variations in geographical region, age, and ethnicity were independent factors associated with the risk of H. pylori acquisition. Therefore, multicenter, multiethnic, population based study is essential to assess the H. pylori prevalence and its burden in the general population. Only the E De ethnicity carried strains with Western-type CagA (82%) and exhibited significantly lower gastric mucosal inflammation compared to other ethnic groups. However, the histological scores of Western-type CagA and East-Asian-type CagA within the E De group showed no significant differences. Thus, in addition to bacterial virulence factors, host factors are likely to be important determinants for gastric mucosal inflammation and contribute to the Asian enigma.

  19. Sports injuries: population based representative data on incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, and high risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S; Seither, B; Tönges, S; Schmitt, H

    2006-04-01

    To generate national representative data on the incidence, diagnosis, severity, and nature of medically treated sports injuries and to identify high risk groups. The first national health survey for the Federal Republic of Germany, conducted in the format of a standardised, written, cross sectional survey in the period October 1997 to March 1999, gathered data on the incidence of accident and injury and information on social demographics, injury related disability/time off work, and injury location/setting. The net sample comprised 7124 people aged 18-79. 3.1% of adult Germans said they sustained a sports injury during the previous year, corresponding to an annual injury rate of 5.6% among those engaging in regular recreational physical activity and ranking sports injuries as the second most common type of accident. About 62% of all sports injuries result in time taken off work. The period of occupational disability is 14 days or less in around two thirds of these cases. The occupational disability rate after occupational and traffic accidents is much higher by comparison. Dislocations, distortions, and/or torn ligaments make up 60% of all sports injuries, followed by fractures (18%), contusions, surface wounds, or open wounds (12%). Three out of four sports injury casualties are male. The incidence declines noticeably in higher age groups. Future injury prevention measures should focus on the high risk group of young male recreational athletes. The data indicate that the fear of damage to health and injury, believed to be significant internal psychological barriers to participation in sports, is largely unwarranted for the female population and/or older age groups. Sporting injuries are a marginal phenomenon among the female population and mobile seniors actively engaged in sports.

  20. Cardiovascular health among two ethnic groups living in the same region: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderly, Michal; Chetrit, Angela; Murad, Havi; Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Gillon-Keren, Michal; Rogowski, Ori; Sela, Ben-Ami; Kanety, Hannah; Harats, Dror; Atamna, Ahmed; Alpert, Gershon; Goldbourt, Uri; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-02-01

    Poor cardiovascular health (CVH) among ethnic/racial minorities, studied primarily in the USA, may reflect lower access to healthcare. We examined factors associated with minority CVH in a setting of universal access to healthcare. CVH behaviors and factors were evaluated in a random population sample (551 Arabs, 553 Jews) stratified by sex, ethnicity and age. More Jews (10%) than Arabs (3%) had 3 ideal health behaviors. Only one participant had all four. Although ideal diet was rare (≤1.5%) across groups, Arabs were more likely to meet intake recommendations for whole grains, but less likely to meet intake recommendations for fruits/vegetables and fish. Arabs had lower odds of attaining ideal levels for body mass index and physical activity. Smoking prevalence was 57% among Arab men and 6% among Arab women. Having four ideal health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, smoking) was observed in 2% and 8% of Arab and Jewish men, respectively, and 13% of Arab and Jewish women. Higher prevalence of ideal total-cholesterol corresponded to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Arabs. No participant met ideal levels for all 7 metrics and only 1.8% presented with 6. Accounting for age and lower socioeconomic status, Arabs were less likely to meet a greater number of metric goals (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.62 (0.42-0.92) for men, and 0.73 (0.48-1.12) for women). Ideal CVH, rare altogether, was less prevalent among the Arab minority albeit universal access to healthcare. Health behaviors were the main contributors to the CVH disparity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. "Where are all the lonely people?" A population-based study of high-risk groups across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Friis, Karina; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    and socio-demographic and health-related factors across multiple age groups. Methods. This was a combined population-based questionnaire survey and register data study based on a representative sample, including 33,285 Danish individuals aged 16–102 years. Loneliness was measured using the Three......Item Loneliness Scale. Results. The relation between loneliness and age took a shallow U-shaped distribution. Ethnic minority status, receiving disability pensions or being unemployed, living alone, prolonged mental disorder, and psychiatric treatment were strongly associated with severe loneliness. Socio......-demographic and health-related factors were associated with an increased risk of severe loneliness in specific age groups. Being female, having a low educational level and living in a deprived area were only associated with loneliness in adolescence/emerging adulthood. Receiving disability pensions and living alone (i...

  2. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  3. ABO and RhD blood groups and gestational hypertensive disorders: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B K; Zhang, Z; Wikman, A; Lindqvist, P G; Reilly, M

    2012-09-01

    To examine the association between ABO and RhD blood groups and gestational hypertensive disorders in a large population-based cohort. Cohort study. Risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia, estimated by odds ratios for maternal ABO blood group and RhD status. National health registers of Sweden. All singleton deliveries in Sweden born to first-time mothers during the period 1987-2002 [total n = 641 926; any gestational hypertensive disorders, n = 39 011 (6.1%); pre-eclampsia cases, n = 29 337 (4.6%); severe pre-eclampsia cases, n = 8477 (1.3%)]. Using blood group O as a reference, odds ratios of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia were obtained from logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia. Compared with blood group O, all non-O blood groups had modest but statistically significantly higher odds of pre-eclampsia. Blood group AB had the highest risk for pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.04-1.16) and severe pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.30). RhD-positive mothers had a small increased risk for pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.10). In the largest study on this topic to date, women with AB blood group have the highest risks of gestational hypertensive disorders, pre-eclampsia, and severe pre-eclampsia, whereas women with O blood group have the lowest risks of developing these disorders. Although the magnitude of increased risk is small, this finding may help improve our understanding of the etiology of pre-eclampsia. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  4. Beliefs and attitudes towards participating in genetic research – a population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerath Samantha M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biobanks have the potential to offer a venue for chronic disease biomarker discovery, which would allow for disease early detection and for identification of carriers of a certain predictor biomarker. To assess the general attitudes towards genetic research and participation in biobanks in the Long Island/Queens area of New York, and what factors would predict a positive view of such research, participants from the NSLIJ hospital system were surveyed. Methods Participants were recruited at six hospital centers in the NSLIJ system during the summers of 2009 and again in 2011 (n = 1,041. Those who opted to participate were given a questionnaire containing 22 questions assessing demographics, lifestyle and attitudes towards genetic research. These questions addressed individual participant’s beliefs about the importance of genetic research, willingness to participate in genetic research themselves, and their views on informed consent issues. Results Respondents took a generally positive view of genetic research in general, as well as their own participation in such research. Those with reservations were most likely to cite concerns over the privacy of their medical and genetic information. Those who were married tended to view genetic research as important, while those in the younger age group viewed it as less important. Prior blood donation of respondents was found to be a predictor of their approval for genetic research. Demographic factors were not found to be predictive of personal willingness to participate in genetic research, or of approval for the opt-out approach to consent. Conclusions While respondents were generally inclined to approve of genetic research, and those who disapproved did not do so based on an underlying moral objection to such research, there is a disconnect between the belief in the importance of genetic research and the willingness of individuals to participate themselves. This indicates a

  5. Cesarean Delivery in the United States 2005 - 2014: A Population-Based Analysis Using the Robson Ten Group Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehir, Mark P; Ananth, Cande V; Siddiq, Zainab; Flood, Karen; Friedman, Alexander M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2018-04-12

    Cesarean delivery has increased steadily in the United States over recent decades with significant downstream health consequences. The World Health Organization has endorsed the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) as a global standard to facilitate analysis and comparison of cesarean delivery rates. Our objective was to apply the TGCS to a nationwide cohort in the United States over a 10-year period. This population-based analysis applied the TGCS to all births in the United States from 2005-2014, recorded in the 2003-revised birth certificate format. Over the study 10-year period 27,044,217 deliveries met inclusion criteria. Five parameters (parity including previous cesarean, gestational age, labor onset, fetal presentation and plurality), identifiable on presentation for delivery, were used to classify all women included into one of ten groups. The overall cesarean rate was 31.6%. Group 3 births (singleton, term, cephalic multiparas in spontaneous labor) were most common, while Group 5 births (those with a previous cesarean) accounted for the most cesarean deliveries increasing from 27% of all cesareans in 2005-06 to over 34% in 2013-14. Breech pregnancies (Groups 6 and 7) had cesarean rates above 90%. Primiparous and multiparous women who had a prelabor cesarean [Groups 2(b) and 4(b)] accounted for over one quarter of all cesarean deliveries. Women with a previous cesarean delivery represent an increasing proportion of cesarean deliveries. Use of the Robson criteria allows standardised comparisons of data and identifies clinical scenarios driving changes in cesarean rates. Hospitals and health organisations can use the TGCS to evaluate quality and processes associated with cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High hospital research participation and improved colorectal cancer survival outcomes: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Amy; Morris, Eva Ja; Corrigan, Neil; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Finan, Paul J; Thomas, James D; Chapman, Michael; Hamilton, Russell; Campbell, Helen; Cameron, David; Kaplan, Richard; Parmar, Mahesh; Stephens, Richard; Seymour, Matt; Gregory, Walter; Selby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2001, the National Institute for Health Research Cancer Research Network (NCRN) was established, leading to a rapid increase in clinical research activity across the English NHS. Using colorectal cancer (CRC) as an example, we test the hypothesis that high, sustained hospital-level participation in interventional clinical trials improves outcomes for all patients with CRC managed in those research-intensive hospitals. Data for patients diagnosed with CRC in England in 2001-2008 (n=209 968) were linked with data on accrual to NCRN CRC studies (n=30 998). Hospital Trusts were categorised by the proportion of patients accrued to interventional studies annually. Multivariable models investigated the relationship between 30-day postoperative mortality and 5-year survival and the level and duration of study participation. Most of the Trusts achieving high participation were district general hospitals and the effects were not limited to cancer 'centres of excellence', although such centres do make substantial contributions. Patients treated in Trusts with high research participation (≥16%) in their year of diagnosis had lower postoperative mortality (presearch participation, with a reduction in postoperative mortality of 1.5% (6.5%-5%, pstudies for all patients with CRC treated in the hospital study participants. Improvement precedes and increases with the level and years of sustained participation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Blood group AB is protective factor for gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective population-based study in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuiping; Li, Yi; Wang, Leishen; Sun, Shurong; Liu, Gongshu; Leng, Junhong; Guo, Jia; Lv, Li; Li, Weidong; Zhang, Cuilin; Hu, Gang; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin

    2015-09-01

    The ABO blood types are associated with cancers, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus but whether they are also associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. We examined the relationship between the ABO blood types and the risk of GDM in a prospective population-based Chinese cohort. From 2010 to 2012, we recruited 14,198 pregnant women within the first 12 weeks of gestation in Tianjin, China. All women had a glucose challenge test (GCT) at 24-28 gestational weeks, followed by a 75-g 2-h oral glucose tolerance test if the results from GCT were ≥7.8 mmol/L. GDM was diagnosed based on the glucose cut-points of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for traditional risk factors. Stratified analysis was performed by family history of diabetes (yes versus no). Sensitivity analyses were also performed by using the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for GDM. Women with blood groups A, B or O (i.e. non-AB) were associated with increased risk of GDM as compared with those with blood group AB (adjusted OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.13-1.83). Sensitivity analyses showed that the result was consistent using WHO criteria. The adjusted OR of blood group non-AB versus AB for GDM was enhanced among women with a family history of diabetes (2.69, 1.21-5.96) and attenuated among those without (1.33, 1.03-1.71). Blood group AB was a protective factor against GDM in pregnant Chinese women. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Population-based resequencing revealed an ancestral winter group of cultivated flax: implication for flax domestication processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the earliest oil and fiber crop and its early domestication history may involve multiple events of domestication for oil, fiber, capsular indehiscence, and winter hardiness. Genetic studies have demonstrated that winter cultivated flax is closely related to oil and fiber cultivated flax and shows little relatedness to its progenitor, pale flax (L. bienne Mill.), but winter hardiness is one major characteristic of pale flax. Here, we assessed the genetic relationships of 48 Linum samples representing pale flax and four trait-specific groups of cultivated flax (dehiscent, fiber, oil, and winter) through population-based resequencing at 24 genomic regions, and revealed a winter group of cultivated flax that displayed close relatedness to the pale flax samples. Overall, the cultivated flax showed a 27% reduction of nucleotide diversity when compared with the pale flax. Recombination frequently occurred at these sampled genomic regions, but the signal of selection and bottleneck was relatively weak. These findings provide some insight into the impact and processes of flax domestication and are significant for expanding our knowledge about early flax domestication, particularly for winter hardiness. PMID:22822439

  9. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  10. Group Work. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  11. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Paul D.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Hood, Darryl B.; Im, Wansoo; Levine, Robert S.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Langston, Michael A.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Crosson, William L.; Estes, Maurice G.; Estes, Sue M.; Agboto, Vincent K.; Robinson, Paul; Wilson, Sacoby; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2014-01-01

    The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training. PMID:25514145

  12. The Public Health Exposome: A Population-Based, Exposure Science Approach to Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Juarez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of progress in reducing health disparities suggests that new approaches are needed if we are to achieve meaningful, equitable, and lasting reductions. Current scientific paradigms do not adequately capture the complexity of the relationships between environment, personal health and population level disparities. The public health exposome is presented as a universal exposure tracking framework for integrating complex relationships between exogenous and endogenous exposures across the lifespan from conception to death. It uses a social-ecological framework that builds on the exposome paradigm for conceptualizing how exogenous exposures “get under the skin”. The public health exposome approach has led our team to develop a taxonomy and bioinformatics infrastructure to integrate health outcomes data with thousands of sources of exogenous exposure, organized in four broad domains: natural, built, social, and policy environments. With the input of a transdisciplinary team, we have borrowed and applied the methods, tools and terms from various disciplines to measure the effects of environmental exposures on personal and population health outcomes and disparities, many of which may not manifest until many years later. As is customary with a paradigm shift, this approach has far reaching implications for research methods and design, analytics, community engagement strategies, and research training.

  13. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. METHODS: Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n......=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index......PURPOSE: Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population...

  14. Differential mental health impact of cancer across racial/ethnic groups: findings from a population-based study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E

    2014-09-08

    Little research has examined the interactive effect of cancer status and race/ethnicity on mental health. As such, the present study examined the mental health of adults, 18 and over, diagnosed with cancer. This study examined the extent to which a cancer diagnosis is related to poorer mental health because it erodes finances and the extent to which the mental health impact of cancer differs across racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, this study aimed to test the stress process model, which posits that the proliferation of stress can lead to mental illness and this process can differ across racial/ethnic groups. Data from the 2005 Adult California Health Interview Survey was used (N = 42,879). The Kessler 6, a validated measure of psychological distress, was used to measure mental health, with higher scores suggesting poorer mental health. Scores on the Kessler 6 ranged from 0 to 24. Linear regression models estimating psychological distress tested each aim. The mediating effect of income and the race by cancer interaction were tested. After controlling for gender, age, insurance status, education and race/ethnicity, cancer was associated with higher Kessler 6 scores. About 6% of this effect was mediated by household income (t = 4.547; SE = 0.011; p groups. Future work should explore reasons for these disparities. Efforts to increase access to mental health services among minorities with cancer are needed.

  15. Diagnostic strategies using physical examination are minimally useful in defining carpal tunnel syndrome in population-based research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descatha, A; Dale, A-M; Franzblau, A; Coomes, J; Evanoff, B

    2010-02-01

    We evaluated the utility of physical examination manoeuvres in the prediction of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in a population-based research study. We studied a cohort of 1108 newly employed workers in several industries. Each worker completed a symptom questionnaire, a structured physical examination and nerve conduction study. For each hand, our CTS case definition required both median nerve conduction abnormality and symptoms classified as "classic" or "probable" on a hand diagram. We calculated the positive predictive values and likelihood ratios for physical examination manoeuvres in subjects with and without symptoms. The prevalence of CTS in our cohort was 1.2% for the right hand and 1.0% for the left hand. The likelihood ratios of a positive test for physical provocative tests ranged from 2.0 to 3.3, and those of a negative test from 0.3 to 0.9. The post-test probability of positive testing was study found that physical examination, alone or in combination with symptoms, was not predictive of CTS in a working population. We suggest using specific symptoms as a first-level screening tool, and nerve conduction study as a confirmatory test, as a case definition strategy in research settings.

  16. Adjusting for overdispersion in piecewise exponential regression models to estimate excess mortality rate in population-based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Belot, Aurélien; Quaresma, Manuela; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P; Rachet, Bernard

    2016-10-01

    In population-based cancer research, piecewise exponential regression models are used to derive adjusted estimates of excess mortality due to cancer using the Poisson generalized linear modelling framework. However, the assumption that the conditional mean and variance of the rate parameter given the set of covariates x i are equal is strong and may fail to account for overdispersion given the variability of the rate parameter (the variance exceeds the mean). Using an empirical example, we aimed to describe simple methods to test and correct for overdispersion. We used a regression-based score test for overdispersion under the relative survival framework and proposed different approaches to correct for overdispersion including a quasi-likelihood, robust standard errors estimation, negative binomial regression and flexible piecewise modelling. All piecewise exponential regression models showed the presence of significant inherent overdispersion (p-value regression modelling, with either a quasi-likelihood or robust standard errors, was the best approach as it deals with both, overdispersion due to model misspecification and true or inherent overdispersion.

  17. Decision Tree Identified Risk Groups with High Suicidal Ideation in South Korea: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Hyen; Hyoung, Hee Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk groups with high suicidal ideation among South Korean adults. A descriptive cross-sectional design was adopted using secondary data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 5,963 adults aged 19 years and older who participated in the 2011 KNHANES served as participants. The prevalence of suicidal ideation and its related factors, including physical, psychological, health behavioral, and sociodemographic characteristics, were examined. Descriptive statistics and a decision tree were used for data analysis. Nine groups with high suicidal ideation were identified. The coexistence of depression and high levels of stress increased the prevalence of suicidal ideation. The highest risk group was widowed or divorced adults with depression and high levels of stress, and 82.5% of these participants had suicidal ideation (the prevalence rate of this group was 5.7 times higher than the mean suicidal ideation prevalence rate in this study). Public health nurses and community mental health professionals should recognize risk groups with high suicidal ideation, and target these groups when implementing preventive interventions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Explaining disparities in colorectal cancer screening among five Asian ethnic groups: A population-based study in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cynthia M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A

  19. Breast conserving treatment in Denmark, 1989-1998. A nationwide population-based study of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertz, M.; Kempel, M.M.; During, M.

    2008-01-01

    patients in Denmark. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the results of this treatment, we performed a nationwide population-based follow-up study of patients aged less than 75 years treated in Denmark from 1989 to 1998 based on the database of Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. RESULTS: At 15 years...... of follow-up, the Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival was 69% among 3 758 patients who received the recommended treatment. Within the first 10 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences of loco-regional recurrences, distant metastases or other malignant disease, or death as a first event were 9...

  20. Genetic differences in the two main groups of the Japanese population based on autosomal SNPs and haplotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Kabata, Yumi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Kumasaka, Natsuhiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Hosono, Naoya; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki

    2012-05-01

    Although the Japanese population has a rather low genetic diversity, we recently confirmed the presence of two main clusters (the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters) through principal component analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes. Understanding the genetic differences between the two main clusters requires further genome-wide analyses based on a dense SNP set and comparison of haplotype frequencies. In the present study, we determined haplotypes for the Hondo cluster of the Japanese population by detecting SNP homozygotes with 388,591 autosomal SNPs from 18,379 individuals and estimated the haplotype frequencies. Haplotypes for the Ryukyu cluster were inferred by a statistical approach using the genotype data from 504 individuals. We then compared the haplotype frequencies between the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters. In most genomic regions, the haplotype frequencies in the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters were very similar. However, in addition to the human leukocyte antigen region on chromosome 6, other genomic regions (chromosomes 3, 4, 5, 7, 10 and 12) showed dissimilarities in haplotype frequency. These regions were enriched for genes involved in the immune system, cell-cell adhesion and the intracellular signaling cascade. These differentiated genomic regions between the Hondo and Ryukyu clusters are of interest because they (1) should be examined carefully in association studies and (2) likely contain genes responsible for morphological or physiological differences between the two groups.

  1. Health-Related Lifestyle Factors and Sexual Dysfunction: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Mark S; Walter, Emma E

    2018-04-01

    -adjusted models and tests of potential moderators using meta-regression. Limitations include low statistical power in models testing diet, caffeine, and cannabis use as risk factors. Results provide compelling evidence that cigarette smoking, alcohol, and physical activity are important for sexual dysfunction. Insufficient research was available to draw conclusions regarding risk factors for premature ejaculation or for cannabis use as a risk factor. These findings should be of interest to clinicians treating men and women with complaints relating to symptoms of sexual dysfunction. Allen MS, Walter EE. Health-Related Lifestyle Factors and Sexual Dysfunction: A Meta-Analysis of Population-Based Research. J Sex Med 2018;15:458-475. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of a research diagnostic algorithm for DSM-5 neurocognitive disorders in a population-based cohort of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Mortby, Moyra E; Sachdev, Perminder; Meslin, Chantal; Kumar, Rajeev; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2017-03-04

    There is little information on the application and impact of revised criteria for diagnosing dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), now termed major and mild neurocognitive disorders (NCDs) in the DSM-5. We evaluate a psychometric algorithm for diagnosing DSM-5 NCDs in a community-dwelling sample, and characterize the neuropsychological and functional profile of expert-diagnosed DSM-5 NCDs relative to DSM-IV dementia and International Working Group criteria for MCI. A population-based sample of 1644 adults aged 72-78 years was assessed. Algorithmic diagnostic criteria used detailed neuropsychological data, medical history, longitudinal cognitive performance, and informant interview. Those meeting all criteria for at least one diagnosis had data reviewed by a neurologist (expert diagnosis) who achieved consensus with a psychiatrist for complex cases. The algorithm accurately classified DSM-5 major NCD (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.92-0.97), DSM-IV dementia (AUC = 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97), DSM-5 mild NCD (AUC = 0.75, 95% CI 0.70-0.80), and MCI (AUC = 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) when compared to expert diagnosis. Expert diagnosis of dementia using DSM-5 criteria overlapped with 90% of DSM-IV dementia cases, but resulted in a 127% increase in diagnosis relative to DSM-IV. Additional cases had less severe memory, language impairment, and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairments compared to cases meeting DSM-IV criteria for dementia. DSM-5 mild NCD overlapped with 83% of MCI cases and resulted in a 19% increase in diagnosis. These additional cases had a subtly different neurocognitive profile to MCI cases, including poorer social cognition. DSM-5 NCD criteria can be operationalized in a psychometric algorithm in a population setting. Expert diagnosis using DSM-5 NCD criteria captured most cases with DSM-IV dementia and MCI in our sample, but included many additional cases suggesting that DSM-5

  3. Incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin by age group: population-based epidemiologic study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and comparison with age-specific incidence rates worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Laurel L; Andersen, Louise K; Davis, Mark D P

    2018-01-29

    Understanding the effects of age on the epidemiology of diseases primarily affecting the skin is important to the practice of dermatology, both for proper allocation of resources and for optimal patient-centered care. To fully appreciate the effect that age may have on the population-based calculations of incidence of diseases primarily affecting the skin in Olmsted County, Minnesota, and worldwide, we performed a review of all relevant Rochester Epidemiology Project-published data and compared them to similar reports in the worldwide English literature. Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project, population-based epidemiologic studies have been performed to estimate the incidence of specific skin diseases over the past 50 years. In older persons (>65 years), nonmelanoma skin cancer, lentigo maligna, herpes zoster, delusional infestation, venous stasis syndrome, venous ulcer, and burning mouth syndrome were more commonly diagnosed. In those younger than 65 years, atypical nevi, psoriatic arthritis, pityriasis rosea, herpes progenitalis, genital warts, alopecia areata, hidradenitis suppurativa, infantile hemangioma, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis (isolated cutaneous, with sarcoidosis-specific cutaneous lesions and with erythema nodosum) had a higher incidence. Many of the incidence rates by age group of diseases primarily affecting the skin derived from the Rochester Epidemiology Project were similar to those reported elsewhere. © 2018 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups in China: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jue; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min

    2017-12-03

    ABO and RhD blood groups are key factors affecting blood transfusion safety. The distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups varies globally, but limited data exist for ethnic distributions of these blood groups in Asian populations. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups among Chinese ethnic groups. A population-based cross-sectional study. Data on ABO groups and ethnicities were obtained from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP) with participants from 220 counties of 31 provinces in China PARTICIPANTS: There were 3 832 034 participants aged 21-49 years who took part in the NFPHEP from January 2010 to December 2012 and were included in this study. The proportion of ABO and RhD blood groups among different ethnic groups was calculated. ABO and RhD blood distribution was significantly different among nine ethnic groups (Pgroups, the Yi group had more A phenotypes (34.0%), and the Manchu (33.7%) and Mongolian (33.3%) ethnic groups had more B phenotypes. The Zhuang group had the greatest proportion of O phenotypes (41.8%), followed by the Miao group (37.7%). AB phenotypes were more frequent in the Uygur ethnic group (10.6%) but lower in the Zhuang group (5.5%). Meanwhile, RhD negativity (RhD-) was greater in the Uygur group (3.3%) than in the Mongolian (0.3%) and Manchu ethnic groups (0.4%). O RhD- blood groups were more frequent in the Uygur group (0.8%) than in the other ethnic groups (0.1%-0.4%, Pblood phenotypes vary across different ethnic groups in China. The diversity in the distribution of the ABO and RhD blood groups in different ethnic groups should be considered when developing rational and evidence-based strategies for blood collection and management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Blood group AB and factor V Leiden as risk factors for pre-eclampsia: a population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltunen, Leena M; Laivuori, Hannele; Rautanen, Anna; Kaaja, Risto; Kere, Juha; Krusius, Tom; Paunio, Mikko; Rasi, Vesa

    2009-06-01

    Pre-eclampsia is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Its etiology is still unknown. Clinical symptoms correlate with activation of coagulation and inherited thrombophilia has been associated with pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group has been associated with thrombotic disorders and pre-eclampsia. We assessed ABO blood group, seven thrombophilia associated polymorphisms, and anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies as risk factors for pre-eclampsia. We performed a population-based nested case-control study of 100,000 consecutive pregnancies in Finland. Cases and controls were identified by combining national registers and medical records were reviewed. We studied 248 cases fulfilling strict criteria for pre-eclampsia and 679 controls. Severe pre-eclampsia, early pre-eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia with intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) were analyzed separately. Blood group AB increased the risk for pre-eclampsia as a whole (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3-3.5), and in the three subgroups (OR 2.3, 3.8, 3.4; 95% CI 1.3-3.9, 2.0-7.1, 1.6-7.1). FV Leiden increased the risk as a whole (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.8-3.9), and in the three subgroups, although not statistically significantly. Anti-beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies were not associated with pre-eclampsia. High body mass index, diabetes, first pregnancy, and twin pregnancy increased the risk from 1.5-fold to 8.2-fold. Our results confirm and extend the prior observation of blood group AB being a risk factor for pre-eclampsia. ABO blood group is known from all pregnant women. The value of blood group as risk factor for pre-eclampsia should be further assessed in prospective studies. In this study, FV Leiden was not statistically significant risk factor.

  6. Inpatient treatment of patients with acute idiopathic peripheral facial palsy: A population-based healthcare research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumbaum, K; Volk, G F; Boeger, D; Buentzel, J; Esser, D; Steinbrecher, A; Hoffmann, K; Jecker, P; Mueller, A; Radtke, G; Witte, O W; Guntinas-Lichius, O

    2017-12-01

    To determine the inpatient management for patients with acute idiopathic facial palsy (IFP) in Thuringia, Germany. Population-based study. All inpatients with IFP in all hospitals with departments of otolaryngology and neurology in 2012, in the German federal state, Thuringia. Patients' characteristics and treatment were compared between departments, and the probability of recovery was tested. A total of 291 patients were mainly treated in departments of otolaryngology (55%) and neurology (36%). Corticosteroid treatment was the predominant therapy (84.5%). The probability to receive a facial nerve grading (odds ratio [OR=12.939; 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.599 to 46.516), gustatory testing (OR=6.878; CI=1.064 to 44.474) and audiometry (OR=32.505; CI=1.485 to 711.257) was significantly higher in otolaryngology departments, but lower for cranial CT (OR=0.192; CI=0.061 to 0.602), cerebrospinal fluid examination (OR=0.024; CI=0.006 to 0.102). A total of 131 patients (45%) showed a recovery to House-Brackmann grade≤II. A pathological stapedial reflex test (Hazard ratio [HR]=0.416; CI=0.180 to 0.959) was the only independent diagnostic predictor of worse outcome. Prednisolone dose >500 mg (HR=0.579; CI 0.400 to 0.838) and no adjuvant physiotherapy (HR=0.568; CI=0.407 to 0.794) were treatment-related predictors of worse outcome. Inpatient treatment of IFP seems to be highly variable in daily practice, partly depending on the treating discipline and despite the availability of evidence-based guidelines. The population-based recovery rate was worse than reported in clinical trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Temporal trends in cardiovascular disease risk factors among white, South Asian, Chinese and black groups in Ontario, Canada, 2001 to 2012: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Maria; Maclagan, Laura C; Tu, Jack V; Shah, Baiju R

    2015-08-10

    To determine ethnic-specific temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factors in Ontario between 2001 and 2012. A population-based repeated cross-sectional study. Ontario, Canada. 219,276 participants of the Canadian Community Health Survey (205,326 white, 5620 South Asian, 4368 Chinese and 3962 black) during the period 2001 to 2012. Age-standardised ethnic-sex-specific prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for three time periods: 2001-2004, 2005-2008 and 2009-2012 among Canada's four major ethnic groups: white, South Asian, Chinese and black. During the study period, the prevalence of diabetes increased 2.3-fold (p = 0.0001) among South Asian males and 1.9-fold (p = 0.02) among black females. The prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) increased over time across all ethnic groups, with the largest relative increases observed among males of Chinese (2.1-fold increase, p = 0.04) and black (1.7-fold increase, p = 0.06) descent. The prevalence of hypertension increased the most among black females. Smoking prevalence decreased by more than 20% among South Asian, Chinese and white females. Overall, South Asian males and black males and females showed the greatest declines in cardiovascular health over the study period. We observed important ethnic differences in the temporal trends in cardiovascular risk factor profiles in Ontario. Awareness of the direction and magnitude of these risk factor trends may be useful in informing targeted strategies for preventing cardiovascular diseases in multiethnic populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Childhood disability population-based surveillance: Assessment of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition and Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning in a rural setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marieta; Nel, Mariette; Bronkhorst, Caretha; Brown, Lara; Ezendam, Zaskia; Mackenzie, Kira; van der Merwe, Deidré; Venter, Marné

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological information on childhood disability provides the basis for a country to plan, implement and manage the provision of health, educational and social services for these vulnerable children. There is, however, currently no population-based surveillance instrument that is compatible with the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), internationally comparable, methodologically sound and comprehensively researched, to identify children under 5 years of age who are living with disability in South Africa and internationally. We conducted a descriptive pilot study to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of translated versions of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition (ASQ-III) and the Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning (WG/UNICEF module) as parent-reported measures. The aim of our study was to identify early childhood disabilities in children aged 24-48 months in a rural area of South Africa, to determine the appropriateness of these instruments for population-based surveillance in similar contexts internationally. This study was conducted in the Xhariep District of the Free State Province in central South Africa, with 50 carers whose children were registered on the South African Social Security Agency (SASSA) database as recipients of a grant for one of the following: Care Dependency, Child Support or Foster Care. The researchers, assisted by community healthcare workers and SASSA staff members, conducted structured interviews using forward-backward translated versions of the ASQ-III and the WG/UNICEF module. Both measurement instruments had a clinically meaningful sensitivity of 60.0%, high specificity of 95.6% for the ASQ-III and 84.4% for the WG/UNICEF module, and the two instruments agreed moderately (Kappa = 0.6). Since the WG/UNICEF module is quicker to administer, easier to understand and based on the ICF, it can be considered as an appropriate parent

  9. Identifying specific non-attending groups in breast cancer screening - population-based registry study of participation and socio-demography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Line

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A population-based breast cancer screening programme was implemented in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09. The objective of this registry-based study was to examine the association between socio-demographic characteristics and screening participation and to examine whether the group of non-participants can be regarded as a homogeneous group of women. Method Participation status was obtained from a regional database for all women invited to the first screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–2009 (n=149,234. Participation data was linked to registries containing socio-demographic information. Distance to screening site was calculated using ArcGIS. Participation was divided into ‘participants’ and ‘non-participants’, and non-participants were further stratified into ‘active non-participants’ and ‘passive non-participants’ based on whether the woman called and cancelled her participation or was a ‘no-show’. Results The screening participation rate was 78.9%. In multivariate analyses, non-participation was associated with older age, immigrant status, low OECD-adjusted household income, high and low level education compared with middle level education, unemployment, being unmarried, distance to screening site >20 km, being a tenant and no access to a vehicle. Active and passive non-participants comprised two distinct groups with different socio-demographic characteristics, with passive non-participants being more socially deprived compared with active non-participants. Conclusion Non-participation was associated with low social status e.g. low income, unemployment, no access to vehicle and status as tenant. Non-participants were also more likely than participants to be older, single, and of non-Danish origin. Compared to active non-participants, passive non-participants were characterized by e.g. lower income and lower educational level. Different interventions might be warranted to increase

  10. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  11. Epidemiological and immunological characteristics of childhood leukaemia in the Netherlands: population-based data from a nationwide co-operative group of paediatricians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coebergh, J.W.W.; Steensel-Moll, A. van; Veer, M.B. van't

    1985-01-01

    Results are reviewed from several population-based epidemiological and immunological studies of children with leukaemia in The Netherlands, who were diagnosed between 1973 and 1982 through a nationwide co-operative group of paediatricians. From 1973 till 1980 annual incidence rates appeared to be 3.1 per 10 5 person-yr. No significant trend was observed in this period. However a preliminary analysis of patients in the 1980-1982 period showed an increase. Mortality rates are decreasing since 1973, as expected. Incidence rates and proportions of different morphological and immunological subtypes reflect the pattern of occurrence in populations with a high standard of living. A relatively high incidence rate of acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) is observed with a peak at the age of 3-5. The proportion of patients with T-cell phenotype among ALL-patients, immunologically typed between 1979 and 1982, appeared to increase with age, while the proportion of common ALL decreased. Statistical analysis of the data of patients with ALL in the Western part of the country including areas with nuclear plants, gave no indication for the presence of clustering. (author)

  12. Differential impact of statin on new-onset diabetes in different age groups: a population-based case-control study in women from an asian country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statins reduce cardiovascular risks but increase the risk of new-onset diabetes (NOD. The aim of this study is to determine what effect, if any, statins have on the risk of NOD events in a population-based case-control study. An evaluation of the relationship between age and statin-exposure on NOD risks was further examined in a female Asian population. METHOD: In a nationwide case-controlled study, the authors assessed 1065 female NOD patients and 10650 controls with matching ages, genders and physician visit dates. The impact of statin-exposure on NOD was examined through multiple logistic regression models. Subgroup analysis for exploring the risk of NOD and statin-exposure in different age groups was performed. RESULTS: Statin-exposure was statistically significantly associated with increased new-onset diabetes risks using multivariate analysis. Interaction effect between age and statin-exposure on NOD risk was noted. For atorvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 8.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.57-24.90. For rosuvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 40-54 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.8; 95% CI, 2.27-96.15. For simvastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 15.8; 95% CI, 5.77-43.26. For pravastatin, the risk of cDDDs>60 was highest among the 55-64 year-olds (adjusted OR, 14.0; 95% CI, 1.56-125.18. CONCLUSIONS: This population-based study found that statin use is associated with an increased risk of NOD in women. The risk of statin-related NOD was more evident for women aged 40-64 years compared to women aged 65 or more, and was cumulative-dose dependent. The use of statins should always be determined by weighing the clinical benefits and potential risks for NOD, and the patients should be continuously monitored for adverse effects.

  13. Incidence of fractures among epilepsy patients: a population-based retrospective cohort study in the General Practice Research Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souverein, Patrick C; Webb, David J; Petri, Hans; Weil, John; Van Staa, Tjeerd P; Egberts, Toine

    2005-02-01

    To compare the incidence of various fractures in a cohort of patients with epilepsy with a reference cohort of patients not having epilepsy. Patients were included in the epilepsy cohort if they had at least one diagnosis of epilepsy in their medical history and had sufficient evidence of "active" epilepsy (use of antiepileptic drugs, diagnoses) after the practice was included in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Two reference patients were sampled for each patient with epilepsy from the same practice. Primary outcome was the occurrence of any fracture during follow-up. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate incidence density ratios (IDRs). The study population comprised 40,485 and 80,970 patients in the epilepsy and reference cohorts, respectively. The median duration of follow-up was approximately 3 years. The overall incidence rate in the epilepsy cohort was 241.9 per 10,000 person-years. This rate was about twice as high as that in reference cohort: age- and sex-adjusted IDR, 1.89 (95% CI, 1.81-1.98). When comparing IDRs among the different groups of fractures, the highest relative-risk estimate was found for hip and femur fractures (adjusted IDR, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.41-3.24). IDRs were consistently elevated across age and sex groups and across fracture subtypes. The overall risk of fractures was nearly twice as high among patients with epilepsy compared with the general population. The relative fracture risk was highest for hip and femur. Further study is necessary to elucidate whether this elevated risk is due to the disease, the use of antiepileptic drugs, or both.

  14. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabenhenrich, L B; Reich, A; Bellach, J; Trendelenburg, V; Sprikkelman, A B; Roberts, G; Grimshaw, K E C; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M L; Papadopoulos, N G; Quirce, S; Dubakiene, R; Niggemann, B; Fernández-Rivas, M; Ballmer-Weber, B; van Ree, R; Schnadt, S; Mills, E N C; Keil, T; Beyer, K

    2017-03-01

    The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid comparisons between studies. Our aim was to develop a diagnostic toolbox to capture and report clinical observations in double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC). A group of experienced allergists, paediatricians, dieticians, epidemiologists and data managers developed generic case report forms and standard operating procedures for DBPCFCs and piloted them in three clinical centres. The follow-up of the EuroPrevall/iFAAM birth cohort and other iFAAM work packages applied these methods. A set of newly developed questionnaire or interview items capture the history of FA. Together with sensitization status, this forms the basis for the decision to perform a DBPCFC, following a standardized decision algorithm. A generic form including details about severity and timing captures signs and symptoms observed during or after the procedures. In contrast to the commonly used dichotomous outcome FA vs no FA, the allergy status is interpreted in multiple categories to reflect the complexity of clinical decision-making. The proposed toolbox sets a standard for improved documentation and harmonized interpretation of DBPCFCs. By a detailed documentation and common terminology for communicating outcomes, these tools hope to reduce the influence of subjective judgment of supervising physicians. All forms are publicly available for further evolution and free use in clinical and research settings. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Second primary cancers after adjuvant radiotherapy in early breast cancer patients: A national population based study under the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantzau, Trine; Mellemkjær, Lene; Overgaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the long-term risk of second primary solid non-breast cancer in a national population-based cohort of 46,176 patients treated for early breast cancer between 1982 and 2007. Patients and methods: All patients studied were treated according to the national guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. The risk of second primary cancers was estimated by Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among irradiated women compared to non-irradiated. All irradiated patients were treated on linear accelerators. Second cancers were a priori categorized into two groups; radiotherapy-associated- (oesophagus, lung, heart/mediastinum, pleura, bones, and connective tissue) and non-radiotherapy-associated sites (all other cancers). Results: 2358 second cancers had occurred during the follow-up. For the radiotherapy-associated sites the HR among irradiated women was 1.34 (95% CI 1.11–1.61) with significantly increased HRs for the time periods of 10–14 years (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.08–2.24) and ⩾15 years after treatment (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14–2.81). There was no increased risk for the non-radiotherapy-associated sites (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.94–1.1). The estimated attributable risk related to radiotherapy for the radiotherapy-associated sites translates into one radiation-induced second cancer in every 200 women treated with radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy treated breast cancer patients have a small but significantly excess risk of second cancers

  16. Summary of Research 1997, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boger, Dan

    1999-01-01

    This report contains information of research projects in the interdisciplinary groups, Command, Control, and Communications Academic Group, Information Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic...

  17. A new framework for the documentation and interpretation of oral food challenges in population-based and clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabenhenrich, L. B.; Reich, Andreas; Bellach, J.; Trendelenburg, V.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Roberts, G.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Sigurdardottir, S; Kowalski, M. L.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Dubakiene, R.; Niggemann, B.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; van Ree, R.; Schnadt, S.; Mills, E. N. Clare; Keil, T.; Beyer, K.

    Background: The conduct of oral food challenges as the preferred diagnostic standard for food allergy (FA) was harmonized over the last years. However, documentation and interpretation of challenge results, particularly in research settings, are not sufficiently standardized to allow valid

  18. Cardiovascular Disease Burden: Evolving Knowledge of Risk Factors in Myocardial Infarction and Stroke through Population-Based Research and Perspectives in Global Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO B.F. OLIVEIRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge and research perspectives on the top ranking causes of mortality worldwide, i.e., ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases have developed rapidly. In fact, until recently, it was considered that only half of the myocardial infarctions were due to traditional risk factors such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking and diabetes. In addition, most of the available evidence of incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcomes, if not all of it, was derived from studies conducted in developed countries, which included lower proportion of female individuals and with low ethnic diversity. Recent reports by the WHO have provided striking public health information, i.e., the global burden of cardiovascular mortality for the next decades is expected to predominantly occur among developing countries. Therefore, multi-ethnic population-based research including prospective cohorts and, when appropriate, case-control studies, is warranted. These studies should be specifically designed to ascertain key public health measures such as geographic variations in noncommunicable diseases, diagnosis of traditional and potential newly discovered risk factors, causes of death and disability, and gaps for improvement in healthcare prevention (both primary and secondary and specific treatments. As an example, a multinational, multiethnic population-based cohort study is the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE study, which is the largest global initiative of 150,000 adults aged 35-70 yrs, looking at environmental, societal and biological influences on obesity and chronic health conditions such as ischemic heart disease, stroke and cancer among urban and rural communities in low-, middle-, and high-income countries, with national, community, household and individual-level data. Implementation of population-based strategies is crucial to optimizing limited health system resources while improving care and cardiovascular morbidity

  19. Creating a sampling frame for population-based veteran research: Representativeness and overlap of VA and Department of Defense databases

    OpenAIRE

    Donna L. Washington, MD, MPH; Su Sun, MPH; Mark Canning, BA

    2010-01-01

    Most veteran research is conducted in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare settings, although most veterans obtain healthcare outside the VA. Our objective was to determine the adequacy and relative contributions of Veterans Health Administration (VHA), Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), and Department of Defense (DOD) administrative databases for representing the U.S. veteran population, using as an example the creation of a sampling frame for the National Survey of Women Vete...

  20. Constructing a population-based research database from routine maternal screening records: a resource for studying alloimmunization in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although screening for maternal red blood cell antibodies during pregnancy is a standard procedure, the prevalence and clinical consequences of non-anti-D immunization are poorly understood. The objective was to create a national database of maternal antibody screening results that can be linked with population health registers to create a research resource for investigating these issues. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Each birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register was uniquely identified and linked to the text stored in routine maternal antibody screening records in the time window from 9 months prior to 2 weeks after the delivery date. These text records were subjected to a computerized search for specific antibodies using regular expressions. To illustrate the research potential of the resulting database, selected antibody prevalence rates are presented as tables and figures, and the complete data (from more than 60 specific antibodies presented as online moving graphical displays. RESULTS: More than one million (1,191,761 births with valid screening information from 1982-2002 constitute the study population. Computerized coverage of screening increased steadily over time and varied by region as electronic records were adopted. To ensure data quality, we restricted analysis to birth records in areas and years with a sustained coverage of at least 80%, representing 920,903 births from 572,626 mothers in 17 of the 24 counties in Sweden. During the study period, non-anti-D and anti-D antibodies occurred in 76.8/10,000 and 14.1/10,000 pregnancies respectively, with marked differences between specific antibodies over time. CONCLUSION: This work demonstrates the feasibility of creating a nationally representative research database from the routine maternal antibody screening records from an extended calendar period. By linkage with population registers of maternal and child health, such data are a valuable resource for addressing important

  1. Creating a sampling frame for population-based veteran research: representativeness and overlap of VA and Department of Defense databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Donna L; Sun, Su; Canning, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Most veteran research is conducted in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare settings, although most veterans obtain healthcare outside the VA. Our objective was to determine the adequacy and relative contributions of Veterans Health Administration (VHA), Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), and Department of Defense (DOD) administrative databases for representing the U.S. veteran population, using as an example the creation of a sampling frame for the National Survey of Women Veterans. In 2008, we merged the VHA, VBA, and DOD databases. We identified the number of unique records both overall and from each database. The combined databases yielded 925,946 unique records, representing 51% of the 1,802,000 U.S. women veteran population. The DOD database included 30% of the population (with 8% overlap with other databases). The VHA enrollment database contributed an additional 20% unique women veterans (with 6% overlap with VBA databases). VBA databases contributed an additional 2% unique women veterans (beyond 10% overlap with other databases). Use of VBA and DOD databases substantially expands access to the population of veterans beyond those in VHA databases, regardless of VA use. Adoption of these additional databases would enhance the value and generalizability of a wide range of studies of both male and female veterans.

  2. Understanding the Role of the Immune System in the Development of Cancer: New Opportunities for Population-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S; Houseman, E Andres; Marsit, Carmen J; Nelson, Heather H; Wiencke, John K; Kelsey, Karl T

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the precise role of the immune system in cancer has been hindered by the complexity of the immune response and challenges in measuring immune cell types in health and disease in the context of large epidemiologic studies. In this review, we present the rationale to study immunity in cancer and highlight newly available tools to further elucidate the epidemiologic factors driving individual variation in the immune response in cancer. Here, we summarize key studies that have evaluated the role of immunologic status on risk of cancer, discuss tools that have been used in epidemiologic studies to measure immune status, as well as new evolving methodologies where application to epidemiology is becoming more feasible. We also encourage further development of novel emerging technologies that will continue to enable prospective assessment of the dynamic and complex role played by the immune system in cancer susceptibility. Finally, we summarize characteristics and environmental factors that affect the immune response, as these will need to be considered in epidemiologic settings. Overall, we consider the application of a systems biologic approach and highlight new opportunities to understand the immune response in cancer risk. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. A comparison of stroke severity proxy measures for claims data research: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Solomon Chih-Cheng; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Li, Chung-Yi; Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Hu, Ya-Han

    2016-04-01

    Confounding by disease severity has been viewed as an intractable problem in claims-based studies. A novel 7-variable stroke severity index (SSI) was designed for estimating stroke severity by using claims data. This study compared the performance of mortality models with various proxy measures of stroke severity, including the SSI, in patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) were analyzed. Three proxy measures of stroke severity were evaluated: Measure 1, the SSI; Measure 2, intensive care unit admission and length of stay; and Measure 3, surgical operation, mechanical ventilation, hemiplegia or hemiparesis, and residual neurological deficits. We performed logistic regression by including age, sex, vascular risk factors, Charlson comorbidity index, and one of the proxy measures as covariates to predict 30-day and 1-year mortality after AIS. Model discrimination was evaluated using the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC). We identified 7551 adult patients with AIS. Models using the SSI (Measure 1) outperformed models using the other proxy measures in predicting 30-day mortality (AUC 0.892 vs 0.851, p < 0.001 for Measure 2; 0.892 vs 0.853, p < 0.001 for Measure 3) and 1-year mortality (AUC 0.816 vs 0.784, p < 0.001 for Measure 2; 0.816 vs 0.782, p < 0.001 for Measure 3). Using the SSI facilitated risk adjustment for stroke severity in mortality models for patients with AIS. The SSI is a viable methodological tool for stroke outcome studies using the NHIRD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Lansoprazole use and tuberculosis incidence in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink: A population based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Tom A; Tomlinson, Laurie A; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Langan, Sinead; Thomas, Sara; Smeeth, Liam; Douglas, Ian J

    2017-11-01

    Recent in vitro and animal studies have found the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole to be highly active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Omeprazole and pantoprazole have no activity. There is no evidence that, in clinical practice, lansoprazole can treat or prevent incident tuberculosis (TB) disease. We studied a cohort of new users of lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink to determine whether lansoprazole users have a lower incidence of TB disease than omeprazole or pantoprazole users. Negative control outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) and herpes zoster were also studied. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounding by a wide range of factors. We identified 527,364 lansoprazole initiators and 923,500 omeprazole or pantoprazole initiators. Lansoprazole users had a lower rate of TB disease (n = 86; 10.0 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 8.1-12.4) than omeprazole or pantoprazole users (n = 193; 15.3 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 13.3-17.7), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.68 (0.52-0.89). No association was found with MI (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.08) or herpes zoster (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.00-1.06). Limitations of this study are that we could not determine whether TB disease was due to reactivation of latent infection or a result of recent transmission, nor could we determine whether lansoprazole would have a beneficial effect if given to people presenting with TB disease. In this study, use of the commonly prescribed and cheaply available PPI lansoprazole was associated with reduced incidence of TB disease. Given the serious problem of drug resistance and the adverse side effect profiles of many TB drugs, further investigation of lansoprazole as a potential antituberculosis agent is warranted.

  5. Childhood disability population-based surveillance: Assessment of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire Third Edition and Washington Group on Disability Statistics/UNICEF module on child functioning in a rural setting in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Visser

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Since the WG/UNICEF module is quicker to administer, easier to understand and based on the ICF, it can be considered as an appropriate parent-reported measure for large-scale, population-based as well as smaller, community-specific contexts. It is, however, recommended that future research and development continues with the WG/UNICEF module to enhance its conceptual equivalence for larger-scale, population-based studies in South Africa and internationally.

  6. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  7. The Δ a research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitzen, H. M.; Paunzen, E.; Pöhnl, H.; Rode-Paunzen, M.; Netopil, M.; Stütz, Ch.; Baum, H.

    2004-12-01

    We summarize of more than 25 years of research with the three filter, intermediate-band, Δ a photometric system. It investigates the flux depression at λ 5200 found in magnetic chemically peculiar (CP) objects. Starting with photoelectric measurements it has steadily developed introducing new and more efficient filters as well as the modern CCD technique. So far more than twenty papers were devoted to searching for new CP stars in our Milky Way up to distances of 5000 pc and even in the Large Magellanic Cloud. In the latter, the first extragalactic CP stars were detected. In addition, we have presented theoretical isochrones and synthetic colors from the latest available stellar atmospheres. The theoretical predictions agree very well with observations allowing not only to determine the reddening and age of open clusters from our photometry but also to investigate the flux depression at λ 5200 in more detail. As an outlook, we present a new approach to search for chemically peculiar horizontal branch stars in globular clusters and to detect stellar variability of various objects observed during our photometric observations.

  8. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group's organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals

  9. Mixing modes in a population-based interview survey: comparison of a sequential and a concurrent mixed-mode design for public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauz, Elvira; von der Lippe, Elena; Allen, Jennifer; Schilling, Ralph; Müters, Stephan; Hoebel, Jens; Schmich, Patrick; Wetzstein, Matthias; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Lange, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    Population-based surveys currently face the problem of decreasing response rates. Mixed-mode designs are now being implemented more often to account for this, to improve sample composition and to reduce overall costs. This study examines whether a concurrent or sequential mixed-mode design achieves better results on a number of indicators of survey quality. Data were obtained from a population-based health interview survey of adults in Germany that was conducted as a methodological pilot study as part of the German Health Update (GEDA). Participants were randomly allocated to one of two surveys; each of the surveys had a different design. In the concurrent mixed-mode design ( n  = 617) two types of self-administered questionnaires (SAQ-Web and SAQ-Paper) and computer-assisted telephone interviewing were offered simultaneously to the respondents along with the invitation to participate. In the sequential mixed-mode design ( n  = 561), SAQ-Web was initially provided, followed by SAQ-Paper, with an option for a telephone interview being sent out together with the reminders at a later date. Finally, this study compared the response rates, sample composition, health indicators, item non-response, the scope of fieldwork and the costs of both designs. No systematic differences were identified between the two mixed-mode designs in terms of response rates, the socio-demographic characteristics of the achieved samples, or the prevalence rates of the health indicators under study. The sequential design gained a higher rate of online respondents. Very few telephone interviews were conducted for either design. With regard to data quality, the sequential design (which had more online respondents) showed less item non-response. There were minor differences between the designs in terms of their costs. Postage and printing costs were lower in the concurrent design, but labour costs were lower in the sequential design. No differences in health indicators were found between

  10. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  11. The descriptive epidemiology of delirium symptoms in a large population-based cohort study: results from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel H J; Barnes, Linda E; Stephan, Blossom C M; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Meagher, David; Copeland, John; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2014-07-28

    In the general population, the epidemiological relationships between delirium and adverse outcomes are not well defined. The aims of this study were to: (1) construct an algorithm for the diagnosis of delirium using the Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination; (2) test the criterion validity of this algorithm against mortality and dementia risk; (3) report the age-specific prevalence of delirium as determined by this algorithm. Participant and informant data in a randomly weighted subsample of the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study were taken from a standardized assessment battery. The algorithmic definition of delirium was based on the DSM-IV classification. Outcomes were: proportional hazard ratios for death; odds ratios of dementia at 2-year follow-up. Data from 2197 persons (representative of 13,004) were used, median age 77 years, 64% women. Study-defined delirium was associated with a new dementia diagnosis at two years (OR 8.82, 95% CI 2.76 to 28.2) and death (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.60), even after adjustment for acute illness severity. Similar associations were seen for study-defined subsyndromal delirium. Age-specific prevalence as determined by the algorithm increased with age from 1.8% in the 65-69 year age group to 10.1% in the ≥85 age group (p delirium, age-specific period prevalence ranged from 8.2% (65-69 years) to 36.1% (≥85 years). These results demonstrate the possibility of constructing an algorithmic diagnosis for study-defined delirium using data from the GMS schedule, with predictive criterion validity for mortality and dementia risk. These are the first population-based analyses able to account prospectively for both illness severity and an earlier study diagnosis of dementia.

  12. Energy Innovation. IVO Group`s Research and Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  13. Energy Innovation. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S.; Fletcher, R. [eds.

    1997-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  14. A new socioeconomic status measure for vaccine research in children using individual housing data: a population-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Hammer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently developed HOUSES, an individual housing-based socioeconomic status (SES measurement for health disparities research. We assessed whether HOUSES was associated with risk of pertussis and pertussis vaccine up-to-date status in children. Methods The study utilized a previous population-based case-control study cohort assembled during the 2004–2005 pertussis outbreak. We collected data on pertussis vaccine status (up-to-date status at the time of the index date. Using a z-score for housing value, actual square footage, and numbers of bedrooms and bathrooms, HOUSES was formulated in continuous variable and categorized into quartiles. Vaccine up-to-date status was compared among subjects with different SES as measured by HOUSES using a chi-square test and logistic regression models. Results Of the 391 eligible pediatric subjects (median age of 13.1 years with male sex of 55 %, 363 (93 % were successfully geocoded to formulate HOUSES index. HOUSES was not associated with the risk of pertussis (p = 0.82. Pertussis vaccine up-to-date statuses were 79, 86, 83, and 94 % for children in the first (the lowest SES, second, third, and fourth quartiles of HOUSES, respectively (p = 0.03. HOUSES as a continuous variable was associated with pertussis vaccine up-to-date status (adjusted OR: 1.15 per increment of one unit of HOUSES, 95 % CI: 1.04–1.27, p = 0.008. Conclusion While HOUSES is not associated with the risk of pertussis, it predicts vaccine up-to-date status among children with different SES. HOUSES may be a useful tool for vaccine delivery research among children.

  15. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  16. Increasing Incidence and Prevalence of World Health Organization Groups 1 to 4 Pulmonary Hypertension: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, D Thiwanka; Lajkosz, Katherine; Brogly, Susan B; Lougheed, M Diane; Jiang, Li; Housin, Ahmad; Barber, David; Johnson, Ana; Doliszny, Katharine M; Archer, Stephen L

    2018-02-01

    The World Health Organization recognizes 5 groups of pulmonary hypertension (PH), categorized by pathogenesis or comorbidity: 1-pulmonary arterial hypertension 2-left-heart disease, 3-lung disease and hypoxia 4-chronic thromboembolic disease, and 5-miscellaneous. The epidemiology of PH, apart from group 1, is largely unknown. We describe incidence, prevalence, comorbidities, mortality and prescribing patterns for groups 1 to 4 PH from 1993 to 2012. Case definitions are based on hospitalizations and emergency department visits, using the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences data, which comprises linked databases of universal coverage health service records for Ontario residents. This cohort included 50 529 patients with PH. The annual incidence of adult PH increased from 2003 to 2012 from 24.1 to 28.7 cases/100 000 population and the annual prevalence from 1993 to 2012 from 99.8 to 127.3 cases/100 000 population, respectively. The most common form of adult PH was group 2, alone (34.2%) or combined with group 3 PH (29.3%). A diagnosis of PH increased the 1-year standardized mortality ratio 7.2-fold. Mortality in adults with PH was 13.0%, 36.4%, and 62.4%, at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years, respectively. Mortality was highest in groups 2 and 3 and lowest in group 1. PH was present in only 3.6% of people with left heart disease, 0.7% with lung disease, and 1.4% with thromboembolic disease, suggesting that PH is a relatively rare complication of these common diseases. Children (age<16 years) accounted for 3.6% of the cohort. In children group 1 PH was most common (65.2%), and 5-year mortality was lower (21.4%) than in adults. Group 1-specific PH therapies were increasingly prescribed over time and paradoxically were often used in patients who seemed to have group 2, PH based on diagnostic codes indicating left heart disease. The incidence and prevalence of adult PH are increasing. Groups 2 and 3 are the most common and lethal forms of PH. This study identifies an

  17. Diabetes education through group classes leads to better care and outcomes than individual counselling in adults: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwee, Jeremiah; Cauch-Dudek, Karen; Victor, J Charles; Ng, Ryan; Shah, Baiju R

    2014-05-09

    Self-management education, supported by multidisciplinary health care teams, is essential for optimal diabetes management. We sought to determine whether acute diabetes complications or quality of care differed for patients in routine clinical care when their self-management education was delivered through group diabetes education classes versus individual counselling. With the use of population-level administrative and primary data, all diabetic patients in Ontario who attended a self-management education program in 2006 were identified and grouped according to whether they attended group classes (n=12,234), individual counselling (n=55,761) or a mixture of both (n=9,829). Acute complications and quality of care in the following year were compared among groups. Compared with those attending individual counselling, patients who attended group classes were less likely to have emergency department visits for hypo/hyperglycemia (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.68), hypo/hyperglycemia hospitalizations (OR 0.49, CI: 0.32-0.75) or foot ulcers/cellulitis (OR 0.64, CI: 0.50-0.81). They were more likely to have adequate HbA1c testing (OR 1.10, CI: 1.05-1.15) and lipid testing (OR 1.25, CI: 1.19-1.32), and were more likely to receive statins (OR 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.39). Group self-management education was associated with fewer acute complications and some improvements in processes of care. Group sessions can offer care to more patients with reduced human resource requirements. With increased pressure to find efficiencies in health care delivery, group diabetes education may provide an opportunity to deliver less resource-intensive care that simultaneously improves patient care.

  18. Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  19. Mental health and satisfaction with life among upper limb amputees: a Norwegian population-based survey comparing adult acquired major upper limb amputees with a control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østlie, Kristin; Magnus, Per; Skjeldal, Ola H; Garfelt, Beate; Tambs, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    To assess how upper limb amputation affects mental health and life satisfaction. Cross-sectional study comparing the mental health and perceived satisfaction with life among adult acquired major upper limb amputees in Norway with a control group drawn from the Norwegian general population. The scales used were the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Hopkins Symptom Check List 25-item (SCL-25). The groups were compared using multiple linear regression analyses. The amputees scored significantly lower on life satisfaction than the control group. A tendency to poorer mental health in the amputee group was observed, but there was no clear evidence of such a difference. The amputation effect on life satisfaction seemed to be mediated mainly by changes in occupational status and by the occurrence of short- or long-term complications related to the amputation. Our findings imply that rehabilitation of upper limb amputees should emphasise facilitating return to work as well as the prevention of short- and long-term complications, and that this will be of importance not only for the amputees' physical function, but for the maintenance of acceptable life satisfaction. Further studies on the effect of upper limb amputation on mental health are recommended.

  20. Role of age, sex, and obesity in the higher prevalence of arthritis among lower socioeconomic groups: a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busija, Lucy; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H

    2007-05-15

    To compare the prevalence of arthritis among population groups based on demographic, socioeconomic, and body mass index (BMI) characteristics; to investigate the combined influence of these factors on arthritis; and to assess the relationship between self-reported health and psychological distress and arthritis. Data from the Victorian Population Health Survey (n = 7,500) were used in the study. Psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress scale, and self-reported health was assessed by a single item. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the combined influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors and BMI on arthritis. Overall, 23% of Victorian adults (20% men and 26% women) reported having arthritis. The presence of arthritis was associated with high psychological distress (odds ratio [OR] 1.2; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.1-1.4) and poor self-reported health (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.7-2.1). Increased prevalence of arthritis was found in older age groups, lower education and income groups, and in people who were overweight or obese. Women had higher risk of arthritis, even after adjustment for age, residence, education, occupation, income, and BMI. Age and BMI independently predicted arthritis for men and women. For men, higher risk of arthritis was also associated with lower income. Arthritis is a highly prevalent condition associated with poor health and high psychological distress. Prevalence of arthritis is disproportionately high among women and individuals from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. As the prevalence of arthritis is predicted to increase, careful consideration of causal factors, and setting priorities for resource allocation for the treatment and prevention of arthritis are required.

  1. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current enotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Peñuelas-Urquides

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB isolates (120 were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R, spacer oligotyping (S and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%, SM (12.5%, SR (1.67%, MR (0%, S (46.67%, M (5% and R (0%. The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05 with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus. S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB.

  2. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current genotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo Raymundo; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Torres-de-la-Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Yazmin Berenice; Ortega-García, Jorge Luis; Garza-Treviño, Elsa Nancy; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2014-09-01

    The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates (120) were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R), spacer oligotyping (S) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M) methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB) chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%), SM (12.5%), SR (1.67%), MR (0%), S (46.67%), M (5%) and R (0%). The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus). S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB.

  3. Correlations between major risk factors and closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates grouped by three current enotyping procedures: a population-based study in northeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuelas-Urquides, Katia; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Enciso-Moreno, José Antonio; Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Silva-Ramírez, Beatriz; Padilla-Rivas, Gerardo Raymundo; Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Torres-de-la-Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Martínez, Yazmin Berenice; Ortega-García, Jorge Luis; Garza-Treviño, Elsa Nancy; Enciso-Moreno, Leonor; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Becerril-Montes, Pola; Said-Fernández/, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    The characteristics of tuberculosis (TB) patients related to a chain of recent TB transmissions were investigated. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates (120) were genotyped using the restriction fragment length polymorphism-IS6110 (R), spacer oligotyping (S) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (M) methods. The MTB isolates were clustered and the clusters were grouped according to the similarities of their genotypes. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients between the groups of MTB isolates with similar genotypes and those patient characteristics indicating a risk for a pulmonary TB (PTB) chain transmission were ana- lysed. The isolates showing similar genotypes were distributed as follows: SMR (5%), SM (12.5%), SR (1.67%), MR (0%), S (46.67%), M (5%) and R (0%). The remaining 35 cases were orphans. SMR exhibited a significant correlation (p < 0.05) with visits to clinics, municipalities and comorbidities (primarily diabetes mellitus). S correlated with drug consumption and M with comorbidities. SMR is needed to identify a social network in metropolitan areas for PTB transmission and S and M are able to detect risk factors as secondary components of a transmission chain of TB. PMID:25317710

  4. Myeloid malignancies in the real-world: Occurrence, progression and survival in the UK's population-based Haematological Malignancy Research Network 2004-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Eve; Smith, Alex; Appleton, Simon; Crouch, Simon; Kelly, Richard; Kinsey, Sally; Cargo, Catherine; Patmore, Russell

    2016-06-01

    Population-based information on cancer incidence, prevalence and outcome are required to inform clinical practice and research; but contemporary data are lacking for many myeloid malignancy subtypes. Set within a socio-demographically representative UK population of ∼4 million, myeloid malignancy data (N=5231 diagnoses) are from an established patient cohort. Information on incidence, survival (relative & overall), transformation/progression, and prevalence is presented for >20 subtypes. The median diagnostic age was 72.4years (InterQuartile Range 61.6-80.2), but there was considerable subtype heterogeneity, particularly among the acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) where medians ranged from 20.3 (IQR 13.9-43.8) for AML 11q23 through to 73.7 (IQR 57.3-79.1) for AML with no recurrent genetic changes. Five-year Relative Survival (RS) estimates varied hugely; from 85% for indolent/treatable conditions like chronic myeloid leukaemia (89.8%, 95% CI 84.0-93.6). With a couple of notable exceptions, males experienced higher rates and worse survival than females: the age-standardized incidence rates of several conditions was 2-4 higher in males than females, and the 5-year RS for all subtypes combined was 48.8% (95% CI 46.5-51.2) and 60.4% (95% CI 57.7-62.9) for males and females respectively. During follow-up (potential minimum 2 years and maximum 11years) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) progression to AML ranged from 25% for refractory anaemia with excess blasts through to 5% for refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts: the median interval between MDS and AML diagnosis was 9.0 months (IQR 4.8-17.4months). The marked incidence and outcome variations seen by subtype, sex and age, confirm the requirement for "real-world" longitudinal data to inform aetiological hypotheses, healthcare planning, and future monitoring of therapeutic change. Several challenges for routine cancer registration were identified, including the need to link more effectively to diagnostic and clinical

  5. Incidence, therapy and prognosis of colorectal cancer in different age groups. A population-based cohort study of the Rostock Cancer Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietkau, R.; Zettl, H.; Kloecking, S.; Kundt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Determination of frequency, treatment modalities used and prognoses of colorectal cancer in a population-specific analysis in relation to age. Material and methods: In 1999 and 2000, 644/6,016 patients were documented as having colorectal carcinomas in the Cancer Registry of Rostock. 39 patients were excluded (16 cases: 'in situ' carcinomas; 23 cases: insufficient data). Three age groups were formed: <60 years, 60-74 years; ≥75 years. Results: The relative percentage of colorectal cancer increases with advanced age (<60 years 7%; 60-74 years 12%, ≥75 years 15%; p<0.001). In older patients with stage III carcinomas, adjuvant treatment was done less frequently in accordance with the treatment recommendations (<60 years 83-89%; 60-74 years 67-77%; ≥75 years 29-36% according to stage and tumor localization); in stage IV, the use of chemotherapy was reduced (<60 years 87.5-100%; 60-74 years 38-47%; ≥75 years 33-37%). In the univariate analysis, age ≥75 years (4-year survival rates: <60 years 68±4.1%; 60-74 years 58±2.8%; ≥75 years 38±3.7%), UICC stage and surgical treatment had a significant effect on prognosis. Adjuvant treatment had no significant effect on the whole population but on patients with UICC stage III and IV. In the multivariate analysis, however, the only independent prognostic parameters were age ≥75 years (p=0.001), performance of chemotherapy (colon cancer) or radiochemotherapy (rectal cancer; p=0.004-0.001), and tumor stage (p=0.045-0.001). Sex (p=0.063) and age between 60 and 74 years (p=0.067) had a borderline influence. Conclusion: With increasing age, there is a departure in daily practice from the treatment recommendations. The patient's prognosis is dependent upon age (especially ≥75 years), tumor stage, and therapy. (orig.)

  6. Incidence, therapy and prognosis of colorectal cancer in different age groups. A population-based cohort study of the Rostock Cancer Registry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietkau, R.; Zettl, H.; Kloecking, S. [University of Rostock (Germany). Department of Radiotherapy; Kundt, G. [University of Rostock (Germany). Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometry

    2004-08-01

    Purpose: Determination of frequency, treatment modalities used and prognoses of colorectal cancer in a population-specific analysis in relation to age. Material and methods: In 1999 and 2000, 644/6,016 patients were documented as having colorectal carcinomas in the Cancer Registry of Rostock. 39 patients were excluded (16 cases: 'in situ' carcinomas; 23 cases: insufficient data). Three age groups were formed: <60 years, 60-74 years; {>=}75 years. Results: The relative percentage of colorectal cancer increases with advanced age (<60 years 7%; 60-74 years 12%, {>=}75 years 15%; p<0.001). In older patients with stage III carcinomas, adjuvant treatment was done less frequently in accordance with the treatment recommendations (<60 years 83-89%; 60-74 years 67-77%; {>=}75 years 29-36% according to stage and tumor localization); in stage IV, the use of chemotherapy was reduced (<60 years 87.5-100%; 60-74 years 38-47%; {>=}75 years 33-37%). In the univariate analysis, age {>=}75 years (4-year survival rates: <60 years 68{+-}4.1%; 60-74 years 58{+-}2.8%; {>=}75 years 38{+-}3.7%), UICC stage and surgical treatment had a significant effect on prognosis. Adjuvant treatment had no significant effect on the whole population but on patients with UICC stage III and IV. In the multivariate analysis, however, the only independent prognostic parameters were age {>=}75 years (p=0.001), performance of chemotherapy (colon cancer) or radiochemotherapy (rectal cancer; p=0.004-0.001), and tumor stage (p=0.045-0.001). Sex (p=0.063) and age between 60 and 74 years (p=0.067) had a borderline influence. Conclusion: With increasing age, there is a departure in daily practice from the treatment recommendations. The patient's prognosis is dependent upon age (especially {>=}75 years), tumor stage, and therapy. (orig.)

  7. Journal Club: a group of research experience

    OpenAIRE

    Draganov, Patricia Bover; Silva, Maria Regina Guimarães; Neves, Vanessa Ribeiro; Sanna, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the Journal Club (JC) is a teaching and learning strategy developed by individuals who meet to discuss scientific articles in periodicals. Objective: to describe the experience of the JC strategy at the Group for Studies and Research in Health Services Administration and Nursing Management (Gepag). Method: case studies or scientific research demonstration mode of practical experience for the understanding and justification of facts. Results: Gepag JC emerged in 2008...

  8. Research group librarian – a cooperating partner in research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Kristin Olsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries encounter many challenges when providing services for researchers and it is evident that use of the library in information searches has reduced significantly over time and continues to decrease.However, a study in Norway in 2007, at Vestfold University College (VUC, demonstrated that there is great potential to increase faculty staff’s use of the library’s digital resources with the right form of engagement. The findings led VUC’s library to focus on its services for this particular user group.In 2009, VUC library initiated a study to investigate the possible effects of a librarian participating as a ‘Research Group Librarian’.The research project, in which this new role was tried out, was called ‘Kindergarten space, materiality, learning and meaning-making’. This was a three year project, funded by the Research Council of Norway. There were eight part time researchers involved in this project, two senior researchers and the research group librarian.The study adopted an ethnographic approach. The research group librarian was a fully participating member of the research team throughout the project.The empirical sources for the study included:semi-structured interviews with the project leader and the participating researchers: short individual interviews at the beginning of the project with each of the research group participants; several group interviews with the majority of the research team midway in the project;observation and field notesThe results are presented under the following categories:implications for the researcher; emphasising behaviour in relation to information search and reference management skills;communication and information within, and evolving from, the project;collaboration in writing a review article;implications for the library – internal, and at VUC in general;the librarian’s role – a ‘boundary worker’?The study demonstrated that as a member of a research group a librarian can

  9. Virtual Focus Groups: New Frontiers in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Turney

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies in the form of learning management systems provide unique and inventive opportunities for qualitative researchers. Their intrinsic ability to record discursive data in text format accurately and to provide safe, secure, and anonymous environments for participants makes them amenable for use as advanced research tools. In this article, the authors report on a collaborative project that tested the potential of online discussion boards for use in virtual focus groups. What the researchers found was that not only was the method theoretically sound, it actually enhanced their ability to connect with difficult-to-access populations that were disparately spread.

  10. Journal Club: a group of research experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bover Draganov

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: the Journal Club (JC is a teaching and learning strategy developed by individuals who meet to discuss scientific articles in periodicals. Objective: to describe the experience of the JC strategy at the Group for Studies and Research in Health Services Administration and Nursing Management (Gepag. Method: case studies or scientific research demonstration mode of practical experience for the understanding and justification of facts. Results: Gepag JC emerged in 2008 and, in 2014, was computerized with the Google Drive®, in order to increase its scope and optimize the Group›s meetings. From April to May 2014, the instrument was tested and adjusted, resulting in advancements. Final considerations: the advantages involved optimizing the time of meetings, facilitation of access to publications of interest to the Group and creating the database to support future research.

  11. Journal Club: a group of research experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganov, Patricia Bover; Silva, Maria Regina Guimarães; Neves, Vanessa Ribeiro; Sanna, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    the Journal Club (JC) is a teaching and learning strategy developed by individuals who meet to discuss scientific articles in periodicals. to describe the experience of the JC strategy at the Group for Studies and Research in Health Services Administration and Nursing Management (Gepag). case studies or scientific research demonstration mode of practical experience for the understanding and justification of facts. Gepag JC emerged in 2008 and, in 2014, was computerized with the Google Drive®, in order to increase its scope and optimize the Group›s meetings. From April to May 2014, the instrument was tested and adjusted, resulting in advancements. the advantages involved optimizing the time of meetings, facilitation of access to publications of interest to the Group and creating the database to support future research.

  12. Research program of the Neutrino Research Group. Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the last two decades, neutrino physics has been producing major discoveries including neutrino oscillations. These results gave clear confirmation that active neutrinos oscillate and therefore have mass with three different mass states. This is a very important result showing that the Minimal Standard Model is incomplete and requires an extension which is not yet known. The neutrino research field is very broad and active, at the frontier of today's particle physics. The creation of a Neutrino Research Group (GDR) was proposed in 2004 with the aim of gathering CEA and CNRS research teams working on Neutrino Physics on experimental or theoretical level. This document presents the Research program of the Neutrino Research Group which is divided into 5 working groups with the following activities: 1 - Determination of neutrino parameters; 2 - Physics beyond the standard model; 3 - Neutrinos in the universe; 4 - Accelerators, detection means, R and D and valorisation; 5 - Common tools to all working groups. The research group participating laboratories and teams are listed at the end of the document

  13. Research groups: How big should they be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Isabelle; Grange, Sam; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between scientific productivity and research group size is important for deciding how science should be funded. We have investigated the relationship between these variables in the life sciences in the United Kingdom using data from 398 principle investigators (PIs). We show that three measures of productivity, the number of publications, the impact factor of the journals in which papers are published and the number of citations, are all positively correlated to group size, although they all show a pattern of diminishing returns-doubling group size leads to less than a doubling in productivity. The relationships for the impact factor and the number of citations are extremely weak. Our analyses suggest that an increase in productivity will be achieved by funding more PIs with small research groups, unless the cost of employing post-docs and PhD students is less than 20% the cost of a PI. We also provide evidence that post-docs are more productive than PhD students both in terms of the number of papers they produce and where those papers are published.

  14. Research groups: How big should they be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Cook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between scientific productivity and research group size is important for deciding how science should be funded. We have investigated the relationship between these variables in the life sciences in the United Kingdom using data from 398 principle investigators (PIs. We show that three measures of productivity, the number of publications, the impact factor of the journals in which papers are published and the number of citations, are all positively correlated to group size, although they all show a pattern of diminishing returns—doubling group size leads to less than a doubling in productivity. The relationships for the impact factor and the number of citations are extremely weak. Our analyses suggest that an increase in productivity will be achieved by funding more PIs with small research groups, unless the cost of employing post-docs and PhD students is less than 20% the cost of a PI. We also provide evidence that post-docs are more productive than PhD students both in terms of the number of papers they produce and where those papers are published.

  15. How to conduct focus groups: researching group priorities through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Focus groups serve to uncover priorities and beliefs of a target group, but health project designers do not always take the time to seek this information beforehand. Focus groups also allow various local subgroups to communicate their concerns before the project starts. Focus groups can also breed ideas and dialogue that individual interviews cannot and they provide baseline information so managers can determine if attitudes or priorities have resulted from the project. Diverse people have different beliefs, e.g., women who have young children view oral rehydration therapy differently from women with no children. Project designers can use these basic differences to arrive at some conclusions about general attitudes. Focus group facilitators should have a discussion outline to help keep the group on the topic of concern. They should limit sessions to 60-90 minutes. Each focus groups should include 8-10 people. It is important to have members of various community subgroups in each group. Yet group designers should be careful not to include within the same group, those who may intimidate other people in the group, e.g., in situations where farmers depend on middlemen, farmers may not be open if middlemen are also in the focus group. Facilitators should launch each session with an attempt to encourage the members to be open and to feel comfortable. For example, in Malawi, a facilitator leads her focus group discussions with songs. Stories are another icebreaker. It is important that all focus groups centering around a certain project discuss the same topics. Facilitators need to stress to the group that all discussions are to be kept confidential. The designers should also carefully word the questions so that facilitators will not impart their bias. Facilitators should not direct the group to certain conclusions, but instead keep the discussions focused.

  16. Bubble Chamber Research Group Microcomputer Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.; Barlow, J.; Mace, P.R.; Seller, P.; Waters, M.; Watson, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    A distributed data acquisition system has been developed by the Bubble Chamber Research Group at the Rutherford Appleton laboratory for use with their film measuring machines. The system is based upon a set of microcomputers linked together with a VAX 11/780 computer, in a local area computer network. This network is of the star type and uses a packet switching technique. Each film measuring machine is equipped with a microcomputer which controls the function of the table, buffers data and enhances the interface between operators and machines. This paper provides a detailed description of each microcomputer and can be used as a reference manual for these computers. (author)

  17. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1 - 2) and sexual risk groups (S3 - 4). S1 - Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2 - Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3 - Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4 - STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and

  18. ETSON strategic orientations on research activities. ETSON research group activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorseelaere, J.P.; Barrachin, M. [IRSN, Saint Paul les Durance (France). Centre de Cadarache; Millington, D. [Wood RSD, Warrington (United Kingdom); and others

    2018-01-15

    In 2011, ETSON published the ''Position Paper of the Technical Safety Organizations: Research Needs in Nuclear Safety for Gen 2 and Gen 3 NPPs''. This paper, published only a few months after the Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents, presented the priorities for R and D on the main pending safety issues. It was produced by the ETSON Research Group (ERG) that has the mandate of identifying and prioritizing safety research needs, sharing information on research projects in which ETSON members are involved, defining and launching new research projects and disseminating knowledge among ETSON members. Six years after this publication, many R and D international projects finished in diverse frames, and other ones have started. In particular a lot of work was done (and is going on..) on the analysis of the Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents. Meanwhile a roadmap on research on Gen. 2 and 3 nuclear power plants (NPP), including safety aspects, was produced by the NUGENIA association, followed by a more detailed document as ''NUGENIA global vision''. It was also demonstrated that the ETSON R and D priorities were consistent with the implementation of the 2014 Euratom Directive on safety of nuclear installations.

  19. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  20. Distribution of maternal age and birth order groups in cases with unclassified multiple congenital abnormalities according to the number of component abnormalities: a national population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csermely, Gyula; Czeizel, Andrew E; Veszprémi, Béla

    2015-02-01

    Multiple congenital abnormalities are caused by chromosomal aberrations, mutant major genes and teratogens. A minor proportion of these patients are identified as syndromes but the major part belonging to the group of unclassified multiple CAs (UMCAs). The main objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal age and birth order in pregnant women who had offspring affected with UMCA. The strong association between numerical chromosomal aberrations, e.g., Down syndrome and advanced maternal age is well-known and tested here. The Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980 to 1996, yielded a large population-based national data set with 22,843 malformed newborns or fetuses ("informative cases") included 1349 UMCA cases with their 2407 matched controls. Case-control comparison of maternal age and birth order was made for cases with UMCA, stratified by component numbers and their controls. In addition, 834 cases with Down syndrome were compared to 1432 matched controls. The well-known advanced maternal age with the higher risk for Down syndrome was confirmed. The findings of the study suggest that the young age of mothers associates with the higher risk of UMCA, in addition birth order 4 or more associates with the higher risk for UMCA with 2 and 3 component CAs. This study was the first to analyze the possible maternal and birth order effect for cases with UMCA, and the young age and higher birth order associated with a higher risk for UMCA. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  2. Growing researchers from the historically disadvantaged groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an overview of the nature and quality of research supervision and mentorship practices employed by supervisors and mentors of interns in a South African research council in an attempt to increase the pool and change the face of researchers in the country. Through a series of studies conducted by the ...

  3. QTL mapping for combining ability in different population-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-13

    Dec 13, 2013 ... ability and for geneticists to research the genetic basis of combining ability. [Li L., Sun C., ... population-based NCII designs by a simulation study. J. Genet. ... combining ability could also be applied to other population- based NCII ... was to estimate how different base populations, sample sizes, heritability ...

  4. The balance sheet of benefits and harms of breast cancer population-based screening in Europe: outcome research, practice and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mireille; Paci, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer screening programs are still object of harsh debate. In 2012, the Independent UK Panel reviewed the benefits and harms of mammography screening based on randomized trials and the EUROSCREEN Working Group reviewed European observational outcome studies. The conclusion was that screening programs should continue, while acknowledging that harms, such as the occurrence of false-positive results and overdiagnosis, can have a negative impact on a woman's life. Information on the balance sheet of the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening should help women and their physicians to make an informed choice. The future challenge for breast screening programs is to assess the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and impact of risk-based screening in order to maximize benefit-to-harm ratios.

  5. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  6. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  7. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  8. Trajectories of disposable income among people of working ages diagnosed with multiple sclerosis: a nationwide register-based cohort study in Sweden 7 years before to 4 years after diagnosis with a population-based reference group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murley, Chantelle; Mogard, Olof; Wiberg, Michael; Alexanderson, Kristina; Karampampa, Korinna; Friberg, Emilie; Tinghög, Petter

    2018-05-09

    To describe how disposable income (DI) and three main components changed, and analyse whether DI development differed from working-aged people with multiple sclerosis (MS) to a reference group from 7 years before to 4 years after diagnosis in Sweden. Population-based cohort study, 12-year follow-up (7 years before to 4 years after diagnosis). Swedish working-age population with microdata linked from two nationwide registers. Residents diagnosed with MS in 2009 aged 25-59 years (n=785), and references without MS (n=7847) randomly selected with stratified matching (sex, age, education and country of birth). DI was defined as the annual after tax sum of incomes (earnings and benefits) to measure individual economic welfare. Three main components of DI were analysed as annual sums: earnings, sickness absence benefits and disability pension benefits. We found no differences in mean annual DI between people with and without MS by independent t-tests (p values between 0.15 and 0.96). Differences were found for all studied components of DI from diagnosis year by independent t-tests, for example, in the final study year (2013): earnings (-64 867 Swedish Krona (SEK); 95% CI-79 203 to -50 528); sickness absence benefits (13 330 SEK; 95% CI 10 042 to 16 500); and disability pension benefits (21 360 SEK; 95% CI 17 380 to 25 350). A generalised estimating equation evaluated DI trajectory development between people with and without MS to find both trajectories developed in parallel, both before (-4039 SEK; 95% CI -10 536 to 2458) and after (-781 SEK; 95% CI -6988 to 5360) diagnosis. The key finding of parallel DI trajectory development between working-aged MS and references suggests minimal economic impact within the first 4 years of diagnosis. The Swedish welfare system was responsive to the observed reductions in earnings around MS diagnosis through balancing DI with morbidity-related benefits. Future decreases in economic welfare may be experienced as the

  9. The relationship between intimate partner violence reported at the first antenatal booking visit and obstetric and perinatal outcomes in an ethnically diverse group of Australian pregnant women: a population-based study over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Hannah Grace; Munoz, Ana Maria; Schmied, Virginia; Thornton, Charlene

    2018-04-25

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global health issue affecting mainly women and is known to escalate during pregnancy and impact negatively on obstetric and perinatal outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of IPV in a pregnant multicultural population and to determine the relationship between IPV reported at booking interview and maternal and perinatal outcomes. This is a retrospective population-based data study. We analysed routinely collected data (2006-2016) from the ObstetriX system on a cohort of pregnant women. 33 542 women giving birth in a major health facility in Western Sydney. Incidence of IPV, association with IPV and other psychosocial variables and maternal and perinatal outcomes. 4.3% of pregnant women reported a history of IPV when asked during the routine psychosocial assessment. Fifty-four per cent were not born in Australia, and this had increased significantly over the decade. Women born in New Zealand (7.2%) and Sudan (9.1%) were most likely to report IPV at the antenatal booking visit, with women from China and India least likely to report IPV. Women who reported IPV were more likely to report additional psychosocial concerns including Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores > 13 (7.6%), thoughts of self-harm (2.4%), childhood abuse (23.6%), and a history of anxiety and depression (34.2%). Women who reported IPV were more likely to be Australian born, smoke and be multiparous and to have been admitted for threatened preterm labour (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 1.8, 95% CI 1.28 to 2.39). A report of IPV at the first antenatal booking visit is associated with a higher level of reporting on all psychosocial risks, higher antenatal admissions, especially for threatened preterm labour. More research is needed regarding the effectiveness of current IPV screening for women from other countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No

  10. Hydrodynamic model research in Waseda group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Shin

    2010-01-01

    Constructing 'High Energy Material Science' had been proposed by Namiki as the guiding principle for the scientists of the high energy physics group lead by himself in Waseda University when the author started to study multiple particle production in 1980s toward the semi-phenomenological model for the quark gluon plasma (QGP). Their strategy was based on three stages to build an intermediate one between the fundamental theory of QCD and the phenomenological model. The quantum theoretical Langevin equation was taken up as the semi-phenomenological model at the intermediate stage and the Landau hydrodynamic model was chosen as the phenomenological model to focus on the 'phase transition' of QGP. A review is given here over the quantum theoretical Langevin equation formalism developed there and followed by the further progress with the 1+1 dimensional viscous fluid model as well as the hydrodynamic model with cylindrical symmetry. The developments of the baryon fluid model and Hanbury-Brown Twiss effect are also reviewed. After 1995 younger generation physicists came to the group to develop those models further. Activities by Hirano, Nonaka and Morita beyond the past generation's hydrodynamic model are picked up briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  11. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  12. Metabolomics in Population-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolomics is the study of small molecules of both endogenous and exogenous origin, such as metabolic substrates and their products, lipids, small peptides, vitamins and other protein cofactors generated by metabolism, which are downstream from genes.

  13. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  14. Practices for caring in nursing: Brazilian research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, A L; de Andrade, S R; de Mello, A L Ferreira; Klock, P; do Nascimento, K C; Koerich, M Santos; Backes, D Stein

    2011-09-01

    The present study considers the production of knowledge and the interactions in the environment of research and their relationships in the system of caring in nursing and health. To elaborate a theoretical model of the organization of the practices used for caring, based on the experiences made by the research groups of administration and management in nursing, in Brazil. The study is based on grounded theory. Twelve leaders of research groups, working as professors in public universities in the south and the south-east of Brazil, distributed in sample groups, were interviewed. The core phenomenon 'research groups of administration and management in nursing: arrangements and interactions in the system of caring in nursing' was derived from the categories: conceptual bases and contexts of the research groups; experiencing interactions in the research groups; functionality of the research groups; and outputs of the research groups. The research groups are integrated in the system of caring in nursing. The activities of the Brazilian administration and management in nursing research groups are process oriented and in a process of constant renovation, socially relevant, operate in a complex scenario and contribute to the advancement of the organizations of the system of caring in nursing through strengthening the connection among academia, service and community. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  15. Research collaboration in groups and networks: differences across academic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein; Reymert, Ingvild

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a macro-picture of collaboration in research groups and networks across all academic fields in Norwegian research universities, and to examine the relative importance of membership in groups and networks for individual publication output. To our knowledge, this is a new approach, which may provide valuable information on collaborative patterns in a particular national system, but of clear relevance to other national university systems. At the system level, conducting research in groups and networks are equally important, but there are large differences between academic fields. The research group is clearly most important in the field of medicine and health, while undertaking research in an international network is most important in the natural sciences. Membership in a research group and active participation in international networks are likely to enhance publication productivity and the quality of research.

  16. GRIP LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT (LARGE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  17. Research Award: Policy and Planning Group (PPG) Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... mentorship in research, research management, and grant administration allows research awardees to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. The Policy and Planning Group (PPG) is responsible for ...

  18. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  19. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  20. Focus Group in Community Mental Health Research: Need for Adaption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Vesna; Pahor, Majda; Kogovšek, Tina

    2018-04-27

    The article presents an analysis of the use of focus groups in researching community mental health users, starting with the reasons for using them, their implementation in mental health service users' research, and the adaptations of focus group use when researching the experiences of users. Based on personal research experience and a review of scientific publications in the Google Scholar, Web of Science, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Scopus databases, 20 articles published between 2010 and 2016 were selected for targeted content analysis. A checklist for reporting on the use of focus groups with community mental health service users, aiming to improve the comparability, verifiability and validity was developed. Adaptations of the implementation of focus groups in relation to participants' characteristics were suggested. Focus groups are not only useful as a scientific research technique, but also for ensuring service users' participation in decision-making in community mental health and evaluating the quality of the mental health system and services .

  1. Research Groups & Research Subjects - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rch Groups & Research Subjects Data detail Data name Research Groups & Research Sub... Number of data entries 174 entries Data item Description Research ID Research ID (Subject number) Institute...tion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Research Groups & Research Subjects - RED | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RED Resea... Organization Section Section (Department) User name User name Experimental title Experimental title (Rese

  2. Population-based screening versus case detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Ravi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available India has a large burden of blindness and population-based screening is a strategy commonly employed to detect disease and prevent morbidity. However, not all diseases are amenable to screening. This communication examines the issue of "population-based screening" versus "case detection" in the Indian scenario. Using the example of glaucoma, it demonstrates that given the poor infrastructure, for a "rare" disease, case detection is more effective than population-based screening.

  3. Population-based study of survival for women with serous cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, peritoneum or undesignated origin - on behalf of the Swedish gynecological cancer group (SweGCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm-Kähler, Pernilla; Borgfeldt, Christer; Holmberg, Erik; Staf, Christian; Falconer, Henrik; Bjurberg, Maria; Kjölhede, Preben; Rosenberg, Per; Stålberg, Karin; Högberg, Thomas; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine survival outcome in patients with serous cancer in the ovary, fallopian tube, peritoneum and of undesignated origin. Nation-wide population-based study of women≥18years with histologically verified non-uterine serous cancer, included in the Swedish Quality Registry for primary cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube and peritoneum diagnosed 2009-2013. Relative survival (RS) was estimated using the Ederer II method. Simple and multivariable analyses were estimated by Poisson regression models. Of 5627 women identified, 1246 (22%) had borderline tumors and 4381 had malignant tumors. In total, 2359 women had serous cancer; 71% originated in the ovary (OC), 9% in the fallopian tube (FTC), 9% in the peritoneum (PPC) and 11% at an undesignated primary site (UPS). Estimated RS at 5-years was 37%; for FTC 54%, 40% for OC, 34% for PPC and 13% for UPS. In multivariable regression analyses restricted to women who had undergone primary or interval debulking surgery for OC, FTC and PPC, site of origin was not independently associated with survival. Significant associations with worse survival were found for advanced stages (RR 2.63, Pcancer at UPS than for ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancer. Serous cancer at UPS needs to be addressed when reporting and comparing survival rates of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  5. Activity report of the Neutrino Research Group. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    For the last two decades, neutrino physics has been producing major discoveries including neutrino oscillations. These results gave clear confirmation that active neutrinos oscillate and therefore have mass with three different mass states. This is a very important result showing that the Minimal Standard Model is incomplete and requires an extension which is not yet known. The neutrino research field is very broad and active, at the frontier of today's particle physics. The Neutrino Research Group (GDR) was created in January 2005 with the aim of gathering CEA and CNRS research teams working on Neutrino Physics on experimental or theoretical level. This document is the 2006 activity report of the research group, two years after its creation. It presents the results of the 5 working groups: 1 - Determination of neutrino parameters; 2 - Physics beyond the standard model; 3 - Neutrinos in the universe; 4 - Accelerators, detection means, R and D and valorisation; 5 - Common tools to all working groups. The proposed neutrino physics road-map and the actual and future short-, medium- and long-term projects are presented in appendixes. The Neutrino research group organization, the Memphys specific mission group, the research group participating laboratories and teams, as well as the Memphys project are presented too

  6. Group functioning of a collaborative family research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Halm, M A; Titler, M G; Craft, M; Kleiber, C; Montgomery, L A; Nicholson, A; Buckwalter, K; Cram, E

    1993-07-01

    Collaborative research teams are an attractive means of conducting nursing research in the clinical setting because of the many opportunities that collaboration can supply. These opportunities include a chance to: (1) network with other nurses who have similar interests, (2) share knowledge and expertise for designing clinical studies that directly affect daily practice, (3) develop instruments, (4) write grant proposals, (5) collect and analyze data, and (6) prepare manuscripts for publication. The effectiveness of research teams, however, is strongly influenced by group functioning. This article describes the functioning of a collaborative family interventions research team of nursing faculty members and CNSs at a large Midwestern university setting. The formation of the group and membership characteristics are described, along with strategies used to identify the research focus and individual and group goals. Aspects related to the influence of the group on members and the internal operations of the group are also addressed. Future strategies to be explored will focus on the size of the group and joint authorship issues. The authors also set forth a number of recommendations for development of collaborative research groups.

  7. NAMMA LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT NAVIGATION DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment Navigation Data is the DC-8 NAV data (ICATS) extracted into columns with time correction. These data files were...

  8. Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. P.O. Box 19676-00202, ... of plant used, the dosage form and procedures for preparation and ... by thermal gravimetric methods. In finely.

  9. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end

  10. Outcomes of Mixed-Age Groupings. Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of the literature on mixed-age settings reveals benefits in the areas of social and cognitive development. Research on the psychosocial advantages of mixed-age groupings is less consistent. Factors such as group size, age range, time together, and context-specific curriculum activities may have a relationship to the level of success and…

  11. Sustainable Transportation Systems Research Group: Ongoing and Past Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gkritza, Konstantina "Nadia"; Hurtado, Davis Chacon; Gkartzonikas, Christos; Ke, Yue; Losada, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the ongoing and past activities of the Sustainable Transportation Systems Research (STSR) group at Purdue University (https://engineering.purdue.edu/STSRG). The STSR group aims to achieve green, safe, efficient, and equitable transportation systems by studying and modeling transportation externalities, using state of the art statistical, econometric, and economic analysis tools.

  12. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  13. Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap in group psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mark A; Ogrodniczuk, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Sochting, Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap requires a different clinical research paradigm: participatory research that encourages community agency-academic partnerships. In this context, clinicians help define priorities, determine the type of evidence that will have an impact on their practice (affecting the methods that are used to produce the evidence), and develop strategies for translating, implementing, and disseminating their findings into evidence-based practice. Within this paradigm, different roles are assumed by the partners, and sometimes these roles are blended. This paper will consider the perspectives of people who assume these different roles (clinician, researcher, and clinician-researcher) with group psychotherapy as the specific focus. Finally, the establishment of a practice-research network will be discussed as a potentially promising way to better engage group therapists in research.

  14. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1981-08-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. A synopsis of research carried out last year is given. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research

  15. Distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups and their association with hepatitis B virus infection in 3.8 million Chinese adults: A population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Zhang, S; Liu, M; Wang, Q; Shen, H; Zhang, Y

    2018-04-01

    ABO and Rh blood groups play a vital role in blood transfusion safety and clinical practice and are thought to be linked with disease susceptibility. The results from previous studies that focused on the association between blood groups and HBV infection remain controversial. China has the world's largest burden of HBV infection. We assessed the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups in Chinese adults and examined the association between these groups and HBV infection. We did a nationwide cross-sectional study using data from a physical check-up programme from 31 provinces examined between 2010 and 2012. ELISA was used to test for HBsAg in serologic samples. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate aOR of the association between ABO and Rh blood groups and HBV infection. Among 3 827 125 participants, the proportion of participants with blood group A was highest (30.54%), followed by O (30.37%), B (29.42%) and AB (9.66%). A total of 38 907 (1.02%) were Rh-D negative. The prevalence of HBsAg in blood groups O, A, B and AB were 6.34%, 5.55%, 5.18% and 5.06%, respectively. HBsAg prevalence was 5.65% in Rh-D-positive and 3.96% in Rh-D-negative participants. After controlling for other potential risk factors, multivariate models showed that participants with blood group O (adjusted OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.20-1.25) were at higher risk of HBV infection compared with group AB. Rh-D-positive participants (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.37-1.52) were at higher risk of HBV infection than Rh-D-negative participants. The associations between ABO/Rh blood groups and HBV infection were similar in subgroup analysis. The proportions of O, A, B and AB blood groups were approximately 3:3:3:1, and nearly 1 in 100 people was Rh-D negative among Chinese adults. Blood group O and Rh-D positivity were both associated with increased HBV infection. The risk of HBV infection and blood safety should be taken into consideration in clinical practice, especially when transfusing

  16. Population-based prevention of influenza in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, E; Hermens, R P; van Essen, G A; Kuyvenhoven, M M; de Melker, R A

    BACKGROUND: Although the effectiveness of influenza vaccination in high-risk groups has been proven, vaccine coverage continues to be less than 50% in The Netherlands. To improve vaccination rates, data on the organizational factors, which should be targeted in population-based prevention of

  17. Neutrino Research Group. 2011-2014 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    For the last two decades, neutrino physics has been producing major discoveries including neutrino oscillations. These results gave clear confirmation that active neutrinos oscillate and therefore have mass with three different mass states. This is a very important result showing that the Minimal Standard Model is incomplete and requires an extension which is not yet known. The neutrino research field is very broad and active, at the frontier of today's particle physics. The Neutrino Research Group (GDR) was created in January 2005 with the aim of gathering CEA and CNRS research teams working on Neutrino Physics on experimental or theoretical level. This document is the 2011-2014 activity report of the research group, ten years after its creation. It presents the results of the 5 working groups: 1 - Determination of neutrino parameters; 2 - Physics beyond the standard model; 3 - Neutrinos in the universe; 4 - Accelerators, detection means, R and D and valorisation; 5 - Common tools to all working groups. The research group structure, participating laboratories and teams and the neutrino physics road-map are presented in appendixes

  18. The sustainable development thematic in the research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Comunian Ferraz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The technological innovation brought for the debate the question of the sustainable technological development. The article presents an entirety of theoretical reflections on the science, technology and sustainable development themes and to aim the contributions of the Information Science, while interdisciplinary science, with respect to the understanding of the sustainable development. With basis in this reference it was carried through the investigation of descriptive exploratory nature with quanti-qualitative boarding, having as main objective to identify the presence of the sustainable development thematic in research groups of the UFSCar registered in cadastre in the National Directory of Research Groups of the CNPq. The results had shown that the sustainable development thematic is present in eleven researchgroups of the UFSCar distributed in different knowledge areas. Comparing the data gotten with the research groups of the country that had participated of 2004 Census of the National Directory of Research Groups of the CNPq it was verified that it has similarity between both the data. In accordance with scientific literature, confirms that the sustainable development thematic is interdisciplinar and that the knowledge production of the research groups is result to know articulated in some of the knowledge areas.

  19. Global Manufacturing Research: Experience Exchange Group (EEG) contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    1998-01-01

    of preliminary studies found interesting to set upan EEG composed of representatives from industry and a researcher. Inthe paper some general research methods pertinent to the areaindustrial management is discussed. The EEG concept is introduced andcharacterised in comparison with the other methods. EEG...... activities aredescribed and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research processis proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological andquality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities couldpossible contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper endsup looking at future research......The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an ExperienceExchange Group (EEG) can be involved in a research process in the areaof industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoingresearch in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research itwas after a series...

  20. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  1. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bil, Janneke P.; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G.; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B.; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the

  2. Focus Group Interview in Family Practice Research: Implementing a qualitative research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Marjorie L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.

  3. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.

  4. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  5. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tiainen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the outcomes of the work is a model for collaborative research. It highlights, among others, the importance of creating a climate for collaboration within the research group and following a process of individual and collaborative writing to achieve the potential benefits of such research. The article also identifies a set of remaining challenges relevant to collaborative research.

  6. Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, W.H.; Storer, J.B.

    1955-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.

  7. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  8. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  9. Activity report of the Neutrino Research Group. Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    For the last two decades, neutrino physics has been producing major discoveries including neutrino oscillations. These results gave clear confirmation that active neutrinos oscillate and therefore have mass with three different mass states. This is a very important result showing that the Minimal Standard Model is incomplete and requires an extension which is not yet known. The neutrino research field is very broad and active, at the frontier of today's particle physics. The Neutrino Research Group (GDR) was created in January 2005 with the aim of gathering CEA and CNRS research teams working on Neutrino Physics on experimental or theoretical level. This document is the 2010 activity report of the research group, six years after its creation. It presents the results of the 5 working groups: 1 - Determination of neutrino parameters; 2 - Physics beyond the standard model; 3 - Neutrinos in the universe; 4 - Accelerators, detection means, R and D and valorisation; 5 - Common tools to all working groups. The proposed neutrino physics road-map and the actual and future short-, medium- and long-term projects are presented in appendixes

  10. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  11. Preparing School Leaders: Action Research on the Leadership Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an action research study that examined the Leadership Study Group, one learning activity designed to build knowledge and skills for aspiring school leaders and implemented in a six-credit introductory course for school leader certification. Through analysis of a variety of qualitative data collected over nine semesters, I…

  12. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  13. A social epistemology of research groups collaboration in scientific practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates how collaborative scientific practice yields scientific knowledge. At a time when most of today’s scientific knowledge is created in research groups, the author reconsiders the social character of science to address the question of whether collaboratively created knowledge should be considered as collective achievement, and if so, in which sense. Combining philosophical analysis with qualitative empirical inquiry, this book provides a comparative case study of mono- and interdisciplinary research groups, offering insight into the day-to-day practice of scientists. The book includes field observations and interviews with scientists to present an empirically-grounded perspective on much-debated questions concerning research groups’ division of labor, relations of epistemic dependence and trust.

  14. Revisiting the use of focus group in social research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Freidin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodological reflections on focus groups presented in this article draw from a research project on middle-class people living in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. The study addresses health discourses and practices in the contemporary scenario characterized by the diversification of specialists, the growing media coverage of recommendations of healthy living and wellbeing, the implementation of public policies on health promotion, and the expansion of the industry of related products and services.  The objective of the article is to reflect, based on our fieldwork experience, on two aspects that have received special attention in the recent methodological literature: the criteria to compose the groups and their consequences on the conversational dynamic, and the strategies to account for the group interaction in data analysis. Included in the latter, we explore the potential of GF research to observe health identity work. We frame our study and the decisions about design issues into the current debates on the variety of uses of the research group methodology.

  15. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  16. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H.A. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Brazilian scientific production in the pediatrics field has been increasing significantly. It is important to identify the distribution and activity of these groups in the country and the main study areas, contributing with data for better resource allocation by institutions. METHODS: An active research was conducted in the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq] website, using as filters the macro area of the research group (Health Sciences, the area (Medicine, and descriptors related to pediatrics. Research lines and main area of pediatric research groups were classified according to the subject predominantly studied by each group. The scientific production of the leader of the pediatric research group between 2011 and 2014 was also analyzed. RESULTS: Most pediatric research groups in Brazil have more than five years of activity and are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions of the country; São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais are the states with most groups. Of the 132 specific pediatric research groups analyzed, 14.4% have lines of research in multiple areas and 11.4% in child and adolescent health. Among the 585 lines of research of these groups, the most prevalent areas were: oncology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and gastroenterology. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%, reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area.

  17. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, a target group in general practice for preventive interventions: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Daly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated with developing type 2 diabetes, but very few studies have examined its effect on developing cardiovascular disease.We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. From 1 February 1990 to 15 May 2016, 9,118 women diagnosed with GDM were identified and randomly matched with 37,281 control women by age and timing of pregnancy (up to 3 months. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated for cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Women with GDM were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes (IRR = 21.96; 95% CI 18.31-26.34 and hypertension (IRR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.59-2.16 after adjusting for age, Townsend (deprivation quintile, body mass index, and smoking. For ischemic heart disease (IHD, the IRR was 2.78 (95% CI 1.37-5.66, and for cerebrovascular disease 0.95 (95% CI 0.51-1.77; p-value = 0.87, after adjusting for the above covariates and lipid-lowering medication and hypertension at baseline. Follow-up screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors was poor. Limitations include potential selective documentation of severe GDM for women in primary care, higher surveillance for outcomes in women diagnosed with GDM than control women, and a short median follow-up postpartum period, with a small number of outcomes for IHD and cerebrovascular disease.Women diagnosed with GDM were at very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and had a significantly increased incidence of hypertension and IHD. Identifying this group of women in general practice and targeting cardiovascular risk factors could improve long-term outcomes.

  18. Energy Innovation 1996. IVO Group's Research and Development Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S.

    1996-01-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group's research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  19. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of 3 H and 3 He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, π ± , and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4π acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us

  20. Research Activities of Geotechnical Research Group of NIIS from the Past to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, N.; Toyosawa, Y.; Tamate, S.; Itoh, K.

    In this paper, firstly the memories of Prof. Tatsuoka's laboratory and research works carried out when the first author visited Prof. Tatsuoka's laboratory as a visiting researcher from May 1986 for about 1 year are described. Secondly, the research activities of Geotechnical Research Group of NIIS are introduced. Main emphasis is given on the research activities conducted using old geotechnical centrifuge (NIIS Mark-I centrifuge) and newly developed geotechnical centrifuge (NIIS Mark-II centrifuge).

  1. Collecting School Counseling Group Work Data: Initiating Consensual Qualitative Research through Practitioner-Researcher Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sarah I.; Land, Christy W.; Moss, Lauren J.; Cinotti, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Group counseling interventions can be complex to assess and research. Over the years, The "Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") has highlighted many of these challenges and offered valued approaches to designing projects that promote the efficacy and meaningfulness of group work in various settings. Similarly, school…

  2. Progression to impaired glucose regulation and diabetes in the population-based Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Susanne; Vistisen, Dorte; Lau, Cathrine

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the progression rates to impaired glucose regulation (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance) and diabetes in the Danish population-based Inter99 study and in a high-risk subpopulation, separately. Research Design and Methods: From a population-based primary...... glucose regulation using the current World Health Organization classification criteria were calculated for the first time in a large European population-based study. The progression rates to diabetes show the same pattern as seen in the few similar European studies....... prevention study, the Inter99 study, 4,615 individuals without diabetes at baseline and with relevant follow-up data were divided into a low- and a high-risk group based on a risk estimate of ischemic heart disease or the presence of risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, obesity...... estimated directly from baseline to 5-year follow-up for all the participants, and from baseline through 1- and 3-, to 5-year follow-up for the high-risk individuals, separately. Results: In the combined low- and high-risk group, 2.1 per 100 person-years progressed from normal glucose tolerance to impaired...

  3. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  4. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Population based reference intervals for common blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Population based reference intervals for common blood haematological and biochemical parameters in the Akuapem north district. K.A Koram, M.M Addae, J.C Ocran, S Adu-amankwah, W.O Rogers, F.K Nkrumah ...

  6. Representativeness in population-based studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drivsholm, Thomas Bo; Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Davidsen, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Decreasing rates of participation in population-based studies increasingly challenge the interpretation of study results, in both analytic and descriptive epidemiology. Consequently, estimates of possible differences between participants and non-participants are increasingly important...... for the interpretation of study results and generalization to the background population....

  7. Research activities of the nuclear graphite research group at the University of Manchester, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, B.J.; Fok, A.S.L.; Marrow, J.; Mummery, P.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) decided to underwrite the Nuclear Graphite Research Group (NGRG) at the University of Manchester, UK with the aim of providing a source of independent research and advice to the HSE (NSD). Since then the group has rapidly expanded to 16 members and attracted considerable funding from the nuclear power industry and the regulator for a wide range of research and consultancy work. It is now also part of the Material Performance Centre within the BNFL Universities Research Alliance. Extensive collaboration exists between the group and other nuclear research institutes, both in the UK and overseas. This paper briefly describes some of the research programmes being carried out by the NGRG at Manchester. (author)

  8. Relation Analysis of Knowledge Management, Research, and Innovation in University Research Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyder Paez-Logreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a competitive advantage for companies. Knowledge Management helps to keep this competitiveness. Universities face with challenges in research, innovation and international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper includes studying Knowledge Management Models, and Innovation Models apply to Research Groups of Universities, through an analysis of relation in inter-organizational level. Some researchers and leaders of research groups participated in a survey about knowledge management and innovation. Here we show the relationship between knowledge management, innovation and research, including processes and operations performed by universities around these. We organize the results in three dimensions: Knowledge Management perception, the relationship between Knowledge Management and Innovation, and Strategic Knowledge organization. Too, we identify a generality of good practices, challenges, and limitations on Research Groups for Knowledge Management.

  9. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  10. Energy Innovation 1998. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P; Laiho, Y; Kaikkonen, H; Leisio, C; McConchie, R; Fletcher, R [eds.

    1998-07-01

    The IVO Group is a Finnish company mastering all aspects of the entire energy chain, and also operating extensively on the international market. The Group`s operations concentrate on five business areas: energy, engineering, operation and maintenance, grid services, and energy measurement. The personnel numbers well over 8 800, and the turnover is about FIM 14 billion. The services to customers include the supply of electricity and heat, the planning, construction, operation and maintenance of power plants and transmission systems, the transmission of power, and other services requiring expertise in all the key fields of energy engineering. Mastery of the entire energy chain gives us a substantial competitive edge on international markets, where the IVO Group has been a player for decades. The operations have expanded to the other Nordic countries, which now constitute the home market. Focal areas also include Great Britain, Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. The IVO Group annually invests some FIM 250 million in research and development. A large proportion of this money is used for the development of environmentally benign solutions

  11. Clinical gait analysis : A review of research at the Interdepartmental Research group of Kinesiology in Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H. A M

    1990-01-01

    In this article the methodology used in the Interdepartmental Research Group of Kinesiology to quantify (clinical) human gait is elaborated upon. Four methods are described: analysis of temporal parameters, goniometry, accelerometry and electromyography. A correct representation of electromyographic

  12. A standard for test reliability in group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jules L

    2013-03-01

    Many authors adhere to the rule that test reliabilities should be at least .70 or .80 in group research. This article introduces a new standard according to which reliabilities can be evaluated. This standard is based on the costs or time of the experiment and of administering the test. For example, if test administration costs are 7 % of the total experimental costs, the efficient value of the reliability is .93. If the actual reliability of a test is equal to this efficient reliability, the test size maximizes the statistical power of the experiment, given the costs. As a standard in experimental research, it is proposed that the reliability of the dependent variable be close to the efficient reliability. Adhering to this standard will enhance the statistical power and reduce the costs of experiments.

  13. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H.A. Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%, reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area.

  14. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  15. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Population Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nwokediuko, Sylvester

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease varies in different parts of the world. There are no population based studies in Nigeria. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a population of Nigerian medical students. Methods The Carlsson-Dent questionnaire was administered to medical students in the clinical phase of their training at the University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus. Some putative risk ...

  16. Group-effort Applied Research: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…

  17. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program

  18. Phase 2 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlaston, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The results of phase 1 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) programme have been widely reported. The significance of the results is reviewed briefly, in order to put the phase 2 programme into perspective. The success of phase 1 led the participants to consider further development and validation of pipe and pipe component fracture analysis technology as part of another international group programme (IPIRG-2). The benefits of combined funding and of the technical exchanges and interactions are considered to be of significant advantage and value. The phase 2 programme has been designed with the overall objective of developing and experimentally validating methods of predicting the fracture behaviour of nuclear reactor safety-related piping, to both normal operating and accident loads. The programme will add to the engineering estimation analysis methods that have been developed for straight pipes. The pipe system tests will expand the database to include seismic loadings and flaws in fittings, such as bends, elbows and tees, as well as ''short'' cracks. The results will be used to validate further the analytical methods, expand the capability to make fittings and extend the quasi-static results for the USNRC's new programme on short cracks in piping and piping welds. The IPIRG-2 programme is described to provide a clear understanding of the content, strategy, potential benefits and likely significance of the work. ((orig.))

  19. International piping integrity research group (IPIRG) program final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G.; Scott, P.; Olsen, R.; Marschall, C.; Vieth, P.; Paul, D.

    1992-04-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Programme. The IPIRG Programme was an international group programme managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United states. The objective of the programme was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping that contains circumferential defects. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behaviour of circumferentially flawed piping and piping systems to high-rate loading typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a unique pipe loop test facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system was an expansion loop with over 30 m of 406-mm diameter pipe and five long radius elbows. Five experiments on flawed piping were conducted to failure in this facility with dynamic excitation. The report: provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures in piping; summarizes the technical results of the programme; gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the various pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses; and, summarizes the advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG Program

  20. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  1. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-06-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  2. Final report of the group research. Advanced Technology for Medical Imaging Research. 1996-2000 FY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report involves the organization of the research groups (4 units of radiopharmaceutical chemistry, radiotracer and radiopharmacology, clinical imaging, and molecular informative research), 5 research reports and 38 published research papers. The research reports concern Fundamental researches on the availability and production of PET radiopharmaceuticals using the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) cyclotron, Design and evaluation of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals for PET measurement (kinetics and metabolism in small animals and primates), Fundamental studies on development of technique radiation measurement, Clinical application of medical imaging technology in the fields of neuroscience, cardiovascular, cancer diagnosis and others, and A study to establish and evaluate a lung cancer screening system using spiral CT units which is in pilot-progress in Kanto and Kansai regions. (N.I.)

  3. Nuclear decay data files of the Dosimetry Research Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the nuclear decay data files used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the utility DEXRAX which provides access to the files. The files are accessed, by nuclide, to extract information on the intensities and energies of the radiations associated with spontaneous nuclear transformation of the radionuclides. In addition, beta spectral data are available for all beta-emitting nuclides. Two collections of nuclear decay data are discussed. The larger collection contains data for 838 radionuclides, which includes the 825 radionuclides assembled during the preparation of Publications 30 and 38 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and 13 additional nuclides evaluated in preparing a monograph for the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The second collection is composed of data from the MIRD monograph and contains information for 242 radionuclides. Abridged tabulations of these data have been published by the ICRP in Publication 38 and by the Society of Nuclear Medicine in a monograph entitled ''MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes.'' The beta spectral data reported here have not been published by either organization. Electronic copies of the files and the utility, along with this report, are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  4. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamis, Alan S; Alonzo, Todd A; Perentesis, John P; Meshinchi, Soheil

    2013-06-01

    For the 365 children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia in the US annually, 5-year survival for patients on COG trials with low, intermediate, and high risk disease is 83%, 62%, and 23%, respectively. Recent advances include improved therapeutic stratification, improved survival with dose intensification, and further elucidation of the heterogeneity specific to childhood AML. These discoveries now guide current strategy incorporating targeted agents to pathways specific to childhood AML as well as evaluating methods to increase the sensitivity of the leukemic stem cell, first in Phase II feasibility trials followed by Phase III efficacy trials of the most promising agents. Acute myeloid leukemia in children, though with similar subgroups to adults, remains uniquely different based upon quite different prevalence of subtypes as well as overall response to therapy. The Children's Oncology Group's research agenda builds upon earlier efforts to better elucidate the leukemogenic steps distinct to childhood AML in order to more scientifically develop and test novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment and ultimate cure for children with this disorder. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 964-971. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR): Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research Through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student - one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's lab. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student - one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this paper, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience. PMID:24898007

  6. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  7. Invasive Species Working Group: Research Summary and Expertise Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Butler; Dean Pearson; Mee-Sook Kim

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) personnel have scientific expertise in widely ranging disciplines and conduct multidisciplinary research on invasive species issues with emphasis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats throughout the Interior West, Great Plains, and related areas (fig. 1; Expertise Directory; appendix). RMRS invasive species research covers an array...

  8. [A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Liu, Ze-jun; Zhao, Pei-qing; Bai, Shao-ying; Pang, Xing-huo; Wang, Zhi-ming; Jin, Tai-yi; Lan, Ya-jia

    2006-11-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets(235 scientific research group, 857 technical group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the technical group and scientific research group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for technical group and scientific research group were established. OSI-R profile from for technical group and scientific research group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70T indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60T to 69T suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40T indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30T indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30T to 39T suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60T indicate a strong levels of coping resources. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  9. FAR Research Project: What do we know about group audits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanes Downey, Denise; Gold, A.H.

    Despite concerns about the quality of group audits, recently raised by practice, inspectors, regulators, and standard setters, only a limited number of academic studies have specifically examined these engagements to date. This paper first describes some of the concerns about group audits to explain

  10. Uses of cancer registries for public health and clinical research in Europe: Results of the European Network of Cancer Registries survey among 161 population-based cancer registries during 2010–2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, Sabine; Louwman, W.J.; Kwast, A.; van den Hurk, C.J.G.; O'Callaghan, M.; Rosso, S.; Zanetti, R.; Storm, H.; Comber, H.; Steliarova-Foucher, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To provide insight into cancer registration coverage, data access and use in Europe. This contributes to data and infrastructure harmonisation and will foster a more prominent role of cancer registries (CRs) within public health, clinical policy and cancer research, whether within or outside the

  11. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ark Gerrit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research. For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector. For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity. These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance, after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms

  12. Wireless Spectrum Research & Development Senior Steering Group's Testbed Information Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This application contains a list of Federal R&D sites that are available for public-private collaborative research efforts in the field of spectrum and wireless...

  13. Population-based strategies to control manufacturing epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    "The multinational corporations producing tobacco, alcohol, soft drinks, and processed foods have a role of vectors in the increase of chronic diseases, so that one can speak of manufacturing epidemics. The main aim of this paper is to conduct a literature review on different approaches in population-based interventions to stem the rise in consumption of unhealthy products. Different approaches were found: • command-and-control regulations: the route is definitely more advanced for tobacco with the implementation of an international treaty, which requires 180 ratifying states to implement a series of tobacco control policies. Similar regulations have been partially adopted to reduce alcohol use and to increase taxes of sugar-sweetened beverages; • multinational corporations in few Countries can voluntarily adopt recommendations on media campaigns and on labelling of soft drinks and processed foods; • in order to reduce salt in foods, many Countries developed voluntary agreements with industries with monitoring systems to assess compliance. Population-based interventions to try to align the interests of multinational corporations with those of public health are described in literature: • the "Health Footprint" programme; • the performance-based regulation which could oblige industry to take responsibility to reduce the harmful consequences of the use of their unhealthy commodities; • the price-cap regulation, usually applied to the utilities sector, would set a cap on the price of the tobacco industry, raising the tobacco taxes by 500 million euros per year. In order to reduce the burden of chronic disease, one of the objectives of the Italian National Prevention Plan, a working group including non-governmental organizations and experts in communication, social marketing, and lifestyles should be organized by the Ministry of Health in order to identify which population-based interventions could be implemented in Italy in next years to stem the rise of

  14. The reliability of assigning individuals to cognitive states using the Mini Mental-State Examination: a population-based prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Marioni, Riccardo E.; Chatfield, Mark; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E.; Med Res Council

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous investigations of test re-test reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) have used correlations and statistics such as Cronbach's α to assess consistency. In practice, the MMSE is usually used to group individuals into cognitive states. The reliability of this grouping (state based approach) has not been fully explored. Methods MMSE data were collected on a subset of 2,275 older participants (≥ 65 years) from the population-based Medical Research Cou...

  15. Mapping population-based structural connectomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengwu; Descoteaux, Maxime; Zhang, Jingwen; Girard, Gabriel; Chamberland, Maxime; Dunson, David; Srivastava, Anuj; Zhu, Hongtu

    2018-05-15

    Advances in understanding the structural connectomes of human brain require improved approaches for the construction, comparison and integration of high-dimensional whole-brain tractography data from a large number of individuals. This article develops a population-based structural connectome (PSC) mapping framework to address these challenges. PSC simultaneously characterizes a large number of white matter bundles within and across different subjects by registering different subjects' brains based on coarse cortical parcellations, compressing the bundles of each connection, and extracting novel connection weights. A robust tractography algorithm and streamline post-processing techniques, including dilation of gray matter regions, streamline cutting, and outlier streamline removal are applied to improve the robustness of the extracted structural connectomes. The developed PSC framework can be used to reproducibly extract binary networks, weighted networks and streamline-based brain connectomes. We apply the PSC to Human Connectome Project data to illustrate its application in characterizing normal variations and heritability of structural connectomes in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. RESEARCH AND UNIVERSITY IN BRAZIL: organization and institutionalization of research groups in Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Francisca de Souza Campos Vinha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reflections on the still poorly treated and discussed theme. The formation of research groups is a "new" form of organization of academic and scientific work that has recently been institutionalized by the major institutions of higher education, research and development agencies in Brazil. The research groups in Geography were treated mainly on two aspects: as important spaces for socialization of knowledge that has been growing steadily and that subsidize the training of future teachers, foster critical and reflective stance, highlighting the collective work in the study of common themes; and as important socialization spaces of knowledge that has been growing steadily, and as part of the restructuring process initiated in the 1990s, a period that the Groups Directory Research of Brazil (DGPB formalizes the groups with CNPq. By analyzing the role of postgraduate research and its relation to the formation of research groups have demonstrated that besides the expressiveness achieved with the increase of the groups in all regions of the country, this form of organization also brought repercussions to the fields of education and research segments that incorporated resets the world of work and readjusted neoliberal policies. Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre uma temática ainda pouco tratada e discutida. A formação de grupos de pesquisa é uma “nova” forma de organização do trabalho acadêmico e científico que recentemente foi institucionalizado pelos principais centros de Ensino Superior, pesquisas e agências de fomento no Brasil. Os grupos de pesquisa em Geografia foram tratados, sobretudo, diante de dois aspectos: como espaços importantes de socialização do conhecimento que vem crescendo progressivamente e que subsidiam a formação do futuro docente e fomentam a postura crítica e reflexiva, com destaque ao trabalho coletivo no estudo de temas em comum; e como parte do processo de reestruturação produtiva

  17. Research Note: Headteacher Support Groups Initiative within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Present status of research activities conducted by research group for heavy elements microbiology in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Takuo; Yoshida, Takahiro

    2004-01-01

    It has been recognized that microbial transformations of radionuclides and toxic metals could be significant in the environment, but there is a paucity of information on the mechanisms of biotransformation of radionuclides by the microorganisms. An understanding at the fundamental level the mechanisms of mobilization, immobilization and bioavailability of radioactive elements in particular the actinides is important from the standpoint of mobility of actinides in the environment, disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formation, remediation of contaminated soils and materials, and development of strategies for the long-term stewardship of the contaminated sites. The microbiology research group in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting basic scientific research on microbial interactions with actinides. Fundamental research on microbial transformations of actinides include elucidation of the mechanisms of dissolution and precipitation of various chemical forms such as ionic, oxides, organic and inorganic complexes of actinides by aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms under relevant microbial process conditions. State-of-the-art analytical techniques are used to determine the interaction of actinides with microorganisms at the molecular level to understand the structure function relationship. These techniques include time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) to determine the coordination number, oxidation states and the nearest neighbor by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Synchrotron Light Source, identification of functional groups by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), determination of chemical forms by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and genomic (DNA) manipulation by molecular techniques. We here report the present status of our research activities on accumulation of lanthanides(III) by microorganisms, application of micro-particle induced X

  19. Research on group enterprise multimedia information publishing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A electric power group enterprises to actively explore the innovation of enterprise culture management, making full use of modern information and communication technologies, construction of trans-regional multimedia information publishing platform. Construction of a municipal pilot units in Group region, for example, through consolidation, Office LANs, corporate networks in electric power communication network, cable TV network, realized with pictures, video, PPT, FLASH animations, WORD documents, WEB pages, video conference streams, radio, television, and other media as the carrier’s digital communications.

  20. Hip Fracture in People with Erectile Dysfunction: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Hsin Wu

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the risk of hip fracture and contributing factors in patients with erectile dysfunction(ED. This population-based study was performed using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The analysis included 4636 patients aged ≥ 40 years who had been diagnosed with ED (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 302.72, 607.84 during 1996-2010. The control group included 18,544 randomly selected age-matched patients without ED (1:4 ratio. The association between ED and hip fracture risk was estimated using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. During the follow-up period, 59 (1.27% patients in the ED group and 140 (0.75% patients in the non-ED group developed hip fracture. After adjusting for covariates, the overall incidence of hip fracture was 3.74-times higher in the ED group than in the non-ED group (2.03 vs. 0.50 per 1000 person-years, respectively. The difference in the overall incidence of hip fracture was largest during the 3-year follow-up period (hazard ratio = 7.85; 95% confidence interval = 2.94-20.96; P <0.0001. To the best of our knowledge, this nationwide population-based study is the first to investigate the relationship between ED and subsequent hip fracture in an Asian population. The results showed that ED patients had a higher risk of developing hip fracture. Patients with ED, particularly those aged 40-59 years, should undergo bone mineral density examinations as early as possible and should take measures to reduce the risk of falls.

  1. Population-based study of Hodgkin's lymphoma in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshemmari, S; Sajnani, K P; Refaat, S; Albassami, A

    2011-01-01

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) comprises about 25% of all malignant nodal lymphomas worldwide. Incidence of HL has been increasing in many countries around the world, in the western countries in particular. Cancer incidence variations in different ethnic groups in the same country can lead to some important information about the search of etiological factors. Some researchers found an association between ethnicity and increased risk of HL. In this study, we evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of patients with HL and the HL subtypes in Kuwait who were diagnosed between 1998 and 2006 and we analyzed the changes in the incidence of HL over time based on age, sex, and ethnicity. The Kuwait Cancer Control Center is a tertiary referral hospital and the only cancer hospital in the entire state of Kuwait. We identified 293 patients who were newly diagnosed with HL by histopathology between January 1, 1998, and December 31, 2006, at the Kuwait Cancer Control Center. Incidence data were crossvalidated with the population-based Cancer Registry of Kuwait. Clinical data were obtained by reviewing the patients' medical records. The median age at diagnosis was 39 years (range, 10-85 years) for patients with cHL and 36 years (range, 14-51 years) for patients with NLPHL. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 2.1 cases (range, 1.2-2.9) per 100,000 people per year in the period between 1998 and 2006. NLPHL and cHL were predominant in men with a male to female ratio of 2:1. However, the mean annual percentage change in HL incidence among Kuwaiti patients and non-Kuwaiti patients per year showed unexplained higher percentage in females both Kuwaiti and non-Kuwaiti. cHL comprised 92.5% of all HL cases and NLPHL comprised 7.5%. Nodular sclerosis was the predominant histologic subtype of cHL (58.9%), whereas mixed cellularity was the second most frequent histologic subtype of cHL, (25.9%). Although the incidence of HL was slightly lower in Kuwait than the worldwide incidence; it

  2. Neighborhood social capital is associated with participation in health checks of a general population: a multilevel analysis of a population-based lifestyle intervention- the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-07-22

    Participation in population-based preventive health check has declined over the past decades. More research is needed to determine factors enhancing participation. The objective of this study was to examine the association between two measures of neighborhood level social capital on participation in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. The study population comprised 12,568 residents of 73 Danish neighborhoods in the intervention group of a large population-based lifestyle intervention study - the Inter99. Two measures of social capital were applied; informal socializing and voting turnout. In a multilevel analysis only adjusting for age and sex, a higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check. Inclusion of both individual socioeconomic position and neighborhood deprivation in the model attenuated the coefficients for informal socializing, while voting turnout became non-significant. Higher level of neighborhood social capital was associated with higher probability of participating in the health check phase of a population-based lifestyle intervention. Most of the association between neighborhood social capital and participation in preventive health checks can be explained by differences in individual socioeconomic position and level of neighborhood deprivation. Nonetheless, there seems to be some residual association between social capital and health check participation, suggesting that activating social relations in the community may be an avenue for boosting participation rates in population-based health checks. ClinicalTrials.gov (registration no. NCT00289237 ).

  3. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  4. Pattern of Skin disorders across age groups | Ayanlowo | Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Journal of Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  5. 75 FR 57768 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified Subcontractor AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Eastern Research Group... the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES...

  6. Data harmonization and federated analysis of population-based studies : the BioSHaRE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doiron, Dany; Burton, Paul; Marcon, Yannick; Gaye, Amadou; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Perola, Markus; Stolk, Ronald P; Foco, Luisa; Minelli, Cosetta; Waldenberger, Melanie; Holle, Rolf; Kvaløy, Kirsti; Hillege, Hans L; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Ferretti, Vincent; Fortier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTS BACKGROUND: Individual-level data pooling of large population-based studies across research centres in international research projects faces many hurdles. The BioSHaRE (Biobank Standardisation and Harmonisation for Research Excellence in the European Union) project aims to address these

  7. The EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR): an international framework for accelerating scleroderma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Alan; Ladner, Ulf M; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Systemic sclerosis has a complex pathogenesis and a multifaceted clinical spectrum without a specific treatment. Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism, the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials And Research group (EUSTAR) has been founded in Europe to foster the study of systemic sclerosis with the aim of achieving equality of assessment and care of systemic sclerosis patients throughout the world according to evidence-based principles. EUSTAR created the minimal essential data set, a simple two-page form with basic demographics and mostly yes/no answers to clinical and laboratory parameters, to track patients throughout Europe. Currently, over 7000 patients are registered from 150 centres in four continents, and several articles have been published with the data generated by the minimal essential data set. A commitment of EUSTAR is also to teaching and educating, and for this reason there are two teaching courses and a third is planned for early in 2009. These courses have built international networks among young investigators improving the quality of multicentre clinical trials. EUSTAR has organized several rounds of 'teach the teachers' to further standardize the skin scoring. EUSTAR activities have extended beyond European borders, and EUSTAR now includes experts from several nations. The growth of data and biomaterial might ensure many further fruitful multicentre studies, but the financial sustainability of EUSTAR remains an issue that may jeopardize the existence of this group as well as that of other organizations in the world.

  8. Assessment of military population-based psychological resilience programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brenda J; Bibb, Sandra C Garmon

    2011-09-01

    Active duty service members' (ADSMs) seemingly poor adaptability to traumatic stressors is a risk to force health. Enhancing the psychological resilience of ADSMs has become a key focus of Department of Defense (DoD) leaders and the numbers of military programs for enhancing psychological resilience have increased. The purpose of this article is to describe the results of an assessment conducted to determine comprehensiveness of current psychological resilience building programs that target ADSMs. A modified six-step, population-based needs assessment was used to evaluate resilience programs designed to meet the psychological needs of the ADSM population. The assessment results revealed a gap in published literature regarding program outcomes. DoD leaders may benefit from targeted predictive research that assesses program effectiveness outcomes. The necessity of including preventive, evidence-based interventions in new programs, such as positive emotion interventions shown to enhance psychological resilience in civilian samples, is also recommended.

  9. Febrile seizures: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane S. Dalbem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the prevalence of benign febrile seizures of childhood and describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of this population. Methods: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study, carried out in the city of Barra do Bugres, MT, Brazil, from August 2012 to August 2013. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, a questionnaire that was previously validated in another Brazilian study was used to identify suspected cases of seizures. In the second phase, a neurological evaluation was performed to confirm diagnosis. Results: The prevalence was 6.4/1000 inhabitants (95% CI: 3.8–10.1. There was no difference between genders. Simple febrile seizures were found in 88.8% of cases. A family history of febrile seizures in first-degree relatives and history of epilepsy was present in 33.3% and 11.1% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of febrile seizures in Midwestern Brazil was lower than that found in other Brazilian regions, probably due to the inclusion only of febrile seizures with motor manifestations and differences in socioeconomic factors among the evaluated areas. Resumo: Objetivos: Estabelecer a prevalência das crises febris e descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dessa população. Métodos: Estudo transversal de base populacional realizado na cidade de Barra do Bugres (MT, no período de agosto de 2012 a agosto de 2013. Os dados foram coletados em duas etapas. Na primeira fase utilizamos um questionário validado previamente em outro estudo brasileiro, para identificação de casos suspeitos de crises epilépticas. Na segunda etapa realizamos a avaliação neuroclínica para confirmação diagnóstica. Resultados: A prevalência de crise febril foi de 6,4/1000 habitantes (IC95% 3,8; 10,1. Não houve diferença entre os sexos. As crises febris simples foram encontradas em 88,8% dos casos. A história familiar de crise febril e epilepsia em parentes de 1° grau esteve

  10. Medical Genetics at McGill: The History of a Pioneering Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Christopher; Weisz, George; Tone, Andrea; Cambrosio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The McGill Group in Medical Genetics was formed in 1972, supported by the Medical Research Council and successor Canadian Institutes for Health Research until September 2009, making it the longest active biomedical research group in the history of Canada. We document the history of the McGill Group and situate its research within a broader history of medical genetics. Drawing on original oral histories with the Group's members, surviving documents, and archival materials, we explore how the Group's development was structured around epistemological trends in medical genetics, policy choices made by research agencies, and the development of genetics at McGill University and its hospitals.

  11. Brazilian research groups in nursing: comparison of 2006 and 2016 profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Peiter, Caroline Cechinel; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo

    2017-07-13

    To compare the profile of nursing research groups registered at the CNPq Research Groups Directory in 2006 and 2016. Descriptive and documentary analysis, The data has been collected in 2006 and in 2016, with parameterized search with the term "nursing" at the CNPq Research Groups Directory. The selected variables have been organized in a Microsoft Office Exce spreadsheetl. The research groups have increased from 251 in 2006 to 617 in 2016, with important increase of the number of participants, among students and researchers. There was a decrease of the number of groups without students. However, 22% remain without undergraduate students' participation. It has been observed an important increase regarding the interest on research activities, when comparing both scenarios. The nursing research groups reflect structural and political advances in generation of science, technology and innovation, however, the undergraduate students' and the foreign researchers' participation should still be encouraged.

  12. Final report of the group research. Genome analysis on the biological effects of radiation. Second research group of NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This report concerns investigations on the title conducted by 5 subgroups of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period of 1993-2001. The report involves the organization of research teams and summary reports from the subgroups for Genome sequencing and informatics, Genome analysis on model organisms, The genome analysis on the specific chromosomal region related to radiation-sensitivity, Molecular analysis on the structure and function of particular regions of human genome, and Generation and characterization of DNA repair-deficient model mice. Significant results are as follows: Sequencing of the radiation sensitivity gene ATM, finding of a novel cell cycle regulator gene NPAT and regulation of gene expression of ATM/NPAT; Findings that the cause of the variability related to instability of human genome is derived from particular repeat structures of 5 and 35 bases and of the instability mutation, from the mutation of EPILS (mRNA synthase gene); Program development for novel human genome finding in the DNA sequences and making novel human gene as a resource by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique; and generation of the highly UV-sensitive mouse model for human xeroderma pigmentosum G. Conclusion is that findings will contribute for better understanding of the genes functioning radiation sensitivity and also biodefense mechanism against radiation and other environmental stress. (N.I.)

  13. Using Focus Groups to Research Sensitive Issues: Insights from Group Interviews on Nursing in the Northern Ireland “Troubles”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Jordan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors discuss the usefulness of focus groups for researching sensitive issues using evidence from a study examining the experiences of nurses providing care in the context of the Northern Ireland Troubles. They conducted three group interviews with nurses during which they asked about the issues the nurses face(d in providing nursing care amid enduring social division. Through a discursive analysis of within-group interaction, they demonstrate how participants employ a range of interpretive resources, the effect of which is to prioritize particular knowledge concerning the nature of nursing care. The identification of such patterned activity highlights the ethnographic value of focus groups to reveal social conventions guiding the production of accounts but also suggests that accounts cannot be divorced from the circumstances of their production. Consequently, the authors argue that focus groups should be considered most useful for illuminating locally sanctioned ways of talking about sensitive issues.

  14. Interleaver Optimization using Population-Based Metaheuristics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snášel, V.; Platoš, J.; Krömer, P.; Abraham, A.; Ouddane, N.; Húsek, Dušan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 5 (2010), s. 591-608 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/1494 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : turbo codes * global optimization * genetic algorithms * differential evolution * noisy communication channel Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  15. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities [11]. Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...

  16. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    George C. Hadjinicola; Andreas C. Soteriou

    2006-01-01

    This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM) groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as ...

  17. Focus group interview: an underutilized research technique for improving theory and practice in health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, C E

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to increase awareness about and stimulate interest in using focus group interviews, a qualitative research technique, to advance the state-of-the-art of education and learning about health. After a brief discussion of small group process in health education, features of focus group interviews are presented, and a theoretical framework for planning a focus group study is summarized. Then, literature describing traditional and health-related applications of focus group interviews is reviewed and a synthesis of methodological limitations and advantages of this technique is presented. Implications are discussed regarding: need for more inductive qualitative research in health education; utility of focus group interviews for research and for formative and summative evaluation of health education programs; applicability of marketing research to understanding and influencing consumer behavior, despite notable distinctions between educational initiatives and marketing; and need for professional preparation faculty to consider increasing emphasis on qualitative research methods.

  18. Phenotyping asthma, rhinitis and eczema in MeDALL population-based birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Benet, M; Saeys, Y

    2015-01-01

    at 4 years and 14 585 at 8 years from seven European population-based birth cohorts (MeDALL project). At each age period, children were grouped, using partitioning cluster analysis, according to the distribution of 23 variables covering symptoms 'ever' and 'in the last 12 months', doctor diagnosis, age...

  19. Chronic comorbidities in children with type 1 diabetes : a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fazelifarsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/243074948; van der Vorst, Marja M J; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; de Boer, Anthonius|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075097346; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266775098

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of chronic comorbidities among children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to compare incidences with a group of children without diabetes. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Dutch PHARMO database (1998-2010). PATIENTS: All patients (<19 years old) with

  20. Population-based metagenomics analysis reveals markers for gut microbiome composition and diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhernakova, A.; Kurilshikov, Alexander; Bonder, Marc Jan; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing of the gut microbiomes of 1135 participants from a Dutch population-based cohort shows relations between the microbiome and 126 exogenous and intrinsic host factors, including 31 intrinsic factors, 12 diseases, 19 drug groups, 4 smoking categories, and 60 dietary factors. These

  1. Transforming Catholic Education through Research: The American Educational Research Association Catholic Education Special Interest Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Catholic schools in the United States and abroad face numerous financial, cultural, and structural challenges due to contemporary education policies and economic trends. Within this climate, research about Catholic education is often conducted and leveraged in efforts to serve schools' most immediate needs. To be certain, research aimed at finding…

  2. The effect of excellence funding on academic research prac-tices: comparing 16 Dutch research groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Wout; Hessels, Laurens; van Drooge, L.

    2017-01-01

    In the last 25 years academic research in The Netherlands has seen a rise of excellence oriented research policy instruments. These excellence funding schemes aim to selectively support high-performing and high-potential individuals or organizations, in order to increase differentiation within the

  3. Sleep patterns and insomnia among adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysing, Mari; Pallesen, Ståle; Stormark, Kjell M; Lundervold, Astri J; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine sleep patterns and rates of insomnia in a population-based study of adolescents aged 16-19 years. Gender differences in sleep patterns and insomnia, as well as a comparison of insomnia rates according to DSM-IV, DSM-V and quantitative criteria for insomnia (Behav. Res. Ther., 41, 2003, 427), were explored. We used a large population-based study in Hordaland county in Norway, conducted in 2012. The sample included 10,220 adolescents aged 16-18 years (54% girls). Self-reported sleep measurements included bedtime, rise time, time in bed, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, wake after sleep onset, rate and frequency and duration of difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep and rate and frequency of tiredness and sleepiness. The adolescents reported short sleep duration on weekdays (mean 6:25 hours), resulting in a sleep deficiency of about 2 h. A majority of the adolescents (65%) reported sleep onset latency exceeding 30 min. Girls reported longer sleep onset latency and a higher rate of insomnia than boys, while boys reported later bedtimes and a larger weekday-weekend discrepancy on several sleep parameters. Insomnia prevalence rates ranged from a total prevalence of 23.8 (DSM-IV criteria), 18.5 (DSM-V criteria) and 13.6% (quantitative criteria for insomnia). We conclude that short sleep duration, long sleep onset latency and insomnia were prevalent in adolescents. This warrants attention as a public health concern in this age group. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. The interrelation between premenstrual syndrome and major depression: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Carine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research about the relationship between premenstrual syndrome (PMS and major depression is limited. This study examined the relationship between moderate to severe PMS and major depression in a population-based sample of women of reproductive age. The objectives of the study were to assess the association between premenstrual syndrome and major depression, to analyse how PMS and major depression differ and to characterise the group of women who report both PMS and major depression. Methods Data were obtained from the Swiss Health Survey 2007. Included in the analysis was data from women under the age of 55 without hysterectomy and who answered the questions on PMS symptoms. The population-based sample consisted of 3518 women. Weighted prevalence rates were calculated and relative risk ratios for PMS, major depression and women who reported both PMS and major depression, were calculated with logistic multinominal logit regression. Results The prevalence of major depression was 11.3% in women screening positive for moderate PMS and 24.6% in women screening positive for severe PMS. Compared to women without any of these conditions, women who reported moderate to severe alcohol consumption had a lower risk for PMS. Women reporting use of antidepressants, and use of oral contraceptives had a higher risk for major depression compared to women without any of these conditions. Women reporting work dissatisfaction had a higher risk for PMS. A higher relative risk to report both PMS and major depression compared to women without PMS or major depression was related to factors such as high psychological distress, low mastery, psychotropic drug consumption, and low self-rated health. Conclusions The results suggested that women who suffer from both PMS and major depression are more impaired compared to women with only one disorder. The results further indicated that PMS and major depression are different disorders that can, however, co-occur.

  5. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  6. 78 FR 67139 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified Subcontractor, Energy Services, Inc..., Eastern Research Group (ERG) of Chantilly, VA, and subcontractor Energy Services, Inc., of Tallahassee, FL... Control Act (TSCA). Some of the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business...

  7. [Population-based study of diabetic retinopathy in Wolfsburg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, L; Grüsser, M; Hoffstadt, K; Jörgens, V; Hartmann, P; Kroll, P

    2001-11-01

    Since November 1997 the complete documentation of an ophthalmological examination of diabetics has been annually subsidized by the Volkswagen Corporation Health Maintenance Organization (VW-HMO). The results of an annual ophthalmological examination were recorded in a standardised history sheet developed by the Initiative Group for Early Detection of Diabetic Eye Diseases. These data included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, lens status and a description of fundus abnormalities. Within 26 months ophthalmological examinations of 2,801 patients were completed which represented 4.5% of all VW-HMO insured patients. On average, patients suffered from diabetes for 9.6 years (SD +/- 8.3), artificial intraocular lenses were present in 357 eyes (6.4%) and 1,216 eyes (12.0%) were diagnosed with cataract or posterior capsule opacification impairing visual acuity. Out of 263 patients younger than 40 years old, 18.8% had a mild or moderate and 3.3% a severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). A proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) was found in 2.2% of the younger patients. Of 2,228 patients aged 40 years and older, 11.9% had a mild or moderate and 2.6% a severe NPDR. In 0.9% of this group PDR was diagnosed. An annual ophthalmological screening based on a survey sheet of the Initiative Group was successfully introduced. For the first time a population-based evaluation on the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was carried out for inhabitants of a German city. The prevalence of PDR was found to be lower than previously published in comparable studied.

  8. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Interim Feed The Future Population Based Assessment of Cambodia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This is the interim population based survey of Feed the Future in Cambodia for 2015. The data is split into survey modules. Modules A through C includes location...

  10. Population-based contracting (population health): part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacofsky, D J

    2017-11-01

    Modern healthcare contracting is shifting the responsibility for improving quality, enhancing community health and controlling the total cost of care for patient populations from payers to providers. Population-based contracting involves capitated risk taken across an entire population, such that any included services within the contract are paid for by the risk-bearing entity throughout the term of the agreement. Under such contracts, a risk-bearing entity, which may be a provider group, a hospital or another payer, administers the contract and assumes risk for contractually defined services. These contracts can be structured in various ways, from professional fee capitation to full global per member per month diagnosis-based risk. The entity contracting with the payer must have downstream network contracts to provide the care and facilities that it has agreed to provide. Population health is a very powerful model to reduce waste and costs. It requires a deep understanding of the nuances of such contracting and the appropriate infrastructure to manage both networks and risk. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1431-4. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  11. Web-conferencing as a viable method for group decision research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel J. J. Handgraaf

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studying group decision-making is challenging for multiple reasons. An important logistic difficulty is studying a sufficiently large number of groups, each with multiple participants. Assembling groups online could make this process easier and also provide access to group members more representative of real-world work groups than the sample of college students that typically comprise lab Face-to-Face (FtF groups. The main goal of this paper is to compare the decisions of online groups to those of FtF groups. We did so in a study that manipulated gain/loss framing of a risky decision between groups and examined the decisions of both individual group members and groups. All of these dependent measures are compared for an online and an FtF sample. Our results suggest that web-conferencing can be a substitute for FtF interaction in group decision-making research, as we found no moderation effects of communication medium on individual or group decision outcome variables. The effects of medium that were found suggest that the use of online groups may be the preferred method for group research. To wit, discussions among the online groups were shorter, but generated a greater number of thought units, i.e., they made more efficient use of time.

  12. Relationship Status among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…

  13. Science Research Group Leader's Power and Members' Compliance and Satisfaction with Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yi; He, Jia; Luo, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the correlations between science research group members' perceptions of power bases used by their group (lab, team) leader (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent) and the effect of those perceptions on group members' attitudinal compliance, behavioral compliance, and satisfaction with supervision. Participants…

  14. Academic Procrastination and the Performance of Graduate-Level Cooperative Groups in Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; DaRos-Voseles, Denise A.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which academic procrastination predicted the performance of cooperative groups in graduate-level research methods courses. A total of 28 groups was examined (n = 83 students), ranging in size from 2 to 5 (M = 2.96, SD = 1.10). Multiple regression analyses revealed that neither within-group mean nor within-group…

  15. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  16. What Really Happens in Quantitative Group Research? Results of a Content Analysis of Recent Quantitative Research in "JSGW"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Lauren H.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Eyal, Maytal; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a content analysis on quantitative studies published in "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") between 2012 and 2015. This brief report provides a general overview of the current practices of quantitative group research in counseling. The following study characteristics are reported and…

  17. An ethnographic study: Becoming a physics expert in a biophysics research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis

    Expertise in physics has been traditionally studied in cognitive science, where physics expertise is understood through the difference between novice and expert problem solving skills. The cognitive perspective of physics experts only create a partial model of physics expertise and does not take into account the development of physics experts in the natural context of research. This dissertation takes a social and cultural perspective of learning through apprenticeship to model the development of physics expertise of physics graduate students in a research group. I use a qualitative methodological approach of an ethnographic case study to observe and video record the common practices of graduate students in their biophysics weekly research group meetings. I recorded notes on observations and conduct interviews with all participants of the biophysics research group for a period of eight months. I apply the theoretical framework of Communities of Practice to distinguish the cultural norms of the group that cultivate physics expert practices. Results indicate that physics expertise is specific to a topic or subfield and it is established through effectively publishing research in the larger biophysics research community. The participant biophysics research group follows a learning trajectory for its students to contribute to research and learn to communicate their research in the larger biophysics community. In this learning trajectory students develop expert member competencies to learn to communicate their research and to learn the standards and trends of research in the larger research community. Findings from this dissertation expand the model of physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and add the social and cultural nature of physics expertise development. This research also addresses ways to increase physics graduate student success towards their PhD. and decrease the 48% attrition rate of physics graduate students. Cultivating effective research

  18. Falls and Depression in Men: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Amanda L; Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J

    2018-01-01

    The link between falls and depression has been researched in the elderly; however, little information is available on this association in younger adults, particularly men. This study sought to investigate the link between major depressive disorder (MDD) and falls in a population-based sample of 952 men (24-97 years). MDD was diagnosed utilizing the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-Patient edition, and categorized as 12-month/past/never. Body mass index and gait were measured; falls, smoking status, psychotropic medication use, and alcohol intake were self-reported as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study 5-year follow-up assessment. Thirty-four (3.6%) men met criteria for 12-month MDD, and 110 (11.6%) for past MDD. Of the 952 men, 175 (18.4%) reported falling at least once during the past 12 months. Fallers were older (66 [interquartile range: 48-79] vs. 59 [45-72] years, p = .001) and more likely to have uneven gait ( n = 16, 10% vs. n = 31, 4%, p = .003) than nonfallers. Participants with 12-month MDD had more than twice the odds of falling (age-adjusted odds ratio: 2.22, 95% confidence interval [1.03, 4.80]). The odds of falling were not associated with past depression ( p = .4). Further adjustments for psychotropic drug use, gait, body mass index, smoking status, blood pressure, and alcohol did not explain these associations. Given the 2.2-fold greater likelihood of falling associated with depression was not explained by age or psychotropic drug use, further research is warranted.

  19. Microstructuring of thermo-mechanically highly stressed surfaces final report of the DFG research group 576

    CERN Document Server

    Rienäcker, Adrian; Knoll, Gunter; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Maier, Hans; Reithmeier, Eduard; Dinkelacker, Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    This contributed volume presents the final research results of the DFG Research Group 576, which is a joint initiative of five different institutes of the Leibniz Universität Hannover and the Universität Kassel, Germany. The research of the DFG Research Group 576 focuses on improving the tribological behavior of thermomechanically highly stressed surfaces, particularly on cylinder liner for combustion engines. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in the field.

  20. Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR): A Metamorphosis of Mentorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thea M.; Smith, Barbara K.; Watts, Danielle L.; Germain-Aubrey, Charlotte C.; Roark, Alison M.; Bybee, Seth M.; Cox, Clayton E.; Hamlin, Heather J.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We describe Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR), a yearlong structured program at the University of Florida that guided graduate student mentors and their undergraduate mentees through the mentored research process. Using the national Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences for an academic year, we found that outcomes for our…

  1. Wellness and multiple sclerosis: The National MS Society establishes a Wellness Research Working Group and research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Mowry, Ellen M; Ehde, Dawn M; LaRocca, Nicholas G; Smith, Kathy E; Costello, Kathleen; Shinto, Lynne; Ng, Alexander V; Sullivan, Amy B; Giesser, Barbara; McCully, Kevin K; Fernhall, Bo; Bishop, Malachy; Plow, Matthew; Casaccia, Patrizia; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D

    2018-03-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) have identified "wellness" and associated behaviors as a high priority based on "social media listening" undertaken by the National MS Society (i.e. the Society). The Society recently convened a group that consisted of researchers with experience in MS and wellness-related research, Society staff members, and an individual with MS for developing recommendations regarding a wellness research agenda. The members of the group engaged in focal reviews and discussions involving the state of science within three approaches for promoting wellness in MS, namely diet, exercise, and emotional wellness. That process informed a group-mediated activity for developing and prioritizing research goals for wellness in MS. This served as a background for articulating the mission and objectives of the Society's Wellness Research Working Group. The primary mission of the Wellness Research Working Group is the provision of scientific evidence supporting the application of lifestyle, behavioral, and psychosocial approaches for promoting optimal health of mind, body, and spirit (i.e. wellness) in people with MS as well as managing the disease and its consequences.

  2. Editorial: introduction to group research projects developed within an intensive programme in railway and logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin MARINOV

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a special issue of the Journal Transport Problems on group research projects developed within the RailNewcastle summer school organised and held in Newcastle upon Tyne, North East England. The participants (both educators and students worked together in multinational and multidisciplinary groups to produce research projects. The topics of the group research projects were based around railway and logistics-related problems. As a result a collection of the best articles is produced for the purposes of this special issue.

  3. Impact of preoperative chronic renal failure on liver transplantation: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Peter Chi-Ho; Chen, Hsiu-Pin; Lin, Jr-Rung; Liu, Fu-Chao; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess whether preoperative chronic renal failure (CRF) affects the rates of postoperative complications and survival after liver transplantation. Methods This population-based retrospective cohort study included 2,931 recipients of liver transplantation performed between 1998 and 2012, enrolled from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of preoperative CRF. Results The overall estimated survival rate of liver transplantation recipients (LTRs) with preoperative CRF was significantly lower than that of patients without preoperative CRF (P=0.0085). There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of duration of intensive care unit stay, total hospital stay, bacteremia, postoperative bleeding, and pneumonia during hospitalization. Long-term adverse effects, including cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease, were not different between patients with versus without CRF. Conclusion These findings suggest that LTRs with preoperative CRF have a higher rate of mortality. PMID:28008264

  4. Perspectives of Community Co-Researchers About Group Dynamics and Equitable Partnership Within a Community-Academic Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Jacquez, Farrah; Zhen-Duan, Jenny

    2018-04-01

    Equitable partnership processes and group dynamics, including individual, relational, and structural factors, have been identified as key ingredients to successful community-based participatory research partnerships. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate the key aspects of group dynamics and partnership from the perspectives of community members serving as co-researchers. Semistructured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 Latino immigrant co-researchers from an intervention project with Latinos Unidos por la Salud (LU-Salud), a community research team composed of Latino immigrant community members and academic investigators working in a health research partnership. A deductive framework approach guided the interview process and qualitative data analysis. The LU-Salud co-researchers described relationships, personal growth, beliefs/identity motivation (individual dynamics), coexistence (relational dynamics), diversity, and power/resource sharing (structural dynamics) as key foundational aspects of the community-academic partnership. Building on existing CBPR and team science frameworks, these findings demonstrate that group dynamics and partnership processes are fundamental drivers of individual-level motivation and meaning making, which ultimately sustain efforts of community partners to engage with the research team and also contribute to the achievement of intended research outcomes.

  5. Spinal cord injury and Parkinson's disease: a population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T-S; Huang, Y-P; Wang, H-I; Pan, S-L

    2016-12-01

    To investigate whether patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at an increased risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). A population-based, propensity score-matched, longitudinal follow-up cohort study. The study was conducted using the National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. A total of 10 125 patients with at least 2 ambulatory visits with a diagnosis of SCI in 2001 were enrolled in the SCI group. The non-SCI group comprised 10 125 propensity score-matched patients without SCI. The propensity scores were computed using a logistic regression model that included age, sex, comorbidities and socioeconomic status. The PD-free survival rates of the two groups were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the effect of SCI on subsequent occurrence of PD. During the 3-year follow-up period, 99 subjects in the SCI group and 59 in the non-SCI group developed PD. The hazard ratio of PD for the SCI group compared with the non-SCI group was 1.65 (95% confidence interval 1.16-2.33, P=0.0049). The PD-free survival rate for the SCI group was lower than that for the non-SCI group (P=0.0017). This study shows that SCI is associated with a subsequent increased risk of PD. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism underlying this association.

  6. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Patricia Anne; Robins, Jo Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of research suggests that mind-body therapies may be appropriate to integrate into the treatment of depression, studies consistently lack methodological sophistication particularly in the area of control groups. In order to better understand the relationship between control group selection and methodological rigor, we provide a brief review of the literature on control group design in yoga and tai chi studies for depression, and we discuss challenges we have faced in the design of control groups for our recent clinical trials of these mind-body complementary therapies for women with depression. To address the multiple challenges of research about mind-body therapies, we suggest that researchers should consider 4 key questions: whether the study design matches the research question; whether the control group addresses performance, expectation, and detection bias; whether the control group is ethical, feasible, and attractive; and whether the control group is designed to adequately control for nonspecific intervention effects. Based on these questions, we provide specific recommendations about control group design with the goal of minimizing bias and maximizing validity in future research.

  7. FAA and NASA UTM Research Transition Team: Communications and Navigation (CN) Working Group (WCG) Kickoff Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Larrow, Jarrett

    2017-01-01

    This is NASA FAA UTM Research Transition Team Communications and Navigation working group kick off meeting presentation that addresses the followings. Objectives overview Overall timeline and scope Outcomes and expectations Communication method and frequency of meetings Upcoming evaluation Next steps.

  8. 75 FR 8330 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OPPT-2003-0004; FRL-8812-4] Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. [[Page 8331

  9. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

  10. Perinatal characteristics and breast cancer risk in daughters: a Scandinavian population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Troisi, R.; Grotmol, T.; Jacobsen, J.; Tretli, S.; Toft-Sørensen, H.; Gissler, M.; Kaaja, R.; Potischman, N.; Ekbom, A.; N. Hoover, R.; Stephansson, O.

    2013-01-01

    The in utero origins of breast cancer are an increasing focus of research. However, the long time period between exposure and disease diagnosis, and the lack of standardized perinatal data collection makes this research challenging. We assessed perinatal factors, as proxies for in utero exposures, and breast cancer risk using pooled, population-based birth and cancer registry data. Birth registries provided information on perinatal exposures. Cases were females born in Norway, Sweden or Denma...

  11. The OMERACT MRI in Arthritis Working Group - Update on Status and Future Research Priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Bird, Paul; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the status and future research priorities of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in arthritis working group. METHODS: A summary is provided of the activities of the group within rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic...

  12. "Spurring You on and Rooting for Each Other"--The Potential Value of Group Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebron, Clair L.; Morris, Dinah J.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored students' experience of collaborating to undertake a neuromusculoskeletal group research project which was conducted in partial fulfilment of their MSc course. A phenomenological approach was adopted to gain insight into participants' experience of learning and working in a group. Six participants who were all…

  13. Young adults' trajectories of Ecstasy use: a population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Andrew; Najman, Jake M; Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Plotnikova, Maria; Wells, Helene; Legosz, Margot; Kemp, Robert

    2013-11-01

    Young adults' Ecstasy use trajectories have important implications for individual and population-level consequences of Ecstasy use, but little relevant research has been conducted. This study prospectively examines Ecstasy trajectories in a population-based sample. Data are from the Natural History Study of Drug Use, a retrospective/prospective cohort study conducted in Australia. Population screening identified a probability sample of Ecstasy users aged 19-23 years. Complete data for 30 months of follow-up, comprising 4 time intervals, were available for 297 participants (88.4% of sample). Trajectories were derived using cluster analysis based on recent Ecstasy use at each interval. Trajectory predictors were examined using a generalized ordered logit model and included Ecstasy dependence (World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Instrument), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale), aggression (Young Adult Self Report) and contextual factors (e.g. attendance at electronic/dance music events). Three Ecstasy trajectories were identified (low, intermediate and high use). At its peak, the high-use trajectory involved 1-2 days Ecstasy use per week. Decreasing frequency of use was observed for intermediate and high-use trajectories from 12 months, independently of market factors. Intermediate and high-use trajectory membership was predicted by past Ecstasy consumption (>70 pills) and attendance at electronic/dance music events. High-use trajectory members were unlikely to have used Ecstasy for more than 3 years and tended to report consistently positive subjective effects at baseline. Given the social context and temporal course of Ecstasy use, Ecstasy trajectories might be better understood in terms of instrumental rather than addictive drug use patterns. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hepatoblastoma incidence in Taiwan: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giun-Yi Hung

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of hepatoblastoma is not well known in Taiwan. The goal of this study was to investigate the incidence rates of hepatoblastoma by age and sex. Methods: The data of patients with hepatoblastoma diagnosed from 1995 to 2012 were obtained from the population-based Taiwan Cancer Registry. Incidence rates of hepatoblastoma according to sex and age were analyzed. This study employed the published methods of International Agency for Research on Cancer to calculate the age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs, standard errors, 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and standardized incidence rate ratios (SIRRs. Results: In total, 211 patients were diagnosed with hepatoblastoma during the 18-year study period. The ASIR was 0.76 per million person-years. Hepatoblastoma was predominantly diagnosed in children (n = 184, 87.2%. By contrast, adolescents/adults (n = 10, 4.7% and elderly people (n = 17, 8.1% were rarely affected. The incidence peaked at ages 0–4 years with corresponding ASIR of 7.3 per million person-years. A significant male predilection was only found in children and elderly people, with male-to-female SIRRs of 1.23 and 1.89, respectively. During 1995–2012, the overall incidence of hepatoblastoma significantly increased only in children (annual percent change: 7.4%, 95% CI 3.9%–11.1%, p < 0.05 and specifically in boys (annual percent change: 6.5%, 95% CI 1.9%–11.2%, p < 0.05. Conclusion: Only 27 patients aged ≥ 15 years with hepatoblastoma were identified in this study, the existence of adult hepatoblastoma still requires novel molecular tools to elucidate. The association between the upward trend of hepatoblastoma incidence in boys and increased survival of prematurity in Taiwan warrants further investigations. Keywords: Hepatoblastoma, Incidence, Taiwan

  15. The State of Group Support System Research through a Survey of Papers 1980 to 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    and Beauclair (1990) develop the second point even further by introducing a scheme for codifying the "distance" between experiments based on their...repeatability. That is the apparent strength of the taxonomy proposed by Gray, Vogel and Beauclair (1990) in their Assessing GDSS Empirical Research... BEAUCLAIR RESEARCH MODEL (reproduced from Gray, et al., 1990) METAVARIABLES VARIABLES INDICATORS PERSONAL FACTORS (group member attitudes

  16. ORGANIC RESEARCH AND STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT: THE IFOAM EU REGIONAL GROUP CONTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalvez, Mr V; Schlueter, Mr M; Slabe, Ms A; Schmid, Mr O

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the concepts, criteria, procedures and some methodologies to increase stakeholders involvement and participatioin in organic research Projects in the European Union, based on the experiencie and practise of the IFOAM EU Regional Group (IFOAM-EURG), in transnational Organic research Projects, enfatising in achivements, dificulties and trends for the future

  17. Report for Working Group 1: Design Research in Civil and Environmental Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Paradisi, Irene

    2013-01-01

    The first 2013 DCEE working group meeting focused on issues associated with design research in civil and environmental engineering. It addressed some of the motivation for establishing design as a research discipline in CEE and some of the challenges and outstanding questions about how to do so....

  18. Analytical Chemistry Section Chemistry Research Group, Winfrith. Report for 1982 and 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amey, M.D.H.; Capp, P.D.; James, H.

    1984-01-01

    This report reviews the principal activities of the Analytical Chemistry Section of Chemistry Research Group, Winfrith, during 1982 and 1983. The objectives of the report are to outline the range of chemical analysis support services available at Winfrith, indicate the research areas from which samples currently originate, and identify instrumental techniques where significant updating has occurred. (author)

  19. Supporting the Thesis Writing Process of International Research Students through an Ongoing Writing Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linda Y.; Vandermensbrugghe, Joelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from research suggests writing support is particularly needed for international research students who have to tackle the challenges of thesis writing in English as their second language in Western academic settings. This article reports the development of an ongoing writing group to support the thesis writing process of international…

  20. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data...

  1. IGORR-IV - Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-01-01

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results

  2. IGORR-IV -- Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbalm, K.F. [comp.

    1995-12-31

    The International Group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions and written versions of the papers or hard copies of the vugraphs used are published in these proceedings. The five sessions were: (1) Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; (2) Research Reactors in Design and Construction; (3) ANS Closeout Activities; (4) and (5) Research, Development, and Analysis Results.

  3. The network researchers' network: A social network analysis of the IMP Group 1985-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C. M.; Ziang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  4. Evaluation of two population-based input functions for quantitative neurological FDG PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberl, S.; Anayat, A.R.; Fulton, R.R.; Hooper, P.K.; Fulham, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The conventional measurement of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRGlc) with fluorodexoyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) requires arterial or arterialised-venous (a-v) blood sampling at frequent intervals to obtain the plasma input function (IF). We evaluated the accuracy of rCMRGlc measurements using population-based IFs that were calibrated with two a-v blood samples. Population-based IFs were derived from: (1) the average of a-v IFs from 26 patients (Standard IF) and (2) a published model of FDG plasma concentration (Feng IF). Values for rCMRGlc calculated from the population-based IFs were compared with values obtained with IFs derived from frequent a-v blood sampling in 20 non-diabetic and six diabetic patients. Values for rCMRGlc calculated with the different IFs were highly correlated for both patient groups (r≥0.992) and root mean square residuals about the regression line were less than 0.24 mg/min/100 g. The Feng IF tended to underestimate high rCMRGlc. Both population-based IFs simplify the measurement of rCMRGlc with minimal loss in accuracy and require only two a-v blood samples for calibration. The reduced blood sampling requirements markedly reduce radiation exposure to the blood sampler. (orig.)

  5. Three-level multilevel growth models for nested change data: a guide for group treatment researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Illing, Vanessa; Joyce, Anthony S; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2009-07-01

    Researchers have known for years about the negative impact on Type I error rates caused by dependencies in hierarchically nested and longitudinal data. Despite this, group treatment researchers do not consistently use methods such as multilevel models (MLMs) to assess dependence and appropriately analyse their nested data. The goals of this study are to review some of the study design issues with regard to hierarchically nested and longitudinal data, discuss MLMs for assessing and handling dependence in data, and present a guide for developing a three-level growth MLM that is appropriate for group treatment data, design, and research questions. The authors present an example from group treatment research to illustrate these issues and methods.

  6. The Impact of a Population-Based Screening Program on Income- and Immigration-Related Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Tara; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim; Gu, Sumei; Wilton, Andrew S; Paszat, Lawrence

    2017-09-01

    Background: A population-based program promoting the Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer screening was introduced in 2008 in Ontario, Canada, where opportunistic screening with colonoscopy had been increasing in frequency. We evaluated the impact of the program on income and immigration-related disparities in screening. Methods: We used linked administrative data to calculate colorectal cancer screening rates for eligible Ontarians in each year between 2001/02 ( n = 2,852,619) and 2013/14 ( n = 4,139,304). We quantified disparities using an "inequality ratio" of screening rates in the most disadvantaged group relative to the most advantaged group. We performed segmented logistic regression analyses stratified by screening modality and adjusted for age, sex, rurality, comorbidity, and morbidity. Results: Between 2001/02 and 2013/14, the income and immigration inequality ratios narrowed from 0.74 to 0.80 and 0.55 to 0.69, respectively. Before the screening program, the income inequality ratio was widening by 1% per year (95% CI 1% to 1%); in the year it was introduced, it narrowed by 4% (95% CI 2% to 7%) and in the years following, it remained stable [0% decrease (95% CI 1% decrease to 0% decrease) per year]. Results were similar for immigration-related disparities. After program introduction, disparities in receiving FOBT were narrowing at a faster rate while disparities in receiving colonoscopy were widening at a slower rate. Conclusions: Introduction of a population-based screening program promoting FOBT for colorectal cancer was associated with only modest improvements in immigration and income-related disparities. Impact: Reducing immigration and income-related disparities should be a focus for future research and policy work. Disparities in Ontario seem to be driven by a higher uptake of colonoscopy among more advantaged groups. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1401-10. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Facilitating practitioner research into strategies for improving communication in classroom groups: Action research and interaction analysis — A reconciliation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Jo; Fawns, Rod

    1993-12-01

    This study involved collaborative classroom-based observation of student communication and cognition in small groups after the implementation of two management strategies in science departments in several schools. The paper presents the data and provides insights into the conduct of research and teacher development in the midst of educational change.

  8. Diseases and their management strategies take top research priority in watermelon research and development group member’s survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon is an important crop grown for its delicious fruit in the U.S. and in many countries across the world. A survey of members of Watermelon Research and Development Group (WRDG) was conducted via email and during WRDG meetings in 2014 and 2015 in an effort to identify and rank important rese...

  9. [Analysis of scientific production and bibliometric impact of a group of Spanish clinical researchers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miró, O; Burbano Santos, P; Trilla, A; Casademont, J; Fernandez Pérez, C; Martín-Sánchez, Fj

    2016-01-01

    To study the behaviour of several indicators of scientific production and repercussion in a group of Spanish clinical researchers and to evaluate their possible utility for interpreting individual or collective scientific pathways. We performed a unicentric, ecological pilot study involving a group of physicians with consolidated research experience. From the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) database, we obtained the number of publications of each author (indicator of production) and the number of citations, impact factor and h index (indicators of repercussion). These indicators were calculated individually for each of the years of research experience and we assessed the relationship between the experience of the researcher and the value of the indicator achieved, the relationship between these indicators themselves, and their temporal evolution, both individually and for the entire group. We analysed 35 researchers with a research experience of 28.4 (9.6) years. The h index showed the lowest coefficient of variance. The relationship between the indicators and research experience was significant, albeit modest (R2 between 0.15-0.22). The 4 indicators showed good correlations. The temporal evolution of the indicators, both individual and collective, adjusted better to a second grade polynomial than a linear function: individually, all the authors obtained R2>0.90 in all the indicators; together the best adjustment was produced with the h index (R2=0.61). Based on the indicator used, substantial variations may be produced in the researchers' ranking. A model of the temporal evolution of the indicators of production and repercussion can be described in a relatively homogeneous sample of researchers and the h index seems to demonstrate certain advantages compared to the remaining indicators. This type of analysis could become a predictive tool of performance to be achieved not only for a particular researcher, but also for a homogeneous group of resear-chers

  10. Web-based management of research groups - using the right tools and an adequate integration strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Menezes, Mario Olimpio de, E-mail: barroso@ipen.b, E-mail: mario@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa em Gestao do Conhecimento Aplicada a Area Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays broad interest in a couple of inter linked subject areas can make the configuration of a research group to be much diversified both in terms of its components and of the binding relationships that glues the group together. That is the case of the research group for knowledge management and its applications to nuclear technology - KMANT at IPEN, a living entity born 7 years ago and that has sustainably attracted new collaborators. This paper describes the strategic planning of the group, its charter and credo, the present components of the group and the diversified nature of their relations with the group and with IPEN. Then the technical competencies and currently research lines (or programs) are described as well as the research projects, and the management scheme of the group. In the sequence the web-based management and collaboration tools are described as well our experience with their use. KMANT have experiment with over 20 systems and software in this area, but we will focus on those aimed at: (a) web-based project management (RedMine, ClockinIT, Who does, PhProjekt and Dotproject); (b) teaching platform (Moodle); (c) mapping and knowledge representation tools (Cmap, Freemind and VUE); (d) Simulation tools (Matlab, Vensim and NetLogo); (e) social network analysis tools (ORA, MultiNet and UciNet); (f) statistical analysis and modeling tools (R and SmartPLS). Special emphasis is given to the coupling of the group permanent activities like graduate courses and regular seminars and how newcomers are selected and trained to be able to enroll the group. A global assessment of the role the management strategy and available tool set for the group performance is presented. (author)

  11. Web-based management of research groups - using the right tools and an adequate integration strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Menezes, Mario Olimpio de

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays broad interest in a couple of inter linked subject areas can make the configuration of a research group to be much diversified both in terms of its components and of the binding relationships that glues the group together. That is the case of the research group for knowledge management and its applications to nuclear technology - KMANT at IPEN, a living entity born 7 years ago and that has sustainably attracted new collaborators. This paper describes the strategic planning of the group, its charter and credo, the present components of the group and the diversified nature of their relations with the group and with IPEN. Then the technical competencies and currently research lines (or programs) are described as well as the research projects, and the management scheme of the group. In the sequence the web-based management and collaboration tools are described as well our experience with their use. KMANT have experiment with over 20 systems and software in this area, but we will focus on those aimed at: (a) web-based project management (RedMine, ClockinIT, Who does, PhProjekt and Dotproject); (b) teaching platform (Moodle); (c) mapping and knowledge representation tools (Cmap, Freemind and VUE); (d) Simulation tools (Matlab, Vensim and NetLogo); (e) social network analysis tools (ORA, MultiNet and UciNet); (f) statistical analysis and modeling tools (R and SmartPLS). Special emphasis is given to the coupling of the group permanent activities like graduate courses and regular seminars and how newcomers are selected and trained to be able to enroll the group. A global assessment of the role the management strategy and available tool set for the group performance is presented. (author)

  12. Predictors of autopsy following stillbirth in Queensland, Australia: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibiebele, Ibinabo; Boyle, Frances M; Horey, Dell; Lourie, Rohan; Wilson, Patricia; Coory, Michael; Flenady, Vicki

    2017-02-01

    Accurate determination of causes of stillbirth is critical to effective prevention. Autopsy remains the gold standard investigation for stillbirth; however, with low autopsy rates many stillbirths are likely to be 'unexplored' rather than 'unexplained'. To determine factors associated with autopsy following stillbirth. Routinely collected population-based data on all singleton stillbirths of at least 400 g birthweight or 20 weeks gestation in Queensland between July 2000 and December 2011 were examined. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR, 99% CI) were calculated accounting for sociodemographic, pregnancy and medical factors. Of interest was initially unexplained stillbirth on the death certificate; analysis was stratified by gestational age group (autopsy performed. Initially unexplained stillbirth was associated with decreased odds of autopsy at late gestation (28-36 weeks, aOR 0.63 (99% CI 0.42-0.93); ≥37 weeks, aOR 0.53 (99% CI 0.35-0.81)) as was intrapartum stillbirth (autopsy following stillbirth. Pregnancy factors are associated with stillbirth autopsy. These findings have implications for development of appropriate information for parents and education of clinical staff. Further research is needed into factors influencing autopsy following stillbirth. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Long-term survival among Hodgkin's lymphoma patients with gastrointestinal cancer: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, P.; Li, H.; Milano, M. T.; Stovall, M.; Constine, L. S.; Travis, L. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background The increased risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers after Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is well established. However, no large population-based study has described the actuarial survival after subsequent GI cancers in HL survivors (HL-GI). Patients and methods For 209 patients with HL-GI cancers (105 colon, 35 stomach, 30 pancreas, 21 rectum, and 18 esophagus) and 484 165 patients with first primary GI cancers (GI-1), actuarial survival was compared, accounting for age, gender, race, GI cancer stage, radiation for HL, and other variables. Results Though survival of HL patients who developed localized stage colon cancer was similar to that of the GI-1 group, overall survival (OS) of HL patients with regional or distant stage colon cancer was reduced [hazard ratio, (HR) = 1.46, P = 0.01]. The HL survivors with regional or distant stage colon cancer in the transverse segment had an especially high risk of mortality (HR: 2.7, P = 0.001 for OS). For localized stomach cancer, OS was inferior among HL survivors (HR = 3.46, P = 0.006). Conclusions The HL patients who develop GI cancer experience significantly reduced survival compared with patients with a first primary GI cancer. Further research is needed to explain the inferior survival of HL patients and to define selection criteria for cancer screening in HL survivors. PMID:22855552

  14. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  15. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; Graaf, de R.; Have, M. ten; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n ¼ 5504) the costs

  16. Economic costs of minor depression: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, P.; Smit, H.F.E.; Oostenbrink, J.; de Graaf, R.; ten Have, M.; Beekman, A.T.F.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Although the clinical relevance of minor depression has been demonstrated in many studies, the economic costs are not well explored. In this study, we examine the economic costs of minor depression. Method: In a large-scale, population-based study in the Netherlands (n = 5504) the costs

  17. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acarturk, C.; Smit, H.F.E.; de Graaf, R.; van Straten, A.; ten Have, M.; Cuijpers, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Methods: Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based

  18. Developing an organizing framework to guide nursing research in the Children’s Oncology Group (COG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Hooke, Mary C.; Ruccione, Kathleen; Landier, Wendy; Haase, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and application of an organizing research framework to guide COG Nursing research. Data Sources Research articles, reports and meeting minutes Conclusion An organizing research framework helps to outline research focus and articulate the scientific knowledge being produced by nurses in the pediatric cooperative group. Implication for Nursing Practice The use of an organizing framework for COG nursing research can facilitate clinical nurses’ understanding of how children and families sustain or regain optimal health when faced with a pediatric cancer diagnosis through interventions designed to promote individual and family resilience. The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is the sole National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported cooperative pediatric oncology clinical trials group and the largest organization in the world devoted exclusively to pediatric cancer research. It was founded in 2000 following the merger of the four legacy NCI-supported pediatric clinical trials groups (Children’s Cancer Group [CCG], Pediatric Oncology Group [POG], National Wilms Tumor Study Group, and Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group). The COG currently has over 200 member institutions across North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe and a multidisciplinary membership of over 8,000 pediatric, radiation, and surgical oncologists, nurses, clinical research associates, pharmacists, behavioral scientists, pathologists, laboratory scientists, patient/parent advocates and other pediatric cancer specialists. The COG Nursing Discipline was formed from the merger of the legacy CCG and POG Nursing Committees, and current membership exceeds 2000 registered nurses. The discipline has a well-developed infrastructure that promotes nursing involvement throughout all levels of the organization, including representation on disease, protocol, scientific, executive and other administrative committees (e.g., nominating committee, data safety monitoring

  19. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindfors Pirjo L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey. The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%; and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%. Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying

  20. Cyberbullying among Finnish adolescents – a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cyberbullying, threatening or harassing another via the internet or mobile phones, does not cause physically harm and thus the consequences are less visible. Little research has been performed on the occurrence of cyberbullying among adolescents or the perception of its seriousness. Only a few population-based studies have been published, none of which included research on the witnessing of cyberbullying. Here, we examined exposure to cyberbullying during the last year, and its frequency and perceived seriousness among 12 to 18-year-old adolescents in Finland. We studied four dimensions of cyberbullying: being a victim, bully, or both victim and bully of cyberbullying, and witnessing the cyberbullying of friends. Methods Self-administered questionnaires, including four questions on cyberbullying, were mailed to a representative sample of 12-, 14-, 16-, and 18-year-old Finns in 2009 (the Adolescent Health and Lifestyle Survey). The respondents could answer via the internet or paper questionnaire. Results The number of respondents was 5516 and the response rate was 56%. Girls more often than boys reported experiencing at least one dimension of cyberbullying during the last year. The proportion was highest among 14-year-olds and lowest among 18-year-olds of both sexes. Among girls, the most commonly encountered dimension was witnessing the cyberbullying of friends (16%); and being a victim was slightly more common than being a bully (11% vs. 9%). Among boys, an equal proportion, approximately 10%, had been a victim, a bully, or had witnessed cyberbullying. The proportion of bully-victims was 4%. Serious and disruptive cyberbullying was experienced by 2% of respondents and weekly cyberbullying by 1%; only 0.5% of respondents had been bullied weekly and considered bullying serious and disruptive. Conclusions Adolescents are commonly exposed to cyberbullying, but it is rarely frequent or considered serious or disruptive. Cyberbullying exposure differed between

  1. Experience Exchange Group (EEG) Approach as a Means for Research to be rooted in Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    1997-01-01

    of preliminary studies found interesting to set up an EEG composed of representatives from industry and a researcher. In the paper some general research methods pertinent to the area industrial management are discussed. The EEG concept is introduced and characterised in comparison with the other methods. EEG...... activities are described and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research process is proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological and quality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities could possibly contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper ends up looking at future......The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an Experience Exchange Group(EEG) can be involved in a research process in the area of industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoing research in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research it was after a series...

  2. Safety research needs for Russian-designed reactors / report by an OECD Support Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Seven Task Teams were formed within the OECD Support Group, addressing the following topics: Thermal-Hydraulics/Plant Transients for VVERs, Integrity of Equipment and Structures for VVERs, Severe Accidents for VVERs, Operational Safety Issues, Thermal-Hydraulics/Plant Transients for RBMKs, Integrity of Equipment and Structures for RBMKs, Severe Accidents for RBMKs. Each Task Team prepared and presented its report to the Support Group as a whole for review and approval. Consequently, the report represents a consensus of the Support Group that outlines the arguments for the safely research needs with the focus on the main technical issues that justify the need and urgency. The written text addresses three basic questions: What is the safety concern? What are the open issues? What are the safety research needs? The safety research needs as identified by the seven Task Teams, and approved by the Support Group, are reflected in the structure of the report. The chapter on the Uses of Safety Research provides examples on how Western research has been applied to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. In addition, the chapter emphasises the need for a national safety research policy

  3. IGORR-IV: Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbalm, K.F.

    1995-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR-IV) was attended by was good 55 registered participants from 28 organizations in 13 countries, which compares well with the previous meetings. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions over the two-day meeting. Session subjects were: Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; Research Reactors in Desin and Construction; Research, Development, and Analysis Results of Thermal Hydraulic Calculations, U 3 Si 2 Fuel Performance and Faibrication; Structural Materials Performance; Neutronics; Severe Accident analysis. Written versions of the papers or hard copies of the viewgraphs used are published in these Proceedings

  4. IGORR 2: Proceedings of the 2. meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-07-01

    The International group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Sessions during this second meeting were devoted to research reactor reports (GRENOBLE reactor, FRM-II, HIFAR, PIK, reactors at JAERI, MAPLE, ANS, NIST, MURR, TRIGA, BR-2, SIRIUS 2); other neutron sources; and two workshops were dealing with research and development results and needs and reports on progress in needed of R and D areas identified at IGORR 1.

  5. IGORR-IV: Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenbalm, K F [comp.

    1995-07-01

    The fourth meeting of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR-IV) was attended by was good 55 registered participants from 28 organizations in 13 countries, which compares well with the previous meetings. Twenty-nine papers were presented in five sessions over the two-day meeting. Session subjects were: Operating Research Reactors and Facility Upgrades; Research Reactors in Desin and Construction; Research, Development, and Analysis Results of Thermal Hydraulic Calculations, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} Fuel Performance and Faibrication; Structural Materials Performance; Neutronics; Severe Accident analysis. Written versions of the papers or hard copies of the viewgraphs used are published in these Proceedings.

  6. IGORR 2: Proceedings of the 2. meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The International group on Research Reactors was formed to facilitate the sharing of knowledge and experience among those institutions and individuals who are actively working to design, build, and promote new research reactors or to make significant upgrades to existing facilities. Sessions during this second meeting were devoted to research reactor reports (GRENOBLE reactor, FRM-II, HIFAR, PIK, reactors at JAERI, MAPLE, ANS, NIST, MURR, TRIGA, BR-2, SIRIUS 2); other neutron sources; and two workshops were dealing with research and development results and needs and reports on progress in needed of R and D areas identified at IGORR 1

  7. The use of customised versus population-based birthweight standards in predicting perinatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Platt, R W; Cnattingius, S; Joseph, K S; Kramer, M S

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to critically examine potential artifacts and biases underlying the use of 'customised' standards of birthweight for gestational age (GA). Population-based cohort study. Sweden. A total of 782,303 singletons > or =28 weeks of gestation born in 1992-2001 to Nordic mothers with complete data on birthweight; GA; and maternal age, parity, height, and pre-pregnancy weight. We compared perinatal mortality in four groups of infants based on the following classification of small for gestational age (SGA): non-SGA based on either population-based or customised standards (the reference group), SGA based on the population-based standard only, SGA based on the customised standard only, and SGA according to both standards. We used graphical methods to compare GA-specific birthweight cutoffs for SGA using the two standards and also used logistic regression to control for differences in GA and maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) in the four groups. Perinatal mortality, including stillbirth and neonatal death. Customisation led to a large artifactual increase in the proportion of SGA infants born preterm. Adjustment for differences in GA and maternal BMI markedly reduced the excess risk among infants classified as SGA by customised standards only. The large increase in perinatal mortality risk among infants classified as SGA based on customised standards is largely an artifact due to inclusion of more preterm births.

  8. Influence of benefits, results and obstacles’ perceptions by research groups on interactions with companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneziano de Castro Araujo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how expected perceptions of academic research groups about results, benefits and obstacles influence the number of interactions with firms, based on a survey of university-industry interactions in Brazil. For this purpose, by means of a nonparametric Item Response Theory (NIRT, non ad hoc clusters were created from patterns of survey answers related with the analyzed perceptions. Using these clusters, a model was estimated to identify how perceptions influence the number of interactions of research groups. The results indicate that research groups that perceive intangible benefits and knowledge results as more important tend to have more interactions with firms. In addition, transactional obstacles imply in less interactions with firms. Finally, some implications on public policies are presented.

  9. Report of short term research group on environment safety in nuclear fuel cycle, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The research group on environment safety in nuclear fuel cycle was organized in fiscal 1979 as the research group in the range of the common utilization of Yayoi, and this is the third year since it developed into the short term research group in the Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory. The results obtained so far were summarized in three reports, UTNL-R110, 134 and 147. In this fiscal year, ''The chemistry of reprocessing'' is the subtheme, and this short term research is to be carried out. The meeting is held on March 23 and 24, 1984, in this Laboratory, and the following reports are presented. The conference on institutional stability and the disposal of nuclear and chemically toxic wastes held at MIT, the social scientific analysis of nuclear power development, the present status of reprocessing research in foreign countries, the problems based on the operation experience of actual plants, the chemistry of fuel dissolution, the chemistry of solvent extraction, reprocessing offgas treatment and problems, the chemistry of fixing Kr and I in zeolite, waste treatment in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., the chemistry of actinoids, denitration process and the chemistry of MOX production, and future reprocessing research. (Kako, I.)

  10. Group Development and Integration in a Cross-Disciplinary and Intercultural Research Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna

    2017-04-01

    Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews ( n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.

  11. Group Development and Integration in a Cross-Disciplinary and Intercultural Research Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Lawlor, Naomi; Allred, Shorna

    2017-04-01

    Cross-disciplinary research is necessary to solve many complex problems that affect society today, including problems involving linked social and environmental systems. Examples include natural resource management or scarcity problems, problematic effects of climate change, and environmental pollution issues. Intercultural research teams are needed to address many complex environmental matters as they often cross geographic and political boundaries, and involve people of different countries and cultures. It follows that disciplinarily and culturally diverse research teams have been organized to investigate and address environmental issues. This case study investigates a team composed of both monolingual and bilingual Chilean and US university researchers who are geoscientists, engineers and economists. The objective of this research team was to study both the natural and human parts of a hydrologic system in a hyper-arid region in northern Chile. Interviews (n = 8) addressed research questions focusing on the interaction of cross-disciplinary diversity and cultural diversity during group integration and development within the team. The case study revealed that the group struggled more with cross-disciplinary challenges than with intercultural ones. Particularly challenging ones were instances the of disciplinary crosstalk, or hidden misunderstandings, where team members thought they understood their cross-disciplinary colleagues, when in reality they did not. Results showed that translation served as a facilitator to cross-disciplinary integration of the research team. The use of translation in group meetings as a strategy for effective cross-disciplinary integration can be extended to monolingual cross-disciplinary teams as well.

  12. The prevalence of dementia in a Portuguese community sample: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Cardoso, Ana; Verdelho, Ana; Alves da Silva, Joaquim; Caldas de Almeida, Manuel; Fernandes, Alexandra; Raminhos, Cátia; Ferri, Cleusa P; Prina, A Matthew; Prince, Martin; Xavier, Miguel

    2017-11-07

    Dementia imposes a high burden of disease worldwide. Recent epidemiological studies in European community samples are scarce. In Portugal, community prevalence data is very limited. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG) population-based research programmes are focused in low and middle income countries, where the assessments proved to be culture and education fair. We applied the 10/66 DRG prevalence survey methodology in Portugal, where levels of illiteracy in older populations are still high. A cross-sectional comprehensive one-phase survey was conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of two geographically defined catchment areas in Southern Portugal (one urban and one rural site). Nursing home residents were not included in the present study. Standardized 10/66 DRG assessments include a cognitive module, an informant interview and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT, providing data on dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders including depression, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, disability/functioning, health service utilization, care arrangements and caregiver strain. We interviewed 1405 old age participants (mean age 74.9, SD = 6.7 years; 55.5% women) after 313 (18.2%) refusals to participate. The prevalence rate for dementia in community-dwellers was 9.23% (95% CI 7.80-10.90) using the 10/66 DRG algorithm and 3.65% (95% CI 2.97-4.97) using DSM-IV criteria. Pure Alzheimer's disease was the most prevalent dementia subtype (41.9%). The prevalence of dementia was strongly age-dependent for both criteria, but there was no association with sex. Dementia prevalence was higher than previously reported in Portugal. The discrepancy between prevalence according to the 10/66 DRG algorithm and the DSM-IV criteria is consistent with that observed in less developed countries; this suggests potential underestimation using the latter approach, although relative validity of these two approaches remains to be confirmed in the European context. We

  13. The prevalence of dementia in a Portuguese community sample: a 10/66 Dementia Research Group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Gonçalves-Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dementia imposes a high burden of disease worldwide. Recent epidemiological studies in European community samples are scarce. In Portugal, community prevalence data is very limited. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group (DRG population-based research programmes are focused in low and middle income countries, where the assessments proved to be culture and education fair. We applied the 10/66 DRG prevalence survey methodology in Portugal, where levels of illiteracy in older populations are still high. Methods A cross-sectional comprehensive one-phase survey was conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of two geographically defined catchment areas in Southern Portugal (one urban and one rural site. Nursing home residents were not included in the present study. Standardized 10/66 DRG assessments include a cognitive module, an informant interview and the Geriatric Mental State-AGECAT, providing data on dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders including depression, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, disability/functioning, health service utilization, care arrangements and caregiver strain. Results We interviewed 1405 old age participants (mean age 74.9, SD = 6.7 years; 55.5% women after 313 (18.2% refusals to participate. The prevalence rate for dementia in community-dwellers was 9.23% (95% CI 7.80–10.90 using the 10/66 DRG algorithm and 3.65% (95% CI 2.97–4.97 using DSM-IV criteria. Pure Alzheimer’s disease was the most prevalent dementia subtype (41.9%. The prevalence of dementia was strongly age-dependent for both criteria, but there was no association with sex. Conclusions Dementia prevalence was higher than previously reported in Portugal. The discrepancy between prevalence according to the 10/66 DRG algorithm and the DSM-IV criteria is consistent with that observed in less developed countries; this suggests potential underestimation using the latter approach, although relative validity of these two

  14. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  15. Increased migraine risk in osteoporosis patients: a nationwide population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chieh-Hsin; Zhang, Zi-Hao; Wu, Ming-Kung; Wang, Chiu-Huan; Lu, Ying-Yi; Lin, Chih-Lung

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis and migraine are both important public health problems and may have overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of this study was to use a Taiwanese population-based dataset to assess migraine risk in osteoporosis patients. Methods The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database was used to analyse data for 40,672 patients aged ?20?years who had been diagnosed with osteoporosis during 1996?2010. An additional 40,672 age-matched patients without osteoporos...

  16. Lin Receives 2010 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Ning Lin has been awarded the Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Lin's thesis is entitled “Multi-hazard risk analysis related to hurricanes.” She is scheduled to present an invited talk in the Extreme Natural Events: Modeling, Prediction, and Mitigation session (NH20) during the 2010 AGU Fall Meeting, held 13-17 December in San Francisco, Calif. Lin will be formally presented with the award at the Natural Hazards focus group reception on 14 December 2010.

  17. Abstracts of the 15. annual workshop of the Peatland Ecology Research Group (PERG) : peatland event 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The Peatland Ecology Research Group (PERG) deals with the integrated sustainable management of Canadian peatlands, with projects involving the development of ecological restoration of peatland ecosystems after peat mining; reclamation of abandoned peatlands; hydrology, geochemistry, microbiology of natural, harvested and restored peatlands; peatland conservation strategies; and Sphagnum moss ecology and productivity. The Group has established a method for the re-establishing vegetation on mined peatlands. Research by PERG has initiated the development of global peatland conservation strategies. This workshop featured 35 presentations, of which 9 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  18. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Asynchronous Online Focus Groups in Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Williams PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.

  19. Report of the Independent Expert Group on the Future of European Public Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Directorate General has set up an independent expert group. Its task was to take stock of the impacts, challenges and limitations of EU-funded public health research under the current and previous research framework programmes, and to identify priorities for future research. The experts, who worked in two...... agendas and national policy agendas? How to improve the uptake of evidence generated from public health research in the development of public health policy? This report summarises the recommendations from Subgroup 2.......The next EU research and innovation framework programme 'Horizon 2020' will address a number of important societal challenges including health, demographic changes and well-being. To prepare the work in these areas, the Health Directorate of the European Commission's Research & Innovation...

  20. The energy market research of 1991. Method of segmenting households into ''life style groups''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljones, A.; Doorman, G.

    1992-09-01

    The report discusses a method of classifying households into life style groups based on the individuals' needs, wishes and attitudes. Seven such groups have been defined based on nation-wide research among 1022 households in 1991. These groups are described with respect to a number of factors of attitude, housing conditions, socio-economic characteristics, use of media etc. This way of segmenting the households may give the power companies a better understanding of what kind of ''products'' and services their customers would like to have and how to market them efficiently. 5 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Splenectomy and risk of renal and perinephric abscesses: A population-based cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2016-08-01

    Little epidemiological research is available on the relationship between splenectomy and renal and perinephric abscesses. The purpose of the study was to examine this issue in Taiwan.We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using the hospitalization dataset of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 16,426 participants aged 20 and older who were newly diagnosed with splenectomy from 1998 to 2010 were assigned to the splenectomy group, whereas 65,653 sex-matched, age-matched, and comorbidity-matched, randomly selected participants without splenectomy were assigned to the nonsplenectomy group. The incidence of renal and perinephric abscesses at the end of 2011 was measured in both groups. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to measure the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of renal and perinephric abscesses associated with splenectomy and other comorbidities including cystic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, and urolithiasis.The overall incidence rate of renal and perinephric abscesses was 2.14-fold greater in the splenectomy group than that in the nonsplenectomy group (2.24 per 10,000 person-years vs 1.05 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 2.02, 2.28). After controlling for sex, age, cystic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, urinary tract infection, and urolithiasis, the multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that the adjusted HR of renal and perinephric abscesses was 2.24 for the splenectomy group (95 % CI 1.30, 3.88), when compared with the nonsplenectomy group. In further analysis, the adjusted HR markedly increased to 7.69 for those comorbid with splenectomy and diabetes mellitus (95% CI 3.31, 17.9).Splenectomy is associated with renal and perinephric abscesses, particularly comorbid with diabetes mellitus. In view of its potential morbidity and mortality, clinicians should consider the possibility of renal and perinephric abscesses when

  2. First epidemiological study of contact dermatitis in Spain - 1977. Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarasa, J M

    1979-01-01

    The present work is the first epidemiological study carried out by the Spanish Contact Dermatitis Research Group during 1977. During this year 2806 patients were studied with patch test among 30873 dermatological patients. The 60-62% of the totality had reactivity to one or more patches. Four major groups of allergens were able to consider, following the incidence in their power of sensitize. First group with strong incidence include: Nickel, Chromate, Cobalt, T.M.T.D.,P.P.D.A., Mercapto mix., and Wood tars. Second and third groups with medium incidence contain: Caines, Carbonates, Neomycin, Balsam of Peru, Mercury, Lanolin, Naphtyl mix., Formaldehyde, Benzalkonium chloride, P. P. D. A. mix, and Turpentine. Four group show very low incidence substances, as: Epoxi, Sulfonamides, Etilendiamine, Parabens, Chinoform, Colophony and Cinnamon oil. Few comments about age and occupations are included.

  3. The Mela Study: exploring barriers to diabetes research in black and minority ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Gillian A; Chowdhury, Tahseen A; Griffiths, Christopher J; Hood, Rosie K E; Mathews, Christopher; Hitman, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups are particularly susceptible to diabetes and its vascular complications in the United Kingdom and most western societies. To understand potential predisposition and tailor treatments accordingly, there is a real need to engage these groups in diabetes research. Despite this, BME participation in research studies continues to remain low in most countries and this may be a contributory factor to reduced health outcomes and poorer quality of life in these groups. This study explores the barriers BME groups may have towards participation in diabetes research in one area of East London, and includes local recommendations on how to improve this for the future. A questionnaire designed from previously reported exploratory work and piloted in several BME localities was distributed at the East London Bangladeshi Mela and similar cultural and religious events in London, UK. People were asked opportunistically to complete the survey themselves if they understood English, or discuss their responses with an advocate. The purpose of the questionnaire was to understand current local awareness with regards to diabetes, identify specific BME barriers and attitudes towards diabetes research by ethnicity, gender and age, and gain insight into how these barriers may be addressed. Of 1682 people surveyed (16-90 years; median age 40 years), 36.4% were South Asian, 25.9% White, and 11.1% Black and other ethnicities; 26.6% withheld their ethnicity. Over half cited language problems generally (54%) and lack of research awareness (56%) as main barriers to engaging in research. South Asian groups were more likely to cite research as too time consuming (42%) whereas Black groups were more concerned with potential drug side effects in research (39%). Participants expressed a general mistrust of research, and the need for researchers to be honest in their approach. Recommendations for increased participation in South Asian groups centred round both helping

  4. Safety Research Opportunities Post-Fukushima. Initial Report of the Senior Expert Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Won-Pil; Yang, Joon-Eon; Ball, Joanne; Glowa, Glenn; Bisconti, Giulia; Peko, Damian; Bolshov, Leonid; Burgazzi, Luciano; De Rosa, Felice; Conde, Jose M.; Cook, Gary; Evrard, Jean-Michel; Jacquemain, Didier; Funaki, Kentaro; Uematsu, Mari Marianne; Miyoshi, Katsumasa; Tatematsu, Atsushi; Hirano, Masashi; Hoshi, Harutaka; Kawaragi, Chie; Kobayashi, Youko; Sakamoto, Kazunobu; Journeau, Christophe; Kim, Han-Chul; Klein-Hessling, Walter; Sonnenkalb, Martin; Koganeya, Toshiyuki; White, Andrew; ); Lind, Terttaliisa; Zimmermann, Martin; Lindholm, Ilona; Castelo Lopez, Carlos; Nagase, Fumihisa; Washiya, Tadahiro; Oima, Hirofumi; Okada, Hiro; Richards, Stuart; West, Steven; Sandberg, Nils; Suzuki, Shunichi; Vitanza, Carlo; Yamanaka, Yasunori

    2017-02-01

    One of the imperatives following the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station is for the nuclear science and industry communities to ensure that knowledge gaps in nuclear safety are identified and that research programs to address these gaps are being instituted. In recognition of broad international interest in additional information that could be gained from post-accident examinations related to Fukushima Daiichi, Japan recommended to the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) in June 2013 that a process be developed to identify and follow up on opportunities to address safety research gaps. Consequently, a Senior Expert Group (SEG) on Safety Research Opportunities post-Fukushima (SAREF) was formed. The members of the group are senior technical experts from technical support organisations, nuclear regulatory authorities and Japanese organisations responsible for planning and execution of Fukushima Daiichi decommissioning. The domain of interest for the group is activities that address safety research knowledge gaps and also the needs of Fukushima Daiichi decommissioning. SEG on SAREF identified areas where these two interests intersect or overlap, and activities that could be undertaken to generate information of common benefit. The group's output is documented in this report; Chapter 2 describes the current status of the damaged units at Fukushima Daiichi NPS; Chapter 3 summarises safety research areas of common interest; Chapter 4 summarises the safety research activities recommended as short-term projects; Chapter 5 summarises those as long-term considerations; Chapter 6 supplies conclusions and recommendations. The appendix contains detailed information compiled by the SEG members on all safety research areas of interest

  5. Academic Achievement in Adults with a History of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Population-Based Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Robert G; Katusic, Slavica K; Colligan, Robert C; Killian, Jill M; Weaver, Amy L; Barbaresi, William J

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on the developmental course of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is limited by biased clinic-referred samples and other methodological problems. Thus, questions about adult academic outcomes associated with childhood ADHD remain unanswered. Thus, the objective of this study was to describe academic outcomes in adulthood among incident cases of research-identified childhood ADHD versus non-ADHD referents from a population-based birth cohort. Young adults with research-identified childhood ADHD (N = 232; mean age 27.0 yr; 72.0% men) and referents (N = 335; mean age 28.6 yr; 62.7% men) from a 1976 to 1982 birth cohort (N = 5699) were invited to participate in a followup study and were administered an academic achievement battery consisting of the basic reading component of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III) and the arithmetic subtest of the Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition (WRAT-3). Outcomes were compared between the 2 groups using linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, and comorbid learning disability status. Childhood ADHD cases scored from 3 to 5 grade equivalents lower on all academic tests compared with referents, with mean (SD) standard scores of 95.7 (8.4) versus 101.8 (8.1) in basic reading; 95.0 (9.3) versus 101.9 (8.5) in letterword identification; 98.2 (8.6) versus 103.2 (9.2) in passage comprehension; 95.7 (9.1) versus 100.9 (9.0) in word attack; and 87.8 (12.9) versus 98.0 (12.0) in arithmetic. This is the first prospective, population-based study of adult academic outcomes of childhood ADHD. Our data provide evidence that childhood onset ADHD is associated with long-term underachievement in reading and math that may negatively impact ultimate educational attainment and occupational functioning in adulthood.

  6. The Effects of Ability Grouping: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Theresa Koontz; Taylor, Bob L.

    The study reported in this paper quantitatively integrated the recent research findings on ability grouping in order to generalize about these effects on student achievement and student self-concept. Meta-analysis was used to statistically integrate the empirical data. The relationships among various experimental variables including grade level,…

  7. Supervision of School and Youth Groups on Lift-Served Ski Slopes: A Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Andrew; Holmes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Supervised practice is a common feature of many snow sports excursions to downhill ski resorts by school or youth groups, often in combination with lessons from a ski school. What is the role of supervision in preventing mishaps, injury, or fatalities? This article presents results of a search of published snow sports safety research for evidence…

  8. College Students' Interpretation of Research Reports on Group Differences: The Tall-Tale Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Zaboski, Brian A.; Perry, Tiffany R.

    2015-01-01

    How does the student untrained in advanced statistics interpret results of research that reports a group difference? In two studies, statistically untrained college students were presented with abstracts or professional associations' reports and asked for estimates of scores obtained by the original participants in the studies. These estimates…

  9. Collaborative translational research leading to multicenter clinical trials in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: the Cooperative International Neuromuscular Research Group (CINRG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar, Diana M; Henricson, Erik K; Pasquali, Livia; Gorni, Ksenija; Hoffman, Eric P

    2002-10-01

    Progress in the development of rationally based therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy has been accelerated by encouraging multidisciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration between basic science and clinical investigators in the Cooperative International Research Group. We combined existing research efforts in pathophysiology by a gene expression profiling laboratory with the efforts of animal facilities capable of conducting high-throughput drug screening and toxicity testing to identify safe and effective drug compounds that target different parts of the pathophysiologic cascade in a genome-wide drug discovery approach. Simultaneously, we developed a clinical trial coordinating center and an international network of collaborating physicians and clinics where those drugs could be tested in large-scale clinical trials. We hope that by bringing together investigators at these facilities and providing the infrastructure to support their research, we can rapidly move new bench discoveries through animal model screening and into therapeutic testing in humans in a safe, timely and cost-effective setting.

  10. Use of the Web by a Distributed Research group Performing Distributed Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David A.; Peterkin, Robert E.

    2001-06-01

    A distributed research group that uses distributed computers faces a spectrum of challenges--some of which can be met by using various electronic means of communication. The particular challenge of our group involves three physically separated research entities. We have had to link two collaborating groups at AFRL and NRL together for software development, and the same AFRL group with a LANL group for software applications. We are developing and using a pair of general-purpose, portable, parallel, unsteady, plasma physics simulation codes. The first collaboration is centered around a formal weekly video teleconference on relatively inexpensive equipment that we have set up in convenient locations in our respective laboratories. The formal virtual meetings are augmented with informal virtual meetings as the need arises. Both collaborations share research data in a variety of forms on a secure URL that is set up behind the firewall at the AFRL. Of course, a computer-generated animation is a particularly efficient way of displaying results from time-dependent numerical simulations, so we generally like to post such animations (along with proper documentation) on our web page. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our accomplishments and disappointments.

  11. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  12. Summary of the 2017 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsebus, Holly J; Curtis, Brenda J; Molina, Patricia E; Afshar, Majid; Boule, Lisbeth A; Morris, Niya; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kolls, Jay K; Yeligar, Samantha M; Price, Michael E; Wyatt, Todd A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2018-06-01

    On June 24, 2017, the 22nd annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held as a satellite conference during the annual Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Scientific Meeting in Denver, Colorado. The 2017 meeting focused broadly on mechanisms that link alcohol to tissue injury and inflammation, and how this research can be translated to improve human health. Two plenary sessions composed the meeting, which first explored the association between alcohol and trauma/tissue injury, and finished with a discussion of alcohol and mucosal inflammation. The presentations encompassed diverse areas of alcohol research, from effects on the brain, to airway and pulmonary systems, to gut barrier disruption. The discussions also thoughtfully highlighted how current laboratory and clinical research can be used to prevent or treat alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of prior HPV vaccination with reduced preterm birth: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Beverley; Howe, Anna S; Turner, Nikki; Filoche, Sara; Slatter, Tania; Devenish, Celia; Hung, Noelyn Anne

    2018-01-02

    Emerging evidence suggests that HPV infection is associated with negative pregnancy outcomes such as preterm birth (PTB), and pre-eclampsia. We aimed to determine if prior HPV vaccination reduced adverse pregnancy outcomes. A New Zealand population-based retrospective study linking first pregnancy outcome data (2008-2014 n = 35,646) with prior quadrivalent HPV vaccination status. Primary outcomes were likelihood (odds ratios, ORs) of PTB, pre-eclampsia, and stillbirth. Exposure groups were based on HPV vaccination. Adjusted ORs were calculated for each outcome, controlling for mother's age at delivery, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, health board region at time of delivery, and body mass index and smoking status at time of registration with maternity care provider. Mother's mean age at delivery was 19 (SD 2.1) years. Of 34,994 the pregnancies included in the final study analyses 62.3% of women were unvaccinated, 11.0% vaccinated with one or two doses and 27.7% vaccinated with three doses prior to pregnancy. PTB (OR: 0.87; CI 0.78, 0.96)) was significantly lower for women who previously received the HPV vaccine. A dose response effect was found with each successive dose received decreasing the likelihood of PTB. No associations between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups were shown for pre-eclampsia or stillbirth. Prior receipt of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in PTB (13%); suggesting that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing PTB. The potential global public health impact is considerable and there is urgency to undertake further research to replicate and explore these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic status and venous thromboembolism: results from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, D; van Rein, N; van der Meer, F J M; Vermaas, H W; Wiersma, N; Cannegieter, S C; Lijfering, W M

    2017-12-01

    Essentials Literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce. We assessed neighborhood SES with VTE risk in a population of over 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. These findings are helpful to inform policy and resource allocation in health systems. Background The association between socioeconomic status and arterial cardiovascular disease is well established. However, despite its high burden of disability-adjusted life years, little research has been carried out to determine whether socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism. Objective To determine if neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with venous thromboembolism in a population-based study from the Netherlands. Methods We identified all patients aged 15 years and older with a first event of venous thromboembolism from inhabitants who lived in the urban districts of The Hague, Leiden and Utrecht in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. Neighborhood socioeconomic status was based on the status score, which combines educational level, income and unemployment on a four-digit postal code level. Incidence rate ratios of venous thromboembolism were calculated for different levels of neighborhood socioeconomic status, with adjustments for age and sex. Results A total of 7373 patients with a first venous thromboembolism (median age 61 years; 50% deep vein thrombosis) were identified among more than 1.4 million inhabitants. Higher neighborhood SES was associated with lower incidence of VTE. In the two highest status score groups (i.e. the 95-99th and > 99th percentile), the adjusted incidence rate ratios were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.00) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.69-0.93), respectively, compared with the reference status score group (i.e. 30-70th percentile). Conclusions High neighborhood socioeconomic status is associated with a lower risk of first venous thromboembolism. © 2017

  15. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  16. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  17. [Role of multicenter study groups for clinical research in hematology and oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökbuget, N; Hoelzer, D

    2009-04-01

    During the past 25 years a highly effective infrastructure for clinical trials was developed in hematology. Following initial funding by the BMFT (Ministry for Research and Technology) a number of large multicenter study groups for leukemia and lymphoma were developed. Treatment results from these studies often represent the"gold standard". However, since no standard therapy is defined for these diseases, the study groups aim to treat all patients within treatment optimization trials (TOT) to combine research and care. They contribute considerably to quality control in therapy and diagnostics, e.g., by establishing central reference laboratories. The regulatory requirements for clinical trials were extended considerably after the activation of the 12th drug law and TOTs now have to fulfill requirements similar to registration trials in the pharmaceutical industry. Due to the considerable bureaucratic effort and increased costs, only few large multicenter trials could thereafter be initiated and a substantial disadvantage for independent academic research becomes clearly evident.

  18. Risk of Nongenitourinary Cancers in Patients With Spinal Cord Injury: A Population-based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chia-Hong; Sun, Li-Min; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung; Weng, Ming-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the risk of nongenitourinary (GU) cancers in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). The authors conducted a nationwide population-based study to investigate whether a higher risk of non-GU cancer is seen among patients with SCI.Data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan were used in this study. A total of 41,900 patients diagnosed with SCI between 2000 and 2011 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database and comprised the SCI cohort. Each of these patients was randomly frequency matched with 4 people from the general population (without SCI) according to age, sex, comorbidities, and index year. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals and determine how SCI affected non-GU cancer risk.No significant difference in overall non-GU cancer risk was observed between the SCI and control groups. The patients with SCI exhibited a significantly higher risk of developing esophageal, liver, and hematologic malignancies compared with those without SCI. By contrast, the SCI cohort had a significantly lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with the non-SCI cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval = 0.69-0.93). Additional stratified analyses by sex, age, and follow-up duration revealed various correlations between SCI and non-GU cancer risk.The patients with SCI exhibited higher risk of esophageal, liver, and hematologic malignancies but a lower risk of colorectal cancer compared with those without SCI. The diverse patterns of cancer risk among the patients with SCI may be related to the complications of chronic SCI.

  19. Population-Based Assessment of Exposure to Risk Behaviors in Motion Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, James D; Worth, Keilah A; Beach, Michael; Gerrard, Meg; Heatherton, Todd F

    2008-01-01

    The aim of most population-based studies of media is to relate a specific exposure to an outcome of interest. A research program has been developed that evaluates exposure to different components of movies in an attempt of assess the association of such exposure with the adoption of substance use during adolescence. To assess exposure to movie substance use, one must measure both viewing time and content. In developing the exposure measure, the study team was interested in circumventing a common problem in exposure measurement, where measures often conflate exposure to media with attention to media. Our aim in this paper is to present a validated measure of exposure to entertainment media, the Beach method, which combines recognition of a movie title with content analysis of the movie for substance use, to generate population based measures of exposure to substance use in this form of entertainment.

  20. Increased Risk of Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Spinal cord injury: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cherng-Lan; Wang, Mei-Ting; Ho, Yu-Chun; Pan, Shin-Liang

    2017-10-31

    Retrospective cohort study. To evaluate the risk of acute cholecystitis (AC) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) based on a nationwide sample. Prior research evaluating the risk of AC in patients with SCI is limited. Moreover, since most previous studies on the association between AC and SCI used case-series designs, little is known about the relative risk of SCI patients developing AC from a longitudinal follow-up, compared with individuals without SCI. We used the data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database. The SCI group consisted of 11523 patients with SCI aged between 20 to 90 years. Propensity score matching procedure was employed to minimize potential confounding effects arising from the imbalance in the baseline characteristics. A total of 23046 propensity score-matched patients without SCI were enrolled in the non-SCI group. We compared the incidence of AC between these two groups, and assessed the impact of SCI on the risk of developing AC. In the SCI and non-SCI groups, the respective incidence rates of AC were 36.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 30.0 to 44.8) and 25.2 (95% CI, 21.2 to 29.8) per 10000 person-years. As compared to the non-SCI group, the hazard ratio for the SCI group of AC was 1.71 (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.41, P = 0.0018); and the cumulative incidence of AC of the SCI group was higher than that of the non-SCI group (P = 0.0036). This population-based cohort study showed that there was an increased risk of AC in patients with SCI. 3.

  1. X-ray fluorescence in Member States: Philippines. XRF activities at Analytical Measurements Research Group, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Corazon B.; Castaneda, Soledad S.; Almoneda, Rosalina V.; Sucgang, Raymond J.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.; Morco, Ryan P.; Cuyco, Danilo; Jimenez, Gloria; Santos, Flora L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: XRF analysis and activities of the Analytical Measurements Research (AMR) Group (see Fig.1) of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) focus on both research and analytical services. Air pollution research, in particular source apportionment studies, requires multi-elemental data for a substantial number of samples. In the PNRI, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) has been used as an effective tool for providing such multi-elemental data. With the latest acquisition of the Panalytical Epsilon 5 (E5) EDXRF system, the process of quantification has become easier and faster with the auto-quantify method. Other research involvements of the group are in the analysis of samples in relation to mineral explorations and the elemental characterization of water in support for isotope hydrology research. The AMR group, as part of its function to provide analytical services, offers qualitative or semi quantitative analysis of solid samples using the auto quantify method, quantitative analysis of environmental samples using the emission-transmission method and quantitative analysis of air particulate matter collected on filters. Telephone wire materials sold in junkshops (alleged to have been pilfered from installed telephone lines of a major telecommunications company in the country) and materials being assessed in relation to patent claims are other examples of samples submitted for analytical services. As mentioned, a useful feature of the E5 system is the use of the auto-quantify (AQ) method. Calibration lines used for this type of application are obtained using the fundamental parameter (FP) model. For AQ applications, accurate results are obtained for samples prepared as fused glass beads in which the whole matrix is known. However, only qualitative or semi quantitative analysis can be applied for other types of solid samples. The AQ method was adapted for the multi-elemental analysis of air particulates using the MicroMatter standards to set

  2. The role of multiple-group measurement invariance in family psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Justin L; McBride, Brent A; Laxman, Daniel J; Dyer, W Justin; Santos, Rosa M; Jeans, Laurie M

    2016-04-01

    Measurement invariance (MI) is a property of measurement that is often implicitly assumed, but in many cases, not tested. When the assumption of MI is tested, it generally involves determining if the measurement holds longitudinally or cross-culturally. A growing literature shows that other groupings can, and should, be considered as well. Additionally, it is noted that the standard techniques for investigating MI have been focused almost exclusively on the case of 2 groups, with very little work on the case of more than 2 groups, even though the need for such techniques is apparent in many fields of research. This paper introduces and illustrates a model building technique to investigating MI for more than 2 groups. This technique is an extension of the already-existing hierarchy for testing MI introduced by Meredith (1993). An example using data on father involvement in 5 different groups of families of children with and without developmental disabilities from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort dataset will be given. We show that without considering the possible differential functioning of the measurements on multiple developmental groups, the differences present between the groups in terms of the measurements may be obscured. This could lead to incorrect conclusions. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Group Supervision in Psychotherapy. Main Findings from a Swedish Research Project on Psychotherapy Supervision in a Group Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogren, Marie-Louise; Sundin, Eva C.

    2009-01-01

    Psychotherapy supervision is considered crucial for psychotherapists in training. During the last decades, group supervision has been a frequently used format in many countries. Until recently, very few studies had evaluated the small-group format for training of beginner psychotherapists and psychotherapy supervisors. This article aims to…

  4. Risk of erectile dysfunction in transfusion-naive thalassemia men: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Guang; Lin, Te-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Li; Dai, Ming-Shen; Ho, Ching-Liang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Based on the mechanism of pathophysiology, thalassemia major or transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients may have an increased risk of developing organic erectile dysfunction resulting from hypogonadism. However, there have been few studies investigating the association between erectile dysfunction and transfusion-naive thalassemia populations. We constructed a population-based cohort study to elucidate the association between transfusion-naive thalassemia populations and organic erectile dysfunction. This nationwide population-based cohort study involved analyzing data from 1998 to 2010 obtained from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database, with a follow-up period extending to the end of 2011. We identified men with transfusion-naive thalassemia and selected a comparison cohort that was frequency-matched with these according to age, and year of diagnosis thalassemia at a ratio of 1 thalassemia man to 4 control men. We analyzed the risks for transfusion-naive thalassemia men and organic erectile dysfunction by using Cox proportional hazards regression models. In this study, 588 transfusion-naive thalassemia men and 2337 controls were included. Total 12 patients were identified within the thalassaemia group and 10 within the control group. The overall risks for developing organic erectile dysfunction were 4.56-fold in patients with transfusion-naive thalassemia men compared with the comparison cohort after we adjusted for age and comorbidities. Our long-term cohort study results showed that in transfusion-naive thalassemia men, there was a higher risk for the development of organic erectile dysfunction, particularly in those patients with comorbidities.

  5. Ethics and equity in research priority-setting: stakeholder engagement and the needs of disadvantaged groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Rana, Sangeeta; Karimkhani, Chante; Welch, Vivian; Armstrong, Rebecca; Pottie, Kevin; Dellavalle, Robert; Dhakal, Purushottam; Oliver, Sandy; Francis, Damian K; Nasser, Mona; Crowe, Sally; Aksut, Baran; Amico, Roberto D

    2015-01-01

    A transparent and evidence-based priority-setting process promotes the optimal use of resources to improve health outcomes. Decision-makers and funders have begun to increasingly engage representatives of patients and healthcare consumers to ensure that research becomes more relevant. However, disadvantaged groups and their needs may not be integrated into the priority-setting process since they do not have a "political voice" or are unable to organise into interest groups. Equitable priority-setting methods need to balance patient needs, values, experiences with population-level issues and issues related to the health system.

  6. Outlining and dictating scientific manuscripts is a useful method for health researchers: A focus group interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    Young researchers may experience difficulties when writing scientific articles for publication in biomedical journals. Various methods may facilitate the writing process including outlining the paper before the actual writing and using dictation instead of writing the first draft. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences and difficulties for young, experienced researchers when writing articles using a detailed outline and dictation of the first draft. We used qualitative focus group interviews and the study was reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guideline. Participants were sampled from a group of researchers participating in a writing retreat/course. The interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and transcribed. The text was analyzed according to content analysis and coded and condensed into themes and subthemes. Groups of participants were added until data saturation was reached. A total of 14 researchers participated (9 women and 5 men). Their clinical experience was median (range) of 6 (1-11) years since graduation from medical school. Two themes arose during the analyses of the data: "Process guidance with the outline as the map" and "arrival at dictation." The outline was used in the preparation phase leading up to the day of dictation and was used in collaboration with co-authors and supervisors. The participants found it to be a useful tool for preparing the manuscript and dictating their initial first full draft. Experienced young researchers found beneficial effects of using a structured outline to prepare for dictation of scientific articles. The outline was a tool that would develop in close collaboration with co-authors and mentors. With dictation, a full first draft of a manuscript can be produced in a few hours. Participants positively evaluated this structured and reproducible way of producing scientific articles.

  7. Research ethics in Canada: experience of a group operating a human embryo and fetal tissue bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, N; Bamforth, S; Bagnall, K

    1999-04-01

    A Canadian research group is establishing a human embryo and fetal tissue bank. Its purpose is to provide researchers with frozen or fixed tissue specimens for use in protein and gene expression studies. Several legal and ethical issues have arisen, including questions about consent, use of these rare tissues, cost recovery, and profit-making. These issues are discussed here in light of the present lack of legislation in Canada. We make recommendations in these areas, and suggest that the bank's operations could legally fall under the jurisdiction of the Human Tissue Gift Act.

  8. The use of Facebook for virtual asynchronous focus groups in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Narelle

    2018-02-01

    The Internet and the development of more user-engaging applications have opened a whole new world for researchers as a means of recruitment and data collection source. This paper describes the methodological approach of a research study that explored the experiences of Australian military spouses who packed up their family and home to accompany their spouse on an overseas posting. The study used Facebook as a recruitment tool and then as a data source through the conduct of an asynchronous virtual focus group. This paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of this unique data source as a means of capturing the voices of a hard-to-reach population.

  9. Collection, use, and protection of population-based birth defects surveillance data in the united states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Cara T; Law, David J; Mason, Craig A; McDowell, Bradley D; Meyer, Robert E; Musa, Debra

    2007-12-01

    Birth defects surveillance systems collect population-based birth defects data from multiple sources to track trends in prevalence, identify risk factors, refer affected families to services, and evaluate prevention efforts. Strong state and federal public health and legal mandates are in place to govern the collection and use of these data. Despite the prima facie appeal of "opt-in" and similar strategies to those who view data collection as a threat to privacy, the use of these strategies in lieu of population-based surveillance can severely limit the ability of public health agencies to accurately access the health status of a group within a defined geographical area. With the need for population-based data central to their mission, birth defects programs around the country take their data stewardship role seriously, recognizing both moral and legal obligations to protect the data by employing numerous safeguards. Birth defects surveillance systems are shaped by the needs of the community they are designed to serve, with the goal of preventing birth defects or alleviating the burdens associated with them. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. A population-based job exposure matrix for power-frequency magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Joseph D; Touchstone, Jennifer A; Yost, Michael G

    2007-09-01

    A population-based job exposure matrix (JEM) was developed to assess personal exposures to power-frequency magnetic fields (MF) for epidemiologic studies. The JEM compiled 2,317 MF measurements taken on or near workers by 10 studies in the United States, Sweden, New Zealand, Finland, and Italy. A database was assembled from the original data for six studies plus summary statistics grouped by occupation from four other published studies. The job descriptions were coded into the 1980 Standard Occupational Classification system (SOC) and then translated to the 1980 job categories of the U.S. Bureau of the Census (BOC). For each job category, the JEM database calculated the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, geometric mean, and geometric standard deviation of the workday-average MF magnitude from the combined data. Analysis of variance demonstrated that the combining of MF data from the different sources was justified, and that the homogeneity of MF exposures in the SOC occupations was comparable to JEMs for solvents and particulates. BOC occupation accounted for 30% of the MF variance (p job variance to the total of within- and between-job variances) was 88%. Jobs lacking data had their exposures inferred from measurements on similar occupations. The JEM provided MF exposures for 97% of the person-months in a population-based case-control study and 95% of the jobs on death certificates in a registry study covering 22 states. Therefore, we expect this JEM to be useful in other population-based epidemiologic studies.

  11. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  12. Perinatal risk factors in offenders with severe personality disorder: a population-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Bakiyeva, Liliya; Cnattingius, Sven; Grann, Martin; Hultman, Christina M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Geddes, John R

    2012-10-01

    Although perinatal factors are associated with the development of several psychiatric disorders, it is unknown whether these factors are linked with personality disorder. Cases of personality disorder were drawn from a national registry of all forensic psychiatric evaluations (n = 150). Two control groups were used: (1) A sample of forensic evaluations without any psychiatric disorder (n = 97) allowing for a nested case-control investigation; and (2) A population-based sample matched by age and gender with no history of psychiatric hospitalization (n = 1498). Prematurity (personality disorder, both in the nested and the population-based case-control comparisons with adjusted odds ratios (OR) for this risk factor ranging from 2 to 4. Asphyxia (adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.1) and complicated delivery (adjusted OR = 1.5, 1.0-2.1) were associated with personality disorder in the population-based study, and the former remained significant in multivariate models. Overall, perinatal complications were found to be associated with a later diagnosis of personality disorder in this selected sample. As with other psychiatric disorders where such associations have been demonstrated, changes during the perinatal period may lead to abnormal brain development and function.

  13. Prevalence of Latent Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) in Saudi Arabia; Population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkhy, Hanan H; El Beltagy, Kamel; El-Saed, Aiman; Aljasir, Badr; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem; Alothman, Adel F; Alshalaan, Mohammad; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan

    2017-07-01

    The annual risk of tuberculosis infection (ARTI) data in Saudi Arabia has not been updated since 1993. To estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) and ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia using Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold in tube (QFT-GIT) test. A population-based cross sectional study was conducted between July 2010 and March 2013. Participants were randomly selected from the population served by the primary healthcare centers of the Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs in Riyadh, Jeddah, Alhassa and Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 1369 participants were included. The overall prevalence of LTBI was similar using TST and QFT-GIT (9.3% and 9.1% respectively, p=0.872) but stratified prevalence rates were variable in all sociodemographic groups except marital status. Additionally, the prevalence rates of LTBI using either test alone showed significant differences by several sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. The overall ARTI was 0.36% using TST and 0.35% using QFT-GIT. We are reporting much lower estimates for the prevalence of LTBI and the ARTI in a population-based sample in Saudi Arabia relative to the data that have been used for more than two decades. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. The work of the 'Irradiation Damage' sub-group of the EURATOM Working Group on Research Reactor Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genthon, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    The EURATOM Working Group on Reactor Dosimetry is investigating the problems of the dosimetry of radiation damage experiments. Papers have been published on the dosimetry of graphite and irradiation of metals: the model chosen, the quantities employed to express the fluences, numerical values, measurements, and measurement techniques. The ensuing work of the EURATOM Working Group of Reactor Dosimetry in these areas will deal with the measurement methods required for the dosimetry of radiation damage. (Auth.)

  15. Computer Support of Groups: Theory-Based Models for GDSS Research

    OpenAIRE

    V. Srinivasan Rao; Sirkka L. Jarvenpaa

    1991-01-01

    Empirical research in the area of computer support of groups is characterized by inconsistent results across studies. This paper attempts to reconcile the inconsistencies by linking the ad hoc reasoning in the studies to existing theories of communication, minority influence and human information processing. Contingency models are then presented based on the theories discussed. The paper concludes by discussing the linkages between the current work and other recently published integrations of...

  16. A Population-Based Clinical Trial of Irinotecan and Carboplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derick Lau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Phase I trials of anticancer drugs are commonly conducted using the method of modified Fibonacci. We have developed a population-based design for phase I trials of combining anticancer drugs such as irinotecan and carboplatin. Patients and Methods. Intrapatient dose escalation of irinotecan and carboplatin was performed according to a predetermined schema to reach individual dose-limiting toxicity (DLT in 50 patients with solid tumors refractory to previous chemotherapy. The individual toxicity-limiting dose levels were analyzed for normal distribution using the method of Ryan-Joiner and subsequently used to determine a population-based maximum tolerated dose (pMTD. For comparison, a simulation study was performed using the method of modified Fibonacci. Results. The most common dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs included neutropenia (58%, thrombocytopenia (16%, and diarrhea (8%. The frequency of individual toxicity-limiting dose levels of 50 patients approximated a normal distribution. The dose levels associated with individual limiting toxicities ranged from level 1 (irinotecan 100 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 4 mg/mL x min to level 8 (irinotecan 350 mg/m2 and carboplatin AUC = 6. The pMTD was determined to be dose level 3 (150 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC = 5 for carboplatin. In contrast, the MTD was determined to be dose level 4 (200 mg/m2 for irinotecan and AUC 5 for carboplatin by modified-Fibonacci simulation. Conclusions. The population-based design of phase I trial allows optimization of dose intensity and derivation of a pMTD. The pMTD has been applied in phase II trial of irinotecan and carboplatin in patients with small-cell lung cancer.

  17. Supporting self-management by Community Matrons through a group intervention; an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkham, Abigail M; Ersser, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a group intervention by Community Matrons to support those living with multiple long-terms conditions. Little evidence exists as to how the role of the Community Matron (CM) should be delivered to effectively enhance disease self-management and levels of self-efficacy for the service users. This qualitative participatory action research study explored the use of group work as a method of intervention by CMs. A purposive sample of 29 participants was recruited. Each patient group had 8-10 participants, led by a CM working in both the researcher and practitioner role, operating over 12-month period. Data were collected by participant observation, researcher reflexive account and interviews. Grounded theory method was used to systematically analyse the data. Three main data categories emerged: (i) comparison by patients that leads to re-motivation of the self; (ii) learning, leading to enhanced self-management techniques, through storytelling and understanding of each other's experiences; and (iii) ownership that resulted in the self-awareness, cognisance and insight into the role of the support group they were based in and how it benefited them. The core category of 'Taking back the self - understanding the whole,' conveyed the impact that this care delivery method had upon readjusting the balance of power between health professional and service users and its consequence in refreshing and improving their self-management and the patients' self-efficacy. It was concluded that CM intervention using a model of group learning can lead to more effective and efficient support, through improving self-efficacy and patients' related self-management ability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Report of the National Technical Planning Group on Uranium Tailings Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, P.A.

    1981-09-01

    The National Technical Planning Group on Uranium Tailings Research was formed in 1980 to review present activities and plan a research program on the management of wastes after a mine and mill have shut down. At present there are more than 100 million tonnes of uranium tailings on the surface in Canada. Most of these are under management; however, some 8 million tonnes have been abandoned completely. The group concluded that: 1) there has been no systematic attempt to collect and organize the results of measurements already made on tailings; 2) there is an inadequate understanding of the processes that take place in tailings and in the pathways to the biosphere; 3) there is insufficient evidence on the extent of the long-term problem in the closeout of a uranium tailings basin; 4) there is a need to establish standardized measurement methodologies to improve the quality of data taken at different sites across Canada; 5) generic research and development on tailings disposal technology should be within the scope of a national program, whereas site-specific work is the purview of the mines and regulatory agencies; and 6) the uranium producers' contribution to the national tailings program should be their research on site-specific disposal alternatives. The first of these conclusions leads to the proposal to establish a national uranium tailings research program. The second suggests the need for a modelling program, the third and fourth for a national measurement program, and the remaining conclusions refer to disposal technologies research. The conclusions form the basis for a set of recommendations on uranium tailings research

  19. Globus Nexus: A Platform-as-a-Service Provider of Research Identity, Profile, and Group Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, Kyle; Lidman, Mattias; McCollam, Brendan; Bryan, Josh; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Tuecke, Steven; Foster, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Globus Nexus is a professionally hosted Platform-as-a-Service that provides identity, profile and group management functionality for the research community. Many collaborative e-Science applications need to manage large numbers of user identities, profiles, and groups. However, developing and maintaining such capabilities is often challenging given the complexity of modern security protocols and requirements for scalable, robust, and highly available implementations. By outsourcing this functionality to Globus Nexus, developers can leverage best-practice implementations without incurring development and operations overhead. Users benefit from enhanced capabilities such as identity federation, flexible profile management, and user-oriented group management. In this paper we present Globus Nexus, describe its capabilities and architecture, summarize how several e-Science applications leverage these capabilities, and present results that characterize its scalability, reliability, and availability.

  20. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  1. Globus Nexus: A Platform-as-a-Service provider of research identity, profile, and group management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chard, Kyle; Lidman, Mattias; McCollam, Brendan; Bryan, Josh; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Tuecke, Steven; Foster, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Globus Nexus is a professionally hosted Platform-as-a-Service that provides identity, profile and group management functionality for the research community. Many collaborative e-Science applications need to manage large numbers of user identities, profiles, and groups. However, developing and maintaining such capabilities is often challenging given the complexity of modern security protocols and requirements for scalable, robust, and highly available implementations. By outsourcing this functionality to Globus Nexus, developers can leverage best-practice implementations without incurring development and operations overhead. Users benefit from enhanced capabilities such as identity federation, flexible profile management, and user-oriented group management. In this paper we present Globus Nexus, describe its capabilities and architecture, summarize how several e-Science applications leverage these capabilities, and present results that characterize its scalability, reliability, and availability.

  2. Initial experience with a group presentation of study results to research participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bent Stephen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite ethical imperatives, informing research participants about the results of the studies in which they take part is not often performed. This is due, in part, to the costs and burdens of communicating with each participant after publication of the results. Methods Following the closeout and publication of a randomized clinical trial of saw palmetto for treatment of symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia, patients were invited back to the research center to participate in a group presentation of the study results. Results Approximately 10% of participants attended one of two presentation sessions. Reaction to the experience of the group presentation was very positive among the attendees. Conclusion A group presentation to research participants is an efficient method of communicating study results to those who desire to be informed and was highly valued by those who attended. Prospectively planning for such presentations and greater scheduling flexibility may result in higher attendance rates. Trial Registration Number Clinicaltrials.gov #NCT00037154

  3. Long-term program for research and development of group separation and disintegration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In Japan, the basic guidelines state that high-level radioactive wastes released from reprocessing of spent fuel should be processed into stable solid material, followed by storage for cooling for 30-50 years and disposal in the ground at a depth of several hundreds of meters. The Long-Term Program for Research and Development of Group Separation and Disintegration Techniques is aimed at efficient disposal of high-level wastes, reutilization of useful substances contained, and improved safety. Important processes include separation of nuclides (group separation, individual nuclide separation) and conversion (disintegration) of long-lived nuclides into short-lived or non-radioactive one. These processes can reduce the volume of high-level wastes to be left for final disposal. Research and development projects have been under way to provide techniques to separate high-level waste substances into four groups (transuranic elements, strontium/cesium, technetium/platinum group elements, and others). These projects also cover recovery of useful metals and efficient utilization of separated substances. For disintegration, conceptual studies have been carried out for the application of fast neutron beams to conversion of long half-life transuranium elements into short half-life or non-radioactive elements. (N.K.)

  4. Online Facebook Focus Group Research of Hard-to-Reach Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Aldelina Lijadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting discovery-oriented qualitative research about the life experiences of hard-to-reach individuals posed several challenges for recruiting participants and collecting rich textual data. In a study pertaining the experiences of Third Culture Kids (TCKs, we explored the benefits of the social media, such as Facebook as a platform to collect data. TCKs are individuals who define their sense of belonging to the third culture trailing their parents moving across borders during their developmental years. Adult TCKs live in many different countries, and accessing and interviewing respondents could be a difficult and costly endeavor. In this article, the authors share their experience conducting online, asynchronous focus groups using a Facebook platform. We reflect upon the process of setting up a secret Facebook focus group for research purposes, recruiting participants, rapport building between facilitator and participants, monitoring and keeping track of participants’ responses, and the dynamics emerging within an online focus group. We also discuss the novelty, limitations, and benefits of the Facebook focus group as an emerging mode for collecting qualitative data from hard-to-reach participants.

  5. Drug utilization research in primary health care as exemplified by physicians' quality assessment groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Ferber, L; Luciano, A; Köster, I; Krappweis, J

    1992-11-01

    Drugs in primary health care are often prescribed for nonrational reasons. Drug utilization research investigates the prescription of drugs with an eye to medical, social and economic causes and consequences of the prescribed drug's utilization. The results of this research show distinct differences in drug utilization in different age groups and between men and women. Indication and dosage appear irrational from a textbook point of view. This indicates nonpharmacological causes of drug utilization. To advice successfully changes for the better quality assessment groups of primary health care physicians get information about their established behavior by analysis of their prescriptions. The discussion and the comparisons in the group allow them to recognize their irrational prescribing and the social, psychological and economic reasons behind it. Guidelines for treatment are worked out which take into account the primary health care physician's situation. After a year with 6 meetings of the quality assessment groups the education process is evaluated by another drug utilization analysis on the basis of the physicians prescription. The evaluation shows a remarkable improvement of quality and cost effectiveness of the drug therapy of the participating physicians.

  6. Academic research groups: evaluation of their quality and quality of their evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berche, Bertrand; Holovatch, Yuri; Kenna, Ralph; Mryglod, Olesya

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, evaluation of the quality of academic research has become an increasingly important and influential business. It determines, often to a large extent, the amount of research funding flowing into universities and similar institutes from governmental agencies and it impacts upon academic careers. Policy makers are becoming increasingly reliant upon, and influenced by, the outcomes of such evaluations. In response, university managers are increasingly attracted to simple metrics as guides to the dynamics of the positions of their various institutions in league tables. However, these league tables are invariably drawn up by inexpert bodies such as newspapers and magazines, using arbitrary measures and criteria. Terms such as “critical mass” and “h-index” are bandied about without understanding of what they actually mean. Rather than accepting the rise and fall of universities, departments and individuals on a turbulent sea of arbitrary measures, we suggest it is incumbent upon the scientific community itself to clarify their nature. Here we report on recent attempts to do that by properly defining critical mass and showing how group size influences research quality. We also examine currently predominant metrics and show that these fail as reliable indicators of group research quality.

  7. Technical Note: Harmonizing met-ocean model data via standard web services within small research groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard; Camossi, E.

    2016-01-01

    Work over the last decade has resulted in standardised web services and tools that can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of working with meteorological and ocean model data. While many operational modelling centres have enabled query and access to data via common web services, most small research groups have not. The penetration of this approach into the research community, where IT resources are limited, can be dramatically improved by (1) making it simple for providers to enable web service access to existing output files; (2) using free technologies that are easy to deploy and configure; and (3) providing standardised, service-based tools that work in existing research environments. We present a simple, local brokering approach that lets modellers continue to use their existing files and tools, while serving virtual data sets that can be used with standardised tools. The goal of this paper is to convince modellers that a standardised framework is not only useful but can be implemented with modest effort using free software components. We use NetCDF Markup language for data aggregation and standardisation, the THREDDS Data Server for data delivery, pycsw for data search, NCTOOLBOX (MATLAB®) and Iris (Python) for data access, and Open Geospatial Consortium Web Map Service for data preview. We illustrate the effectiveness of this approach with two use cases involving small research modelling groups at NATO and USGS.

  8. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The Air Transport Research Group of the World Conference on Transportation Research (WCTR) Society was formally launched as a special interest group at the 7th Triennial WCTR in Sydney, Australia in 1995. Since then, our membership base has expanded rapidly, and now includes over 400 active transportation researchers, policy-makers, industry executives, major corporations and research institutes from 28 countries. It became a tradition that the ATRG would hold an international conference at least once a year. In 1998, the ATRG organized a consecutive stream of 14 aviation sessions at the 8th Triennial WCTR Conference (July 12-17: Antwerp). Again, on 19-21 July, 1998, the ATRG Symposium was organized and executed very successfully by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan of the University College of Dublin. The Aviation Institute at the University of Nebraska at Omaha has published the Proceedings of the 1998 ATRG Dublin Symposium (being co-edited by Dr. Aisling Reynolds-Feighan and Professor Brent Bowen), and the Proceedings of the 1998 WCTR-ATRG Conference (being co-edited by Professors Tae H. Oum and Brent Bowen).

  9. The population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Prospective Cohort Study (AMIGO) in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slottje, Pauline; Yzermans, C Joris; Korevaar, Joke C; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2014-11-26

    Occupational and environmental exposures remain important modifiable risk factors of public health. Existing cohort studies are often limited by the level of detail of data collected on these factors and health. It is also often assumed that the more healthy group is over-represented in cohort studies, which is of concern for their external validity. In this cohort profile, we describe how we set up the population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Cohort Study (AMIGO) to longitudinally study occupational and environmental determinants of diseases and well-being from a multidisciplinary and life course point of view. Reviewed by the Medical Ethics Research Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht (protocol 10-268/C). All cohort members participate voluntarily and gave informed consent prior to their inclusion. 14,829 adult cohort members (16% of those invited) consented and filled in the online baseline questionnaire. Determinants include chemical, biological, physical (eg, electromagnetic fields), and psychosocial factors. Priority health outcomes include cancer, neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and non-specific symptoms. Owing to the recruitment strategy via general practitioners of an established network, we also collect longitudinal data registered in their electronic medical records including symptoms, diagnosis and treatments. Besides the advantage of health outcomes that cannot be easily captured longitudinally by other means, this created a unique opportunity to assess health-related participation bias by comparing general practitioner-registered prevalence rates in the cohort and its source population. We found no indications of such a systematic bias. The major assets of the AMIGO approach are its detailed occupational and environmental determinants in combination with the longitudinal health data registered in general practice besides linkage to cancer and mortality registries and self-reported health. We are now

  10. When and where do hip fractures occur? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, B; Åberg, A C; Melhus, H; Mallmin, H; Michaëlsson, K; Byberg, L

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of socio-demographic and health factors on timing and location of hip fracture among 484 subjects. Time of fracture varied between community dwellers and residential care facility dwellers, and in relation to subjects' psychotropic drug status. Indoor hip fracture incidence increased on snow-covered days. This paper aims to describe the timing and whereabouts of hip fracture cases in a population-based setting and to relate these factors with residential and health status, seasonal variation, and snow-covered ground. We consecutively included 484 incident hip fracture events (age ≥50 years) admitted to a Swedish orthopedic department during a 1-year period. Data concerning socio-demographic details, fall location, time of fracture, comorbidity, and medications were collected from in-patient medical records and through patient or caregiver interviews. The expected peak in fracture occurrence during daytime was observed among community dwellers but not among subjects living in residential care. Hip fracture was twice as likely to occur during nighttime hours among psychotropic drug users (adjusted odds ratio (Adj. OR), 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-4.30) compared to those not receiving these medications. Subjects without dementia, taking psychotropic drugs, were also more likely to fracture during nighttime hours (Adj. OR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40-6.0). We observed an increase in indoor hip fracture incidence on snow-covered days among community dwellers (incidence rate ratio, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.02-1.74). We observed only a weak seasonal trend in hip fracture incidence, based on month, among community dwellers who fractured indoors. Special attention and possibly fall-preventive efforts should be directed not only toward those living in residential care facilities but also toward community-dwelling subjects taking psychotropic drugs since these groups have a higher incidence of nighttime hip fracture. Further research aiming to explain

  11. Fibromyalgia and Risk of Dementia-A Nationwide, Population-Based, Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Chung, Chi-Hsiang; Liu, Feng-Cheng; Chiu, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Hsin-An; Yeh, Chin-Bin; Huang, San-Yuan; Lu, Ru-Band; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Kao, Yu-Chen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Tsao, Chang-Hui; Wu, Yung-Fu; Chou, Yu-Ching; Lin, Fu-Huang; Chien, Wu-Chien

    2018-02-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of chronic pain and other symptoms and is associated with patient discomfort and other diseases. This nationwide matched-cohort population-based study aimed to investigate the association between fibromyalgia and the risk of developing dementia, and to clarify the association between fibromyalgia and dementia. A total of 41,612 patients of age ≥50 years with newly diagnosed fibromyalgia between January 1, and December 31, 2000 were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, along with 124,836 controls matched for sex and age. After adjusting for any confounding factors, Fine and Gray competing risk analysis was used to compare the risk of developing dementia during the 10 years of follow-up. Of the study subjects, 1,704 from 41,612 fibromyalgia patients (21.23 per 1,000 person-years) developed dementia when compared to 4,419 from 124,836 controls (18.94 per 1,000 person-years). Fine and Gray competing risk analysis revealed that the study subjects were more likely to develop dementia (hazard ratio: 2.29, 95% CI: 2.16-2.42; P dementia in this study. The study subjects with fibromyalgia had a 2.77-fold risk of dementia in comparison to the control group. Therefore, further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the association between fibromyalgia and the risk of dementia. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Association Between Barium Examination and Subsequent Appendicitis: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Ming; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Huang, Ying-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and association between appendicitis and barium examination (BE) remain unclear. Such potential risk may be omitted. We conducted a longitudinal, nationwide, population-based cohort study to investigate the association between BE and appendicitis risk. From the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a total of 24,885 patients who underwent BE between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010 were enrolled in a BE cohort; an additional 98,384 subjects without BE exposure were selected as a non-BE cohort, matched by age, sex, and index date. The cumulative incidences of subsequent appendicitis in the BE and non-BE cohorts were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier curves and log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were employed to calculate the appendicitis risk between the groups. The cumulative incidence of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort than in the non-BE cohort (P = .001). The overall incidence rates of appendicitis for the BE and non-BE cohorts were 1.19 and 0.80 per 1000 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for sex, age, and comorbidities, the risk of appendicitis was higher in the BE cohort (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.46, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-1.73) compared with the non-BE cohort, especially in the first 2 months (adjusted hazard ratio = 9.72, 95% confidence interval = 4.65-20.3). BE was associated with an increased, time-dependent appendicitis risk. Clinicians should be aware of this potential risk to avoid delayed diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Colombet, Murielle; Ries, Lynn A G; Moreno, Florencia; Dolya, Anastasia; Bray, Freddie; Hesseling, Peter; Shin, Hee Young; Stiller, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and the recorded incidence tends to increase with time. Internationally comparable data on childhood cancer incidence in the past two decades are scarce. This study aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer to promote research of causes and implementation of childhood cancer control. This population-based registry study, devised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in collaboration with the International Association of Cancer Registries, collected data on all malignancies and non-malignant neoplasms of the CNS diagnosed before age 20 years in populations covered by high-quality cancer registries with complete data for 2001-10. Incidence rates per million person-years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardised incidence rates (WSRs), using the age-specific incidence rates (ASR) for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years). All rates were reported for 19 geographical areas or ethnicities by sex, age group, and cancer type. The regional WSRs for children aged 0-14 years were compared with comparable data obtained in the 1980s. Of 532 invited cancer registries, 153 registries from 62 countries, departments, and territories met quality standards, and contributed data for the entire decade of 2001-10. 385 509 incident cases in children aged 0-19 years occurring in 2·64 billion person-years were included. The overall WSR was 140·6 per million person-years in children aged 0-14 years (based on 284 649 cases), and the most common cancers were leukaemia (WSR 46·4), followed by CNS tumours (WSR 28·2), and lymphomas (WSR 15·2). In children aged 15-19 years (based on 100 860 cases), the ASR was 185·3 per million person-years, the most common being lymphomas (ASR 41·8) and the group of epithelial tumours and melanoma (ASR 39·5

  14. The OMERACT MRI in Arthritis Working Group - Update on Status and Future Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østergaard, Mikkel; Bird, Paul; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique; Eshed, Iris; Haugen, Ida K; Haavardsholm, Espen A; Lillegraven, Siri; Foltz, Violaine; Glinatsi, Daniel; Peterfy, Charles; Ejbjerg, Bo; Bøyesen, Pernille; Mease, Philip J; Hermann, Kay-Geert; Emery, Paul; Genant, Harry K; Conaghan, Philip G

    2015-12-01

    To provide an update on the status and future research priorities of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in arthritis working group. A summary is provided of the activities of the group within rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and osteoarthritis (OA), and its research priorities. The OMERACT RA MRI score (RAMRIS) evaluating bone erosion, bone edema (osteitis), and synovitis is now the standard method of quantifying articular pathology in RA trials. Cartilage loss is another important part of joint damage, and at the OMERACT 12 conference, we provided longitudinal data demonstrating reliability and sensitivity to change of the RAMRIS JSN component score, supporting its use in future clinical trials. The MRI group has previously developed a PsA MRI score (PsAMRIS). At OMERACT 12, PsAMRIS was evaluated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of patients with PsA, demonstrating the responsiveness and discriminatory ability of applying the PsAMRIS to hands and feet. A hand OA MRI score (HOAMRIS) was introduced at OMERACT 11, and has subsequently been further validated. At OMERACT 12, good cross-sectional interreader reliability, but variable reliability of change scores, were reported. Potential future research areas were identified at the MRI session at OMERACT 12 including assessment of tenosynovitis in RA and enthesitis in PsA and focusing on alternative MRI techniques. MRI has been further developed and validated as an outcome measure in RA, PsA, and OA. The group will continue its efforts to optimize the value of MRI as a robust biomarker in rheumatology clinical trials.

  15. The Use of the Delphi and Other Consensus Group Methods in Medical Education Research: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Varpio, Lara; Wood, Timothy J; Gonsalves, Carol; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Mascioli, Kelly; Wang, Carol; Foth, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Consensus group methods, such as the Delphi method and nominal group technique (NGT), are used to synthesize expert opinions when evidence is lacking. Despite their extensive use, these methods are inconsistently applied. Their use in medical education research has not been well studied. The authors set out to describe the use of consensus methods in medical education research and to assess the reporting quality of these methods and results. Using scoping review methods, the authors searched the Medline, Embase, PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, and ERIC databases for 2009-2016. Full-text articles that focused on medical education and the keywords Delphi, RAND, NGT, or other consensus group methods were included. A standardized extraction form was used to collect article demographic data and features reflecting methodological rigor. Of the articles reviewed, 257 met the inclusion criteria. The Modified Delphi (105/257; 40.8%), Delphi (91/257; 35.4%), and NGT (23/257; 8.9%) methods were most often used. The most common study purpose was curriculum development or reform (68/257; 26.5%), assessment tool development (55/257; 21.4%), and defining competencies (43/257; 16.7%). The reporting quality varied, with 70.0% (180/257) of articles reporting a literature review, 27.2% (70/257) reporting what background information was provided to participants, 66.1% (170/257) describing the number of participants, 40.1% (103/257) reporting if private decisions were collected, 37.7% (97/257) reporting if formal feedback of group ratings was shared, and 43.2% (111/257) defining consensus a priori. Consensus methods are poorly standardized and inconsistently used in medical education research. Improved criteria for reporting are needed.

  16. Association of complementation group and mutation type with clinical outcome in fanconi anemia. European Fanconi Anemia Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faivre, L; Guardiola, P; Lewis, C; Dokal, I; Ebell, W; Zatterale, A; Altay, C; Poole, J; Stones, D; Kwee, M L; van Weel-Sipman, M; Havenga, C; Morgan, N; de Winter, J; Digweed, M; Savoia, A; Pronk, J; de Ravel, T; Jansen, S; Joenje, H; Gluckman, E; Mathew, C G

    2000-12-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Clinical care is complicated by variable age at onset and severity of hematologic symptoms. Recent advances in the molecular biology of FA have allowed us to investigate the relationship between FA genotype and the nature and severity of the clinical phenotype. Two hundred forty-five patients from all 7 known complementation groups (FA-A to FA-G) were studied. Mutations were detected in one of the cloned FANC genes in 169 patients; in the remainder the complementation group was assigned by cell fusion or Western blotting. A range of qualitative and quantitative clinical parameters was compared for each complementation group and for different classes of mutation. Significant phenotypic differences were found. FA-G patients had more severe cytopenia and a higher incidence of leukemia. Somatic abnormalities were less prevalent in FA-C, but more common in the rare groups FA-D, FA-E, and FA-F. In FA-A, patients homozygous for null mutations had an earlier onset of anemia and a higher incidence of leukemia than those with mutations producing an altered protein. In FA-C, there was a later age of onset of aplastic anemia and fewer somatic abnormalities in patients with the 322delG mutation, but there were more somatic abnormalities in patients with IVS4 + 4A --> T. This study indicates that FA patients with mutations in the FANCG gene and patients homozygous for null mutations in FANCA are high-risk groups with a poor hematologic outcome and should be considered as candidates both for frequent monitoring and early therapeutic intervention. (Blood. 2000;96:4064-4070)

  17. Superior performance of liquid-based versus conventional cytology in a population-based cervical cancer screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerman, H.; van Dorst, E. B. L.; Kuenen-Boumeester, V.; Hogendoorn, P. C. W.

    Objective. Liquid-based cytology may offer improvements over conventional cytology for cervical cancer screening. The two cytology techniques were compared in a group of 86,469 women who participated in a population-based screening program. Using a nation-wide pathology database containing both

  18. Fertility rates and perinatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies: a retrospective population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Lynn, Fiona Ann; Johnston, Linda; Tavares, Eduardo Cardoso Teixeira; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria; Botelho, Lúcio José

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: analyze trends in fertility rates and associations with perinatal outcomes for adolescents in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Methods: a population-based study covering 2006 to 2013 was carried out to evaluate associations between perinatal outcomes and age groups, using odds ratios, and Chi-squared tests. Results: differences in the fertility rate among female adolescents across regions and time period were observed, ranging from 40.9 to 72.0 per 1,000 in mothers aged 15-19 ye...

  19. EUROCOURSE recipe for cancer surveillance by visible population-based cancer RegisTrees in Europe: From roots to fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coebergh, Jan Willem; van den Hurk, Corina; Louwman, Marieke; Comber, Harry; Rosso, Stefano; Zanetti, Roberto; Sacchetto, Lidia; Storm, Hans; van Veen, Evert-Ben; Siesling, Sabine; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, Janny

    2015-06-01

    Currently about 160 population-based cancer registries (CRs) in Europe have extensive experience in generating valid information on variation in cancer risk and survival with time and place. Most CRs cover all cancers, but some are confined to specific cancers or to children. They cover 15-55% of the populations in all of the larger member states of the European Union (EU), except the United Kingdom (UK), and 100% coverage in 80% of those with populations below 20 million. The EU FP 7 EUROCOURSE project, which operated in 2009-2013, explored the essential role of CRs in cancer research and public health, and also focused attention on their programme owners (POs) and stakeholders (e.g. cancer societies, oncological professionals, cancer patient groups, and planners, providers and evaluators of cancer care and mass screening). Generally, all CRs depended on their regional and/or national oncological context and were increasingly involved in population-based studies of quality of cancer care, long-term prognosis and quality of life, one third being very active. Within the public health domain, CRs, in addition to describing the variety of environmental and lifestyle-related cancer epidemics, have also contributed actively to aetiologic research by a European databases that showed wide discrepancies in cancer risk and survival across the EU, and in more depth by follow-up of cohorts and recruitment for case-control studies. CRs were also actively contributing to independent evaluation of mass screening as an intervention which affects quality of care and cancer mortality. The potential of CRs for clinical evaluation has grown substantially through interaction with clinical stakeholders and more incidentally biobanks, also with greater involvement of patient groups - with a special focus on elderly patients who generally do not take part in clinical trials. Whereas 25-35% of CRs are active in a range of cancer research areas, the rest have a low profile and usually

  20. On the Question of Methodological Support of Research on Relationships of Interpersonal Significance in Kindergarten Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyn V.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the importance of in-depth research (in particular, employing an algorithm developed by M.Yu. Kondratyev for defining integral status of an individual on child-child interpersonal relationship in kindergarten groups. Although relationships with significant adults are by all means essential for preschool children, interpersonal relation- ships on the child-child level to a great extent shape the content of the social situation of development in general. Still, when it comes to revealing status and role position of the child in the structure of interpersonal relationships within the kindergarten group, there’s the challenge of defining informal intragroup structure of power in contact community (due to the age specifics. The paper suggests how this challenge may be addressed and provides a version of the technique suitable for preschoolers that helps overcome age restrictions implied by the original technique. Also, the paper reports on the outcomes of approbation of this version which proved its heuristic nature. For instance, the outcomes show a high degree of correlation between the results of kindergarten group members ranking in accordance with their influence upon peers carried out by teachers working in these groups.

  1. The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) Working Group: 15 years of collaborative focal species research and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Theodore R.

    2017-01-01

    The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) Working Group formed spontaneously in 2001 as coastal waterbird biologists recognized the potential for American Oystercatchers to serve as focal species for collaborative research and management. Accomplishments over the past 15 years include the establishment of rangewide surveys, color-banding protocols, mark-resight studies, a revision of the Birds of North America species account, and new mechanisms for sharing ideas and data. Collaborations among State, Federal, and private sector scientists, natural resource managers, and dedicated volunteers have provided insights into the biology and conservation of American Oystercatchers in the United States and abroad that would not have been possible without the relationships formed through the Working Group. These accomplishments illustrate how broad collaborative approaches and the engagement of the public are key elements of effective shorebird conservation programs.

  2. Utilización de los grupos clínicos ajustados en un centro de atención primaria español: estudio retrospectivo de base poblacional Adjusted clinical groups use at a Spanish primary care center: a retrospective, population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sicras-Mainar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Evaluar los resultados de la aplicación del sistema de clasificación mediante grupos clínicos ajustados (GCA en un centro de atención primaria de salud (APS de una población española. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal retrospectivo a partir de los registros médicos informatizados de los pacientes atendidos ambulatoriamente durante 2007 en el centro de salud La Roca, administrado por una empresa de gestión de servicios de salud en La Roca del Vallès, Barcelona, España. Los GCA se conformaron según la Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades, 9.ª revisión, modificación clínica. Se calcularon los pesos relativos medios en dólares estadounidenses de cada GCA respecto al costo medio total y, a partir de ellos, se crearon las bandas de utilización de recursos. Se determinaron los índices de riesgo (IR y eficiencia (IE con respecto a 2006 y se estimó el poder explicativo de la clasificación empleada. RESULTADOS: Se estudiaron 8 294 pacientes, para una cobertura de 82,7%, con una media de 4,1 episodios por paciente, 6,9 visitas por paciente y 5,7 visitas por habitante al año. A siete GCA correspondió 51,0% de los pacientes atendidos. El IR fue de 1,015, el IE en las visitas de 0,975 y el poder explicativo de la clasificación en GCA fue de 53,4% para las visitas y de 74,8% para los episodios. CONCLUSIONES: El sistema de GCA permitió agrupar a los pacientes de una población según su estado clínico y puede ayudar, entre otros aspectos, en la asignación de recursos y la evaluación de la eficiencia de los equipos de APS.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of implementing a classification system based on adjusted clinical groups (ACG at a primary health care (PHC in a Spanish population. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional study based on the computerized medical records of outpatients seen in 2007 by the La Roca clinic, administered by a health services management company in La Roca del Vallès, Barcelona, Spain

  3. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  4. The Hampstead Clinic at work. Discussions in the Diagnostic Profile Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ehud

    2012-01-01

    Minutes of the Hampstead Clinic's Diagnostic Profile Research Group during a fifteen-month period (1964-1965) are reviewed and discussed. A wide range of topics were considered and discussed, with a special focus on the affective life, object relations, and ego function of atypical children in comparison to the early ego functions and differentiation of normal and neurotic children. These lively clinical and theoretical discussions and their implications for therapeutic work with a wide range of children, demonstrate the multifaceted leadership and contributions of Anna Freud as teacher, clinician, and thinker, and of the Hampstead Clinic as a major center for psychoanalytic studies.

  5. Summary of the 2016 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Ju, Cynthia; Agudelo, Marisela; Parira, Tiyash; Cannon, Abigail; Davis, Booker; Eby, Jonathan; Cresci, Gail; Samuelson, Derrick R; Shukla, Pradeep; Alrefai, Waddah A; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Pandey, Subhash C; Schnabl, Bernd; Curtis, Brenda J; Wyatt, Todd A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2018-02-01

    On November 18, 2016 the 21st annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Center for Translational Research and Education at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, IL. The 2016 meeting focused broadly on alcohol and inflammation, epigenetics, and the microbiome. The four plenary sessions of the meeting were Alcohol, Inflammation, and Immunity; Alcohol and Epigenetics; Alcohol, Transcriptional Regulation, and Epigenetics; and Alcohol, Intestinal Mucosa, and the Gut Microbiome. Presentations in all sessions of the meeting explored putative underlying causes for chronic diseases and mortality associated with alcohol consumption, shedding light on future work and potential therapeutic targets to alleviate the negative effects of alcohol misuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Symposium by NATO Defense Research Group Panel VIII on Computer-Based Instruction in Military Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Weddle, Peter

    1987-01-01

    This collection of papers is the result of a symposium sponsored by NATO's Defense Research Group Panel VIII in the Spring of 1985. The symposium came into being when it became obvious to the NATO countries that research, development and utilization of advanced technologies for training was the best means of increasing both training effectiveness and efficiency. This symposium was the second in a series of three devoted to training. The series was structured to cover all aspects of training. The first series addressed the value of training, the second one dealt with the application of training technologies and the third and last of the series focused on academic issues concerned with the effect of prior learning on subsequent learning. The fact that a major American publisher has determined that computer based instruction is the technology of greatest interest to the NATO community is not surprising. Advances in microprocessor technology have revolutionized both how and where we train. During this symposium t...

  7. Definitions of medication-overuse headache in population-based studies and their implications on prevalence estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria L; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Glümer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Case definitions of medication-overuse headache (MOH) in population-based research have changed over time. This study aims to review MOH prevalence reports with respect to these changes, and to propose a practical case definition for future studies based on the ICHD-3 beta....

  8. Childhood blindness in India: a population based perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, R; Dandona, L

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness in children in the southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. Methods: These data were obtained as part of two population based studies in which 6935 children ≤15 years of age participated. Blindness was defined as presenting distance visual acuity <6/60 in the better eye. Results: The prevalence of childhood blindness was 0.17% (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.30). Treatable refractive error caused 33.3% of the blindness, followed by 16.6% due to preventable causes (8.3% each due to vitamin A deficiency and amblyopia after cataract surgery). The major causes of the remaining blindness included congenital eye anomalies (16.7%) and retinal degeneration (16.7%). Conclusion: In the context of Vision 2020, the priorities for action to reduce childhood blindness in India are refractive error, cataract related amblyopia, and corneal diseases. PMID:12598433

  9. A population-based prospective study of optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, K; Jarius, S; Skejoe, Hanne Pernille Bro

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Early diagnosis is critical to optimal patient management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute ON and the rates of conversion to MS and antibody-mediated ON. METHOD: Population-based prospective study......-specific incidence was 3.28 (2.44-4.31) per 100,000 person years, 2.02 for men and 4.57 for women. At follow-up, 20 patients met the diagnostic criteria for MS, MRI lesions disseminated in space and time in 17/20 patients. AQP4-IgG was detected in none, MOG-IgG was detected in two patients. CONCLUSION...

  10. Recommendations for the Involvement of Patient Research Partners (PRP) in OMERACT Working Groups. A Report from the OMERACT 2014 Working Group on PRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; de Wit, Maarten; Bingham, Clifton O; Kirwan, John R; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn M; Montie, Pam; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Patient participation in research is increasing; however, practical guidelines to enhance this participation are lacking. Specifically within the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) organization, although patients have participated in OMERACT meetings since 2002, consensus about the procedures for involving patients in working groups has not been formalized. The objective is to develop a set of recommendations regarding patient research partner (PRP) involvement in research working groups. We conducted a systematic literature review on recommendations/guidelines of PRP involvement in research; elaborated a structured consensus process involving multiple participants to develop a set of recommendations; and sought endorsement of recommendations by OMERACT. In the 18 articles included in the literature review, there was general agreement on the broad concepts for recommendations covering PRP involvement in research although they were heterogeneous in detail. Most considered PRP involvement in all phases of research with early engagement, training, and support important, but details on the content were scarce. This review informed a larger consensus-building process regarding PRP inclusion in OMERACT research. Three overarching principles and 8 recommendations were developed, discussed, and refined at OMERACT 2014. The guiding principles were endorsed during the OMERACT plenary session. These recommendations for PRP involvement in OMERACT research reinforce the importance of patient participation throughout the research process as integral members. Although the applicability of the recommendations in other research contexts should be assessed, the generalizability is expected to be high. Future research should evaluate their implementation and their effect on outcome development.

  11. Scleroderma prevalence: demographic variations in a population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatsky, S; Joseph, L; Pineau, C A; Belisle, P; Hudson, M; Clarke, A E

    2009-03-15

    To estimate the prevalence of systemic sclerosis (SSc) using population-based administrative data, and to assess the sensitivity of case ascertainment approaches. We ascertained SSc cases from Quebec physician billing and hospitalization databases (covering approximately 7.5 million individuals). Three case definition algorithms were compared, and statistical methods accounting for imperfect case ascertainment were used to estimate SSc prevalence and case ascertainment sensitivity. A hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression model that accounted for possible between-test dependence conditional on disease status estimated the effect of patient characteristics on SSc prevalence and the sensitivity of the 3 ascertainment algorithms. Accounting for error inherent in both the billing and the hospitalization data, we estimated SSc prevalence in 2003 at 74.4 cases per 100,000 women (95% credible interval [95% CrI] 69.3-79.7) and 13.3 cases per 100,000 men (95% CrI 11.1-16.1). Prevalence was higher for older individuals, particularly in urban women (161.2 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 148.6-175.0). Prevalence was lowest in young men (in rural areas, as low as 2.8 cases per 100,000, 95% CrI 1.4-4.8). In general, no single algorithm was very sensitive, with point estimates for sensitivity ranging from 20-73%. We found marked differences in SSc prevalence according to age, sex, and region. In general, no single case ascertainment approach was very sensitive for SSc. Therefore, using data from multiple sources, with adjustment for the imperfect nature of each, is an important strategy in population-based studies of SSc and similar conditions.

  12. Injuries in Aleppo, Syria; first population-based estimates and characterization of predominant types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziak Wasim

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing burden of injuries worldwide, Syria and many other Arab countries still lack population-based estimates of different types of injuries. This study aims toprovide first population-based estimates of major injuries in Syria and characterize groups at increased risk. Methods An interviewer-administered population-based survey of adults 18–65 years residing in Aleppo, Syria was conducted in 2004. The study sample involved 2038 household representatives in Aleppo (45.2% men, mean age 35.3 ± 12.1, response rate 86%. We inquired about participants self-reported injuries in the past year that required medical attention as well as injuries among their household members. When reported, injuries were further assessed according to type, place, and outcome. Results Overall, there was 153 self-reported injuries in the past year (77.3 per 1000 adult respondents, 93.1 per 1000 in men and 64.4 per 1000 in women, p = 0.02. Other than gender, injuries differed by age (the older age group being least affected, and place of occurrence, as men were more likely to sustain traffic injuries and be injured outside the home. Injuries were reported among 236 household members (21.0 per 1000, and were slightly more frequent in children than adults (22.0 per 1000 for children, and 19.7 per 1000 for adults, p = 0.2. Traffic injuries, falls, and poisoning (food were by far the most common types of injury experienced by participants as well as their household members. Falls and traffic injuries seem to have caused most morbidity for the injured, while burns, although not frequently reported, were associated with an unfavorable outcome in the majority of cases. Conclusion This information provides baseline information about the burden of different injuries in Syria, and the sociodemographic factors related to them.

  13. Risk for Arterial and Venous Thrombosis in Patients With Myeloproliferative Neoplasms: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultcrantz, Malin; Björkholm, Magnus; Dickman, Paul W; Landgren, Ola; Derolf, Åsa R; Kristinsson, Sigurdur Y; Andersson, Therese M L

    2018-03-06

    Patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are reported to be at increased risk for thrombotic events. However, no population-based study has estimated this excess risk compared with matched control participants. To assess risk for arterial and venous thrombosis in patients with MPNs compared with matched control participants. Matched cohort study. Population-based setting in Sweden from 1987 to 2009, with follow-up to 2010. 9429 patients with MPNs and 35 820 matched control participants. The primary outcomes were rates of arterial and venous thrombosis. Flexible parametric models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and cumulative incidence with 95% CIs. The HRs for arterial thrombosis among patients with MPNs compared with control participants at 3 months, 1 year, and 5 years were 3.0 (95% CI, 2.7 to 3.4), 2.0 (CI, 1.8 to 2.2), and 1.5 (CI, 1.4 to 1.6), respectively. The corresponding HRs for venous thrombosis were 9.7 (CI, 7.8 to 12.0), 4.7 (CI, 4.0 to 5.4), and 3.2 (CI, 2.9 to 3.6). The rate was significantly elevated across all age groups and was similar among MPN subtypes. The 5-year cumulative incidence of thrombosis in patients with MPNs showed an initial rapid increase followed by gentler increases during follow-up. The HR for venous thrombosis decreased during more recent calendar periods. No information on individual laboratory results or treatment. Patients with MPNs across all age groups have a significantly increased rate of arterial and venous thrombosis compared with matched control participants, with the highest rates at and shortly after diagnosis. Decreases in the rate of venous thrombosis over time likely reflect advances in clinical management. The Cancer Research Foundations of Radiumhemmet, Blodcancerfonden, the Swedish Research Council, the regional agreement on medical training and clinical research between Stockholm County Council and Karolinska Institutet, the Adolf H. Lundin Charitable Foundation, and Memorial Sloan

  14. Healthy lifestyle: Perceptions and attitudes of students (the results of a focus group research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research conducted in December 2013 at the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia with the method of focus groups. The study aimed at identification not only the differences in understanding healthy lifestyles among students and their attitudes to a healthy lifestyle, but also its components, obstacles for the realization and opportunities to overcome them. The focus group research was just another stage of the project aimed at studying health and healthy lifestyles as values and the characteristics of the formation and manifestation of a health-preserving behavior. Despite many opportunities to motivate a health-preserving behavior among students, we still see obstacles for its formation due to both social and cultural characteristics. The study revealed that the value of health at this stage of life is rather declarative: only a small percentage of respondents are fully aware of the necessity of a health-preserving behavior and do really adopt a healthy lifestyle. The basic factors influencing the formation of the healthy lifestyle among the youth are the family, social environment and mass media. The respondents, in particular, confirm the significant impact of their social circle on the commitment to the bad habits as well as to healthy hobbies. The main factors hindering the healthy lifestyles among students include lack of free time, welfare, Internet addiction, lack of sufficient motivation and self-organization.

  15. IGORR-1: Proceedings of the first meeting of the international group on research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, C.D.

    1990-05-01

    Many organizations, in several countries, are planning or implementing new or upgraded research reactor projects, but there has been no organized forum devoted entirely to discussion and exchange of information in this field. Over the past year or so, informal discussions resulted in widespread agreement that such a forum would serve a useful purpose. Accordingly, a proposal to form a group was submitted to the leading organizations known to be involved in projects to build or upgrade reactor facilities. Essentially all agreed to join in the formation of the International Group on Research Reactors (IGORR) and nominated a senior staff member to serve on its international organizing committee. The first IGORR meeting took place on February 28--March 2, 1990. It was very successful and well attended; some 52 scientists and engineers from 25 organizations in 10 countries participated in 2-1/2 days of open and informative presentations and discussions. Two workshop sessions offered opportunities for more detailed interaction among participants and resulted in identification of common R ampersand D needs, sources of data, and planned new facilities. Individual papers have been cataloged separately

  16. Classroom management of situated group learning: A research study of two teaching strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeh, Kathy; Fawns, Rod

    2000-06-01

    Although peer-based work is encouraged by theories in developmental psychology and although classroom interventions suggest it is effective, there are grounds for recognising that young pupils find collaborative learning hard to sustain. Discontinuities in collaborative skill during development have been suggested as one interpretation. Theory and research have neglected situational continuities that the teacher may provide in management of formal and informal collaborations. This experimental study, with the collaboration of the science faculty in one urban secondary college, investigated the effect of two role attribution strategies on communication in peer groups of different gender composition in three parallel Year 8 science classes. The group were set a problem that required them to design an experiment to compare the thermal insulating properties of two different materials. This presents the data collected and key findings, and reviews the findings from previous parallel studies that have employed the same research design in different school settings. The results confirm the effectiveness of social role attribution strategies in teacher management of communication in peer-based work.

  17. Two Decades of Funded Research Goals and Achievements on Inquiry by the High Ability and Inquiry Research Group (HAIR) at McGill University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gube, Maren; Shore, Bruce M.

    2018-01-01

    From the 1990s until 2017 the High Ability and Inquiry Research Group (HAIR) at McGill University in Montreal, received C$1.3M in research funds from Canadian, Quebec, and US agencies to support its research and graduate training in education and educational psychology. Their research encompassed two principal areas, Inquiry in Education and…

  18. THE USE OF FACEBOOK GROUP DISCUSSION TO IMPROVE READING STRATEGIES, AN ACTION RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Yuliani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of technology influence people‘s life in many aspects including the process of teaching and learning in university, school etc. Some social medias are popular in society, one of them is Facebook. This social networking can be used for any purposes Such as interacting, marketing, publishing, learning etc. The study aims to prove whether Facebook‘s group discussion can be effectively used to improve reading strategies which are normally developed through classroom interaction. It is an action research design involving one group consisting of 37 students randomly sampled out from a population of 198 students. A plan-act-observe-reflect design of the study will be carried out in two cycles. Each cycle involves pretest, treatment and post test. Cycle 1 is undertaken to see if there is a significant difference between the pretest and post test upon treatment. The indicator of success of the treatment is that the post test outscores the pretest. If it does, then Cycle 2 will be conducted to convince the results. If the two cycles show an increase in the mean scores, it can be claimed that the method is effective. In other words, Facebook‘s group discussion can be effectively used to improve reading strategies.

  19. Towards a new understanding of cohabitation: Insights from focus group research across Europe and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brienna Perelli-Harris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Across the industrialized world, more couples are living together without marrying. Although researchers have compared cohabitation cross-nationally using quantitative data, few have compared union formation using qualitative data. Objective: We use focus group research to compare social norms of cohabitation and marriage in Australia and nine countries in Europe. We explore questions such as: what is the meaning of cohabitation? To what extent is cohabitation indistinguishable from marriage, a prelude to marriage, or an alternative to being single? Are the meanings of cohabitation similar across countries? Methods: Collaborators conducted seven to eight focus groups in each country using a standardized guideline. They analyzed the discussions with bottom-up coding in each thematic area. They then collated the data in a standardized report. The first and second authors systematically analyzed the reports, with direct input from collaborators. Results: The results describe a specific picture of union formation in each country. However, three themes emerge in all focus groups: commitment, testing, and freedom. The pervasiveness of these concepts suggests that marriage and cohabitation have distinct meanings, with marriage representing a stronger level of commitment. Cohabitation is a way to test the relationship, and represents freedom. Nonetheless, other discourses emerged, suggesting that cohabitation has multiple meanings. Conclusions: This study illuminates how context shapes partnership formation, but also presents underlying reasons for the development of cohabitation. We find that the increase in cohabitation has not devalued the concept of marriage, but has become a way to preserve marriage as an ideal for long-term commitment.

  20. Risk perception among women receiving genetic counseling: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    -up study of 213 women who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 319 women who underwent mammography (Reference Group I), and a random sample of 1070 women from the general population (Reference Group II). RESULTS: Women who received genetic counseling decreased...... counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...

  1. Recent Advances in Sarcopenia Research in Asia: 2016 Update From the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Arai, Hidenori; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress. The prevalence of sarcopenia estimated by the AWGS criteria ranges between 4.1% and 11.5% of the general older population; however, prevalence rates were higher in Asian studies that used European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People cut-offs. Risk factors include age, sex, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, daily alcohol consumption, and low protein or vitamin intake; physical activity is protective. Adjusting skeletal muscle mass by weight rather than height is better in showing the effect of older age in sarcopenia and identifying sarcopenic obesity; however, some Asian studies found no significant skeletal muscle loss, and muscle strength might be a better indicator. Although AWGS 2014 diagnostic cut-offs were generally well accepted, some may require further revision in light of conflicting evidence from some studies. The importance of sarcopenia in diverse therapeutic areas is increasingly evident, with strong research interest in sarcopenic obesity and the setting of malignancy. Pharmacologic interventions have been unsatisfactory, and the core management strategies remain physical exercise and nutritional supplementation; however, further research is required to determine the most beneficial approaches. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  2. Engaging families in physical activity research: a family-based focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Helen Elizabeth; Schiff, Annie; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-11-25

    Family-based interventions present a much-needed opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, little is known about how best to engage parents and their children in physical activity research. This study aimed to engage with the whole family to understand how best to recruit for, and retain participation in, physical activity research. Families (including a 'target' child aged between 8 and 11 years, their parents, siblings, and others) were recruited through schools and community groups. Focus groups were conducted using a semi-structured approach (informed by a pilot session). Families were asked to order cards listing the possible benefits of, and the barriers to, being involved in physical activity research and other health promotion activities, highlighting the items they consider most relevant, and suggesting additional items. Duplicate content analysis was used to identify transcript themes and develop a coding frame. Eighty-two participants from 17 families participated, including 17 'target' children (mean age 9.3 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% female), 32 other children and 33 adults (including parents, grandparents, and older siblings). Social, health and educational benefits were cited as being key incentives for involvement in physical activity research, with emphasis on children experiencing new things, developing character, and increasing social contact (particularly for shy children). Children's enjoyment was also given priority. The provision of child care or financial reward was not considered sufficiently appealing. Increased time commitment or scheduling difficulties were quoted as the most pertinent barriers to involvement (especially for families with several children), but parents commented these could be overcome if the potential value for children was clear. Lessons learned from this work may contribute to the development of effective recruitment and retention strategies for children and their families. Making the wide

  3. The Visual Matrix Method: Imagery and Affect in a Group-Based Research Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Froggett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The visual matrix is a method for researching shared experience, stimulated by sensory material relevant to a research question. It is led by imagery, visualization and affect, which in the matrix take precedence over discourse. The method enables the symbolization of imaginative and emotional material, which might not otherwise be articulated and allows "unthought" dimensions of experience to emerge into consciousness in a participatory setting. We describe the process of the matrix with reference to the study "Public Art and Civic Engagement" (FROGGETT, MANLEY, ROY, PRIOR & DOHERTY, 2014 in which it was developed and tested. Subsequently, examples of its use in other contexts are provided. Both the matrix and post-matrix discussions are described, as is the interpretive process that follows. Theoretical sources are highlighted: its origins in social dreaming; the atemporal, associative nature of the thinking during and after the matrix which we describe through the Deleuzian idea of the rhizome; and the hermeneutic analysis which draws from object relations theory and the Lorenzerian tradition of scenic understanding. The matrix has been conceptualized as a "scenic rhizome" to account for its distinctive quality and hybrid origins in research practice. The scenic rhizome operates as a "third" between participants and the "objects" of contemplation. We suggest that some of the drawbacks of other group-based methods are avoided in the visual matrix—namely the tendency for inter-personal dynamics to dominate the event. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs150369

  4. Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stickley

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years. Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval: CI for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59 to 2.82 (2.11-3.78 between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years. The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%, anxiety (30.2%, and depression (15.4%. Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  5. Physical multimorbidity and loneliness: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai

    2018-01-01

    Multimorbidity has been linked to a variety of negative outcomes although as yet, there has been little research on its association with loneliness. This study examined the association between physical multimorbidity (≥ 2 physical diseases) and loneliness in the general population and its potential mediators. Data came from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey 2007 (N = 7403, aged ≥16 years). Information was obtained on 20 doctor diagnosed physical conditions that were present in the previous year. An item from the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) was used to obtain information on loneliness. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. An increasing number of physical diseases was associated with higher odds for loneliness. Compared to no physical diseases, the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval: CI) for loneliness increased from 1.34 (1.13-1.59) to 2.82 (2.11-3.78) between one and ≥5 physical diseases. This association was particularly strong in the youngest age group (i.e. 16-44 years). The loneliness-physical multimorbidity association was significantly mediated by stressful life events (% mediated 11.1%-30.5%), anxiety (30.2%), and depression (15.4%). Physical multimorbidity is associated with increased odds for loneliness. Prospective research is now needed to further elucidate this association and the factors that underlie it.

  6. Prevalence of cerebral palsy in Uganda: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Andrews, Carin; Peterson, Stefan; Wabwire Mangen, Fred; Eliasson, Ann Christin; Forssberg, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Few population-based studies of cerebral palsy have been done in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to examine cerebral palsy prevalence and subtypes, functional impairments, and presumed time of injury in children in Uganda. In this population-based study, we used a nested, three-stage, cross-sectional method (Iganga-Mayuge Health and Demographic Surveillance System [HDSS]) to screen for cerebral palsy in children aged 2-17 years in a rural eastern Uganda district. A specialist team confirmed the diagnosis and determined the subtype, motor function (according to the Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS]), and possible time of brain injury for each child. Triangulation and interviews with key village informants were used to identify additional cases of suspected cerebral palsy. We estimated crude and adjusted cerebral palsy prevalence. We did χ 2 analyses to examine differences between the group screened at stage 1 and the entire population and regression analyses to investigate associations between the number of cases and age, GMFCS level, subtype, and time of injury. We used data from the March 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015, surveillance round of the Iganga-Mayuge HDSS. 31 756 children were screened for cerebral palsy, which was confirmed in 86 (19%) of 442 children who screened positive in the first screening stage. The crude cerebral palsy prevalence was 2·7 (95% CI 2·2-3·3) per 1000 children, and prevalence increased to 2·9 (2·4-3·6) per 1000 children after adjustment for attrition. The prevalence was lower in older (8-17 years) than in younger (cerebral palsy was the most common subtype (45 [46%] of 97 children) followed by bilateral cerebral palsy (39 [40%] of 97 children). 14 (27%) of 51 children aged 2-7 years had severe cerebral palsy (GMFCS levels 4-5) compared with only five (12%) of 42 children aged 8-17 years. Few children (two [2%] of 97) diagnosed with cerebral palsy were born preterm. Post-neonatal events were the

  7. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  8. The reliability of assigning individuals to cognitive states using the Mini Mental-State Examination: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Chatfield, Mark; Brayne, Carol; Matthews, Fiona E

    2011-09-06

    Previous investigations of test re-test reliability of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) have used correlations and statistics such as Cronbach's α to assess consistency. In practice, the MMSE is usually used to group individuals into cognitive states. The reliability of this grouping (state based approach) has not been fully explored. MMSE data were collected on a subset of 2,275 older participants (≥ 65 years) from the population-based Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Two measurements taken approximately two months apart were used to investigate three state-based categorisations. Descriptive statistics were used to determine how many people remained in the same cognitive group or went up or down groups. Weighted logistic regression was used to identify predictive characteristics of those who moved group. The proportion of people who remained in the same MMSE group at screen and follow-up assessment ranged from 58% to 78%. The proportion of individuals who went up one or more groups was roughly equal to the proportion that went down one or more groups; most of the change occurred when measurements were close to the cut-points. There was no consistently significant predictor for changing cognitive group. A state-based approach to analysing the reliability of the MMSE provided similar results to correlation analyses. State-based models of cognitive change or individual trajectory models using raw scores need multiple waves to help overcome natural variation in MMSE scores and to help identify true cognitive change.

  9. Retinitis pigmentosa in Spain. The Spanish Multicentric and Multidisciplinary Group for Research into Retinitis Pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, C; Garcia-Sandoval, B; Najera, C; Valverde, D; Carballo, M; Antiñolo, G

    1995-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa is a term commonly given to a group of inherited and progressive disorders which affect the photoreceptors of the retina. As part of an ongoing research programme throughout Spain, clinical, epidemiological, and genetic studies have been carried out on these diseases. Here, we report the relative frequencies of the different genetic types in 503 non-syndromic and 89 syndromic RP families of Spanish origin. The most frequent syndromic RP forms were Usher syndrome type 1 (20/89 families = 30%) and Usher syndrome type 2 (44 families = 49%). Among non-syndromic RP forms, 12% were autosomal dominant, 39% autosomal recessive and 4% X-linked. Forty-one percent were isolated or simplex cases and in 4% the genetic type could not be established.

  10. Tackling fuel poverty through facilitating energy tariff switching: a participatory action research study in vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, A; Pedro, L; Badesha, B; Dize, C; Fernow, I; Dias, L

    2013-10-01

    A fifth of UK households live in fuel poverty, with significant health risks. Recent government strategy integrates public health with local government. This study examined barriers to switching energy tariffs and the impact of an energy tariff switching 'intervention' on vulnerable peoples' likelihood to, success in, switching tariffs. Participatory Action Research (PAR), conducted in West London. Community researchers from three voluntary/community organisations (VCOs) collaborated in recruitment, study design, data collection and analysis. VCOs recruited 151 participants from existing service users in three groups: Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities, older people (>75 yrs) and families with young children. Researchers conducted two semi-structured interviews with each participant, a week apart. The first interview asked about demographics, current energy supplier, financial situation, previous experience of tariff-switching and barriers to switching. Researchers then provided the 'intervention' - advice on tariff-switching, printed materials, access to websites. The second interview explored usefulness of the 'intervention', other information used, remaining barriers and information needs. Researchers kept case notes and a reflective log. Data was analysed thematically and collaboratively between the research coordinator and researchers. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS, with descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests. A total of 151 people were interviewed: 47 older people over 75 years, 51 families with young children, 51 BME (two were missing demographics). The majority were not White British or UK-born. Average household weekly income was £230. Around half described 'difficult' financial situations, 94% were receiving state benefits and 62% were in debt. Less than a third had tried to find a better energy deal; knowledge was the main barrier. After the intervention 19 people tried to switch, 13 did. Young families were most likely to

  11. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology : Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.-E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U.; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural

  12. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagger, M.S.; Luszczynska, A.; de Wit, J.; Benyamini, Y.; Burkert, S.; Chamberland, P.E.; Chater, A.; Dombrowski, S.U.; van Dongen, A.; French, D.P.; Gauchet, A.; Hankonen, N.; Karekla, M.; Kinney, A.Y.; Kwasnicka, D.; Lo, S.H.; López-Roig, S.; Meslot, C.; Marques, M.M.; Neter, E.; Plass, A.M.; Potthoff, S.; Rennie, L.; Scholz, U; Stadler, G.; Stolte, E.; Ten Hoor, G.; Verhoeven, A.; Wagner, M.; Oettingen, G.; Sheeran, P.; Gollwitzer, P.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural

  13. The expert group health research and care after disasters and environmental crises: an analysis of research questions formulated by Dutch health authorities for the expert group between 2006 and 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alting, D.; Dückers, M.L.; Yzermans, J.

    2017-01-01

    Study/Objective: The aim of this study is (1) to examine developments in the research questions, submitted to the Expert Group Health Research and Care after Disasters and Environmental Crises between 2006 and 2016, and (2) to explore implications of the research questions for the nature of advice

  14. Population-Based Analysis of Histologically Confirmed Melanocytic Proliferations Using Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Jason P; Boudreau, Denise M; Barnhill, Ray L; Weinstock, Martin A; Knopp, Eleanor; Piepkorn, Michael W; Elder, David E; Knezevich, Steven R; Baer, Andrew; Tosteson, Anna N A; Elmore, Joann G

    2018-01-01

    Population-based information on the distribution of histologic diagnoses associated with skin biopsies is unknown. Electronic medical records (EMRs) enable automated extraction of pathology report data to improve our epidemiologic understanding of skin biopsy outcomes, specifically those of melanocytic origin. To determine population-based frequencies and distribution of histologically confirmed melanocytic lesions. A natural language processing (NLP)-based analysis of EMR pathology reports of adult patients who underwent skin biopsies at a large integrated health care delivery system in the US Pacific Northwest from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2012. Skin biopsy procedure. The primary outcome was histopathologic diagnosis, obtained using an NLP-based system to process EMR pathology reports. We determined the percentage of diagnoses classified as melanocytic vs nonmelanocytic lesions. Diagnoses classified as melanocytic were further subclassified using the Melanocytic Pathology Assessment Tool and Hierarchy for Diagnosis (MPATH-Dx) reporting schema into the following categories: class I (nevi and other benign proliferations such as mildly dysplastic lesions typically requiring no further treatment), class II (moderately dysplastic and other low-risk lesions that may merit narrow reexcision with skin biopsies, performed on 47 529 patients, were examined. Nearly 1 in 4 skin biopsies were of melanocytic lesions (23%; n = 18 715), which were distributed according to MPATH-Dx categories as follows: class I, 83.1% (n = 15 558); class II, 8.3% (n = 1548); class III, 4.5% (n = 842); class IV, 2.2% (n = 405); and class V, 1.9% (n = 362). Approximately one-quarter of skin biopsies resulted in diagnoses of melanocytic proliferations. These data provide the first population-based estimates across the spectrum of melanocytic lesions ranging from benign through dysplastic to malignant. These results may serve as a foundation for future

  15. Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis and Risk of Pneumonia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Chang, Geng-He; Tsai, Yao-Te; Li, Hsueh-Yu; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Hsu, Cheng-Ming

    2018-05-01

    Objective To investigate pneumonia risk among patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP). Study Design Retrospective population-based cohort study. Setting This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a nationwide population-based database. Subjects and Methods A total of 419 patients newly diagnosed with UVFP between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2013, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 1676 patients without UVFP were matched to patients with UVFP at a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex, socioeconomic status, urbanization level, and site-specific cancers. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of pneumonia. Results The cumulative incidence of pneumonia was significantly higher for patients with UVFP than those without UFVP ( P < .001). The adjusted Cox proportional hazard model showed that UVFP was significantly associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia (hazard ratio, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.35-2.86; P < .001). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that UVFP was an independent risk factor of pneumonia for 4 subgroups: young (18-50 years), older (≥51 years), male, and cancer. Conclusion This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between UVFP and pneumonia. The findings indicate that UVFP is an independent risk factor of pneumonia. Given the study results, physicians should be aware of the potential for pneumonia occurrence following UVFP.

  16. National nephrectomy registries: Reviewing the need for population-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John; Williamson, Timothy; Ischia, Joseph; Bolton, Damien M; Frydenberg, Mark; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2015-09-01

    Nephrectomy is the cornerstone therapy for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and continued refinement of the procedure through research may enhance patient outcomes. A national nephrectomy registry may provide the key information needed to assess the procedure at a national level. The aim of this study was to review nephrectomy data available at a population-based level in Australia and to benchmark these data against data from the rest of the world as an examination of the national nephrectomy registry model. A PubMed search identified records pertaining to RCC nephrectomy in Australia. A similar search identified records relating to established nephrectomy registries internationally and other surgical registries of clinical importance. These records were reviewed to address the stated aims of this article. Population-based data within Australia for nephrectomy were lacking. Key issues identified were the difficulty in benchmarking outcomes and no ongoing monitoring of trends. The care centralization debate, which questions whether small-volume centers provide comparable outcomes to high-volume centers, is ongoing. Patterns of adherence and the effectiveness of existing protocols are uncertain. A review of established international registries demonstrated that the registry model can effectively address issues comparable to those identified in the Australian literature. A national nephrectomy registry could address deficiencies identified in a given nation's nephrectomy field. The model is supported by evidence from international examples and will provide the population-based data needed for studies. Scope exists for possible integration with other registries to develop a more encompassing urological or surgical registry. Need remains for further exploration of the feasibility and practicalities of initiating such a registry including a minimum data set, outcome indicators, and auditing of data.

  17. Economic costs of social phobia: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acarturk, C; Smit, Filip; de Graaf, R; van Straten, A; Ten Have, M; Cuijpers, P

    2009-06-01

    Information about the economic costs of social phobia is scant. In this study, we examine the economic costs of social phobia and subthreshold social phobia. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS) which is a population-based prospective study (n=4,789). Costs related to health service uptake, patients' out-of-pocket expenses, and costs arising from production losses were calculated for the reference year 2003. The costs for people with social phobia were compared with the costs for people with no mental disorder. The annual per capita total costs of social phobia were euro 11,952 (95% CI=7,891-16,013) which is significantly higher than the total costs for people with no mental disorder, euro 2957 (95% CI=2690-3224). When adjusting for mental and somatic co-morbidity, the costs decreased to euro 6,100 (95% CI=2681-9519), or 136 million euro per year per 1 million inhabitants, which was still significantly higher than the costs for people with no mental disorder. The costs of subthreshold social phobia were also significantly higher than the costs for people without any mental disorder, at euro 4,687 (95% CI=2557-6816). The costs presented here are conservative lower estimates because we only included costs related to mental health services. The economic costs associated with social phobia are substantial, and those of subthreshold social phobia approach those of the full-blown disorder.

  18. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  19. Population-Based Study of Trachoma in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juan Carlos; Diaz, Marco Antonio; Maul, Eugenio; Munoz, Beatriz E; West, Sheila K

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence survey for active trachoma in children aged under 10 years and trichiasis in women aged 40 years and older was carried out in four districts in the Sololá region in Guatemala, which is suspected of still having a trachoma problem. Population-based surveys were undertaken in three districts, within 15 randomly selected communities in each district. In addition, in a fourth district that borders the third district chosen, we surveyed the small northern sub-district, by randomly selecting three communities in each community, 100 children aged under 10 years were randomly selected, and all females over 40 years. Five survey teams were trained and standardized. Trachoma was graded using the World Health Organization simplified grading scheme and ocular swabs were taken in cases of clinical follicular or inflammatory trachoma. Prevalence estimates were calculated at district and sub-district level. Trachoma rates at district level varied from 0-5.1%. There were only two sub-districts where active trachoma approached 10% (Nahualá Costa, 8.1%, and Santa Catarina Costa, 7.3%). Trichiasis rates in females aged 40 years and older varied from 0-3%. Trachoma was likely a problem in the past. Trachoma is disappearing in the Sololá region in Guatemala. Health leadership may consider further mapping of villages around the areas with an especially high rate of trachoma and infection, and instituting trichiasis surgery and active trachoma intervention where needed.

  20. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assumpção, Daniela; Dias, Marcia Regina Messaggi Gomes; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Fisberg, Regina Mara; de Azevedo Barros Filho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2). The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Calcium intake by adolescents: a population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Assumpção

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To analyze calcium intake in adolescents according to sociodemographic variables, health-related behaviors, morbidities, and body mass index. Methods This was a cross-sectional population-based study, with a two-stage cluster sampling that used data from a survey conducted in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, between 2008 and 2009. Food intake was assessed using a 24-hour dietary recall. The study included 913 adolescents aged 10-19 years. Results Average nutrient intake was significantly lower in the segment with lower education of the head of the family and lower per capita family income, in individuals from other cities or states, those who consumed fruit less than four times a week, those who did not drink milk daily, those who were smokers, and those who reported the occurrence of headaches and dizziness. Higher mean calcium intake was found in individuals that slept less than seven hours a day. The prevalence of calcium intake below the recommendation was 88.6% (95% CI: 85.4-91.2. Conclusion The results alert to an insufficient calcium intake and suggest that certain subgroups of adolescents need specific strategies to increase the intake of this nutrient.

  2. Anxiety disorders in young people: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaíse Campos Mondin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the prevalence of anxiety disorders and associated factors in young adults. Methods: Cross-sectional population-based study of individuals between the ages of 18 and 24 years randomly selected from 89 census-based sectors to ensure an adequate sample size. Household selection within the sectors was performed according to a systematic sampling process. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. The final sample comprised 1,560 young adults. Results: Of the participants who were diagnosed with anxiety disorders, 12.3% had agoraphobia, 9.7% had generalised anxiety disorder, 4.0% had social phobia, 3.3% had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 2.5% had panic disorder, and 2.1% had post-traumatic stress disorder; only 23.8% had received any previous treatment. Anxiety disorders were associated with sex, socioeconomic status, psychiatric problems in parents, alcohol abuse, and tobacco use. Conclusions: The identification of factors associated with anxiety disorders in young people enables us to develop intervention strategies. Anxiety disorders are not only highly prevalent but are also associated with significant functional impairment, significant reductions in quality of life, lower productivity, and higher rates of comorbidities.

  3. Allergic rhinitis and arterial blood pressure: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakallioglu, O; Polat, C; Akyigit, A; Cetiner, H; Duzer, S

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the likelihood of allergic rhinitis and potential co-morbidities, and to assess whether allergic rhinitis is associated with arterial blood pressure and hypertension. In this population-based study, 369 adults with allergic rhinitis and asthma were assessed via a questionnaire and immunoglobulin E levels. There were four groups: control (n = 90), allergic rhinitis (n = 99), asthma (n = 87) and hypertension (n = 93). Arterial blood pressure was measured in all groups. There were no significant differences in systolic or diastolic blood pressure between males and females in any group. Pairwise comparisons revealed no significant differences between: the control and allergic rhinitis groups, the control and asthma groups, or the allergic rhinitis and asthma groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of males and females were significantly higher in the hypertension group than the allergic rhinitis group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure for seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis patients. Rhinitis was not associated with increased blood pressure. Allergic rhinitis can coincide with asthma and hypertension. The findings do not support the need for blood pressure follow up in allergic rhinitis patients.

  4. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  5. Exploring the economic and social effects of care dependence in later life: protocol for the 10/66 research group INDEP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayston, Rosie; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Ezeah, Peter; Gallardo, Sara; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Guerchet, Maëlenn; Liu, Zhaorui; Sanchez, Maria; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Prince, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    In low or middle income countries chronic diseases are rapidly becoming the main cause of disease burden. However, the main focus of health policymakers has been on preventing death from cancer and heart disease, with very little attention to the growing problem of long-term needs for care (dependence). Numbers of dependent older people are set to quadruple by 2050. The economic impact of providing long-term care is likely to be substantial. The study uses mixed methods and draws on and extends the population-based surveys conducted by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. We focus on two countries in Latin America (Peru and Mexico), China and Nigeria. The surveys comprised baseline surveys of health, socioeconomic circumstances and care arrangements, repeated three to four years later. We are going back to these households to make a detailed assessment of the overall economic status and the use of health services by all family members. We will compare households where: a) an older resident became dependent between baseline and follow-up (incident care), b) one or more older people were dependent at both time points (chronic care), b) c) no older residents had needs for care (control households) for household income, consumption, healthcare expenditure and economic strain. In each of the four countries we are carrying out six detailed household 'case studies' to explore in more depth the economic impacts of dependence, and the social relations between household members and others in their network. The INDEP study will provide a detailed examination of the economic and social effects of care dependence in low and middle income settings. As the proportion of older people with needs for care rises rapidly in these countries, this neglected policy area is likely to become increasingly salient for families, communities and policymakers alike. Our detailed multilevel plans for dissemination will ensure that the study helps to put this important issue on the agenda for the

  6. Improving the Grade Point Average of Our At-Risk Students: A Collaborative Group Action Research Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurino, Dan R.; Hinson, Kenneth; Bouma, Amy

    This paper focuses on the use of a group action research approach to help student teachers develop strategies to improve the grade point average of at-risk students. Teaching interventions such as group work and group and individual tutoring were compared to teaching strategies already used in the field. Results indicated an improvement in the…

  7. IGORR 7: Proceedings of the 7. meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    According to the subjects covered the papers presented at the meeting were divided into following sessions: New research reactor projects; secondary neutron sources; New research reactor facilities; Improvement of Research Reactors Facilities; Research and Development Needs

  8. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  9. Effectiveness of a two-step population-based osteoporosis screening program using FRAX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, K H; Rothmann, M J; Holmberg, T

    2018-01-01

    The Risk-stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation (ROSE) study investigated the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. We found no overall reduction in fractures from systematic screening compared to the current case-finding strategy. The group of moderate......- to high-risk women, who accepted the invitation to DXA, seemed to benefit from the program. INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the ROSE study was to investigate the effectiveness of a two-step population-based osteoporosis screening program using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) derived from a self......-administered questionnaire to select women for DXA scan. After the scanning, standard osteoporosis management according to Danish national guidelines was followed. METHODS: Participants were randomized to either screening or control group, and randomization was stratified according to age and area of residence. Inclusion...

  10. Conducting Cancer Control and Survivorship Research via Cooperative Groups: A Report from the American Society of Preventive Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra

    2011-01-01

    As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if in...

  11. 'Putting Life in Years' (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Gail A; Hind, Daniel; Gossage-Worrall, Rebecca; Walters, Stephen J; Duncan, Rosie; Newbould, Louise; Rex, Saleema; Jones, Carys; Bowling, Ann; Cattan, Mima; Cairns, Angela; Cooper, Cindy; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Goyder, Elizabeth C

    2014-04-24

    Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a recruitment window of 1 year is feasible. For

  12. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  13. Psychological Research Online: Report of Board of Scientific Affairs' Advisory Group on the Conduct of Research on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraut, Robert; Olson, Judith; Banaji, Mahzarin; Bruckman, Amy; Cohen, Jeffrey; Couper, Mick

    2004-01-01

    As the Internet has changed communication, commerce, and the distribution of information, so too it is changing psychological research. Psychologists can observe new or rare phenomena online and can do research on traditional psychological topics more efficiently, enabling them to expand the scale and scope of their research. Yet these…

  14. Focus group positioning and analysis: a commentary on adjuncts for enhancing the design of health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B C

    1990-01-01

    As health care competition increases, and as the penalties for making poor decisions become potentially more devastating, market research continues to play an increasingly important role in the decision-making process for hospitals. Concern over the appropriate use of market research and the costs related to it remains high. As such, efficiency in research design and clarity in research outcome are clearly the goals. This paper examines the focus group process and its adjunctive role in enhancing the overall design of health care market research. Specifically, the function and placement of focus groups within the research plan as well as several methods of creative focus group analysis are considered within the context of an effective research design.

  15. Promoting group empowerment and self-reliance through participatory research: a case study of people with physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R; Bhagwanjee, A

    1999-07-01

    Despite the growing popularity of the empowerment construct among social scientists, relatively few empowerment studies involving groupwork with people with physical disabilities exist. This article accordingly describes and analyses the organic development of the empowerment process within a spinal cord injury self-help group, set against the backdrop of policy imperatives for disability in post-apartheid South Africa. The treatise on the group empowerment process is located within the context of a group evaluation conducted within a participatory research framework. Key variables informing the research approach included: quality of participation, control over resources and decision-making, shift in critical consciousness and understanding, malleability of roles within the group and role of the health professional. Group members assumed ownership of group management and decision-making and shifted from a professionally-led to a peer-led self-help group. Group objectives changed from providing mutual support to community education and outreach activities. The role of the health professional shifted from group facilitator to invited consultant. This case study demonstrates how group participation, promoted by a critically informed therapeutic and research praxis, can unlock the inherent potential for self-reliance and empowerment of socially marginalized collectives. It offers important insights with regard to group process, participatory research and the role of the health professional in creating opportunities for empowerment and self-reliance of people with disability.

  16. Population-based characteristics of fatal and hospital admissions for poisoning in Fiji: TRIP Project-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini; Kafoa, Berlin; Wainiqolo, Iris; Reddy, Ravi Krishnan; McCaig, Eddie; Ameratunga, Shanthi N

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the incidence and characteristics of poisoning fatalities and hospital admissions among indigenous Fijians and Indians in Viti Levu, Fiji. Individuals with a mechanism of injury classified as poisoning were identified using the Fiji injury surveillance in hospitals system, a population-based registry established for 12 months in Viti Levu, and analysed using population-based denominators. The mean annual rates of fatalities and hospitalisations were 2.3 and 26.0 per 100 000, respectively. Over two-thirds of poisonings occurred among people of Indian ethnicity. Most intentional poisoning admissions occurred among women (58.3%) and in 15–29-year-old individuals (73.8%). Unintentional poisoning admission rates were highest among Indian boys aged 0–14 years. While over 75% of events occurred at home, the substances involved were not systematically identified. The findings indicate the need for a strategy that addresses the differing contexts across age group, gender and ethnicity, and a lead agency responsible for implementing and monitoring its effectiveness. PMID:23353079

  17. Assessment of fracture risk: value of random population-based samples--the Geelong Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M J; Pasco, J A; Seeman, E; Nicholson, G C; Sanders, K M; Kotowicz, M A

    2001-01-01

    Fracture risk is determined by bone mineral density (BMD). The T-score, a measure of fracture risk, is the position of an individual's BMD in relation to a reference range. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of change in the T-score when different sampling techniques were used to produce the reference range. Reference ranges were derived from three samples, drawn from the same region: (1) an age-stratified population-based random sample, (2) unselected volunteers, and (3) a selected healthy subset of the population-based sample with no diseases or drugs known to affect bone. T-scores were calculated using the three reference ranges for a cohort of women who had sustained a fracture and as a group had a low mean BMD (ages 35-72 yr; n = 484). For most comparisons, the T-scores for the fracture cohort were more negative using the population reference range. The difference in T-scores reached 1.0 SD. The proportion of the fracture cohort classified as having osteoporosis at the spine was 26, 14, and 23% when the population, volunteer, and healthy reference ranges were applied, respectively. The use of inappropriate reference ranges results in substantial changes to T-scores and may lead to inappropriate management.

  18. Evaluation of a population-based approach to familial colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfrey, P S; Dicks, E; Parfrey, O; McNicholas, P J; Noseworthy, H; Woods, M O; Negriin, C; Green, J

    2017-05-01

    As Newfoundland has the highest rate of familial colorectal cancer (CRC) in the world, we started a population-based clinic to provide colonoscopic and Lynch syndrome (LS) screening recommendations to families of CRC patients based on family risk. Of 1091 incident patients 51% provided a family history. Seventy-two percent of families were at low or intermediate-low risk of CRC and colonoscopic screening recommendations were provided by letter. Twenty-eight percent were at high and intermediate-high risk and were referred to the genetic counsellor, but only 30% (N = 48) were interviewed by study end. Colonoscopy was recommended more frequently than every 5 years in 35% of families. Lower family risk was associated with older age of proband but the frequency of screening colonoscopy recommendations varied across all age groups, driven by variability in family history. Twenty-four percent had a high MMR predict score for a Lynch syndrome mutation, and 23% fulfilled the Provincial Program criteria for LS screening. A population-based approach in the provision of colonoscopic screening recommendations to families at risk of CRC was limited by the relatively low response rate. A family history first approach to the identification of LS families was inefficient. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Pu Chang

    Full Text Available Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation.Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls.In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001. After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.47. This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.26.Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should consider dental procedures to be a

  20. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo after Dental Procedures: A Population-Based Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzu-Pu; Lin, Yueh-Wen; Sung, Pi-Yu; Chuang, Hsun-Yang; Chung, Hsien-Yang; Liao, Wen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common type of vertigo in the general population, is thought to be caused by dislodgement of otoliths from otolithic organs into the semicircular canals. In most cases, however, the cause behind the otolith dislodgement is unknown. Dental procedures, one of the most common medical treatments, are considered to be a possible cause of BPPV, although this has yet to be proven. This study is the first nationwide population-based case-control study conducted to investigate the correlation between BPPV and dental manipulation. Patients diagnosed with BPPV between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were recruited from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We further identified those who had undergone dental procedures within 1 month and within 3 months before the first diagnosis date of BPPV. We also identified the comorbidities of the patients with BPPV, including head trauma, osteoporosis, migraine, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and stroke. These variables were then compared to those in age- and gender-matched controls. In total, 768 patients with BPPV and 1536 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited. In the BPPV group, 9.2% of the patients had undergone dental procedures within 1 month before the diagnosis of BPPV. In contrast, only 5.5% of the controls had undergone dental treatment within 1 month before the date at which they were identified (P = 0.001). After adjustments for demographic factors and comorbidities, recent exposure to dental procedures was positively associated with BPPV (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.47). This association was still significant if we expanded the time period from 1 month to 3 months (adjusted odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval 1.39-2.26). Our results demonstrated a correlation between dental procedures and BPPV. The specialists who treat patients with BPPV should consider dental procedures to be a risk factor

  1. Association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and upper gastrointestinal bleeding: population based case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abajo, Francisco José; Rodríguez, Luis Alberto García; Montero, Dolores

    1999-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Design Population based case-control study. Setting General practices included in the UK general practice research database. Subjects 1651 incident cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding and 248 cases of ulcer perforation among patients aged 40 to 79 years between April 1993 and September 1997, and 10 000 controls matched for age, sex, and year that the case was identified. Interventions Review of computer profiles for all potential cases, and an internal validation study to confirm the accuracy of the diagnosis on the basis of the computerised information. Main outcome measures Current use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or other antidepressants within 30 days before the index date. Results Current exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors was identified in 3.1% (52 of 1651) of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding but only 1.0% (95 of 10 000) of controls, giving an adjusted rate ratio of 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.1 to 4.4). This effect measure was not modified by sex, age, dose, or treatment duration. A crude incidence of 1 case per 8000 prescriptions was estimated. A small association was found with non-selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (relative risk 1.4, 1.1 to 1.9) but not with antidepressants lacking this inhibitory effect. None of the groups of antidepressants was associated with ulcer perforation. The concurrent use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increased the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding beyond the sum of their independent effects (15.6, 6.6 to 36.6). A smaller interaction was also found between selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and low dose aspirin (7.2, 3.1 to 17.1). Conclusions Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The absolute effect is, however

  2. Polycystic ovarian syndrome and the risk of subsequent primary ovarian insufficiency: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Mei-Lien; Chen, Li-Ru; Tsao, Hsiao-Mei; Chen, Kuo-Hu

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the risk of subsequent primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) amongst patients with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). This nationwide, population-based study is an inspection and review of data from the 1998 to 2012 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a sample of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals, women with PCOS (exposure group; n = 7,049) and women without PCOS (contrast group; n = 70,490) were compared. Women initially diagnosed with PCOS at less than 15 or more than 35 years of age were excluded. Each woman with PCOS was age-matched to 10 women without PCOS. The diagnoses of PCOS and POI (coded using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification) were further confirmed with blood test results and ultrasonographic findings to ensure the accuracy of the diagnoses. POI occurred more among women with PCOS compared with women without PCOS (3.73% vs 0.44%; P analysis, the POI-free survival rates were significantly different between the exposure and contrast groups (P analysis revealed that the risk for POI was significantly higher in the exposure than in the contrast group (hazard ratio [HR] 8.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.33-10.18) and remained similar after adjustment for covariates (adjusted HR 8.31, 95% CI 7.05-9.81). Compared with that of women without PCOS, the risk of POI was even higher for women with PCOS who did not receive metformin treatment (adjusted HR 9.93, 95% CI 8.28-11.90). However, the risk for POI was significantly reduced for women with PCOS who received metformin treatment (adjusted HR 5.66, 95% CI 4.36-7.35). As a possible precursor stage, prior PCOS is a significant and independent risk factor for development of POI. The use of metformin reduces the risk of POI.

  3. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anoop Shankar1, Kristine E Lee2, Barbara EK Klein2, Paul Muntner3, Peter C Brazy4, Karen J Cruickshanks2,5, F Javier Nieto5, Lorraine G Danforth2, Carla R Schubert2,5, Michael Y Tsai6, Ronald Klein21Department of Community Medicine, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 4Department of Medicine, 5Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI, USA; 3Department of Community Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY, USA; 6Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USABackground: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR-estimating equations are used to determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in population-based studies. However, it has been suggested that since the commonly used GFR equations were originally developed from samples of patients with CKD, they underestimate GFR in healthy populations. Few studies have made side-by-side comparisons of the effect of various estimating equations on the prevalence estimates of CKD in a general population sample.Patients and methods: We examined a population-based sample comprising adults from Wisconsin (age, 43–86 years; 56% women. We compared the prevalence of CKD, defined as a GFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine, by applying various commonly used equations including the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD equation, Cockcroft–Gault (CG equation, and the Mayo equation. We compared the performance of these equations against the CKD definition of cystatin C >1.23 mg/L.Results: We found that the prevalence of CKD varied widely among different GFR equations. Although the prevalence of CKD was 17.2% with the MDRD equation and 16.5% with the CG equation, it was only 4.8% with the Mayo equation. Only 24% of those identified to have GFR in the range of 50–59 mL/min per 1

  4. Seminar Cum Meeting Report: Codata Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ashino

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available On March 4-5, 2008, the CODATA Task Group for Exchangeable Material Data Representation to Support Research and Education held a two day seminar cum meeting at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL, New Delhi, India, with NPL materials researchers and task group members representing material activities and databases from seven countries: European Union (The Czech Republic, France, and the Netherlands, India, Korea, Japan, and the United States. The NPL seminar included presentations about the researchers' work. The Task Group meeting included presentations about current data related activities of the members. Joint discussions between NPL researchers and CODATA task group members began an exchange of viewpoints among materials data producers, users, and databases developers. The seminar cum meeting included plans to continue and expand Task Group activities at the 2008 CODATA 21st Meeting in Kyiv, Ukraine.

  5. Health and wellness trends in the oil and gas sector : insights from the Shepell-fgi Research Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report discussed health and wellness trends in the oil and gas sector in relation to employee assistance program (EAP) data. The data were derived from oil and gas client organizations across Canada for 2008, and represented a population base of 14,685 employees. The data demonstrated that EAP utilization in the petroleum industry increased by approximately 5 per cent from 2006 to 2008. The sector's utilization was 34 per cent higher than the Canadian norm in 2006, and 40 per cent higher than in 2007 and 2008. Females used the EAP to a greater extent than males. A higher proportion of the spouses of workers accessed EAP than the national norm. Employees accessed EAP for assistance with work-life issues; family support services; and substance abuse interventions. Weight management and dietary consultations in relation to disease control were also of concern within the sector. A 66 per cent increase in childcare issues was noted, as well as a 148 per cent increase in eldercare issues, and a 112 per cent increase in addiction issues. The findings indicated that the EAP is being effectively communicated as a relevant and accessible tool. As the industry continues to develop in remote regions, new services and resources will be required to retain existing workforces and attract new employees. Prevention-focused training and services and program for at-risk groups are needed to ensure that employee health and productivity is maintained. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  6. Sexuality after a cancer diagnosis: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Sarah E; Wardle, Jane; Steptoe, Andrew; Fisher, Abigail

    2016-12-15

    This study explored differences in sexual activity, function, and concerns between cancer survivors and cancer-free controls in a population-based study. The data were from 2982 men and 3708 women who were 50 years old or older and were participating in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Sexual well-being was assessed with the Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire, and cancer diagnoses were self-reported. There were no differences between cancer survivors and controls in levels of sexual activity (76.0% vs 78.5% for men and 58.2% vs 55.5% for women) or sexual function. Men and women with cancer diagnoses were more dissatisfied with their sex lives than controls (age-adjusted percentages: 30.9% vs 19.8% for men [P = .023] and 18.2% vs 11.8% for women [P = .034]), and women with cancer were more concerned about levels of sexual desire (10.2% vs 7.1%; P = .006). Women diagnosed sexual desire (14.8% vs 7.1%; P = .007) and orgasmic experience (17.6% vs 7.1%; P = .042) than controls, but there were no differences in men. Self-reports of sexual activity and functioning in older people with cancer are broadly comparable to age-matched, cancer-free controls. There is a need to identify the causes of sexual dissatisfaction among long-term cancer survivors despite apparently normal levels of sexual activity and function for their age. The development of interventions addressing low sexual desire and problems with sexual functioning in women is also important and may be particularly relevant for cancer survivors after treatment. Cancer 2016;122:3883-3891. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  7. Predictors of fibromyalgia: a population-based twin cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkula, Ritva A; Kalso, Eija A; Kaprio, Jaakko A

    2016-01-15

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a pain syndrome, the mechanisms and predictors of which are still unclear. We have earlier validated a set of FM-symptom questions for detecting possible FM in an epidemiological survey and thereby identified a cluster with "possible FM". This study explores prospectively predictors for membership of that FM-symptom cluster. A population-based sample of 8343 subjects of the older Finnish Twin Cohort replied to health questionnaires in 1975, 1981, and 1990. Their answers to the set of FM-symptom questions in 1990 classified them in three latent classes (LC): LC1 with no or few symptoms, LC2 with some symptoms, and LC3 with many FM symptoms. We analysed putative predictors for these symptom classes using baseline (1975 and 1981) data on regional pain, headache, migraine, sleeping, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, smoking, and zygosity, adjusted for age, gender, and education. Those with a high likelihood of having fibromyalgia at baseline were excluded from the analysis. In the final multivariate regression model, regional pain, sleeping problems, and overweight were all predictors for membership in the class with many FM symptoms. The strongest non-genetic predictor was frequent headache (OR 8.6, CI 95% 3.8-19.2), followed by persistent back pain (OR 4.7, CI 95% 3.3-6.7) and persistent neck pain (OR 3.3, CI 95% 1.8-6.0). Regional pain, frequent headache, and persistent back or neck pain, sleeping problems, and overweight are predictors for having a cluster of symptoms consistent with fibromyalgia.

  8. Sleep apnea and risk of vertigo: A nationwide population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shao; Lee, Li-Ang; Tsai, Yao-Te; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Liu, Chia-Yen; Lin, Meng-Hung; Hsu, Cheng-Ming; Chen, Chin-Kuo; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the risk of vertigo in patients with sleep apnea. Retrospective cohort study. This study used data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a population-based database. A total of 5,025 patients who were newly diagnosed with sleep apnea between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2012, were identified from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000, a nationally representative database of 1 million randomly selected patients. Moreover, 20,100 patients without sleep apnea were matched at a 1:4 ratio by age, sex, socioeconomic status, and urbanization level. Patients were followed up until death or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013). The primary outcome was the occurrence of vertigo. Patients with sleep apnea had a significantly higher cumulative incidence of vertigo than those without sleep apnea (P vertigo (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48-1.97; P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, stroke, and obesity. Sleep apnea was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for vertigo. This is the first nationwide population-based cohort study to investigate the association between sleep apnea and vertigo. The findings strongly support that sleep apnea is an independent risk factor for vertigo. Based on the study results, physicians should be aware of potential vertigo occurrence following sleep apnea. 4. Laryngoscope, 128:763-768, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Preventable trauma deaths: from panel review to population based-studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesconi Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preventable trauma deaths are defined as deaths which could be avoided if optimal care has been delivered. Studies on preventable trauma deaths have been accomplished initially with panel reviews of pre-hospital and hospital charts. However, several investigators questioned the reliability and validity of this method because of low reproducibility of implicit judgments when they are made by different experts. Nevertheless, number of studies were published all around the world and ultimately gained some credibility, particularly in regions where comparisons were made before and after trauma system implementation with a resultant fall in mortality. During the last decade of century the method of comparing observed survival with probability of survival calculated from large trauma registries has obtained popularity. Preventable trauma deaths were identified as deaths occurred notwithstanding a high calculated probability of survival. In recent years, preventable trauma deaths studies have been replaced by population-based studies, which use databases representative of overall population, therefore with high epidemiologic value. These databases contain readily available information which carry out the advantage of objectivity and large numbers. Nowadays, population-based researches provide the strongest evidence regarding the effectiveness of trauma systems and trauma centers on patient outcomes.

  10. Web-conferencing as a viable method for group decision research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handgraaf, M.J.J.; Milch, K.F.; Appelt, K.C.; Schuette, P.; Yoskowitz, N.A.; Weber, E.U.

    2012-01-01

    Studying group decision-making is challenging for multiple reasons. An important logistic difficulty is studying a sufficiently large number of groups, each with multiple participants. Assembling groups online could make this process easier and also provide access to group members more

  11. The Prevalence of Amblyopia and Its Determinants in a Population-based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan; Nabovati, Payam; Saatchi, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Rafati, Shokoofeh; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2017-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of amblyopia and its determinants in a population-based study in Mashhad County, Iran. This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on the population of Mashhad County aged >1 year using randomized stratified cluster sampling. Examinations were performed after selection of the participants and their free transportation to the sampling site. The examinations included the measurement of uncorrected and corrected visual acuity, cycloplegic and non-cycloplegic refraction, cover testing, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and ophthalmoscopy. In this study, amblyopia was defined as best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/30 or less or 2-line interocular optotype acuity differences with no pathology. After considering the exclusion criteria, the data of 2739 individuals, 65.6% of whom were women, were analyzed. The mean age of the participants was 29.5±17.5 years. The prevalence of amblyopia was 4.6% (95% CI: 3.77%-5.43%) in the total population. The lowest prevalence was 2.24% in the age group 5-15 years (95% CI: 0.99%-3.48%) and the highest prevalence was 7.14% in the age group 55-65 years (95% CI: 2.64%-11.56%). Anisometropic amblyopia was observed in 45.24% of the amblyopic participants. Isometropic, mixed (strabismic/anisometropic), and strabismic amblyopia were other common causes of amblyopia, with a prevalence of 24.6%, 16.67%, and 13.49% in amblyopic patients, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of having amblyopia for each 1-year increase in age was 1.02 (95% CI: 1.01-1.03). Amblyopia was less common in people with better socioeconomic status. This study showed the prevalence of amblyopia in all age groups in a population-based study for the first time. The findings of this study regarding the relatively high prevalence of amblyopia in the older population and its lower prevalence in young people indicate attention to amblyopia in recent years.

  12. Population-based intervention for cardiovascular diseases related knowledge and behaviours in Asian Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Agrawal, Aachu; Misra, Anoop; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Misra, Puneet; Dey, Sanjit; Rao, Shobha; Vasantha Devi, K P; Usha Menon, V; Revathi, R; Sharma, Vinita; Gupta, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    There is poor knowledge and behaviors regarding chronic diseases related nutritional and lifestyle factors among women in low income countries. To evaluate efficacy of a multilevel population-based intervention in improving knowledge and practices for related factors we performed a study in India. Population based study among women 35-70 years was performed in four urban and five rural locations. Stratified sampling was performed and we enrolled 4624 (rural 2616, urban 2008) of eligible 8000 women (58%). Demographic details, medical history, diet, physical activity and anthropometry were recorded and blood hemoglobin, glucose and total cholesterol determined. Knowledge and behaviors regarding diet in chronic diseases were inquired in a randomly selected 100 women at each site (n = 900). A systematic multilevel population based intervention (using posters, handouts, street plays, public lectures, group lectures and focused group discussions) was administered over 6 months at each site. The questionnaire was re-administered at the end in random 100 women (n = 900) and differences determined. Descriptive statistics are reported. Comparison of parameters before and after intervention was assessed using Mann Whitney test. Prevalence (%) of chronic disease related lifestyles and risk factors in rural/urban women, respectively, was illiteracy in 63.6/29.4, smoking/tobacco use 39.3/18.9, high fat intake 93.6/93.4, high salt intake 18.2/12.6, low physical activity 59.5/70.2, overweight/obesity 22.5/45.6, truncal obesity 13.0/44.3, hypertension 31.6/48.2, hypercholesterolemia 13.5/27.7, and diabetes in 4.3/15.1 percent. Composite chronic diseases knowledge at baseline vs after intervention increased significantly in overall (32.0 vs 62.0), rural (29.0 vs 63.5) and urban (39.5 vs 60.5) groups (p women in rural and urban locations in India increased chronic disease knowledge but failed to influence practices. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Action research in gender issues in science education: Towards an understanding of group work with science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhof-Young, Joyce Marion

    Action research is emerging as a promising means of promoting individual and societal change in the context of university programmes in teacher education. However, significant gaps exist in the literature regarding the use of action research groups for the education of science teachers. Therefore, an action research group, dealing with gender issues in science education, was established within the context of a graduate course in action research at OISE. For reasons outlined in the thesis, action research was deemed an especially appropriate means for addressing issues of gender. The group met 14 times from September 1992 until May 1993 and consisted of myself and five other science teachers from the Toronto area. Two of us were in the primary panel, two in the intermediate panel, and two in the tertiary panel. Five teachers were female. One was male. The experiences of the group form the basis of this study. A methodology of participant observation supported by interviews, classroom visits, journals, group feedback and participant portfolios provides a means of examining experiences from the perspective of the participants in the group. The case study investigates the nature of the support and learning opportunities that the action research group provided for science teachers engaged in curiculum and professional development in the realm of gender issues in science education, and details the development of individuals, the whole group and myself (as group worker, researcher and participant) over the life of the project. The action research group became a resource for science teachers by providing most participants with: A place to personalize learning and research; a place for systematic reflection and research; a forum for discussion; a source of personal/professional support; a source of friendship; and a place to break down isolation and build self-confidence. This study clarifies important relational and political issues that impinge on action research in

  14. Participation of INR to the research project initiated by the CANDU Owners Group - Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Ciocanescu, Marin; Gheorghiu, C-tin; Ohai, Dumitru; Visinescu, Doru; Ionescu, Silviu; Man, Ion; Pitigoi, Vasile; Anghel, Dumitru; Uta, Octavian

    2004-01-01

    Having in view the participation of the INR's Nuclear Materials and Corrosion Departments together with Chalk River Laboratories, AECL, and other nine well known institutes, to the Research Project coordinated by the International Atomic Energy Agency - Vienna and the results obtained as well, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) - Canada has proposed an economical contract to INR - Pitesti, called the DHC Project. The goal of this project was the investigation of the slow cracking in the hydration state (Delayed Hydride Cracking phenomenon) of the pressure tubes in CANDU reactors. There were determined, in specific conditions, the DHC rate, V DHC , and threshold factor of triggering the phenomenon K HI (the factor of stress intensity in the crack) occurring in un-irradiated Zr-2.5%Nb alloy. Further extensions of the project to irradiated alloys of the pressure tubes used in CANDU reactors, provided by the Canadian partner, are planned. This paper gives an overview covering the contributions of the INR's departments to the contract provisions for the current year as concluded with COG - Canada. It is described the design and execution activity of a device for processing the samples subject to testing, the mounting of the measuring chain, developing of a system for monitoring the testing parameters, the acquisition and automated processing of experimental data up to constituting the final report. The testing report was appreciated by the COG and recognized as demonstrating the INR's capability to fulfil the tasks of the DHC Project and so opened the way to further cooperation

  15. Understanding the value added to clinical care by educational activities. Value of Education Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrinc, G S; Headrick, L A; Boex, J R

    1999-10-01

    In an era of competition in health care delivery, those who pay for care are interested in supporting primarily those activities that add value to the clinical enterprise. The authors report on their 1998 project to develop a conceptual model for assessing the value added to clinical care by educational activities. Through interviews, nine key stakeholders in patient care identified five ways in which education might add value to clinical care: education can foster higher-quality care, improve work satisfaction of clinicians, have trainees provide direct clinical services, improve recruitment and retention of clinicians, and contribute to the future of health care. With this as a base, an expert panel of 13 clinical educators and investigators defined six perspectives from which the value of education in clinical care might be studied: the perspectives of health-care-oriented organizations, clinician-teachers, patients, education organizations, learners, and the community. The panel adapted an existing model to create the "Education Compass" to portray education's effects on clinical care, and developed a new set of definitions and research questions for each of the four major aspects of the model (clinical, functional, satisfaction, and cost). Working groups next drafted proposals to address empirically those questions, which were critiqued at a national conference on the topic of education's value in clinical care. The next step is to use the methods developed in this project to empirically assess the value added by educational activities to clinical care.

  16. International topical meeting. Research Reactor Fuel Management (RRFM) and meeting of the International Group on Reactor Research (IGORR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear research and test reactors have been in operation for over 60 years, over 270 research reactors are currently operating in more than 50 countries. This meeting is dedicated to different aspects of research reactor fuels: new fuels for new reactors, the conversion to low enriched uranium fuels, spent fuel management and computational tools for core simulation. About 80 contributions are reported in this document, they are organized into 7 sessions: 1) international topics and overview on new projects and fuel, 2) new projects and upgrades, 3) fuel development, 4) optimisation and research reactor utilisation, 5) innovative methods in research reactors physics, 6) safety, operation and research reactor conversion, 7) fuel back-end management, and a poster session. Experience from Australian, Romanian, Libyan, Syrian, Vietnamese, South-African and Ghana research reactors are reported among other things. The Russian program for research reactor spent fuel management is described and the status of the American-driven program for the conversion to low enriched uranium fuels is presented. (A.C.)

  17. Ischemic heart disease in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, N; Thomsen, Henrik F.; Kronborg, G

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are concerns about highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) causing a progressive increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease. We examined this issue in a nationwide cohort study of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and a population-based control...... group. METHODS: We determined the rate of first hospitalization for ischemic heart disease in all Danish patients with HIV infection (3953 patients) from 1 January 1995 through 31 December 2004 and compared this rate with that for 373,856 subjects in a population-based control group. Data on first...... hospitalization for ischemic heart disease and comorbidity were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Registry for all study participants. We used Cox's regression to compute the hospitalization rate ratio as an estimate of relative risk, adjusting for comorbidity. RESULTS: Although the difference...

  18. IGORR 6: Proceedings of the 6th meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A total of 39 papers were presented in 4 technical sessions: operating research reactors (operation, upgrades, and refurbishments); operating research reactors (experience from systems for better future design); new research reactors and projects, workshop on cold neutron sources, and workshop on research and development needs. All the papers presented at the meeting are published in this Proceedings

  19. IGORR 6: Proceedings of the 6th meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    A total of 39 papers were presented in 4 technical sessions: operating research reactors (operation, upgrades, and refurbishments); operating research reactors (experience from systems for better future design); new research reactors and projects, workshop on cold neutron sources, and workshop on research and development needs. All the papers presented at the meeting are published in this Proceedings.

  20. Trend of Cardio-Metabolic Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Montazeri, Seyed Ali; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Cheraghi, Leila; Erfani, Hadi; Tohidi, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To see the changes of cardio-metabolic risk factors overtime in polycystic ovary syndrome vs. control women. Methods This study was conducted on 637 participants (85 PCOS and 552 control reproductive aged, 18–45 years) of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS), an ongoing population-based cohort study with 12 years of follow-up. The cardiovascular risk factors of these groups were assessed in three-year intervals using standard questionnaires, history taking, anthropometric measures,...

  1. A population-based study of glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paszat, Lawrence; Laperriere, Normand; Groome, Patti; Schulze, Karleen; Mackillop, William; Holowaty, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To describe (1) the use of surgery and radiotherapy (RT) in the treatment of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) in Ontario, (2) survival, and (3) proportion of survival time spent in the hospital after diagnosis. Methods and Materials: We performed a population-based cohort study of all Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) cases of GBM diagnosed between 1982 and 1994. We linked OCR records, hospital files containing surgical procedure codes from the Canadian Institute for Health Information, and province-wide RT records. We studied the odds of treatment using multivariate logistic regression. We expressed the time spent in the hospital as the mean number of days per case, and as a proportion of the interval between diagnosis and death, or 24 months following diagnosis, whichever came first. We used the life-table method and Cox proportional hazards regression to describe survival. Results: The proportion of patients with GBM undergoing any surgery directed at the tumor varied with age (p<0.0001) and region of residence (p<0.0001). The proportion undergoing RT varied with age (p<0.0001), region of residence (p<0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p=0.01). RT dose ≥53.5 Gy varied with age (p<0.0001), region of residence (p<0.0001), and year of diagnosis (p=0.0002). Median survival was 11 months among patients receiving RT and 3 months among those not receiving RT. The percentage of survival time spent in the hospital was similar among those who received from 49.5 to <53.5 Gy, compared to ≥53.5 Gy. Overall survival and the adjusted relative risk of death varied with age and region of residence. Conclusion: We observed practice variation in the treatment of patients with GBM according to age, region of residence, and year of diagnosis. Survival did not increase during the study period. The variation in RT dose between those receiving from 49.5 to <53.5 Gy compared to ≥53.5 Gy was not paralleled by variation in survival between regions where one or the other of the

  2. Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wuyang; Garzon-Muvdi, Tomas; Braileanu, Maria; Porras, Jose L; Caplan, Justin M; Rong, Xiaoming; Huang, Judy; Jallo, George I

    2017-03-01

    Primary intramedullary spinal cord lymphoma (PISCL) is a rare diagnosis with poorly understood disease progression. Clarification of the factors associated with survival in PISCL patients is warranted. We conducted a population-based cohort study utilizing prospectively collected data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. Patients with histological diagnosis of primary lymphoma in spinal cord (C72.0) from 1973 to 2012 in the SEER database were included. Multivariable survival analysis between patient, lesion characteristics, and PISCL-related death was performed to adjust for confounding factors. We included 346 PISCL patients in our study. Average age was 56.5 ± 17.8 years, with 62.7% being male. Racial distribution of these patients was white (87.6%), black (8.0%), and other (4.3%). More than half (55.8%) of patients were married. The most prevalent histology of PISCL was diffuse B-cell (46.2%), and the majority (55.2%) were low stage (Ann Arbor stage I/II). Most patients (67.9%) received radiation therapy. Average survival interval of patients with PISCL-related death (n=135, 39.0%) was 27.8 months. General cumulative survival probability at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years was 73.8%, 67.9%, and 63.1%, respectively. Multivariable accelerated failure time (AFT) regression showed follicular lymphoma (HR:0.25, P=.008) and more recent diagnosis (HR:0.96, P<.001) was positively associated with PISCL-related survival. Conversely, nonwhite race (HR:1.69, P=.046), older age (HR:1.02, P<.001), unmarried status (HR:2.14, P<.001), and higher stage (HR:1.54, P=.022) were negatively associated with survival. Age, race, marital status, tumor histology, tumor stage, and year of diagnosis were associated with survival of PISCL. While most PISCL-related deaths occur within a 1-year period, subsequent slow progression was observed after the first year of survival. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  3. Intergenerational teen pregnancy: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Vigod, Simone N; Farrugia, M Michèle; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-05-22

    To estimate the intergenerational association in teenage pregnancy, and whether there is a coupling tendency between a mother and daughter in how their teen pregnancies end, such as an induced abortion (IA) vs. a livebirth. Population-based cohort study. Ontario, Canada. 15,097 mothers and their 16,177 daughters. Generalized estimating equations generated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) of a daughter experiencing a teen pregnancy in relation to the number of teen pregnancies her mother had. Multinomial logistic regression estimated the odds that a teen pregnancy ended with IA among both mother and daughter. All models were adjusted for maternal age and world region of origin, the daughter's socio-demographic characteristics and comorbidities, mother-daughter cohabitation, and neighborhood-level teen pregnancy rate. Teen pregnancy in the daughter, between ages 15-19 years, and also the nature of the daughter's teen pregnancy, categorized as i) no teen pregnancy, ii) at least one teen pregnancy, all exclusively ending with a livebirth, and iii) at least one teen pregnancy, with at least one teen pregnancy ending with an IA. The proportion of daughters having a teen pregnancy among those whose mother had 0, 1, 2, or ≥ 3 teen pregnancies was 16.3%, 24.9%, 33.5% and 36.3%, respectively. The aOR of a daughter having a teen pregnancy was 1.42 (95% CI 1.25-1.61) if her mother had 1, 1.97 (95% CI 1.71-2.26) if she had 2, and 2.17 (95% CI 1.84-2.56) if her mother had ≥ 3 teen pregnancies, relative to none. If a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy ending with IA, then her daughter had an aOR of 2.12 (95% CI 1.76-2.56) for having a teen pregnancy also ending with IA; whereas, if a mother had ≥ 1 teen pregnancy, all ending with a livebirth, then her daughter had an aOR of 1.73 (95% CI 1.46-2.05) for that same outcome. There is a strong intergenerational occurrence of teenage pregnancy between a mother and daughter, including a coupling tendency in how the pregnancy ends. This

  4. Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Paine, Drew; Lee, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Slides from Charlotte P. Lee's presentation at the 2015 iConference on our paper "Examining Data Processing Work as Part of the Scientific Data Lifecycle: Comparing Practices Across Four Scientific Research Groups".

  5. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... the laws of Country. F does not conduct a trade or business within the United States, Puerto Rico, or... trades or businesses under common control (intra-group transactions) for purposes of determining the... will affect controlled groups of corporations or groups of trades or businesses under common control...

  6. Can opportunities be enhanced for vaccinating children in home visiting programs? A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Michael R; Chartier, Mariette; Brownell, Marni; Chateau, Dan; Nickel, Nathan C; Martens, Patricia; Katz, Alan; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Hu, Milton; Burland, Elaine; Goh, ChunYan; Taylor, Carole

    2015-07-07

    Home visiting programs focused on improving early childhood environments are commonplace in North America. A goal of many of these programs is to improve the overall health of children, including promotion of age appropriate vaccination. In this study, population-based data are used to examine the effect of a home visiting program on vaccination rates in children. Home visiting program data from Manitoba, Canada were linked to several databases, including a provincial vaccination registry to examine vaccination rates in a cohort of children born between 2003 and 2009. Propensity score weights were used to balance potential confounders between a group of children enrolled in the program (n = 4,562) and those who were eligible but not enrolled (n = 5,184). Complete and partial vaccination rates for one and two year old children were compared between groups, including stratification into area-level income quintiles. Complete vaccination rates from birth to age 1 and 2 were higher for those enrolled in the Families First program [Average Treatment Effect Risk Ratio (ATE RR) 1.06 (95 % CI 1.03-1.08) and 1.10 (95 % CI 1.05-1.15) respectively]. No significant differences were found between groups having at least one vaccination at age 1 or 2 [ATE RR 1.01 (95 % CI 1.00-1.02) and 1.00 (95 % CI 1.00-1.01) respectively). The interaction between program and income quintiles was not statistically significant suggesting that the program effect did not differ by income quintile. Home visiting programs have the potential to increase vaccination rates for children enrolled, despite limited program content directed towards this end. Evidence-based program enhancements have the potential to increase these rates further, however more research is needed to inform policy makers of optimal approaches in this regard, especially with respect to cost-effectiveness.

  7. HIV incidence from the first population-based cohort study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Lalit; Kumar, G Anil; Lakshmi, Vemu; Ahmed, G Md Mushtaq; Akbar, Mohammed; Ramgopal, Sri P; Sudha, Talasila; Alary, Michel; Dandona, Rakhi

    2013-07-17

    Understanding about who acquires new HIV infection and the determinants of why some persons get infected and others do not is fundamental to controlling HIV in the population. We assess HIV incidence and its associations in the population of a high HIV burden district in Andhra Pradesh state in southern India by a population-based longitudinal cohort study. We re-surveyed a population-based cohort of 12,617 adults in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh for which we had reported a baseline HIV prevalence of 1.72% (rural 1.64%, urban 1.89%) among the 15-49 years age group in 2004-2005. We conducted interviews to assess risk behaviour and performed HIV testing again in 2010-2011. We assessed the rate of new HIV infection and its associations using multiple logistic regression. The participation rate in the follow-up was 74.9% and 63.9% of the baseline rural and urban samples, respectively. Over a mean follow-up of 5.63 years, the incidence of HIV was 1.26 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.83-1.69), after adjusting for slight compositional bias in the follow-up sample. The incidence per 1000 person-years was higher among rural men (1.68) than urban men (0.85), and among rural women (1.28) than urban women (0.54). The strongest association with incidence was a HIV positive spouse in the baseline for both men (odds ratio 266, 95% CI 62-1137) and women (odds ratio 28, 95% CI 9-88). Among men the other significant associations with HIV incidence were frequent use of condom for sex over the past 6 months, non-circumcision, more than one lifetime woman sex partner or ever visited sex worker, and transport-related occupation; for women the other significant associations were having had HIV testing other than antenatal check-up, previously married but currently not, and tobacco use. These first population-based cohort incidence data from India suggest that rural areas of high HIV burden states would need more attention to prevent new HIV infections, and that spouses of HIV

  8. Use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer: Danish Population Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. CONCLUSION: No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer....

  9. Association between social capital and health in women of reproductive age: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Bakouei, Fatemeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Majdzadeh, Reza; Hosseni, Mostafa

    2016-12-01

    Women's health is a public health priority. The origins of health inequalities are very complex. The present study was conducted to determine the association between social capital and health status in reproductive-age women in Tehran, Iran. In this population-based, cross-sectional study, the Social Capital Integrated Questionnaire, the SF-36 and socio-demographic questionnaires were used. Analysis of data by one-way ANOVA test and stepwise multiple linear regression showed that the manifestation dimensions of social capital (groups and networks, trust and solidarity, collective action and cooperation) can potentially lead to the outcome dimensions of social capital (social cohesion and inclusion, and empowerment and political action), which in turn affect health inequities after controlling for socio-demographic differences. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Genetic, epidemiological, and clinical aspects of hereditary pancreatitis: a population-based cohort study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    , respectively, and among tIP patients 9 and 12%, respectively. Pancreatic cancer was diagnosed in 5% of the HP families. CONCLUSIONS: The genotype of the Danish population with HP differs from that of previously described cohorts. The occurrence of exocrine and endocrine insufficiency is higher among patients......-degree relatives of the 18 initially identified HP patients, 38 HP patients in total were identified, and 28 patients had SPINK1-CFTR mutations. Among HP patients, no p.N29I mutations were found and the p.A16V mutation was more frequent than previously reported, 45 and 32% had exocrine and endocrine insufficiency......OBJECTIVES: In a population-based, well-defined group of patients first regarded as having pancreatitis of unknown origin (PUO), we identified, described, and compared the clinical and genetic aspects of patients with hereditary pancreatitis (HP) and with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance...

  11. Amygdala α-Synuclein Pathology in the Population-Based Vantaa 85+ Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raunio, Anna; Myllykangas, Liisa; Kero, Mia; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Paetau, Anders; Oinas, Minna

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the frequency of Lewy-related pathology (LRP) in the amygdala among the population-based Vantaa 85+ study. Data of amygdala samples (N = 304) immunostained with two α-synuclein antibodies (clone 42 and clone 5G4) was compared with the previously analyzed LRP and AD pathologies from other brain regions. The amygdala LRP was present in one third (33%) of subjects. Only 5% of pure AD subjects, but 85% of pure DLB subjects had LRP in the amygdala. The amygdala LRP was associated with dementia; however, the association was dependent on LRP on other brain regions, and thus was not an independent risk factor. The amygdala-predominant category was a rare (4%) and heterogeneous group.

  12. Lithium and renal and upper urinary tract tumors - results from a nationwide population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A recent alarming finding suggested an increased risk of renal tumors among long-term lithium users. The objectives of the present study were to estimate rates of renal and upper urinary tract tumors (RUT), malignant and benign, among individuals exposed to successive prescriptions...... for lithium, anticonvulsants, and other psychotropic agents used for bipolar disorder, and among unexposed individuals. METHODS: This was a nationwide, population-based longitudinal study including time-specific data from all individuals exposed to lithium (n = 24,272) or anticonvulsants (n = 386,255), all...... individuals with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (n = 9,651), and a randomly selected sample of 1,500,000 from the Danish population. The study period was from 1995 to 2012, inclusive. Outcomes were hazard rate ratios (HR) for RUT in three groups: (i) combined malignant and benign, (ii) malignant, and (iii...

  13. Research on website construction based on website group platform of Chengdu sport institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zunyu

    2018-04-01

    This paper describes the necessity of website construction based on the website group of Chengdu sport institute, and discusses the technical features of the website group, Based on the website group platform architecture, the key technologies such as Web Service, AJAX, RSS and other key technologies are used to realize the construction of the website. Based on the website group platform architecture of the site, it effectively solves the information isolated island between the sites, and realizes the information sharing and resource integration. It is also more convenient that site and other sites have composed of site group integrated operation and maintenance.

  14. A population-based study of neuromyelitis optica in Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Lillevang, S T; Skejoe, H P B

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce.......Epidemiologic studies have suggested different prevalence of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in different ethnic groups. However, data on the incidence and prevalence of NMO in Caucasians are scarce....

  15. Incidence of anogenital warts in Germany: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajczyk Rafael T

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papilloma virus (HPV types 6 and 11 account for 90 percent of anogenital warts (AGW. Assessment of a potential reduction of the incidence of AGW following introduction of HPV vaccines requires population-based incidence rates. The aim of this study was to estimate incidence rates of AGW in Germany, stratified by age, sex, and region. Additionally, the medical practitioner (gynaecologist, dermatologist, urologist etc. who made the initial diagnosis of AGW was assessed. Methods Retrospective cohort study in a population aged 10 to 79 years in a population-based healthcare insurance database. The database included more than 14 million insurance members from all over Germany during the years 2004-2006. A case of AGW was considered incident if a disease-free period of twelve months preceded the diagnosis. To assess regional variation, analyses were performed by federal state. Results The estimated incidence rate was 169.5/100,000 person-years for the German population aged 10 to 79 years. Most cases occurred in the 15 to 40 years age group. The incidence rate was higher and showed a peak at younger ages in females than in males. The highest incidence rates for both sexes were observed in the city-states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. In females, initial diagnosis of AGW was most frequently made by a gynaecologist (71.7%, whereas in males, AGW were most frequently diagnosed by a dermatologist (44.8% or urologist (25.1%. Conclusions Incidence of AGW in Germany is comparable with findings for other countries. As expected, most cases occurred in the younger age groups. The frequency of diagnoses of AGW differs between sexes and women and men receive treatment by doctors of different specialties.

  16. Lower urinary tract symptoms and urinary incontinence in a geriatric cohort - a population-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrberger, Clemens; Madersbacher, Stephan; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz

    2012-11-01

    To assess prevalence and severity of lower urinary tract function in 85-year-old men and women. Little is known on the prevalence of lower urinary tract dysfunction in this geriatric age group, which is now the fastest growing sector of the population worldwide. The Vienna Trans-Danube Aging study (VITA) is a longitudinal, population-based study initiated in 2000 that included men/women aged 75 years living in a well-defined area in Vienna. The main purpose of the VITA study was to identify risk factors for incident Alzheimer's disease. All study participants alive in 2010 were contacted by mail to complete a detailed questionnaire on various aspects of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and urinary incontinence (UI). The response rate was 68%, resulting in a total of 262 questionnaires available for analysis (men n= 96; women n= 166). All study participants were 85 years of age. Urinary incontinence defined as any involuntary loss during the past 4 weeks was reported by 24% of men and 35% of women (P= 0.04). Stress UI was more frequent in women (39%) than in men (14%, P 0.05). Nocturia more often than twice was more prevalent in men (69%) than in women (49%) (P= 0.02). Overactive bladder, according to International Continence Society criteria, was present in 55% of women and 50% of men. No difference regarding quality of life impairment as the result of LUTS and UI was noticed between sexes. A few co-morbidities were identified to correlate with UI and storage symptoms. These data provide insights into the prevalence and severity of LUTS and UI in individuals in their eighties, to our knowledge the largest population-based study in this age group. Demographic changes in upcoming decades underline the importance of a thorough understanding of lower urinary tract dysfunction in a geriatric population. © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  17. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan.We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk.A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98-2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis.This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy.

  18. Effects of population based screening for Chlamydia infections in the Netherlands limited by declining participation rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V Schmid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large trial to investigate the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008-2012. The trial was register based and consisted of four rounds of screening of women and men in the age groups 16-29 years in three regions in the Netherlands. Data were collected on participation rates and positivity rates per round. A modeling study was conducted to project screening effects for various screening strategies into the future. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used a stochastic network simulation model incorporating partnership formation and dissolution, aging and a sexual life course perspective. Trends in baseline rates of chlamydia testing and treatment were used to describe the epidemiological situation before the start of the screening program. Data on participation rates was used to describe screening uptake in rural and urban areas. Simulations were used to project the effectiveness of screening on chlamydia prevalence for a time period of 10 years. In addition, we tested alternative screening strategies, such as including only women, targeting different age groups, and biennial screening. Screening reduced prevalence by about 1% in the first two screening rounds and leveled off after that. Extrapolating observed participation rates into the future indicated very low participation in the long run. Alternative strategies only marginally changed the effectiveness of screening. Higher participation rates as originally foreseen in the program would have succeeded in reducing chlamydia prevalence to very low levels in the long run. CONCLUSIONS: Decreasing participation rates over time profoundly impact the effectiveness of population based screening for chlamydia infections. Using data from several consecutive rounds of screening in a simulation model enabled us to assess the future effectiveness of screening on prevalence. If participation rates cannot be kept at a sufficient level

  19. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  20. Social Network Analysis as an Analytic Tool for Task Group Research: A Case Study of an Interdisciplinary Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Naorah C.

    2017-01-01

    Group counselors commonly collaborate in interdisciplinary settings in health care, substance abuse, and juvenile justice. Social network analysis is a methodology rarely used in counseling research yet has potential to examine task group dynamics in new ways. This case study explores the scholarly relationships among 36 members of an…

  1. Elevated incidence rates of diabetes in Peru: report from PERUDIAB, a national urban population-based longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Seclen, Segundo Nicolas; Rosas, Moises Ernesto; Arias, Arturo Jaime; Medina, Cecilia Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Objective A recent report from a non-nationally representative, geographically diverse sample in four separate communities in Peru suggests an unusually high diabetes incidence. We aimed to estimate the national diabetes incidence rate using PERUDIAB, a probabilistic, national urban population-based longitudinal study. Research design and methods 662 subjects without diabetes, selected by multistage, cluster, random sampling of households, representing the 24 administrative and the 3 (coast, ...

  2. Industrial Informatics & Signal Processing Research Group (iisp) 1995 -2015 - celebrating 50 years of engineering at Sussex University

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip; Yang, Tai

    2015-01-01

    The presentation gives a partial summary of some of the research conducted by the Industrial Informatics & Signal Processing Research Group over the last 20 years. This was to celebrate 50 years of Engineering at Sussex University; many of our past graduates attended. The conference was a great success and culminated in a very enjoyable dinner with all the delegates and presenters.

  3. Using Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Evaluate Cross-Cultural Research: Identifying and Understanding Non-Invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gavin T. L.; Harris, Lois R.; O'Quin, Chrissie; Lane, Kenneth E.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA) allows researchers to determine whether a research inventory elicits similar response patterns across samples. If statistical equivalence in responding is found, then scale score comparisons become possible and samples can be said to be from the same population. This paper illustrates the use of…

  4. Digitization as a Method of Preservation? Final Report of a Working Group of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Association).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Hartmut; Dorr, Marianne

    The German Research Association (DFG) is actively involved in preservation of research materials; it takes the view that in preservation, the enormous potential of digitization for access should be combined with the stability of microfilm for long-term storage. A working group was convened to investigate the technical state of digitization of…

  5. Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos, Daniel; Koper, Rob

    2005-01-01

    Burgos, D., Koper, R. (2005) Virtual communities, research groups and projects on IMS Learning Design. State of the art, key factors and forthcoming challenges. In E-Journal of Educational Research, Assessment and Evaluation, vol. 11, issue 2 [www.uv.es/RELIEVE]. Available at

  6. Familial risk of epilepsy: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peljto, Anna L.; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Hauser, W. Allen; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all previous studies of familial risk of epilepsy have had potentially serious methodological limitations. Our goal was to address these limitations and provide more rigorous estimates of familial risk in a population-based study. We used the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all 660 Rochester, Minnesota residents born in 1920 or later with incidence of epilepsy from 1935–94 (probands) and their 2439 first-degree relatives who resided in Olmsted County. We assessed incidence of epilepsy in relatives by comprehensive review of the relatives’ medical records, and estimated age-specific cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios for epilepsy in relatives compared with the general population, according to proband and relative characteristics. Among relatives of all probands, cumulative incidence of epilepsy to age 40 was 4.7%, and risk was increased 3.3-fold (95% confidence interval 2.75–5.99) compared with population incidence. Risk was increased to the greatest extent in relatives of probands with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (standardized incidence ratio 6.0) and epilepsies associated with intellectual or motor disability presumed present from birth, which we denoted ‘prenatal/developmental cause’ (standardized incidence ratio 4.3). Among relatives of probands with epilepsy without identified cause (including epilepsies classified as ‘idiopathic’ or ‘unknown cause’), risk was significantly increased for epilepsy of prenatal/developmental cause (standardized incidence ratio 4.1). Similarly, among relatives of probands with prenatal/developmental cause, risk was significantly increased for epilepsies without identified cause (standardized incidence ratio 3.8). In relatives of probands with generalized epilepsy, standardized incidence ratios were 8.3 (95% confidence interval 2.93–15.31) for generalized epilepsy and 2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.92–4.00) for focal epilepsy. In relatives of

  7. From research to self-reflection: learning about ourselves as academics through a support group's resistance to our intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Courtney Lynam; Mattson, Marifran

    2012-01-01

    Purdue University's Center for Healthcare Engineering developed a computer-assisted technology hub (CATHUB) designed to aid individuals with disabilities. Upon realizing the lack of input from the very individuals they were trying to help, Marifran approached the developers of CATHUB and offered to engage a group of amputees to aid in the design and implementation of the hub. In this essay, Courtney and Marifran recount, each from their own perspective, their experiences working with Amputees in Action as participants in their research project. Ultimately the researchers discovered their research agenda was not compatible with the amputees' needs, resulting in enlightened self-reflection by the researchers and abandonment of the research project.

  8. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sechopoulos, I.; Ali, E.S.; Badal, A.; Badano, A.; Boone, J.M.; Kyprianou, I.S.; Mainegra-Hing, E.; McMillan, K.L.; McNitt-Gray, M.F.; Rogers, D.W.; Samei, E.; Turner, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type

  9. Perspectives on Research Participation and Facilitation Among Dialysis Patients, Clinic Personnel, and Medical Providers: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Narendra, Julia H; Dorough, Adeline; Oberlander, Jonathan; Ordish, Antoinette; Wilkie, Caroline; Dember, Laura M

    2017-12-19

    Most prospective studies involving individuals receiving maintenance dialysis have been small, and many have had poor clinical translatability. Research relevance can be enhanced through stakeholder engagement. However, little is known about dialysis clinic stakeholders' perceptions of research participation and facilitation. The objective of this study was to characterize the perspectives of dialysis clinic stakeholders (patients, clinic personnel, and medical providers) on: (1) research participation by patients and (2) research facilitation by clinic personnel and medical providers. We also sought to elucidate stakeholder preferences for research communication. Qualitative study. 7 focus groups (59 participants: 8 clinic managers, 14 nurses/patient care technicians, 8 social workers/dietitians, 11 nephrologists/advanced practice providers, and 18 patients/care partners) from 7 North Carolina dialysis clinics. Clinics and participants were purposively sampled. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis. We identified 11 themes that captured barriers to and facilitators of research participation by patients and research facilitation by clinic personnel and medical providers. We collapsed these themes into 4 categories to create an organizational framework for considering stakeholder (narrow research understanding, competing personal priorities, and low patient literacy and education levels), relationship (trust, buy-in, and altruistic motivations), research design (convenience, follow-up, and patient incentives), and dialysis clinic (professional demands, teamwork, and communication) aspects that may affect stakeholder interest in participating in or facilitating research. These themes appear to shape the degree of research readiness of a dialysis clinic environment. Participants preferred short research communications delivered in multiple formats. Potential selection bias and inclusion of English-speaking participants only. Our findings

  10. Conducting cancer control and survivorship research via cooperative groups: a report from the American Society of Preventive Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-05-01

    As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if interventions are well standardized. Some protocols are better suited to cooperative groups than are others, and there are advantages and disadvantages to conducting survivorship research within the cooperative group setting. Behavioral researchers currently involved in cooperative groups, as well as program staff within the NCI, can serve as sources of information for those wishing to pursue symptom management and survivorship studies within the clinical trial setting. The structure of the cooperative groups is currently changing, but going forward, survivorship is bound to be a topic of interest and one that perhaps may be more easily addressed using the proposed more centralized structure. ©2011 AACR.

  11. Association between habitual daytime napping and metabolic syndrome: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Diaozhu; Sun, Kan; Li, Feng; Qi, Yiqin; Ren, Meng; Huang, Chulin; Tang, Juying; Xue, Shengneng; Li, Yan; Yan, Li

    2014-12-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the association between habitual daytime napping and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. We conducted a population-based study of 8,547 subjects aged 40 years or older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to a harmonized definition from a joint statement and the recommended thresholds for the Chinese population. Information about sleep duration was self-reported. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the no daytime napping group, the 0 to 1 hour daytime napping group and the more than 1 hour daytime napping group were 35.0%, 36.0% and 44.5% among the females (Pnapping hours were positively associated with parameters of metabolic syndrome in the female subjects, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose (Pnapping females, napping for more than 1 hour was independently associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.72). Compared to the female subjects in the no daytime napping group, those habitually napped for more than 1 hour exhibited 46% and 26% increases in the prevalence of central obesity and hypertriglyceridemia (all Pnapping hours and metabolic syndrome among the male subjects. Daytime napping is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged non-obese Chinese women. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Disparities in pediatric leukemia early survival in Argentina: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Garibotti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify disparities-using recursive partitioning (RP-in early survival for children with leukemias treated in Argentina, and to depict the main characteristics of the most vulnerable groups. METHODS: This secondary data analysis evaluated 12-month survival (12-ms in 3 987 children diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 with lymphoid leukemia (LL and myeloid leukemia (ML and registered in Argentina's population-based oncopediatric registry. Prognostic groups based on age at diagnosis, gender, socioeconomic index of the province of residence, and migration to a different province to receive health care were identified using the RP method. RESULTS: Overall 12-ms for LL and ML cases was 83.7% and 59.9% respectively. RP detected major gaps in 12-ms. Among 1-10-year-old LL patients from poorer provinces, 12-ms for those who did and did not migrate was 87.0% and 78.2% respectively. Survival of ML patients < 2 years old from provinces with a low/medium socioeconomic index was 38.9% compared to 62.1% for those in the same age group from richer provinces. For 2-14-year-old ML patients living in poor provinces, patient migration was associated with a 30% increase in 12-ms. CONCLUSIONS: Major disparities in leukemia survival among Argentine children were found. Patient migration and socioeconomic index of residence province were associated with survival. The RP method was instrumental in identifying and characterizing vulnerable groups.

  13. Reviewing the Role of Stakeholders in Operational Research: Opportunities for Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholders have always received much attention in system dynamics, especially in the group model building tradition, which emphasizes the deep involvement of a client group in building a system dynamics model. In organizations, stakeholders are gaining more and more attention by managers who try

  14. Item Response Theory at Subject- and Group-Level. Research Report 90-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobi, Hilde

    This paper reviews the literature about item response models for the subject level and aggregated level (group level). Group-level item response models (IRMs) are used in the United States in large-scale assessment programs such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the California Assessment Program. In the Netherlands, these…

  15. Focus Groups in Qualitative Research: Culturally Sensitive Methodology for the Arabian Gulf?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article explores whether focus groups can constitute a culturally sensitive method of data gathering for educational leadership, management and related areas in a Gulf-Arab cultural context. Reviewing the literature on focus groups and cross-cultural psychology for the Arab region, it identifies key notions related to societal values such as…

  16. Delinquency and Crime Prevention: Overview of Research Comparing Treatment Foster Care and Group Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Gershon K.; Gorey, Kevin M.; Jozefowicz, Debra M. Hernandez

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence of treatment foster care (TFC) and group care's (GC) potential to prevent delinquency and crime has been developing. Objectives: We clarified the state of comparative knowledge with a historical overview. Then we explored the hypothesis that smaller, probably better resourced group homes with smaller staff/resident ratios have…

  17. A research on relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index among Turkish seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Selçuk; Fışkın, Remzi

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate and to reveal the relationship between ABO blood groups and body mass index (BMI) and obesity among Turkish seafarers by using the health examination reports data obtained from 2009 to 2016. The data on age, gender, weight, height and blood groups obtained from 298,247 medical examination reports of Turkish seafarers were used with the official permission of Directorate General of Health for Border and Coastal Areas. Only 116,871 reports included blood group data. Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests were performed to survey relationship between variables. The results of the study were compared with other studies in the related literature. It has been revealed that AB Rh (-) group was associated the highest mean BMI value (mean: 25.952). It is suggested that seafarers with AB Rh (-) blood group, who have the highest mean BMI value, should pay special attention to their weight.

  18. Patient Engagement Practices in Clinical Research among Patient Groups, Industry, and Academia in the United States: A Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia K Smith

    Full Text Available Patient-centered clinical trial design and execution is becoming increasingly important. No best practice guidelines exist despite a key stakeholder declaration to create more effective engagement models. This study aims to gain a better understanding of attitudes and practices for engaging patient groups so that actionable recommendations may be developed.Individuals from industry, academic institutions, and patient groups were identified through Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative and Drug Information Association rosters and mailing lists. Objectives, practices, and perceived barriers related to engaging patient groups in the planning, conduct, and interpretation of clinical trials were reported in an online survey. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis of survey data followed a literature review to inform survey questions.Survey respondents (n = 179 valued the importance of involving patient groups in research; however, patient group respondents valued their contributions to research protocol development, funding acquisition, and interpretation of study results more highly than those contributions were valued by industry and academic respondents (all p < .001. Patient group respondents placed higher value in open communications, clear expectations, and detailed contract execution than did non-patient group respondents (all p < .05. Industry and academic respondents more often cited internal bureaucratic processes and reluctance to share information as engagement barriers than did patient group respondents (all p < .01. Patient groups reported that a lack of transparency and understanding of the benefits of collaboration on the part of industry and academia were greater barriers than did non-patient group respondents (all p< .01.Despite reported similarities among approaches to engagement by the three stakeholder groups, key differences exist in perceived barriers and benefits to partnering with patient groups among the

  19. Dietary intake in population-based adolescents: support for a relationship between eating disorder symptoms, low fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K L; Mori, T A; Beilin, L; Byrne, S M; Hickling, S; Oddy, W H

    2013-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the dietary intake and nutritional status of community-based individuals with eating disorders. This research aimed to: (i) describe the dietary intake of population-based adolescents with an eating disorder and (ii) examine associations between eating disorder symptoms, fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with and without an eating disorder. Data were drawn from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a population-based cohort study that has followed participants from birth to young adulthood. This research utilised self-report data from the 17-year Raine Study assessment. Participants comprised 429 female adolescents who completed comprehensive questionnaire measures on dietary intake, eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Adolescents with an eating disorder (n = 66) reported a significantly lower intake of total fat, saturated fat, omega-6 fatty acid, starch, vitamin A and vitamin E compared to adolescents without an eating disorder (n = 363). Adolescents with an eating disorder and pronounced depressive symptoms (n = 23) also reported a significantly lower intake of polyunsaturated fat and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid than adolescents with an eating disorder but no marked depression (n = 43). In the eating disorder sample but not the control sample, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid correlated significantly and negatively with eating disorder symptoms and with depressive symptoms. Support is provided for a relationship between low omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid intake and depressive symptoms in adolescents with eating disorders. Research is needed to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of fatty acid supplementation in this high-risk group. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Guide to energy R and D programs for universities and other research groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this guide to provide researchers in universities and other research institutions with summary-level information on the various research and development programs supported by the Department. Collectively, DOE programs support a wide range of research activities - from studies on the fundamental nature of matter and energy to exploratory and advanced research on the development of new technical approaches leading to new energy technologies. The guide summarizes, in one source, basic information on DOE's energy research and development and related programs, interests and needs. It supplies information on current Federal and DOE grant and contract policies and procedures and lists the names of DOE staff, by program area, from whom additional information may be obtained

  1. Longitudinal population-based studies of affective disorders: Where to from here?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beard John R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longitudinal, population-based, research is important if we are to better characterize the lifetime patterns and determinants of affective disorders. While studies of this type are becoming increasingly prevalent, there has been little discussion about the limitations of the methods commonly used. Methods Discussion paper including a brief review of key prospective population-based studies as the basis for a critical appraisal of current approaches. Results We identified a number of common methodological weaknesses that restrict the potential of longitudinal research to characterize the diversity, prognosis, and determinants of affective disorders over time. Most studies using comprehensive diagnostic instruments have either been of relatively brief duration, or have suffered from long periods between waves. Most etiologic research has focused on first onset diagnoses, although these may be relatively uncommon after early adulthood and the burden of mental disorders falls more heavily on individuals with recurring disorders. Analysis has tended to be based on changes in diagnostic status rather than anges in symptom levels, limiting study power. Diagnoses have generally been treated as homogeneous entities and few studies have explored whether diagnostic subtypes such as atypical depression vary in their etiology or prognosis. Little research has considered whether there are distinct trajectories of symptoms over time and most has focused on individual disorders such as depression, rather than considering the relationship over time between symptoms of different affective disorders. There has also been limited longitudinal research on factors in the physical or social environment that may influence the onset, recurrence or chronicity of symptoms. Conclusion Many important, and in some respects quite basic, questions remain about the trajectory of depression and anxiety disorders over the life course and the factors that

  2. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D R; Whitmer, R W; Goetzel, R Z; Ozminkowski, R J; Dunn, R L; Wasserman, J; Serxner, S

    2000-01-01

    To assess the relationship between modifiable health risks and total health care expenditures for a large employee group. Risk data were collected through voluntary participation in health risk assessment (HRA) and worksite biometric screenings and were linked at the individual level to health care plan enrollment and expenditure data from employers' fee-for-service plans over the 6-year study period. The setting was worksite health promotion programs sponsored by six large private-sector and public-sector employers. Of the 50% of employees who completed the HRA, 46,026 (74.7%) met all inclusion criteria for the analysis. Eleven risk factors (exercise, alcohol use, eating, current and former tobacco use, depression, stress, blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and blood glucose) were dichotomized into high-risk and lower-risk levels. The association between risks and expenditures was estimated using a two-part regression model, controlling for demographics and other confounders. Risk prevalence data were used to estimate group-level impact of risks on expenditures. Risk factors were associated with 25% of total expenditures. Stress was the most costly factor, with tobacco use, overweight, and lack of exercise also being linked to substantial expenditures. Modifiable risk factors contribute substantially to overall health care expenditures. Health promotion programs that reduce these risks may be beneficial for employers in controlling health care costs.

  3. Radiotherapy- and chemotherapy-induced myelodysplasia syndrome: a nationwide population-based nested case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Ming-Chia; Liang, Ji-An; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2015-05-01

    This study explored which kinds of cancer are related to a higher incidence of subsequent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT).We performed a nested case-control study by using data from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance (NHI) system. The case group included cancer patients who developed MDS. For the control group, 4 cancer patients without MDS were frequency-matched with each MDS case by age, sex, year of cancer diagnosis, and MDS index year. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated.Overall, cancer patients who received RT or CT exhibited secondary MDS more frequently than did those who did not (RT: OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.33-1.77; CT: OR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.25-1.82). Analysis by cancer site showed that RT increased the risk of MDS for patients with stomach, colorectal, liver, breast, endometrial, prostate, and kidney cancers. By contrast, CT was more likely to increase the risk of MDS for patients with lung, endometrial, and cervical cancers. Further analysis revealed that RT and CT seemed to have a positive interaction. The major limitation of this study was the lack of certain essential data in the NHI Research Database, such as data regarding cancer stage and treatment dose details.This population-based nested case-control study determined that RT and CT predisposed patients in Taiwan to the development of MDS. This effect was more prominent when both modalities were used.

  4. Meaning-based group counseling for bereavement: bridging theory with emerging trends in intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Christopher J; Smith, Nathan Grant; Henry, Melissa; Berish, Mel; Milman, Evgenia; Körner, Annett; Copeland, Laura S; Chochinov, Harvey M; Cohen, S Robin

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of scholarship has evaluated the usefulness of meaning-based theories in the context of bereavement counseling. Although scholars have discussed the application of meaning-based theories for individual practice, there is a lack of inquiry regarding its implications when conducting bereavement support groups. The objective of this article is to bridge meaning-based theories with bereavement group practice, leading to a novel intervention and laying the foundation for future efficacy studies. Building on recommendations specified in the literature, this article outlines the theoretical paradigms and structure of a short-term meaning-based group counseling intervention for uncomplicated bereavement.

  5. External Group Coaching and Mentoring: Building a Research Community of Practice at a University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Jeanette; Visagie, Retha; Johnson, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Globally, a clarion call has been made for higher education institutions to establish creative and effective research capacity-building systems with the purpose of developing a next generation of scholars. The training and skills development of a researcher entail a process of increasing levels of participation in diverse communities of practice.…

  6. The Benefits of Peer-Mentoring in Undergraduate Group Research Projects at The University of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; McGraw, A. M.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Robertson, A.; Smith, C.; Turner, J.; Biddle, L. I.; Thompson, R.

    2013-06-01

    According to the American Institute of Physics, the number of graduate students enrolled in astronomy programs in the US has been steadily increasing in the past 15 years. Research experience is one of the key factors graduate admissions committees look for when choosing students. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club is setting a new precedent in research by having students introduce other students to research. This eases the transition to research projects, and allows students to work in a comfortable setting without the sometimes-overwhelming cognitive disconnect between a professor and their students. The University of Arizona's research projects have many benefits to all students involved. It is well established that people learn a subject best when they have to teach it to others. Students leading the projects learn alongside their peers in a peer-mentoring setting. When project leaders move on in their academic career, other project members can easily take the lead. Students learn how to work in teams, practice effective communication skills, and begin the processes of conducting a full research project, which are essential skills for all budding scientists. These research projects also give students hands-on research experience that supplement and greatly expand on concepts taught in the classroom, and make them more attractive to graduate schools and REU programs.

  7. IGORR 9: Proceedings of the 9. meeting of the International Group On Research Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boening, K.

    2003-01-01

    Papers presented at this Meting were divided into following sessions: safety, licensing and decommissioning of research and test reactors; new reactor facilities and upgrades of the existing research reactors; optimisation of operation and Utilisation; secondary neutron sources; neutron scattering techniques available at existing reactor facilities

  8. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB rate of PTB poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  9. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muglia Louis A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997. We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990. Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty was the reference group. Results PTB th quartile (4.9%, p adjOR 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35, with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52. Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies.

  10. Migraine and Mental Health in a Population-Based Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Serena L; Potter, Beth K; Ma, Jinhui; Colman, Ian

    2017-01-01

    To explore the relationship between migraine and anxiety disorders, mood disorders and perceived mental health in a population-based sample of adolescents. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) is a cross-sectional health survey sampling a nationally representative group of Canadians. In this observational study, data on all 61,375 participants aged 12-19 years from six survey cycles were analyzed. The relationships between self-reported migraine, perceived mental health, and mood/anxiety disorders were modeled using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. The migraine-depression association was also explored in a subset of participants using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form (CIDI-SF) depression scale. The odds of migraine were higher among those with mood disorders, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=4.59; 95% confidence interval [CI 95%]=3.44-6.12), and the weakest in 2009-10 (aOR=3.06, CI 95%=2.06-4.55). The migraine-mood disorders association was also significant throughout all cycles, other than 2011-2, when the CIDI-SF depression scale was employed. The odds of migraine were higher among those with anxiety disorders, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (aOR=4.21, CI 95%=3.31-5.35) and the weakest in 2010 (aOR=1.87, CI 95%=1.10-3.37). The inverse association between high perceived mental health and the odds of migraine was observed in all CCHS cycles, with the strongest association in 2011-2 (aOR=0.58, CI 95%=0.48-0.69) and the weakest in 2003-4 (aOR=0.75, CI 95%=0.62-0.91). This study provides evidence, derived from a large population-based sample of adolescents, for a link between migraine and mood/anxiety disorders.

  11. Two-Year Outcomes of a Population-Based Intervention for Preschool Language Delay: An RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Melissa; Levickis, Penny; Tobin, Sherryn; Gold, Lisa; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Goldfeld, Sharon; Zens, Naomi; Le, Ha N D; Law, James; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-10-01

    We have previously shown short-term benefits to phonology, letter knowledge, and possibly expressive language from systematically ascertaining language delay at age 4 years followed by the Language for Learning intervention. Here, we report the trial's definitive 6-year outcomes. Randomized trial nested in a population-based ascertainment. Children with language scores >1.25 SD below the mean at age 4 were randomized, with intervention children receiving 18 1-hour home-based therapy sessions. Primary outcome was receptive/expressive language. Secondary outcomes were phonological, receptive vocabulary, literacy, and narrative skills; parent-reported pragmatic language, behavior, and health-related quality of life; costs of intervention; and health service use. For intention-to-treat analyses, trial arms were compared using linear regression models. Of 1464 children assessed at age 4, 266 were eligible and 200 randomized; 90% and 82% of intervention and control children were retained respectively. By age 6, mean language scores had normalized, but there was little evidence of a treatment effect for receptive (adjusted mean difference 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.2 to 5.7; P = .20) or expressive (0.8; 95% CI -1.6 to 3.2; P = .49) language. Of the secondary outcomes, only phonological awareness skills (effect size 0.36; 95% CI 0.08-0.65; P = .01) showed benefit. Costs were higher for intervention families (mean difference AU$4276; 95% CI: $3424 to $5128). Population-based intervention targeting 4-year-old language delay was feasible but did not have lasting impacts on language, possibly reflecting resolution in both groups. Long-term literacy benefits remain possible but must be weighed against its cost. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Research on sequence stratigraphy of Shuixigou group, jurassic in Yili basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shengfu; Wang Guo; Wei Anxin; Qi Junrang; Zhang Zhongwang

    2006-01-01

    The Shuixigou Group, Jurassic in Yili basin is a set of coal-bearing clastic formation formed under basically consistent tectonic stress and sedimentary environment. In the middle of the Group (Sangonghe Formation) abrupt changes appear in the lithology and the colour of rocks, and an abrupt turning in logging curve appears correspondingly. Using the point view of sequence stratigraphy, the authors analyse the above phenomenon in aspects of the chrono-stratigraphy, the lithology, the sedimentary system tract, the sedimentary rhythum, as well as the interpretation of logging curves, and suggest that a unconformity surface (or a sequence boundary) exists in the middle of the Group, and try make a re-division of sequence stratigraphy for the Shuixigou Group. (authors)

  13. Simulation research to enhance patient safety and outcomes: recommendations of the Simnovate Patient Safety Domain Group

    OpenAIRE

    Pucher, PH; Tamblyn, R; Boorman, D; Dixon-Woods, Mary Margaret; Donaldson, L; Draycott, T; Forster, A; Nadkarni, V; Power, C; Sevdalis, N; Aggarwal, R

    2017-01-01

    The use of simulation-based training has established itself in healthcare but its implementation has been varied and mostly limited to technical and non-technical skills training. This article discusses the possibilities of the use of simulation as part of an overarching approach to improving patient safety, and represents the views of the Simnovate Patient Safety Domain Group, an international multidisciplinary expert group dedicated to the improvement of patient safety. The application and ...

  14. Population-based imaging biobanks as source of big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatidis, Sergios; Heber, Sophia D; Storz, Corinna; Bamberg, Fabian

    2017-06-01

    Advances of computational sciences over the last decades have enabled the introduction of novel methodological approaches in biomedical research. Acquiring extensive and comprehensive data about a research subject and subsequently extracting significant information has opened new possibilities in gaining insight into biological and medical processes. This so-called big data approach has recently found entrance into medical imaging and numerous epidemiological studies have been implementing advanced imaging to identify imaging biomarkers that provide information about physiological processes, including normal development and aging but also on the development of pathological disease states. The purpose of this article is to present existing epidemiological imaging studies and to discuss opportunities, methodological and organizational aspects, and challenges that population imaging poses to the field of big data research.

  15. A nationwide population-based study of low vision and blindness in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin Hae; Lee, Ji Sung; Heo, Hwan; Suh, Young-Woo; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Lim, Key Hwan; Moon, Nam Ju; Lee, Sung Jin; Park, Song Hee; Baek, Seung-Hee

    2014-12-18

    To investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of low vision and blindness in the Korean population. This cross-sectional, population-based study examined the ophthalmologic data of 22,135 Koreans aged ≥5 years from the fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010-2012). According to the World Health Organization criteria, blindness was defined as visual acuity (VA) less than 20/400 in the better-seeing eye, and low vision as VA of 20/60 or worse but 20/400 or better in the better-seeing eye. The prevalence rates were calculated from either presenting VA (PVA) or best-corrected VA (BCVA). Multivariate regression analysis was conducted for adults aged ≥20 years. The overall prevalence rates of PVA-defined low vision and blindness were 4.98% and 0.26%, respectively, and those of BCVA-defined low vision and blindness were 0.46% and 0.05%, respectively. Prevalence increased rapidly above the age of 70 years. For subjects aged ≥70 years, the population-weighted prevalence rates of low vision, based on PVA and BCVA, were 12.85% and 3.87%, respectively, and the corresponding rates of blindness were 0.49% and 0.42%, respectively. The presenting vision problems were significantly associated with age (younger adults or elderly subjects), female sex, low educational level, and lowest household income, whereas the best-corrected vision problems were associated with age ≥ 70 years, a low educational level, and rural residence. This population-based study provides useful information for planning optimal public eye health care services in South Korea. Copyright 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  16. Osteoporosis-related fracture case definitions for population-based administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lix Lisa M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based administrative data have been used to study osteoporosis-related fracture risk factors and outcomes, but there has been limited research about the validity of these data for ascertaining fracture cases. The objectives of this study were to: (a compare fracture incidence estimates from administrative data with estimates from population-based clinically-validated data, and (b test for differences in incidence estimates from multiple administrative data case definitions. Methods Thirty-five case definitions for incident fractures of the hip, wrist, humerus, and clinical vertebrae were constructed using diagnosis codes in hospital data and diagnosis and service codes in physician billing data from Manitoba, Canada. Clinically-validated fractures were identified from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos. Generalized linear models were used to test for differences in incidence estimates. Results For hip fracture, sex-specific differences were observed in the magnitude of under- and over-ascertainment of administrative data case definitions when compared with CaMos data. The length of the fracture-free period to ascertain incident cases had a variable effect on over-ascertainment across fracture sites, as did the use of imaging, fixation, or repair service codes. Case definitions based on hospital data resulted in under-ascertainment of incident clinical vertebral fractures. There were no significant differences in trend estimates for wrist, humerus, and clinical vertebral case definitions. Conclusions The validity of administrative data for estimating fracture incidence depends on the site and features of the case definition.

  17. Viewing the body after bereavement due to suicide: a population-based survey in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Omerov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on the assumed, positive and negative, psychological effects of viewing the body after a suicide loss is sparse. We hypothesized that suicide-bereaved parents that viewed their childs body in a formal setting seldom regretted the experience, and that viewing the body was associated with lower levels of psychological morbidity two to five years after the loss. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 915 suicide-bereaved parents by linkage of nationwide population-based registries and collected data by a questionnaire. The outcome measures included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. In total, 666 (73% parents participated. Of the 460 parents (69% that viewed the body, 96% answered that they did not regret the experience. The viewing was associated with a higher risk of reliving the child's death through nightmares (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.32 and intrusive memories (RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38, but not with anxiety (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.40 and depression (RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.83. One limitation of our study is that we lack data on the informants' personality and coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: In this Swedish population-based survey of suicide-bereaved parents, we found that by and large everyone that had viewed their deceased child in a formal setting did not report regretting the viewing when asked two to five years after the loss. Our findings suggest that most bereaved parents are capable of deciding if they want to view the body or not. Officials may assist by giving careful information about the child's appearance and other details concerning the viewing, thus facilitating mental preparation for the bereaved person. This is the first large-scale study on the effects of viewing the body after a suicide and additional studies are needed before clinical recommendations can be made.

  18. The full moon and motorcycle related mortality: population based double control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redelmeier, Donald A; Shafir, Eldar

    2017-12-11

    To test whether a full moon contributes to motorcycle related deaths. Population based, individual level, double control, cross sectional analysis. Nighttime (4 pm to 8 am), United States. 13 029 motorcycle fatalities throughout the United States, 1975 to 2014 (40 years). Motorcycle fatalities during a full moon. 13 029 motorcyclists were in fatal crashes during 1482 relevant nights. The typical motorcyclist was a middle aged man (mean age 32 years) riding a street motorcycle with a large engine in a rural location who experienced a head-on frontal impact and was not wearing a helmet. 4494 fatal crashes occurred on the 494 nights with a full moon (9.10/night) and 8535 on the 988 control nights without a full moon (8.64/night). Comparisons yielded a relative risk of 1.05 associated with the full moon (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.09, P=0.005), a conditional odds ratio of 1.26 (95% confidence interval 1.17 to 1.37, Pmotorcycle crashes, although potential confounders cannot be excluded. An awareness of the risk might encourage motorcyclists to ride with extra care during a full moon and, more generally, to appreciate the power of seemingly minor distractions at all times. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. The action researcher as a reflective partner to a core group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe; Sriskandarajah, Nadarajah

    2006-01-01

    with rural stakeholders to achieve normatively desirable learning. It is suggested that in order to genuinely qualify the learning process and its outcome for all, the action researcher keeps an adequate balance between being “close to” or “inside” the stakeholder arena and “distanced to” or “outside......” this arena. A model for how this balance could be achieved is proposed.......The EU suggests applying bottom-up, participative learning approaches, such as Action Research, as steering instruments to meet the challenge of multifunctionality and its links with rural development. This paper focuses on the many demanding roles placed on an action researcher when working...

  20. Sleep in later life: a population-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation includes six epidemiological studies of sleep in a normal elderly population. The research was conducted within the setting of the Rotterdam Study, a large prospective cohort study of community-dwelling inhabitants of a district of Rotterdam, aged 55 and over. A total