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Sample records for group iii dehydrogenase

  1. Comparative analysis of two members of the metal ion-containing group III-alcohol dehydrogenases from Dickeya zeae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuche, Skander; Klippel, Barbara; von der Heyde, Amélie; Antranikian, Garabed

    2013-05-01

    A pair of NAD(+)- and NADP(+)-dependent group III-alcohol dehydrogenases was characterized from the enterobacterium, Dickeya zeae, to expand our understanding of the distribution and biochemical properties of this interesting group of enzymes. Two putative group III-alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) were identified in the genome of Dickeya zeae. Amino acid alignments and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Adh3.1 and Adh3.2 are only distantly related (~25 % identity at the protein level). Both proteins were purified to homogeneity after heterologous expression in E. coli. A specific activity of 1.8 U/mg was measured for the NAD(+)-dependent enzyme Adh3.1 with ethanol used as substrate, while NADPH-dependent Adh3.2 preferred butanal (29.1 U/mg) as substrate. Maximum activity for Adh3.1 was at 50 °C and pH 10 and for Adh3.2 at 70 °C and pH 6. Cell viability assays were used to confirm activity towards butanal and glyoxals. Biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analyses led to the hypothesis that Adh3.1 and Adh3.2 are probably the result of an ancient gene duplication event followed by functional diversification.

  2. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  3. Group X Aldehyde Dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 Degrade Hydrazones

    OpenAIRE

    Taniyama, Kosuke; Itoh, Hideomi; Takuwa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Takaya, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Hydrazones are natural and synthetic compounds containing a C=N-N moiety. Here we found that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produced NAD+- or NADP+-dependent hydrazone dehydrogenase (HDH), which converts hydrazones to the corresponding hydrazides and acids rather than to the simple hydrolytic product aldehydes. Gene cloning indicated that the HDH is part of the group X aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family, which is distributed among bacteria, although the physiological...

  4. Genomics of Clostridium botulinum group III strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Yumiko; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Oguma, Keiji

    2015-05-01

    In Clostridium botulinum, the characteristics of type C and D strains are quite different from other types, and they are classified as group III. They produce C2 binary toxin and C3 exoenzyme in addition to type C and D neurotoxins. Two different phages and many plasmids are identified in the organisms. The genes of neurotoxin and C3 exoenzyme are converted from toxigenic strains to non-toxigenic strains by the specific bacteriophages (phages), whereas, the C2 toxin gene is carried by large or small plasmids. Classification of type C and D strains has been in confusion because 1) antigenicity of type C and D neurotoxins is complex, 2) the cells produce two types of toxins, neurotoxin and C2 toxin, and 3) some non-toxigenic strains can be converted to produce C or D neurotoxin by the infection with phages. Until now, entire nucleotide sequences of cell chromosomes, phages, and plasmids have been determined. Since both genetic and protein-chemical analyses have been clarifying the above confusions, these data are reviewed historically. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Group X aldehyde dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 degrade hydrazones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Kosuke; Itoh, Hideomi; Takuwa, Atsushi; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke; Toyofuku, Masanori; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Takaya, Naoki

    2012-03-01

    Hydrazones are natural and synthetic compounds containing a C=N-N moiety. Here we found that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 produced NAD(+)- or NADP(+)-dependent hydrazone dehydrogenase (HDH), which converts hydrazones to the corresponding hydrazides and acids rather than to the simple hydrolytic product aldehydes. Gene cloning indicated that the HDH is part of the group X aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family, which is distributed among bacteria, although the physiological roles of the ALDH family remain unknown. The PAO1 strain upregulated HDH in the presence of the hydrazone adipic acid bis(ethylidene hydrazide) (AEH). Gene disruption of the HDH-encoding hdhA (PA4022) decreased growth rates in culture medium containing AEH as the sole carbon source, and this effect was more obvious in the double gene disruption of hdhA and its orthologous exaC (PA1984), indicating that these genes are responsible for hydrazone utilization. Recombinant proteins of group X ALDHs from Escherichia coli, Paracoccus denitrificans, and Ochrobactrum anthropi also acted as HDHs in that they produced HDH activity in the cells and degraded hydrazones. These findings indicated the physiological roles of group X ALDHs in bacteria and showed that they comprise a distinct ALDH subfamily.

  6. Electrochemical Studies of the Inhibition and Activation Effects of Al (III on the Activity of Bovine Liver Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Bi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the study of Al3+ ion on the enzyme activity by using of electrochemical techniques was rarely found in available literatures, the differential-pulse polarography (DPP technique was applied to study the effects of Al3+ ion on the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH activity in the catalytical reaction of α-KG +NADH+NH4 + ⇔ L-Glu+NAD++H2O by monitoring the DPP reduction current of NAD+. At the plant and animal physiologically relevant pH values (pH=6.5 and 7.5, the GDH enzyme activities were strongly depended on the concentrations of the metal ion in the assay mixture solutions. In the lower Al (III concentration solutions (80μM, the inhibition effects of Al (III were shown again. The cyclic voltammetry of NAD+ and NAD+-GDH in the presence of Al (III can help to explain some biological phenomena. According to the differential-pulse polarography and cyclic voltammetry experiments, the present research confirmed that the electrochemical technique is a convenient and reliable sensor for accurate determination of enzyme activity in biological and environmental samples.

  7. Investigation of Clostridium botulinum group III's mobilome content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Bano, Luca; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Koene, Miriam; Mermoud, Isabelle; Brito, Roseane B; Lobato, Francisco C F; Silva, Rodrigo O S; Dorner, Martin B; Fach, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Clostridium botulinum group III is mainly responsible for botulism in animals. It could lead to high animal mortality rates and, therefore, represents a major environmental and economic concern. Strains of this group harbor the botulinum toxin locus on an unstable bacteriophage. Since the release of the first complete C. botulinum group III genome sequence (strain BKT015925), strains have been found to contain others mobile elements encoding for toxin components. In this study, seven assays targeting toxin genes present on the genetic mobile elements of C. botulinum group III were developed with the objective to better characterize C. botulinum group III strains. The investigation of 110 C. botulinum group III strains and 519 naturally contaminated samples collected during botulism outbreaks in Europe showed alpha-toxin and C2-I/C2-II markers to be systematically associated with type C/D bont-positive samples, which may indicate an important role of these elements in the pathogenicity mechanisms. On the contrary, bont type D/C strains and the related positive samples appeared to contain almost none of the markers tested. Interestingly, 31 bont-negative samples collected on farms after a botulism outbreak revealed to be positive for some of the genetic mobile elements tested. This suggests loss of the bont phage, either in farm environment after the outbreak or during laboratory handling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigation of Clostridium botulinum group III's mobilome content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, Cédric; Maréchal, Le Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Bano, Luca; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie Hélène; Koene, Miriam; Mermoud, Isabelle; Brito, Roseane B.; Lobato, Francisco C.F.; Silva, Rodrigo O.S.; Dorner, Martin B.; Fach, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum group III is mainly responsible for botulism in animals. It could lead to high animal mortality rates and, therefore, represents a major environmental and economic concern. Strains of this group harbor the botulinum toxin locus on an unstable bacteriophage. Since the release of

  9. Blood groups and acute aortic dissection type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatic, Nikola; Nikolic, Aleksandar; Vukmirovic, Mihailo; Radojevic, Nemanja; Zornic, Nenad; Banzic, Igor; Ilic, Nikola; Kostic, Dusan; Pajovic, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    Acute aortic type III dissection is one of the most catastrophic events, with in-hospital mortality ranging between 10% and 12%. The majority of patients are treated medically, but complicated dissections, which represent 15% to 20% of cases, require surgical or thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR). For the best outcomes adequate blood transfusion support is required. Interest in the relationship between blood type and vascular disease has been established. The aim of our study is to evaluate distribution of blood groups among patients with acute aortic type III dissection and to identify any kind of relationship between blood type and patient's survival. From January 2005 to December 2014, 115 patients with acute aortic type III dissection were enrolled at the Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery in Belgrade, Serbia and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were separated into two groups. The examination group consisted of patients with a lethal outcome, and the control group consisted of patients who survived. The analysis of the blood groups and RhD typing between groups did not reveal a statistically significant difference ( p = 0.220). Our results indicated no difference between different blood groups and RhD typing with respect to in-hospital mortality of patients with acute aortic dissection type III.

  10. Purification of mutacin III from group III Streptococcus mutans UA787 and genetic analyses of mutacin III biosynthesis genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, F; Chen, P; Caufield, P W

    1999-09-01

    Previously, members of our group reported the isolation and characterization of mutacin II from Streptococcus mutans T8 and the genetic analyses of the mutacin II biosynthesis genes (J. Novak, P. W. Caufield, and E. J. Miller, J. Bacteriol. 176:4316-4320, 1994; F. Qi, P. Chen, and P. W. Caufield, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:652-658, 1999; P. Chen, F. Qi, J. Novak, and P. W. Caufield, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1356-1360, 1999). In this study, we cloned and sequenced the mutacin III biosynthesis gene locus from a group III strain of S. mutans, UA787. DNA sequence analysis revealed eight open reading frames, which we designated mutR, -A, -A', -B, -C, -D, -P, and -T. MutR bears strong homology with MutR of mutacin II, while MutA, -B, -C, -D, -P, and -T are counterparts of proteins in the lantibiotic epidermin group. MutA' has 60% amino acid identity with MutA and therefore appears to be a duplicate of MutA. Insertional inactivation demonstrated that mutA is an essential gene for mutacin III production, while mutA' is not required. Mutacin III was purified to homogeneity by using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. N-terminal peptide sequencing of the purified mutacin III determined mutA to be the structural gene for prepromutacin III. The molecular mass of the purified peptide was measured by laser disorption mass spectrophotometry and found to be 2,266.43 Da, consistent with our supposition that mutacin III has posttranslational modifications similar to those of the lantibiotic epidermin.

  11. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yurity; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2014-07-15

    Methods are disclosed for growing high crystal quality group III-nitride epitaxial layers with advanced multiple buffer layer techniques. In an embodiment, a method includes forming group III-nitride buffer layers that contain aluminum on suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. A hydrogen halide or halogen gas is flowing into the growth zone during deposition of buffer layers to suppress homogeneous particle formation. Some combinations of low temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) and high temperature buffers that contain aluminum (e.g., AlN, AlGaN) may be used to improve crystal quality and morphology of subsequently grown group III-nitride epitaxial layers. The buffer may be deposited on the substrate, or on the surface of another buffer. The additional buffer layers may be added as interlayers in group III-nitride layers (e.g., GaN, AlGaN, AlN).

  12. Novel NAD+-Farnesal Dehydrogenase from Polygonum minus Leaves. Purification and Characterization of Enzyme in Juvenile Hormone III Biosynthetic Pathway in Plant.

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    Ahmad-Faris Seman-Kamarulzaman

    Full Text Available Juvenile Hormone III is of great concern due to negative effects on major developmental and reproductive maturation in insect pests. Thus, the elucidation of enzymes involved JH III biosynthetic pathway has become increasing important in recent years. One of the enzymes in the JH III biosynthetic pathway that remains to be isolated and characterized is farnesal dehydrogenase, an enzyme responsible to catalyze the oxidation of farnesal into farnesoic acid. A novel NAD+-farnesal dehydrogenase of Polygonum minus was purified (315-fold to apparent homogeneity in five chromatographic steps. The purification procedures included Gigacap S-Toyopearl 650M, Gigacap Q-Toyopearl 650M, and AF-Blue Toyopearl 650ML, followed by TSK Gel G3000SW chromatographies. The enzyme, with isoelectric point of 6.6 is a monomeric enzyme with a molecular mass of 70 kDa. The enzyme was relatively active at 40°C, but was rapidly inactivated above 45°C. The optimal temperature and pH of the enzyme were found to be 35°C and 9.5, respectively. The enzyme activity was inhibited by sulfhydryl agent, chelating agent, and metal ion. The enzyme was highly specific for farnesal and NAD+. Other terpene aldehydes such as trans- cinnamaldehyde, citral and α- methyl cinnamaldehyde were also oxidized but in lower activity. The Km values for farnesal, citral, trans- cinnamaldehyde, α- methyl cinnamaldehyde and NAD+ were 0.13, 0.69, 0.86, 1.28 and 0.31 mM, respectively. The putative P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase that's highly specific towards farnesal but not to aliphatic aldehydes substrates suggested that the enzyme is significantly different from other aldehyde dehydrogenases that have been reported. The MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectrometry further identified two peptides that share similarity to those of previously reported aldehyde dehydrogenases. In conclusion, the P. minus farnesal dehydrogenase may represent a novel plant farnesal dehydrogenase that exhibits distinctive substrate

  13. Structure of Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase B: Electron Transfer between Two Flavin Groups Bridged by an Iron-Sulphur Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rowland, Poul; Nørager, Sofie; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The fourth step and only redox reaction in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis is catalyzed by the flavoprotein dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD). Based on their sequences, DHODs are grouped into two major families. Lactococcus lactis is one of the few organisms with two DHODs, A and B...

  14. Structural features and electronic properties of group-III-, group-IV-, and group-V-doped Si nanocrystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, L E; Degoli, Elena; Cantele, G; Ossicini, Stefano; Ninno, D; Furthmueller, J; Bechstedt, F

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the incorporation of group-III (B and Al), group-IV (C and Ge), and group-V (N and P) impurities in Si nanocrystallites. The structural features and electronic properties of doped Si nanocrystallites, which are faceted or spherical-like, are studied by means of an ab initio pseudopotential method including spin polarization. Jahn-Teller distortions occur in the neighborhood of the impurity sites and the bond lengths show a dependence on size and shape of the nanocrystallites. We find that the acceptor (group-III) and donor (group-V) levels become deep as the nanocrystallites become small. The energy difference between the spin-up and spin-down levels of group-III and group-V impurities decreases as the size of the Si nanocrystallite increases and tends to the value calculated for Si bulk. Doping with carbon introduces an impurity-related level in the energy gap of the Si nanocrystallites

  15. Clostridium botulinum group III: a group with dual identity shaped by plasmids, phages and mobile elements

    OpenAIRE

    Skarin, Hanna; Håfström, Therese; Westerberg, Josefina; Segerman, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Clostridium botulinum strains can be divided into four physiological groups that are sufficiently diverged to be considered as separate species. Here we present the first complete genome of a C. botulinum strain from physiological group III, causing animal botulism. We also compare the sequence to three new draft genomes from the same physiological group. Results The 2.77 Mb chromosome was highly conserved between the isolates and also closely related to that of C. novyi. ...

  16. REVIEW ARTICLE: Growth and applications of Group III-nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambacher, O.

    1998-10-01

    Recent research results pertaining to InN, GaN and AlN are reviewed, focusing on the different growth techniques of Group III-nitride crystals and epitaxial films, heterostructures and devices. The chemical and thermal stability of epitaxial nitride films is discussed in relation to the problems of deposition processes and the advantages for applications in high-power and high-temperature devices. The development of growth methods like metalorganic chemical vapour deposition and plasma-induced molecular beam epitaxy has resulted in remarkable improvements in the structural, optical and electrical properties. New developments in precursor chemistry, plasma-based nitrogen sources, substrates, the growth of nucleation layers and selective growth are covered. Deposition conditions and methods used to grow alloys for optical bandgap and lattice engineering are introduced. The review is concluded with a description of recent Group III-nitride semiconductor devices such as bright blue and white light-emitting diodes, the first blue-emitting laser, high-power transistors, and a discussion of further applications in surface acoustic wave devices and sensors.

  17. Polarity Control in Group-III Nitrides beyond Pragmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Stefan; Stolyarchuk, Natalia; Markurt, Toni; Kirste, Ronny; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Collazo, Ramón; Courville, Aimeric; Di Felice, Rosa; Sitar, Zlatko; Vennéguès, Philippe; Albrecht, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the polarity of polar semiconductors on nonpolar substrates offers a wealth of device concepts in the form of heteropolar junctions. A key to realize such structures is an appropriate buffer-layer design that, in the past, has been developed by empiricism. GaN or ZnO on sapphire are prominent examples for that. Understanding the basic processes that mediate polarity, however, is still an unsolved problem. In this work, we study the structure of buffer layers for group-III nitrides on sapphire by transmission electron microscopy as an example. We show that it is the conversion of the sapphire surface into a rhombohedral aluminum-oxynitride layer that converts the initial N-polar surface to Al polarity. With the various AlxOyNz phases of the pseudobinary Al2O3 -AlN system and their tolerance against intrinsic defects, typical for oxides, a smooth transition between the octahedrally coordinated Al in the sapphire and the tetrahedrally coordinated Al in AlN becomes feasible. Based on these results, we discuss the consequences for achieving either polarity and shed light on widely applied concepts in the field of group-III nitrides like nitridation and low-temperature buffer layers.

  18. Expression and characterization of a class III alcohol dehydrogenase gene from Gluconobacter frateurii in the presence of methanol during glyceric acid production from glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shun; Morita, Naoki; Kitamoto, Dai; Habe, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Some acetic acid bacteria have been shown to produce large amounts of glyceric acid (GA) from glycerol, which is a by-product of biodiesel fuel (BDF) production. Previously, a Gluconobacter strain was found that produced decreased amounts of GA from glycerol in the presence of methanol, a major ingredient of raw glycerol derived from the BDF industry. Thus, a comparative transcriptome analysis of Gluconobacter frateurii NBRC103465 was performed to investigate changes in gene expression during GA production from glycerol in the presence of methanol. Cells grown with methanol showed upregulated expression of a class III alcohol dehydrogenase homolog (adhC(Gf)) and decreased GA production. adhC(Gf) was cloned and expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, and the presence of an additional protein with an approximate molecular mass of 39 kDa in the cytosol of the recombinant E. coli cells was identified by SDS-PAGE. Activity measurements of the cytosol revealed that the translational product of adhC(Gf) exhibited formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the presence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and glutathione. Gluconobacter frateurii cells grown in 1% methanol-containing glycerol were found to have fivefold higher formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity than cells grown without methanol, suggesting that adhC(Gf) in G. frateurii cells functions in the dissimilation of methanol-derived formaldehyde.

  19. Methods for improved growth of group III nitride semiconductor compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Yuriy; Chen, Lu; Kojiri, Hidehiro

    2015-03-17

    Methods are disclosed for growing group III-nitride semiconductor compounds with advanced buffer layer technique. In an embodiment, a method includes providing a suitable substrate in a processing chamber of a hydride vapor phase epitaxy processing system. The method includes forming an AlN buffer layer by flowing an ammonia gas into a growth zone of the processing chamber, flowing an aluminum halide containing precursor to the growth zone and at the same time flowing additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas into the growth zone of the processing chamber. The additional hydrogen halide or halogen gas that is flowed into the growth zone during buffer layer deposition suppresses homogeneous AlN particle formation. The hydrogen halide or halogen gas may continue flowing for a time period while the flow of the aluminum halide containing precursor is turned off.

  20. Junctions in axial III-V heterostructure nanowires obtained via an interchange of group III elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstrup, Peter; Yamasaki, Jun; Sørensen, Claus B; Johnson, Erik; Wagner, Jakob B; Pennington, Robert; Aagesen, Martin; Tanaka, Nobuo; Nygård, Jesper

    2009-11-01

    We present an investigation of the morphology and composition of novel types of axial nanowire heterostructures where Ga(x)In(1-x)As is used as barrier material in InAs nanowires. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis we demonstrate that it is possible to grow junctions by changing the group III elements, and we find that a substantial fraction of Ga can be incorporated in axial InAs/Ga(x)In(1-x)As/InAs, retaining straight nanowire configurations. We explain how the adatoms are transferred to the incorporation site at the growth interface via two different routes, (1) interface diffusion and (2) volume diffusion through the catalyst particle.

  1. Clostridium botulinum group III: a group with dual identity shaped by plasmids, phages and mobile elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håfström Therese

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium botulinum strains can be divided into four physiological groups that are sufficiently diverged to be considered as separate species. Here we present the first complete genome of a C. botulinum strain from physiological group III, causing animal botulism. We also compare the sequence to three new draft genomes from the same physiological group. Results The 2.77 Mb chromosome was highly conserved between the isolates and also closely related to that of C. novyi. However, the sequence was very different from the human C. botulinum group genomes. Replication-directed translocations were rare and conservation of synteny was high. The largest difference between C. botulinum group III isolates occurred within their surprisingly large plasmidomes and in the pattern of mobile elements insertions. Five plasmids, constituting 13.5% of the total genetic material, were present in the completed genome. Interestingly, the set of plasmids differed compared to other isolates. The largest plasmid, the botulinum-neurotoxin carrying prophage, was conserved at a level similar to that of the chromosome while the medium-sized plasmids seemed to be undergoing faster genetic drift. These plasmids also contained more mobile elements than other replicons. Several toxins and resistance genes were identified, many of which were located on the plasmids. Conclusions The completion of the genome of C. botulinum group III has revealed it to be a genome with dual identity. It belongs to the pathogenic species C. botulinum, but as a genotypic species it should also include C. novyi and C. haemolyticum. The genotypic species share a conserved chromosomal core that can be transformed into various pathogenic variants by modulation of the highly plastic plasmidome.

  2. Clostridium botulinum group III: a group with dual identity shaped by plasmids, phages and mobile elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarin, Hanna; Håfström, Therese; Westerberg, Josefina; Segerman, Bo

    2011-04-12

    Clostridium botulinum strains can be divided into four physiological groups that are sufficiently diverged to be considered as separate species. Here we present the first complete genome of a C. botulinum strain from physiological group III, causing animal botulism. We also compare the sequence to three new draft genomes from the same physiological group. The 2.77 Mb chromosome was highly conserved between the isolates and also closely related to that of C. novyi. However, the sequence was very different from the human C. botulinum group genomes. Replication-directed translocations were rare and conservation of synteny was high. The largest difference between C. botulinum group III isolates occurred within their surprisingly large plasmidomes and in the pattern of mobile elements insertions. Five plasmids, constituting 13.5% of the total genetic material, were present in the completed genome. Interestingly, the set of plasmids differed compared to other isolates. The largest plasmid, the botulinum-neurotoxin carrying prophage, was conserved at a level similar to that of the chromosome while the medium-sized plasmids seemed to be undergoing faster genetic drift. These plasmids also contained more mobile elements than other replicons. Several toxins and resistance genes were identified, many of which were located on the plasmids. The completion of the genome of C. botulinum group III has revealed it to be a genome with dual identity. It belongs to the pathogenic species C. botulinum, but as a genotypic species it should also include C. novyi and C. haemolyticum. The genotypic species share a conserved chromosomal core that can be transformed into various pathogenic variants by modulation of the highly plastic plasmidome.

  3. Patterns of authorship in the IPCC Working Group III report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbera, Esteve; Calvet-Mir, Laura; Hughes, Hannah; Paterson, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has completed its Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Here, we explore the social scientific networks informing Working Group III (WGIII) assessment of mitigation for the AR5. Identifying authors’ institutional pathways, we highlight the persistence and extent of North-South inequalities in the authorship of the report, revealing the dominance of US and UK institutions as training sites for WGIII authors. Examining patterns of co-authorship between WGIII authors, we identify the unevenness in co-authoring relations, with a small number of authors co-writing regularly and indicative of an epistemic community’s influence over the IPCC’s definition of mitigation. These co-authoring networks follow regional patterns, with significant EU-BRICS collaboration and authors from the US relatively insular. From a disciplinary perspective, economists, engineers, physicists and natural scientists remain central to the process, with insignificant participation of scholars from the humanities. The shared training and career paths made apparent through our analysis suggest that the idea that broader geographic participation may lead to a wider range of viewpoints and cultural understandings of climate change mitigation may not be as sound as previously thought.

  4. Isolation, characterization, and nucleotide sequence of the Streptococcus mutans mannitol-phosphate dehydrogenase gene and the mannitol-specific factor III gene of the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeyman, A L; Curtiss, R

    1992-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans, the causative agent of dental caries, utilizes carbohydrates by means of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS). The PTS facilitates vectorial translocation of metabolizable carbohydrates to form the corresponding sugar-phosphates, which are subsequently converted to glycolytic intermediates. The PTS consists of both sugar-specific and sugar-independent components. Complementation of an Escherichia coli mtlD mutation with a streptococcal recombinant DNA library allowed isolation of the mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (mtlD) and the adjacent sugar-specific mannitol factor III gene (mtlF) from S. mutans. Subsequent transposon mutagenesis of the complementing DNA fragment with Tn5seq1 defined the region that encodes the mtlD-complementing activity, the streptococcal mtlD gene. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this region revealed two complete open reading frames (ORFs) from within the streptococcal mannitol PTS operon. One ORF encodes the mtlD gene product, a 43.0-kDa protein which exhibits similarity to the E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenases. The second ORF encodes a 15.8-kDa protein which exhibits similarity to mannitol factor III proteins from several bacterial species. In vitro transcription-translation assays were used to produce proteins of the sizes predicted by the streptococcal ORFs. These data indicate that the S. mutans mannitol PTS utilizes an enzyme II-factor III complex similar to the mannitol system found in other gram-positive organisms, as opposed to that of E. coli, which utilizes an independent enzyme II system.

  5. Glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase mutations and haplotypes in various ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Westwood, B; Bartsocas, C S; Malcorra-Azpiazu, J J; Indrák, K; Beutler, E

    1995-01-01

    Mutations that produce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency have been identified in samples from patients with hemolytic disease in the United States, and in G6PD-deficient samples from Greece, the Canary Islands, the Czech and Slovak Republics, South China, and in samples from the Coriell Cell Repository. Eight new mutations are described. Particularly unusual were a nonsense mutation ("G6PD Georgia"1284A), a deletion of six bases ("G6PD Stony Brook" 724-729 del) coding for two amino acids, and a deletion of the invariant dinucleotide ApG at the 3' acceptor splice site in the highly conserved sequence between intron 10 and exon 11 ("G6PD Varnsdorf"). In addition, five new missense point mutations were identified: "G6PD Cleveland"820A creates a deduced AA 274 Glu-->Lys; "G6PD West Virginia"910T AA 303 Val-->Phe; "G6PD Fushan"1004A, AA 335 Ala-->Asp; "G6PD Olomouc"1141C AA 381 Leu-->Phe; and "G6PD Praha"1166G AA 389 Glu-->Gly. All of the new mutations except for "G6PD Fushan"1004A were found in patients with hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. A coincidental finding in the case of G6PD "West Virginia" was a C-->T transition at nucleotide 1,191. This silent mutation, Asn-->Asn, appears to be rare. Haplotype analysis of mutations in samples from the Canary Islands and South China agreed with previous findings.

  6. Strategies to control morphology in hybrid group III-V/group IV heterostructure nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillerich, Karla; Dick, Kimberly A; Wen, Cheng-Yen; Reuter, Mark C; Kodambaka, Suneel; Ross, Frances M

    2013-03-13

    By combining in situ and ex situ transmission electron microscopy measurements, we examine the factors that control the morphology of "hybrid" nanowires that include group III-V and group IV materials. We focus on one materials pair, GaP/Si, for which we use a wide range of growth parameters. We show through video imaging that nanowire morphology depends on growth conditions, but that a general pattern emerges where either single kinks or inclined defects form some distance after the heterointerface. We show that pure Si nanowires can be made to exhibit the same kinks and defects by changing their droplet volume. From this we derive a model where droplet geometry drives growth morphology and discuss optimization strategies. We finally discuss morphology control for material pairs where the second material kinks immediately at the heterointerface and show that an interlayer between segments can enable the growth of unkinked hybrid nanowires.

  7. Chloroplast group III twintron excision utilizing multiple 5'- and 3'-splice sites.

    OpenAIRE

    Copertino, D W; Shigeoka, S; Hallick, R B

    1992-01-01

    The chloroplast genes of Euglena gracilis contain more than 60 group II and 47 group III introns. Some Euglena chloroplast genes also contain twintrons, introns-within-introns. Two types of twintrons have previously been described, a group II twintron and a mixed group II/group III twintron. We report that four introns, three within the RNA polymerase subunit gene rpoC1 and one within ribosomal protein gene rpl16, with mean lengths twice typical group III introns, are a new type of twintron. ...

  8. Groups of galaxies. III. the CfA survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, M.J.; Huchra, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    We present a statistically homogeneous group catalog (CfA) based on the CfA redshift survey (Huchra et al.). Groups in the catalog are all density enhancements in redshift space of a factor greater than 20. Group members are identified according to the procedure described in our previous study (Huchra and Geller) of a shallower whole-sky sample. All groups contain at least three members. Of the 176 groups in the CfA catalog, 102 have been identified in one or more previous studies. Because our algorithm searches for volume rather than surface density enhancements, the groups in a given region generally change only through the addition of fainter members when the magnitude limit of the galaxy catalog increases. In the region of overlap, agreement between our shallow catalog and the CfA catalog is excellent

  9. Vertical group III-V nanowires on si, heterostructures, flexible arrays and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deli; Soci, Cesare; Bao, Xinyu; Wei, Wei; Jing, Yi; Sun, Ke

    2015-01-13

    Embodiments of the invention provide a method for direct heteroepitaxial growth of vertical III-V semiconductor nanowires on a silicon substrate. The silicon substrate is etched to substantially completely remove native oxide. It is promptly placed in a reaction chamber. The substrate is heated and maintained at a growth temperature. Group III-V precursors are flowed for a growth time. Preferred embodiment vertical Group III-V nanowires on silicon have a core-shell structure, which provides a radial homojunction or heterojunction. A doped nanowire core is surrounded by a shell with complementary doping. Such can provide high optical absorption due to the long optical path in the axial direction of the vertical nanowires, while reducing considerably the distance over which carriers must diffuse before being collected in the radial direction. Alloy composition can also be varied. Radial and axial homojunctions and heterojunctions can be realized. Embodiments provide for flexible Group III-V nanowire structures. An array of Group III-V nanowire structures is embedded in polymer. A fabrication method forms the vertical nanowires on a substrate, e.g., a silicon substrate. Preferably, the nanowires are formed by the preferred methods for fabrication of Group III-V nanowires on silicon. Devices can be formed with core/shell and core/multi-shell nanowires and the devices are released from the substrate upon which the nanowires were formed to create a flexible structure that includes an array of vertical nanowires embedded in polymer.

  10. Group-III vacancy induced InxGa1-xAs quantum dot interdiffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djie, H. S.; Wang, D.-N.; Ooi, B. S.; Hwang, J. C. M.; Gunawan, O.

    2006-01-01

    The impact of group-III vacancy diffusion, generated during dielectric cap induced intermixing, on the energy state transition and the inhomogeneity reduction in the InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot structure is investigated. We use a three-dimensional quantum-dot diffusion model and photoluminescence data to determine the thermal and the interdiffusion properties of the quantum dot. The band gap energy variation related to the dot uniformity is found to be dominantly affected by the height fluctuation. A group-III vacancies migration energy H m for InGaAs quantum dots of 1.7 eV was deduced. This result is similar to the value obtained from the bulk and GaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well materials confirming the role of SiO 2 capping enhanced group-III vacancy induced interdiffusion in the InGaAs quantum dots

  11. Interaction between alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption, and risk for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    St?rmer, T; Wang-Gohrke, S; Arndt, V; Boeing, H; Kong, X; Kreienberg, R; Brenner, H

    2002-01-01

    MaeIII Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in exon 3 of the alcohol dehydrogenase II was assessed in serum from 467 randomly selected German women and 278 women with invasive breast cancer to evaluate the interaction between a polymorphism of the alcohol dehydrogenase II gene, alcohol consumption and risk for breast cancer. In both groups, usual consumption of different alcoholic beverages was asked for using semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires. We used multivariable logistic ...

  12. Toxic and hazardous chemicals, Title III and communities: An outreach manual for community groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, C.; Arkin, E.B.; McCallum, D.

    1989-09-01

    The manual was prepared for State and local government officials, local emergency planning committee (LEPCs), and other community groups that want to make Title III work. It is intended as a practical guide for those who have little or no previous experience in the field of communication, whose time must be snatched from home and office, and whose resources are limited. The manual has three major sections: Part I discusses planning, which is vital to the success of a communication program; Part II suggests ways to get and keep people involved, especially important because Title III affects so many different sectors of the community; Part III, a how-to-do-it section, talks about specific tasks, such as giving a speech or writing a press release. Appendices include a detailed explanation of the law, a glossary, a list of recent studies related to Title III communications, a list of educational materials, and a list of State contacts

  13. Status of Growth of Group III-Nitride Heterostructures for Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Ding; Vitaliy Avrutin; Ümit Özgür; Hadis Morkoç

    2017-01-01

    We overview recent progress in growth aspects of group III-nitride heterostructures for deep ultraviolet (DUV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs), with particular emphasis on the growth approaches for attaining high-quality AlN and high Al-molar fraction AlGaN. The discussion commences with the introduction of the current status of group III-nitride DUV LEDs and the remaining challenges. This segues into discussion of LED designs enabling high device performance followed by the review of advances i...

  14. Candida orthopsilosis and Candida metapsilosis spp. nov. To Replace Candida parapsilosis Groups II and III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavanti, Arianna; Davidson, Amanda D.; Gow, Neil A. R.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; Odds, Frank C.

    2005-01-01

    Two new species, Candida orthopsilosis and C. metapsilosis, are proposed to replace the existing designations of C. parapsilosis groups II and III, respectively. The species C. parapsilosis is retained for group I isolates. Attempts to construct a multilocus sequence typing scheme to differentiate individual strains of C. parapsilosis instead revealed fixed DNA sequence differences between pairs of subgroups in four genes: COX3, L1A1, SADH, and SYA1. PCR amplicons for sequencing were obtained for these four plus a further seven genes from 21 group I isolates. For nine group II isolates, PCR products were obtained from only 5 of the 11 genes, and for two group III isolates PCR products were obtained from a different set of 5 genes. Three of the PCR products from group II and III isolates differed in size from the group I products. Cluster analysis of sequence polymorphisms from COX3, SADH, and SYA1, which were common to the three groups, consistently separated the isolates into three distinct sets. All of these differences, together with DNA sequence similarities <90% in the ITS1 sequence, suggest the subgroups should be afforded species status. The near absence of DNA sequence variability among isolates of C. parapsilosis and relatively high levels of sequence variability among isolates of C. orthopsilosis suggest that the former species may have evolved very recently from the latter. PMID:15634984

  15. New Insights into the genetic diversity of Clostridium botulinum Group III through extensive genome exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eWoudstra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Animal botulism is caused by group III Clostridium botulinum strains producing type C and D toxins, or their chimeric forms C/D and D/C. Animal botulism is considered an emerging disease in Europe, notably in poultry production. Before our study, 14 genomes from different countries were available in the public database, but none were from France. In order to investigate the genetic relationship of French strains with different geographical areas and find new potential typing targets, 17 strains of C. botulinum group III were sequenced (16 from France and one from New Caledonia. Fourteen were type C/D strains isolated from chickens, ducks, guinea fowl and turkeys and three were type D/C strains isolated from cattle. The New Caledonian strain was a type D/C strain. Whole genome sequence analysis showed the French strains to be closely related to European strains from C. botulinum group III lineages Ia and Ib. The investigation of CRISPR sequences as genetic targets for differentiating strains in group III proved to be irrelevant for type C/D due to a deficient CRISPR/Cas mechanism, but not for type D/C. Conversely, the extrachromosomal elements of type C/D strains could be used to generate a genetic ID card. The highest level of discrimination was achieved with SNP core phylogeny, which allowed differentiation up to strain level and provide the most relevant information for genetic epidemiology studies and discrimination.

  16. Physicochemical properties of aluminium alloys with elements of II and III groups of periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshov, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to establish the mechanism and regularities of changes of physicochemical properties of binary and multicomponent aluminium alloys with elements of II and III groups of periodic table as well as optimization and elaboration of new alloys.

  17. Controlling the emission wavelength in group III-V semiconductor laser diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-12-29

    Methods are provided for modifying the emission wavelength of a semiconductor quantum well laser diode, e.g. by blue shifting the emission wavelength. The methods can be applied to a variety of semiconductor quantum well laser diodes, e.g. group III-V semiconductor quantum wells. The group III-V semiconductor can include AlSb, AlAs, Aln, AlP, BN, GaSb, GaAs, GaN, GaP, InSb, InAs, InN, and InP, and group III-V ternary semiconductors alloys such as AlxGai.xAs. The methods can results in a blue shifting of about 20 meV to 350 meV, which can be used for example to make group III-V semiconductor quantum well laser diodes with an emission that is orange or yellow. Methods of making semiconductor quantum well laser diodes and semiconductor quantum well laser diodes made therefrom are also provided.

  18. Reorientation of the Methyl Group in MAs(III) is the Rate-Limiting Step in the ArsM As(III) S-Adenosylmethionine Methyltransferase Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packianathan, Charles; Li, Jiaojiao; Kandavelu, Palani; Sankaran, Banumathi; Rosen, Barry P

    2018-03-01

    The most common biotransformation of trivalent inorganic arsenic (As(III)) is methylation to mono-, di-, and trimethylated species. Methylation is catalyzed by As(III) S -adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferase (termed ArsM in microbes and AS3MT in animals). Methylarsenite (MAs(III)) is both the product of the first methylation step and the substrate of the second methylation step. When the rate of the overall methylation reaction was determined with As(III) as the substrate, the first methylation step was rapid, whereas the second methylation step was slow. In contrast, when MAs(III) was used as the substrate, the rate of methylation was as fast as the first methylation step when As(III) was used as the substrate. These results indicate that there is a slow conformational change between the first and second methylation steps. The structure of CmArsM from the thermophilic alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae sp. 5508 was determined with bound MAs(III) at 2.27 Å resolution. The methyl group is facing the solvent, as would be expected when MAs(III) is bound as the substrate rather than facing the SAM-binding site, as would be expected for MAs(III) as a product. We propose that the rate-limiting step in arsenic methylation is slow reorientation of the methyl group from the SAM-binding site to the solvent, which is linked to the conformation of the side chain of a conserved residue Tyr70.

  19. WMS-III performance in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: group differences and individual classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, N; Strauss, E; Chelune, G J; Loring, D W; Martin, R C; Hermann, B P; Sherman, E; Hunter, M

    2001-11-01

    The utility of the WMS-III in detecting lateralized impairment was examined in a large sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods of analysis included evaluation of group means on the various indexes and subtest scores, the use of ROC curves, and an examination of Auditory-Visual Index discrepancy scores. In addition, performance on immediate and delayed indexes in the auditory and the visual modality was compared within each group. Of the WMS-III scores, the Auditory-Visual Delayed Index difference score appeared most sensitive to side of temporal dysfunction, although patient classification rates were not within an acceptable range to have clinical utility. The ability to predict laterality based on statistically significant index score differences was particularly weak for those with left temporal dysfunction. The use of unusually large discrepancies led to improved prediction, however, the rarity of such scores in this population limits their usefulness. Although the utility of the WMS-III in detecting laterality may be limited in preoperative cases, the WMS-III may still hold considerable promise as a measure of memory in documenting baseline performance and in detecting those that may be at risk following surgery.

  20. Diversity of the Germination Apparatus in Clostridium botulinum Groups I, II, III and IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Brunt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium botulinum is a highly dangerous pathogen that forms very resistant endospores that are ubiquitous in the environment, and which, under favourable conditions germinate to produce vegetative cells that multiply and form the exceptionally potent botulinum neurotoxin. To improve the control of botulinum neurotoxin-forming clostridia, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in spore germination. Here we present models for spore germination in C. botulinum based on comparative genomics analyses, with C. botulinum Groups I and III sharing similar pathways, which differ from those proposed for C. botulinum Groups II and IV. All spores germinate in response to amino acids interacting with a germinant receptor, with four types of germinant receptor identified (encoded by various combinations of gerA, gerB and gerC genes (gerX. There are three gene clusters with an ABC-like configuration; ABC gerX1, ABABCB gerX2 and ACxBBB gerX4, and a single CA-B gerX3 gene cluster. Subtypes have been identified for most germinant receptors types, and the individual GerX subunits of each cluster show similar grouping in phylogenetic trees. C. botulinum Group I contained the largest variety of gerX subtypes, with three gerX1, three gerX2 and one gerX3 subtypes, while C. botulinum Group III contained two gerX1 types and one gerX4. C. botulinum Groups II and IV contained a single germinant receptor, gerX3 and gerX1, respectively. It is likely that all four C. botulinum Groups include a SpoVA channel involved in DPA release. The cortex lytic enzymes present in C. botulinum Groups I and III appear to be CwlJ and SleB, while in C. botulinum Groups II and IV, SleC appears to be important.

  1. Effects of the Trifluoromethyl Group on the Emission Efficiency of Red Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seo Yun; Shin, Dong Myung

    2018-07-01

    In this work, three novel phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes, namely (PT-TFP)2Ir(tmd), (PT-P)2Ir(tmd), and (MN-TFP)2Ir(tmd), were synthesized. All three complexes were phosphorescent red-emitting diode materials. The main ligands were synthesized by the Suzuki coupling reaction, and comprised an electron donor and an electron acceptor group. Subsequently, the iridium(III) complexes were synthesized by the Nonoyama reaction and their photochemical luminescence properties were investigated by ultraviolet-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The manufactured devices were characterized by current density-voltage-luminance, power efficiency, external quantum efficiency, as well as their electroluminescence spectra. Finally, the effects of the trifluoromethyl group on the emission efficiency of the organic light-emitting diodes were investigated by comparing the energy levels and luminescence efficiency of the three iridium complexes.

  2. International Working Group on Past Reactors Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Summary Report. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 9 to 11 April 1980. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programme in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  3. Binary group III-nitride based heterostructures: band offsets and transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roul, Basanta; Kumar, Mahesh; Rajpalke, Mohana K.; Bhat, Thirumaleshwara N.; Krupanidhi, S. B.

    2015-10-01

    In the last few years, there has been remarkable progress in the development of group III-nitride based materials because of their potential application in fabricating various optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes, laser diodes, tandem solar cells and field effect transistors. In order to realize these devices, growth of device quality heterostructures are required. One of the most interesting properties of a semiconductor heterostructure interface is its Schottky barrier height, which is a measure of the mismatch of the energy levels for the majority carriers across the heterojunction interface. Recently, the growth of non-polar III-nitrides has been an important subject due to its potential improvement on the efficiency of III-nitride-based opto-electronic devices. It is well known that the c-axis oriented optoelectronic devices are strongly affected by the intrinsic spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization fields, which results in the low electron-hole recombination efficiency. One of the useful approaches for eliminating the piezoelectric polarization effects is to fabricate nitride-based devices along non-polar and semi-polar directions. Heterostructures grown on these orientations are receiving a lot of focus due to enhanced behaviour. In the present review article discussion has been carried out on the growth of III-nitride binary alloys and properties of GaN/Si, InN/Si, polar InN/GaN, and nonpolar InN/GaN heterostructures followed by studies on band offsets of III-nitride semiconductor heterostructures using the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy technique. Current transport mechanisms of these heterostructures are also discussed.

  4. Intramolecular electron transfer through a bridging carboxylate group coordinated to two cobalt(III)-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieghardt, K.

    1978-01-01

    Reduction of the binuclear μ-p-nitrobenzoato -di-μ-hydroxo -bis[triammine cobalt(III)] cation with (CH 3 ) 2 COH radicals yields a radical cation with the p-nitrobenzoato radical being coordinated to two cobalt(III) ions at the carboxylic group. The unprotonated form of this species undergoes intramolecular electron transfer producing Co(II) (k = (3.3 +- 0.3). x 10 3 s -1 ). The role of the carboxylate group in the intramolecular electron transfer process is tentatively assessed in terms of an intramolecular outer-sphere reaction because of lack of overlap of the donor orbitals (π) and the acceptor orbital (sigma). The protonated form of the radical cation (pKsub(a) = 2.5) disproportionates via a bimolecular process without production of Co(II). The effect of two coordinated Co(III) ions as compared to only one on the properties of the nitrobenzoate radical anion are discussed. (orig.) 891 HK 892 GM [de

  5. Reactions of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Sulfhydryl Groups with bis-Electrophiles Produce DNA-Protein Crosslinks but Not Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loecken, Elisabeth M.; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2014-01-01

    The environmental contaminant 1,2-dibromoethane and diepoxybutane, an oxidation product of the important industrial chemical butadiene, are bis-functional electrophiles and known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic. One mechanism by which bis-electrophiles can exert their toxic effects is through the induction of genotoxic and mutagenic DNA–peptide crosslinks. This mechanism has been shown in systems overexpressing the DNA repair protein O6-alkylguanine DNA-alkyltransferase (AGT) or glutathione S-transferase and involves reactions with nucleophilic cysteine residues. The hypothesis that DNA-protein crosslink formation is a more general mechanism for genotoxicity by bis-electrophiles was investigated by screening nuclear proteins for reactivity with model monofunctional electrophiles. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was identified as a candidate due to the nucleophilicity of two cysteine residues (Cys152 and Cys246) in reaction screens with model electrophiles (Dennehy, M. K. et al. (2006) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 19, 20–29). Incubation of GAPDH with bis-electrophiles resulted in inhibition of its catalytic activity, but only at high concentrations of diepoxybutane. In vitro assays indicated DNA-GAPDH crosslink formation in the presence of diepoxybutane, and bis-electrophile reactivity at Cys246 was confirmed using mass spectral analysis. In contrast to AGT, overexpression of human GAPDH in Escherichia coli did not enhance mutagenesis by diepoxybutane. We propose that the lack of mutational enhancement is in part due to the inherently lower reactivity of GAPDH toward bis-electrophiles as well as the reduced DNA binding ability relative to AGT, preventing the in vivo formation of DNA-protein crosslinks and enhanced mutagenesis. PMID:18163542

  6. Environmentally-relevant concentrations of Al(III) and Fe(III) cations induce aggregation of free DNA by complexation with phosphate group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao; Kang, Fuxing; Zhang, Wei; Shou, Weijun; Hu, Xiaojie; Gao, Yanzheng

    2017-10-15

    Environmental persistence of free DNA is influenced by its complexation with other chemical species and its aggregation mechanisms. However, it is not well-known how naturally-abundant metal ions, e.g., Al(III) and Fe(III), influence DNA aggregation. This study investigated aggregation behaviors of model DNA from salmon testes as influenced by metal cations, and elucidated the predominant mechanism responsible for DNA aggregation. Compared to monovalent (K + and Na + ) and divalent (Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ ) cations, Al(III) and Fe(III) species in aqueous solution caused rapid DNA aggregations. The maximal DNA aggregation occurred at 0.05 mmol/L Al(III) or 0.075 mmol/L Fe(III), respectively. A combination of atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that Al(III) and Fe(III) complexed with negatively charged phosphate groups to neutralize DNA charges, resulting in decreased electrostatic repulsion and subsequent DNA aggregation. Zeta potential measurements and molecular computation further support this mechanism. Furthermore, DNA aggregation was enhanced at higher temperature and near neutral pH. Therefore, DNA aggregation is collectively determined by many environmental factors such as ion species, temperature, and solution pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When group-III nitrides go infrared: New properties and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Junqiao

    2009-07-01

    Wide-band-gap GaN and Ga-rich InGaN alloys, with energy gaps covering the blue and near-ultraviolet parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, are one group of the dominant materials for solid state lighting and lasing technologies and consequently, have been studied very well. Much less effort has been devoted to InN and In-rich InGaN alloys. A major breakthrough in 2002, stemming from much improved quality of InN films grown using molecular beam epitaxy, resulted in the bandgap of InN being revised from 1.9 eV to a much narrower value of 0.64 eV. This finding triggered a worldwide research thrust into the area of narrow-band-gap group-III nitrides. The low value of the InN bandgap provides a basis for a consistent description of the electronic structure of InGaN and InAlN alloys with all compositions. It extends the fundamental bandgap of the group III-nitride alloy system over a wider spectral region, ranging from the near infrared at ˜1.9 μm (0.64 eV for InN) to the ultraviolet at ˜0.36 μm (3.4 eV for GaN) or 0.2 μm (6.2 eV for AlN). The continuous range of bandgap energies now spans the near infrared, raising the possibility of new applications for group-III nitrides. In this article we present a detailed review of the physical properties of InN and related group III-nitride semiconductors. The electronic structure, carrier dynamics, optical transitions, defect physics, doping disparity, surface effects, and phonon structure will be discussed in the context of the InN bandgap re-evaluation. We will then describe the progress, perspectives, and challenges in the developments of new electronic and optoelectronic devices based on InGaN alloys. Advances in characterization and understanding of InN and InGaN nanostructures will also be reviewed in comparison to their thin film counterparts.

  8. Group III-V Bismide Materials Grown by Liquid Phase Epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Sunanda

    Bi containing III-V compound semiconductors have become important in the last few years for many potential device applications. Molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy techniques have mostly been used for the growth of these compounds. We review here the application of the simple liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) technique for the growth of some members of the III-V-Bi series. Due to the restrictions of limited solubility of Bi in III-V solids, use of LPE has so far been limited to the growth of InSbBi and GaSbBi. We describe here details of the growth procedure and the characterization of these two ternaries by different groups with special emphasis on the structural, luminescence, and band gap reduction properties. Theoretical model based on diffusion of Bi across an LPE growth model is described with a view to optimize the growth parameters. Reference is also made to the melt growth of bulk crystals of these compounds and to the LPE growth of InPBi and InAsSbBi epitaxial layers.

  9. A model of high-affinity antibody binding to type III group B Streptococcus capsular polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, M R; Muñoz, A; Kasper, D L

    1987-12-01

    We recently reported that the single repeating-unit pentasaccharide of type III group B Streptococcus (GBS) capsular polysaccharide is only weakly reactive with type III GBS antiserum. To further elucidate the relationship between antigen-chain length and antigenicity, tritiated oligosaccharides derived from type III capsular polysaccharide were used to generate detailed saturation binding curves with a fixed concentration of rabbit antiserum in a radioactive antigen-binding assay. A graded increase in affinity of antigen-antibody binding was seen as oligosaccharide size increased from 2.6 repeating units to 92 repeating units. These differences in affinity of antibody binding to oligosaccharides of different molecular size were confirmed by immunoprecipitation and competitive ELISA, two independent assays of antigen-antibody binding. Analysis of the saturation binding experiment indicated a difference of 300-fold in antibody-binding affinity for the largest versus the smallest tested oligosaccharides. Unexpectedly, the saturation binding values approached by the individual curves were inversely related to oligosaccharide chain length on a molar basis but equivalent on a weight basis. This observation is compatible with a model in which binding of an immunoglobulin molecule to an antigenic site on the polysaccharide facilitates subsequent binding of antibody to that antigen.

  10. Utility of DSM-5 section III personality traits in differentiating borderline personality disorder from comparison groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, B; Sellbom, M; Bo, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent diagnosis in mental health care and includes a heterogeneous constellation of symptoms. As the field of personality disorder (PD) research moves to emphasize dimensional traits in its operationalization, it is important...... to determine how the alternative DSM-5 Section III personality trait dimensions differentiates such features in BPD patients versus comparison groups. To date, no study has attempted such validation. METHOD: The current study examined the utility of the DSM-5 trait dimensions in differentiating patients...

  11. Validation of Resource Utilization Groups version III for Home Care (RUG-III/HC): evidence from a Canadian home care jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Jeffrey W; Hirdes, John P; Fries, Brant E; McKillop, Ian; Chase, Mary

    2008-04-01

    The case-mix system Resource Utilization Groups version III for Home Care (RUG-III/HC) was derived using a modest data sample from Michigan, but to date no comprehensive large scale validation has been done. This work examines the performance of the RUG-III/HC classification using a large sample from Ontario, Canada. Cost episodes over a 13-week period were aggregated from individual level client billing records and matched to assessment information collected using the Resident Assessment Instrument for Home Care, from which classification rules for RUG-III/HC are drawn. The dependent variable, service cost, was constructed using formal services plus informal care valued at approximately one-half that of a replacement worker. An analytic dataset of 29,921 episodes showed a skewed distribution with over 56% of cases falling into the lowest hierarchical level, reduced physical functions. Case-mix index values for formal and informal cost showed very close similarities to those found in the Michigan derivation. Explained variance for a function of combined formal and informal cost was 37.3% (20.5% for formal cost alone), with personal support services as well as informal care showing the strongest fit to the RUG-III/HC classification. RUG-III/HC validates well compared with the Michigan derivation work. Potential enhancements to the present classification should consider the large numbers of undifferentiated cases in the reduced physical function group, and the low explained variance for professional disciplines.

  12. Point defects and composition in hexagonal group-III nitride monolayers: A first-principles calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Han; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Yunzhen; Liu, Yumin; Li, Yinfeng

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we systematically investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal group-III nitride monolayers with point defects and alloying on the basis of first-principles calculations. Six typical point defects including three vacancies and three antisites are modeled in pure AlN, GaN and InN monolayers. The defect-induced modifications of band gaps and magnetic properties are demonstrated. The vacancy of nitrogen, with lowest formation energy, metalizes the semiconducting nitride monolayers. The defects losing single group-III atom introduce net magnetic moment to the systems, while others maintain non-magnetic. For ordered alloy monolayers, the AlGaN and InGaN systems are taken into consideration. The compositional variation is achieved by atomic substitution in supercells with different sizes. We find that the lattice constant and cohesive energy follow good linear relation with concentration while a slight bowing effect is observed for the band gap. These results provide a development in defective and alloy nitride monolayers and extend the potential applications.

  13. Cycloadditions to Epoxides Catalyzed by GroupIII-V Transition-Metal Complexes

    KAUST Repository

    D'Elia, Valerio

    2015-05-25

    Complexes of groupIII-V transition metals are gaining increasing importance as Lewis acid catalysts for the cycloaddition of dipolarophiles to epoxides. This review examines the latest reports, including homogeneous and heterogeneous applications. The pivotal step for the cycloaddition reactions is the ring opening of the epoxide following activation by the Lewis acid. Two modes of cleavage (C-C versus C-O) have been identified depending primarily on the substitution pattern of the epoxide, with lesser influence observed from the Lewis acid employed. The widely studied cycloaddition of CO2 to epoxides to afford cyclic carbonates (C-O bond cleavage) has been scrutinized in terms of catalytic efficiency and reaction mechanism, showing that unsophisticated complexes of groupIII-V transition metals are excellent molecular catalysts. These metals have been incorporated, as well, in highly performing, recyclable heterogeneous catalysts. Cycloadditions to epoxides with other dipolarophiles (alkynes, imines, indoles) have been conducted with scandium triflate with remarkable performances (C-C bond cleavage). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Status of Growth of Group III-Nitride Heterostructures for Deep Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We overview recent progress in growth aspects of group III-nitride heterostructures for deep ultraviolet (DUV light-emitting diodes (LEDs, with particular emphasis on the growth approaches for attaining high-quality AlN and high Al-molar fraction AlGaN. The discussion commences with the introduction of the current status of group III-nitride DUV LEDs and the remaining challenges. This segues into discussion of LED designs enabling high device performance followed by the review of advances in the methods for the growth of bulk single crystal AlN intended as a native substrate together with a discussion of its UV transparency. It should be stated, however, that due to the high-cost of bulk AlN substrates at the time of writing, the growth of DUV LEDs on foreign substrates such as sapphire still dominates the field. On the deposition front, the heteroepitaxial growth approaches incorporate high-temperature metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD and pulsed-flow growth, a variant of MOCVD, with the overarching goal of enhancing adatom surface mobility, and thus epitaxial lateral overgrowth which culminates in minimization the effect of lattice- and thermal-mismatches. This is followed by addressing the benefits of pseudomorphic growth of strained high Al-molar fraction AlGaN on AlN. Finally, methods utilized to enhance both p- and n-type conductivity of high Al-molar fraction AlGaN are reviewed.

  15. Multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green for detection and typing of group III Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Delibato, Elisabetta; Antonacci, Monia; De Medici, Dario; Fenicia, Lucia

    2012-01-27

    Clostridium botulinum type C and type D belonging to the group III organisms, are mainly responsible for animal botulism outbreaks. Clinical signs alone are often insufficient to make a diagnosis of botulism and a laboratory confirmation is required. Laboratory confirmation can be performed by demonstrating the presence of botulinum neurotoxins in serum, gastrointestinal contents, liver, wound of sick or dead animals, or by demonstrating the presence of C. botulinum in gastrointestinal contents, liver, and wound. Demonstration of spores in gastrointestinal contents or tissue of animals with clinical signs indicative of botulism reinforces the clinical diagnosis. With the aim of detecting and typing C. botulinum group III organisms, a multiplex real-time PCR SYBR Green was developed and in-house validated. Selectivity, limit of detection, relative accuracy, relative specificity, relative sensitivity, and repeatability of the method were investigated. The multiplex real-time PCR SYBR green used showed a 100% selectivity, 100% relative accuracy, 100% relative specificity, 100% relative sensitivity and a limit of detection of 277 and 580 DNA copies for C. botulinum type C and C. botulinum type D, respectively. The method reported here represents a suitable tool for laboratory diagnosis of type C and D botulism and for testing a large number of samples collected during the animal botulism surveillance and prevention activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioenergetics and ATP Synthesis during Exercise: Role of Group III/IV Muscle Afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxterman, Ryan M; Layec, Gwenael; Hureau, Thomas J; Morgan, David E; Bledsoe, Amber D; Jessop, Jacob E; Amann, Markus; Richardson, Russell S

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the group III/IV muscle afferents in the bioenergetics of exercising skeletal muscle beyond constraining the magnitude of metabolic perturbation. Eight healthy men performed intermittent isometric knee-extensor exercise to task failure at ~58% maximal voluntary contraction under control conditions (CTRL) and with lumbar intrathecal fentanyl to attenuate group III/IV leg muscle afferents (FENT). Intramuscular concentrations of phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and pH were determined using phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-MRS). The magnitude of metabolic perturbation was significantly greater in FENT compared with CTRL for [Pi] (37.8 ± 16.8 vs 28.6 ± 8.6 mM), [H2PO4] (24.3 ± 12.2 vs 17.9 ± 7.1 mM), and [ATP] (75.8% ± 17.5% vs 81.9% ± 15.8% of baseline), whereas there was no significant difference in [PCr] (4.5 ± 2.4 vs 4.4 ± 2.3 mM) or pH (6.51 ± 0.10 vs 6.54 ± 0.14). The rate of perturbation in [PCr], [Pi], [H2PO4], and pH was significantly faster in FENT compared with CTRL. Oxidative ATP synthesis was not significantly different between conditions. However, anaerobic ATP synthesis, through augmented creatine kinase and glycolysis reactions, was significantly greater in FENT than in CTRL, resulting in a significantly greater ATP cost of contraction (0.049 ± 0.016 vs 0.038 ± 0.010 mM·min·N). Group III/IV muscle afferents not only constrain the magnitude of perturbation in intramuscular Pi, H2PO4, and ATP during small muscle mass exercise but also seem to play a role in maintaining efficient skeletal muscle contractile function in men.

  17. Utility of DSM-5 section III personality traits in differentiating borderline personality disorder from comparison groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, B; Sellbom, M; Bo, S; Simonsen, E

    2016-09-01

    Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a highly prevalent diagnosis in mental health care and includes a heterogeneous constellation of symptoms. As the field of personality disorder (PD) research moves to emphasize dimensional traits in its operationalization, it is important to determine how the alternative DSM-5 Section III personality trait dimensions differentiates such features in BPD patients versus comparison groups. To date, no study has attempted such validation. The current study examined the utility of the DSM-5 trait dimensions in differentiating patients with the categorical DSM-IV/5 diagnosis of BPD (n=101) from systematically matched samples of other PD patients (n=101) and healthy controls (n=101). This was investigated using one-way ANOVA and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results indicated that Emotional Lability, Risk Taking, and Suspiciousness uniquely differentiated BPD patients from other PD patients, whereas Emotional Lability, Depressivity, and Suspiciousness uniquely differentiated BPD patients from healthy controls. Emotional Lability is in particular a key BPD feature of the proposed Section III model, whereas Suspiciousness also augments essential BPD features. Provided that these findings are replicated cross-culturally in forthcoming research, a more parsimonious traits operationalization of BPD features is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure of a protective epitope of group BStreptococcustype III capsular polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Filippo; Adamo, Roberto; Fabbrini, Monica; De Ricco, Riccardo; Cattaneo, Vittorio; Brogioni, Barbara; Veggi, Daniele; Pinto, Vittoria; Passalacqua, Irene; Oldrini, Davide; Rappuoli, Rino; Malito, Enrico; Margarit, Immaculada Y Ros; Berti, Francesco

    2017-05-09

    Despite substantial progress in the prevention of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease with the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, this pathogen remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. Capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccines have been tested in phase I/II clinical studies, showing promise for further development. Mapping of epitopes recognized by protective antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanism of action of vaccines and for enabling antigen design. In this study, we report the structure of the epitope recognized by a monoclonal antibody with opsonophagocytic activity and representative of the protective response against type III GBS polysaccharide. The structure and the atomic-level interactions were determined by saturation transfer difference (STD)-NMR and X-ray crystallography using oligosaccharides obtained by synthetic and depolymerization procedures. The GBS PSIII epitope is made by six sugars. Four of them derive from two adjacent repeating units of the PSIII backbone and two of them from the branched galactose-sialic acid disaccharide contained in this sequence. The sialic acid residue establishes direct binding interactions with the functional antibody. The crystal structure provides insight into the molecular basis of antibody-carbohydrate interactions and confirms that the conformational epitope is not required for antigen recognition. Understanding the structural basis of immune recognition of capsular polysaccharide epitopes can aid in the design of novel glycoconjugate vaccines.

  19. 2D lateral heterostructures of group-III monochalcogenide: Potential photovoltaic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Guo, Yu; Han, Nannan; Jiang, Xue; Zhang, Junfeng; Ahuja, Rajeev; Su, Yan; Zhao, Jijun

    2018-04-01

    Solar photovoltaics provides a practical and sustainable solution to the increasing global energy demand. Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the energetics and electronic properties of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures by group-III monochalcogenides and explore their potential applications in photovoltaics. The band structures and formation energies from supercell calculations demonstrate that these heterostructures retain semiconducting behavior and might be synthesized in laboratory using the chemical vapor deposition technique. According to the computed band offsets, most of the heterojunctions belong to type II band alignment, which can prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Besides, the electronic properties of these lateral heterostructures can be effectively tailored by the number of layers, leading to a high theoretical power conversion efficiency over 20%.

  20. Metal halide-group III halide gas complexes with emphasis on aluminum chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeye, H.A.; Gruen, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    The thermodynamics of the presently known gas complexation reactions between metal halides and group III halides are treated in a self-consistent manner. By focusing on aluminum chloride as a complexing agent, certain systematic trends are revealed. The partial pressures of the gaseous complexes display shallow minima near 800 0 K whenever the complex molecules involve more than one molecule of AlCl 3 . Increasing the aluminum chloride pressure from 1 atm. to 10 3 atm. decreases somewhat the differences in the partial pressures among the various gaseous complexes which span two to three orders of magnitude. The methods developed for characterizing the complexes, and their structures as well as some applications of gas complexation are discussed

  1. Progress in efficient doping of high aluminum-containing group III-nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y.-H.; Towe, E.

    2018-03-01

    The group III-nitride (InN, GaN, and AlN) class of semiconductors has become one of two that are critical to a number of technologies in modern life—the other being silicon. Light-emitting diodes made from (In,Ga)N, for example, dominate recent innovations in general illumination and signaling. Even though the (In,Ga)N materials system is fairly well established and widely used in advanced devices, challenges continue to impede development of devices that include aluminum-containing nitride films such as (Al,Ga)N. The main difficulty is efficient doping of films with aluminum-rich compositions; the problem is particularly severe for p-type doping, which is essential for Ohmic contacts to bipolar device structures. This review briefly summarizes the fundamental issues related to p-type doping, and then discusses a number of approaches that are being pursued to resolve the doping problem or for circumventing the need for p-type doping. Finally, we discuss an approach to doping under liquid-metal-enabled growth by molecular beam epitaxy. Recent results from a number of groups appear to indicate that p-type doping of nitride films under liquid-metal-enabled growth conditions might offer a solution to the doping problem—at least for materials grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

  2. A role for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    -phosphate dehydrogenase activity in male rats. Twelve (12) male rats were divided into two groups of six (6) rats each. Group 1 rats were control rats which received normal saline while group 2 rats were treated with.

  3. Bulk Group-III Nitride Crystal Growth in Supercritical Ammonia-Sodium Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Steven Herbert

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its alloys with indium nitride (InGaN) and aluminum nitride (AlGaN), collectively referred to as Group-III Nitride semiconductors, have enabled white solid-state lighting (SSL) sources and power electronic devices. While these technologies have already made a lasting, positive impact on society, improvements in design and efficiency are anticipated by shifting from heteroepitaxial growth on foreign substrates (such as sapphire, Si, SiC, etc.) to homoepitaxial growth on native, bulk GaN substrates. Bulk GaN has not supplanted foreign substrate materials due to the extreme conditions required to achieve a stoichiometric GaN melt (temperatures and pressures in excess of 2200°C and 6 GPa, respectively). The only method used to produce bulk GaN on an industrial scale is hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), but the high cost of gaseous precursors and relatively poor crystal quality have limited the adoption of this technology. A solution growth technique known as the ammonothermal method has attracted interest from academia and industry alike for its ability to produce bulk GaN boules of exceedingly high crystal quality. The ammonothermal method employs supercritical ammonia (NH3) solutions to dissolve, transport, and crystallize GaN. However, ammonothermal growth pressures are still relatively high (˜200 MPa), which has thus far prevented the acquisition of fundamental crystal growth knowledge needed to efficiently (i.e. through data-driven approaches) advance the field. This dissertation focused on addressing the gaps in the literature through two studies employing in situ fluid temperature analysis. The first study focused on identifying the solubility of GaN in supercritical NH3-Na solutions. The design and utilization of in situ and ex situ monitoring equipment enabled the first reports of the two-phase nature of supercritical NH3-Na solutions, and of Ga-alloying of Ni-containing autoclave components. The effects of these error sources on

  4. Molucular gene profiling of Clostridium botulinum group III and their detection in naturally contaminated samples originating from various European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, C.; LeMarechal, C.; Souillard, R.; Bäyon-Auboyer, M.H.; Anniballi, F.; Auricchio, B.; Medici, De D.; Bano, L.; Koene, M.G.J.; Sansonetti, M.H.; Hansbauer, E.M.; Desoutter, D.; Dorner, M.B.; Fach, P.; Dorner, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    We report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping Clostridium botulinum group III targeting the newly defined C. novyi sensu lato group; the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNH)-encoding gene ntnh; the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-encoding genes bont/C, bont/C/D, bont/D, and bont/D/C; and

  5. Competitive inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Rajarshi; Punekar, Narayan S

    2007-06-12

    Irrespective of their pyridine nucleotide specificity, all glutamate dehydrogenases share a common chemical mechanism that involves an enzyme bound 'iminoglutarate' intermediate. Three compounds, structurally related to this intermediate, were tested for the inhibition of purified NADP-glutamate dehydrogenases from two Aspergilli, as also the bovine liver NAD(P)-glutamate dehydrogenase. 2-Methyleneglutarate, closely resembling iminoglutarate, was a potent competitive inhibitor of the glutamate dehydrogenase reaction. This is the first report of a non-aromatic structure with a better glutamate dehydrogenase inhibitory potency than aryl carboxylic acids such as isophthalate. A suitably located 2-methylene group to mimic the iminium ion could be exploited to design inhibitors of other amino acid dehydrogenases.

  6. Expression of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the reproductive system of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marcin; Chruścicka, Barbara; Lech, Tomasz; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Although the presence of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the central nervous system is well documented, they have recently been found in peripheral and non-neuronal tissues. In the present study we investigated the expression of group III mGlu receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 (but not mGlu4) receptor transcripts in testes and epididymides from adult mice. In addition, expression of mGlu6 (Grm6) and mGlu8 receptor (Grm8) mRNA was detected in spermatozoa isolated from the vas deferens. The vas deferens was found to contain only mGlu7 receptor (Grm7) mRNA, which was particularly intense in 21-day-old male mice. In penile homogenates, only the mGlu7 receptor signal was detected. Genetic ablation of the mGlu7 receptor in males led to fertility disorders manifested by decreased insemination capability as well as deterioration of sperm parameters, particularly sperm motility, vitality, sperm membrane integrity and morphology, with a simultaneous increase in sperm concentration. These results indicate that constitutively expressed mGlu receptors in the male reproductive system may play an important role in ejaculation and/or erection processes, as well as in the formation and maturation of spermatozoa.

  7. Lattice site location of impurities in group III nitrides using emission channeling

    CERN Document Server

    De Vries, Bart; Wahl, Ulrich

    The group III nitrides comprise the semiconducting materials InN, GaN, AlN and their ternary alloys. During the last decade, GaN has attracted widespread attention due to its large band gap and hardness. These properties, combined with the fact that its band gap can be adjusted by alloying it with InN and AlN, make GaN a suitable material for the fabrication of optical components that operate in the blue to ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and for microwave and high-power applications. Indeed, during the last couple of years, GaN-based blue and violet light-emitting devices (LEDs) and laser diodes have been realized and commercialized: the violet laser diodes will even be the keystone to the next generation of optical data storage standards, Blu-ray and HD-DVD. \\\\ \\\\ A key aspect in device production is the incorporation of dopants that can alter the electronic, magnetic or optical properties of the host material. For example, Si is often used to generate n-type GaN, while Mg is the most fr...

  8. Sensitization of group III and IV muscle afferents in mouse after ischemia and reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jessica L.; Queme, Luis F.; Shank, Aaron T.; Hudgins, Renita C.; Jankowski, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic myalgia is a unique type of muscle pain in the patient population. The role that discrete muscle afferent subpopulations play in the generation of pain during ischemic events, however, has yet to be determined. Using two brachial artery occlusion models to compare prolonged ischemia or transient ischemia with reperfusion of the muscles, we found that both injuries caused behavioral decrements in grip strength, as well as increased spontaneous pain behaviors. Using our ex vivo forepaw muscles, median and ulnar nerves, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and spinal cord recording preparation, we found after both prolonged and transient ischemia, that there was a significant increase in the number of afferents that responded to both noxious and non-noxious36 chemical (lactate, ATP, varying pH) stimulation of the muscles compared to uninjured controls. However, we found an increase in firing to heat stimuli specifically in muscle afferents during prolonged ischemia, but a distinct increase in afferent firing to non-noxious chemicals and decreased mechanical thresholds after transient ischemia. The unique changes in afferent function observed also corresponded with distinct patterns of gene expression in the DRGs. Thus the development of ischemic myalgia may be generated by unique afferent based mechanisms during prolonged and transient ischemia. Perspective This study analyzes the response properties of thinly myelinated group III and unmyelinated group IV muscle afferents during prolonged and transient ischemia in addition to pain behaviors and alterations in DRG gene expression in mouse. Results suggest that mechanisms of pain generation during prolonged ischemia may be different from ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25245401

  9. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  10. Growth and characterisation of group-III nitride-based nanowires for devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijers, R.J.

    2007-08-30

    One of the main goals of this thesis was to get more insight into the mechanisms driving the growth of nitride nanowires by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE). The influence of the group-III and group-V flux as well as the substrate temperature T{sub sub} has been studied leading to the conclusion that the III-V ratio determines the growth mode. Ga desorption limits the temperature range to grow GaN nanowires and dissociation of InN is the limiting factor for InN nanowire growth. A reduction of the surface diffusivity on polar surfaces under N-rich conditions explains the anisotropic growth. Growth kinetics of the nanowires show that there are two important contributions to the growth. The first is growth by direct impingement and its contribution is independent of the nanowire diameter. The second contribution comes from atoms, which absorb on the substrate or wire sidewalls and diffuse along the sidewalls to the top of the wire, which acts as an effective sink for the adatoms due to a reduced surface mobility on the polar top of the wires. This diffusion channel, which is enhanced at higher T{sub sub}, becomes more significant for smaller wire diameters, because its contribution scales like 1/d. Experiments with an interruption of the growth and sharp interfaces in TEM images of heterostructures show that the suggestion in literature of a droplet-mediated PA-MBE nitride growth has to be discarded. Despite a thin amorphous silicon nitride wetting layer on the substrate surface, both GaN and InN nanowires grow in the wurtzite structure and epitaxially in a one-to-one relation to the Si(111) substrate surface. There is no evidence for cubic phases. TEM images and optical studies display a high crystalline and optical quality of GaN and InN nanowires. The substrate induces some strain in the bottom part of the nanowires, especially in InN due to the lower T{sub sub} than for GaN, which is released without the formation of dislocations. Only some stacking

  11. Determination of polarization fields in group III-nitride heterostructures by capacitance-voltage-measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rychetsky, Monir, E-mail: monir.rychetsky@physik.tu-berlin.de; Avinc, Baran; Wernicke, Tim; Bellmann, Konrad; Sulmoni, Luca [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Koslow, Ingrid; Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael [Institute of Solid State Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Hoffmann, Veit; Weyers, Markus [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Berlin (Germany); Wild, Johannes; Zweck, Josef [Fakultät für Physik, University of Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Witzigmann, Bernd [Computational Electronics and Photonics Group and CINSaT, University of Kassel, Kassel (Germany)

    2016-03-07

    The polarization fields in wurtzite group III-nitrides strongly influence the optical properties of InAlGaN-based light emitters, e.g., the electron and hole wave function overlap in quantum wells. In this paper, we propose a new approach to determine these fields by capacitance-voltage measurements (CVM). Sheet charges generated by a change of the microscopic polarization at heterointerfaces influence the charge distribution in PIN junctions and therefore the depletion width and the capacitance. We show that it is possible to determine the strength and direction of the internal fields by comparing the depletion widths of two PIN junctions, one influenced by internal polarization fields and one without as a reference. For comparison, we conducted coupled Poisson/carrier transport simulations on the CVM of the polarization-influenced sample. We also demonstrate the feasibility and limits of the method by determining the fields in GaN/InGaN and GaN/AlGaN double heterostructures on (0001) c-plane grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy and compare both evaluation methods. The method yields (−0.50 ± 0.07) MV/cm for In{sub 0.08}Ga{sub 0.92}N/GaN, (0.90 ± 0.13) MV/cm for Al{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N/GaN, and (2.0 ± 0.3) MV/cm for Al{sub 0.31}Ga{sub 0.69}N/GaN heterostructures.

  12. An atypical Clostridium strain related to the Clostridium botulinum group III strain isolated from a human blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Philippe; Ruimy, Raymond; Bouchier, Christiane; Faucher, Nathalie; Mazuet, Christelle; Popoff, Michel R

    2014-01-01

    A nontoxigenic strain isolated from a fatal human case of bacterial sepsis was identified as a Clostridium strain from Clostridium botulinum group III, based on the phenotypic characters and 16S rRNA gene sequence, and was found to be related to the mosaic C. botulinum D/C strain according to a multilocus sequence analysis of 5 housekeeping genes.

  13. Molecular gene profiling of Clostridium botulinum group III and its detection in naturally contaminated samples originating from various European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudstra, Cedric; Le Maréchal, Caroline; Souillard, Rozenn; Bayon-Auboyer, Marie-Hélène; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; De Medici, Dario; Bano, Luca; Koene, Miriam; Sansonetti, Marie-Hélène; Desoutter, Denise; Hansbauer, Eva-Maria; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G; Fach, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    We report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping Clostridium botulinum group III targeting the newly defined C. novyi sensu lato group; the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNH)-encoding gene ntnh; the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)-encoding genes bont/C, bont/C/D, bont/D, and bont/D/C; and the flagellin (fliC) gene. The genetic diversity of fliC among C. botulinum group III strains resulted in the definition of five major subgroups named fliC-I to fliC-V. Investigation of fliC subtypes in 560 samples, with various European origins, showed that fliC-I was predominant and found exclusively in samples contaminated by C. botulinum type C/D, fliC-II was rarely detected, no sample was recorded as fliC-III or fliC-V, and only C. botulinum type D/C samples tested positive for fliC-IV. The lack of genetic diversity of the flagellin gene of C. botulinum type C/D would support a clonal spread of type C/D strains in different geographical areas. fliC-I to fliC-III are genetically related (87% to 92% sequence identity), whereas fliC-IV from C. botulinum type D/C is more genetically distant from the other fliC types (with only 50% sequence identity). These findings suggest fliC-I to fliC-III have evolved in a common environment and support a different genetic evolution for fliC-IV. A combination of the C. novyi sensu lato, ntnh, bont, and fliC PCR assays developed in this study allowed better characterization of C. botulinum group III and showed the group to be less genetically diverse than C. botulinum groups I and II, supporting a slow genetic evolution of the strains belonging to C. botulinum group III. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Advanced megaesophagus (Group III secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Rassi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique. The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infection was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.

  15. Synthesis and oxidation of CpIrIII compounds: functionalization of a Cp methyl group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Gehrke, Lisa S; Freudenthal, John; Kaminsky, Werner; Dipasquale, Antonio G; Mayer, James M

    2009-03-21

    [CpIrCl(2)](2) () and new CpIr(III)(L-L)X complexes (L-L = N-O or C-N chelating ligands; X = Cl, I, Me) have been prepared and their reactivity with two-electron chemical oxidants explored. Reaction of with PhI(OAc)(2) in wet solvents yields a new chloro-bridged dimer in which each of the Cp ligands has been singly acetoxylated to form [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () (Cp(OAc) = eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)CH(2)OAc). Complex and related carboxy- and alkoxy-functionalized Cp(OR) complexes can also be prepared from plus (PhIO)(n) and ROH. [Cp(OAc)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () and the methoxy analogue [Cp(OMe)Ir(III)Cl(2)](2) () have been structurally characterized. Treatment of [CpIrCl(2)](2) () with 2-phenylpyridine yields CpIr(III)(ppy)Cl () (ppy = cyclometallated 2-phenylpyridyl) which is readily converted to its iodide and methyl analogues CpIr(III)(ppy)I and CpIr(III)(ppy)Me (). CpIr(III) complexes were also prepared with N-O chelating ligands derived from anthranilic acid (2-aminobenzoic acid) and alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (H(2)NCMe(2)COOH), ligands chosen to be relatively oxidation resistant. These complexes and were reacted with potential two-electron oxidants including PhI(OAc)(2), hexachlorocyclohexadienone (C(6)Cl(6)O), N-fluoro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium (Me(3)pyF(+)), [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf (OTf = triflate, CF(3)SO(3)). Iridium(V) complexes were not observed or implicated in these reactions, despite the similarity of the potential products to known CpIr(V) species. The carbon electrophiles [Me(3)O]BF(4) and MeOTf appear to react preferentially at the N-O ligands, to give methyl esters in some cases. Overall, the results indicate that Cp is not inert under oxidizing conditions and is therefore not a good supporting ligand for oxidizing organometallic complexes.

  16. Static and dynamical properties of II-VI and III-V group binary solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, D S; Singh, D V

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we extend to II-VI and III-V group binary solids of zinc blende (ZB) structure with conduction d-electrons the calculation of static and dynamical properties such as bulk modulus (B) and cohesive energy or total energy (E coh ) using the plasma oscillation theory of solids formalism already employed for ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors. The present method is not limited to tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and ternary chalcopyrites, but can be used for all semiconducting compounds. We have applied an extended formula on ZB structured binary semiconductors and found better agreement with the experimental data as compared to the values evaluated by previous researchers. The bulk modulus and cohesive energy of ZB-type structure compounds exhibit a linear relationship when plotted on a log-log scale against the plasmon energy ℎω p (in eV), but fall on a straight line. The results for bulk modulus differ from experimental values by the following amounts: ZnS 0.36%, ZnSe 10%, ZnTe 0.62%, CdS 1.8%, CdSe 7.4% and CdTe 1.6%, AlP 2.6%, AlAs 5.3%, AlSb 4.0%, GaP 0%, AlAs 0%, AlS 4.4%, InP 0%, InAs 0% and InSb 2.1%; and the results for cohesive energy differ from experimental values by the following amounts: ZnS 0.16%, ZnSe 0.73%, ZnTe 0.6%, CdS 7.6%, CdSe 3.5%, CdTe 2.5%, AlP 2.0%, AlAs 3.0%, AlSb 11.1%, GaP 14.6%, AlAs 17.0%, AlSb 8.7%, InP 4.3%, InAs 5.5% and InSb 0.6%.

  17. Identification of a high-virulence clone of type III Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) causing invasive neonatal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, J M; Mattingly, S J; Quentin, R; Goudeau, A; Selander, R K

    1989-06-01

    Chromosomal genotypes of 128 isolates of six serotypes (Ia, Ib, Ic, II, Ic/II, and III) of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) recovered predominantly from human infants in the United States were characterized by an analysis of electrophoretically demonstrable allelic profiles at 11 metabolic enzyme loci. Nineteen distinctive electrophoretic types (ETs), representing multilocus clonal genotypes, were identified. Mean genetic diversity per locus among ETs of isolates of the same serotype was, on average, nearly equal to that in all 19 ETs. Cluster analysis of the ETs revealed two primary phylogenetic divisions at a genetic distance of 0.65. A single clone (ET 1) represented by 40 isolates expressing type III antigen formed division I. Division II was composed of 18 ETs in three major lineages diverging from one another at distances greater than 0.35 and included strains of all six antigenic classes. The type III organisms in division I produce more extracellular neuraminidase and apparently are more virulent than the type III strains in division II, which are related to strains of other serotypes that cause disease much less frequently. The existence of this unusually virulent clone accounts, in major part, for the high morbidity and mortality associated with infection by type III organisms.

  18. Population studies in groups and clusters of galaxies. III. A catalog of galaxies in five nearby groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, H.C.; Sandage, A.

    1990-01-01

    Five nearby groups of galaxies have been surveyed using large-scale plates from the 2.5 m duPont Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. Catalogs of galaxies brighter than B(T) = 20 are presented for the Leo, Dorado, NGC 1400, NGC 5044, and Antlia groups. A total of 1044 galaxies are included, from visual inspection of 14 plates, covering 31 deg square. Galaxies have been classified in the extended Hubble system, and group memberships have been assigned based on velocity (where available) and morphology. About half the galaxies listed are likely members of one of the nearby groups. The catalogs are complete to B(T) = 18, although the completeness limits vary slightly from group to group. Based on King model fits to the surface density profiles, the core radii of the groups range from 0.3 to 1 Mpc, and central densities range from 120 to 1900 galaxies Mpc exp-3 brighter than M(BT) = -12.5. Dynamical analysis indicates that all of the groups are likely to be gravitationally bound. 64 refs

  19. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  20. MOCVD synthesis of group III-nitride heterostructure nanowires for solid-state lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Creighton, James Randall; Talin, Albert Alec

    2006-11-01

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies, based on semiconductor light emitting devices, have the potential to reduce worldwide electricity consumption by more than 10%, which could significantly reduce U.S. dependence on imported energy and improve energy security. The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white SSL and could cover a wide spectral range from the deep UV to the infrared. For this LDRD program, we have investigated the synthesis of single-crystalline III-nitride nanowires and heterostructure nanowires, which may possess unique optoelectronic properties. These novel structures could ultimately lead to the development of novel and highly efficient SSL nanodevice applications. GaN and III-nitride core-shell heterostructure nanowires were successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on two-inch wafer substrates. The effect of process conditions on nanowire growth was investigated, and characterization of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the nanowires was also performed.

  1. Hawkins Group I fracture of neck of talus and Salter Harris Type III tibial epiphyseal injury of medial malleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kodali Siva R K; Vali, Hamza; Hussain, Altaf

    2013-01-01

    We are reporting an unusual combination of Hawkins Group I fracture of the neck of left talus in association with Salter Harris Type III distal tibial epiphyseal injury of medial malleolus in a child with cerebral palsy and hemiplegia of contralateral limbs and discussed the possible mechanism as well as management. Fractures of medial malleolus usually occur in Hawkins Group III fracture-dislocations in adults. Forced dorsiflexion of talus against the anterior edge of tibia appears to be the accepted common mechanism, despite limited experimental and clinical evidence incriminating axial compression. Fracture of medial malleolus implicates supination. We managed this unusual pattern of injury conservatively. At 15 months, the child was asymptomatic with no radiological evidence of avascular necrosis of body of talus or growth disturbance of distal tibial epiphysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Opsonophagocytic Antibodies to Serotype Ia, Ib, and III Group B Streptococcus among Korean Infants and in Intravenous Immunoglobulin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Ji Hyen; Cho, Hye Kyung; Lee, Hyunju; Seo, Ho Seong; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2017-05-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) infection is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis among infants, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in many countries. Protection against GBS typically involves antibody-mediated opsonization by phagocytes and complement components. The present study evaluated serotype-specific functional antibodies to GBS among Korean infants and in intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products. An opsonophagocytic killing assay (OPA) was used to calculate the opsonization indices (OIs) of functional antibodies to serotypes Ia, Ib, and III in 19 IVIG products from 5 international manufacturers and among 98 Korean infants (age: 0-11 months). The GBS Ia, Ib, and III serotypes were selected because they are included in a trivalent GBS vaccine formulation that is being developed. The OI values for the IVIG products were 635-5,706 (serotype Ia), 488-1,421 (serotype Ib), and 962-3,315 (serotype III), and none of the IVIG lots exhibited undetectable OI values (Korean manufacturers. The seropositive rate among infants was significantly lower for serotype Ia (18.4%), compared to serotype Ib and serotype III (both, 38.8%). Infant age of ≥ 3 months was positively correlated with the seropositive rates for each serotype. Therefore, only a limited proportion of infants exhibited protective immunity against serotype Ia, Ib, and III GBS infections. IVIG products that exhibit high antibody titers may be a useful therapeutic or preventive measure for infants. Further studies are needed to evaluate additional serotypes and age groups. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  3. Annotated bibliography for liquid metal surface tensions of groups III-A, IV-A, and V-A metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murtha, M.J.; Burnet, G.

    1976-04-01

    An annotated bibliography has been prepared which includes summaries of 82 publications dating from 1920 and dealing with the measurement of the surface tensions of Groups III-A, IV-A, and V-A metals in the liquid state. The bibliography is organized by key element investigated, and contains a tabulation of correlations for surface tension as a function of temperature. A brief discussion dealing with variables and methods has been included

  4. External otitis and its treatment : is a group III steroid without antibiotics sufficent therapy? Experimental and clinical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Emgård, Per

    2005-01-01

    ABSTRACT External otitis and its treatment. Is a group III steroid without antibiotics sufficient therapy? – Experimental and clinical studies Per Emgård, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Umeå and Ystad Hospital, Umeå and Ystad, Sweden External otitis is one of the most common ear, nose and throat (ENT) diagnoses in out-patient clinics. The clinical course of external otitis includes itching, pain, redness, swelling and effusion of the external auditory canal (EAC) with normal...

  5. Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, J. W.; Foxon, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The group III nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) represent an important trio of semiconductors because of their direct band gaps which span the range 1.95-6.2 eV, including the whole of the visible region and extending well out into the ultraviolet (UV) range. They form a complete series of ternary alloys which, in principle, makes available any band gap within this range and the fact that they also generate efficient luminescence has been the main driving force for their recent technological development. High brightness visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now commercially available, a development which has transformed the market for LED-based full colour displays and which has opened the way to many other applications, such as in traffic lights and efficient low voltage, flat panel white light sources. Continuously operating UV laser diodes have also been demonstrated in the laboratory, exciting tremendous interest for high-density optical storage systems, UV lithography and projection displays. In a remarkably short space of time, the nitrides have therefore caught up with and, in some ways, surpassed the wide band gap II-VI compounds (ZnCdSSe) as materials for short wavelength optoelectronic devices. The purpose of this paper is to review these developments and to provide essential background material in the form of the structural, electronic and optical properties of the nitrides, relevant to these applications. We have been guided by the fact that the devices so far available are based on the binary compound GaN (which is relatively well developed at the present time), together with the ternary alloys AlGaN and InGaN, containing modest amounts of Al or In. We therefore concentrate, to a considerable extent, on the properties of GaN, then introduce those of the alloys as appropriate, emphasizing their use in the formation of the heterostructures employed in devices. The nitrides crystallize preferentially in the hexagonal wurtzite structure and devices have so

  6. WMS-III Logical Memory performance after a two-week delay in temporal lobe epilepsy and control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brian D

    2006-11-01

    Conventional memory assessment may fail to identify memory dysfunction that is characterized by intact recall for a relatively brief period but rapid forgetting thereafter. This study assessed immediate memory and retention after 30-minute and two-week delays in a control group (n = 25) and a group of individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 25). For raw free recall, thematic unit, and recognition memory scores from the Wechsler Memory Scale-3rd ed. (WMS-III) Logical Memory (LM) subtest, there were no group x trial interactions and the TLE group performed significantly worse than the controls on all trials. At the individual level, none of the patients (0%) demonstrated isolated free recall impairment at the two-week delay when raw scores were analyzed, and one patient (4%) but also five controls (20%) did so when percent retention scores were examined. In summary, TLE patients did not demonstrate disproportionate forgetting over two weeks on a widely used story memory test.

  7. Clinical Application of Immunofluorescence III. Identification of Lancefield Group B Streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas B.

    1971-01-01

    The identification of Lancefield group B streptococci with immunofluorescence was studied after significant differences between the precipitin and immunofluorescent results were noted. It was found that strains of group B streptococci, unlike groups A, C, and G streptococci, do not reliably react with a fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled conjugate that contains antibodies mainly against C polysaccharide. It was assumed that the difficulty probably resulted from a blocking of the antigen-antibody reaction between the group antigen and its antibody by the S antigen located in the capsule. On the basis of this assumption, a conjugate was prepared that contained antibodies against the various S antigens of group B and it was found to be effective. Images PMID:4949487

  8. Serum type III procollagen peptide in patients with Pneumocystis carinii infection. The Copenhagen-Amsterdam PCP-Prednisolone Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, K D; Nielsen, T L; Eaftinck Schattenkerk, J K

    1993-01-01

    Inflammation may play a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). Serum levels of the amino-terminal propeptide of Type III procollagen (PIIINP) reflect inflammatory activity in granulation tissue and in chronic rheumatic and liver disorders....... To investigate changes in PIIINP serum levels during an episode of HIV-related PCP, consecutive serum samples were taken from 48 HIV-infected patients with PCP in a randomized, placebo-controlled study of the effect of adjunctive methylprednisolone therapy (26 in corticosteroid [CS] group and 22 in control group......). All patients were treated with co-trimoxazole. In the control group, PIIINP serum levels at day of initiation of therapy (Day 0) were significantly higher in patients requiring mechanical ventilation and/or dying during the course of the pneumonia, and serum levels of PIIINP higher than 5 ng/ml were...

  9. Influence of the pre-adsorption of group III metals on the growth of Ge nanostructures on vicinal Si surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckmann, Moritz; Schmidt, Thomas; Flege, Jan Ingo; Heidmann, Inga; Hoecker, Jan; Wilkens, Torsten; Falta, Jens [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The employment of metals as surfactants (surface active agents) is a promising approach to influence the growth of Ge nanostructures on Si surfaces. Especially for group III and group V elements an enhanced or suppressed Stranski-Krastanov growth behaviour is found, respectively. For all group III metal on silicon systems presented in this study we observe a drastic change of the surface morphology after adsorption of a few monolayers. For the investigations we used a variety of surface sensitive techniques, e.g., scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), spot profile analysing low-energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED), low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM), and X-ray standing waves (XSW). On the one hand, the adsorption of Ga and In leads to a smoothening of the intrinsically unstable Si(112) surface and the development of 1D metal chains. But on the other hand, the stable Si(113) is decomposed into a regular array of nanofacets after adsorption of Ga. For all cases shown here the possibility of growing highly anisotropic Ge Islands is demonstrated (Ga/Si(113),Ga/Si(112),In/Si(112)).

  10. Distribution of CTX-M group I and group III β-lactamases produced by Escherichia coli and klebsiella pneumoniae in Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Samyyia; Vajeeha, Ayesha; Ul-Ain, Noor; Riaz, Saba

    2017-02-01

    Extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs) of the CTX-M type is worrisome issue in many countries of the world from past decade. But little is known about CTX-M beta-lactamase producing bacteria in Pakistan. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the distribution of CTX-M beta-lactamase producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae using phenotypic and molecular techniques. A total of 638 E. coli and 338 Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from patients attending two hospitals and one diagnostic Centre in Pakistan during 2013-2015. ESBL production was screened by double disc synergism, combination disc (cefotaxime and ceftazidime with clavulanic acid) and E-test. These strains were further characterized by PCR (CTX-M I, CTX-M III) and sequencing. After ribotyping of strains accession numbers were obtained. These isolates were highly resistant to cephalosporins, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, aztreonam, and cefuroxime but susceptible to carbapenems, sulfzone, amikacin and tazocin. Multiple antibiotic resistances index (MAR) revealed that 51% of E. coli strains fell in the range of 0.61-0.7 and 39% of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains fell in the range of 0.71-0.8. 64% Double disc synergism (DDS), 76.4% combination disc (CD), 74% E-test showed ESBL positivity in strains. In E. coli ESBL genes bla CTX-M-I and bla CTX-M-III were detected in 212 (72.1%) and 25 (8.5%) respectively. In Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL genes bla CTX-M-I and bla CTX-M-III were detected in 89 (82.4%) and 10 (9.2%). Combination of both genes bla CTX-M-I and bla CTX-M-III were found in 16 (5.4%) of E. coli strains and 5 (4.6%) of Klebsiella pneumoniae strains. Sequencing revealed that CTXM-15 was predominately present in the CTX-M-I group. The prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was high and the majority of them positive for bla CTX-M-I as compared to bla CTX-M-III. These findings highlight the need to further investigate the epidemiology of other CTX-M beta

  11. Stellar substructures in the solar neighbourhood. III. Kinematic group 2 in the Geneva-Copenhagen survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ženovienė, R.; Tautvaišienė, G.; Nordström, B.; Stonkutė, E.

    2014-03-01

    Context. From correlations between orbital parameters, several new coherent groups of stars were recently identified in the Galactic disc and suggested to correspond to remnants of disrupted satellites. To reconstruct their origin at least three main observational parameters - kinematics, chemical composition and age - must be known. Aims: We determine detailed elemental abundances in stars belonging to the so-called Group 2 of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey and compare the chemical composition with Galactic thin- and thick-disc stars, as well as with the Arcturus and AF06 streams (Arifyanto & Fuchs 2006, A&A, 449, 533). The aim is to search for chemical signatures that might give information about the formation history of this kinematic group of stars. Methods: High-resolution spectra were obtained with the FIES spectrograph at the Nordic Optical Telescope, La Palma, and were analysed with a differential model atmosphere method. Comparison stars were observed and analysed with the same method. Results: The average value of [Fe/H] for the 32 stars of Group 2 is - 0.42 ± 0.10 dex. The investigated group consists mainly of two 8- and 12-Gyr-old stellar populations. Abundances of oxygen, α-elements, and r-process-dominated elements are higher than in Galactic thin-disc dwarfs. This elemental abundance pattern has similar characteristics as that of the Galactic thick-disc. Conclusions: The similarity in chemical composition of stars in Group 2 with that in stars of the thick-disc might suggest that their formation histories are linked. The chemical composition together with the kinematic properties and ages of stars in the stars investigated provides evidence of their common origin and possible relation to an ancient merging event. A gas-rich satellite merger scenario is proposed as the most likely origin. Groups 2 and 3 of the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey might have originated in the same merging event. Tables 4 and 5 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H.; Finoguenov, Alexis

    2013-01-01

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10 13 -10 14 M ☉ and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M * /M ☉ ) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

  13. Group of scientific experts third technical test (GSETT-III) experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlman, O.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the established verification system is to provide confidence through adequate monitoring, deter clandestine activities and counteract 'false arms'. The task og the Group of Scientific Experts was to design and test the seismic verification system including designing og the international system, sharing knowledge from national programs, encouraging establishment of new monitoring facilities, development of data analysis procedures, conducting large scale testing and training of experts

  14. Monolayer group-III monochalcogenides by oxygen functionalization: a promising class of two-dimensional topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Si; Liu, Cheng-Cheng; Zhao, Jijun; Yao, Yugui

    2018-03-01

    Monolayer group-III monochalcogenides (MX, M = Ga, In; X = S, Se, Te), an emerging category of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors, hold great promise for electronics, optoelectronics and catalysts. By first-principles calculations, we show that the phonon dispersion and Raman spectra, as well as the electronic and topological properties of monolayer MX can be tuned by oxygen functionalization. Chemisorption of oxygen atoms on one side or both sides of the MX sheet narrows or even closes the band gap, enlarges work function, and significantly reduces the carrier effective mass. More excitingly, InS, InSe, and InTe monolayers with double-side oxygen functionalization are 2D topological insulators with sizeable bulk gap up to 0.21 eV. Their low-energy bands near the Fermi level are dominated by the px and py orbitals of atoms, allowing band engineering via in-plane strains. Our studies provide viable strategy for realizing quantum spin Hall effect in monolayer group-III monochalcogenides at room temperature, and utilizing these novel 2D materials for high-speed and dissipationless transport devices.

  15. Research program at CEBAF (III): Report of the 1987 summer study group, June 1--August 28, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkert, V.; Gross, F.; Mecking, B.; Mougey, J.; Nanda, S.; Whitney, R.

    1988-01-01

    An informal Study Group consisting of the CEBAF scientific staff and about 43 visiting scientists met during the summer of 1987 to discuss issues of importance to planning the CEBAF scientific program. The contributions to this volume grew out of these discussions, and out of additional discussion with the User community and with CEBAF's new Associate Director for Research, John Domingo, which extended into the fall of 1987. Reports of the 1985 and 1986 Summer Study Groups have been previously published by CEBAF under the title Research Programs at CEBAF (RPAC) and hence it is appropriate to refer to this volume as RPAC III. The contributions to this volume have been organized into the following six general areas reflecting the focus of principle activities during this period: High Resolution Spectrometers; Large Acceptance Spectrometer; Out-of-Plane Experiments at CEBAF; Neutron Detection at CEBAF; Illustrative Experiments and Experimental Design; and Theory

  16. Anisotropy of the nitrogen conduction states in the group III nitrides studied by polarized x-ray absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawniczak-Jablonska, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Institute of Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Liliental-Weber, Z.; Gullikson, E.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Group III nitrides (AlN, GaN, and InN) consist of the semiconductors which appear recently as a basic materials for optoelectronic devices active in the visible/ultraviolet spectrum as well as high-temperature and high-power microelectronic devices. However, understanding of the basic physical properties leading to application is still not satisfactory. One of the reasons consists in unsufficient knowledge of the band structure of the considered semiconductors. Several theoretical studies of III-nitrides band structure have been published but relatively few experimental studies have been carried out, particularly with respect to their conduction band structure. This motivated the authors to examine the conduction band structure projected onto p-states of the nitrogen atoms for AlN, GaN and InN. An additional advantage of their studies is the availability of the studied nitrides in two structures, hexagonal (wurtzite) and cubic (zincblende). This offers an opportunity to gain information about the role of the anisotropy of electronic band states in determining various physical properties.

  17. Mocvd Growth of Group-III Nitrides on Silicon Carbide: From Thin Films to Atomically Thin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.

    Group-III nitride semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN and their alloys) are considered one of the most important class of materials for electronic and optoelectronic devices. This is not limited to the blue light-emitting diode (LED) used for efficient solid-state lighting, but other applications as well, such as solar cells, radar and a variety of high frequency power electronics, which are all prime examples of the technological importance of nitride based wide bandgap semiconductors in our daily lives. The goal of this dissertation work was to explore and establish new growth schemes to improve the structural and optical properties of thick to atomically thin films of group-III nitrides grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC substrates for future novel devices. The first research focus of this dissertation was on the growth of indium gallium nitride (InGaN). This wide bandgap semiconductor has attracted much research attention as an active layer in LEDs and recently as an absorber material for solar cells. InGaN has superior material properties for solar cells due to its wavelength absorption tunability that nearly covers the entire solar spectrum. This can be achieved by controlling the indium content in thick grown material. Thick InGaN films are also of interest as strain reducing based layers for deep-green and red light emitters. The growth of thick films of InGaN is, however, hindered by several combined problems. This includes poor incorporation of indium in alloys, high density of structural and morphological defects, as well as challenges associated with the segregation of indium in thick films. Overcoming some of these material challenges is essential in order integrate thick InGaN films into future optoelectronics. Therefore, this dissertation research investigated the growth mechanism of InGaN layers grown in the N-polar direction by MOCVD as a route to improve the structural and optical properties of thick InGaN films. The growth

  18. OECD/NEA expert group on uncertainty analysis for criticality safety assessment: Results of benchmark on sensitivity calculation (phase III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, T.; Laville, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire IRSN, BP 17, 92262 Fontenay aux Roses (France); Dyrda, J. [Atomic Weapons Establishment AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Mennerdahl, D. [E Mennerdahl Systems EMS, Starvaegen 12, 18357 Taeby (Sweden); Golovko, Y.; Raskach, K.; Tsiboulia, A. [Inst. for Physics and Power Engineering IPPE, 1, Bondarenko sq., 249033 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lee, G. S.; Woo, S. W. [Korea Inst. of Nuclear Safety KINS, 62 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Bidaud, A.; Sabouri, P. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie LPSC, CNRS-IN2P3/UJF/INPG, Grenoble (France); Patel, A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Washington, DC 20555-0001 (United States); Bledsoe, K.; Rearden, B. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory ORNL, M.S. 6170, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gulliford, J.; Michel-Sendis, F. [OECD/NEA, 12, Bd des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01

    The sensitivities of the k{sub eff} eigenvalue to neutron cross sections have become commonly used in similarity studies and as part of the validation algorithm for criticality safety assessments. To test calculations of the sensitivity coefficients, a benchmark study (Phase III) has been established by the OECD-NEA/WPNCS/EG UACSA (Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment). This paper presents some sensitivity results generated by the benchmark participants using various computational tools based upon different computational methods: SCALE/TSUNAMI-3D and -1D, MONK, APOLLO2-MORET 5, DRAGON-SUSD3D and MMKKENO. The study demonstrates the performance of the tools. It also illustrates how model simplifications impact the sensitivity results and demonstrates the importance of 'implicit' (self-shielding) sensitivities. This work has been a useful step towards verification of the existing and developed sensitivity analysis methods. (authors)

  19. Progress and Prospect of the Growth of Wide-Band-Gap Group III Nitrides: Development of the Growth Method for Single-Crystal Bulk GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hiroshi

    2013-05-01

    Thin films of III-V compound semiconductors such as GaAs and InP can be grown on native substrates, whereas such growth was difficult for group III nitride semiconductors. Despite this drawback, scientists have gradually become able to use the functions of group III nitride semiconductors by growing their thin films on non-native substrates such as sapphire and Si substrates. With the continuously increasing demand for the conservation and generation of energy, bulk substrates of group III nitride semiconductors are highly expected to maximize their potential. In this report, I review the current status of the growth methods for bulk GaN single crystals used for substrates as well as summarize the characteristics of blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs), heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs), and photovoltaic cells on GaN substrates.

  20. Theoretical Investigation and Design of Highly Efficient Blue Phosphorescent Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Fluorinated Aromatic Sulfonyl Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Luo, Yafei; Xu, Yanyan; Li, Wenqian; Shen, Wei

    2016-12-15

    Aromatic sulfonyl groups have attracted increasing interest due to their unique electronic features. In this article, a series of Ir III complexes bearing fluorinated phenylsulfonyl groups were evaluated by density functional theory and time-dependent density functional theory methods. To explore their phosphorescence efficiencies, factors that determine the radiative decay rate constant, k r , and the nonradiative decay rate constant, k nr , were computed. As demonstrated by the results, complex 4, which has fluorinated phenylsulfonyl groups at the 5-positions of the phenyl rings for all three C^N ligands, was found to have the highest phosphorescence efficiencies with the largest k r and smallest k nr values among these complexes. Moreover, it was found to exhibit significantly blueshifted behavior relative to complex 1 and emits in the blue region, and thus, it can serve as a highly efficient blue emitter for application in organic light-emitting diodes. These findings successfully illustrated the structure-properties relationship and provided valuable information for the development of future highly efficient blue-emitting phosphors. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Caroline E.; Brocklehurst, Keith; Pickersgill, Richard W.; Warren, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    RALDH3 (retinal dehydrogenase 3) was characterized by kinetic and binding studies, protein engineering, homology modelling, ligand docking and electrostatic-potential calculations. The major recognition determinant of an RALDH3 substrate was shown to be an eight-carbon chain bonded to the aldehyde group whose kinetic influence (kcat/Km at pH 8.5) decreases when shortened or lengthened. Surprisingly, the β-ionone ring of all-trans-retinal is not a major recognition site. The dissociation const...

  2. N-oxide as a traceless oxidizing directing group: mild rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H olefination for the synthesis of ortho-alkenylated tertiary anilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolei; Huang, Jingsheng; Du, Chenglong; Zhang, Xingyi; Song, Feijie; You, Jingsong

    2013-12-02

    Double role: A traceless directing group also acts as an internal oxidant in a novel Rh(III) -catalyzed protocol developed for the synthesis of ortho-alkenylated tertiary anilines. A five-membered cyclometalated Rh(III) complex is proposed as a plausible intermediate and confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Multicomponent Synthesis of Isoindolinone Frameworks via RhIII -Catalysed in situ Directing Group-Assisted Tandem Oxidative Olefination/Michael Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Xi; Liu, Jian-Biao; Shen, Jun; Chen, Qun; He, Ming-Yang

    2018-04-04

    A Rh III -catalysed three-component synthesis of isoindolinone frameworks via direct assembly of benzoyl chlorides, o-aminophenols and activated alkenes has been developed. The process involves in situ generation of o-aminophenol (OAP)-based bidentate directing group (DG), Rh III -catalysed tandem ortho C-H olefination and subsequent cyclization via aza-Michael addition. This protocol exhibits good chemoselectivity and functional group tolerance. Computational studies showed that the presence of hydroxyl group on the N-aryl ring could enhance the chemoselectivity of the reaction. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. New 4-Functionalized Glutamate Analogues Are Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 2 or Selective Agonists at Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Group III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huynh, Tri H. V.; Erichsen, Mette N.; Tora, Amelie S.

    2016-01-01

    The metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs) play key roles in modulating excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. In all, eight subtypes have been identified and divided into three groups, group I (mGlu1,5), group II (mGlu2,3), and group III (mGlu4,6–8). In this article, we present a L-2...

  5. Studies on lipoamide dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benen, J.A.E.

    1992-01-01

    At the onset of the investigations described in this thesis progress was being made on the elucidation of the crystal structure of the Azotobactervinelandii lipoamide dehydrogenase. Also the gene encoding this enzyme was cloned in our laboratory. By this, a

  6. Studies on lipoamide dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.

    1969-01-01

    Gel-filtration, ultracentrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation demonstrated differences in physico-chemical properties of holoenzyme and apoenzyme of lipoamide dehydrogenase. The native apoenzyme has a mol.wt. of approx. 52,000 which is half that of the native holoenzyme. The

  7. A Conserved UDP-Glucose Dehydrogenase Encoded outside the hasABC Operon Contributes to Capsule Biogenesis in Group A Streptococcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, Jason N.; Aziz, Ramy K.; Kuipers, Kirsten; Timmer, Anjuli M.; Nizet, Victor; van Sorge, Nina M.

    2012-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a human-specific bacterial pathogen responsible for serious morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hyaluronic acid (HA) capsule of GAS is a major virulence factor, contributing to bloodstream survival through resistance to neutrophil and antimicrobial peptide killing

  8. Silicon-Based Integration of Groups III, IV, V Chemical Vapor Depositions in High-Quality Photodiodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductors with silicon (Si) technology is an interesting approach to utilize the advantages of both high-speed photonic and electronic properties. The work presented in this thesis is initiated by this major goal of merging III-V semiconductor technology with

  9. Control of active nitrogen species used for PA-MBE growth of group III nitrides on Si

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohachi, Tadashi; Yamabe, Nobuhiko; Yamamoto, Yuka; Wada, Motoi; Ariyada, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    A new spiral parallel mesh electrode (PME) is presented to control active nitrogen species in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial (PA-MBE) growth of group III nitrides and their alloys. Direct flux of active nitrogen from radio frequency inductive coupled plasma (rf-ICP) discharge was able to be measured using a mesh electrode for filtering charge particles and electron emission due to the self-ionization of nitrogen atoms on a negatively biased electrode. In situ measurement of direct nitrogen atom fluxes using the spiral PME during PA-MBE growth of GaN and AlN on Si substrates is investigated. A linear rf power dependence of direct flux of active species on atoms such as nitrogen (N+N*), where N and N* were ground and excited atoms, respectively, from a rf-ICP was confirmed by the spiral PME. An indirect flux of nitrogen adsorbed (ADS) atoms (N+N*) during discharge was also monitored by the spiral PME and received influence of the wall surface of the growth chamber. ADS nitrogen atoms are able to be used for nitridation of Si surface to grow a double buffer layer (DBL) AlN/β-Si3N4/Si.

  10. Epitaxial growth of group III-nitride films by pulsed laser deposition and their use in the development of LED devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Wang, Wenliang; Yang, Weijia; Wang, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    Recently, pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technology makes viable the epitaxial growth of group III-nitrides on thermally active substrates at low temperature. The precursors generated from the pulsed laser ablating the target has enough kinetic energy when arriving at substrates, thereby effectively suppressing the interfacial reactions between the epitaxial films and the substrates, and eventually makes the film growth at low temperature possible. So far, high-quality group III-nitride epitaxial films have been successfully grown on a variety of thermally active substrates by PLD. By combining PLD with other technologies such as laser rastering technique, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), III-nitride-based light-emitting diode (LED) structures have been realized on different thermally active substrates, with high-performance LED devices being demonstrated. This review focuses on the epitaxial growth of group III-nitrides on thermally active substrates by PLD and their use in the development of LED devices. The surface morphology, interfacial property between film and substrate, and crystalline quality of as-grown group III-nitride films by PLD, are systematically reviewed. The corresponding solutions for film homogeneity on large size substrates, defect control, and InGaN films growth by PLD are also discussed in depth, together with introductions to some newly developed technologies for PLD in order to realize LED structures, which provides great opportunities for commercialization of LEDs on thermally active substrates.

  11. Parsing the recognition memory components of the WMS-III face memory subtest: normative data and clinical findings in dementia groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdnack, James A; Delis, Dean C

    2004-06-01

    The WMS-III face memory subtest was developed as a quick, reliable, measure of non-verbal recognition memory. While the face memory subtest has demonstrated clinical sensitivity, the test has been criticized for low correlation with other WMS-III visual memory subtests and for failing to differentiate performance between clinical groups. One possible reason for these findings may be due to the impact of response bias associated with recognition memory tests. Four studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of applying signal detection measures to the face memory subtests. The first two studies used the WMS-III standardization data set to determine age and education effects and to present normative and reliability data for hits, false positives, discriminability and response bias. The third study tested the hypothesis that using response components and signal detection measures would enhance the correlation between face memory and the other WMS-III visual memory subtests. The fourth study compared performance of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, Korsakoff's syndrome and demographically matched controls on the new face memory scores. The new measures did not have higher correlation with other WMS-III visual memory measures than the standard scoring of the test. Analysis of the clinical samples indicated that the discriminability index best differentiated patients from controls. The response components, particularly delayed false positives, differentiated performance among the clinical groups. Normative and reliability data are presented.

  12. The immune response to group B streptococcus type III capsular polysaccharide is directed to the -Glc-GlcNAc-Gal- backbone epitope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safari, Dodi; Dekker, Huberta A. T.; Rijkers, Ger T.; van der Ende, Arie; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Snippe, Harm

    2011-01-01

    The structures of the branched capsular polysaccharides of group B streptococcus type III (GBSIIIPS) and Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 (Pn14PS) are identical apart from the (α2→3)-linked sialic acid in the side chains of GBSIIIPS. The present study tries to determine the minimal epitope in

  13. Expression patterns of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR4 and mGluR8 in multiple sclerosis lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, J. J. G.; Wolswijk, G.; Bö, L.; Redeker, S.; Ramkema, M.; Troost, D.; Aronica, E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent evidence supports a role for metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in neuroinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we have investigated whether the group III mGluR subtypes mGluR4 and mGluR8 are expressed in MS lesions at various stages of evolution. In control patient tissue and in

  14. Perceived changes by peer group of social impact associated with combined orthodontic-surgical correction of class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesani, Aliza; DiBiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T; Newton, Timothy

    2014-09-01

    Whereas the psychosocial benefits of orthognathic treatment for the individual patient are established, there is little data relating to social perceptions in relation to changes in facial appearance as a result of combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. This study aimed to investigate the social impact of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical correction for class III malocclusion in Caucasian subjects. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions of facial appearance prior to and after orthognathic correction of class III malocclusion. Eighty undergraduate students were shown photographs of four Caucasian subjects (2 male and 2 female) pre- and post-orthognathic class III correction. Observers were asked to rate these subjects in relation to four different outcomes: (i) social competence (SC); (ii) intellectual ability (IA); (iii) psychological adjustment (PA); (iv) attractiveness. A mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to determine the effect of each variable. Statistically significant differences were found in ratings of the same face before and after treatment. After treatment, faces were rated as more psychologically adjusted, more sociable, more likely to be successful and more attractive; with the mean psychological adjustment rating being associated with the most change (before treatment=8.06 [SD 2.30]; after treatment=6.64 [SD 2.03], t=2.04, pclass III malocclusion in Caucasians, individuals are rated by young adults as being better adjusted both psychologically and socially, more likely to be successful and more attractive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Blue-to-Green Emitting Neutral Ir(III) Complexes Bearing Pentafluorosulfanyl Groups: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Amlan K; Henwood, Adam F; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2017-07-03

    A structure-property relationship study of neutral heteroleptic (1 and 2, [Ir(C ∧ N) 2 (L ∧ X)]) and homoleptic (3 and 4, fac-[Ir(C ∧ N) 3 ]) Ir(III) complexes (where L ∧ X = anionic 2,2,6,6-tetramethylheptane-3,5-dionato-κO 3 ,κO 6 (thd) and C ∧ N = a cyclometalating ligand bearing a pentafluorosulfanyl (-SF 5 ) electron-withdrawing group (EWG) at the C 4 (HL1) and C 3 (HL2) positions of the phenyl moiety) is presented. These complexes have been fully structurally characterized, including by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and their electrochemical and optical properties have also been extensively studied. While complexes 1 ([Ir(L1) 2 (thd)]), 3 (Ir(L1) 3 ), and 4 (Ir(L2) 3 ) exhibit irreversible first reduction waves based on the pentafluorosulfanyl substituent in the range of -1.71 to -1.88 V (vs SCE), complex 2 ([Ir(L2) 2 (thd)]) exhibits a quasi-reversible pyridine C ∧ N -based first reduction wave that is anodically shifted at -1.38 V. The metal + C ∧ N ligand oxidation waves are all quasi-reversible in the range of 1.08-1.54 V (vs SCE). The optical gap, determined from the lowest energy absorption maxima, decreases from 4 to 2 to 3 to 1, and this trend is consistent with the Hammett behavior (σ m /σ p with respect to the metal-carbon bond) of the -SF 5 EWG. In degassed acetonitrile, for complexes 2-4, introduction of the -SF 5 group produced a blue-shifted emission (λ em 484-506 nm) in comparison to reference complexes [Ir(ppy) 2 (acac)] (R1, where acac = acetylacetonato) (λ em 528 nm in MeCN), [Ir(CF 3 -ppy) (acac)] (R3, where CF 3 -ppyH = 2-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)pyridine) (λ em 522 nm in DCM), and [Ir(CF 3 -ppy) 3 ] (R8) (λ em 507 nm in MeCN). The emission of complex 1, in contrast, was modestly red shifted (λ em 534 nm). Complexes 2 and 4, where the -SF 5 EWG is substituted para to the Ir-C C ∧ N bond, are efficient phosphorescent emitters, with high photoluminescence quantum yields (Φ PL = 58-79% in degassed MeCN solution

  16. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Ortho-Alkenylation of Anilines Directed by a Removable Boc-Protecting Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Tomohiro; Satoh, Tetsuya; Miura, Masahiro

    2017-04-07

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed ortho-alkenylation of N-Boc-anilines with alkenes such as acrylate ester and styrene proceeds smoothly through C-H bond cleavage. Obtained o-alkenylanilines can be readily transformed to nitrogen-containing fused heteroaromatic compounds including indoles and quinolines.

  17. Azide-bridged one-dimensional Mn(III) polymers: effects of side group of Schiff base ligands on structure and magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mei; Zhao, Fei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Gao, Song

    2007-12-24

    By changing ancillary tetradentate Schiff base ligands (L), two new one-dimensional azide-bridged manganese(III) coordination complexes [MnIII(L)(mu1,3-N3)]n [L = 5-Fsalen (1), 5-OCH3 (2); salen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,2-diaminoethane] as well as a mononuclear complex [MnIII(salophen)(N3)] (3) [salophen = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine] have been successfully obtained. All of them have been structurally and magnetically characterized. In the structures of 1-3 each MnIII ion is in a distorted octahedral geometry with an obvious Jahn-Teller effect, where the tetradentate L ligands all bind in the equatorial mode, whereas in the axial direction, the N3- ion acts as an end-to-end bridge in 1 and 2 while a terminal group in 3 with a methanol molecule at the other end. Magnetic characterization shows that the mu1,3-bridging azide ion proves to mainly transmit antiferromagnetic interaction between MnIII ions, but these three complexes exhibit various magnetic behaviors at low temperatures. Noteworthily, complex 2 behaves as a weak ferromagnet with a relatively large coercive field of 2.3 kOe, much larger than the value reported previously.

  18. Production of Group II and III base oils by hybrid route using brazilian crude; Producao de oleos basicos lubrificantes dos grupos II e III pela rota hibrida ou mista a partir de petroleo brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Wlamir Soares; Fontes, Anita Eleonora Ferreira [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes a series of pilot plant tests made at PETROBRAS Research Centre, considering hydrotreatment and solvent dewaxing steps, to produce group II and group III lube base oils from Baiano Light crude feeds (Brazilian crude). RLAM Refinery has been using Baiano light crude to produce group I base oils by conventional route and in the pilot plant studies, two types of process scheme were tested. In the first one, an industrial run was performed at RLAM Refinery, including distillation, dewaxing and extraction and the light raffinate was used as a feed for a hydrotreatment pilot plant, followed by a distillation to remove the front ends. In the second scheme, another industrial run was performed, including distillation and dewaxing steps and the medium dewaxed oil was used as a charge for a hydrotreatment followed by distillation and dewaxing pilot plant tests. Products of excellent quality were obtained. Due to their high viscosity indexes (from 96 to 126), low contaminants levels (sulfur < 5 ppm and nitrogen < 5 ppm) and low aromatic content (CA < 2 %), the lube base oils produced are therefore classified as group II and group III. The main advantages of this route are related to the base oils quality improvements with low investment and more flexibility in terms of crude source. (author)

  19. Resolving the Role of Plant NAD-Glutamate Dehydrogenase: III. Overexpressing Individually or Simultaneously the Two Enzyme Subunits Under Salt Stress Induces Changes in the Leaf Metabolic Profile and Increases Plant Biomass Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercé-Laforgue, Thérèse; Clément, Gilles; Marchi, Laura; Restivo, Francesco M; Lea, Peter J; Hirel, Bertrand

    2015-10-01

    NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH) of higher plants has a central position at the interface between carbon and nitrogen metabolism due to its ability to carry out the deamination of glutamate. In order to obtain a better understanding of the physiological function of NAD-GDH under salt stress conditions, transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants that overexpress two genes from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia individually (GDHA and GDHB) or simultaneously (GDHA/B) were grown in the presence of 50 mM NaCl. In the different GDH overexpressors, the NaCl treatment induced an additional increase in GDH enzyme activity, indicating that a post-transcriptional mechanism regulates the final enzyme activity under salt stress conditions. A greater shoot and root biomass production was observed in the three types of GDH overexpressors following growth in 50 mM NaCl, when compared with the untransformed plants subjected to the same salinity stress. Changes in metabolites representative of the plant carbon and nitrogen status were also observed. They were mainly characterized by an increased amount of starch present in the leaves of the GDH overexpressors as compared with the wild type when plants were grown in 50 mM NaCl. Metabolomic analysis revealed that overexpressing the two genes GDHA and GDHB, individually or simultaneously, induced a differential accumulation of several carbon- and nitrogen-containing molecules involved in a variety of metabolic, developmental and stress-responsive processes. An accumulation of digalactosylglycerol, erythronate and porphyrin was found in the GDHA, GDHB and GDHA/B overexpressors, suggesting that these molecules could contribute to the improved performance of the transgenic plants under salinity stress conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. A population-based study of high-grade gliomas and mutated isocitrate dehydrogenase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke H; Kristensen, Bjarne W; Hjelmborg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    High-grade gliomas have a dismal prognosis, and prognostic factors are needed to optimize treatment algorithms. In this study we identified clinical prognostic factors as well as the prognostic value of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) status in a population-based group of patients with high......-grade gliomas. Using the Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Pathology Databank we identified 359 patients: 234 had WHO grade IV gliomas, 58 had WHO grade III gliomas, and 67 were diagnosed clinically. Mutated IDH1 was predominantly observed in oligodendroglial tumors (WHO grade III). Patients with mutated...... IDH1 had a significantly better outcome than patients with wildtype IDH1: 2-year OS 59% and 18%, respectively (HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.21-0.68). However, when adjusting for other prognostic factors, IDH1 status was not a significant independent prognostic factor (HR=0.58, 95% CI 0.32-1.07). Young age...

  1. [Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in trematodes and turbellarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vykhrestiuk, N P; Burenina, E A; Iarygina, G V

    1986-01-01

    Studies have been made on the activity and properties of malate and lactate dehydrogenases from the cattle rumen trematodes Eurytrema pancreaticum, Calicophoron ijimai and the turbellarian Phagocata sibirica which has a common free-living ancestor with the trematodes. All the species studied have a highly active malate dehydrogenase, its activity in the reaction of reducing oxaloacetate being 6-14 times higher than in the reaction of malate oxidation. The affinity of malate dehydrogenase to oxaloacetate was found to be higher than that to malate. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (reducing the pyruvate) was lower than the activity of malate dehydrogenase, the difference being 50 times for C. ijimai, 4 times for E. pancreaticum and 10 times for P. sibirica.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this condition: lactate dehydrogenase-A deficiency (sometimes called glycogen storage disease XI) and lactate dehydrogenase-B deficiency. People with ... Resources Genetic Testing (2 links) Genetic Testing Registry: Glycogen storage disease XI Genetic Testing Registry: Lactate dehydrogenase B deficiency ...

  3. The growth and characterization of group III-nitride transistor devices grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael Ming

    The InAlGaN, or III-nitride, material system has received much interest from the research community. A direct wide bandgap semiconductor, GaN offers a high breakdown field (>3 x 106 V/cm) due to its large bandgap energy of 3.4 eV, high electron saturation velocity (1.5 x 10 7 cm/s, predicted peak up to 2.7 x 107 cm/s), good thermal conductivity (≥1.7 W/cm K), and reasonable mobility (800 cm 2/V s). In an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure, the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) leads to a higher electron mobility (2000 cm2/V s) and a high sheet density (1--5 x 1013 cm -2). This makes transistors based on the III-nitride material system ideal for high-temperature, high-power, and high-frequency applications. Two such transistors include the heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET) and bipolar junction transistor (BJT), which includes the heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT). Both HFETs and HBTs were studied, and the epitaxial heterostructures were grown by the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique. The MOCVD process and system are described, along with the growth details. As material characterization is important for the optimization of growth, several of the techniques used are discussed. An extensive study to improve the performance of AlGaN/GaN HFETs is detailed. Through the use of a delta-doped, binary barrier novel device structure, the highest reported maximum drain current and transconductance is reported: IDSmax = 1.82 A/mm and gm = 331 mS/mm. The device also exhibits excellent RF characteristics. HBTs based on the III-nitride material system face a more difficult challenge associated with p-type material. Development of HBTs is still in the early stages, although there are reports of working devices. The gain is still below its potential, but many of the issues have been identified. Two novel structures are reported for the first time, a GaN/InGaN/GaN pnp HBT and a AlGaN/GaN npn graded-base and collector-up HBT. The

  4. Identification of a magnesium-dependent NAD(P)(H)-binding domain in the nicotinoprotein methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hektor, HJ; Kloosterman, H; Dijkhuizen, L

    2002-01-01

    The Bacillus methanolicus methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a decameric nicotinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (family III) with one Zn2+ ion, one or two Mg2+ ions, and a tightly bound cofactor NAD(H) per subunit. The Mg2+ ions are essential for binding of cofactor NAD(H) in MDH. A B. methanolicus

  5. A JASTRO study group report. A randomized phase III trial of hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy for superficial tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masahiro; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Mitsumori, Michihide

    1998-01-01

    Result of study about local effect of hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy for superficial tumors was reported. The irradiation was more than 90% isodose for lesion, and total dose was 60 Gy in cases with anamnesis and 40-50 Gy and without anamnesis at a rate of five times a week and 2 Gy at one time. Hyperthermia was carried out four times; once a week, at 42.5 degrees on tumor side edge, and for 40 minutes. Total 53 cases (neck lymph node metastasis 30 cases, relapse breast cancer 11, advanced breast cancer 1, other superficial tumor 11) were divided into 2 groups. Radiotherapy without hyperthermia (group R) was 27 cases, radiotherapy with hyperthermia (group H) was 26 cases. CR and CR+PR within 2 months after treatment were as follows: Group R: 50%, 85%, Group H: 64%, 100%. The CR+PR was superior in group H (p=0.0497). The CR at maximum effect after treatment was 65% of group R and 86% of group H (p=0.17). The local control rate after CR was not different in both groups. (K.H.)

  6. Campylobacter jejuni Group III Phage CP81 Contains Many T4-Like Genes without Belonging to the T4-Type Phage Group: Implications for the Evolution of T4 Phages▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. ...

  7. Implication of TLR- but not of NOD2-signaling pathways in dendritic cell activation by group B Streptococcus serotypes III and V.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lemire

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS is an important agent of life-threatening invasive infection. It has been previously shown that encapsulated type III GBS is easily internalized by dendritic cells (DCs, and that this internalization had an impact on cytokine production. The receptors underlying these processes are poorly characterized. Knowledge on the mechanisms used by type V GBS to activate DCs is minimal. In this work, we investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR/MyD88 signaling pathway, the particular involvement of TLR2, and that of the intracellular sensing receptor NOD2 in the activation of DCs by types III and V GBS. The role of capsular polysaccharide (CPS, one of the most important GBS virulence factors in bacterial-DC interactions was evaluated using non-encapsulated mutants. Despite differences in the role of CPS between types III and V GBS in bacterial internalization and intracellular survival, no major differences were observed in their capacity to modulate release of cytokines by DC. For both serotypes, CPS had a minor role in this response. Production of cytokines by DCs was shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize GBS and become activated mostly through TLR signaling. Yet, GBS-infected TLR2-/- DCs only showed a partial reduction in the production of IL-6 and CXCL1 compared to control DCs. Surprisingly, CXCL10 release by type III or type V GBS-infected DCs was MyD88-independent. No differences in DC activation were observed between NOD2-/- and control DCs. These results demonstrate the involvement of various receptors and the complexity of the cytokine production pathways activated by GBS upon DC infection.

  8. Catalytic one-electron reduction of uranyl(VI) to Group 1 uranyl(V) complexes via Al(III) coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Zegke, Markus; Nichol, Gary S; Arnold, Polly L; Love, Jason B

    2015-01-01

    Reactions between the uranyl(vi) Pacman complex [(UO2)(py)(H2L)] of the Schiff-base polypyrrolic macrocycle L and Tebbe's reagent or DIBAL result in the first selective reductive functionalisation of the uranyl oxo by Al to form [(py)(R2AlOUO)(py)(H2L)] (R = Me or (i)Bu). The clean displacement of the oxo-coordinated Al(iii) by Group 1 cations has enabled the development of a one-pot, DIBAL-catalysed reduction of the U(vi) uranyl complexes to a series of new, mono-oxo alkali-metal-functionali...

  9. Mathematical aspects of molecular replacement. III. Properties of space groups preferred by proteins in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikjian, G; Sajjadi, S; Toptygin, D; Yan, Y

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of molecular replacement in macromolecular crystallography is to find the appropriate rigid-body transformations that situate identical copies of model proteins in the crystallographic unit cell. The search for such transformations can be thought of as taking place in the coset space Γ\\G where Γ is the Sohncke group of the macromolecular crystal and G is the continuous group of rigid-body motions in Euclidean space. This paper, the third in a series, is concerned with viewing nonsymmorphic Γ in a new way. These space groups, rather than symmorphic ones, are the most common ones for protein crystals. Moreover, their properties impact the structure of the space Γ\\G. In particular, nonsymmorphic space groups contain both Bieberbach subgroups and symmorphic subgroups. A number of new theorems focusing on these subgroups are proven, and it is shown that these concepts are related to the preferences that proteins have for crystallizing in different space groups, as observed in the Protein Data Bank.

  10. Phase I/II Study of Radiofrequency Ablation for Malignant Renal Tumors: Japan Interventional Radiology in Oncology Study Group 0701

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hidefumi; Arai, Yasuaki; Yamakado, Koichiro; Sone, Miyuki; Takeuchi, Yoshito; Miki, Tsuneharu; Gobara, Hideo; Sakuhara, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Takanobu; Sato, Yozo; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    PurposeThis multicenter phase I/II study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and initial efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for small malignant renal tumors.MethodsThirty-three patients were enrolled in the study. A single session of RFA was performed in patients with a renal tumor of 1–3 cm in greatest diameter, with the exception of lesions adjacent to the renal hilum. The primary endpoint was the safety of renal RFA, and the secondary endpoints were its feasibility and initial efficacy for local control, as well as the incidence and grade of adverse events. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by CT scans within 1 week and at a further 4 weeks after the procedure using the criteria adapted from the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors.ResultsThe RFA procedure was completed in 100 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 89–100 %) of all 33 patients. There were no severe adverse events (0 % [95 % CI 0–11 %]). Among the 33 patients, a complete response, partial response, progressive disease, and stable disease were seen in 28 (85 %), 0 (0 %), one (3 %), and one (3 %) patient(s), respectively, with a tumor response rate of 85 % [95 % CI 68–95 %]). Three patients (9 %), including one ineligible patient (3 %), were not evaluable. Out of 30 evaluable patients, a complete response was achieved in 28 (93 %).ConclusionThe current multicenter trial revealed that RFA is a safe, feasible, and effective treatment for small malignant renal tumors in patients who are not candidates for surgery.

  11. Phase I/II Study of Radiofrequency Ablation for Malignant Renal Tumors: Japan Interventional Radiology in Oncology Study Group 0701

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimura, Hidefumi, E-mail: mimura@marianna-u.ac.jp [St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Arai, Yasuaki, E-mail: arai-y3111@mvh.biglobe.ne.jp [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Yamakado, Koichiro, E-mail: yama@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp [Mie University School of Medicine, Department of Interventional Radiology (Japan); Sone, Miyuki, E-mail: msone@me.com; Takeuchi, Yoshito, E-mail: yotake62@qg8.so-net.ne.jp [National Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Miki, Tsuneharu, E-mail: tmiki@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Urology (Japan); Gobara, Hideo, E-mail: gobara@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sakuhara, Yusuke, E-mail: yusaku@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Yamamoto, Takanobu, E-mail: tyamamot@tcc.pref.tochigi.lg.jp [Tochigi Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (Japan); Sato, Yozo, E-mail: ysato@aichi-cc.jp [Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Japan); Kanazawa, Susumu, E-mail: susumu@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp [Okayama University Medical School, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    PurposeThis multicenter phase I/II study evaluated the safety, feasibility, and initial efficacy of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for small malignant renal tumors.MethodsThirty-three patients were enrolled in the study. A single session of RFA was performed in patients with a renal tumor of 1–3 cm in greatest diameter, with the exception of lesions adjacent to the renal hilum. The primary endpoint was the safety of renal RFA, and the secondary endpoints were its feasibility and initial efficacy for local control, as well as the incidence and grade of adverse events. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by CT scans within 1 week and at a further 4 weeks after the procedure using the criteria adapted from the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors.ResultsThe RFA procedure was completed in 100 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 89–100 %) of all 33 patients. There were no severe adverse events (0 % [95 % CI 0–11 %]). Among the 33 patients, a complete response, partial response, progressive disease, and stable disease were seen in 28 (85 %), 0 (0 %), one (3 %), and one (3 %) patient(s), respectively, with a tumor response rate of 85 % [95 % CI 68–95 %]). Three patients (9 %), including one ineligible patient (3 %), were not evaluable. Out of 30 evaluable patients, a complete response was achieved in 28 (93 %).ConclusionThe current multicenter trial revealed that RFA is a safe, feasible, and effective treatment for small malignant renal tumors in patients who are not candidates for surgery.

  12. Corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase and glutathione S-transferase activity after excimer laser keratectomy in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B; Turkozkan, N

    1998-03-01

    The free radical balance of the eye may be changed by excimer laser keratectomy. Previous studies have demonstrated that excimer laser keratectomy increases the corneal temperature, decreases the superoxide dismutase activity of the aqueous, and induces lipid peroxidation in the superficial corneal stroma. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) are known to play an important role in corneal metabolism, particularly in detoxification of aldehydes, which are generated from free radical reactions. In three groups of guinea pigs mechanical corneal de-epithelialisation was performed in group I, superficial corneal photoablation in group II, and deep corneal photoablation in group III, and the corneal ALDH and GST activities measured after 48 hours. The mean ALDH and GST activities of group I and II showed no differences compared with the controls (p > 0.05). The corneal ALDH activities were found to be significantly decreased (p < 0.05) and GST activities increased (p < 0.05) in group III. These results suggest that excimer laser treatment of high myopia may change the ALDH and GST activities, metabolism, and free radical balance of the cornea.

  13. The type-specific polysaccharide and the R protein antigens of the L-phase from a group B, type III Streptococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A E; Ferrieri, P

    1985-04-01

    The type-specific polysaccharide and the R protein antigens from filtered culture supernatants of the bacterial phase and L-phase of the group B, type III streptococcal strain 76-043 were studied by several immunological methods. In the L-phase of growth, the two antigens were separate and distinct molecules which were found principally in the culture supernatant even on the 254th serial subculture in the cell-wall-defective state. Only trace amounts of these antigens were detected in extracts of L-phase cells. The type III polysaccharide antigens in the supernatant of cultures of the parent bacterium and the L-phase gave reactions of identity in immunodiffusion. Precipitin bands obtained by immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) revealed that the type-specific antigen of the bacterial phase of growth migrated toward the anode, whereas that of the L-phase remained near the antigen well. The R protein antigen in the L-phase supernatant was immunologically identical to the R protein of the supernatant and 1% trypsin-extracted antigens from whole cells of the parent bacterial strain, and other groups A, B and C streptococcal strains sharing a common R antigen. Immunologically, the R antigen appeared to be the species R4. The R protein of the L-phase and bacterial phase cultures was resistant to 5% trypsin but sensitive to 0.5% pepsin at 37 degrees C/2hr. Antiserum prepared in rabbits against L-phase cells contained an antibody reactive with the R protein antigens of the bacterial and L-phase cultures. The soluble, naturally released type III and R protein streptococcal antigens of the L-phase of growth permitted immunological confirmation of its bacterial origin.

  14. “Structural Transformations in Ceramics: Perovskite-like Oxides and Group III, IV, and V Nitrides”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James P. Lewis (PI, former Co-PI), Dorian M. Hatch (Co-PI, former PI), and Harold T. Stokes (Co-PI)

    2006-12-31

    1 Overview of Results and their Significance Ceramic perovskite-like oxides with the general formula (A. A0. ...)(B. B0. ...)O3and titanium-based oxides are of great technological interest because of their large piezoelectric and dielectric response characteristics.[1] In doped and nanoengineered forms, titantium dioxide finds increasing application as an organic and hydrolytic photocatalyst. The binary main-group-metal nitride compounds have undergone recent advancements of in-situ heating technology in diamond anvil cells leading to a burst of experimental and theoretical interest. In our DOE proposal, we discussed our unique theoretical approach which applies ab initio electronic calculations in conjunction with systematic group-theoretical analysis of lattice distortions to study two representative phase transitions in ceramic materials: (1) displacive phase transitions in primarily titanium-based perovskite-like oxide ceramics, and (2) reconstructive phase transitions in main-group nitride ceramics. A sub area which we have explored in depth is doped titanium dioxide electrical/optical properties.

  15. Outcome and Prognostic Factors in Stage III Favorable-Histology Wilms Tumor: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group Study AREN0532.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Conrad V; Mullen, Elizabeth A; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Ehrlich, Peter F; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Kalapurakal, John A; Khanna, Geetika; Paulino, Arnold C; Hamilton, Thomas E; Gow, Kenneth W; Tochner, Zelig; Hoffer, Fredric A; Withycombe, Janice S; Shamberger, Robert C; Kim, Yeonil; Geller, James I; Anderson, James R; Grundy, Paul E; Dome, Jeffrey S

    2018-01-20

    Background The National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) approach to treating stage III favorable-histology Wilms tumor (FHWT) is Regimen DD4A (vincristine, dactinomycin, and doxorubicin) and radiation therapy. Further risk stratification is required to improve outcomes and reduce late effects. We evaluated clinical and biologic variables for patients with stage III FHWT without combined loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosomes 1p and 16q treated in the Children's Oncology Group protocol AREN0532. Methods From October 2006 to August 2013, 588 prospectively treated, centrally reviewed patients with stage III FHWT were treated with Regimen DD4A and radiation therapy. Tumor LOH at 1p and 16q was determined by microsatellite analysis. Ineligible patients (n = 5) and those with combined LOH 1p/16q (n = 40) were excluded. Results A total of 535 patients with stage III disease were studied. Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 0.2 to 9.5). Four-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival estimates were 88% (95% CI, 85% to 91%) and 97% (95% CI, 95% to 99%), respectively. A total of 58 of 66 relapses occurred in the first 2 years, predominantly pulmonary (n = 36). Eighteen patients died, 14 secondary to disease. A better EFS was associated with negative lymph node status ( P < .01) and absence of LOH 1p or 16q ( P < .01), but not with gross residual disease or peritoneal implants. In contrast, the 4-year EFS was only 74% in patients with combined positive lymph node status and LOH 1p or 16q. A total of 123 patients (23%) had delayed nephrectomy. Submitted delayed nephrectomy histology showed anaplasia (n = 8; excluded from survival analysis); low risk/completely necrotic (n = 7; zero relapses), intermediate risk (n = 63; six relapses), and high-risk/blastemal type (n=7; five relapses). Conclusion Most patients with stage III FHWT had good EFS/overall survival with DD4A and radiation therapy. Combined lymph node and LOH status was highly predictive of EFS and should be

  16. Outcome and Prognostic Factors in Stage III Favorable-Histology Wilms Tumor: A Report From the Children’s Oncology Group Study AREN0532

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Elizabeth A.; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Ehrlich, Peter F.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Kalapurakal, John A.; Khanna, Geetika; Paulino, Arnold C.; Hamilton, Thomas E.; Gow, Kenneth W.; Tochner, Zelig; Hoffer, Fredric A.; Withycombe, Janice S.; Shamberger, Robert C.; Kim, Yeonil; Geller, James I.; Anderson, James R.; Grundy, Paul E.; Dome, Jeffrey S.

    2018-01-01

    Background The National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS) approach to treating stage III favorable-histology Wilms tumor (FHWT) is Regimen DD4A (vincristine, dactinomycin, and doxorubicin) and radiation therapy. Further risk stratification is required to improve outcomes and reduce late effects. We evaluated clinical and biologic variables for patients with stage III FHWT without combined loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at chromosomes 1p and 16q treated in the Children’s Oncology Group protocol AREN0532. Methods From October 2006 to August 2013, 588 prospectively treated, centrally reviewed patients with stage III FHWT were treated with Regimen DD4A and radiation therapy. Tumor LOH at 1p and 16q was determined by microsatellite analysis. Ineligible patients (n = 5) and those with combined LOH 1p/16q (n = 40) were excluded. Results A total of 535 patients with stage III disease were studied. Median follow-up was 5.2 years (range, 0.2 to 9.5). Four-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival estimates were 88% (95% CI, 85% to 91%) and 97% (95% CI, 95% to 99%), respectively. A total of 58 of 66 relapses occurred in the first 2 years, predominantly pulmonary (n = 36). Eighteen patients died, 14 secondary to disease. A better EFS was associated with negative lymph node status (P < .01) and absence of LOH 1p or 16q (P < .01), but not with gross residual disease or peritoneal implants. In contrast, the 4-year EFS was only 74% in patients with combined positive lymph node status and LOH 1p or 16q. A total of 123 patients (23%) had delayed nephrectomy. Submitted delayed nephrectomy histology showed anaplasia (n = 8; excluded from survival analysis); low risk/completely necrotic (n = 7; zero relapses), intermediate risk (n = 63; six relapses), and high-risk/blastemal type (n=7; five relapses). Conclusion Most patients with stage III FHWT had good EFS/overall survival with DD4A and radiation therapy. Combined lymph node and LOH status was highly predictive of EFS and should be

  17. Fine specificity and cross-reactions of monoclonal antibodies to group B streptococcal capsular polysaccharide type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pincus, Seth H; Moran, Emily; Maresh, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Despite aggressive campaigns using antenatal prophylactic antibiotic therapy, infections continue. Developing an effective maternal vaccine is a public health priority. Antibody (Ab) to the capsular polysaccharide (CPS...... carbohydrate structures, and cells. The results showed marked differences in the fine specificity among these mAbs to a single carbohydrate structure. Cross-reactions with synthetic GD3 and GT3 carbohydrates, representing structures found on surfaces of neural and developing cells, were demonstrated using...

  18. New type of amidoxime-group-containing adsorbent for the recovery of uranium from seawater. III. Recycle use of adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, H.; Katakai, A.; Sugo, T.; Okamoto, J.

    1986-01-01

    An amidoxime-group adsorbent for recovering uranium from seawater was made by radiation-induced graft polymerization of acrylonitrile onto polymeric fiber, followed by amidoximation. Uranium adsorption of the adsorbent contacted with seawater in a column increased with the increase in flow rate, then leveled off. The relationship between uranium adsorption in a batch process and the ratio of the amount of seawater to that of adsorbent was found to be effective in evaluating adsorbent contacted with any amount of seawater. The conditioning of the adsorbent with an alkaline solution at higher temperature (∼80 0 C) after the acid desorption recovered the adsorption ability to the original level. This made it possible to apply the adsorbent to recycle use. On the other hand, the adsorbent conditioned at room temperature or that without conditioning lost adsorption ability during recycle use. The increase in water uptake was observed as one of the physical changes produced during recycle use of the alkaline-conditioned adsorbent, while the decrease in water uptake was observed with the unconditioned adsorbent. The IR spectra of the adsorbent showed a probability of reactions of amidoxime groups with acid and alkaline solutions, which can explain the change in uranium adsorption during the adsorption-desorption cycle

  19. High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence: Working Group Reports (I. Applications Software II. Software Libraries and Tools III. Systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Roser, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); LeCompte, Tom [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marshall, Zach [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borgland, Anders [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Viren, Brett [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Nugent, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Asai, Makato [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bauerdick, Lothar [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Finkel, Hal [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gottlieb, Steve [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Hoeche, Stefan [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Sheldon, Paul [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Vay, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Elmer, Peter [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Kirby, Michael [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Patton, Simon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Potekhin, Maxim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yanny, Brian [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Calafiura, Paolo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dart, Eli [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gutsche, Oliver [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Izubuchi, Taku [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lyon, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Petravick, Don [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA)

    2015-10-29

    Computing plays an essential role in all aspects of high energy physics. As computational technology evolves rapidly in new directions, and data throughput and volume continue to follow a steep trend-line, it is important for the HEP community to develop an effective response to a series of expected challenges. In order to help shape the desired response, the HEP Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) initiated a roadmap planning activity with two key overlapping drivers -- 1) software effectiveness, and 2) infrastructure and expertise advancement. The HEP-FCE formed three working groups, 1) Applications Software, 2) Software Libraries and Tools, and 3) Systems (including systems software), to provide an overview of the current status of HEP computing and to present findings and opportunities for the desired HEP computational roadmap. The final versions of the reports are combined in this document, and are presented along with introductory material.

  20. High Energy Physics Forum for Computational Excellence: Working Group Reports (I. Applications Software II. Software Libraries and Tools III. Systems)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib, Salman [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Roser, Robert [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Computing plays an essential role in all aspects of high energy physics. As computational technology evolves rapidly in new directions, and data throughput and volume continue to follow a steep trend-line, it is important for the HEP community to develop an effective response to a series of expected challenges. In order to help shape the desired response, the HEP Forum for Computational Excellence (HEP-FCE) initiated a roadmap planning activity with two key overlapping drivers -- 1) software effectiveness, and 2) infrastructure and expertise advancement. The HEP-FCE formed three working groups, 1) Applications Software, 2) Software Libraries and Tools, and 3) Systems (including systems software), to provide an overview of the current status of HEP computing and to present findings and opportunities for the desired HEP computational roadmap. The final versions of the reports are combined in this document, and are presented along with introductory material.

  1. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic

  2. Skin irritation from a facial mask in Class III malocclusion: evaluation of individual silicone chin cups in a group of 100 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierardo, Gaetano; Luzzi, Valeria; Vozza, Iole; Polimeni, Antonella; Bossù, Maurizio

    2018-04-01

    Reverse headgear (a facial mask) is one of the most frequently used interceptive orthodontic devices in patients with Class III malocclusion. It is a simple device but may present some drawbacks related to pressure on the skin generated by the forehead and chin supports linked to the maxillary intraoral appliance by elastics. This can cause injury to the chin and lips. Patients between 7 and 8 years of age were selected from the Unit of Pediatric Dentistry. Orthopedic therapy with a rapid palatal expander and reverse headgear was prescribed for all subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: those who used a facial mask without a silicone chin cup and those who used a facial mask with a silicone chin cup. Two-hundred subjects including 90 male patients and 110 female patients were enrolled. The groups that used a facial mask with and without a silicone chin cup included 100 patients each. The percentage of subjects without irritation was significantly greater in the group with a silicone chin cup than in the group without a silicone chin cup. The authors propose a simple and effective solution to prevent skin irritation on the chin caused by a facial mask. A chin mask is a custom solution that can prevent injury to the chin during treatment when coupled with facial mask therapy.

  3. Estimation of salivary lactate dehydrogenase in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrikant; Metgud, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is found in the cells of almost all body tissues. The profile of salivary total LDH enzymes is similar to that found in oral epithelium, indicating that the major source of salivary LDH is probably the oral epithelium-shedding cells. Consequently, LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Study comprised of three groups as follows: Group I: Comprised of 25 healthy individuals of comparable age. Group II: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting patients with oral leukoplakia (OL). Group III: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Biochemical estimation of LDH was done with the help of Semiautomatic Analyzer. Inter comparison of salivary total LDH levels between all the three groups revealed that salivary LDH levels increase from healthy control group to Oral Leukoplakia group to further increase in OSCC group. On comparisons between the histopathological grades of OSCC group the level of LDH were found to increase from well differentiated to moderately differentiated to further increase in poorly differentiated patients. The present salivary analysis for LDH enzyme reveals an overall altered salivary LDH enzyme level in OL and OSCC cases.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5-fluorouracil and capecitabine. These drugs are not broken down efficiently by people with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency ... of this enzyme. Because fluoropyrimidine drugs are also broken down by the dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase enzyme, deficiency of ...

  5. Binding Studies of a Spin-Labelled Oxidized Coenzyme to Bovine-Liver Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, Alt; Trommer, Wolfgang E.; Wenzel, Herbert; Robillard, George T.

    1977-01-01

    NAD+ with a nitroxide piperidine ring linked to the NH2 group of the adenine possesses full coenzymatic activity with glutamate dehydrogenase. Electron spin resonance spectra in the presence of glutamate dehydrogenase show mixtures of free and strongly immobilized spin-label. Binding studies in

  6. Analytical microscopy observations of rat enterocytes after oral administration of soluble salts of lanthanides, actinides and elements of group III-A of the periodic chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floren, C; Tekaya, L; Escaig, F; Labejof, L; Mouthon, G; Galle, P

    2001-05-01

    The behavior in the intestinal barrier of nine elements (three of the group III-A, four lanthanides and two actinides), absorbed as soluble salts, has been studied by two microanalytical methods: electron probe X-ray micro analysis (EPMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). It has been shown that the three elements of group III-A, aluminium, gallium and indium; and the four lanthanides, lanthanum, cerium, europium and thulium, are selectively concentrated and precipitated as non-soluble form in enterocytes of proximal part of the intestinal tract. SIMS microscopy has shown that these elements are concentrated as a number of submicroscopic precipitates, most of them localized in the apical part of the duodenum enterocytes, where they are observed from one hour to 48 hr after a single intragastric administration. No precipitate is observed after three days. It is suggested that this mechanism of local concentration limits the diffusion of these elements through the digestive barrier, some of them being toxic and none of them having a recognized physiological role. Additionally, the precipitation in duodenal enterocytes, the life time of which is on the order of 2-3 days, allows the elements absorbed as soluble form to be eliminated as a non-soluble form in the digestive lumen along with the desquamation of the apoptotic enterocytes. The intracytoplasmic localization of the precipitates are supposed to be the lysosomes although no direct evidence could be given here due to the very small sizes of the lysosomes of enterocytes. The same results were not observed with the two studied actinides. After administration of thorium, only some very sparse microprecipitates could be observed in intestinal mucosa and, after administration of uranium, no precipitates were observed with the exception of some in the conjunctive part of the duodenal villi.

  7. WRKY domain-encoding genes of a crop legume chickpea (Cicer arietinum): comparative analysis with Medicago truncatula WRKY family and characterization of group-III gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kamal; Srivastava, Vikas; Purayannur, Savithri; Kaladhar, V Chandra; Cheruvu, Purnima Jaiswal; Verma, Praveen Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The WRKY genes have been identified as important transcriptional modulators predominantly during the environmental stresses, but they also play critical role at various stages of plant life cycle. We report the identification of WRKY domain (WD)-encoding genes from galegoid clade legumes chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and barrel medic (Medicago truncatula). In total, 78 and 98 WD-encoding genes were found in chickpea and barrel medic, respectively. Comparative analysis suggests the presence of both conserved and unique WRKYs, and expansion of WRKY family in M. truncatula primarily by tandem duplication. Exclusively found in galegoid legumes, CaWRKY16 and its orthologues encode for a novel protein having a transmembrane and partial Exo70 domains flanking a group-III WD. Genomic region of galegoids, having CaWRKY16, is more dynamic when compared with millettioids. In onion cells, fused CaWRKY16-EYFP showed punctate fluorescent signals in cytoplasm. The chickpea WRKY group-III genes were further characterized for their transcript level modulation during pathogenic stress and treatments of abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) by real-time PCR. Differential regulation of genes was observed during Ascochyta rabiei infection and SA treatment. Characterization of A. rabiei and SA inducible gene CaWRKY50 showed that it localizes to plant nucleus, binds to W-box, and have a C-terminal transactivation domain. Overexpression of CaWRKY50 in tobacco plants resulted in early flowering and senescence. The in-depth comparative account presented here for two legume WRKY genes will be of great utility in hastening functional characterization of crop legume WRKYs and will also help in characterization of Exo70Js. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  8. A randomized phase III study of accelerated hyperfractionation versus standard in patients with unresected brain metastases: a report of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) 9104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, Kevin J.; Scott, Charles; Greenberg, Harvey M.; Emami, Bahman; Seider, Michael; Vora, Nayana L.; Olson, Craig; Whitton, Anthony; Movsas, Benjamin; Curran, Walter

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To compare 1-year survival and acute toxicity rates between an accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) radiotherapy (1.6 Gy b.i.d.) to a total dose of 54.4 Gy vs. an accelerated fractionation (AF) of 30 Gy in 10 daily fractions in patients with unresected brain metastasis. Methods and Materials: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) accrued 445 patients to a Phase III comparison of accelerated hyperfractionation vs. standard fractionation from 1991 through 1995. All patients had histologic proof of malignancy at the primary site. Brain metastasis were measurable by CT or MRI scan and all patients had a Karnofsky performance score (KPS) of at least 70 and a neurologic function classification of 1 or 2. For AH, 32 Gy in 20 fractions over 10 treatment days (1.6 Gy twice daily) was delivered to the whole brain. A boost of 22.4 Gy in 14 fractions was delivered to each lesion with a 2-cm margin. Results: The average age in both groups was 60 years; nearly two-thirds of all patients had lung primaries. Of the 429 eligible and analyzable patients, the median survival time was 4.5 months in both arms. The 1-year survival rate was 19% in the AF arm vs. 16% in the AH arm. No difference in median or 1-year survival was observed among patients with solitary metastasis between treatment arms. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classes have previously been identified and patients with a KPS of 70 or more, a controlled primary tumor, less than 65 years of age, and brain metastases only (RPA class I), had a 1-year survival of 35% in the AF arm vs. 25% in the AH arm (p = 0.95). In a multivariate model, only age, KPS, extent of metastatic disease (intracranial metastases only vs. intra- and extracranial metastases), and status of primary (controlled vs. uncontrolled) were statistically significant (at p < 0.05). Treatment assignment was not statistically significant. Overall Grade III or IV toxicity was equivalent in both arms, and one fatal toxicity at 44 days secondary

  9. Identification, Cloning, and Characterization of l-Phenylserine Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakuko Ueshima

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene encoding d-phenylserine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas syringae NK-15 was identified, and a 9,246-bp nucleotide sequence containing the gene was sequenced. Six ORFs were confirmed in the sequenced region, four of which were predicted to form an operon. A homology search of each ORF predicted that orf3 encoded l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. Hence, orf3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells and recombinant ORF3 was purified to homogeneity and characterized. The purified ORF3 enzyme showed l-phenylserine dehydrogenase activity. The enzymological properties and primary structure of l-phenylserine dehydrogenase (ORF3 were quite different from those of d-phenylserine dehydrogenase previously reported. l-Phenylserine dehydrogenase catalyzed the NAD+-dependent oxidation of the β-hydroxyl group of l-β-phenylserine. l-Phenylserine and l-threo-(2-thienylserine were good substrates for l-phenylserine dehydrogenase. The genes encoding l-phenylserine dehydrogenase and d-phenylserine dehydrogenase, which is induced by phenylserine, are located in a single operon. The reaction products of both enzymatic reactions were 2-aminoacetophenone and CO2.

  10. Tolerability of intensified intravenous interferon alfa-2b versus the ECOG 1684 schedule as adjuvant therapy for stage III melanoma: a randomized phase III Italian Melanoma Inter-group trial (IMI – Mel.A. [ISRCTN75125874

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridolfi Ruggero

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-dose interferon alfa-2b (IFNalfa-2b, according to the ECOG 1684 schedule, is the only approved adjuvant treatment for stage III melanoma patients by the FDA and EMEA. However, the risk/benefit profile has been questioned limiting its world-wide use. In the late nineties, the Italian Melanoma Inter-group started a spontaneous randomized clinical trial (RCT to verify if a more intense, but shorter than the ECOG 1684 regimen, could improve survival without increasing the toxicity profile. The safety analysis in the first 169 patients who completed the treatment is here described. Methods Stage III melanoma patients were randomized to receive IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d intravenously (IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks, repeated for three times on weeks 9 to 12, 17 to 20, 25 to 28 (Dose-Dense/Dose-Intense, DD/DI, arm, or IFNalfa-2b 20 MU/m2/d IV 5 days/week × 4 weeks followed by 10 MU/m2 subcutaneously (SC three times per week × 48 weeks (High Dose Interferon, HDI, arm. Toxicity was recorded and graded, according to the WHO criteria, as the worst grade that occurred during each cycle. Results The most common toxicities in both arms were flu-like and gastrointestinal symptoms, leukopenia, liver and neuro-psichiatric morbidities; with regard to severe toxicity, only leukopenia was statistically more frequent in DD/DI arm than in HDI arm (24% vs 9% (p = 0.0074, yet, this did not cause an increase in the infection risk. Discontinuation of treatment, due to toxicity, was observed in 13 and 17% of the patients in the DD/DI and HDI arm, respectively. The median actual dose intensity delivered in the DD/DI arm (36.4 MU/m2/week was statistically higher than that delivered in the HDI arm (30.7 MU/m2/week (p = 0.003. Conclusion Four cycles of intravenous high-dose IFNalfa-2b can be safely delivered with an increase in the median dose intensity. Efficacy results from this trial are eagerly awaited.

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breugom, A J; van Gijn, W; Muller, E W; Berglund, Å; van den Broek, C B M; Fokstuen, T; Gelderblom, H; Kapiteijn, E; Leer, J W H; Marijnen, C A M; Martijn, H; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E; Nagtegaal, I D; Påhlman, L; Punt, C J A; Putter, H; Roodvoets, A G H; Rutten, H J T; Steup, W H; Glimelius, B; van de Velde, C J H

    2015-04-01

    The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision (TME). The PROCTOR-SCRIPT trial recruited patients from 52 hospitals. Patients with histologically proven stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma were randomly assigned (1:1) to observation or adjuvant chemotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and TME. Radiotherapy consisted of 5 × 5 Gy. Chemoradiotherapy consisted of 25 × 1.8-2 Gy combined with 5-FU-based chemotherapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy consisted of 5-FU/LV (PROCTOR) or eight courses capecitabine (SCRIPT). Randomization was based on permuted blocks of six, stratified according to centre, residual tumour, time between last irradiation and surgery, and preoperative treatment. The primary end point was overall survival. Of 470 enrolled patients, 437 were eligible. The trial closed prematurely because of slow patient accrual. Patients were randomly assigned to observation (n = 221) or adjuvant chemotherapy (n = 216). After a median follow-up of 5.0 years, 5-year overall survival was 79.2% in the observation group and 80.4% in the chemotherapy group [hazard ratio (HR) 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62-1.39; P = 0.73]. The HR for disease-free survival was 0.80 (95% CI 0.60-1.07; P = 0.13). Five-year cumulative incidence for locoregional recurrences was 7.8% in both groups. Five-year cumulative incidence for distant recurrences was 38.5% and 34.7%, respectively (P = 0.39). The PROCTOR-SCRIPT trial could not demonstrate a significant benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy with fluoropyrimidine monotherapy after preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and TME on overall survival, disease-free survival, and recurrence rate. However, this trial did not complete

  12. Assessment of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ina bid to investigate the influence of menopausal on coronary heart disease, plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes were analysed on a prospective cohort of 100 women attending Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH), Irrua, Edo state-Nigeria. They were divided into two groups; ...

  13. Screening of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Acipayam

    2014-02-01

    Aim: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is an important factor in etiology of pathologic neonatal jaundice. The aim of this study was to indicate the significance of screening glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the cord blood of neonates and the frequency of this deficiency in the etiology of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Material and Method: The study was performed consecutive 1015 neonates were included. Five hundred fifty six (54.8% of them were male and 459 (45.2% were female. The following parameters were recorded: Gender, birth weight, birth height, head circumference and gestational age. The glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase level of neonates were measured with quantitative method in cord blood. Also, hemoglobine, hematocrite, red blood cell count and blood group were measured. The following parameters were recorded in cases with jaundice: exchange transfusion, phototherapy, physiologic and pathologic jaundice, peak bilirubin day, maximum bilirubin level, total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, beginning time of jaundice. Results: Enzyme deficiency was detected in 133 (13.1% of neonates and 76 (57% of them were male, 57 (43% were female. Significant difference was detected in low glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level with jaundice group for total bilirubin level at the first day of jaundice, maximum total bilirubin level and pathologic jaundice (p<0.05. Discussion: The ratio of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was found in Edirne in this study and this ratio was higher than other studies conducted in our country. For this reason, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme level in cord blood of neonates should be measured routinely and high risk neonates should be followed up for hyperbilirubinemia and parents should be informed in our region.

  14. Determination of L-AP4-bound human mGlu8 receptor amino terminal domain structure and the molecular basis for L-AP4’s group III mGlu receptor functional potency and selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schkeryantz, Jeffery M.; Chen, Qi; Ho, Joseph D.; Atwell, Shane; Zhang, Aiping; Vargas, Michelle C.; Wang, Jing; Monn, James A.; Hao, Junliang (Lilly)

    2018-02-01

    Here, L-2-Amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) is a known potent and selective agonist for the Group III mGlu receptors. However, it does not show any selectivity among the individual group III mGlu subtypes. In order to understand the molecular basis for this group selectivity, we solved the first human mGlu8 amino terminal domain (ATD) crystal structures in complex with L-glu and L-AP4. In comparison with other published L-glu-bound mGlu ATD structures, we have observed L-glu binds in a significantly different manner in mGlu1. Furthermore, these new structures provided evidence that both the electronic and steric nature of the distal phosphate of L-AP4 contribute to its exquisite Group III functional agonist potency and selectivity.

  15. Phonon and free-charge carrier properties in group-III nitride heterostructures investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry and optical Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeche, Stefan

    The material class of group-III nitrides gained tremendous technological importance for optoelectronic and high-power/high-frequency amplification devices. Tunability of the direct band gap from 0.65 eV (InN) to 6.2 eV (AlN) by alloying, high breakthrough voltages and intrinsic mobilities, as well as the formation of highly mobile 2d electron gases (2DEG) at heterointerfaces make these compounds ideal for many applications. GaN and Ga-rich alloys are well studied and current research is mainly device-oriented. For example, choice and quality of the gate dielectric significantly influence device performance in high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) which utilize highly mobile 2DEGs at heterointerfaces. Experimental access to the 2DEG channel properties without influence from parasitic currents or contact properties are desirable. In- and Al-rich ternary alloys are less explored than Ga-rich compounds. For InN and In-rich alloys, while many material parameters such as stiffness constants or effective mass values are largely unknown, reliable p-type doping is a major challenge, also because p-type conducting channels are buried within highly conductive n-type material formed at the surface and interfaces preventing electrical characterization. For AlN and high-Al content alloys, doping mechanisms are not understood and reliable fabrication of material with high free-charge carrier (FCC) concentrations was achieved just recently. Difficulties to form ohmic contacts impair electrical measurements and optical characterization is impeded by lack of high-energy excitation sources. In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry over the wide spectral range from the THz to VUV in combination with optical Hall effect (generalized ellipsometry with applied magnetic field) from THz to MIR are applied in order to investigate the phonon modes and FCC properties in group-III nitride heterostructures. Adequate model descriptions and analysis strategies are introduced which allow

  16. Assessing the impact of safety monitoring on the efficacy analysis in large Phase III group sequential trials with non-trivial safety event rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yanqiu; Palesch, Yuko Y; DeSantis, Stacia M; Zhao, Wenle

    2016-01-01

    In Phase III clinical trials for life-threatening conditions, some serious but expected adverse events, such as early deaths or congestive heart failure, are often treated as the secondary or co-primary endpoint, and are closely monitored by the Data and Safety Monitoring Committee (DSMC). A naïve group sequential design (GSD) for such a study is to specify univariate statistical boundaries for the efficacy and safety endpoints separately, and then implement the two boundaries during the study, even though the two endpoints are typically correlated. One problem with this naïve design, which has been noted in the statistical literature, is the potential loss of power. In this article, we develop an analytical tool to evaluate this negative impact for trials with non-trivial safety event rates, particularly when the safety monitoring is informal. Using a bivariate binary power function for the GSD with a random-effect component to account for subjective decision-making in safety monitoring, we demonstrate how, under common conditions, the power loss in the naïve design can be substantial. This tool may be helpful to entities such as the DSMCs when they wish to deviate from the prespecified stopping boundaries based on safety measures.

  17. Large-signal characterizations of DDR IMPATT devices based on group III-V semiconductors at millimeter-wave and terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Aritra; Mallik, Aliva; Banerjee, Debopriya; Ganguli, Suman; Das, Arindam; Dasgupta, Sudeepto; Banerjee, J. P.

    2014-08-01

    Large-signal (L-S) characterizations of double-drift region (DDR) impact avalanche transit time (IMPATT) devices based on group III-V semiconductors such as wurtzite (Wz) GaN, GaAs and InP have been carried out at both millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and terahertz (THz) frequency bands. A L-S simulation technique based on a non-sinusoidal voltage excitation (NSVE) model developed by the authors has been used to obtain the high frequency properties of the above mentioned devices. The effect of band-to-band tunneling on the L-S properties of the device at different mm-wave and THz frequencies are also investigated. Similar studies are also carried out for DDR IMPATTs based on the most popular semiconductor material, i.e. Si, for the sake of comparison. A comparative study of the devices based on conventional semiconductor materials (i.e. GaAs, InP and Si) with those based on Wz-GaN shows significantly better performance capabilities of the latter at both mm-wave and THz frequencies.

  18. Comprehension of the Effect of a Hydroxyl Group in Ancillary Ligand on Phosphorescent Property for Heteroleptic Ir(III) Complexes: A Computational Study Using Quantitative Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Huiqing; Wen, Yaping; Wang, Li; Li, Junfeng; Zhang, Jinglai

    2017-08-07

    A new Ir(III) complex (dfpypya) 2 Ir(pic-OH) (2) is theoretically designed by introduction of a simple hydroxyl group into the ancillary ligand on the basis of (dfpypya) 2 Ir(pic) (1) with the aim to get the high-efficiency and stable blue-emitting phosphors, where dfpypya is 3-methyl-6-(2',4'-difluoro-pyridinato)pyridazine, pic is picolinate, and pic-OH is 3-hydroxypicolinic acid. The other configuration (dfpypya) 2 Ir(pic-OH)' (3) is also investigated to compare with 2. The difference between 2 and 3 is whether the intramolecular hydrogen bond is formed in the (dfpypya) 2 Ir(pic-OH). The quantum yield is determined by three different methods including the semiquantitative and quantitative methods. To quantitatively determine the quantum yield is still not an easy task to be completed. This work would provide some useful advices to select the suitable method to reliably evaluate the quantum yield. Complex 2 has larger quantum yield and more stability as compared with 1 and 3. The formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond would become a new method to design new phosphor with the desired properties.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni group III phage CP81 contains many T4-like genes without belonging to the T4-type phage group: implications for the evolution of T4 phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens A; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. Moreover, most genes for metabolic enzymes of CP220/CPt10 are lacking in CP81. On the other hand, the CP81 genome contains nine similar genes for homing endonucleases which may be involved in the attrition of the conserved gene order for the virion core genes of T4-type phages. The phage apparently possesses an unusual modification of C or G bases. Efficient cleavage of its DNA was only achieved with restriction enzymes recognizing pure A/T sites. Uncommonly, phenol extraction leads to a significant loss of CP81 DNA from the aqueous layer, a property not yet described for other phages belonging to the T4 superfamily.

  20. Campylobacter jejuni Group III Phage CP81 Contains Many T4-Like Genes without Belonging to the T4-Type Phage Group: Implications for the Evolution of T4 Phages▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. Moreover, most genes for metabolic enzymes of CP220/CPt10 are lacking in CP81. On the other hand, the CP81 genome contains nine similar genes for homing endonucleases which may be involved in the attrition of the conserved gene order for the virion core genes of T4-type phages. The phage apparently possesses an unusual modification of C or G bases. Efficient cleavage of its DNA was only achieved with restriction enzymes recognizing pure A/T sites. Uncommonly, phenol extraction leads to a significant loss of CP81 DNA from the aqueous layer, a property not yet described for other phages belonging to the T4 superfamily. PMID:21697478

  1. Identification and characterization of Clostridium botulinum group III field strains by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Luca; Drigo, Ilenia; Tonon, Elena; Pascoletti, Simone; Puiatti, Cinzia; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Auricchio, Bruna; Lista, Florigio; Montecucco, Cesare; Agnoletti, Fabrizio

    2017-12-01

    Animal botulism is primarily due to botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types C, D or their chimeric variants C/D or D/C, produced by Clostridium botulinum group III, which appears to include the genetically indistinguishable Clostridium haemolyticum and Clostridium novyi. In the present study, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) to identify and characterize 81 BoNT-producing Clostridia isolated in 47 episodes of animal botulism. The instrument's default database, containing no entries for Clostridium botulinum, permitted reliable identification of 26 strains at the genus level. Although supplementation of the database with reference strains enhanced the instrument's ability to identify the neurotoxic strains at the genus level, resolution was not sufficient to recognize field strains at species level. Characterization by MALDI TOF confirmed the well-documented phenotypic and genetic differences between Clostridium botulinum strains of serotypes normally implicated in human botulism (A, B, E, F) and other Clostridium species able to produce BoNTs type C and D. The chimeric and non-chimeric field strains grouped separately. In particular, very low similarity was found between two non-chimeric type C field strains isolated in the same outbreak and the other field strains. This difference was comparable with the differences among the various Clostridia species included in the study. Characterization by MALDI TOF confirmed that BoNT-producing Clostridia isolated from animals are closely related and indistinguishable at the species level from Clostridium haemolyticum and Clostridium novyi reference strains. On the contrary, there seem to be substantial differences among chimeric and some non-chimeric type C strains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations Between Cigarette Smoking Status and Colon Cancer Prognosis Among Participants in North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Shi, Qian; Newcomb, Polly A.; Nelson, Garth D.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Alberts, Steven R.; Limburg, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose By using data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147, a randomized adjuvant trial of patients with stage III colon cancer, we assessed the relationship between smoking and cancer outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS), and time to recurrence (TTR), accounting for heterogeneity by patient and tumor characteristics. Patients and Methods Before random assignment to infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or FOLFOX plus cetuximab, 1,968 participants completed a questionnaire on smoking history and other risk factors. Cox models assessed the association between smoking history and the primary trial outcome of DFS (ie, time to recurrence or death), as well as TTR, adjusting for other clinical and patient factors. The median follow-up was 3.5 years among patients who did not experience events. Results Compared with never-smokers, ever smokers experienced significantly shorter DFS (3-year DFS proportion: 70% v 74%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.42). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49). There was significant interaction in this association by BRAF mutation status (P = .03): smoking was associated with shorter DFS in patients with BRAF wild-type (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.66) but not BRAF mutated (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.29) colon cancer. Smoking was more strongly associated with poorer DFS in those with KRAS mutated versus KRAS wild-type colon cancer (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12 to 2.00] v HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.39]), although interaction by KRAS mutation status was not statistically significant (P = .07). Associations were comparable in analyses of TTR. Conclusion Overall, smoking was significantly associated with shorter DFS and TTR in patients with colon cancer. These adverse relationships were most evident in patients with BRAF wild-type or KRAS mutated colon cancer. PMID:23547084

  3. Associations between cigarette smoking status and colon cancer prognosis among participants in North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Newcomb, Polly A; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Alberts, Steven R; Limburg, Paul J

    2013-06-01

    By using data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147, a randomized adjuvant trial of patients with stage III colon cancer, we assessed the relationship between smoking and cancer outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS), and time to recurrence (TTR), accounting for heterogeneity by patient and tumor characteristics. PATIENTS AND METHODS Before random assignment to infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or FOLFOX plus cetuximab, 1,968 participants completed a questionnaire on smoking history and other risk factors. Cox models assessed the association between smoking history and the primary trial outcome of DFS (ie, time to recurrence or death), as well as TTR, adjusting for other clinical and patient factors. The median follow-up was 3.5 years among patients who did not experience events. Compared with never-smokers, ever smokers experienced significantly shorter DFS (3-year DFS proportion: 70% v 74%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.42). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49). There was significant interaction in this association by BRAF mutation status (P = .03): smoking was associated with shorter DFS in patients with BRAF wild-type (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.66) but not BRAF mutated (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.29) colon cancer. Smoking was more strongly associated with poorer DFS in those with KRAS mutated versus KRAS wild-type colon cancer (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12 to 2.00] v HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.39]), although interaction by KRAS mutation status was not statistically significant (P = .07). Associations were comparable in analyses of TTR. Overall, smoking was significantly associated with shorter DFS and TTR in patients with colon cancer. These adverse relationships were most evident in patients with BRAF wild-type or KRAS mutated colon cancer.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary structural analyses of glutamate dehydrogenase from Peptoniphilus asaccharolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Tania F.; Carrigan, John B.; Hamza, Muaawia A.; Sharkey, Michael A.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R.

    2010-01-01

    Selenomethionine-derivatized glutamate dehydrogenase from P. asaccharolyticus has been crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 3.5 Å resolution from crystals belonging to the rhombohedral space group H32 and structure determination is in progress.

  5. Aldehyde dehydrogenases and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzio, G; Maggiora, M; Paiuzzi, E; Oraldi, M; Canuto, R A

    2012-02-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) oxidize aldehydes to the corresponding carboxylic acids using either NAD or NADP as a coenzyme. Aldehydes are highly reactive aliphatic or aromatic molecules that play an important role in numerous physiological, pathological, and pharmacological processes. ALDHs have been discovered in practically all organisms and there are multiple isoforms, with multiple subcellular localizations. More than 160 ALDH cDNAs or genes have been isolated and sequenced to date from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, fungi, plants, and animals. The eukaryote ALDH genes can be subdivided into several families; the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Noteworthy is the fact that elevated activity of various ALDHs, namely ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1A7, ALDH2*2, ALDH3A1, ALDH4A1, ALDH5A1, ALDH6, and ALDH9A1, has been observed in normal and cancer stem cells. Consequently, ALDHs not only may be considered markers of these cells, but also may well play a functional role in terms of self-protection, differentiation, and/or expansion of stem cell populations. The ALDH3 family includes enzymes able to oxidize medium-chain aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, such as peroxidic and fatty aldehydes. Moreover, these enzymes also have noncatalytic functions, including antioxidant functions and some structural roles. The gene of the cytosolic form, ALDH3A1, is localized on chromosome 17 in human beings and on the 11th and 10th chromosome in the mouse and rat, respectively. ALDH3A1 belongs to the phase II group of drug-metabolizing enzymes and is highly expressed in the stomach, lung, keratinocytes, and cornea, but poorly, if at all, in normal liver. Cytosolic ALDH3 is induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or chlorinated compounds, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in rat liver cells and increases during carcinogenesis. It has been observed that this increased activity is directly correlated with the degree of

  6. Outcome of patients with stage III or inoperable WT treated on the second United Kingdom WT protocol (UKWT2); a United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, R G; Hutton, C; Middleton, H; Imeson, J; Pritchard, J; Kelsey, A; Marsden, H B; Vujanic, G M; Taylor, R E

    2004-04-01

    The aims of UKWT2 included consolidating the results for stage III patients obtained in UKWT1 and improving the outcome for patients with inoperable tumours by giving vincristine, actinomycin-D and doxorubicin in an intensive schedule (Intensive AVA). The second UK WT trial (UKWT2) ran between July 1986 and September 1991 accruing 448 patients. One hundred and six patients were diagnosed and treated for stage III disease. Six had clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) and seven had rhabdoid tumours of the kidney (RTK) and are analysed separately. One other patient was excluded from overall analysis. Ninety-two patients were followed for a median of 115 months. Seventy-five received standard chemotherapy and abdominal radiotherapy according to protocol. Seventeen had stage III disease at immediate nephrectomy, but radiotherapy was omitted by physician choice. Thirty-three patients had inoperable disease at diagnosis and received pre-nephrectomy chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) at 4 years for stage III favourable histology (FH) patients receiving abdominal RT was 83% (CI: 73-89). For children with stage III disease in whom RT was omitted the OS was 82% (CI: 59-97) and for inoperable disease 94% (CI: 78-98). The overall and event-free survival (EFS) of children with stage III CCSK was 100% and was achieved with the majority of patients not receiving radiotherapy (CI: 48-100). Three of seven children with RTK are alive EFS and OS 43% (CI: 10-73). For patients treated by abdominal radiotherapy the overall local control rate was 94.4% (CI: 86.4-98.5*%), 96.7% (CI: 88.5-99.6%) for flank RT and 83.3% (51.6-98.0%) for whole abdominal radiotherapy (WRT). The outcome for stage III FH disease was similar to that reported for UKWT1 and NWTS-3. The combination of abdominal RT together with 3-drug chemotherapy achieves a high abdominal tumour control rate. Flank RT is probably sufficient for localised tumour rupture. The high cure rates for children in this trial with

  7. Limiting Debye temperature behavior following from cryogenic heat capacity data for group-IV, III-V, and II-VI materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paessler, R. [Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    We perform analyses of cryogenic heat capacity data sets, that are available from thermo-physical literature for group-IV materials (diamond, Si, Ge, and 3C-SiC), a variety of III-V materials (BN, BP, BAs, GaN, GaP, GaAs, GaSb, InP, InAs, InSb), and several II-VI materials (ZnO, ZnS, ZnSe, CdS, and CdTe). A prominent new result of the present study consists above all in a general high-precision formula, {theta}{sub D}(T)= {theta}{sub D}(0)(1+a{sub 2}T{sup 2}+a{sub 4}T{sup 4}){sup -1/3}, for the limiting behavior of the Debye temperature in the liquid helium-hydrogen region. The actual magnitudes of limiting Debye temperatures, {theta}{sub D}(0), in combination with the associated (throughout positive) curve shape coefficients, a{sub 2} and a{sub 4}, are given in unambiguous way in terms of the three lowest-order heat capacity coefficients involved by conventional Taylor series expansions for lattice heat capacities within the cryogenic range up to temperatures of order {theta}{sub D}(0){theta}{sub D}(0)/30. Among the variety of presently specified calorimetric {theta}{sub D}(0) values, particularly those obtained for a series of wide-bandgap materials may be of considerable interest. These are about 1110 K for 3C-SiC, 1860 for c-BN, 950 K for BP, 592 K for GaN, 429 or 392 K for isotopically modified samples {sup 64}Zn {sup 16}O and {sup 68}Zn {sup 18}O, respectively, 414 K for natural ZnO, 349 K for ZnS, 276 K for ZnSe, and 236 K for CdS. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Vinorelbine and gemcitabine vs vinorelbine and carboplatin as first-line treatment of advanced NSCLC. A phase III randomised controlled trial by the Norwegian Lung Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløtten, Ø; Grønberg, B H; Bremnes, R

    2012-01-01

    was 65 years, 58% were men and 25% had PS 2. Median survival was VG: 6.3 months; VC: 7.0 months, P=0.802. Vinorelbine plus carboplatin patients had more grade III/IV nausea/vomiting (VG: 4%, VC: 12%, P=0.008) and grade IV neutropenia (VG: 7%, VC: 19%, P

  9. The "g" Factor and Cognitive Test Session Behavior: Using a Latent Variable Approach in Examining Measurement Invariance Across Age Groups on the WJ III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Craig L.; Wang, Ze

    2016-01-01

    Data from the standardization sample of the Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery--Third Edition (WJ III) Cognitive standard battery and Test Session Observation Checklist items were analyzed to understand the relationship between g (general mental ability) and test session behavior (TSB; n = 5,769). Latent variable modeling methods were used…

  10. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugom, A.J.; Gijn, W. van; Muller, E.W.; Berglund, A; Broek, C.B. van den; Fokstuen, T.; Gelderblom, H.; Kapiteijn, E.; Leer, J.W.H.; Marijnen, C.A.; Martijn, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nagtegaal, I.D.; Pahlman, L.; Punt, C.J.A.; Putter, H.; Roodvoets, A.G.; Rutten, H.J.; Steup, W.H.; Glimelius, B.; Velde, C.J. van de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy and total mesorectal excision: a Dutch Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) randomized phase III trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugom, A. J.; van Gijn, W.; Muller, E. W.; Berglund, Å; van den Broek, C. B. M.; Fokstuen, T.; Gelderblom, H.; Kapiteijn, E.; Leer, J. W. H.; Marijnen, C. A. M.; Martijn, H.; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, E.; Nagtegaal, I. D.; Påhlman, L.; Punt, C. J. A.; Putter, H.; Roodvoets, A. G. H.; Rutten, H. J. T.; Steup, W. H.; Glimelius, B.; van de Velde, C. J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The discussion on the role of adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer patients treated according to current guidelines is still ongoing. A multicentre, randomized phase III trial, PROCTOR-SCRIPT, was conducted to compare adjuvant chemotherapy with observation for rectal cancer patients treated with

  12. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akduman, Begüm [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Murat [Koçarlı Vocational and Training School, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Uygun, Deniz Aktaş, E-mail: daktas@adu.edu.tr [Chemistry Department, Adnan Menderes University, Aydın (Turkey); Akgöl, Sinan [Biochemistry Department, Ege University, İzmir (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Chemistry Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-12-01

    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA–GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30–50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0 M NaCI at pH 8.0 phosphate buffer and desorption yield was found to be 93.5%. Additionally, these cryogels were used for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast with a single-step. The purity of desorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was shown by silver-stained SDS–PAGE. This purification process can successfully be used for the purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from unclarified yeast homogenates and this work is the first report about the usage of the cryogels for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels were synthesized by radical cryocopolymerization technique. • Prepared cryogels were functionalized with IDA, then Zn(II) ions were chelated to the cryogel. • Zn(II) chelated poly

  13. Purification of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by using immobilized metal affinity cryogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akduman, Begüm; Uygun, Murat; Uygun, Deniz Aktaş; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

    2013-01-01

    In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate–glycidylmethacrylate) [poly(HEMA–GMA)] cryogels were prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of HEMA with GMA as a functional comonomer and N,N′-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBAAm) as a crosslinker. Iminodiacetic acid (IDA) functional groups were attached via ring opening of the epoxy group on the poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels and then Zn(II) ions were chelated with these structures. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, SEM, EDX and swelling studies. These cryogels have interconnected pores of 30–50 μm size. The equilibrium swelling degree of Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels was approximately 600%. Zn(II) chelated poly(HEMA–GMA)-IDA cryogels were used in the adsorption of alcohol dehydrogenase from aqueous solutions and adsorption was performed in continuous system. The effects of pH, alcohol dehydrogenase concentration, temperature, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of alcohol dehydrogenase adsorption was determined to be 9.94 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL alcohol dehydrogenase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 5.0 with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Desorption of adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was carried out by using 1.0 M NaCI at pH 8.0 phosphate buffer and desorption yield was found to be 93.5%. Additionally, these cryogels were used for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast with a single-step. The purity of desorbed alcohol dehydrogenase was shown by silver-stained SDS–PAGE. This purification process can successfully be used for the purification of alcohol dehydrogenase from unclarified yeast homogenates and this work is the first report about the usage of the cryogels for purification of alcohol dehydrogenase. - Highlights: • Poly(HEMA–GMA) cryogels were synthesized by radical cryocopolymerization technique. • Prepared cryogels were functionalized with IDA, then Zn(II) ions were chelated to the cryogel. • Zn(II) chelated poly

  14. Mature Results of a Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing 5-Flourouracil with Leucovorin to 5-Flourouracil with Levamisole as Adjuvant Therapy of Stage II and III Colorectal Cancer- The Israel Cooperative Oncology Group (ICOG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Figer, Aviram Nissan, Adi Shani, Riva Borovick, Mariana Stiener, Mario Baras, Herbert R. Freund, Aaron Sulkes, Alexander Stojadinovic, Tamar Peretz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survival benefit with adjuvant therapy was shown in patients with Stage III colorectal cancer (CRC. This study evaluates long-term (10-year outcome in patients with CRC randomly assigned to adjuvant 5-Fluorouracil/Leucovorin (5FU+LV or 5-FU/Levamisole (5FU+LEV.Methods: Between 1990 and 1995, 398 patients with curatively resected Stage II-III CRC were randomly assigned to adjuvant 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV for 12 months.Results: No difference was evident in 10-year relapse-free or overall survival between study groups. Grade III toxicity was similar between groups; however, neurotoxicity was significantly greater with 5FU+LEV (p=0.02 and gastrointestinal toxicity with 5FU+LV (p=0.03. Female patients treated with 5FU+LEV had improved overall survival.Conclusions: Adjuvant treatment of CRC is still based on leucovorin modulated fluorouracil. The long-term follow-up results of this trial indicate that the adjuvant treatment of Stage II-III CRC with 5FU+LV or 5FU+LEV is equally effective. The finding of improved survival in female subjects treated with 5FU+LEV warrants further study to determine if Levamisole is a better modulator of 5-FU than Leucovorin in this patient subset.

  15. A general route to monoorganopnicogen(III) (M = Sb, Bi) compounds with a pincer (N,C,N) group and oxo ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strîmb, Gabriela; Pöllnitz, Alpár; Raţ, Ciprian I; Silvestru, Cristian

    2015-06-07

    The reaction of RMCl2 [R = 2,6-[MeN(CH2CH2)2NCH2]2C6H3; M = Sb (1), Bi (2)] with KOH affords the isolation of the oxides cyclo-R2M2O2 [M = Sb (3), Bi (4)]. Treatment of 3 with trifluoroacetic acid produced an ionic species (5) with a dinuclear cation that contains organic ligands protonated partially at one of the pendant arms. The cyclic oxides 3 and 4 are able to trap gaseous CO2 to give “RMCO3” [M = Sb (6), Bi (7)], the degree of these organometallic carbonates’ oligomerization being under investigation. The reactivity of the dinuclear oxide 3 was also investigated towards oxalic acid or dopamine hydrochloride and pure mononuclear compounds could be isolated, i.e. RSb[O(O)CC(O)O] (8) and RSb[O2-1,2-C6H3-3-(CH2)2NH3]Cl (9). The reaction of the dichlorides 1 and 2 with ethylene glycol, pinacol or catechol, in the presence of KOH, led to 2-organo-1,3,2-dioxastibolanes or -bismolanes RM(OCH2)2 [M = Sb (10), Bi (11)], RM(OCMe2)2 [M = Sb (12), Bi (13)] and 2-organo-1,3,2-dioxastibole or -bismole RM(O2-1,2-C6H4) [M = Sb (14), Bi (15)], respectively. The compounds were investigated by NMR spectroscopy, including variable temperature experiments, providing evidence for the presence of the intramolecular N→M interactions in solution. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies were performed for most compounds and revealed an organic group R acting as a pincer ligand resulting in a distorted square pyramidal (N,C,N)MO2 core with cis intramolecular N→M interactions placed trans to M–O bonds. This is in contrast to the N→M interactions trans to each other as found in the RMCl2 used as starting materials. The crystals of the oxides 3 and 4·4H2O contain different geometric isomers with anti and syn orientation of the M–C bonds, respectively, with respect to the planar M2O2 ring. In the supramolecular polymeric architecture established in the crystal of 4·4H2O an important finding is the experimental observation of water hexamer units with a [tetramer + 2

  16. Monitor III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisham, D.L.; Lambert, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Monitor III is a totally portable version of the Monitor I and II systems in use at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) since 1976. The Monitor III system differs from the other systems in that it is capable of operating in any location accessible by truck. Although Monitor III was designed primarily for the handling and disposal of radioactive materials, it is also capable of performing the more sophisticated operations normally performed by the other Monitor systems. The development and operational capabilities of the Monitor remote handling system have been thoroughly reported since 1978. This paper reports on the commissioning of a new system with unique capabilities

  17. Mitochondrial type II NAD(PH dehydrogenases in fungal cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pedro Gonçalves

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During aerobic respiration, cells produce energy through oxidative phosphorylation, which includes a specialized group of multi-subunit complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane known as the electron transport chain. However, this canonical pathway is branched into single polypeptide alternative routes in some fungi, plants, protists and bacteria. They confer metabolic plasticity, allowing cells to adapt to different environmental conditions and stresses. Type II NAD(PH dehydrogenases (also called alternative NAD(PH dehydrogenases are non-proton pumping enzymes that bypass complex I. Recent evidence points to the involvement of fungal alternative NAD(PH dehydrogenases in the process of programmed cell death, in addition to their action as overflow systems upon oxidative stress. Consistent with this, alternative NAD(PH dehydrogenases are phylogenetically related to cell death - promoting proteins of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF-family.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1500 - Malic dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.1500 Malic dehydrogenase test system. (a) Identification. A malic dehydrogenase test system is a device that is intended to measure the activity of the enzyme malic dehydrogenase in serum and... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malic dehydrogenase test system. 862.1500 Section...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lacaille F, de Keyzer Y, Di Martino V, de Lonlay P. Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: a still overlooked cause of recurrent acute liver failure and Reye-like syndrome. Mol Genet Metab. 2013 May;109(1):28- ...

  20. Histochemical localization of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    dehydrogenase, Withania somnifera, CKX localization. INTRODUCTION. Cytokinin (Ck) is a plant hormone that plays a crucial role in many fundamental processes of plant development throughout the life cycle. These include ...

  1. A novel assay of Gi/o-linked G protein-coupled receptor coupling to potassium channels provides new insights into the pharmacology of the group III metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswender, Colleen M; Johnson, Kari A; Luo, Qingwei; Ayala, Jennifer E; Kim, Caroline; Conn, P Jeffrey; Weaver, C David

    2008-04-01

    The group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) represent a family of presynaptically expressed G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with enormous therapeutic potential; however, robust cellular assays to study their function have been difficult to develop. We present here a new assay, compatible with traditional high-throughput screening platforms, to detect activity of pharmacological ligands interacting with G(i/o)-coupled GPCRs, including the group III mGluRs 4, 7, and 8. The assay takes advantage of the ability of the Gbetagamma subunits of G(i) and G(o) heterotrimers to interact with G-protein regulated inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs), and we show here that we are able to detect the activity of multiple types of pharmacophores including agonists, antagonists, and allosteric modulators of several distinct GPCRs. Using GIRK-mediated thallium flux, we perform a side-by-side comparison of the activity of a number of commercially available compounds, some of which have not been extensively evaluated because of the previous lack of robust assays at each of the three major group III mGluRs. It is noteworthy that several compounds previously considered to be general group III mGluR antagonists have very weak activity using this assay, suggesting the possibility that these compounds may not effectively inhibit these receptors in native systems. We anticipate that the GIRK-mediated thallium flux strategy will provide a novel tool to advance the study of G(i/o)-coupled GPCR biology and promote ligand discovery and characterization.

  2. Identification of lactaldehyde dehydrogenase and glycolaldehyde dehydrogenase as functions of the same protein in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, E; Baldomá, L; Ros, J; Boronat, A; Aguilar, J

    1983-06-25

    Lactaldehyde dehydrogenase is an enzyme involved in the aerobic metabolism of fucose in wild type Escherichia coli, and glycolaldehyde dehydrogenase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of ethylene glycol in mutant cells able to utilize this glycol. Both enzyme sources display oxidative activity on either substrate with a constant ratio between these activities. We have found that both enzymatic activities present the same electrophoretic mobility when crude extracts were electrophoresed in polyacrylamide gels and the gels stained for enzyme activities. Furthermore, both enzymatic activities co-chromatograph in a DEAE-Sephadex column. If lactaldehyde dehydrogenase of wild type cells is purified near homogeneity and the purification procedure is screened for both aldehydes as substrates, only one enzyme is apparent, giving again a constant ratio between lactaldehyde and glycolaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. Genetic evidence of the fact that both activities are functions of the same protein is provided by the observation that mutation to thermosensitivity for the production of lactaldehyde dehydrogenase affected in the same way the production of glycolaldehyde dehydrogenase. Glycolaldehyde dehydrogenase from mutant cells is purified in a procedure coincident with the lactaldehyde dehydrogenase purification, yielding a single enzyme electrophoretically indistinguishable from the purified lactaldehyde dehydrogenase. Peptide mapping of the purified preparation after digestion with chymotrypsin or Staphylococcus aureus protease V8 gives an indistinguishable band pattern between both enzymes.

  3. Increased superoxide accumulation in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficient fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Judge, Sharon; Cruz, Alex; Pourang, Deena; Mathews, Clayton E; Stacpoole, Peter W

    2011-11-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) oxidizes pyruvate to acetyl CoA and is critically important in maintaining normal cellular energy homeostasis. Loss-of-function mutations in PDC give rise to congenital lactic acidosis and to progressive cellular energy failure. However, the subsequent biochemical consequences of PDC deficiency that may contribute to the clinical manifestations of the disorder are poorly understood. We postulated that altered flux through PDC would disrupt mitochondrial electron transport, resulting in oxidative stress. Compared to cells from 4 healthy subjects, primary cultures of skin fibroblasts from 9 patients with variable mutations in the gene encoding the alpha subunit (E1α) of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDA1) demonstrated reduced growth and viability. Superoxide (O(2)(.-)) from the Qo site of complex III of the electron transport chain accumulated in these cells and was associated with decreased activity of manganese superoxide dismutase. The expression of uncoupling protein 2 was also decreased in patient cells, but there were no significant changes in the expression of cellular markers of protein or DNA oxidative damage. The expression of hypoxia transcription factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) also increased in PDC deficient fibroblasts. We conclude that PDC deficiency is associated with an increase in O(2)(.-) accumulation coupled to a decrease in mechanisms responsible for its removal. Increased HIF1α expression may contribute to the increase in glycolytic flux and lactate production in PDC deficiency and, by trans-activating pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, may further suppress residual PDC activity through phosphorylation of the E1α subunit. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  5. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, J F; Wakim, J; Fischer, R S

    1981-01-01

    The activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis was influenced by the carbon source, but not the nitrogen source, in the growth medium. The highest specific activity for this enzyme was found when B. subtilis was grown in a minimal or rich medium that contained glutamate as the carbon source. It is proposed that glutamate dehydrogenase serves a catabolic function in the metabolism of glutamate, is induced by glutamate, and is subjec...

  6. Regulation of glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J F; Wakim, J; Fischer, R S

    1981-01-01

    The activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase in Bacillus subtilis was influenced by the carbon source, but not the nitrogen source, in the growth medium. The highest specific activity for this enzyme was found when B. subtilis was grown in a minimal or rich medium that contained glutamate as the carbon source. It is proposed that glutamate dehydrogenase serves a catabolic function in the metabolism of glutamate, is induced by glutamate, and is subject to catabolite repression. PMID:6118356

  7. Zinc(II) and chloroindium(III) phthalocyanines bearing ethyl 7-oxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate groups: Synthesis, characterization and investigation of their photophysicochemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruca, Halid; Köksoy, Baybars; Karapınar, Begümhan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bulut, Mustafa

    In this study, ethyl 7-hydroxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate (1), ethyl 7-(2,3-dicyanophenoxy)-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate (2), ethyl 7-(3,4-dicyanophenoxy)-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate (3), ethyl 4-chloro-5-(7-oxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate)phthalonitrile (4) were synthesized. The phthalonitrile derivatives (2, 3 and 4) were converted to their peripheral tetra, non-peripheral tetra and peripheral chlorocta substituted zinc(II) and chloroindium phthalocyanine derivatives. All novel compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectral data. Additionally, the spectral, photophysical (fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes) and photochemical (singlet oxygen generation and photodegradation under light irradiation) properties of the resulting substituted phthalocyaninatozinc(II) and indium(III) chloride complexes (5-10) were investigated in DMF, and the obtained results were compared for determination of the effects of the substituents’ positions and the variety of the central metal atom on these properties. The fluorescence quenching behavior of these phthalocyanines (5-10) were also investigated using 1,4-benzoquinone as a quencher. The obtained ethyl 7-oxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate bearing phthalocyaninatozinc(II) (5, 7 and 9) and indium(III) chloride (6, 8 and 10) complexes showed excellent solubility in most organic solvents. They produced high singlet-oxygen and showed appropriate photodegradation which is very important for photodynamic therapy applications. The novel ethyl 7-oxy-6-chloro-4-methylcoumarin-3-propanoate substituted zinc(II) and cloroindium(III) phthalocyanines were synthesized and characterized by using different spectroscopic methods such as 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-vis, mass spectroscopy. The photophysical and photochemical properties as fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence, singlet oxygen and photodegredation quantum yields were

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mutations and haplotypes in Mexican Mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arámbula, E; Aguilar L, J C; Vaca, G

    2000-08-01

    In a screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in 1985 unrelated male subjects from the general population (Groups A and B) belonging to four states of the Pacific coast, 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects were detected. Screening for mutations at the G-6-PD gene by PCR-restriction enzyme in these 21 G-6-PD-deficient subjects as well as in 14 G-6-PD-deficient patients with hemolytic anemia belonging to several states of Mexico showed two common G-6-PD variants: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (19 cases) and G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (9 cases). In 7 individuals the mutations responsible for the enzyme deficiency remain to be determined. Furthermore, four silent polymorphic sites at the G-6-PD gene (PvuII, PstI, 1311, and NlaIII) were investigated in the 28 individuals with G-6-PD A- variants and in 137 G-6-PD normal subjects. As expected, only 10 different haplotypes were observed. To date, in our project aiming to determine the molecular basis of G-6-PD deficiency in Mexico, 60 unrelated G-6-PD-deficient Mexican males-25 in previous studies and 35 in the present work-have been studied. More than 75% of these individuals are from states of the Pacific coast (Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, Michoacán, Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas). The results show that although G-6-PD deficiency is heterogeneous at the DNA level in Mexico, only three polymorphic variants have been observed: G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) (36 cases), G-6-PD A-(376G/968C) (13 cases), and G-6-PD Seattle(844C) (2 cases). G-6-PD A- variants are relatively distributed homogeneously and both variants explain 82% of the overall prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency. The variant G-6-PD A-(202A/376G) represents 73% of the G-6-PD A- alleles. Our data also show that the variant G-6-PD A-(376G/968C)-which has been observed in Mexico in the context of two different haplotypes-is more common than previously supposed. The three polymorphic variants that we observed in Mexico are on the same haplotypes as found in subjects from

  9. A randomised study of carboplatin vs sequential ifosfamide/carboplatin for patients with FIGO stage III epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The London Gynaecologic Oncology Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Perren, T. J.; Wiltshaw, E.; Harper, P.; Slevin, M.; Stein, R.; Tan, S.; Gore, M.; Fryatt, I. J.; Blake, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    In a study designed to compare response rates of patients with stage III epithelial ovarian carcinoma to ifosfamide and carboplatin, 152 patients were randomised to receive either sequential therapy with three cycles of ifosfamide followed by three cycles of carboplatin, or to six cycles of single agent carboplatin. Ifosfamide was given every 3 weeks in a dose of 5 gm m-2 as a 24 h infusion with mesna, 1 gm m-2 by i.v. bolus prior to ifosfamide, 3 gm m-2 with ifosfamide, and 1 gm m-2 as an 8 ...

  10. Mediator Preference of Two Different FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenases Employed in Disposable Enzyme Glucose Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Loew, Noya; Tsugawa, Wakako; Nagae, Daichi; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Sode, Koji

    2017-01-01

    Most commercially available electrochemical enzyme sensor strips for the measurement of blood glucose use an artificial electron mediator to transfer electrons from the active side of the enzyme to the electrode. One mediator recently gaining attention for commercial sensor strips is hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride. In this study, we investigate and compare the preference of enzyme electrodes with two different FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) for the mediators hexaammineruthe...

  11. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J., E-mail: tannerjj@missouri.edu [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  12. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative

  13. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in vitro in lung and kidney of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Toft, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    Weanling rats were fed for 6 months on a diet deficient in essential fatty acids: either fat-free, or with 28% (w/w) partially hydrogenated fish oil. Control rats were fed a diet with 28% (w/w) arachis oil for 6 months. 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity was determined as initial rates...... of the two groups on diets deficient in essential fatty acids as compared to the control group. No difference was observed in dehydrogenase activity in the kidneys. The dehydrogenase may be of importance for the regulation of the level of endogenous prostaglandins and, thus, a decrease in activity could...

  14. The Diagnostic Significance of Serum Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Activity in Urinary Bladder Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orywal, Karolina; Jelski, Wojciech; Werel, Tadeusz; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a potential role of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase as tumor markers for urinary bladder cancer. Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with bladder cancer and 52 healthy individuals. Class III and IV of ADH and total ADH activity were measured by the photometric method. For measurement of class I and II ADH and ALDH activity, the fluorometric method was employed. Significantly higher total activity of ADH was found in sera of both, low-grade and high-grade bladder cancer patients. The diagnostic sensitivity for total ADH activity was 81.5%, specificity 98.1%, positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 97.4% and 92.3% respectively. Area under ROC curve for total ADH activity was 0.848. A potential role of total ADH activity as a marker for bladder cancer, is herein proposed. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 11 is a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoshi; Miyagi, Namiki; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hara, Akira; Ikari, Akira

    2016-03-25

    We report characterization of a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily encoded in a human gene, DHRS11. The recombinant protein (DHRS11) efficiently catalyzed the conversion of the 17-keto group of estrone, 4- and 5-androstenes and 5α-androstanes into their 17β-hydroxyl metabolites with NADPH as a coenzyme. In contrast, it exhibited reductive 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity toward 5β-androstanes, 5β-pregnanes, 4-pregnenes and bile acids. Additionally, DHRS11 reduced α-dicarbonyls (such as diacetyl and methylglyoxal) and alicyclic ketones (such as 1-indanone and loxoprofen). The enzyme activity was inhibited in a mixed-type manner by flavonoids, and competitively by carbenoxolone, glycyrrhetinic acid, zearalenone, curcumin and flufenamic acid. The expression of DHRS11 mRNA was observed widely in human tissues, most abundantly in testis, small intestine, colon, kidney and cancer cell lines. Thus, DHRS11 represents a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with unique catalytic properties and tissue distribution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rapidly alternating combination of cisplatin-based chemotherapy and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy in split course for Stage IIIA and Stage IIIB non-small cell lung cancer: results of a Phase I-II study by the GOTHA group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto, P.; Mermillod, B. [Hopital Cantonal Geneve, Geneva (Switzerland); Mirimanoff, R.O.; Leyvraz, S.; Nagy-Mignotte, H.; Bolla, M.; Wellmann, D.; Moro, D.; Brambilla, E. [Hopital Cantonal Universitaire, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1995-08-01

    The prognosis of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be improved by a combination of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT). In this study, the GOTHA group evaluated the feasibility, tolerance, tumour response, pattern of failure and effect on survival of a combination alternating accelerated hyperfractionated (AH) RT and CT in patients with tumour stage III NSCLC. Toxic effects were leucopenia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, diarrhoea, alopecia and peripheral neuropathy. Alternating CT and AHRT, as used in this study, were well tolerated and allowed full dose delivery within less than 12 weeks. Initial response was not predictive of survival. The survival curve is encouraging and the 5 year survival is superior to the 5% generally observed with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. (author).

  17. Richard III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Palle Schantz

    2017-01-01

    Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"......Kort analyse af Shakespeares Richard III med fokus på, hvordan denne skurk fremstilles, så tilskuere (og læsere) langt henad vejen kan føle sympati med ham. Med paralleller til Netflix-serien "House of Cards"...

  18. Homology modelling and docking analysis of L-lactate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus thermopilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukić Vladimir R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to create a three-dimensional model of L-lactate dehydrogenase from the main yoghurt starter culture - Streptococcus thermopilus, to analyse its structural features and investigate substrate binding in the active site. NCBI BlastP was used against the Protein Data Bank database in order to identify the template for construction of homology models. Multiple sequence alignment was performed using the program MUSCULE within the UGENE 1.11.3 program. Homology models were constructed using the program Modeller v. 9.17. The obtained 3D model was verified by Ramachandran plots. Molecular docking simulations were performed using the program Surflex-Dock. The highest sequence similarity was observed with L-lactate dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei, with 69% identity. Therefore, its structure (PDB ID: 2ZQY:A was selected as a modelling template for homology modelling. Active residues are by sequence similarity predicted: S. thermophilus - HIS181 and S. aureus - HIS179. Binding energy of pyruvate to L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus was - 7.874 kcal/mol. Pyruvate in L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus makes H bonds with catalytic HIS181 (1.9 Å, as well as with THR235 (3.6 Å. Although our results indicate similar position of substrates between L-lactate dehydrogenase of S. thermopilus and S. aureus, differences in substrate distances and binding energy values could influence the reaction rate. Based on these results, the L-lactate dehydrogenase model proposed here could be used as a guide for further research, such as transition states of the reaction through molecular dynamics. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009

  19. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (16th, Durham, NH, August 6-11, 1992). Volumes I-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeslin, William, Ed.; Graham, Karen, Ed.

    The Proceedings of PME-XVI has been published in three volumes because of the large number of papers presented at the conference. Volume 1 contains: (1) brief reports from each of the 11 standing Working Groups on their respective roles in organizing PME-XVI; (2) brief reports from 6 Discussion Groups; and (3) 35 research reports covering authors…

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yingzhi; Sun, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase from Ceanorhabditis elegans was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in two different space groups (P1 and P212121). The molecular dimers found in one asymmetric unit from both space groups are identical but each packs in a distinct manner.

  1. Activity and isozyme content of lactate dehydrogenase under long-term oral taurine administration to rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Ostapiv

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term oral taurine administration to rats on activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, its isozyme content and activity in the whole blood, liver, thigh muscle, brain and testes tissues were studied in the present work. For this purpose male Wistar rats with body weight 190–220 g were randomly divided into three groups, they were orally administered drinking water (control group or taurine solution 40 and 100 mg per kg of body weight ( groups I and II, respectively. The total lactate dehydrogenase activity was measured spectrophotometrically, the percentage content of isozymes was determined by electrophoresis in 7.5% poliacrylamide gel with further staining according to J. Garbus. It was found that the total lactate dehydrogenase activity increased in all studied tissues. In testes of animals of both groups and in brain of group I animals, the total percentage contents of isozymes that are responsible for lactate production (LDH4+LDH5 increased. In liver of animals of both groups and in whole blood of group II animals, the total percentage content of isozymes that produce pyruvate (LDH1+LDH2 increased. In thigh muscle of both groups and in brain of group II animals the balance between LDH1+LDH2 and LDH4+LDH5 content did not differ from control values, though total lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher, than that in the control group. Thus, the increase in the lactate dehydrogenase activity under long-term oral taurine administration in different rat tissues was found to be tissue- and dose-dependent and was caused by the increase in the content of different isozymes. Such increase in group I animals might be explained by adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia caused by high doses of taurine. For group II animals high doses of taurine were toxic and directly affected metabolic processes in the animal bodies.

  2. ACTIVITY AND ISOZYME CONTENT OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE UNDER LONG-TERM ORAL TAURINE ADMINISTRATION TO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapiv, R D; Humenyuk, S L; Manko, V V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of long-term oral taurine administration to rats on activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), its isozyme content and activity in the whole blood, liver, thigh muscle, brain and testes tissues were studied in the present work. For this purpose male Wistar rats with body weight 190-220 g were randomly divided into three groups, they were orally administered drinking water (control group) or taurine solution 40 and 100 mg per kg of body weight ( groups I and II, respectively). The total lactate dehydrogenase activity was measured spectrophotometrically, the percentage content of isozymes was determined by electrophoresis in 7.5% poliacrylamide gel withfurther staining according to J. Garbus. It was found that the total lactate dehydrogenase activity increased in all studied tissues. In testes of animals of both groups and in brain of group I animals, the total percentage contents of isozymes that are responsible for lactate production (LDH4+LDH5) increased. In liver of animals of both groups and in whole blood of group II animals, the total percentage content of isozymes that produce pyruvate (LDH1+LDH2) increased. In thigh muscle of both groups and in brain of group II animals the balance between LDH1+LDH2 and LDH4+LDH5 content did not differ from control values, though total lactate dehydrogenase activity was significantly higher, than that in the control group. Thus, the increase in the lactate dehydrogenase activity under long-term oral taurine administration in different rat tissues was found to be tissue- and dose-dependent and was caused by the increase in the content of different isozymes. Such increase in group I animals might be explained by adaptive mechanisms to hypoxia caused by high doses of taurine. For group II animals high doses of taurine were toxic and directly affected metabolic processes in the animal bodies.

  3. Postoperative Radiation Therapy Is Associated with Longer Overall Survival in Completely Resected Stage II and III Thymoma-An Analysis of the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group Retrospective Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimner, Andreas; Yao, Xiaopan; Huang, James; Antonicelli, Alberto; Ahmad, Usman; Korst, Robert J; Detterbeck, Frank; Gomez, Daniel R

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) is associated with an overall survival (OS) benefit in patients with completely resected Masaoka or Masaoka-Koga stage II and III thymoma. All patients with completely resected (R0) stage II or III thymoma were identified in a large database of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group. Clinical, pathologic, treatment, and follow-up information were extracted. OS was the primary end point. A univariate analysis using the log-rank test was performed, and a multivariate Cox model was created to identify factors associated with OS. Of 1263 patients meeting the selection criteria, 870 (69%) had stage II thymoma. The WHO histologic subtype was A/AB in 360 patients (30%) and B1/B2/B3 in 827 (70%). PORT was given to 55% of patients (n = 689), 15% (n = 180) received chemotherapy, and 10% (n = 122) received both. The 5- and 10-year OS rates for patients having undergone an operation plus PORT were 95% and 86%, respectively, compared with 90% and 79% for patients receiving an operation alone (p = 0.002). This OS benefit remained significant when patients with stage II (p = 0.02) and stage III thymoma (p = 0.0005) were analyzed separately. On multivariate analysis, earlier stage, younger age, absence of paraneoplastic syndrome, and PORT were significantly associated with improved OS. We observed an OS benefit with the use of PORT in completely resected stage II and III thymoma. In the absence of a randomized trial, this represents the most comprehensive analysis of individual patient data and strong evidence in favor of PORT in this patient population. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Postoperative Radiation Therapy is Associated with Longer Overall Survival in Completely Resected Stage II and III Thymoma – An Analysis of the International Thymic Malignancies Interest Group (ITMIG) Retrospective Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimner, Andreas; Yao, Xiaopan; Huang, James; Antonicelli, Alberto; Ahmad, Usman; Korst, Robert J.; Detterbeck, Frank; Gomez, Daniel R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether postoperative radiation therapy (PORT) is associated with an overall survival benefit in patients with completely resected Masaoka or Masaoka-Koga stage II and III thymoma. Patients and Methods All patients with completely resected (R0) stage II–III thymoma were identified in a large database of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG). Clinical, pathologic, treatment, and follow up information were extracted. Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. A univariate analysis using log-rank test and a multivariate Cox model were created to identify factors associated with OS. Results In 1263 patients meeting the selection criteria 870 (69%) patients had stage II thymoma. The WHO histologic subtype was A/AB in 360 (30%) and B1/B2/B3 in 827 (70%) patients. PORT was given to 55% (n=689) of patients, 15% (n=180) received chemotherapy, and 10% (n=122) both. The 5- and 10-year OS rates for patients having undergone surgery + PORT were 95% and 86%, respectively, compared to 90% and 79% for patients with surgery alone(p = 0.002). This OS benefit remained significant when separately analyzing patients with stage II (p= 0.02) and stage III thymoma (p=0.0005). On multivariate analysis, earlier stage, younger age, absence of paraneoplastic syndrome and PORT were significantly associated with improved OS. Conclusions We observed an OS benefit with the use of PORT in completely resected stage II and III thymoma. In the absence of a randomized trial, this represents the most comprehensive individual patient data analysis and strong evidence in favor of PORT in this patient population. PMID:27346413

  5. Glusoce-6-phosphate dehydrogenase- History and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Gautam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common enzymatic defect of red blood cells, which increases the vulnerability of erythrocytes to oxidative stress leading to hemolytic anemia. Since its identification more than 60 years ago, much has been done with respect to its clinical diagnosis, laboratory diagnosis and treatment. Association of G6PD is not just limited to anti malarial drugs, but a vast number of other diseases. In this article, we aimed to review the history of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the diagnostic methods available along with its association with other noncommunicable diseases. 

  6. Inducible xylitol dehydrogenases in enteric bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Doten, R C; Mortlock, R P

    1985-01-01

    Morganella morganii ATCC 25829, Providencia stuartii ATCC 25827, Serratia marcescens ATCC 13880, and Erwinia sp. strain 4D2P were found to induce a xylitol dehydrogenase when grown on a xylitol-containing medium. The xylitol dehydrogenases were partially purified from the four strains, and those from M. morganii ATCC 25829, P. stuartii ATCC 25827, and S. marcescens ATCC 13880 were all found to oxidize xylitol to D-xylulose. These three enzymes had KmS for xylitol of 7.1 to 16.4 mM and molecul...

  7. Fermilab III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The total ongoing plans for Fermilab are wrapped up in the Fermilab III scheme, centrepiece of which is the proposal for a new Main Injector. The Laboratory has been awarded a $200,000 Illinois grant which will be used to initiate environmental assessment and engineering design of the Main Injector, while a state review panel recommended that the project should also benefit from $2 million of funding

  8. Newborn screening for dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency: Citrulline as a useful analyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane C. Quinonez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency, also known as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD type III, is caused by the deficiency of the E3 subunit of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKGDH, and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH. DLD deficiency variably presents with either a severe neonatal encephalopathic phenotype or a primarily hepatic phenotype. As a variant form of MSUD, it is considered a core condition recommended for newborn screening. The detection of variant MSUD forms has proven difficult in the past with no asymptomatic DLD deficiency patients identified by current newborn screening strategies. Citrulline has recently been identified as an elevated dried blood spot (DBS metabolite in symptomatic patients affected with DLD deficiency. Here we report the retrospective DBS analysis and second-tier allo-isoleucine testing of 2 DLD deficiency patients. We show that an elevated citrulline and an elevated allo-isoleucine on second-tier testing can be used to successfully detect DLD deficiency. We additionally recommend that DLD deficiency be included in the “citrullinemia/elevated citrulline” ACMG Act Sheet and Algorithm.

  9. Alcohol dehydrogenase, SDR and MDR structural stages, present update and altered era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörnvall, Hans; Landreh, Michael; Östberg, Linus J

    2015-06-05

    It is now about half a century since molecular research on alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) and medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (MDR) started. During this time, at least four stages of research can be distinguished, which led to many ADH, SDR and MDR structures from which their origins could be traced. An introductory summary of these stages is given, followed by a current update on the now known structures, including the present pattern of mammalian MDR-ADH enzymes into six classes and their evolutionary relationships. In spite of the wide spread in evolutionary changes from the "constant" class III to the more "variable" other classes, the change in class V (only confirmed as a transcript in humans) and class VI (absent in humans) are also restricted. Such spread in variability is visible also in other dehydrogenases, but not always so restricted in other co-evolving proteins we have studied. Finally, the shift in era of present ADH research is highlighted, as well as levels of likely future continuation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mechanism of Prototropy. III. Kinetics of the Tautomerization of Benzylidene-Benzylamine. comparison of the influence of hydrogen and alkyl groups on the SE2' reaction rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Ossorio, R.; Gamboa, J. M.; Martinez Utrilla, R.

    1961-01-01

    The rate of the proto tropic change of benzylidene-benzylamine has been determined by using azomethine 1 4C-labelled in the methylenic group and measuring the distribution of activity between benzaldehyde and benzylamine obtained by hydrolysis at different reaction times. this rate has been compared with those of tautomerization of benzylidene-α-alkyl benzylamine and α-alkyl benzylidene-benzyl amines in the same experimental conditions in order to establish ethe influence of alkyl group on this reaction. (Author) 14 refs

  11. Genetics Home Reference: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deficiency Encyclopedia: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test Encyclopedia: Hemolytic anemia Encyclopedia: Newborn jaundice Health Topic: Anemia Health Topic: G6PD Deficiency Health Topic: Newborn Screening Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

  12. Genotyping of the Capsule Gene Cluster (cps) in Nontypeable Group B Streptococci Reveals Two Major cps Allelic Variants of Serotypes III and VII

    OpenAIRE

    Sellin, Mats; Olofsson, Carin; Håkansson, Stellan; Norgren, Mari

    2000-01-01

    Forty group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates obtained from Europe and the United States previously reported to be nontypeable (NT) by capsule serotype determination were subjected to buoyant density gradient centrifugation. From nearly half of the isolates capsule-expressing variants could be selected. For characterization of the remaining NT-GBS isolates, the capsule operon (cps) was amplified by the long-fragment PCR technique and compared by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) an...

  13. Malaria Protection In Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency gene in malaria endemic regions is believed to be due to the enzyme deficiency advantage against fatal malaria. However, the mechanism of this protection is not well understood and therefore was investigated by comparing differences in ...

  14. Coenzyme and effector binding to glutamate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, Alt

    1979-01-01

    Glutamaat-dehydrogenase is een enzym dat de reactie katalyseert van 2-oxoglutaraat (substraat), NAD(P)H (co-enzym) en ammonia naar L-glutaminezuur en NAD(P)+. Het enzym is opgebouwd uit 6 identieke subeenheden. Dit proefschrift beschrijft de bestudering van twee aspecten van dit enzym, nl. 1. de

  15. Optimization of Adsorptive Immobilization of Alcohol Dehydrogenases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivedi, Archana; Heinemann, Matthias; Spiess, Antje C.; Daussmann, Thomas; Büchs, Jochen

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a systematic examination of various parameters of adsorptive immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on solid support is performed and the impact of these parameters on immobilization efficiency is studied. Depending on the source of the enzymes, these parameters differently

  16. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  17. Intravenous immunoglobulin to treat hyperbilirubinemia in neonates with isolated Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadah Khriesat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency alone or concomitant with ABO isoimmunisation is a widespread indication for neonatal exchange transfusion. Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2014 at the Jordan University of Science and technology. The medical records of 43 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit for isolated glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborns were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I, a historical cohort, included newborns born between 2006 and 2010, Treatment included phototherapy and exchange transfusion. Group II included newborns born between 2011 and 2014, where, in addition to phototherapy, intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. The duration of phototherapy and number of exchange transfusions were evaluated. Results Of 412 newborns that were admitted with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was present in 43. Of these, 22, did not receive intravenous immunoglobulin and served as a control group. The other 21 newborns received intravenous immunoglobulin. There was no difference in the demographic characteristics between the two groups. Infants in the control group were significantly more likely to receive exchange blood transfusion than infants in the immunoglobulin treatment group, but were significantly less likely to need phototherapy. Conclusion Intravenous immunoglobulin is an effective alternative to exchange transfusion in infants with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency hemolytic disease of the newborn. It is suggested that intravenous immunoglobulin may be beneficial as a prophylaxis for infants with hyperbilirubinemia.

  18. Enzymatic conversion of CO2 to CH3OH via reverse dehydrogenase cascade biocatalysis: Quantitative comparison of efficiencies of immobilized enzyme systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marpani, Fauziah Binti; Pinelo, Manuel; Meyer, Anne S.

    2017-01-01

    the reaction warrants innovative development. There is a particular need for development of i) better enzymes; ii) improved understanding of enzyme structure function aspects of reverse catalysis by dehydrogenases, iii) quantitative kinetic models of the enzymatic cascade reaction during simultaneous cofactor......A designed biocatalytic cascade system based on reverse enzymatic catalysis by formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2), formaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.46), and alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) can convert carbon dioxide (CO2) to methanol (CH3OH) via formation of formic acid (CHOOH......) and formaldehyde (CHOH) during equimolar cofactor oxidation of NADH to NAD+. This reaction is appealing because it represents a double gain: (1) reduction of CO2 and (2) an alternative to fossil fuel based production of CH3OH. The present review evaluates the efficiency of different immobilized enzyme systems...

  19. Biochemical and cytochemical evaluation of heterozygote individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurbuz, Nilgun; Aksu, Tevfik Aslan; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to diagnose heterozygous glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient females by an inexpensive cytochemical G6PD staining method that is easy to perform, allowing diagnosis of G6PD deficiency without cumbersome genetic analysis. Three subject groups were included in

  20. Treatment of Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis With Systemic Chemotherapy: A Pooled Analysis of North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trials N9741 and N9841

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Jan; Shi, Qian; Goldman, Charles D.; Pockaj, Barbara A.; Nelson, Garth D.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Pitot, Henry C.; Grothey, Axel; Alberts, Steven R.; Sargent, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Symptoms and complications of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) differ by metastatic sites. There is a paucity of prospective survival data for patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis colorectal cancer (pcCRC). We characterized outcomes of patients with pcCRC enrolled onto two prospective randomized trials of chemotherapy and contrasted that with other manifestations of mCRC (non-pcCRC). Methods A total of 2,095 patients enrolled onto two prospective randomized trials were evaluated for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess the adjusted associations. Results The characteristics of the pcCRC group (n = 364) were similar to those of the non-pcCRC patients in median age (63 v 61 years, P = .23), sex (57% males v 61%, P = .23), and performance status (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1 94% v 96%, P = .06), but differed in frequency of liver (63% v 82%, P < .001) and lung metastases (27% v 34%, P = .01). Median OS (12.7 v 17.6 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.5; P < .001) and PFS (5.8 v 7.2 months, HR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.3; P = .001) were shorter for pcCRC versus non-pcCRC. The unfavorable prognostic influence of pcCRC remained after adjusting for age, PS, liver metastases, and other factors (OS: HR = 1.3, P < .001; PFS: HR = 1.1, P = .02). Infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin was superior to irinotecan, leucovorin, and fluorouracil as a first-line treatment among pcCRC (HR for OS = 0.62, P = .005) and non-pcCRC patients (HR = 0.66, P < .001). Conclusion pcCRC is associated with a significantly shorter OS and PFS as compared with other manifestations of mCRC. Future trials for mCRC should consider stratifying on the basis of pcCRC status. PMID:22162570

  1. The Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene Family in Melon (Cucumis melo L.: Bioinformatic Analysis and Expression Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazhong eJin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, encoded by multigene family in plants, play a critical role in plant growth, development, adaptation, fruit ripening and aroma production. Thirteen ADH genes were identified in melon genome, including 12 ADHs and one formaldehyde dehydrogenease (FDH, designated CmADH1-12 and CmFDH1, in which CmADH1 and CmADH2 have been isolated in Cantaloupe. ADH genes shared a lower identity with each other at the protein level and had different intron-exon structure at nucleotide level. No typical signal peptides were found in all CmADHs, and CmADH proteins might locate in the cytoplasm. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 13 ADH genes were divided into 3 groups respectively, namely long-, medium- and short-chain ADH subfamily, and CmADH1,3-11, which belongs to the medium-chain ADH subfamily, fell into 6 medium-chain ADH subgroups. CmADH12 may belong to the long-chain ADH subfamily, while CmFDH1 may be a Class III ADH and serve as an ancestral ADH in melon. Expression profiling revealed that CmADH1, CmADH2, CmADH10 and CmFDH1 were moderately or strongly expressed in different vegetative tissues and fruit at medium and late developmental stages, while CmADH8 and CmADH12 were highly expressed in fruit after 20 days. CmADH3 showed preferential expression in young tissues. CmADH4 only had slight expression in root. Promoter analysis revealed several motifs of CmADH genes involved in the gene expression modulated by various hormones, and the response pattern of CmADH genes to ABA, IAA and ethylene were different. These CmADHs were divided into ethylene-sensitive and –insensitive groups, and the functions of CmADHs were discussed.

  2. BANYAN. III. Radial velocity, rotation, and X-ray emission of low-mass star candidates in nearby young kinematic groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malo, Lison; Artigau, Étienne; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Albert, Loïc; Gagné, Jonathan, E-mail: malo@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2014-06-10

    Based on high-resolution spectra obtained with PHOENIX at Gemini-South, CRIRES at VLT-UT1, and ESPaDOnS at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we present new measurements of the radial and projected rotational velocities of 219 low-mass stars. The target likely membership was initially established using the Bayesian analysis tool recently presented in Malo et al., taking into account only the position, proper motion, and photometry of the stars to assess their membership probability. In the present study, we include radial velocity as an additional input to our analysis, and in doing so we confirm the high membership probability for 130 candidates: 27 in β Pictoris, 22 in Tucana-Horologium, 25 in Columba, 7 in Carina, 18 in Argus and 18 in AB Doradus, and 13 with an ambiguous membership. Our analysis also confirms the membership of 57 stars proposed in the literature. A subsample of 16 candidates was observed at 3 or more epochs, allowing us to discover 6 new spectroscopic binaries. The fraction of binaries in our sample is 25%, consistent with values in the literature. Of the stars in our sample, 20% show projected rotational velocities (vsin i) higher than 30 km s{sup –1} and therefore are considered as fast rotators. A parallax and other youth indicators are still needed to fully confirm the 130 highly probable candidates identified here as new bona fide members. Finally, based on the X-ray emission of bona fide and highly probable group members, we show that for low-mass stars in the 12-120 Myr age range, the X-ray luminosity is an excellent indicator of youth and better than the more traditionally used R {sub X} parameter, the ratio of X-ray to bolometric luminosity.

  3. The radiation inactivation of glutamate and isocitrate dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Failat, R.R.A.

    1980-12-01

    The reaction of free radicals produced by ionizing radiation with the enzymes glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and NADP + -specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) have been studied by steady-state and pulse radiolysis techniques. In de-aerated GDH solutions, hydroxyl radicals have been found to be the most efficient of the primary radicals generated from water in causing inactivation. The effect of reaction with the enzyme of selective free radicals (SCN) 2 - , (Br) 2 - and (I) 2 - on its activity has also been studied. In neutral solutions, the order of inactivating effectiveness is (I) 2 - > (Br) 2 - > (SCN) 2 - . In the case of the thiocyanate radical anion (SCN) 2 - , the inactivation efficiency is found to depend on KSCN concentration. The radiation inactivation of GDH at both neutral and alkaline pH is accompanied by the loss of sulphydryl groups. Pulse radiolysis was also used to determine the rate constants and the transient absorption spectra following the reaction of the free radicals with GDH. 60 Co-γ-radiolysis and pulse radiolysis were also used to study the effect of ionizing radiation on the activity of ICDH. The results obtained were similar to those of GDH. (author)

  4. O-Alkyl Hydroxamates as Metaphors of Enzyme-Bound Enolate Intermediates in Hydroxy Acid Dehydrogenases. Inhibitors of Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase, Isocitrate Dehydrogenase, and Tartrate Dehydrogenase(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirrung, Michael C.; Han, Hyunsoo; Chen, Jrlung

    1996-07-12

    The inhibition of Thermus thermophilus isopropylmalate dehydrogenase by O-methyl oxalohydroxamate was studied for comparison to earlier results of Schloss with the Salmonella enzyme. It is a fairly potent (1.2 &mgr;M), slow-binding, uncompetitive inhibitor against isopropylmalate and is far superior to an oxamide (25 mM K(i) competitive) that is isosteric with the ketoisocaproate product of the enzyme. This improvement in inhibition was attributed to its increased NH acidity, which presumably is due to the inductive effect of the hydroxylamine oxygen. This principle was extended to the structurally homologous enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase from E. coli, for which the compound O-(carboxymethyl) oxalohydroxamate is a 30 nM inhibitor, uncompetitive against isocitrate. The pH dependence of its inhibition supports the idea that it is bound to the enzyme in the anionic form. Another recently discovered homologous enzyme, tartrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida, was studied with oxalylhydroxamate. It has a relatively low affinity for the enzyme, though it is superior to tartrate. On the basis of these leads, squaric hydroxamates with increased acidity compared to squaric amides directed toward two of these enzymes were prepared, and they also show increased inhibitory potency, though not approaching the nanomolar levels of the oxalylhydroxamates.

  5. The Working Group III on data exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dost

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available n 1993 the ORFEUS Data Center (ODC; Dost, 1991 changed hosting organisation. It moved within the Netherlands from the University of Utrecht to the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNM1 in de Bilt. This change in hosting organisation was necessary to ensure a longer term stability in the operation of the ODC. Key issues for the ODC are the rapid on-line data access and quality controlled, complete and efficient off-line data access. During 1992 the ODC became the European node in the international SPYDER system which provides near real-time access to digital broadband data from selected high quality stations. Electronic messages trigger soveral centers well distributed over the globe. These centers then collect the data by modem from selected stations in their region. Finally, data are distributed between data centers over internet.

  6. Frequency of malaria and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saipphudin Karimov

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the Soviet era, malaria was close to eradication in Tajikistan. Since the early 1990s, the disease has been on the rise and has become endemic in large areas of southern and western Tajikistan. The standard national treatment for Plasmodium vivax is based on primaquine. This entails the risk of severe haemolysis for patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. Seasonal and geographical distribution patterns as well as G6PD deficiency frequency were analysed with a view to improve understanding of the current malaria situation in Tajikistan. Methods Spatial and seasonal distribution was analysed, applying a risk model that included key environmental factors such as temperature and the availability of mosquito breeding sites. The frequency of G6PD deficiency was studied at the health service level, including a cross-sectional sample of 382 adult men. Results Analysis revealed high rates of malaria transmission in most districts of the southern province of Khatlon, as well as in some zones in the northern province of Sughd. Three categories of risk areas were identified: (i zones at relatively high malaria risk with high current incidence rates, where malaria control and prevention measures should be taken at all stages of the transmission cycle; (ii zones at relatively high malaria risk with low current incidence rates, where malaria prevention measures are recommended; and (iii zones at intermediate or low malaria risk with low current incidence rates where no particular measures appear necessary. The average prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 2.1% with apparent differences between ethnic groups and geographical regions. Conclusion The study clearly indicates that malaria is a serious health issue in specific regions of Tajikistan. Transmission is mainly determined by temperature. Consequently, locations at lower altitude are more malaria-prone. G6PD deficiency frequency is too moderate to require

  7. Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data on Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients Compared With Younger Patients Who Participated in US National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Zhang, Ying; Vokes, Everett E; Schiller, Joan H; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Curran, Walter J; Schild, Steven E; Movsas, Benjamin; Clamon, Gerald; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Blumenschein, George R; Socinski, Mark A; Ready, Neal E; Akerley, Wallace L; Cohen, Harvey J; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Elderly patients may experience increased rates of adverse events (AEs) or less benefit from concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were collected from 16 phase II or III trials conducted by US National Cancer Institute-supported cooperative groups of concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone or with consolidation or induction chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer from 1990 to 2012. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and AEs were compared between patients age ≥ 70 (elderly) and those younger than 70 years (younger). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for survival time and CIs were estimated by single-predictor and multivariable frailty Cox models. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for AEs and CIs were obtained from single-predictor and multivariable generalized linear mixed-effect models. Results A total of 2,768 patients were classified as younger and 832 as elderly. In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly patients had worse OS (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31 and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.29, respectively). In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly and younger patients had similar progression-free survival (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10 and HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.09, respectively). Elderly patients had a higher rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs in unadjusted and multivariable models (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70 and OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.74, respectively). Grade 5 AEs were significantly higher in elderly compared with younger patients (9% v 4%; P < .01). Fewer elderly compared with younger patients completed treatment (47% v 57%; P < .01), and more discontinued treatment because of AEs (20% v 13%; P < .01), died during treatment (7.8% v 2.9%; P < .01), and refused further treatment (5.8% v 3.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Elderly patients in concurrent

  8. AND Dy(III)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    ACTIVITIES OF Sm(III) AND Dy(III) COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM ... and spectral analysis show that ligand coordinate to the central lanthanide(III)ion by its imine nitrogen, phenolic oxygen and carboxylic oxygen in 1:1 stoichemetry. The complexes were ... instance iron (III) and cobalt (III) complexes.

  9. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-292 Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 23, 2016 16:15:29 UNCLASSIFIED GPS III December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:15:29 UNCLASSIFIED 2...Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost GPS III December 2015 SAR March 23

  10. Detoxification of formate by formate dehydrogenase-loaded erythrocytes and carbicarb in folate-deficient methanol-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvel, Arumugham; Rajamani, Rathinam; Manikandan, Sundaramahalingam; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2006-05-01

    Formic acid is a toxic metabolite responsible for the metabolic acidosis in methanol poisoning. Formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2) converts formate into CO2 in the presence of NAD. We examined the in vitro and in vivo efficiency of formate dehydrogenase-loaded carrier erythrocytes along with carbicarb in eliminating the formate in methanol-intoxicated folate-deficient rats. Formate dehydrogenase-loaded erythrocytes were prepared by hypotonic dialysis method. Carbicarb (carb) (equimolar solution of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) was used to treat metabolic acidosis. Folate depletion was induced by methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Experimental design consisted of 8 groups: saline control, methanol control, MTX control, ELE control, MTX-methanol control, MTX-methanol-carb, MTX-methanol-carb-ELE, and MTX-MeOH-ELE group. Male Wistar rats treated with MTX (0.3 mg/kg) for a week were injected (i.p.) with methanol (4 g/kg). Twelve hours later, the carbicarb solution was infused, and then a formate dehydrogenase-loaded erythrocytes suspension (40% hematocrit) was infused (i.v.) in bolus. Blood samples were collected every hour for 4 h from the cannulated left jugular vein. Blood methanol and formate were estimated respectively with HPLC and fluorimetric assay. Blood pH, blood pO2, pCO2 and bicarbonate were also measured. There was marked elimination of formate in selected groups. Formate dehydrogenase-loaded erythrocytes, along with carbicarb, facilitates removal of formate, in methanol poisoning.

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-CRM197-conjugate vaccine in healthy Japanese children: A phase III, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takehiro; Mitsuya, Nodoka; Kogawara, Osamu; Sumino, Shuji; Takanami, Yohei; Sugizaki, Kayoko

    2016-08-31

    Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study. Additionally, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety profiles of a diphtheria-tetanus acellular pertussis (DTaP) combination vaccine when concomitantly administered with either PRP-CRM197 or PRP-T vaccines. The primary endpoint was the "long-term seroprotection rate", defined as the group proportion with anti-PRP antibody titers ⩾1.0μg/mL, after the primary series. Long-term seroprotection rates were 99.3% in the PRP-CRM197 group and 95.6% in the PRP-T group. The intergroup difference (PRP-CRM197 group - PRP-T group) was 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.099-7.336), demonstrating that PRP-CRM197 vaccine was non-inferior to PRP-T vaccine (pvaccination was higher in the PRP-CRM197 group than in PRP-T. Concomitant administration of PRP-CRM197 vaccine with DTaP vaccine showed no differences in terms of immunogenicity compared with concomitant vaccination with PRP-T vaccine and DTaP vaccine. Although CRM197 vaccine had higher local reactogenicity, overall, both Hib vaccines had acceptable safety and tolerability profiles. The immunogenicity of PRP-CRM197 vaccine administered subcutaneously as a three-dose primary series in children followed by a booster vaccination 1year after the primary series induced protective levels of Hib antibodies with no safety or tolerability concerns. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01379846. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  12. Aldehyde dehydrogenase protein superfamily in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei-Liang; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Ming; Qi, Lei-Peng; Yang, Xiong-Bang; Zhang, Kai-Xuan; Pang, Jun-Feng; Zhu, Xue-Mei; Shao, Ji-Rong; Tang, Yi-Xiong; Wu, Yan-Min

    2012-11-01

    Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L.) is an important model organism for fundamental research in the agro-biotechnology field. Aldehydes were generated in response to a suite of environmental stresses that perturb metabolism including salinity, dehydration, desiccation, and cold and heat shock. Many biologically important aldehydes are metabolized by the superfamily of NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here, starting from the database of Z. mays, we identified 28 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and 48 transcripts by the in silico cloning method using the ALDH-conserved domain amino acid sequence of Arabidopsis and rice as a probe. Phylogenetic analysis shows that all 28 members of the ALDH gene families were classified to ten distinct subfamilies. Microarray data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis reveal that ZmALDH9, ZmALDH13, and ZmALDH17 genes involve the function of drought stress, acid tolerance, and pathogens infection. These results suggested that these three ZmALDH genes might be potentially useful in maize genetic improvement.

  13. aldB, an RpoS-dependent gene in Escherichia coli encoding an aldehyde dehydrogenase that is repressed by Fis and activated by Crp.

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, J; Johnson, R C

    1995-01-01

    Escherichia coli aldB was identified as a gene that is negatively regulated by Fis but positively regulated by RpoS. The complete DNA sequence determined in this study indicates that aldB encodes a 56.3-kDa protein which shares a high degree of homology with an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by acoD of Alcaligenes eutrophus and an aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by aldA of Vibrio cholerae and significant homology with a group of other aldehyde dehydrogenases from prokaryotes and eukaryotes...

  14. ATOMIC-STRUCTURE OF THE CUBIC CORE OF THE PYRUVATE-DEHYDROGENASE MULTIENZYME COMPLEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MATTEVI, A; OBMOLOVA, G; SCHULZE, E; KALK, KH; WESTPHAL, AH; DEKOK, A; HOL, WGJ

    1992-01-01

    The highly symmetric pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes have molecular masses ranging from 5 to 10 million daltons. They consist of numerous copies of three different enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase, dihydrolipoyl transacetylase, and lipoamide dehydrogenase. The three-dimensional crystal

  15. Enzymatic urea adaptation: lactate and malate dehydrogenase in elasmobranchs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagana, G.; Bellocco, E.; Mannucci, C.; Leuzzi, U.; Tellone, E.; Kotyk, Arnošt; Galtieri, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 6 (2006), s. 675-688 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : elasmobranchs * lactate dehydrogenase * malate dehydrogenase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006

  16. Cloning and expression analysis of alcohol dehydrogenase ( Adh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid promoters are created by shuffling of DNA fragments while keeping intact regulatory regions crucial of promoter activity. Two fragments of alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) promoter from Zea mays were selected to generate hybrid promoter. Sequence analysis of both alcohol dehydrogenase promoter fragments through ...

  17. Study on the triphenyl tetrazolium chloride– dehydrogenase activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quick analysis of the sludge activity method based on triphenyltetrazolium chloride-dehydrogenase activity (TTC-DHA) was developed to change the rule and status of the biological activity of the activated sludge in tomato paste wastewater treatment. The results indicate that dehydrogenase activity (DHA) can effectively ...

  18. Some Properties of Glutamate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: ammonia assimilation, glutamate dehydrogenase, GDH, Gracilaria sordida, red alga, enzyme activity. Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH, EC ... Anabolic functions could be assimilation of ammonia released during photorespiration and synthesis of N-rich transport compounds. Western Indian Ocean Journal of ...

  19. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2009-06-01

    Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. From 1998-2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving complementary analyses addressing different questions several years

  20. A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind phase I-II clinical trial on the safety of A-Part® Gel as adhesion prophylaxis after major abdominal surgery versus non-treated group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weis Christine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postoperative adhesions occur when fibrous strands of internal scar tissue bind anatomical structures to one another. The most common cause of intra-abdominal adhesions is previous intra-abdominal surgical intervention. Up to 74% of intestinal obstructions are caused by post surgical adhesions. Although a variety of methods and agents have been investigated to prevent post surgical adhesions, the problem of peritoneal adhesions remains largely unsolved. Materials serving as an adhesion barrier are much needed. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomised, controlled, patient blinded and observer blinded, single centre phase I-II trial, which evaluates the safety of A-Part® Gel as an adhesion prophylaxis after major abdominal wall surgery, in comparison to an untreated control group. 60 patients undergoing an elective median laparotomy without prior abdominal surgery are randomly allocated into two groups of a 1:1- ratio. Safety parameter and primary endpoint of the study is the occurrence of wound healing impairment or peritonitis within 28 (+10 days after surgery. The frequency of anastomotic leakage within 28 days after operation, occurrence of adverse and serious adverse events during hospital stay up to 3 months and the rate of adhesions along the scar within 3 months are defined as secondary endpoints. After hospital discharge the investigator will examine the enrolled patients at 28 (+10 days and 3 months (±14 days after surgery. Discussion This trial aims to assess, whether the intra-peritoneal application of A-Part® Gel is safe and efficacious in the prevention of post-surgical adhesions after median laparotomy, in comparison to untreated controls. Trial registration NCT00646412

  1. INFLUENCE OF SELECTED PHARMACEUTICALS ON ACTIVATED SLUDGE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Tomska

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of selected antibiotics - sulfanilamide and erythromycin on activated sludge dehydrogenase activity with use of trifenyltetrazolinum chloride (TTC test. Dehydrogenases activity is an indicator of biochemical activity of microorganisms present in activated sludge or the ability to degrade organic compounds in waste water. TTC test is particularly useful for the regularity of the course of treatment, in which the presence of inhibitors of biochemical reactions and toxic compounds are present. It was observed that the dehydrogenase activity decreases with the increase of a antibiotics concentration. The lowest value of the dehydrogenase activity equal to 32.4 μmol TF / gMLSS obtained at sulfanilamide concentration 150mg / l. For this sample, an inhibition of dehydrogenase activity was 31%.

  2. Identification of Glyceraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Sequence and Expression Profiles in Tree Shrew (Tupaia belangeri)

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Qihui; Yun, Chenxia; Wang, Yingjun; Smith, Wanli W.; Leng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) diverged from the primate order (Primates) and are classified as Scandentia, a separate taxonomic group of mammals. The tree shrew has been suggested to use an animal model to study human disease but the genomic sequences of tree shrew is largely unidentified. Here we identified the full-length cDNA sequence of a housekeeping gene, Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Dehydrogenase (GAPDH), in tree shrew. We further constructed a phylogenetic family tree base on GAPDH...

  3. Thermodecomposition of lanthanides (III) and ytrium (III) glucoheptonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giolito, J.

    1987-01-01

    The lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) glucoheptonates as well the D-glucoheptono 1-4 lactone were studied using common analytical methods, elemental microanalysis of carbon and hydrogen, thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry. These compounds were prepared from the reaction between the lanthanides (III) and yttrium (III) hydroxides and glucoheptonic acid aqueous solution obtained by means of the delta lactone hydrolysis of this acid. After stoichiometric reaction the compounds were precipitated by the addition of absolute ethanol, washed with the same solvent and dried in desiccator. Thermogravimetric the (TG) curves of the lanthanides glucoheptonates of the ceric group present thermal profiles with enough differences permitting an easy caracterization of each compound and the yttrium (III) glucoheptonate TG curve showed a great similarity with the erbium (III) compound TG curve. The differential scanning calometry (DSC) curves showed endothermic and exothermic peaks by their shape, height and position (temperature) permit an easy and rapid identification of each compound specially if DSC and TG curves were examined simultaneously. (author) [pt

  4. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margit Winkler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S-selectivity and together with a highly (R-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases.

  5. Action of sulphite on plant malate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, I.

    1974-01-01

    SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ acts on NAD- and NADP-dependent malate dehydrogenase in several ways. Firstly, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ favours the appearance of low MW species (65000 and 39000 daltons) in Sephadex gel chromatography. Secondly, the enzyme from which is obtained by gel chromatography with dithioerythritol plus nucleotide cofactor is changed in the presence of SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/. This is indicated by the appearance of a linear reaction (instead of curvilinear), and by the abolition of the biphasic sigmoidal kinetics on varying substrate and cofactor concentrations. Thus the inhibition of initial velocity at high substrate or cofactor concentrations is even more marked than at lower ones. Thirdly, SO/sub 3//sup 2 -/ strongly reduces the activity in substrate saturating conditions.

  6. Variants of glycerol dehydrogenase having D-lactate dehydrogenase activity and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides methods of designing and generating glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) variants that have altered function as compared to a parent polypeptide. The present invention further provides nucleic acids encoding GlyDH polypeptide variants having altered function as compared to the parent polypeptide. Host cells comprising polynucleotides encoding GlyDH variants and methods of producing lactic acids are also provided in various aspects of the invention.

  7. Ammonium diphosphitoindate(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Hamchaoui

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, NH4[In(HPO32], is built up from InIII cations (site symmetry 3m. adopting an octahedral environment and two different phosphite anions (each with site symmetry 3m. exhibiting a triangular–pyramidal geometry. Each InO6 octahedron shares its six apices with hydrogen phosphite groups. Reciprocally, each HPO3 group shares all its O atoms with three different metal cations, leading to [In(HPO32]− layers which propagate in the ab plane. The ammonium cation likewise has site symmetry 3m.. In the structure, the cations are located between the [In(HPO32]− layers of the host framework. The sheets are held together by hydrogen bonds formed between the NH4+ cations and the O atoms of the framework.

  8. Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding the 72-kilodalton dehydrogenase subunit of alcohol dehydrogenase from Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, T; Sunagawa, M; Mori, A; Imai, C; Fukuda, M; Takagi, M; Yano, K

    1989-06-01

    A genomic library of Acetobacter aceti DNA was constructed by using a broad-host-range cosmid vector. Complementation of a spontaneous alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient mutant resulted in the isolation of a plasmid designated pAA701. Subcloning and deletion analysis of pAA701 limited the region that complemented the deficiency in alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant. The nucleotide sequence of this region was determined and showed that this region contained the full structural gene for the 72-kilodalton dehydrogenase subunit of the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme complex. The predicted amino acid sequence of the gene showed homology with sequences of methanol dehydrogenase structural genes of Paracoccus denitrificans and Methylobacterium organophilum.

  9. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO 2 Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  10. Mediator Preference of Two Different FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenases Employed in Disposable Enzyme Glucose Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noya Loew

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most commercially available electrochemical enzyme sensor strips for the measurement of blood glucose use an artificial electron mediator to transfer electrons from the active side of the enzyme to the electrode. One mediator recently gaining attention for commercial sensor strips is hexaammineruthenium(III chloride. In this study, we investigate and compare the preference of enzyme electrodes with two different FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs for the mediators hexaammineruthenium(III chloride, potassium ferricyanide (the most common mediator in commercial sensor strips, and methoxy phenazine methosulfate (mPMS. One FADGDH is a monomeric fungal enzyme, and the other a hetero-trimeric bacterial enzyme. With the latter, which contains a heme-subunit facilitating the electron transfer, similar response currents are obtained with hexaammineruthenium(III, ferricyanide, and mPMS (6.8 µA, 7.5 µA, and 6.4 µA, respectively, for 10 mM glucose. With the fungal FADGDH, similar response currents are obtained with the negatively charged ferricyanide and the uncharged mPMS (5.9 µA and 6.7 µA, respectively, for 10 mM glucose, however, no response current is obtained with hexaammineruthenium(III, which has a strong positive charge. These results show that access of even very small mediators with strong charges to a buried active center can be almost completely blocked by the protein.

  11. Mediator Preference of Two Different FAD-Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenases Employed in Disposable Enzyme Glucose Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loew, Noya; Tsugawa, Wakako; Nagae, Daichi; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Sode, Koji

    2017-11-16

    Most commercially available electrochemical enzyme sensor strips for the measurement of blood glucose use an artificial electron mediator to transfer electrons from the active side of the enzyme to the electrode. One mediator recently gaining attention for commercial sensor strips is hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride. In this study, we investigate and compare the preference of enzyme electrodes with two different FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (FADGDHs) for the mediators hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, potassium ferricyanide (the most common mediator in commercial sensor strips), and methoxy phenazine methosulfate (mPMS). One FADGDH is a monomeric fungal enzyme, and the other a hetero-trimeric bacterial enzyme. With the latter, which contains a heme-subunit facilitating the electron transfer, similar response currents are obtained with hexaammineruthenium(III), ferricyanide, and mPMS (6.8 µA, 7.5 µA, and 6.4 µA, respectively, for 10 mM glucose). With the fungal FADGDH, similar response currents are obtained with the negatively charged ferricyanide and the uncharged mPMS (5.9 µA and 6.7 µA, respectively, for 10 mM glucose), however, no response current is obtained with hexaammineruthenium(III), which has a strong positive charge. These results show that access of even very small mediators with strong charges to a buried active center can be almost completely blocked by the protein.

  12. X-ray crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yennawar, Hemant; Møller, Magda; Gillilan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase (slSDH) has been determined using the crystal structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (hSDH) as a molecular-replacement model. slSDH crystallized in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. A conserved tetramer...... the substrate-binding pocket together with the acetate designed by nature to fit large polyol substrates. The substrate-binding pocket is seen to be in close proximity to the tetramer interface, which explains the need for the structural integrity of the tetramer for enzyme activity. Small-angle X-ray...

  13. External NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in Acanthamoeba castellanii mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antos-Krzeminska, Nina; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain of plants and some fungi contains multiple rotenone-insensitive NAD(P)H dehydrogenases, of which at least two are located on the outer surface of the inner membrane (i.e., external NADH and external NADPH dehydrogenases). Annotated sequences of the putative alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii demonstrated similarity to plant and fungal sequences. We also studied activity of these dehydrogenases in isolated A. castellanii mitochondria. External NADPH oxidation was observed for the first time in protist mitochondria. The coupling parameters were similar for external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation, indicating similar efficiencies of ATP synthesis. Both external NADH oxidation and external NADPH oxidation had an optimal pH of 6.8 independent of relevant ubiquinol-oxidizing pathways, the cytochrome pathway or a GMP-stimulated alternative oxidase. The maximal oxidizing activity with external NADH was almost double that with external NADPH. However, a lower Michaelis constant (K(M)) value for external NADPH oxidation was observed compared to that for external NADH oxidation. Stimulation by Ca(2+) was approximately 10 times higher for external NADPH oxidation, while NADH dehydrogenase(s) appeared to be slightly dependent on Ca(2+). Our results indicate that external NAD(P)H dehydrogenases similar to those in plant and fungal mitochondria function in mitochondria of A. castellanii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase from Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jimin; Lee, Daniel C.; Jia, Zongchao

    2009-01-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase has been crystallized in three different crystal forms. Data were collected from each crystal form for structure determination. The Escherichia coli aceK gene encodes isocitrate dehydrogenase kinase/phosphatase (EC 2.7.11.5), a bifunctional protein that phosphorylates and dephosphorylates isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), resulting in its inactivation and activation, respectively. This reversible (de)phosphorylation directs isocitrate, an intermediate of the citric acid cycle, to either go through the full cycle or to enter the glyoxylate bypass. In the present study, the AceK protein from E. coli has been purified and crystallized. Three crystal forms were obtained from very similar crystallization conditions. The crystals belong to space groups P4 1 2 1 2, P3 2 21 and P2 1 2 1 2 1 and diffracted X-rays to resolutions of 2.9, 3.0 and 2.7 Å, respectively

  15. Therapeutic Efficacy and Tolerability of the Topical Treatment of Inflammatory Conditions of the Oral Cavity with a Mouthwash Containing Diclofenac Epolamine : A Randomized, Investigator-Blind, Parallel-Group, Controlled, Phase III Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Giampiero; Trevisan, Silvia; Saponati, Giorgio; Bandettini, Bernardo

    2012-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including diclofenac, are the mainstay of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment in dentistry. Diclofenac epolamine [diclofenac N-(2-hydroxyethyl)pyrrolidine; DHEP] is a diclofenac salt with greater water solubility and better cutaneous absorption properties than other commonly used forms of the drug. IBSA has recently developed a mouthwash formulation of DHEP for the topical treatment of inflammatory conditions of the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of DHEP mouthwash (Osmal®) with that of a reference product (commercially available diclofenac mouthwash). This was a randomized, investigator-blind, parallel-group, controlled, phase III study that enrolled 80 patients with conditions affecting the oral cavity, characterized by an inflammatory component, and eligible for analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment. Patients were randomized 1 : 1 to DHEP mouthwash (0.103% DHEP in aqueous solution) or to diclofenac mouthwash (0.074% free diclofenac in aqueous solution). The treatment regimen was the same in both groups: 1-minute rinse with 15 mL of mouthwash, twice daily for 7 days. Visits were scheduled at study inclusion (D0), and 3 days (D3) and 7 days (D7) after treatment initiation. During each visit assessments were made of pain severity (using a 5-point semi-quantitative scale and a 100-mm visual analogue scale [VAS]) and inflammatory signs (using a 5-point scale). The primary study endpoint was the change in pain severity scores from D0 to D3 and D7. Secondary endpoints included effects of treatment on inflammation score, quality of sleep, compliance with treatment and the safety and tolerability of treatment. The two treatment arms were homogeneous in terms of patient characteristics. The most prevalent oral condition was gingivitis. Overall both topical treatments were effective in alleviating pain and inflammation, as evidenced by decreases in pain and

  16. 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase activity in vitro in lung and kidney of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Toft, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    of formation of H-labelled 15-keto-dihydro-prostaglandin E plus 15-keto-prostaglandin E in high speed supernatants of lung and kidney from each of the groups of rats. Dehydrogenase activity (expressed as either pmol/min per mg soluble protein, or as nmol/min per g tissue) was decreased 30-40% in the lungs...

  17. In vitro kinetics of the rat brain succinate dehydrogenase inhibition by hexachlorophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokanatha, V; Sailaja, P; Rajendra, W

    1999-01-01

    Brain succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was inhibited by in vitro hexachlorophene (HCP) with a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.65 x 10(-3) M. The HCP exerted noncompetitive inhibition at 0.5 mM (IC50) on SDH activity. The brain SDH demands more energy of activation (deltaE) in the presence of HCP. The ionizable groups of SDH such as the sulfhydral group of cysteine and alpha-amino groups of cysteine were not altered qualitatively in the presence of HCP.

  18. Expression, Purification, Crystallization And Preliminary X-Ray Studies of Histamine Dehydrogenase From Nocardioides Simplex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, T.M.; Hirakawa, H.; Mure, M.; Scott, E.E.; Limburg, J.

    2009-05-21

    Histamine dehydrogenase (HADH) from Nocardioides simplex catalyzes the oxidative deamination of histamine to produce imidazole acetaldehyde and an ammonium ion. HADH is functionally related to trimethylamine dehydrogenase (TMADH), but HADH has strict substrate specificity towards histamine. HADH is a homodimer, with each 76 kDa subunit containing two redox cofactors: a [4Fe-4S] cluster and an unusual covalently bound flavin mononucleotide, 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN. In order to understand the substrate specificity of HADH, it was sought to determine its structure by X-ray crystallography. This enzyme has been expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and successfully crystallized in two forms. Diffraction data were collected to 2.7 {angstrom} resolution at the SSRL synchrotron with 99.7% completeness. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 101.14, b = 107.03, c = 153.35 {angstrom}.

  19. SDR-type human hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases involved in steroid hormone activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoqiu; Lukacik, Petra; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo

    2007-02-01

    Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreduction of hydroxyl and oxo-functions at distinct positions of steroid hormones. This reversible reaction constitutes an important pre-receptor control mechanism for nuclear receptor ligands of the androgen, estrogen and glucocorticoid classes, since the conversion "switches" between receptor ligands and their inactive metabolites. The major reversible activities found in mammals acting on steroid hormones comprise 3alpha-, 11beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and for each group several distinct isozymes have been described. The enzymes differ in their expression pattern, nucleotide cofactor preference, steroid substrate specificity and subcellular localization, and thus constitute a complex system ensuring cell-specific adaptation and regulation of steroid hormone levels. Several isoforms constitute promising drug targets, of particular importance in cancer, metabolic diseases, neurodegeneration and immunity.

  20. Palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex formulation enhances activities of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases and respiratory complexes I-IV in the heart of aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheesh, N P; Ajith, T A; Janardhanan, K K; Krishnan, C V

    2009-08-01

    Age-related decline in the capacity to withstand stress, such as ischemia and reperfusion, results in congestive heart failure. Though the mechanisms underlying cardiac decay are not clear, age dependent somatic damages to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), loss of mitochondrial function, and a resultant increase in oxidative stress in heart muscle cells may be responsible for the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The effect of a safe nutritional supplement, POLY-MVA, containing the active ingredient palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex, was evaluated on the activities of the Krebs cycle enzymes such as isocitrate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and malate dehydrogenase as well as mitochondrial complexes I, II, III, and IV in heart mitochondria of aged male albino rats of Wistar strain. Administration of 0.05 ml/kg of POLY-MVA (which is equivalent to 0.38 mg complexed alpha-lipoic acid/kg, p.o), once daily for 30 days, was significantly (pKrebs cycle dehydrogenases, and mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes. The unique electronic and redox properties of palladium alpha-lipoic acid complex appear to be a key to this physiological effectiveness. The results strongly suggest that this formulation might be effective to protect the aging associated risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5560 - Lactic dehydrogenase immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... found in a variety of conditions, including megaloblastic anemia (decrease in the number of mature red... conditions known to cause increased lactic dehydrogenase levels. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  3. Final 10-year results of the Breast International Group 2-98 phase III trial and the role of Ki67 in predicting benefit of adjuvant docetaxel in patients with oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenblick, Amir; Francis, Prudence A; Azim, Hatem A; de Azambuja, Evandro; Nordenskjöld, Bo; Gutiérez, Jorge; Quinaux, Emmanuel; Mastropasqua, Mauro G; Ameye, Lieveke; Anderson, Michael; Lluch, Ana; Gnant, Michael; Goldhirsch, Aron; Di Leo, Angelo; Barnadas, Agusti; Cortes-Funes, Hernan; Piccart, Martine; Crown, John

    2015-08-01

    Breast International Group (BIG) 2-98 is a randomised phase III trial that tested the effect of adding docetaxel, either in sequence to or in combination with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy, in women with node-positive breast cancer (BC). Here, we present the 10-year final trial safety and efficacy analyses. We also report an exploratory analysis on the predictive value of Ki67 for docetaxel efficacy, in the BIG 2-98 and using a pooled analysis of three other randomised trials. 2887 patients were randomly assigned in a 2×2 trial design to one of four treatments. The primary objective was to evaluate the overall efficacy of docetaxel on disease free survival (DFS). Secondary objectives included comparisons of sequential docetaxel versus sequential control arm, safety and overall survival (OS). Ki67 expression was centrally evaluated by immunohistochemistry. After a median follow-up of 10.1years, the addition of docetaxel did not significantly improve DFS or OS (hazard ratio (HR)=0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.81-1.04; P=0.16 and HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.76-1.03; P=0.11, respectively). Sequential docetaxel did not improve DFS compared to the sequential control arm (HR=0.86, 95% CI=0.72-1.03; P=0.10). In oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumours with Ki67⩾14%, the addition of docetaxel resulted in 5.4% improvement in 10-year OS (P=0.03, test for interaction=0.1). In a multivariate model, there was a trend for improved DFS and OS in ER-positive patients with high Ki67 and treated with docetaxel (HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.63-1.01; P=0.05 and HR=0.76, 95% CI=0.57-1.01; P=0.06, respectively). A pooled analysis of four randomised trials showed a benefit of taxanes in highly proliferative ER-positive disease but not in low proliferating tumours (interaction test P=0.01). The DFS benefit previously demonstrated with sequential docetaxel is no longer observed at 10years. However, an exploratory analysis suggested a benefit of docetaxel in patients with highly

  4. Randomized Phase III Trial to Test Accelerated Versus Standard Fractionation in Combination With Concurrent Cisplatin for Head and Neck Carcinomas in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0129 Trial: Long-Term Report of Efficacy and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Zhang, Qiang; Ang, K. Kian; Weber, Randal S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Soulieres, Denis; Kim, Harold; Silverman, Craig; Raben, Adam; Galloway, Thomas J.; Fortin, André; Gore, Elizabeth; Westra, William H.; Chung, Christine H.; Jordan, Richard C.; Gillison, Maura L.; List, Marcie; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We tested the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin plus accelerated fractionation with a concomitant boost (AFX-C) versus standard fractionation (SFX) in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (LA-HNC). Patients and Methods Patients had stage III to IV carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx. Radiation therapy schedules were 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks (SFX) or 72 Gy in 42 fractions over 6 weeks (AFX-C). Cisplatin doses were 100 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for two (AFX-C) or three (SFX) cycles. Toxicities were scored by using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by using the one-sided log-rank test. Locoregional failure (LRF) and distant metastasis (DM) rates were estimated by using the cumulative incidence method and Gray's test. Results In all, 721 of 743 patients were analyzable (361, SFX; 360, AFX-C). At a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range, 0.3 to 10.1 years) for 355 surviving patients, no differences were observed in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.18; P = .37; 8-year survival, 48% v 48%), PFS (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.24; P = .52; 8-year estimate, 42% v 41%), LRF (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.38; P = .78; 8-year estimate, 37% v 39%), or DM (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.24; P = .16; 8-year estimate, 15% v 13%). For oropharyngeal cancer, p16-positive patients had better OS than p16-negative patients (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.42; P patients with LA-HNC. Long-term high survival rates in p16-positive patients with oropharyngeal cancer support the ongoing efforts to explore deintensification. PMID:25366680

  5. Targeting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Takeo; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; DiNardo, Courtney D; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip

    2016-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme for cellular respiration in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are prevalent in several cancers including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. The mutated IDH1 and IDH2 proteins have a gain-of-function, neomorphic activity, catalyzing the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by NADPH. Cancer-associated IDH mutations block normal cellular differentiation and promote tumorigenesis via the abnormal production of the oncometabolite 2-HG. High levels of 2-HG have been shown to inhibit α-KG dependent dioxygenases, including histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Current targeted inhibitors of IDH1 (AG120, IDH305), IDH2 (AG221), and pan-IDH1/2 (AG881) selectively inhibit mutant IDH protein and induce cell differentiation in in vitro and in vivo models. Preliminary results from phase I clinical trials with IDH inhibitors in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies have demonstrated an objective response rate ranging from 31% to 40% with durable responses (>1 year) observed. Furthermore, the IDH inhibitors have demonstrated early signals of activity in solid tumors with IDH mutations, including cholangiocarcinomas and low grade gliomas.

  6. Novel Inhibitors Complexed with Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Smith, Christopher J.; Walker, Matthew T.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a homohexameric enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of l-glutamate to 2-oxoglutarate using NAD(P)+ as coenzyme. Unlike its counterparts from other animal kingdoms, mammalian GDH is regulated by a host of ligands. The recently discovered hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia disorder showed that the loss of allosteric inhibition of GDH by GTP causes excessive secretion of insulin. Subsequent studies demonstrated that wild-type and hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia forms of GDH are inhibited by the green tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. This was followed by high throughput studies that identified more stable inhibitors, including hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol. Shown here are the structures of GDH complexed with these three compounds. Hexachlorophene forms a ring around the internal cavity in GDH through aromatic stacking interactions between the drug and GDH as well as between the drug molecules themselves. In contrast, GW5074 and bithionol both bind as pairs of stacked compounds at hexameric 2-fold axes between the dimers of subunits. The internal core of GDH contracts when the catalytic cleft closes during enzymatic turnover. None of the drugs cause conformational changes in the contact residues, but all bind to key interfaces involved in this contraction process. Therefore, it seems likely that the drugs inhibit enzymatic turnover by inhibiting this transition. Indeed, this expansion/contraction process may play a major role in the inter-subunit communication and allosteric regulation observed in GDH. PMID:19531491

  7. Eucalypt NADP-Dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiffin, Vincent; Hodges, Michael; Gálvez, Susana; Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola; Gadal, Pierre; Martin, Francis

    1998-01-01

    NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) activity is increased in roots of Eucalyptus globulus subsp. bicostata ex Maiden Kirkp. during colonization by the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus tinctorius Coker and Couch. To investigate the regulation of the enzyme expression, a cDNA (EgIcdh) encoding the NADP-ICDH was isolated from a cDNA library of E. globulus-P. tinctorius ectomycorrhizae. The putative polypeptide sequence of EgIcdh showed a high amino acid similarity with plant NADP-ICDHs. Because the deduced EgICDH protein lacks an amino-terminal targeting sequence and shows highest similarity to plant cytosolic ICDHs, it probably represents a cytoplasmic isoform. RNA analysis showed that the steady-state level of EgIcdh transcripts was enhanced nearly 2-fold in ectomycorrhizal roots compared with nonmycorrhizal roots. Increased accumulation of NADP-ICDH transcripts occurred as early as 2 d after contact and likely led to the observed increased enzyme activity. Indirect immunofluorescence microscopy indicated that NADP-ICDH was preferentially accumulated in the epidermis and stele parenchyma of nonmycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal lateral roots. The putative role of cytosolic NADP-ICDH in ectomycorrhizae is discussed. PMID:9662536

  8. Temperature-sensitive glutamate dehydrogenase mutants of Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Dendinger, S M; Brenchley, J E

    1980-01-01

    Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium defective in glutamate dehydrogenase activity were isolated in parent strains lacking glutamate synthase activity by localizcd mutagenesis or by a general mutagenesis combined with a cycloserine enrichment for glutamate auxotrophs. Two mutants with temperature-sensitive phenotypes had glutamate dehydrogenase activities that were more thermolabile than that of an isogenic control strain. Eight other mutants had less than 10% of the wild-type glutamate dehydrog...

  9. Catalytic activity of bovine glutamate dehydrogenase requires a hexamer structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, E T; Bell, J E

    1984-01-01

    Previous workers have shown that the hexamers of glutamate dehydrogenase are dissociated first into trimers and subsequently into monomers by increasing guanidinium chloride concentrations. In renaturation experiments it is shown that trimers of glutamate dehydrogenase can be reassociated to give the hexamer form of the enzyme, with full regain of activity. Monomeric subunits produced at high guanidinium chloride concentrations cannot be renatured. The trimer form of the enzyme is shown to ha...

  10. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex and lactate dehydrogenase as targets for therapy of acute liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriero, Rosa; Nusco, Edoardo; De Cegli, Rossella; Carissimo, Annamaria; Manco, Giuseppe; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2018-03-23

    Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive deterioration of hepatic function resulting in high mortality and morbidity. Metabolic enzymes can translocate in the nucleus to regulate histone acetylation and gene expression. Levels and activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were evaluated in nuclear fractions of livers of mice exposed to various hepatotoxins including CD95-Ab, α-amanitin, and acetaminophen. Whole-genome gene expression profiling by RNA-seq was performed in livers of mice with acute liver failure and analyzed by Gene Ontology Enrichment Analysis. Efficacy of histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol and LDH inhibitor galloflavin at reducing liver damage was evaluated in mice with induced hepatotoxicity. Levels and activities of PDHC and LDH were increased in cytoplasmatic and nuclear fractions of livers of mice with acute liver failure. The increase of nuclear PDHC and LDH was associated with increased concentrations of acetyl-coA and lactate in nuclear fractions, and histone H3 hyper-acetylation. Gene expression in livers of mice with acute liver failure suggested that increased histone H3 acetylation induces the expression of genes related to response to damage. Reduced histone acetylation by the histone acetyltransferase inhibitor garcinol decreased liver damage and improved survival in mice with acute liver failure. Knock-down of PDHC or LDH improved viability in cells exposed to a pro-apoptotic stimulus. Treatment with the LDH inhibitor galloflavin that was also found to inhibit PDHC, reduced hepatic necrosis, apoptosis, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice with acute liver failure. Mice treated with galloflavin also showed a dose-response increase in survival. PDHC and LDH translocate to the nucleus and are targets for therapy of acute liver failure. Acute liver failure is a rapidly progressive and life-threatening deterioration of liver function resulting in high mortality and

  11. Nonanuclear Spin-Crossover Complex Containing Iron(II) and Iron(III) Based on a 2,6-Bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine Ligand Functionalized with a Carboxylate Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhervé, Alexandre; Recio-Carretero, María José; López-Jordà, Maurici; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Canet-Ferrer, Josep; Cantarero, Andrés; Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-09-19

    The synthesis and magnetostructural characterization of [Fe(III)3(μ3-O)(H2O)3[Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)]6](ClO4)13·(CH3)2CO)6·(solvate) (2) are reported. This compound is obtained as a secondary product during synthesis of the mononuclear complex [Fe(II)(bppCOOH)2](ClO4)2 (1). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure of 2 shows that it contains the nonanuclear cluster of the formula [Fe(III)3(μ3-O)(H2O)3[Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)]6](13+), which is formed by a central Fe(III)3O core coordinated to six partially deprotonated [Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)](+) complexes. Raman spectroscopy studies on single crystals of 1 and 2 have been performed to elucidate the spin and oxidation states of iron in 2. These studies and magnetic characterization indicate that most of the iron(II) complexes of 2 remain in the low-spin (LS) state and present a gradual and incomplete spin crossover above 300 K. On the other hand, the Fe(III) trimer shows the expected antiferromagnetic behavior. From the structural point of view, 2 represents the first example in which bppCOO(-) acts as a bridging ligand, thus forming a polynuclear magnetic complex.

  12. Gemcitabine Plus Docetaxel Versus Docetaxel in Patients With Predominantly Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Locally Advanced or Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized, Phase III Study by the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte L; Bjerre, Karsten D; Jakobsen, Erik H

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE The objective of this phase III study was to compare the efficacy of gemcitabine plus docetaxel (GD) versus docetaxel in patients with advanced breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Predominantly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -negative patients were randomly assigned...

  13. High-dose imatinib versus high-dose imatinib in combination with intermediate-dose cytarabine in patients with first chronic phase myeloid leukemia: a randomized phase III trial of the Dutch-Belgian HOVON study group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thielen, Noortje; van der Holt, Bronno; Verhoef, Gregor E. G.; Ammerlaan, Rianne A. H. M.; Sonneveld, Pieter; Janssen, Jeroen J. W. M.; Deenik, Wendy; Falkenburg, J. H. Frederik; Kersten, Marie José; Sinnige, Harm A. M.; Schipperus, Martin; Schattenberg, Anton; van Marwijk Kooy, Rien; Smit, Willem M.; Chu, Isabel W. T.; Valk, Peter J. M.; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Cornelissen, Jan J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the revolutionary change in the prognosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients with the introduction of imatinib, patients with resistant disease still pose a considerable problem. In this multicenter, randomized phase III trial, we investigate whether the combination of high-dose

  14. Alcohol dehydrogenases from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radianingtyas, Helia; Wright, Phillip C

    2003-12-01

    Many studies have been undertaken to characterise alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, mainly to better understand their activities and thermostability. To date, there are 20 thermophilic archaeal and 17 thermophilic bacterial strains known to have ADHs or similar enzymes, including the hypothetical proteins. Some of these thermophiles are found to have multiple ADHs, sometimes of different types. A rigid delineation of amino acid sequences amongst currently elucidated thermophilic ADHs and similar proteins is phylogenetically apparent. All are NAD(P)-dependent, with one exception that utilises the cofactor F(420) instead. Within the NAD(P)-dependent group, the thermophilic ADHs are orderly clustered as zinc-dependent ADHs, short-chain ADHs, and iron-containing/activated ADHs. Distance matrix calculations reveal that thermophilic ADHs within one type are homologous, with those derived from a single genus often showing high similarities. Elucidation of the enzyme activity and stability, coupled with structure analysis, provides excellent information to explain the relationship between them, and thermophilic ADHs diversity.

  15. Metallothionein (MT)-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, J; Giralt, M; Molinero, A

    1999-01-01

    and renamed as MT-III. In this study we have raised polyclonal antibodies in rabbits against recombinant rat MT-III (rMT-III). The sera obtained reacted specifically against recombinant zinc-and cadmium-saturated rMT-III, and did not cross-react with native rat MT-I and MT-II purified from the liver of zinc...... astrocyte migration in vitro, rMT-III promoted migration to a higher extent than MT-I+II. Thus, MT-III could not only affect neuronal sprouting as previously suggested, but also astrocyte function. Finally, MT-III protein levels of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were, if anything, increased when...

  16. Coenzymatic properties of low molecular-weight and macromolecular N6-derivatives of NAD+ and NADP+ with dehydrogenases of interest for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottolina, G; Carrea, G; Riva, S; Bückmann, A F

    1990-08-01

    The catalytic activity, expressed as Km and Vmax values, of 16 enzymes of practical interest with the macromolecular coenzymes poly(ethylene glycol)-N6-(2-aminoethyl)-NAD+ and poly(ethylene glycol)-N6-(2-aminoethyl)-NADP+ and their low molecular weight precursors N6-(2-aminoethyl)-NAD+ and N6-(2-aminoethyl)-NADP+, was investigated. The enzymes examined are of direct interest for organic synthesis (i.e. alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast, horse liver, or Thermoanaerobium brockii, lactic dehydrogenase, and several hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases) or are used for the regeneration of NAD+, NADP+, NADH, or NADPH (i.e. glutamate dehydrogenase from liver or Proteus, formate dehydrogenase, glucose dehydrogenase, and malic enzyme). The cycling efficiency of poly(ethylene glycol)-N6-(2-aminoethyl)-NADP+ was examined with coupled-enzymes or coupled-substrates systems. Poly(ethylene glycol)-N6-(2-aminoethyl)-NAD+ and, even more so, poly(ethylene glycol)-N6-(2-aminoethyl)-NADP+ were excellent coenzymes with several dehydrogenases. In addition, the coenzymatic properties of N6-(3-sulfonatopropyl)-NAD+, an NAD+ derivative carrying a strong anionic group, were compared with those of the newly synthesized N6-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium propyl)-NAD+, an NAD+ derivative carrying a strong cationic group. It was expected that the presence of the sulfonic or quaternary ammonium group would enhance the residence time of the coenzyme inside continuous-flow reactors if membranes with anionic or cationic groups, respectively, were used.

  17. The structure of the quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase of Acetobacter aceti modelled on that of methanol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium extorquens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozier, G E; Giles, I G; Anthony, C

    1995-06-01

    The 1.94 A structure of methanol dehydrogenase has been used to provide a model structure for part of a membrane quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase. The basic superbarrel structure and the active-site region are retained, indicating essentially similar mechanisms of action, but there are considerable differences in the external loops, particularly those involved in formation of the shallow funnel leading to the active site.

  18. ald of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Encodes both the Alanine Dehydrogenase and the Putative Glycine Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Michelle M.; Modesti, Lucia; Raab, Ronald W.; Wayne, Lawrence G.

    2012-01-01

    The putative glycine dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis catalyzes the reductive amination of glyoxylate to glycine but not the reverse reaction. The enzyme was purified and identified as the previously characterized alanine dehydrogenase. The Ald enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and had both pyruvate and glyoxylate aminating activities. The gene, ald, was inactivated in M. tuberculosis, which resulted in the loss of all activities. Both enzyme activities were found associated with the cell and were not detected in the extracellular filtrate. By using an anti-Ald antibody, the protein was localized to the cell membrane, with a smaller fraction in the cytosol. None was detected in the extracellular medium. The ald knockout strain grew without alanine or glycine and was able to utilize glycine but not alanine as a nitrogen source. Transcription of ald was induced when alanine was the sole nitrogen source, and higher levels of Ald enzyme were measured. Ald is proposed to have several functions, including ammonium incorporation and alanine breakdown. PMID:22210765

  19. Effect of fermented sea tangle on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Bae-Jin; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-08-01

    Sea tangle, a kind of brown seaweed, was fermented with Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in fermented sea tangle (FST) was 5.56% (w/w) and GABA in total free amino acid of FST was 49.5%. The effect of FST on the enzyme activities and mRNA protein expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) involved in alcohol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Yeast was cultured in YPD medium supplemented with different concentrations of FST powder [0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0% (w/v)] for 18 h. FST had no cytotoxic effect on the yeast growth. The highest activities and protein expressions of ADH and ALDH from the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae were evident with the 0.4% and 0.8% (w/v) FST-supplemented concentrations, respectively. The highest concentrations of GABA as well as minerals (Zn, Ca, and Mg) were found in the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae cultured in medium supplemented with 0.4% (w/v) FST. The levels of GABA, Zn, Ca, and Mg in S. cerevisiae were strongly correlated with the enzyme activities of ADH and ALDH in yeast. These results indicate that FST can enhance the enzyme activities and protein expression of ADH and ALDH in S. cerevisiae.

  20. Protocol for Dental Management in a Patient with Glucose6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Anil Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD enzyme deficiency is the most common inherited genetic disorder affecting RBCs in humans. The disorder is characterised by inability of RBC to maintain a balanced redox state when challenged by oxidative stresses like drugs, infections and certain food substances leading to severe haemolytic anaemia which complicates any therapeutic management in these patients. This article reports on a successful endodontic management of a 36-year-old class III G6PD deficient male patient with deep carious lesion in left mandibular first molar tooth (36. Considering there is no protocol precedence in dental literature, in consultation with the physician/haemotologist a three step protocol for safe and efficient dental management is proposed.

  1. A homoleptic chromium(iii) carboxylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydora, O L; Hart, R T; Eckert, N A; Martinez Baez, E; Clark, A E; Benmore, C J

    2018-04-03

    Structurally characterized chromium(iii) carboxylates form clusters with a variety of bridging groups introduced from aqueous reaction conditions. The first homoleptic monomeric chromium(iii) carboxylate has been prepared using an anhydrous salt metathesis synthetic route. The carboxylate groups coordinate the chromium in a bidentate chelate yielding an aliphatic soluble complex. The complex was characterized by a variety of methods including high energy X-ray diffraction, FD-MS, IR and Raman spectroscopy, complemented by DFT modeling.

  2. Kinetics of soil dehydrogenase in response to exogenous Cd toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xiangping [College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS 723 Xingke Rd., Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Wang, Ziquan; Lu, Guannan [College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); He, Wenxiang, E-mail: wenxianghe@nwafu.edu.cn [College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); Key Laboratory of Plant Nutrition and Agro-environment in Northwest China, Ministry of Agriculture, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); Wei, Gehong [College of Life Sciences, Northwest A& F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi (China); Huang, Feng; Xu, Xinlan; Shen, Weijun [Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, CAS 723 Xingke Rd., Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510650 (China)

    2017-05-05

    Highlights: • pH explained 30–45% of the dehydrogenase activity (DHA), V{sub max}, and K{sub m} variations across soils. • Different inhibition mechanism of Cd to DHA varied soil types. • Soil properties and inhibition constant affect the toxicity of Cd. • Reaction constant (k) could indicate sensitively the toxicity of Cd to DHA. - Abstract: Soil dehydrogenase plays a role in the biological oxidation of soil organic matter and can be considered a good measure of the change of microbial oxidative activity under environmental pollutions. However, the kinetic characteristic of soil dehydrogenase under heavy metal stresses has not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we characterized the kinetic characteristic of soil dehydrogenase in 14 soil types, and investigated how kinetic parameters changed under spiked with different concentrations of cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of soil dehydrogenase was among 1.4–7.3 mM and 15.9–235.2 μM h{sup −1} in uncontaminated soils, respectively. In latosolic red soil and brown soil, the inhibitory kinetic mechanism of Cd to soil dehydrogenase was anticompetitive inhibition with inhibition constants (K{sub i}) of 12 and 4.7 mM, respectively; in other soils belonged to linear mixed inhibition, the values of K{sub i} were between 0.7–4.2 mM. Soil total organic carbon and K{sub i} were the major factors affecting the toxicity of Cd to dehydrogenase activity. In addition, the velocity constant (k) was more sensitive to Cd contamination compared to V{sub max} and K{sub m}, which was established as an early indicator of gross changes in soil microbial oxidative activity caused by Cd contamination.

  3. Kinetics of soil dehydrogenase in response to exogenous Cd toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Xiangping; Wang, Ziquan; Lu, Guannan; He, Wenxiang; Wei, Gehong; Huang, Feng; Xu, Xinlan; Shen, Weijun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • pH explained 30–45% of the dehydrogenase activity (DHA), V max , and K m variations across soils. • Different inhibition mechanism of Cd to DHA varied soil types. • Soil properties and inhibition constant affect the toxicity of Cd. • Reaction constant (k) could indicate sensitively the toxicity of Cd to DHA. - Abstract: Soil dehydrogenase plays a role in the biological oxidation of soil organic matter and can be considered a good measure of the change of microbial oxidative activity under environmental pollutions. However, the kinetic characteristic of soil dehydrogenase under heavy metal stresses has not been investigated thoroughly. In this study, we characterized the kinetic characteristic of soil dehydrogenase in 14 soil types, and investigated how kinetic parameters changed under spiked with different concentrations of cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the K m and V max values of soil dehydrogenase was among 1.4–7.3 mM and 15.9–235.2 μM h −1 in uncontaminated soils, respectively. In latosolic red soil and brown soil, the inhibitory kinetic mechanism of Cd to soil dehydrogenase was anticompetitive inhibition with inhibition constants (K i ) of 12 and 4.7 mM, respectively; in other soils belonged to linear mixed inhibition, the values of K i were between 0.7–4.2 mM. Soil total organic carbon and K i were the major factors affecting the toxicity of Cd to dehydrogenase activity. In addition, the velocity constant (k) was more sensitive to Cd contamination compared to V max and K m , which was established as an early indicator of gross changes in soil microbial oxidative activity caused by Cd contamination.

  4. Isolation of an alcohol dehydrogenase cDNA from and characterization of its expression in chrysanthemum under waterlogging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Dongmei; Ni, Dian; Song, Lili; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2013-11-01

    A PCR strategy was used to isolate a full-length CgADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) cDNA from chrysanthemum. The gene putatively encodes a 378 residue polypeptides, which shares 95% homology with tomato alcohol dehydrogenase class III. Endogenous ethylene generated in waterlogged Chrysanthemum zawadskii was enhanced by exogenous ethylene but decreased by 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an inhibitor of ethylene action. In waterlogged roots, the transcription of the gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, EC 1.1.1.1) increased rapidly but transiently, peaking at 7.5 fold the non-waterlogged level after 2h of stress. Waterlogging elevated ADH activity after a prolonged episode of stress. The exogenous supply of 40μLL(-1) ethylene suppressed the production of ethanol, while that of 4μLL(-1) 1-MCP enhanced it. Ethylene appeared to suppress an acceleration of both CgADH expression and fermentation, and alleviates ethanolic fermentation probably through by as a signal to acceleration of waterlogging-induced aerenchyma formation. This supports the previously observed phenomenon that the expression level of ADH gene is regulated by the local level of physiologically active ethylene. The relevance of the CgADH gene in relation to chrysanthemum waterlogging was discussed as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gemcitabine, cisplatin and vinorelbine as induction chemotherapy followed by radical therapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer: a multicentre study of galician-lung-cancer-group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Luis; Cueva-Banuelos, Juan F; Huidobro, G; Fírvida, J L; Amenedo, M; Lázaro, M; Romero, C; Estévez, S V; Barón, F J; Grande, C; García Mata, J; González, A; Castellanos, J; Gómez, A; Caeiro, M; Rodríguez, M R; Casal, J

    2003-05-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a gemcitabine-cisplatin-vinorelbine combination in patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients (n=46) with stage III NSCLC and naive of therapy were recruited into the trial to receive gemcitabine (G, 1000 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8, cisplatin (C, 100 mg/m(2)) on day 1 and vinorelbine (V, 25 mg/m(2)) on days 1 and 8 every 21 days for three cycles. Two patients achieved complete response (CR) and 23 partial response (PR), overall response 52%. Subsequent radical surgery included nine patients of whom four were non-resectable and five were resected and with 1 CR. Radiotherapy was administered to 31 patients, and two achieved CR. The median time to progression and overall survival were 37 and 50 weeks, respectively. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia occurred in 35% of cycles, with two toxic deaths. Severe non-haematological toxicity was uncommon. This GCV combination is effective in patients with stage III NSCLC, and with an acceptable toxicity.

  6. Biochemical properties of human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambergova, Hana; Skarydova, Lucie; Dunford, James E; Wsol, Vladimir

    2014-01-25

    Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 7 (DHRS7, retSDR4, SDR34C1) is a previously uncharacterized member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. While human SDR members are known to play an important role in various (patho)biochemical pathways including intermediary metabolism and biotransformation of xenobiotics, only 20% of them are considered to be well characterized. Based on phylogenetic tree and SDR sequence clusters analysis DHRS7 is a close relative to well-known SDR member 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) that participates in metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic substances with carbonyl group. The aim of present study is to determine the basic biochemical properties of DHRS7 and its possible involvement in metabolism of substrates with carbonyl group. For the first time the computational predictions of this membrane protein and membrane topology were experimentally confirmed. DHRS7 has been demonstrated to be an integral protein facing the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum with lack of posttranscriptional glycosylation modification. Subsequently, NADP(H) cofactor preference and enzymatic reducing activity of DHRS7 was determined towards endogenous substrates with a steroid structure (cortisone, 4-androstene-3,17-dion) and also toward relevant exogenous substances bearing a carbonyl group harmful to human health (1,2-naphtoquinone, 9,10-phenantrenequinone). In addition to 11β-HSD1, DHRS7 is another enzyme from SDR superfamily that have been proved, at least in vitro, to contribute to the metabolism of xenobiotics with carbonyl group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in fatty liver of rats by amino acid imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Masaji; Katsunuma, Eiichi; Akabane, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiichi

    1976-01-01

    The previous study on the lipogenesis in the fatty livers of rats, which was induced by feeding the diet with imbalanced amino acid, revealed that the induction of this type of fatty livers was due mainly to the acceleration of triglyceride synthesis by the increase in both synthesis and esterification of fatty acid in the livers. Although many studies have been carried out on the dietary control of α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat livers, the enzyme change in amino acid imbalance has not been reported. In the present study, in order to elucidate the difference in the supply of glycerol moiety of triglyceride due to the imbalance, the change of the α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in livers was investigated. The experimental diets were 8% casein basal diet and basal + 0.3% DL-methionine imbalanced diet. 5 rats of each group were killed after 0.5 and 10 days on the diet, and the analysis of the lipid content in the livers and the determination of the α-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity were carried out. The linear response of the enzyme activity to time and protein concentration was obtained. The development of fatty livers was observed in the imbalanced diet group in the feeding period of 10 days. It was found that the specific activity of the imbalanced diet group increased significantly in 5 and 10 days as compared with that of the basal diet group. The elevation in the enzyme activity may suggest that the supply of α-glycerophosphate for triglyceride synthesis is also increased in this type of fatty livers. (Kako, I.)

  8. Triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as Selective Inhibitors of Mycobacterial Lipoamide Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryk, Ruslana; Arango, Nancy; Venugopal, Aditya; Warren, J. David; Park, Yun-Hee; Patel, Mulchand S.; Lima, Christopher D.; Nathan, Carl (Weill-Med); (SKI); (SUNYB)

    2010-06-25

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains the leading single cause of death from bacterial infection. Here we explored the possibility of species-selective inhibition of lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), an enzyme central to Mtb's intermediary metabolism and antioxidant defense. High-throughput screening of combinatorial chemical libraries identified triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyls as high-nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb's Lpd that were noncompetitive versus NADH, NAD{sup +}, and lipoamide and >100-fold selective compared to human Lpd. Efficacy required the dimethoxy and dichlorophenyl groups. The structure of an Lpd-inhibitor complex was resolved to 2.42 {angstrom} by X-ray crystallography, revealing that the inhibitor occupied a pocket adjacent to the Lpd NADH/NAD{sup +} binding site. The inhibitor did not overlap with the adenosine moiety of NADH/NAD{sup +} but did overlap with positions predicted to bind the nicotinamide rings in NADH and NAD{sup +} complexes. The dimethoxy ring occupied a deep pocket adjacent to the FAD flavin ring where it would block coordination of the NADH nicotinamide ring, while the dichlorophenyl group occupied a more exposed pocket predicted to coordinate the NAD{sup +} nicotinamide. Several residues that are not conserved between the bacterial enzyme and its human homologue were predicted to contribute both to inhibitor binding and to species selectivity, as confirmed for three residues by analysis of the corresponding mutant Mtb Lpd proteins. Thus, nonconservation of residues lining the electron-transfer tunnel in Mtb Lpd can be exploited for development of species-selective Lpd inhibitors.

  9. Early neonatal bilirubin, hematocrit, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejoko, Bolaji O; Owa, Joshua A; Oseni, Saheed B A; Badejoko, Olusegun; Fatusi, Adesegun O; Adejuyigbe, Ebunoluwa A

    2014-10-01

    To document the patterns of bilirubin and hematocrit values among glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient and G6PD-normal Nigerian neonates in the first week of life, in the absence of exposure to known icterogenic agents. The G6PD status of consecutive term and near-term neonates was determined, and their bilirubin levels and hematocrits were monitored during the first week of life. Infants were stratified into G6PD deficient, intermediate, and normal on the basis of the modified Beutler's fluorescent spot test. Means of total serum bilirubin (TSB) and hematocrits of the 3 groups of infants were compared. The 644 neonates studied comprised 353 (54.8%) boys and 291 (45.2%) girls and 540 (83.9%) term and 104 (16.1%) near-term infants. They consisted of 129 (20.0%) G6PD-deficient, 69 (10.7%) G6PD-intermediate, and 446 (69.3%) G6PD-normal neonates. The G6PD-deficient and G6PD-intermediate infants had higher mean TSB than their G6PD-normal counterparts at birth and throughout the first week of life (P hematocrits at birth were similar in the 3 G6PD groups. However, G6PD-deficient and -intermediate infants had higher declines in hematocrit, bilirubin levels, and need for phototherapy than G6PD-normal infants (P < .001). The G6PD-deficient and G6PD-intermediate neonates had a higher risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and would therefore need greater monitoring in the first week of life, even without exposure to known icterogenic agents. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Dehydrogenase activity of forest soils depends on the assay used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszek, Kazimierz; Długa, Joanna; Socha, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Dehydrogenases are exclusively intracellular enzymes, which play an important role in the initial stages of oxidation of soil organic matter. One of the most frequently used methods to estimate dehydrogenase activity in soil is based on the use of triphenyltetrazolium chloride as an artificial electron acceptor. The purpose of this study was to compare the activity of dehydrogenases of forest soils with varied physicochemical properties using different triphenyltetrazolium chloride assays. The determination was carried out using the original procedure by Casida et al., a modification of the procedure which involves the use of Ca(OH)2 instead of CaCO3, the Thalmann method, and the assay by Casida et al. without addition of buffer or any salt. Soil dehydrogenase activity depended on the assay used. Dehydrogenase determined by the Casida et al. method without addition of buffer or any salt correlated with the pH values of soils. The autoclaved strongly acidic samples of control soils showed high concentrations of triphenylformazan, probably due to chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride. There is, therefore, a need for a sterilization method other than autoclaving, ie a process that results in significant changes in soil properties, thus helping to increase the chemical reduction of triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

  11. Crystallization, X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassetta, Alberto; Büdefeld, Tomaž; Lanišnik Rižner, Tea; Kristan, Katja; Stojan, Jure; Lamba, Doriano

    2005-01-01

    The expression, purification and crystallization of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the filamentous fungus C. lunatus and its Y167F mutant, both in the apo form, are described. X-ray diffraction analysis and phasing by Patterson-search techniques are reported. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the filamentous fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17β-HSDcl) is an NADP(H)-dependent enzyme that preferentially catalyses the oxidoreduction of oestrogens and androgens. The enzyme belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and is the only fungal hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase known to date. 17β-HSDcl has recently been characterized and cloned and has been the subject of several functional studies. Although several hypotheses on the physiological role of 17β-HSDcl in fungal metabolism have been formulated, its function is still unclear. An X-ray crystallographic study has been undertaken and the optimal conditions for crystallization of 17β-HSDcl (apo form) were established, resulting in well shaped crystals that diffracted to 1.7 Å resolution. The space group was identified as I4 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 67.14, c = 266.77 Å. Phasing was successfully performed by Patterson search techniques. A catalytic inactive mutant Tyr167Phe was also engineered, expressed, purified and crystallized for functional and structural studies

  12. Enantioselective Synthesis of Vicinal (R,R)-Diols by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Butanediol Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calam, Eduard; González-Roca, Eva; Fernández, M Rosario; Dequin, Sylvie; Parés, Xavier; Virgili, Albert; Biosca, Josep A

    2016-01-04

    Butanediol dehydrogenase (Bdh1p) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the superfamily of the medium-chain dehydrogenases and reductases and converts reversibly R-acetoin and S-acetoin to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol, respectively. It is specific for NAD(H) as a coenzyme, and it is the main enzyme involved in the last metabolic step leading to (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol in yeast. In this study, we have used the activity of Bdh1p in different forms-purified enzyme, yeast extracts, permeabilized yeast cells, and as a fusion protein (with yeast formate dehydrogenase, Fdh1p)-to transform several vicinal diketones to the corresponding diols. We have also developed a new variant of the delitto perfetto methodology to place BDH1 under the control of the GAL1 promoter, resulting in a yeast strain that overexpresses butanediol dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase activities in the presence of galactose and regenerates NADH in the presence of formate. While the use of purified Bdh1p allows the synthesis of enantiopure (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol, (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol, and (3R,4R)-3,4-hexanediol, the use of the engineered strain (as an extract or as permeabilized cells) yields mixtures of the diols. The production of pure diol stereoisomers has also been achieved by means of a chimeric fusion protein combining Fdh1p and Bdh1p. Finally, we have determined the selectivity of Bdh1p toward the oxidation/reduction of the hydroxyl/ketone groups from (2R,3R)-2,3-pentanediol/2,3-pentanedione and (2R,3R)-2,3-hexanediol/2,3-hexanedione. In conclusion, Bdh1p is an enzyme with biotechnological interest that can be used to synthesize chiral building blocks. A scheme of the favored pathway with the corresponding intermediates is proposed for the Bdh1p reaction. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Theoretical assessment of the electro-optical features of the group III nitrides (B{sub 12}N{sub 12}, Al{sub 12}N{sub 12} and Ga{sub 12}N{sub 12}) and group IV carbides (C{sub 24}, Si{sub 12}C{sub 12} and Ge{sub 12}C{sub 12}) nanoclusters encapsulated with alkali metals (Li, Na and K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahmasebi, Elham [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakerzadeh, Ehsan, E-mail: e.shakerzadeh@scu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biglari, Zeinab [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Lorestan University, Khorram Abad, Lorestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Encapsulation of Li, Na and K narrow the HOMO–LUMO gaps of the clusters. • The group III nitrides nanoclusters strongly interacted with the alkali metals. • First hyperpolarizabilities remarkably enhance for B{sub 12}N{sub 12} encapsulated with Na/K. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been carried out to study the influence of alkali metals (Li, Na and K) encapsulation within the group III nitrides (B{sub 12}N{sub 12}, Al{sub 12}N{sub 12} and Ga{sub 12}N{sub 12}) and the group IV carbides (C{sub 24}, Si{sub 12}C{sub 12}and Ge{sub 12}C{sub 12}) nanoclusters. The encapsulation of Li, Na and K atoms is found to narrow the HOMO–LUMO gaps of the considered clusters. The electronic properties of these clusters, especially the group III nitrides nanoclusters, are strongly sensitive to interaction with the alkali metals. Moreover it is observed that the encapsulation of alkali metals enhances the first hyperpolarizabilities of B{sub 12}N{sub 12} nanocluster. Surprisingly, due to the alkali metals encapsulation within B{sub 12}N{sub 12} nanocluster, the first hyperpolarizability values are remarkably increased to 8505.49 and 122,503.76 a.u. for Na@B{sub 12}N{sub 12} and K@B{sub 12}N{sub 12}, respectively. Also the TD-DFT calculations at both CAM-B3LYP/6-311+G(d) and PBE0/6-311+G(d) levels of theory are also performed to investigate the origin of first hyperpolarizabilities.

  14. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of the IBS subtypes according to the Rome III criteria in patients from a clinical, multicentric trial. A report from the Mexican IBS Working Group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmulson, M; Vargas, J A; López-Colombo, A; Remes-Troche, J M; López-Alvarenga, J C

    2010-01-01

    In Mexico the prevalence of irritable bowel síndrome (IBS) using Rome II criteria varies between 16 and 35%. To analyze the relative frequency of the IBS subtypes according to the Rome III criteria. A multicentric study in 1677 IBS-Rome III patients that consulted private medical clinics. They all answered a structured interview by their physicians to determine the IBS subtype and to evaluate their symptoms intensity (Likert Scales). Patients self-evaluated their symptoms as well by using 10 cm visual analog scales for each one. Women represented 76.8% of the patients for a F:M ratio of 3.3:1. The relative frequencies of the IBS subtypes were IBS-M: 48.4%, IBS-E: 43.0%, IBS-D: 5.6% and IBS-U: 2.8% with females predominating among all. However, IBS-D included 1.7 to 2.4 times more men than any of the other subtypes. The IBS-M reported a higher frequency and intensity of halitosis and vomiting and a higher intensity of burping; while those with IBS-E reported a higher frequency and intensity of straining and the IBS-D more urgency for a bowel movement, fecal incontinence and mucous in the stools. In IBS-Rome III patients in Mexico, IBS-M is the most common subtype and is more commonly associated with dyspeptic symptoms while the IBS-E reported more outlet symptoms and the IBS-D fecal incontinence. There is a higher female predominance amongst all, however men are more likely to be in IBS-D.

  15. Aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities in lactobacilli and streptococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Hugo Peralta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase are two main types of enzymes involved in the initial steps of amino acid catabolism, which plays a key role in the cheese flavor development. In the present work, glutamate dehydrogenase and aminotransferase activities were screened in twenty one strains of lactic acid bacteria of dairy interest, either cheese-isolated or commercial starters, including fifteen mesophilic lactobacilli, four thermophilic lactobacilli, and two streptococci. The strains of Streptococcus thermophilus showed the highest glutamate dehydrogenase activity, which was significantly elevated compared with the lactobacilli. Aspartate aminotransferase prevailed in most strains tested, while the levels and specificity of other aminotransferases were highly strain- and species-dependent. The knowledge of enzymatic profiles of these starter and cheese-isolated cultures is helpful in proposing appropriate combinations of strains for improved or increased cheese flavor.

  16. [Informatics analysis of malate dehydrogenase from Taenia saginata asiatica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiang; Hu, Xu-Chu; Huang, Yan; Yu, Xin-Bing; Bao, Huai-En; Lang, Shu-Yuan; Liao, Xing-Jiang

    2008-06-30

    Tools from bioinformatics websites such as NCBI, ExPaSy were used for the analysis. The malate dehydrogenase full-length gene from Taenia saginata asiatica was 1 212 bp in length, with a coding region of 30-1 028 bp and coding 332 amino acids. It was a complete and full-length gene compared with the homologues in GenBank. The protein showed no transmembrane region, with stable physical-chemical characteristics. Three major linear epitopes located aa95-aa100, aa322-aa327 and aa117-aa122, with certain distance from each other on the surface of spatial structure of malate dehydrogenase (MDH). The last one was the linear epitope of Taenia. This cytosolic malate dehydrogenase gene is a potential antigen for diagnosis.

  17. Structural characteristics of active and inactive glutamate dehydrogenases from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum islandicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    The enzymes from hyperthermophiles are generally extremely thermostable and lose little or no activity during long periods under a variety conditions. This high stability is very attractive, in that it gives the enzymes potential for use in numerous bioprocesses. My research group has investigated this high stability from the viewpoint of the relationship between function and structure. In this review, I describe the molecular mechanism underlying the extreme stability of unboiled NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase from the hyperthermophile Pyrobaculum islandicum. I also describe the activation of the inactive recombinant enzyme produced in mesophilic Escherichia coli from the viewpoint of the relationship between structure and activity.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of SDR-type pyridoxal dehydrogenase from Mesorhizobium loti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huy Nhat; Kobayashi, Jun; Yoshikane, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2010-06-01

    Pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase from Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant selenomethionine-substituted enzyme was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals grew in the presence of 0.45 mM NAD(+). The crystals diffracted to 2.9 A resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 86.20, b = 51.11, c = 91.73 A, beta = 89.36 degrees. The calculated V(M) values suggested that the asymmetric unit contained four molecules.

  19. Treatment of pediatric burn patient having glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Y Bhatia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common red cell enzymopathy found in humans. It clearly has an X-linked recessive inheritance with its prevalence varying from 0% to 27% in a different caste, ethnic, and linguistic groups. This deficiency may result in hemolytic anemia during stress, infection, and use of certain drugs. The use of topical silver sulfadiazine can produce hemolysis in patients having G6PD deficiency. Here, we describe one case successfully treated of pediatric burn of 25% of body surface area who was a known case of G6PD deficiency.

  20. Crystal structure of homoisocitrate dehydrogenase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Hendershot, Jenna M.; Trievel, Raymond C. (Michigan); (UCSF)

    2013-09-18

    Lysine biosynthesis in fungi, euglena, and certain archaebacteria occurs through the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway. Enzymes in the first steps of this pathway have been proposed as potential targets for the development of antifungal therapies, as they are absent in animals but are conserved in several pathogenic fungi species, including Candida, Cryptococcus, and Aspergillus. One potential antifungal target in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway is the third enzyme in the pathway, homoisocitrate dehydrogenase (HICDH), which catalyzes the divalent metal-dependent conversion of homoisocitrate to 2-oxoadipate (2-OA) using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) as a cofactor. HICDH belogns to a family of {beta}-hydroxyacid oxidative decarboxylases that includes malate dehydrogenase, tartrate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), and 3-isopropylmalte dehydrogenase (IPMDH). ICDH and IPMDH are well-characterized enzymes that catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to yield 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) in the citric acid cycle and the conversion of 3-isopropylmalate to 2-oxoisovalerate in the leucine biosynthetic pathway, respectively. Recent structural and biochemical studies of HICDH reveal that this enzyme shares sequence, structural, and mechanistic homology with ICDH and IPMDH. To date, the only published structures of HICDH are from the archaebacteria Thermus thermophilus (TtHICDH). Fungal HICDHs diverge from TtHICDH in several aspects, including their thermal stability, oligomerization state, and substrate specificity, thus warranting further characterization. To gain insights into these differences, they determined crystal structures of a fungal Schizosaccharomyces pombe HICDH (SpHICDH) as an apoenzyme and as a binary complex with additive tripeptide glycyl-glycyl-glycine (GGG) to 1.55 {angstrom} and 1.85 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the SpHICDH and TtHICDH structures reveal differences in

  1. Reversible inactivation of CO dehydrogenase with thiol compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreß, Oliver [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Gnida, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Pelzmann, Astrid M. [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Marx, Christian [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Friedrich-Schiller-University of Jena, 07745 Jena (Germany); Meyer-Klaucke, Wolfram [Department of Chemistry, University of Paderborn, 33098 Paderborn (Germany); Meyer, Ortwin, E-mail: Ortwin.Meyer@uni-bayreuth.de [Department of Microbiology, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • Rather large thiols (e.g. coenzyme A) can reach the active site of CO dehydrogenase. • CO- and H{sub 2}-oxidizing activity of CO dehydrogenase is inhibited by thiols. • Inhibition by thiols was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. • Thiols coordinate the Cu ion in the [CuSMo(=O)OH] active site as a third ligand. - Abstract: Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CO dehydrogenase) from Oligotropha carboxidovorans is a structurally characterized member of the molybdenum hydroxylase enzyme family. It catalyzes the oxidation of CO (CO + H{sub 2}O → CO{sub 2} + 2e{sup −} + 2H{sup +}) which proceeds at a unique [CuSMo(=O)OH] metal cluster. Because of changing activities of CO dehydrogenase, particularly in subcellular fractions, we speculated whether the enzyme would be subject to regulation by thiols (RSH). Here we establish inhibition of CO dehydrogenase by thiols and report the corresponding K{sub i}-values (mM): L-cysteine (5.2), D-cysteine (9.7), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (8.2), D,L-homocysteine (25.8), L-cysteine–glycine (2.0), dithiothreitol (4.1), coenzyme A (8.3), and 2-mercaptoethanol (9.3). Inhibition of the enzyme was reversed by CO or upon lowering the thiol concentration. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of thiol-inhibited CO dehydrogenase revealed a bimetallic site in which the RSH coordinates to the Cu-ion as a third ligand ([Mo{sup VI}(=O)OH{sub (2)}SCu{sup I}(SR)S-Cys]) leaving the redox state of the Cu(I) and the Mo(VI) unchanged. Collectively, our findings establish a regulation of CO dehydrogenase activity by thiols in vitro. They also corroborate the hypothesis that CO interacts with the Cu-ion first. The result that thiol compounds much larger than CO can freely travel through the substrate channel leading to the bimetallic cluster challenges previous concepts involving chaperone function and is of importance for an understanding how the sulfuration step in

  2. Horse Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Zinc Coordination and Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Savarimuthu, Baskar Raj; Ferraro, Daniel J.; Rubach, Jon K.; Brown, Eric N.; Ramaswamy, S. (Iowa)

    2017-07-07

    During catalysis by liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), a water bound to the catalytic zinc is replaced by the oxygen of the substrates. The mechanism might involve a pentacoordinated zinc or a double-displacement reaction with participation by a nearby glutamate residue, as suggested by studies of human ADH3, yeast ADH1, and some other tetrameric ADHs. Zinc coordination and participation of water in the enzyme mechanism were investigated by X-ray crystallography. The apoenzyme and its complex with adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose have an open protein conformation with the catalytic zinc in one position, tetracoordinated by Cys-46, His-67, Cys-174, and a water molecule. The bidentate chelators 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline displace the water and form a pentacoordinated zinc. The enzyme–NADH complex has a closed conformation similar to that of ternary complexes with coenzyme and substrate analogues; the coordination of the catalytic zinc is similar to that found in the apoenzyme, except that a minor, alternative position for the catalytic zinc is ~1.3 Å from the major position and closer to Glu-68, which could form the alternative coordination to the catalytic zinc. Complexes with NADH and N-1-methylhexylformamide or N-benzylformamide (or with NAD+ and fluoro alcohols) have the classical tetracoordinated zinc, and no water is bound to the zinc or the nicotinamide rings. The major forms of the enzyme in the mechanism have a tetracoordinated zinc, where the carboxylate group of Glu-68 could participate in the exchange of water and substrates on the zinc. Hydride transfer in the Michaelis complexes does not involve a nearby water.

  3. PREFACE: Quantum Optics III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orszag, M.; Retamal, J. C.; Saavedra, C.; Wallentowitz, S.

    2007-06-01

    All the 50 years of conscious pondering did not bring me nearer to an answer to the question `what is light quanta?'. Nowadays, every rascal believes, he knows it, however, he is mistaken. (A Einstein, 1951 in a letter to M Besso) Quantum optics has played a key role in physics in the last several decades. On the other hand, in these early decades of the information age, the flow of information is becoming more and more central to our daily life. Thus, the related fields of quantum information theory as well as Bose-Einstein condensation have acquired tremendous importance in the last couple of decades. In Quantum Optics III, a fusion of these fields appears in a natural way. Quantum Optics III was held in Pucón, Chile, in 27-30 of November, 2006. This beautiful location in the south of Chile is near the lake Villarrica and below the snow covered volcano of the same name. This fantastic environment contributed to a relaxed atmosphere, suitable for informal discussion and for the students to have a chance to meet the key figures in the field. The previous Quantum Optics conferences took place in Santiago, Chile (Quantum Optics I, 2000) and Cozumel, Mexico (Quantum Optics II, 2004). About 115 participants from 19 countries attended and participated in the meeting to discuss a wide variety of topics such as quantum-information processing, experiments related to non-linear optics and squeezing, various aspects of entanglement including its sudden death, correlated twin-photon experiments, light storage, decoherence-free subspaces, Bose-Einstein condensation, discrete Wigner functions and many more. There was a strong Latin-American participation from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela and Mexico, as well as from Europe, USA, China, and Australia. New experimental and theoretical results were presented at the conference. In Latin-America a quiet revolution has taken place in the last twenty years. Several groups working in quantum optics and

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Evans, Daniel; Greenwood, Jacqueline A.; Moody, Peter C. E., E-mail: pcem1@leicester.ac.uk [Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Structural Biology, Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A has been cloned, expressed and purified. Apoprotein crystals have been grown which diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}; holo crystals were grown in the presence of NADP, diffracted to 2.6 Å resolution and belonged to space group P3{sub 2}. The classical glycolytic pathway contains an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, with NADP-dependent forms reserved for photosynthetic organisms and archaea. Here, the cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori is reported; crystals of the protein were grown both in the presence and the absence of NADP.

  5. NADPH-generating dehydrogenases: their role in the mechanism of protection against nitro-oxidative stress induced by adverse environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Corpas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available NADPH is an essential reductive coenzyme in biosynthetic processes such as cell growth, proliferation and detoxification in eukaryotic cells. It is required by antioxidative systems such as the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and is also necessary for the generation of superoxide radicals by plant NADPH oxidases and for the generation of nitric oxide (NO by L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide syntase. This coenzyme is principally re-generated by a group of NADP-dehydrogenases enzymes including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH, both belonging to the pentose phosphate pathway, the NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME and NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH. In this study, current perspectives on these enzymes in higher plants under different stress situations are reviewed and it is also pointed out that this group of NADPH-generating dehydrogenases is a key element in supporting the mechanism of response to nitro-oxidative stress situations.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic and antimicrobial studies of La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III) Metformin HCl chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Moamen S; Al-Azab, Fathi M; Al-Maydama, Hussein M A; Amin, Ragab R; Jamil, Yasmin M S; Kobeasy, Mohamed I

    2015-05-05

    Metal complexes of Metformin hydrochloride were prepared using La(III), Ce(III), Sm(III) and Y(III). The resulting complexes were discussed and synthesized to serve as potential insulin-mimetic. Some physical properties and analytical data of the four complexes were checked. The elemental analysis shows that La(III), Ce(III) Sm(III) and Y(III) formed complexes with Metformin in 1:3 (metal:MF) molar ratio. All the synthesized complexes are white and possess high melting points. These complexes are soluble in dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylformamide, partially soluble in hot methanol and insoluble in water and some other organic solvents. From the spectroscopic (infrared, UV-vis and florescence), effective magnetic moment and elemental analyses data, the formula structures are suggested. The results obtained suggested that Metformin reacted with metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The molar conductance measurements proved that the Metformin complexes are slightly electrolytic in nature. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters such as: E(∗), ΔH(∗), ΔS(∗) and ΔG(∗) were estimated from the DTG curves. The antibacterial evaluations of the Metformin and their complexes were also performed against some gram positive, negative bacteria as well as fungi. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Best supportive care (BSC) versus oxaliplatin, folinic acid and 5-fluorouracil (OFF) plus BSC in patients for second-line advanced pancreatic cancer: a phase III-study from the German CONKO-study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Uwe; Schwaner, Ingo; Stieler, Jens; Adler, Mathias; Seraphin, Jörg; Dörken, Bernd; Riess, Hanno; Oettle, Helmut

    2011-07-01

    Gemcitabine usually given until progressive disease (PD) is the main first-line treatment option for patients with inoperable advanced pancreatic cancer (APC). Currently there is no accepted active regimen for second-line chemotherapy. Previous phase II studies suggest clinical relevant activity of oxaliplatin, folinic acid and 5-FU (OFF). We initiated a phase III multicentre study comparing OFF versus best supportive care (BSC) in patients with APC progressing while on gemcitabine therapy. In this open randomized study, patients with CT and/or MRI confirmed progressive disease while on gemcitabine therapy were randomized 1:1 to OFF or BSC. Stratification included duration of first-line therapy (6 months), performance status (KPS 70-80%; 90-100%) and tumour stage (M1/M0). OFF consisted of folinic acid 200mg/m(2) followed by 5-fluorouracil 2g/m(2) (24h) on d1, d8, d15, d22 and oxaliplatin 85 mg/m(2) on days 8 and 22. After a rest of 3 weeks the next cycle was started on d43. A total of 165 patients were calculated to demonstrate a doubling of survival time after progression on first-line therapy. After inclusion of forty six patients the trial was terminated according to predefined protocol regulations due to insufficient accrual (lack of acceptance of BSC by patients and physicians. Patient characteristics were well balanced between both study arms. The OFF regimen was well tolerated with more patients with grade I/II paraesthesia and grade II/III nausea/emesis and diarrhoea. Median second-line survival was 4.82 [95% Confidence Interval; 4.29-5.35] months for OFF treatment and 2.30 [95% CI; 1.76-2.83] months with BSC alone (0.45 [95% CI: 0.24-0.83], p = 0.008). Median overall survival for the sequence GEM-OFF was 9.09 [95% CI: 6.97-11.21] and 7.90 [95% CI: 4.95-10.84] months for GEM-BSC (0.50 [95% CI: 0.27-0.95], p = 0.031) respectively. Although stopped prematurely, this randomized trial provides at first time evidence for the benefit of second-line chemotherapy

  8. Two short-chain dehydrogenases confer stereoselectivity for enantiomers of epoxypropane in the multiprotein epoxide carboxylating systems of Xanthobacter strain Py2 and Nocardia corallina B276.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J R; Ensign, S A

    1999-01-05

    Epoxide carboxylase from the bacterium Xanthobacter strain Py2 is a multicomponent enzyme system which catalyzes the pyridine nucleotide-dependent carboxylation of aliphatic epoxides to beta-ketoacids as illustrated by the reaction epoxypropane + CO2 + NADPH + NAD+ --> acetoacetate + H+ + NADP+ + NADH. The combination of four distinct proteins, designated components I-IV, are required for the reconstitution of epoxide carboxylase activity with racemic mixtures of short-chain (C3-C5) terminal epoxyalkanes. In this work, components III and IV of the epoxide carboxylase system are shown to confer specificity for epoxyalkane enantiomers. Components I-III supported the carboxylation of (R)-epoxypropane, while components I, II, and IV supported the carboxylation of (S)-epoxypropane. At fixed concentrations of components I and II, the rates of (R)- and (S)-epoxypropane carboxylation saturated with increasing concentrations of component III or IV to give identical maximal rates for the two epoxide substrates. (S)-Epoxypropane was an inactivator of (R)-epoxypropane carboxylation by components I- III, while (R)-epoxypropane was an inactivator of (S)-epoxypropane carboxylation by components I, II, and IV. These inactivating effects were fully reversed upon the addition of the correct complementing dehydrogenase component. Amino acid sequence analysis of components III and IV demonstrates that they belong to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family of enzymes. Both components contain highly conserved residues within the coenzyme binding fold and catalytic regions found in SDR enzymes. Components III and IV are proposed to catalyze the NAD+-dependent abstraction of a hydride from a chiral secondary alcohol-like intermediate bound to the active site component of the enzyme system to form the corresponding beta-ketone intermediate. A multicomponent epoxide carboxylase system was purified to homogeneity from Nocardia corallina B276, a bacterium phylogenetically

  9. Assay of partially purified glutamate dehydrogenase isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (E C 1.4.1.1) isolated from the seeds of asparagus beans was partially purified to a factor of 22 by dialysis after fractional precipitation with solid ammonium sulphate at 40 and 60% saturation. A specific activity of 11.78μmol min-1 mg-1 protein was calculated for the partially purified enzyme when ...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lactate dehydrogenase test system. 862.1440 Section 862.1440 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1420 - Isocitric dehydrogenase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isocitric dehydrogenase test system. 862.1420 Section 862.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  12. New enzymatic assay, parasite lactate dehydrogenase in diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The unique ability of plasmodial lactate dehydrogenase p(LDH) to utilise 3-acetyl pyridine dinucleotide (APAD) in lieu of NAD as a coenzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, led to the development of a biochemical assay for the detection of plasmodial parasitaemia. Researchers have reported that ...

  13. Crystallization behaviour of glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase from Thermoplasma acidophilum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lermark, L.; Degtjarik, Oksana; Steffler, F.; Sieber, V.; Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 12 (2015), s. 1475-1480 ISSN 2053-230X Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : TaAlDH * Thermoplasma acidophilum * bioproduction * cell-free enzyme cascade * glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.647, year: 2015

  14. Novel thidiazuron-derived inhibitors of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nisler, Jaroslav; Kopečný, D.; Končitíková, R.; Zatloukal, Marek; Bazgier, Václav; Berka, K.; Zalabák, D.; Briozzo, P.; Strnad, Miroslav; Spíchal, Lukáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 92, 1-2 (2016), s. 235-248 ISSN 0167-4412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR GA15-22322S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase * Crystal structure * Molecular docking Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.356, year: 2016

  15. Cloning and expression of chicken 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryndová, Jana; Klusoňová, Petra; Kučka, Marek; Vagnerová, Karla; Mikšík, Ivan; Pácha, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2006), s. 453-462 ISSN 0952-5041 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6011201 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 216/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : 20-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase * SDR family Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.988, year: 2006

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; the single most ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is the most common enzymatic disorder of the red cell and an important risk factor for neonatal jaundice. Methodology: The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of G-6-PD deficiency among jaundiced neonates, and describe the associated morbidity ...

  17. Studies on the structure and function of pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, de R.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to obtain more information of the structure and function of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes from Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli.

    In chapter 2 a survey is given of the recent literature on

  18. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pradeep Kumar

    2016-02-06

    Feb 6, 2016 ... Meta-analysis;. Prevalence. Abstract Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a house keeping enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the hexose monophosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. G6PD deficiency is the commonest hemolytic X-linked genetic disease, which affects ...

  19. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dehydrogenase 3 polymorphism, and colorectal adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, E.W.; Wark, P.A.; Ocké, M.C.; Bunschoten, A.; Otten, M.H.; Kok, F.J.; Kampman, E.

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol is a probable risk factor with regard to colorectal neoplasm and is metabolized to the carcinogen acetaldehyde by the genetically polymorphic alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) enzyme. We evaluated whether the association between alcohol and colorectal adenomas is modified by ADH3 polymorphism.

  20. Perioperative care of an infant with pyruvate dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors present the anaesthetic management of two infants with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency (PDCD), a rare genetic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism leading to lactic acidosis and neurological impairment. In the first case, a seven-month-old infant, undergoing closed reduction of a dislocated hip, ...

  1. Substrate Specificity via Ternary Complex Formation with Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koekoek, Henk; Robillard, George T.

    1977-01-01

    Very little discrimination is observed in the binary binding of dicarboxylic acid substrate analogues to glutamate dehydrogenase as monitored by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Variation in length, charge, bulkiness and conformational rigidity resulted in only a factor of five variation in KD and

  2. Isolation and characterization of the rat gene encoding glutamate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, A. T.; Arnberg, A. C.; Malingré, H.; Moerer, P.; Charles, R.; Moorman, A. F.; Lamers, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The concentration of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) varies strongly between different organs and between different regions within organs. To permit further studies on the regulation of GDH expression, we isolated and characterized the rat gene encoding the GDH protein. This gene contains 13 exons and

  3. Overexpression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 in visceral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2018-02-23

    Feb 23, 2018 ... Alterations in this enzyme are related to the development of metabolic syndrome, obesity and hyperadrenocorticism. (HAC). ..... 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in visceral adipose tissue and portal hypercortisolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Liver Int. 32(3), 392-399. Carroll, B.J., Cassidy ...

  4. Assessment of the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) is an enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) which reduces NADP to NADPH while oxidizing glucose-6-phosphate. In turn, NADPH then provides reducing equivalents needed for the conversion of oxidized glutathione to reduced glutathione, which protects against ...

  5. Characterization of the L-lactate dehydrogenase from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie A Brown

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen and the proposed causative agent of localized aggressive periodontitis. A. actinomycetemcomitans is found exclusively in the mammalian oral cavity in the space between the gums and the teeth known as the gingival crevice. Many bacterial species reside in this environment where competition for carbon is high. A. actinomycetemcomitans utilizes a unique carbon resource partitioning system whereby the presence of L-lactate inhibits uptake of glucose, thus allowing preferential catabolism of L-lactate. Although the mechanism for this process is not fully elucidated, we previously demonstrated that high levels of intracellular pyruvate are critical for L-lactate preference. As the first step in L-lactate catabolism is conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate by lactate dehydrogenase, we proposed a model in which the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase, unlike homologous enzymes, is not feedback inhibited by pyruvate. This lack of feedback inhibition allows intracellular pyruvate to rise to levels sufficient to inhibit glucose uptake in other bacteria. In the present study, the A. actinomycetemcomitans L-lactate dehydrogenase was purified and shown to convert L-lactate, but not D-lactate, to pyruvate with a K(m of approximately 150 microM. Inhibition studies reveal that pyruvate is a poor inhibitor of L-lactate dehydrogenase activity, providing mechanistic insight into L-lactate preference in A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  6. Properties of glucoside 3-dehydrogenase and its potential applications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These 3-ketoglucosides are useful as building blocks for chemicals such as detergents and polymers. The versatile glucoside 3-dehydrogenase has potential applications in different fields including sugar industry, clinical diagnosis and pharmaceutical intermediates synthesis. This review attempts to describe the glucoside ...

  7. Cloning and in silico analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lignin is a major constituent of plant cell walls and indispensable to the normal growth of a plant. However, the presence of lignin complicates the structure of the plant cell walls and negatively influences pulping industry, lignocellulose utilization as well as forage properties. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD), a key ...

  8. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-01-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as · OH and ONOO - . In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  9. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra, E-mail: olakow@biol.uni.lodz.p [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Serafin, Eligiusz, E-mail: serafin@biol.uni.lodz.p [Laboratory of Computer and Analytical Techniques, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland); Puchala, Mieczyslaw, E-mail: puchala@biol.uni.lodz.p [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as {sup {center_dot}}OH and ONOO{sup -}. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  10. Detection of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in human corneal extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gondhowiardjo, T. D.; van Haeringen, N. J.; Hoekzema, R.; Pels, L.; Kijlstra, A.

    1991-01-01

    The major soluble protein in bovine corneal epithelial extracts is a 54 kD protein (BCP 54) which has recently been identified as the corneal aldehyde dehydrogenase. Although ALDH activity has been reported in human corneal extracts it was not yet clear whether this was identical with the 54 kD

  11. Natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency through adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapalme-Remis, S.; Lewis, E.C.; De Meulemeester, C.; Chakraborty, P.; Gibson, K.M.; Torres, C.; Guberman, A.; Salomons, G.; Jakobs, C.; Ali-Ridha, A.; Parviz, M.; Pearl, P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in adulthood is unknown; we elucidate the clinical manifestations of the disease later in life. Methods: A 63-year-old man with long-standing intellectual disability was diagnosed with SSADH deficiency following

  12. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a house keeping enzyme which catalyzes the first step in the hexose monophosphate pathway of glucose metabolism. G6PD deficiency is the commonest hemolytic X-linked genetic disease, which affects approximately 400 million people worldwide.

  13. Histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Histochemistry and cytochemistry of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase has found many applications in biomedical research. However, up to several years ago, the methods used often appeared to be unreliable because many artefacts occurred during processing and staining of tissue sections or cells. The

  14. Serum creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P = 0.002). Conclusion: The significant elevation in serum CK and LDH activities indicates that these can be used as parameters for screening hypothyroid patients but not hyperthyroid patients. Key words: Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, lactate dehydrogenase, serum creatine kinase. Date of Acceptance: 28-Aug-2011.

  15. Cloning and in silico analysis of a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... 1992; Kim et al. 2004), the relationship between CAD genes and their functions was of great impor- tance. Since the important role in regulation of lignin con- tent and composition, more and more CAD genes and their. Keywords. lignin biosynthesis; cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase; clone; in silico analysis ...

  16. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern Mexico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD) is the most common enzyme pathology in humans; it is X-linked inherited and causes neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia, chronic nonspherocytic haemolytic anaemia and drug-induced acute haemolytic anaemia. G6PD deficiency has scarcely been studied in ...

  17. Pyranose dehydrogenases: biochemical features and perspectives of technological applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peterbauer, C.; Volc, Jindřich

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 4 (2010), s. 837-848 ISSN 0175-7598 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Pyranose dehydrogenase * Sugar oxidoreductase * Regioselectivity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.280, year: 2010

  18. Identification of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase mutations by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase mutations by single strand conformation polymorphism and gene sequencing analysis. ... Subject: Six DNA samples from Turkish males confirmed to have G-6-PD deficiency where available for the study. Results: One subject was found to have an abnormal mobility shift ...

  19. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a study of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase(G6PD) deficiency in sickle cell anaemia patients attending the haematology clinic of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos- Nigeria. The prevalence of G6PD deficiency among the 130 sickle cell anaemia patients studied was found to be 18.5%. G6PD ...

  20. Eniluracil treatment completely inactivates dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in colorectal tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, F. Y.; Johnston, S. J.; Cassidy, J.; O'Kelly, T.; Binnie, N.; Murray, G. I.; van Gennip, A. H.; Abeling, N. G.; Knight, S.; McLeod, H. L.

    1999-01-01

    To determine the effect of eniluracil on colorectal tumor dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) activity. Patients who were to undergo primary colorectal tumor resection received oral eniluracil 10 mg/m(2) twice daily for 3 days before surgery. Mononuclear cells were obtained before the start of

  1. Kinetic Behaviour of Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase in Different Tissues of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Exposed to Non-Lethal Concentrations of Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Hisar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of cadmium (Cd on the enzymatic activities of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD were investigated in the gill, liver and kidney tissues of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Three test groups of fish were subjected to increasing concentrations (1, 3 and 5 mg/l of cadmium (Cd in vivo, respectively. The G6PD and 6PGD activities in the gill, liver, and kidney tissues of each group of fish were measured on days 1, 3, 5 and 7. G6PD and 6PGD enzyme activities, measured in gill, liver and kidney homogenates, were stimulated by various concentrations (1, 3, and 5 mg/l of cadmium. Although the dose-response pattern of G6PD enzyme activities in liver and kidney tissue was very similar, that in gill was different from both other tissues. The enzyme activity of G6PD enzyme was significantly stimulated after three days (Day 3 in liver and kidney tissues at a dose of 1 mg/l Cd (p p p p p p < 0.05 in liver and kidney tissues at the doses of 3 and 1 mg/l Cd. The stimulation effect of cadmium on the three tissues studied was also calculated; for both of the enzymes (G6PD and 6PGD, the enzyme activity levels were stimulated by approximately 60% and 38% in gills, 68% and 44% in liver, and 67% and 41% in kidneys, respectively, over the base-line enzyme activity of the control groups during the sevenday experimental period. These findings indicate that tissue G6PD and 6PGD enzymes function to protect against cadmium toxicity.

  2. X-irradiation effects on the activity of dehydrogenases in the cockroach, Periplaneta Americana L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayalakshmi, S. (Sri Sathya Sai Inst. of Higher Learning, Anantpur (India))

    1984-05-01

    Sublethal dose of X-irradiation caused an early increase and subsequent normalization in succinate and lactate dehydrogenases of the cockroach, while lethal dose produced an irreversible fall in succinate dehydrogenase and a gradual elevation in lactate dehydrogenase at all post-irradiation periods studied, suggesting dose dependent impairment of aerobic and anaerobic pathways.

  3. NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table III. Tuberculosis - 2017.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  4. Workshop 96. Part III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part III of the proceedings contain 155 contributions in various fields of science and technology including nuclear engineering, environmental science, and biomedical engineering. Out of these, 10 were selected to be inputted in INIS. (P.A.)

  5. Effects of silver nanoparticle on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes of heart tissue in male wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Naghsh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The silver nanoparticles are important in many applications of nanoparticles on human health . The toxicity of silver nanoparticles are not well documented yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of silver nanoparticles on lactate dehydrogenase activity and histological changes in heart tissue.   Materials &Methods: In this study, 40 adult male wistar rats of 220±20gr were divided in to five groups including control and four experimental groups. The latter groups were injected intraperitoneally spherical nano silver particles of 50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm respectively for five consecutive days. Then three, eight and twelve days after the last injection, blood samples were collected and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity was assayed . Also, tissue samples from the heart muscle were prepared and studied after staining with Hematoxiline-Eosine. Data of LDH activity was analyzed by One way- ANOVA- test and P-value of ≤ 0.05 were considered as significant.   Results : The result showed that different concentrations of silver nanoparticles have no significant effect on the lactate dehydrogenase (p=0.192 . T he histological study of the tissue after exposure to 400 ppm concentration of silver nanoparticles showed the start of primary apoptosis in heart tissue.   Conclusion: The LDH activity was not changed significantly after exposure to different concentration of silver nanoparticles, which shows the safety of these particles on LDH activity.

  6. Structure function studies on the lipoate-acetyltransferase--component-X-core assembly of the ox heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, J A; De Marcucci, O G; Lindsay, J G

    1988-02-01

    Component X, the recently recognised subunit of mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, was shown by immune blotting to be present in all of nine tissues dissected from rat. This finding indicated that component X was not an isoenzyme of the lipoate acetyltransferase (E2) associated with one or a limited number of tissues. Native pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was shown to bind IgG raised to isolated component X, indicating that there were at least some regions of the X subunit exposed at the periphery of the complex. Lipoyl groups of ox heart pyruvate dehydrogenase complex were specifically cross-linked by reaction with phenylene-o-bismaleimide in the presence of pyruvate and the subunits contributing to the products of cross-linking were identified by immune blotting. Species with very high Mr containing both E2 and component X, were formed in high yield, as well as apparent E2/E2 and E2/X dimers and trimers and an X/X dimer. These results showed that acetylated lipoyl groups of different E2 and X subunits were able to interact in all possible combinations. The types of cross-linked E2 products formed suggested that two thiols, reactible with phenylene-o-bismaleimide, were rapidly generated in the presence of pyruvate. The results were most easily explained by the presence of two acetylatable lipoyl groups on each E2 polypeptide.

  7. 2007 status of climate change: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Summary for Policy-makers; Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques: l'attenuation des changements climatiques. Contribution du Groupe de travail 3 au quatrieme rapport d'evaluation du Groupe d'Experts Intergouvernemental sur l'Evolution du Climat (GIEC). Resume a l'attention des decideurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Bashmakov, I.; Bernstein, L.; Bogner, J.; Bosch, P.; Dave, R.; Davidson, O.; Fisher, B.; Grubb, M.; Gupta, S.; Halsnaes, K.; Heij, B.; Kahn Ribeiro, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Levine, M.; Martino, D.; Masera Cerutti, O.; Metz, B.; Meyer, L.; Nabuurs, G.J.; Najam, A.; Nakicenovic, N.; Holger Rogner, H.; Roy, J.; Sathaye, J.; Schock, R.; Shukla, P.; Sims, R.; Smith, P.; Swart, R.; Tirpak, D.; Urge-Vorsatz, D.; Dadi, Z

    2007-07-01

    The Working Group III contribution to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) focuses on new literature on the scientific, technological, environmental, economic and social aspects of mitigation of climate change, published since the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) and the Special Reports on CO{sub 2} Capture and Storage (SRCCS) and on Safeguarding the Ozone Layer and the Global Climate System (SROC).The main aim of this summary report is to assess options for mitigating climate change. Several aspects link climate change with development issues. This report explores these links in detail, and illustrates where climate change and sustainable development are mutually reinforcing. Economic development needs, resource endowments and mitigative and adaptive capacities differ across regions. There is no one-size-fits-all approach to the climate change problem, and solutions need to be regionally differentiated to reflect different socio-economic conditions and, to a lesser extent, geographical differences. Although this report has a global focus, an attempt is made to differentiate the assessment of scientific and technical findings for the various regions. Given that mitigation options vary significantly between economic sectors, it was decided to use the economic sectors to organize the material on short- to medium-term mitigation options. Contrary to what was done in the Third Assessment Report, all relevant aspects of sectoral mitigation options, such as technology, cost, policies etc., are discussed together, to provide the user with a comprehensive discussion of the sectoral mitigation options. The report is organised into six sections after the introduction: - Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends; - Mitigation in the short and medium term, across different economic sectors (until 2030); - Mitigation in the long-term (beyond 2030); - Policies, measures and instruments to mitigate climate change; - Sustainable development and climate change mitigation; - Gaps in

  8. Inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase protects hepatocytes from aluminum phosphide-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Paeezi, Maryam; Yousefsani, Bahareh Sadat; Shadnia, Shahin; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-11-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is a severe toxicity with 30-70% mortality rate. However, several case reports presented AlP-poisoned patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and extensive hemolysis who survived the toxicity. This brought to our mind that maybe G6PD deficiency could protect the patients from severe fatal poisoning by this pesticide. In this research, we investigated the protective effect of 6-aminonicotinamide (6-AN)- as a well-established inhibitor of the NADP + - dependent enzyme 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase- on isolated rat hepatocytes in AlP poisoning. Hepatocytes were isolated by collagenase perfusion method and incubated into three different flasks: control, AlP, and 6-AN+ALP. Cellar parameters such as cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondria membrane potential collapse (MMP), lysosomal integrity, content of reduced (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and lipid peroxidation were assayed at intervals. All analyzed cellular parameters significantly decreased in the third group (6-AN+AlP) compared to the second group (AlP), showing the fact that G6PD deficiency induced by 6-AN had a significant protective effect on the hepatocytes. It was concluded that G6PD deficiency significantly reduced the hepatotoxicity of AlP. Future drugs with the power to induce such deficiency may be promising in treatment of AlP poisoning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, Paul R.; Mohammad, Shabaz; Melrose, Helen J.; Moody, Peter C. E.

    2008-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase B from H. pylori has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of NAD. Crystals of GAPDHB diffracted to 2.8 Å resolution and belonged to space group P6 5 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 166.1, c = 253.1 Å. Helicobacter pylori is a dangerous human pathogen that resides in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about its metabolism and with the onset of antibiotic resistance new treatments are required. In this study, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction of an NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from H. pylori are reported

  10. Exercise-induced Oxidative Shift of Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoforms in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sheikhhosseini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endurance training on the content of lactate dehydrogenase isoforms (LDHA and LDHB and isozymes in cerebrospinal fluid of male wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Seventeen animals (5 weeks old were randomly divided into two groups according their body weight: control (C; n = 9 and trained (T; n = 8. The animals from the T group were underwent a training program for 12 weeks (started at 20 m/min for 30 min and finished at 26 m/min for 60 min at the last week. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were collected from cisterna Magna 72 hours after the last exercise session. LDH Isoforms and isozymes were measured by ELISA and Electrophoresis techniques, and the comparisons between groups were evaluated by student t-test. Results: Both LDHA and LDHB isoforms were found in the CSF of the C group; LDH1 and LDH5 had the highest and lowest content, respectively. Following the twelve-week training protocol, LDHB (p<0.01, LDH1 (p<0.01, and LDH2 concentrations (p<0.01 were significantly increased in the T group compared with those from the C group and LDH3 concentrations (p<0.01 and LDHA/LDHB ratio (p<0.01 were significantly decreased. Endurance training had no effect on LDHA and LDH4. Conclusion: Endurance training is associated with oxidative shift of lactate dehydrogenase isoforms and isozymes in cerebrospinal fluid which could be considered as a prelude to aerobic metabolism of lactate in the brain.

  11. Serum aminoterminal type III procollagen peptide reflects repair after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L T; Hørslev-Petersen, K; Toft, P

    1990-01-01

    similar to changes observed during wound healing in humans. PIIINP is cleaved off procollagen type III during the biosynthesis of type III collagen, which characterizes the early stages of repair and inflammation. Our findings suggest that serum PIIINP reflects the repair processes and scar formation...... values were observed on the third to seventh postinfarction day. The individual peak changes were correlated to infarction size calculated from serum CK-MB and serum lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.60, p = 0.02). The changes in distribution of PIIINP-related antigens in serum after gel chromatography were...

  12. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chroneos, A., E-mail: alex.chroneos@open.ac.uk [Engineering and Innovation, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Tahini, H. A. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Schwingenschlögl, U., E-mail: udo.schwingenschlogl@kaust.edu.sa [PSE Division, KAUST, Thuwal 23955-6900 (Saudi Arabia); Grimes, R. W., E-mail: r.grimes@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-14

    Density functional based simulation, corrected for finite size effects, is used to investigate systematically the formation of antisite defects in III-V semiconductors (III = Al, Ga, and In and V = P, As, and Sb). Different charge states are modelled as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites (III{sub V}{sup q}) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites (V{sub III}{sup q}) show a consistent decrease in formation energies with increase in group III and group V covalent radii. In general, III{sub V}{sup q} defects dominate under III-rich conditions and V{sub III}{sup q} under V-rich conditions. Comparison with equivalent vacancy formation energy simulations shows that while antisite concentrations are always dominant under stoichiometric conditions, modest variation in growth or doping conditions can lead to a significantly higher concentration of vacancies.

  13. Gait and Function in Class III Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Ling

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Walking, more specifically gait, is an essential component of daily living. Walking is a very different activity for individuals with a Body Mass Index (BMI of 40 or more (Class III obesity compared with those who are overweight or obese with a BMI between 26–35. Yet all obesity weight classes receive the same physical activity guidelines and recommendations. This observational study examined the components of function and disability in a group with Class III obesity and a group that is overweight or has Class I obesity. Significant differences were found between the groups in the areas of gait, body size, health condition, and activity capacity and participation. The Timed Up and Go test, gait velocity, hip circumference, and stance width appear to be most predictive of activity capacity as observed during gait assessment. The findings indicate that Class III-related gait is pathologic and not a normal adaptation.

  14. Gender differences in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Reyes, Brian C; McNamara, James A

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated gender differences in the cephalometric records of a large-scale cross-sectional sample of Caucasian subjects with Class III malocclusion at different developmental ages. The purpose also was to provide average age-related and sex-related data for craniofacial measures in untreated Class III subjects that are used as reference in the diagnostic appraisal of the patient with Class III disharmony. The sample examined consisted of 1094 pretreatment lateral cephalometric records (557 female subjects and 537 male subjects) of Caucasian Class III individuals. The age range for female subjects was between three years six months and 57 years seven months. The male subject group ranged from three years three months to 48 years five months. Twelve age groups were identified. Skeletal maturity at different age periods also was determined using the stage of cervical vertebral maturation. Gender differences for all cephalometric variables were analyzed using parametric statistics. The findings of the study indicated that Class III malocclusion is associated with a significant degree of sexual dimorphism in craniofacial parameters, especially from the age of 13 onward. Male subjects with Class III malocclusion present with significantly larger linear dimensions of the maxilla, mandible, and anterior facial heights when compared with female subjects during the circumpubertal and postpubertal periods.

  15. A phase III randomized trial of adding topical nitroglycerin to first-line chemotherapy for advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer: the Australasian lung cancer trials group NITRO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, A; Veillard, A-S; Tognela, A; Chan, M M K; Hughes, B G M; Boyer, M; Briscoe, K; Begbie, S; Abdi, E; Crombie, C; Long, J; Boyce, A; Lewis, C R; Varma, S; Broad, A; Muljadi, N; Chinchen, S; Espinoza, D; Coskinas, X; Pavlakis, N; Millward, M; Stockler, M R

    2015-11-01

    We sought to determine whether the substantial benefits of topical nitroglycerin with first-line, platinum-based, doublet chemotherapy in advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) seen in a phase II trial could be corroborated in a rigorous, multicenter, phase III trial. Patients starting one of five, prespecified, platinum-based doublets as first-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC were randomly allocated treatment with or without nitroglycerin 25 mg patches for 2 days before, the day of, and 2 days after, each chemotherapy infusion. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary end point. Accrual was stopped after the first interim analysis of 270 events. Chemotherapy was predominantly with carboplatin and gemcitabine (79%) or carboplatin and paclitaxel (18%). The final analysis included 345 events in 372 participants with a median follow-up of 33 months. Topical nitroglycerin had no demonstrable effect on PFS [median 5.0 versus 4.8 months, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86-1.32, P = 0.55], overall survival (median 11.0 versus 10.3 months, HR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.79-1.24, P = 0.94), or objective tumor response (31% versus 30%, relative risk = 1.03, 95% CI 0.82-1.29, P = 0.81). Headache, hypotension, syncope, diarrhea, dizziness, and anorexia were more frequent in those allocated nitroglycerin. The addition of topical nitroglycerin to carboplatin-based, doublet chemotherapy in NSCLC had no demonstrable benefit and should not be used or pursued further. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number ACTRN12608000588392. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase II/III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Michihiro; Yagami, Akiko; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Furue, Masutaka

    2017-04-01

    Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H 1 -antihistamine, has been widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria with a recommended dose of 20 mg once daily in most European countries since 2010. We evaluated its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II/III study (trial registration No. JapicCTI-142574). Patients (age, 18-74 years) were randomly assigned to receive bilastine 20 mg, 10 mg or placebo once daily for 2 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline (Day -3 to 0) in total symptom score (TSS) at 2 weeks (Day 8-14), consisting of the itch and rash scores. A total of 304 patients were randomly allocated to bilastine 20 mg (101 patients), bilastine 10 mg (100 patients), and placebo (103 patients). The changes in TSS at 2 weeks were significantly decreased by bilastine 20 mg than did placebo (p < 0.001), demonstrating the superiority of bilastine 20 mg. Bilastine 10 mg also showed a significant difference from placebo (p < 0.001). The TSS changes for the bilastine showed significant improvement from Day 1, and were maintained during the treatment period. The Dermatology Life Quality Index scores were also improved in bilastine than in placebo. The bilastine treatments were safe and well tolerated. Two-week treatment with bilastine (20 or 10 mg) once daily was effective and tolerable in Japanese patients with CSU, demonstrating an early onset of action. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A phase II trial of erlotinib as maintenance treatment after concurrent chemoradiotherapy in stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): a Galician Lung Cancer Group (GGCP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Rubio, J; Fírvida-Pérez, J L; Lázaro-Quintela, M; Barón-Duarte, F J; Alonso-Jáudenes, G; Santomé, L; Afonso-Afonso, F J; Amenedo, M; Huidobro, G; Campos-Balea, B; López-Vázquez, M D; Vázquez, S

    2014-03-01

    This single arm, phase II study aims to evaluate the role of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine-kinase inhibitor erlotinib as maintenance therapy following concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT) in unresectable locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with unresectable stage IIIA o dry IIIB NSCLC with no evidence of tumor progression after receiving a standard cCRT regimen with curative intent were included. Oral erlotinib 150 mg/day was administered within 4-6 weeks after the end of the cCRT for a maximum of 6 months if no disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred. Primary end point was the progression-free rate (PFR) at 6 months. Secondary end points included time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS). Sixty-six patients were enrolled and received maintenance treatment with erlotinib [average: 4.5 months (95 % CI 4.0-5.0)]. PFR at 6 months was 63.5 % (41/66). With a median follow-up of 22.7 months (95 % CI 13.5-37.1), the median TTP was 9.9 months (95 % CI 6.2-12.1), and the median OS was 24.0 months (95 % CI 17.3-48.6). Most common adverse events (AEs) related to erlotinib were rash (78.8 %; 16.7 % grade 3), diarrhea (28.8 %; 1.5 % grade 3), fatigue (15.2 %; 1.5 % grade 3), anorexia (7.6 %; 1.5 % grade 3) and vomiting (4.6 %; none grade 3). Five patients (7.6 %) were withdrawn due to AEs. Erlotinib as maintenance therapy is an active treatment after cCRT in unselected patients with stage III NSCLC, reaching a 6-month PFR of 63.5 % and a median OS of 24 months. The safety profile of maintenance erlotinib was as expected and manageable.

  18. Twelve-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative phase II/III study of benzoyl peroxide gel in patients with acne vulgaris: A secondary publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Makoto; Sato, Shinichi; Furukawa, Fukumi; Matsunaga, Kayoko; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Igarashi, Atsuyuki; Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Hayashi, Nobukazu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Nagare, Toshitaka; Katsuramaki, Tsuneo

    2017-07-01

    A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, comparative, multicenter study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) gel, administrated once daily for 12 weeks to Japanese patients with acne vulgaris. Efficacy was evaluated by counting all inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Safety was evaluated based on adverse events, local skin tolerability scores and laboratory test values. All 609 subjects were randomly assigned to receive the study products (2.5% and 5% BPO and placebo), and 607 subjects were included in the full analysis set, 544 in the per protocol set and 609 in the safety analyses. The median rates of reduction from baseline to the last evaluation of the inflammatory lesion counts, the primary end-point, in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 72.7% and 75.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than that in the placebo group (41.7%). No deaths or other serious adverse events were observed. The incidences of adverse events in the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups were 56.4% and 58.8%, respectively; a higher incidence than in the placebo group, but there was no obvious difference between the 2.5% and 5% BPO groups. All adverse events were mild or moderate in severity. Most adverse events did not lead to study product discontinuation. The results suggested that both 2.5% and 5% BPO are useful for the treatment of acne vulgaris. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Nigerian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatundun Williams

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common human enzymopathy and in Sub-Saharan Africa, is a significant cause of infection- and drug-induced hemolysis and neonatal jaundice. Our goals were to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among Nigerian children of different ethnic backgrounds and to identify predictors of G6PD deficiency by analyzing vital signs and hematocrit and by asking screening questions about symptoms of hemolysis. We studied 1,122 children (561 males and 561 females aged 1 month to 15 years. The mean age was 7.4 ± 3.2 years. Children of Yoruba ethnicity made up the largest group (77.5% followed by those Igbo descent (10.6% and those of Igede (10.2% and Tiv (1.8% ethnicity. G6PD status was determined using the fluorescent spot method. We found that the overall prevalence of G6PD deficiency was 15.3% (24.1% in males, 6.6% in females. Yoruba children had a higher prevalence (16.9% than Igede (10.5%, Igbo (10.1% and Tiv (5.0% children. The odds of G6PD deficiency were 0.38 times as high in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children (p=0.0500. The odds for Igede and Tiv children were not significantly different from Yoruba children (p=0.7528 and 0.9789 respectively. Mean oxygen saturation, heart rate and hematocrit were not significantly different in G6PD deficient and G6PD sufficient children. The odds of being G6PD deficient were 2.1 times higher in children with scleral icterus than those without (p=0.0351. In conclusion, we determined the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Nigerian sub-populations. The odds of G6PD deficiency were decreased in Igbo children compared to Yoruba children. There was no association between vital parameters or hematocrit and G6PD deficiency. We found that a history of scleral icterus may increase the odds of G6PD deficiency, but we did not exclude other common causes of icterus such as sickle cell disease or malarial infection.

  20. BREATHER (PENTA 16) short-cycle therapy (SCT) (5 days on/2 days off) in young people with chronic human immunodeficiency virus infection: an open, randomised, parallel-group Phase II/III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karina; Inshaw, Jamie; Ford, Deborah; Bernays, Sarah; Scott, Karen; Kenny, Julia; Klein, Nigel; Turkova, Anna; Harper, Lynda; Nastouli, Eleni; Paparini, Sara; Choudhury, Rahela; Rhodes, Tim; Babiker, Abdel; Gibb, Diana

    2016-06-01

    For human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adolescents facing lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART), short-cycle therapy (SCT) with long-acting agents offers the potential for drug-free weekends, less toxicity, better adherence and cost savings. To determine whether or not efavirenz (EFV)-based ART in short cycles of 5 days on and 2 days off is as efficacious (in maintaining virological suppression) as continuous EFV-based ART (continuous therapy; CT). Secondary objectives included the occurrence of new clinical HIV events or death, changes in immunological status, emergence of HIV drug resistance, drug toxicity and changes in therapy. Open, randomised, non-inferiority trial. Europe, Thailand, Uganda, Argentina and the USA. Young people (aged 8-24 years) on EFV plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and with a HIV-1 ribonucleic acid level [viral load (VL)] of  12 months. Young people were randomised to continue daily ART (CT) or change to SCT (5 days on, 2 days off ART). Follow-up was for a minimum of 48 weeks (0, 4 and 12 weeks and then 12-weekly visits). The primary outcome was the difference between arms in the proportion with VL > 50 copies/ml (confirmed) by 48 weeks, estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method (12% non-inferiority margin) adjusted for region and age. In total, 199 young people (11 countries) were randomised (n = 99 SCT group, n = 100 CT group) and followed for a median of 86 weeks. Overall, 53% were male; the median age was 14 years (21% ≥ 18 years); 13% were from the UK, 56% were black, 19% were Asian and 21% were Caucasian; and the median CD4% and CD4 count were 34% and 735 cells/mm(3), respectively. By week 48, only one participant (CT) was lost to follow-up. The SCT arm had a 27% decreased drug exposure as measured by the adherence questionnaire and a MEMSCap(™) Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMSCap Inc., Durham, NC, USA) substudy (median cap openings per week: SCT group, n = 5; CT group, n

  1. Specific combination of compound heterozygous mutations in 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4 defines a new subtype of D-bifunctional protein deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillan Hugh J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-bifunctional protein (DBP deficiency is typically apparent within the first month of life with most infants demonstrating hypotonia, psychomotor delay and seizures. Few children survive beyond two years of age. Among patients with prolonged survival all demonstrate severe gross motor delay, absent language development, and severe hearing and visual impairment. DBP contains three catalytically active domains; an N-terminal dehydrogenase, a central hydratase and a C-terminal sterol carrier protein-2-like domain. Three subtypes of the disease are identified based upon the domain affected; DBP type I results from a combined deficiency of dehydrogenase and hydratase activity; DBP type II from isolated hydratase deficiency and DBP type III from isolated dehydrogenase deficiency. Here we report two brothers (16½ and 14 years old with DBP deficiency characterized by normal early childhood followed by sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cerebellar and sensory ataxia and subclinical retinitis pigmentosa. Methods and results Biochemical analysis revealed normal levels of plasma VLCFA, phytanic acid and pristanic acid, and normal bile acids in urine; based on these results no diagnosis was made. Exome analysis was performed using the Agilent SureSelect 50Mb All Exon Kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 next-generation-sequencing (NGS platform. Compound heterozygous mutations were identified by exome sequencing and confirmed by Sanger sequencing within the dehydrogenase domain (c.101C>T; p.Ala34Val and hydratase domain (c.1547T>C; p.Ile516Thr of the 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 gene (HSD17B4. These mutations have been previously reported in patients with severe-forms of DBP deficiency, however each mutation was reported in combination with another mutation affecting the same domain. Subsequent studies in fibroblasts revealed normal VLCFA levels, normal C26:0 but reduced pristanic acid beta-oxidation activity. Both DBP

  2. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report

  3. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.D. (ed.)

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  4. Prognostic value of alcohol dehydrogenase mRNA expression in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erna; Wei, Haotang; Liao, Xiwen; Xu, Yang; Li, Shu; Zeng, Xiaoyun

    2018-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoenzymes possess diagnostic value in gastric cancer (GC). However, the prognostic value of ADH isoenzymes in GC remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to identify the prognostic value of ADH genes in patients with GC. The prognostic value of ADH genes was investigated in patients with GC using the Kaplan-Meier plotter tool. Kaplan-Meier plots were used to assess the difference between groups of patients with GC with different prognoses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the relative risk of GC survival. Overall, 593 patients with GC and 7 ADH genes were included in the survival analysis. High expression of ADH 1A (class 1), α polypeptide ( ADH1A; log-rank P=0.043; HR=0.79; 95% CI: 0.64-0.99), ADH 1B (class 1), β polypeptide ( ADH1B ; log-rank P=1.9×10 -05 ; HR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.53-0.79) and ADH 5 (class III), χ polypeptide ( ADH5 ; log-rank P=0.0011; HR=0.73; 95% CI: 0.6-0.88) resulted in a significantly decreased risk of mortality in all patients with GC compared with patients with low expression of those genes. Furthermore, protective effects may additionally be observed in patients with intestinal-type GC with high expression of ADH1B (log-rank P=0.031; HR=0.64; 95% CI: 0.43-0.96) and patients with diffuse-type GC with high expression of ADH1A (log-rank P=0.014; HR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.3-0.88), ADH1B (log-rank P=0.04; HR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.29-0.98), ADH 4 (class II), π polypeptide (log-rank P=0.033; HR=0.58; 95% CI: 0.35-0.96) and ADH 6 (class V) (log-rank P=0.037; HR=0.59; 95% CI: 0.35-0.97) resulting in a significantly decreased risk of mortality compared with patients with low expression of those genes. In contrast, patients with diffuse-type GC with high expression of ADH5 (log-rank P=0.044; HR=1.66; 95% CI: 1.01-2.74) were significantly correlated with a poor prognosis. The results of the present study suggest that ADH1A and ADH1B may be potential

  5. Overall survival benefit for sequential doxorubicin-docetaxel compared with concurrent doxorubicin and docetaxel in node-positive breast cancer--8-year results of the Breast International Group 02-98 phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oakman, C; Francis, P A; Crown, J

    2013-01-01

    Background In women with node-positive breast cancer, the Breast International Group (BIG) 02-98 tested the incorporation of docetaxel (Taxotere) into doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-based chemotherapy, and compared sequential and concurrent docetaxel. At 5 years, there was a trend for improved disease...

  6. III-V microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Nougier, JP

    1991-01-01

    As is well known, Silicon widely dominates the market of semiconductor devices and circuits, and in particular is well suited for Ultra Large Scale Integration processes. However, a number of III-V compound semiconductor devices and circuits have recently been built, and the contributions in this volume are devoted to those types of materials, which offer a number of interesting properties. Taking into account the great variety of problems encountered and of their mutual correlations when fabricating a circuit or even a device, most of the aspects of III-V microelectronics, from fundamental p

  7. SIGNIFICANCE OF LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE AND ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE AS BIOCHEMICAL MARKERS AND AS PREDICTORS OF SEVERITY OF PREGNANCY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Sonowal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To compare serum Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH and serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST of normotensive pregnant women with those of preeclamptic and eclamptic women. To determine the relationship of levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase and serum aspartate transaminase with severity of pregnancy-induced hypertension and its complications. MATERIALSAND METHODS The study was carried out on pregnant hypertensive patients attending outpatient department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, AMCH, Dibrugarh, Assam from 1 st July 2013 to 30 th June 2014. Normotensive pregnant women were taken as controls. Each serum sample from both the control group as well as study group was estimated for lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate transaminase using standard methods and a comparison is drawn and analysed using t-test and Chi-square test. RESULTS Serum lactate dehydrogenase and serum aspartate transaminase levels were higher in the study group in comparison to the study groups. The mean serum LDH was 198±30.03U/L in control group, whereas in preeclampsia and eclampsia, mean serum levels of LDH were 817±114U/L and 927±108U/L, respectively. The levels of the serum AST were found to be less than 600U/L in normotensive and preeclampsia patients and more than 600 U/L in eclampsia and other complications of PIH. CONCLUSION Serum lactate dehydrogenase and serum aspartate transaminase levels in patients suffering from preeclampsia and its complications are consistently higher compared to the normotensive pregnant patients. To determine the usefulness of inclusion of these enzymes along with other cardiac enzymes in the panel of investigations of pregnant women universally needs further large scale comparative studies.

  8. Zinc and glutamate dehydrogenase in putative glutamatergic brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, G; Schmidt, W

    1983-01-01

    A certain topographic parallelism between the distribution of histochemically (TIMM staining) identified zinc and putative glutamatergic structures in the rat brain was demonstrated. Glutamate dehydrogenase as a zinc containing protein is in consideration to be an enzyme synthesizing transmitter glutamate. In a low concentration range externally added zinc ions (10(-9) to 10(-7) M) induced an increase in the activity of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) originating from rat hippocampal formation, neocortex, and cerebellum up to 142.4%. With rising molarity of Zn(II) in the incubation medium, the enzyme of hippocampal formation and cerebellum showed a biphasic course of activation. Zinc ions of a concentration higher than 10(-6) M caused a strong inhibition of GDH. The effect of Zn(II) on GDH originating from spinal ganglia and liver led only to a decrease of enzyme activity. These results are discussed in connection with a functional correlation between zinc and putatively glutamatergic system.

  9. Overexpression, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of shikimate dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Ho

    2011-01-01

    Shikimate dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima has been overexpressed, crystallized, and its crystal structure has been determined. X-ray diffraction data have been collected to 1.45 Å. Shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH), which catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of 3-dehydroshikimate to shikimate in the shikimate pathway, is an attractive target for the development of herbicides and antimicrobial agents. Previous structural studies showed that SDH exists in two conformations, an open form and a closed form, and it is believed that the conformational state is crucial to understanding a catalytic mechanism. To facilitate further structural comparisons among SDHs, structural analysis of an SDH from Thermotoga maritima encoded by the Tm0346 gene has been initiated. SDH from T. maritima has been overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 296 K using ammonium sulfate as a precipitant. Crystals of T. maritima SDH diffracted to 1.45 Å resolution and belonged to orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 54.21, b = 62.45 and c = 68.68 Å. The asymmetric unit contains a monomer, with a corresponding V M of 2.01 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 38.9% by volume

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Leishmania major dihydroorotate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro, Artur T.; Feliciano, Patricia R.; Nonato, M. Cristina, E-mail: cristy@fcfrp.usp.br [Laboratório de Cristalografia de Proteínas, Departamento de Física e Química, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto-USP, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-903 (Brazil)

    2006-10-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from L. major has been crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique using lithium sulfate as the precipitant agent. A complete data set from a native crystal has been collected to 2.0 Å resolution using an in-house rotating-anode generator. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenases (DHODHs) are flavin-containing enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of l-dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step in the de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis pathway. In this study, DHODH from Leishmania major has been crystallized by the vapour-diffusion technique using lithium sulfate as the precipitating agent. The crystals belong to space group P6{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 143.7, c = 69.8 Å. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.0 Å resolution using an in-house rotating-anode generator. Analysis of the solvent content and the self-rotation function indicate the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure has been solved by the molecular-replacement technique.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase from Streptococcus pyogenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eun Hyuk; Lim, Jong Eun; Chi, Young Min; Lee, Ki Seog

    2012-01-01

    Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) from S. pyogenes was purified and crystallized. Crystals of native and NAD + -complexed SSADH diffracted to resolutions of 1.6 and 1.7 Å, respectively. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) plays a critical role in the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and catalyzes the NAD(P) + -coupled oxidation of succinic semialdehyde (SSA) to succinic acid (SA). SSADH from Streptococcus pyogenes has been purified and crystallized as the apoenzyme and in a complex with NAD + . The crystals of native and NAD + -complexed SSADH diffracted to resolutions of 1.6 and 1.7 Å, respectively, using a synchrotron-radiation source. Both crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 93.3, b = 100.3, c = 105.1 Å for the native crystal and a = 93.3, b = 100.3, c = 105.0 Å for the complex crystal. Preliminary molecular replacement confirmed the presence of one dimer in both crystals, corresponding to a Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 2.37 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 48.0%

  12. Multiple independent fusions of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase with enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Stover

    Full Text Available Fusions of the first two enzymes in the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and 6-phosphogluconolactonase (6PGL, have been previously described in two distant clades, chordates and species of the malarial parasite Plasmodium. We have analyzed genome and expressed sequence data from a variety of organisms to identify the origins of these gene fusion events. Based on the orientation of the domains and range of species in which homologs can be found, the fusions appear to have occurred independently, near the base of the metazoan and apicomplexan lineages. Only one of the two metazoan paralogs of G6PD is fused, showing that the fusion occurred after a duplication event, which we have traced back to an ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoans. The Plasmodium genes are known to contain a functionally important insertion that is not seen in the other apicomplexan fusions, highlighting this as a unique characteristic of this group. Surprisingly, our search revealed two additional fusion events, one that combined 6PGL and G6PD in an ancestor of the protozoan parasites Trichomonas and Giardia, and another fusing G6PD with phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD in a species of diatoms. This study extends the range of species known to contain fusions in the pentose phosphate pathway to many new medically and economically important organisms.

  13. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro; Shimizu, Hironari [Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi [Department of Parasitology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Shigeharu [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Kita, Kiyoshi, E-mail: kitak@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Biomedical Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.

  14. Effects of 14 days of spaceflight and nine days of recovery on cell body size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, A.; Ohira, Y.; Roy, R. R.; Nagaoka, S.; Sekiguchi, C.; Hinds, W. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1997-01-01

    The cross-sectional areas and succinate dehydrogenase activities of L5 dorsal root ganglion neurons in rats were determined after 14 days of spaceflight and after nine days of recovery. The mean and distribution of the cross-sectional areas were similar to age-matched, ground-based controls for both the spaceflight and for the spaceflight plus recovery groups. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in spaceflight compared to aged-matched control rats, whereas the mean succinate dehydrogenase activity was similar in age-matched control and spaceflight plus recovery rats. The mean succinate dehydrogenase activity of neurons with cross-sectional areas between 1000 and 2000 microns2 was lower (between 7 and 10%) in both the spaceflight and the spaceflight plus recovery groups compared to the appropriate control groups. The reduction in the oxidative capacity of a subpopulation of sensory neurons having relatively large cross-sectional areas immediately following spaceflight and the sustained depression for nine days after returning to 1 g suggest that the 0 g environment induced significant alterations in proprioceptive function.

  15. Effect of dietary vitamin E or selenium on prostaglandin dehydrogenase in hyperoxic rat lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, L. N.; Mathias, M. M.; Schatte, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    Weanling male rats were fed semipurified diets supplemented with 0, 60, or 600 IU/kg vitamin E or 0, 100, or 1000 ppb selenium. One group was injected daily with vitamin E at a rate equivalent to consumption of 60 IU/kg. Animals from all groups were sacrificed after exposure to normobaric oxygen or air for 48 h. Lung tissue was analyzed for the combined activity of prostaglandin dehydrogenase and reductase. Using the decline in enzyme activity as an indicator of susceptibility to oxygen poisoning, protection against hyperoxia was directly related to the level of vitamin E supplementation. Selenium supplemented at 100 ppb provided significant protection when compared to 0 ppb or 1000 ppb. The latter dose may have been marginally toxic. Thus dietary supplementation of vitamin E and selenium may influence the relative susceptibility of an animal to pulmonary oxygen poisoning.

  16. LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE GENE GENOTYPIZATION FOR SPECIES IDENTIFICATION IN A FISH FARM ON THE RIVER NERETVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polonca Margeta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are severale Salmonid species, found in the river Neretva basin, among which S. trutta and S. obtusirostris. Also, natural hybrids such as S. obtusirostris x S. trutta have been observed. In one fish farm on the river Neretva, S. trutta and S. obtusirostris were decided to breed separately. Parental fishes were separated phenotypicaly on the basis of the morphological signs. PCR-RFLP analysis of the exon 3 to exon 4 part of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH C1* gene with restriction endonuclease RsaI was employed to identify the presence of other species representatives or intercrosses in two groups of juvenille fishes. Using this method, we were able to identify two S. trutta representatives in the S. obtusirostris group.

  17. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype as a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; Pinheiro, Nidia A; Rogatto, Silvia R

    2004-01-01

    be a risk factor for UADT cancer, especially in individuals with low alcohol or tobacco consumption. However, further epidemiological case-control or cohort studies, preferably prospective, are needed to establish the exact role of ADH3 polymorphism and its association with the development of UADT cancers.......OBJECTIVE: To assess alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) polymorphism at position Ile349Val as indicator of risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer to verify its association with UADT cancer in nonalcoholic or nonsmoking individuals. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Primary care...... or referral center. PATIENTS: The study group consisted of 141 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx admitted for surgical treatment. The comparison group consisted of 94 inpatients without cancer from the A. C. Camargo...

  18. Methanol dehydrogenase biofuel cells and enzyme-based electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Aston, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the linking of enzymes to electrodes and their application in biofuel cells and as analytical devices. Methanol dehydrogenase, an NAD independent enzyme was purified by two phase aqueous partition. The enzyme incorporated into a biofuel cell was capable of producing a current in the presence of either a soluble or insoluble mediator. Optimisation of the current was carried out and a variety of alternative membranes, mediators and electrodes were investigated for possi...

  19. Optic neuropathy in a patient with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Juan E. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Gonzalez, Guido E. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Clinica Alemana de Santiago, Departmento de Imagenes, Santiago (Chile); Nagao, Karina E.; Walton, David S. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, MA (United States); Caruso, Paul A. [Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a genetic disorder of mitochondrial metabolism. The clinical manifestations range from severe neonatal lactic acidosis to chronic neurodegeneration. Optic neuropathy is an uncommon clinical sequela and the imaging findings of optic neuropathy in these patients have not previously been described. We present a patient with PDH deficiency with bilateral decreased vision in whom MRI demonstrated bilateral optic neuropathy and chiasmopathy. (orig.)

  20. [Studies On Lactic Dehydrogenase Activity In Parasitic Helminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Hyung

    1967-06-01

    A series of experiments was performed to determine the lactic dehydrogenase activity of various parasitic helminths. The enzyme activity was determined by the modified method of Wroblewshi and LaDue (1955) using tissue homogenate of 16 kinds of worm parasites. The worms were mostly collected alive from local abattoir and removed from the organ or tissues of the naturally infected animal host and some materials were also obtained from the human host. They were thoroughly washed and homogenized in chilled glass tissue grinder, and then centrifuged. The supernatants were designated as enzyme preparations, and their enzyme activity was measured by spectrophotometry at the wave length of 340 millimicron. In order to know the effects of temperature and substrate concentration on the enzyme activity, the extinction of reduced Coenzyme I(NADH) was measured at the various conditions of incubation temperature and substrate concentration. The results of this experiments were as follows: 1. The lactic dehydrogenase activity occurred over all kinds of parasites used in this study. 2. Most worms of nematodes and trematodes displayed their maximum activity in the range of pH 2.7~3.5, and cestodes revealed their maximum activity in the ranges of both pH 2.7~3.5 and pH 7.4. 3. In nematodes and trematodes, the lactic dehydrogenase activity increased slowly as incubation temperature increases except in the case of Eurytrema pancreaticum, while the activity in cestodes decreased inversely. 4. The lactic dehydrogenase activity increased in proportion to the increase of substrate concentration in most of worm parasites.

  1. Structural and mechanistic aspects of alcohol dehydrogenase function

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    Vertebrates possess a complex alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) system composed of multiple molecular forms, which are currently classified into seven classes according to their structural properties. ADHs are dimeric zinc metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes/ketones using NAD+/NADH as electron acceptor and donor, respectively. The classes have broad but only partially overlapping substrate repertoires. This thesis mainly deals with mechan...

  2. Influence of thorax irradiation on lactic dehydrogenase isoenzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valle, C.; Munnich, A.; Pasquier, C.

    The right hemi-thorax of rats was irradiated with 1200 and 3000 rads ( 60 Co) and blood samples were taken sequentially. The five lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes which have proved to be useful as biochemical indicators of acute pulmonary injury in other experimental animals (dogs), were assayed, after irradiation, as a function of time and as a functon of dose. There was no significant change in LDH isoenzyme activities after lung irradiation in rats [fr

  3. Prognostic values of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 isoenzymes in ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yu-mei; Zhao, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Yu-mei Ma,1 Shan Zhao2 1Department of Pathology, 2Department of Cancer Second Division, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang City, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity has been used as a functional stem cell marker to isolate cancer stem cells in different cancer types, including ovarian cancer. However, which ALDH1’s isoenzymes are contributing to ALDH1 activity in ovarian cancer remains elusive. In addi...

  4. Isocitrate Dehydrogenase and Glutamate Synthesis in Acetobacter suboxydans1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Seymour; Claus, G. W.

    1969-01-01

    Acetobacter suboxydans is an obligate aerobe for which an operative tricarboxylic acid cycle has not been demonstrated. Glutamate synthesis has been reported to occur by mechanisms other than those utilizing isocitrate dehydrogenase, a tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme not previously detected in this organism. We have recovered α-ketoglutarate and glutamate from a system containing citrate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a divalent cation, pyridoxal phosphate, an amino donor, and dialyzed, cell-free extract. Aconitase activity was readily detected in these extracts, but isocitrate dehydrogenase activity, measured by NAD reduction, was masked by a cyanide-resistant, particulate, reduced NAD oxidase. Isocitrate dehydrogenase activity could be demonstrated after centrifuging the extracts at 150,000 × g for 3 hr and treating the supernatant fluid with 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide. It is concluded that A. suboxydans can utilize the conventional tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes to convert citrate to α-ketoglutarate which can then undergo a transamination to glutamate. Images PMID:5361215

  5. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    CO. –. 2 radi- cals with [Co(III)(phendione)2Cl2]Cl (complex) have been studied by electron pulse radiolysis. Time resolved transient absorption spectra for all the four species show two peaks which match with those of phendione anion radical produced by the reaction of e. – aq with phendione. However, there are some ...

  6. Summary of Session III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furman, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This is a summary of the talks presented in Session III ''Simulations of Electron-Cloud Build Up'' of the Mini-Workshop on Electron-Cloud Simulations for Proton and Positron Beams ECLOUD-02, held at CERN, 15-18 April 2002

  7. (Afrique francophone) - Phase III

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Programme de troisième cycle interuniversitaire en économie (Afrique francophone) - Phase III. Les deux premières phases du projet ... L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de la recherche scientifique en Afrique subsaharienne remporte le prix de la diplomatie scientifique. L'Initiative des conseils subventionnaires de ...

  8. Coronal type III radio bursts and their X-ray flare and interplanetary type III counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Hamish A. S.; Vilmer, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Context. Type III bursts and hard X-rays are both produced by flare energetic electron beams. The link between both emissions has been investigated in many previous studies, but no statistical studies have compared both coronal and interplanetary type III bursts with X-ray flares. Aims: Using events where the coronal radio emission above 100 MHz is exclusively from type III bursts, we revisited some long-standing questions regarding the relation between type III bursts and X-ray flares: Do all coronal type III bursts have X-ray counterparts? What correlation, if any, occurs between radio and X-ray intensities? What X-ray and radio signatures above 100 MHz occur in connection with interplanetary type III bursts below 14 MHz? Methods: We analysed ten years of data from 2002 to 2011 starting with a selection of coronal type III bursts above 100 MHz. We used X-ray flare information from RHESSI >6 keV to make a list of 321 events that have associated type III bursts and X-ray flares, encompassing at least 28% of the initial sample of type III events. We then examined the timings, intensities, associated GOES class, and whether there was an associated interplanetary radio signature in both radio and X-rays. Results: For our 321 events with radio and X-ray signatures, the X-ray emission at 6 keV usually lasted much longer than the groups of type III bursts at frequencies >100 MHz. The selected events were mostly associated with GOES B and C class flares. A weak correlation was found between the type III radio flux at frequencies below 327 MHz and the X-ray intensity at 25-50 keV, with an absence of events at high X-ray intensity and low type III radio flux. The weakness of the correlation is related to the coherent emission mechanism of radio type IIIs which can produce high radio fluxes by low density electron beams. Interplanetary type III bursts (103 SFU), relating to electron beams with more energetic electrons above 25 keV and events where magnetic flux tubes extend

  9. There is no role for hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the management of children with newly diagnosed diffuse intrinsic brainstem tumors: results of a pediatric oncology group phase III trial comparing conventional vs. hyperfractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Lynda R.; Kadota, Richard; Freeman, Carolyn; Douglass, Edwin C.; Fontanesi, James; Cohen, Michael E.; Kovnar, Edward; Burger, Peter; Sanford, Robert A.; Kepner, James; Friedman, Henry; Kun, Larry E.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: In June 1992, POG began accrual to a phase III study, POG-9239, designed to compare the time to disease progression, overall survival, and toxicities observed in children with newly diagnosed brainstem tumor treated with 100 mg/m 2 of infusional cisplatin and randomized to either conventional vs. hyperfractionated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Patients eligible for study were those between 3 and 21 years of age with previously untreated tumors arising in the pons. Histologic confirmation of diagnosis was not mandatory, provided that the clinical and MRI scan findings were typical for a diffusely infiltrating pontine lesion. Treatment consisted of a six-week course of local field radiotherapy with either once a day treatment of 180 cGy per fraction to a total dose of 5400 cGy (arm 1) or a twice a day regimen of 117 cGy per fraction to a total dose of 7020 cGy (the second of the three hyperfractionated dose escalation levels of POG-8495) (arm 2). Because of previously reported poor results with conventional radiotherapy alone, cisplatin was included as a potential radiosensitizer in an attempt to improve progression-free and ultimate survival rates. Based on results of the phase I cisplatin dose escalation trial, POG-9139, 100 mg/m 2 was chosen for this trial and was delivered by continuous infusion over a 120-hour period, beginning on the first day of radiotherapy and repeated during weeks 3 and 5. One hundred thirty eligible patients were treated on protocol, 66 on arm 1 and 64 on arm 2. Results: The results we report are from time of diagnosis through October 1997. For patients treated on arm 1, the median time to disease progression (defined as time to off study) was 6 months (range 2-15 months) and the median time to death 8.5 months (range 3-24 months); survival at 1 year was 30.9% and at 2 years, 7.1%. For patients treated on arm 2, the corresponding values were 5 months (range 1-12 months) and 8 months (range 1-23 months), with 1- and 2-year

  10. Is it time to rethink the role of hyperfractionated radiotherapy in the management of children with newly-diagnosed brainstem glioma?: Results of a Pediatric Oncology Group Phase III trial comparing conventional VS. hyperfractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, L.; Kadota, R.; Douglass, E.C.; Fontanesi, J.; Freeman, C.; Cohen, M.; Kovnar, E.; Burger, P.; Sanford, R.A.; Kepner, J.; Friedman, H.; Kun, L.

    1997-01-01

    Purposes/Objective: In June 1992, POG began accrual to a Phase III study, POG 9239, designed to compare the time to disease progression, overall survival, and toxicities observed in children with newly diagnosed brainstem glioma treated with 100 mg/m 2 of infusional Cisplatin and randomized to either conventional vs. hyperfractionated radiotherapy. The trial was closed in March 1996, having achieved its accrual goal. Materials and Methods: Patients (pts) eligible for study were those between 3 and 21 years of age with previously untreated tumors arising in the pons. Histologic confirmation of diagnosis was not mandatory, provided that the clinical and MRI scan findings were typical for diffusely infiltrating pontine glioma. Treatment (Rx) consisted of a six-week course of local field radiotherapy with either once a day treatment (Rx 1) of 180 cGy per fraction to a total dose of 5400 cGy or a twice a day regimen (Rx 2) of 117 cGy per fraction to a total dose of 7020 cGy (the second of the three hyperfractionated dose escalation levels of POG 8495). Because of previously reported poor results with conventional radiotherapy alone, Cisplatin was included as a potential radiosensitizer in an attempt to improve progression-free and ultimate survival rates. Based on results of the Phase I Cisplatin dose escalation trial, POG 9139, 100 mg/m 2 was chosen for this trial and was delivered by continuous infusion over a 120-hour period, beginning on the first day of radiotherapy and repeated during Weeks 3 and 5. Of the 132 pts accrued to the study, 94 are eligible for review based upon time since entry, 47 in each Rx arm. In Rx 1, there were 23 males and 24 females, ranging in age from 40 to 161 mo (median, 77 mo); in Rx 2, there were 20 males and 27 females, ranging in age from 41 to 212 mo (median, 77 mo). As of 4/18/96, the study coordinator had not yet verified eligibility and assessed the evaluability of the remaining pts. Results: All results are from time of diagnosis

  11. Effect of Punica granatum fruit peel on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in amphistome Gastrothylax indicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Rama; Bagai, Upma

    2017-03-01

    Increasing anthelmintic resistance and the impact of conventional anthelmintics on the environment, it is important to look for alternative strategies against helminth parasite in sheep. Important lipogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) show subcellular distribution pattern. Activity of G-6-PDH was largely restricted to cytosolic fraction while MDH was found in both cytosolic and mitochondrial fraction in Gastrothylax indicus. Following in vitro treatment with ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Punica granatum fruit peel and commercial anthelmintic, albendazole G-6-PDH activity was decreased by 19-32 %, whereas MDH was suppressed by 24-41 %, compared to the respective control. Albendazole was quite effective when compared with negative control and both the extracts. The results indicate that phytochemicals of plant may act as potential vermifuge or vermicide.

  12. Antisites in III-V semiconductors: Density functional theory calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, A.

    2014-07-14

    Density functional based simulation, corrected for finite size effects, is used to investigate systematically the formation of antisite defects in III-V semiconductors (III=Al, Ga, and In and V=P, As, and Sb). Different charge states are modelled as a function of the Fermi level and under different growth conditions. The formation energies of group III antisites (III V q) decrease with increasing covalent radius of the group V atom though not group III radius, whereas group V antisites (V I I I q) show a consistent decrease in formation energies with increase in group III and group V covalent radii. In general, III V q defects dominate under III-rich conditions and V I I I q under V-rich conditions. Comparison with equivalent vacancy formation energy simulations shows that while antisite concentrations are always dominant under stoichiometric conditions, modest variation in growth or doping conditions can lead to a significantly higher concentration of vacancies. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  13. High substrate specificity of ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH), a short-chain dehydrogenase from Ips pini bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Pak, Heidi; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Ips spp. bark beetles use ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsdienone and ipsenone as aggregation pheromone components and pheromone precursors. For Ips pini, the short-chain oxidoreductase ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) converts (-)-ipsdienol to ipsdienone, and thus likely plays a role in determining pheromone composition. In order to further understand the role of IDOLDH in pheromone biosynthesis, we compared IDOLDH to its nearest functionally characterized ortholog with a solved structure: human L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II/ amyloid-β binding alcohol dehydrogenase (hHADH II/ABAD), and conducted functional assays of recombinant IDOLDH to determine substrate and product ranges and structural characteristics. Although IDOLDH and hHADH II/ABAD had only 35% sequence identity, their predicted tertiary structures had high identity. We found IDOLDH is a functional homo-tetramer. In addition to oxidizing (-)-ipsdienol, IDOLDH readily converted racemic ipsenol to ipsenone, and stereo-specifically reduced both ketones to their corresponding (-)-alcohols. The (+)-enantiomers were never observed as products. Assays with various substrate analogs showed IDOLDH had high substrate specificity for (-)-ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsenone and ipsdienone, supporting that IDOLDH functions as a pheromone-biosynthetic enzyme. These results suggest that different IDOLDH orthologs and or activity levels contribute to differences in Ips spp. pheromone composition. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Redox Balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016: Roles of Iron-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Glucose/ Glycerol Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Bromberger, Paul David; Nieuwenhuiys, Gavin; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO) with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). The Pdu pathway is operative inside Pdu microcompartment that encapsulates different enzymes and cofactors involved in metabolizing glycerol or 1,2-propanediol, and protects the cells from the toxic effect of the aldehyde intermediate. Since L. reuteri excretes high amounts of 3-HPA outside the microcompartment, the organism is likely to have alternative alcohol dehydrogenase(s) in the cytoplasm for transformation of the aldehyde. In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ADH enzymes were found in L. reuteri DSM20016, out of which 3 (PduQ, ADH6 and ADH7) belong to the group of iron-dependent enzymes that are known to transform aldehydes/ketones to alcohols. L. reuteri mutants were generated in which the three ADHs were deleted individually. The lagging growth phenotype of these deletion mutants revealed that limited NAD+/NADH recycling could be restricting their growth in the absence of ADHs. Notably, it was demonstrated that PduQ is more active in generating NAD+ during glycerol metabolism within the microcompartment by resting cells, while ADH7 functions to balance NAD+/NADH by converting 3-HPA to 1,3-PDO outside the microcompartment in the growing cells. Moreover, evaluation of ADH6 deletion mutant showed strong decrease in ethanol level, supporting the role of this bifuctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase in ethanol production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing both internal and external recycling

  15. Cephalometric characteristics of Korean children with Class III malocclusion in the deciduous dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung-Jun; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Yoo, Seung Eun; Kwon, Jang-Hyuk; Park, Kitae

    2010-01-01

    To compare the cephalometric characteristics of children with Class III malocclusion to those of children with normal occlusion during the deciduous dentition phase. Cephalometric measurements of 27 children (mean age: 5.03 years) diagnosed with Class III malocclusion were compared with 32 children (mean age: 4.85 years) diagnosed with normal occlusion in the following four categories: sagittal skeletal analysis, vertical skeletal analysis, dentoalveolar analysis, and soft tissue analysis. Significant differences were seen in all categories except vertical skeletal analysis. Sagittal skeletal measurements included ANB (Class III group: -0.91 +/- 1.60; normal group: 5.28 +/- 1.29), facial convexity (Class III group: 0.47 +/- 4.32; normal group: 13.65 +/- 3.44), Wits appraisal (Class III group: -5.54 +/- 2.36; normal group: -0.84 +/- 1.91), and A to N-perpendicular (Class III group: -2.94 +/- 3.05; normal group: 0.78 +/- 2.53). Dentoalveolar measurements included U1 to NA (Class III group: 11.98 +/- 5.25; normal group: 8.12 +/- 5.43), IMPA (Class III group: 81.34 +/- 7.40; normal group: 86.57 +/- 5.67), and interincisal angle (Class III group: 152.65 +/- 8.82; normal group: 145.03 +/- 7.34). Soft tissue measurements included soft tissue convexity (Class III group: 2.47 +/- 4.20; normal group: 12.71 +/- 3.95), nasofacial angle (Class III group: 22.68 +/- 4.22; normal group: 26.24 +/- 3.84), and upper lip to esthetic plane (Class III group: -0.65 +/- 2.74; normal group: 3.07 +/- 1.90). There are significant differences between the craniofacial patterns of normal children and those of children with Class III malocclusion that can be identified with cephalometric analysis as early as the deciduous dentition phase.

  16. Ontogeny of glucocorticoid receptor and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 gene expression identifies potential critical periods of glucocorticoid susceptibility during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, H J L; Seckl, J R; Brown, R W

    2004-04-01

    Glucocorticoids play important roles in organ development and 'fetal programming'. Fetal exposure to excess glucocorticoids reduces birth weight and causes later hypertension. To investigate these processes further we have determined the detailed ontogeny in the mouse of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11beta-HSD1), which amplifies glucocorticoid levels locally; the ontogeny was determined using in situ hybridisation from embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5, term=E19) until after birth. At E9.5 fetal GR mRNA levels are very low, except in fetal placenta. GR gene expression rises during gestation with striking tissue-specific differences in timing and extent. Before E13.5, an increase is clear in gastrointestinal (GI) and upper respiratory tracts, discrete central nervous system (CNS) regions, precartilage and especially in the liver (E10.5-E12). Later, further increases occur in lung, GI and upper respiratory tracts, muscle, pituitary and thymus. In a few tissues such increases are temporary, e.g. ureteric ducts (E13.5-E16.5) and pancreas (E14.5-E16.5, expression later falling sharply). Fetal 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression is first clearly observed at E14.5-E15, initially in the fetal placenta then in the umbilical cord. Later, 11beta-HSD1 expression is seen as follows: (i) from E15 in lung and liver, rising strongly; (ii) thymus, from E15 (lower level); (iii) at low levels in a few brain regions, including the hippocampus (E16.5+); and (iv) in muscle group fascial planes and tendon insertions. This is the first detailed study of the ontogeny of these two genes and, in combination with previous work on the ontogeny of 11beta-HSD2 and the mineralocorticoid receptor, suggests potential critical periods of glucocorticoid sensitivity during development for several organ systems.

  17. Characterization of human short chain dehydrogenase/reductase SDR16C family members related to retinol dehydrogenase 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark K; Lee, Seung-Ah; Belyaeva, Olga V; Wu, Lizhi; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2017-10-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A that serves as an activating ligand for nuclear transcription factors, retinoic acid receptors. RA biosynthesis is initiated by the enzymes that oxidize retinol to retinaldehyde. It is well established that retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10, SDR16C4), which belongs to the 16C family of the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily of proteins, is the major enzyme responsible for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde for RA biosynthesis during embryogenesis. However, several lines of evidence point towards the existence of additional retinol dehydrogenases that contribute to RA biosynthesis in vivo. In close proximity to RDH10 gene on human chromosome 8 are located two genes that are phylogenetically related to RDH10. The predicted protein products of these genes, retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2 (RDHE2, SDR16C5) and retinol dehydrogenase epidermal 2-similar (RDHE2S, SDR16C6), share 59% and 56% sequence similarity with RDH10, respectively. Previously, we showed that the single ortholog of the human RDHE2 and RDHE2S in frogs, Xenopus laevis rdhe2, oxidizes retinol to retinaldehyde and is essential for frog embryonic development. In this study, we explored the potential of each of the two human proteins to contribute to RA biosynthesis. The results of this study demonstrate that human RDHE2 exhibits a relatively low but reproducible activity when expressed in either HepG2 or HEK293 cells. Expression of the native RDHE2 is downregulated in the presence of elevated levels of RA. On the other hand, the protein encoded by the human RDHE2S gene is unstable when expressed in HEK293 cells. RDHE2S protein produced in Sf9 cells is stable but has no detectable catalytic activity towards retinol. We conclude that the human RDHE2S does not contribute to RA biosynthesis, whereas the low-activity RA-sensitive human RDHE2 may have a role in adjusting the cellular levels of RA in accord with

  18. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 circumscribes high invasive glioma cells and predicts poor prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sen-Lin; Liu, Sha; Cui, Wei; Shi, Yu; Liu, Qin; Duan, Jiang-Jie; Yu, Shi-Cang; Zhang, Xia; Cui, You-Hong; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Bian, Xiu-Wu

    2015-01-01

    Glioma is the most aggressive brain tumor with high invasiveness and poor prognosis. More reliable, sensitive and practical biomarkers to reveal glioma high invasiveness remain to be explored for the guidance of therapy. We herein evaluated the diagnostic and prognostic value of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) in the glioma specimens from 237 patients, and found that ADLH1A1 was frequently overexpressed in the high-grade glioma (WHO grade III-IV) as compared to the low-grade glioma (WHO grade I-II) patients. The tumor cells with ALDH1A1 expression were more abundant in the region between tumor and the borderline of adjacent tissue as compared to the central part of the tumor. ALDH1A1 overexpression was associated with poor differentiation and dismal prognosis. Notably, the overall and disease-free survivals of the patients who had ALDH1A1+ tumor cells sparsely located in the adjacent tissue were much worse. Furthermore, ALDH1A1 expression was correlated with the “classical-like” (CL) subtype as we examined GBM specimens from 72 patients. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that ALDH1A1 was an independent marker for glioma patients’ outcome. Mechanistically, both in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ALDH1A1+ cells isolated from either a glioblastoma cell line U251 or primary glioblastoma cells displayed significant invasiveness, clonogenicity, and proliferation as compared to ALDH1A1- cells, due to increased levels of mRNA and protein for matrix metalloproteinase 2, 7 and 9 (MMP2, MMP7 and MMP9). These results indicate that ALDH1A1+ cells contribute to the progression of glioma including invasion, proliferation and poor prognosis, and suggest that targeting ALDH1A1 may have important implications for the treatment of highly invasive glioma. PMID:26101711

  19. Secondary metabolites of Mirabilis jalapa structurally inhibit Lactate Dehydrogenase A in silico: a potential cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, R.; Nasrullah, A. H.; Pesik, R. N.; Muthmainah; Indarto, D.

    2018-03-01

    Altered energy metabolism from phosphorylated oxidation to aerobic glycolysis is one of the cancer hallmarks. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is a major enzyme that catalyses pyruvate to lactate in such condition. The aim of this study was to explore LDHA inhibitors derived from Indonesian herbal plants. In this study, LDHA and oxamate molecular structures were obtained from protein data bank. As a standard ligand inhibitor, oxamate was molecularly re-validated using Autodock Vina 1.1.2 software and showed binding energy -4.26 ± 0.006 kcal/mol and interacted with LDHA at Gln99, Arg105, Asn137, Arg168, His192, and Thr247 residues. Molecular docking was used to visualize interaction between Indonesian phytochemicals and LDHA. Indonesian phytochemicals with the lowest binding energy and similar residues with standard ligand was Miraxanthin-III (-8.53 ± 0.006 kcal/mol), Vulgaxanthin-I (-8.46 ± 0.006 kcal/mol), Miraxanthin-II (-7.9 ± 0.2 kcal/mol) and Miraxanthin-V (-7.96 ± kcal/mol). Lower energy binding to LDHA and binding site at these residues was predicted to inhibit LDHA activity better than standard ligand. All phytochemicals were found in Mirabilis jalapa plant. Secondary metabolites in Mirabilis jalapa have LDHA inhibitor property in silico. Further in vitro study should be performed to confirm this result.

  20. Human aldehyde dehydrogenase genes: alternatively spliced transcriptional variants and their suggested nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, William J; Stagos, Dimitrios; Marchitti, Satori A; Nebert, Daniel W; Tipton, Keith F; Bairoch, Amos; Vasiliou, Vasilis

    2009-11-01

    The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily consists of 19 genes encoding enzymes critical for NAD(P)-dependent oxidation of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes, including drugs and environmental toxicants. Mutations in ALDH genes are the molecular basis of several disease states (e.g. Sjögren-Larsson syndrome, pyridoxine-dependent seizures, and type II hyperprolinemia) and may contribute to the etiology of complex diseases such as cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this nomenclature update was to identify splice transcriptional variants principally for the human ALDH genes. Data-mining methods were used to retrieve all human ALDH sequences. Alternatively spliced transcriptional variants were determined based on (i) criteria for sequence integrity and genomic alignment; (ii) evidence of multiple independent cDNA sequences corresponding to a variant sequence; and (iii) if available, empirical evidence of variants from the literature. Alternatively spliced transcriptional variants and their encoded proteins exist for most of the human ALDH genes; however, their function and significance remain to be established. When compared with the human genome, rat and mouse include an additional gene, Aldh1a7, in the ALDH1A subfamily. To avoid confusion when identifying splice variants in various genomes, nomenclature guidelines for the naming of such alternative transcriptional variants and proteins are recommended herein. In addition, a web database (www.aldh.org) has been developed to provide up-to-date information and nomenclature guidelines for the ALDH superfamily.

  1. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey Mathieu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Results First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM. Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. Conclusions We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material.

  2. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Results First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i) the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii) increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii) increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH) expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. Conclusions We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material. PMID:22204630

  3. Mark III spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.; Bernstein, J.; Bunnell, K.; Burgueno, G.; Cassell, R.; Collins, B.; Coward, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisele, R.; Haber, B.

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e/sup +/e storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e/sup +/e annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies. (orig.).

  4. Mark III spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, D.; Bernstein, J.; Bunnell, K.; Burgueno, G.; Cassell, R.; Collins, B.; Coward, D.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisele, R.; Haber, B. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, CA (USA))

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and performance of the Mark III, a new general purpose large solid angle spectrometer at SPEAR, the SLAC 2-8 GeV e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring. The detector has been designed for the study of exclusive final states in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, which requires large solid angle coverage combined with charged particle momentum resolution, particle identification, and photon detection efficiency at low energies.

  5. Calculus III essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Calculus III includes vector analysis, real valued functions, partial differentiation, multiple integrations, vector fields, and infinite series.

  6. Cobalt(III) complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    e, 40 µM complex, 10 hrs after dissolution, f, 40 µM complex, after irradiation dose 15 Gy. and H-atoms result in reduction of Co(III) to Co. (II). 6. It is interesting to see in complex containing multiple ligands what is the fate of electron adduct species formed by electron addition. Reduction to. Co(II) and intramolecular transfer ...

  7. Therapeutic response to single intravenous bolus administration of formate dehydrogenase in methanol-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuvel, Arumugham; Rajamani, Rathinam; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy

    2006-02-20

    Methanol remains to be a major public and environmental health hazard. Formic acid is the toxic metabolite responsible for the metabolic acidosis observed in methanol poisoning in humans, in non-human primates and in folate-depleted rodents. Cytochrome oxidase inhibition by formate leads to lactic acid accumulation, which contributes significantly to metabolic acidosis. Toxic effects in human beings are characterized by formic acidemia, metabolic acidosis, ocular toxicity, nervous system depression, blindness, coma and death. Elimination of formate is one of the principles of management in methanol poisoning. Hemodialysis facility is not readily available in all the places, in developing countries like India. Formate dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.2) acts directly over formate and converts formate into CO(2) in the presence of NAD. Effect of single intravenous bolus infusion of formate dehydrogenase, obtained from Candida boidinii; in methanol-intoxicated folate deficient rat model was evaluated. Folate depletion induced by methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Carbicarb (Carb) (equimolar solution of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate) was used to treat metabolic acidosis. Experimental design consists of seven groups, namely Saline control, methanol control, MTX control, Enzyme control, MTX-methanol control, MTX-methanol-Carb and MTX-methanol-Carb-Enz group. Male wistar rats treated with MTX (0.3mg/kg) for a week, were injected (i.p.) with methanol (4 gm/kg), 12h latter, Carbicarb solution was infused, following this enzyme was infused (i.v.) in bolus. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for an hour from the cannulated left jugular vein and blood methanol, formate were estimated, respectively, with HPLC and fluorimetric assay. Blood pH, blood gases pO(2), pCO(2) and bicarbonate were monitored with blood gas analyzer in order to evaluate acid base status of the animal. Results obtained show that there is significant elimination of formate within 15 min. It may be

  8. Quality of Life as Medicine III. A Qualitative Analysis of the Effect of a Five-Day Intervention with Existential Holistic Group Therapy or a Quality of Life Course as a Modern Rite of Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    The courses teach the participants respect, love, and intimacy; help them to draw on their seemingly unlimited hidden resources; and inspire them to take more responsibility for their own life. Exercises are accomplished with a partner chosen at the course as: (1 a person you like, (2 a person you do not know already, or (3 a person to whom you want to give help, support, and holding more than you want to get help from him or her. Pilot studies with 5-day quality of life interventions that combine training in quality of life philosophy with psychotherapy and bodywork have proved effective on patients with chronic pain and alcoholism. The present design aims to take this a step further and engage the patients in a process of personal growth that will last for years. The aim is to lead them to a stabile state of quality of life, health, and ability, from where they will not again fall into sickness and unhappiness. The focus of these courses is as much on prevention as is it on healing. The existential group therapy induces spontaneous healing of body, mind, and soul that seems to be highly efficient with hopefully lasting results. Every course is intended to give an immediate improvement in the quality of life, so its efficiency can be measured with the square curve paradigm. We have studied the participant’s accounts from their experience with the courses and have analyzed the remarkably large, qualitative changes in the state of being, quality of life, health, and consciousness, which many participants experience during the course. The long-term and preventative effects of the courses have yet to be documented.

  9. The D-Lactate Dehydrogenase from Sporolactobacillus inulinus Also Possessing Reversible Deamination Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lingfeng; Xu, Xiaoling; Wang, Limin; Dong, Hui; Yu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases are responsible for the conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids and have a wide range of biotechnological applications. In this study, a D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) from a Sporolactobacillus inulinus strain was experimentally verified to have both the D-LDH and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities (reversible deamination). The catalytic mechanism was demonstrated by identification of key residues from the crystal structure analysis and site-directed mut...

  10. Performance characteristics of postacute traumatic brain injury patients on the WAIS-III and WMS-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, B N; Fichtenberg, N L; Liethen, P C; Czarnota, M A; Stucky, K

    2001-12-01

    Publication of the third editions of the Wechsler intelligence and memory batteries in 1997 created a need for research identifying Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition/Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III/WMS-III) profile patterns associated with neuropathology. The WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual offers data on various diagnostic groups, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hawkins (1998) employed Technical Manual data to propose certain diagnostic guidelines. In order to validate the conclusions put forth by Hawkins as they apply to brain injury, we examined WAIS-III and WMS-III profiles in an independent sample of 46 TBI cases. As expected, the WAIS-III Processing Speed Index (PSI) was more sensitive to brain injury than other WAIS-III composites; and specific WAIS-III scores were stronger than certain WMS-III scores. On the other hand, the predicted relationship for WMS-III auditory and visual indexes was not found. The lack of specificity for TBI of the proposed index comparisons confirms the need to validate such hypotheses in independent samples.

  11. Administration of tomato juice ameliorates lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase responses to anaerobic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsimpikou, Christina; Kioukia-Fougia, Nassia; Tsarouhas, Konstantinos; Stamatopoulos, Panagiotis; Rentoukas, Elias; Koudounakos, Aris; Papalexis, Peter; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Jamurtas, Athanasios

    2013-11-01

    Creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are important biological markers of various myocardial disorders and exercise-induced muscle damage. Lycopene, on the other side, is a natural anti-oxidant with protective action against cardiovascular risk. Fifteen anaerobically trained athletes with elevated LDH and CPK baseline levels were enrolled in this study after undergoing thorough biochemical and cardiovascular evaluation with echocardiocraphy. In nine athletes tomato juice, a lycopene plain juice, was administered during and after exercise, replacing the carbohydrate supplementation beverages commonly used during training for over a 2-month period. Tomato juice administration significantly reduced LDH and CPK levels, which returned back to almost normal levels. At the same time homocysteine and C-reactive protein were also attenuated. No changes were observed in the control group, where the usual carbohydrate supplementation had been followed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mo and W bis-MGD enzymes: nitrate reductases and formate dehydrogenases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, José J G; Brondino, Carlos D; Trincão, José; Romão, Maria João

    2004-10-01

    Molybdenum and tungsten are second- and third-row transition elements, respectively, which are found in a mononuclear form in the active site of a diverse group of enzymes that generally catalyze oxygen atom transfer reactions. Mononuclear Mo-containing enzymes have been classified into three families: xanthine oxidase, DMSO reductase, and sulfite oxidase. The proteins of the DMSO reductase family present the widest diversity of properties among its members and our knowledge about this family was greatly broadened by the study of the enzymes nitrate reductase and formate dehydrogenase, obtained from different sources. We discuss in this review the information of the better characterized examples of these two types of Mo enzymes and W enzymes closely related to the members of the DMSO reductase family. We briefly summarize, also, the few cases reported so far for enzymes that can function either with Mo or W at their active site.

  13. Discrimination of damages depending on the types of lactic dehydrogenase isozymes in electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Akishige; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Liu Xiaolan; Takizawa, Haruki.

    1995-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27,LDH) was a tetrameric molecule. The five different combinations of two different polypeptide chains can be readily identified by electrophoresis and ion-exchange chromatography. Injury patterns of LDH activity following electron-beam irradiation was investigated by assaying activities of three isozymes (pig heart LDH;M 4 , rabbit muscle LDH;H 4 , chicken heart LDH;M 3 H 1 ). Following results were obtained in the electron beam irradiation to three kinds of LDH isozymes: 1) Each isozyme has respective different reactivities to the electron beam irradiation. 2) Among the isozymes, M 4 enzyme was increased its enzymatic activity by the irradiations of low-level doses. 3) For the H 4 enzymes, an increasing phenomenon of -SH group was found in the low-level doses of electron beam irradiation. (author)

  14. Immunolocalization of succinate dehydrogenase in the esophagus epithelium of domesticated mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, the esophagus epithelia of seven domesticated mammals (horse, cattle, goat, pig, dog, laboratory rat, cat of three nutrition groups (herbivorous, omnivorous, carnivorous were studied to get first information about energy generation, as demonstrated by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH activities. Distinct reaction intensities could be observed in all esophageal cell layers of the different species studied reflecting moderate to strong metabolic activities. The generally strong staining in the stratum basale indicated that new cells are continuously produced. The latter feature was confirmed by a thick, and in the horse generally highly active stratum spinosum. Only in the pig, reaction intensity variations occurred, obviously related to differences in physical feed quality or restricted feed allocation. The immunohistochemical results were corroborated by the presence of intact mitochondria in the esophageal cells of all species and nutrition types studied, except for the horse. Possible relationships between SDH reaction intensities and feed structure, mass or consistency are discussed.

  15. Expanding the Substrate Specificity of Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase by a Dual Site Mutation

    KAUST Repository

    Musa, Musa M.

    2017-12-14

    Here, we report the asymmetric reduction of selected phenyl-ring-containing ketones by various single and dual site mutants of Thermoanaerobacter pseudoethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (TeSADH). Further expanding the size of the substrate binding pocket in the mutant W110A/I86A not only allowed substrates of the single mutants W110A and I86A to be accommodated within the expanded active site, but also expanded the enzyme\\'s substrate range to ketones bearing two sterically demanding groups (bulky-bulky ketones), which are not substrates for TeSADH single mutants. We also report the regio- and enantioselective reduction of diketones using W110A/I86A TeSADH and single TeSADH mutants. The double mutant exhibited dual stereopreference generating the Prelog products most of the time and the anti-Prelog products in a few cases.

  16. Structure of Escherichia coli malate dehydrogenase at 1.45 A resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Jelena; Meneely, Kathleen M; Lamb, Audrey L

    2009-09-01

    The structure of apo malate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli has been determined to 1.45 A resolution. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 146.0, b = 52.0, c = 168.9 A, beta = 102.2 degrees. The structure was determined with the molecular-replacement pipeline program BALBES and was refined to a final R factor of 18.6% (R(free) = 21.4%). The final model has two dimers in the asymmetric unit. In each dimer one monomer contains the active-site loop in the open conformation, whereas in the opposing monomer the active-site loop is disordered.

  17. Interpreting change on the WAIS-III/WMS-III in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, G L

    2001-02-01

    Clinicians should note that there is considerable variability in the reliabilities of the index and subtest scores derived from the third editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The purpose of this article is to review these reliabilities and to illustrate how they can be used to interpret change in patients' performances from test to retest. The WAIS-III IQ and Index scores are consistently the most reliable scores, in terms of both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The most internally consistent WAIS-III subtests are Vocabulary, Information, Digit Span, Matrix Reasoning, and Arithmetic. Information and Vocabulary have the highest test-retest reliability. On the WMS-III, the Auditory Immediate Index, Immediate Memory Index, Auditory Delayed Index, and General Memory Index are the most reliable, in terms of both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The Logical Memory I and Verbal Paired Associates I subtests are the most reliable. Data from three clinical groups (i.e., Alzheimer's disease, chronic alcohol abuse, and schizophrenia) were extracted from the Technical Manual [Psychological Corporation (1997). WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual. San Antonio: Harcourt Brace] for the purpose of calculating reliable change estimates. A table of confidence intervals for test-retest measurement error is provided to help the clinician determine if patients have reliably improved or deteriorated on follow-up testing.

  18. Thermal behaviour of cesiumchloroferrates(III). 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, B.; Fest, M.; Hass, D.; Leibnitz, P.

    1989-01-01

    Tricesium aquapentachloroferrate(III) chloride crystallizes from acid aqueous solutions of FeCl 3 · 6 H 2 O and CsCl in the triclinic space group P-bar1 with a = 714.1 pm, b = 1070.9 pm, c = 950.4 pm, α = 105.65 0 , β = 109.51 0 , γ = 89.08 0 and Z = 2. The compound is formed also from dicesium aquapentachloroferrate(III) and cesium chloride in a solid state reaction. The orientational relationships between the educt and product phases are elucidated, and a topotactic reaction mechanism is discussed. (author)

  19. Arquitectura foliar de las especies de Myrtaceae nativas de la flora argentina II: Grupo "Eugenia" Foliar architecture of native species of Myrtaceae of the Argentinean flora III: Group "Eugenia"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia C. González

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo forma parte de un estudio integrado de arquitectura foliar en especies nativas de Myrtaceas de Argentina. Se estudiaron 21 especies nativas de la flora con el fin de encontrar caracteres o combinaciones de caracteres en la arquitectura foliar que permitan diferenciar las especies argentinas del grupo o subtribu informal "Eugenia", Tribu Myrteae (Familia Myrtaceae. Las hojas estudiadas en este trabajo se caracterizan por ser simples, con ápice y base variables, textura membranácea a coriácea y margen entero. El patrón de venación presenta las siguientes características: venas de primera categoría pinnada, simple y recta, no forman venas agróficas; venación de segunda categoría camptódroma-broquidódroma, con una vena paramarginal y una o dos venas intramarginales; venación de tercera categoría reticulada al azar, percurrente o ramificada; venación de cuarta y quinta categoría reticulada al azar, raminificadas o dicotomizadas. Las aréolas presentan diferente grado de desarrollo, con vénulas ramificadas una, dos o más veces. La venación última marginal puede ser ojalada completa o incompleta, en algunos casos forman vena fimbrial.This work is part of an integrated study of leaf architecture of Myrtaceae native species of Argentina.Twenty-one native species of native flora were studied to find patterns of leaf architecture to differentiate the Argentinean species of the group or informal subtribal "Eugenia" Tribu Myrteae (Familia Myrtaceae. The leaves studied in this work are characterized by being simple, with apex and base variable, membranaceous to coriaceous in texture, and with entire margin. Its venation pattern is characterized by having the first vein category pinnate, simple, and straight, without agrophic veins; venation of secondary category is brochidodromous-camptodromous, with one paramarginal vein and one or two intramarginal vein; the third vein category are random reticulate, percurrent or

  20. Epigenetic Therapy Using Belinostat for Patients With Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Multicenter Phase I/II Study With Biomarker and Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Tumors From Patients in the Mayo Phase II Consortium and the Cancer Therapeutics Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Winnie; Chung, Hyun C.; Chan, Stephen L.; Wang, Ling Z.; Lim, Robert; Picus, Joel; Boyer, Michael; Mo, Frankie K.F.; Koh, Jane; Rha, Sun Y.; Hui, Edwin P.; Jeung, Hei C.; Roh, Jae K.; Yu, Simon C.H.; To, Ka F.; Tao, Qian; Ma, Brigette B.; Chan, Anthony W.H.; Tong, Joanna H.M.; Erlichman, Charles; Chan, Anthony T.C.; Goh, Boon C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Epigenetic aberrations have been reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study of patients with unresectable HCC and chronic liver disease, epigenetic therapy with the histone deacetylase inhibitor belinostat was assessed. The objectives were to determine dose-limiting toxicity and maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), to assess pharmacokinetics in phase I, and to assess activity of and explore potential biomarkers for response in phase II. Patients and Methods Major eligibility criteria included histologically confirmed unresectable HCC, European Cooperative Oncology Group performance score ≤ 2, and adequate organ function. Phase I consisted of 18 patients; belinostat was given intravenously once per day on days 1 to 5 every 3 weeks; dose levels were 600 mg/m2 per day (level 1), 900 mg/m2 per day (level 2), 1,200 mg/m2 per day (level 3), and 1,400 mg/m2 per day (level 4). Phase II consisted of 42 patients. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS), and the main secondary end points were response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) and overall survival (OS). Exploratory analysis was conducted on pretreatment tumor tissues to determine whether HR23B expression is a potential biomarker for response. Results Belinostat pharmacokinetics were linear from 600 to 1,400 mg/m2 without significant accumulation. The MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered. Dose level 4 was used in phase II. The median number of cycles was two (range, one to 12). The partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) rates were 2.4% and 45.2%, respectively. The median PFS and OS were 2.64 and 6.60 months, respectively. Exploratory analysis revealed that disease stabilization rate (complete response plus PR plus SD) in tumors having high and low HR23B histoscores were 58% and 14%, respectively (P = .036). Conclusion Epigenetic therapy with belinostat demonstrates tumor stabilization and is generally well-tolerated. HR23B

  1. Deracemization of Secondary Alcohols by using a Single Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    KAUST Repository

    Karume, Ibrahim

    2016-03-01

    © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. We developed a single-enzyme-mediated two-step approach for deracemization of secondary alcohols. A single mutant of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus secondary alcohol dehydrogenase enables the nonstereoselective oxidation of racemic alcohols to ketones, followed by a stereoselective reduction process. Varying the amounts of acetone and 2-propanol cosubstrates controls the stereoselectivities of the consecutive oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. We used one enzyme to accomplish the deracemization of secondary alcohols with up to >99% ee and >99.5% recovery in one pot and without the need to isolate the prochiral ketone intermediate.

  2. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...

  3. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddell, Leigh; Wiley, Veronica; Carpenter, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The fatty acid oxidation disorder most commonly identified by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening is the potentially fatal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD). In clinically presenting cases, 80% are homozygous for the common mutation, c.985A > G and 18% heterozygous. We......, plasma octanoylcarnitine when asymptomatic, and urinary acylglycines. Compound heterozygotes of c.985A > G and other mutations had intermediate levels, and those without c.985A > G, or heterozygous for that and c.199T > C had the lowest levels of these analytes. There was overlap in all values. The c.985...

  4. Mellemkaedet acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-mangel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Winter, V; Andresen, B S

    1992-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is a potentially fatal metabolic disease, which is characterized by non-ketotic hypoglycemia and lethargy. The disease manifests itself by periodic attacks in connection with infections and periods of fasting, or suddenly as unexpected child......-card constitute today a certain and specific diagnosis for the disease in 75% of all cases. In the remaining 25% the mutation analysis is supplemented with urine metabolite studies by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and with measurements of enzyme activities in cultured skin fibroblasts. The disease...

  5. Neurotrophic keratitis in a patient with dihydroxypyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Bharat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of neurotrophic keratitis in association with dihydroxypyrimidine dehydrogenase (DHPD deficiency. Ocular manifestations in patients with DHPD are rare and neurotrophic keratitis has never been reported before. A six-year-old boy who was a known case of DHPD deficiency and born of a consanguineous marriage presented to our clinic with non-healing corneal ulcers in both eyes. Reduced corneal sensations were detected and the patient was started on lubricating eye drops. The patient continues to be on lubricant eye drops and there has been no recurrence of the disease.

  6. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  7. Lactate dehydrogenase assay for assessment of polycation cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Andersen, Helene; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2013-01-01

    Cellular toxicity and/or cell death entail complex mechanisms that require detailed evaluation for proper characterization. A detailed mechanistic assessment of cytotoxicity is essential for design and construction of more effective polycations for nucleic acid delivery. A single toxicity assay...... cannot stand alone in determining the type and extent of damage or cell death mechanism. In this chapter we describe a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for high-throughput screening that can be used as a starting point for further detailed cytotoxicity determination. LDH release is considered an early...

  8. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Costa Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with Class III malocclusion and 20 control Class I patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. The craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. Angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by Downs, Jarabak, Jacobson and McNamara. The differences found between the groups of Class III patients and Class I control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (I or II, were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, complemented by Bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (SNA, SNB, ANB and linear variables (Co - Gn, N - Perp Pog, Go - Me, Wits, S - Go, Ar - Go. CONCLUSION: Assessed children displaying Class III malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.

  9. The Clinical effectiveness of sequential treatment of skeletal class III ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To assess the dentofacial changes induced by the sequential treatment in the skeletal class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathism. Study design: Controlled clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of sequential treatment of skeletal class III malocclusion. Materials and Methods: The treated group consisted of 30 ...

  10. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphism for development to hepatocellular carcinoma in East Asian alcoholic liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hiroshi; Aida, Yuta; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Sugita, Tomonori; Tomita, Yoichi; Nagano, Tomohisa; Itagaki, Munenori; Sutoh, Satoshi; Nagatsuma, Keisuke; Itoh, Kyoko; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Aizawa, Yoshio

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to clarify the influences of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) polymorphisms, and ethanol consumption profile to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development in alcoholic liver cirrhosis without chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection (non-B non-C). Of 236 freshly diagnosed non-B non-C alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients, 67 were diagnosed as HCC and the remaining 169 as not having HCC. The relationship between the genetic polymorphisms and development to HCC were evaluated in well-matched patients with HCC (HCC group, n = 67) and without HCC (non-HCC group, n = 67) using propensity scores in age, sex, and prevalence of diabetes mellitus. Daily amount of ethanol consumption was significantly lower (P = 0.005), and consumptive period was significantly longer (P = 0.003) in HCC group than non-HCC group. Of 134 well-matched patients, 113 (84.3%) had ALDH2*1/*1 genotype and 21 (15.7%) had ALDH2*1/*2 genotype. In HCC development, consumptive long period (P = 0.007) and carrying ALDH2*1/*2 genotype (P = 0.026) were identified as significant factors independently participated, while there was no relation to ADH1B polymorphism. In addition, consumptive period was significantly longer in HCC group than non-HCC group in ALDH2*1/*1 genotype patients (P = 0.0005), while there was no difference in profile of ethanol consumption in ALDH2*1/*2 genotype patients. Among HCC group, daily (P = 3.78 × 10(-6) ) and cumulative amount (P = 4.89 × 10(-6) ) of ethanol consumption were significantly higher in ALDH2*1/*1 genotype patients than ALDH2*1/*2 genotype patients. In alcoholic liver cirrhosis, investigations of ALDH2 polymorphism and ethanol consumption profile are useful for prediction of HCC development. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Amino acid substitutions at glutamate-354 in dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli lower the sensitivity of pyruvate dehydrogenase to NADH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhentao; Do, Phi Minh; Rhee, Mun Su; Govindasamy, Lakshmanan; Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2012-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) of Escherichia coli is inhibited by NADH. This inhibition is partially reversed by mutational alteration of the dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (LPD) component of the PDH complex (E354K or H322Y). Such a mutation in lpd led to a PDH complex that was functional in an anaerobic culture as seen by restoration of anaerobic growth of a pflB, ldhA double mutant of E. coli utilizing a PDH- and alcohol dehydrogenase-dependent homoethanol fermentation pathway. The glutamate at position 354 in LPD was systematically changed to all of the other natural amino acids to evaluate the physiological consequences. These amino acid replacements did not affect the PDH-dependent aerobic growth. With the exception of E354M, all changes also restored PDH-dependent anaerobic growth of and fermentation by an ldhA, pflB double mutant. The PDH complex with an LPD alteration E354G, E354P or E354W had an approximately 20-fold increase in the apparent K(i) for NADH compared with the native complex. The apparent K(m) for pyruvate or NAD(+) for the mutated forms of PDH was not significantly different from that of the native enzyme. A structural model of LPD suggests that the amino acid at position 354 could influence movement of NADH from its binding site to the surface. These results indicate that glutamate at position 354 plays a structural role in establishing the NADH sensitivity of LPD and the PDH complex by restricting movement of the product/substrate NADH, although this amino acid is not directly associated with NAD(H) binding.

  12. Effects of fescue and clover forage on serum lactate dehydrogenase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymic profiles in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrans, C F; Coffey, K P; Paria, B C; Tarn, C Y; Johnson, Z B; Moyer, J L

    2000-12-01

    We determined the effects of forage type on isoenzymes of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Forty-eight crossbred steers were randomly allotted to replicated pastures consisting of fungus-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) fescue or fungus-free fescue each with or without ladino clover overseeding. At the end of the 180-d grazing period, serum was harvested from the steers. Steers were finished in a feedlot and slaughtered after approximately 150 d in the feedlot. Isoenzymes for LDH and G6PDH were separated using PAGE. Five LDH isoenzymes (L1-15) were typically detected. Isoenzyme L1 (most anodic) had the greatest area percent as detected by laser densitometry (72, 12, 10, 5, and 7%, respectively, for L1, L2, L3, L4, and L5). Four proteins had G6PDH activity (G1-G4) with G2 having the greatest area percent (15, 52, 27, and 14, respectively, for G1, G2, G3, and G4). Isoenzymes within a dehydrogenase were correlated (P < .05). In addition, area percentage of L1 was correlated (P < .05; r = .34) with area percentage of G2, and area percentage of L4 was correlated (P < .07; r = .73) with area percentage of G1. Area percentages of L1, L2, and L3 were affected by an interaction (P < .09) of forage types. Body weight gains for steers grazing endophyte-infected fescue were depressed (P < .05); however, steers compensated with increased (P < .05) weight gains during the finishing phase. Fungal toxins produced by Neotyphodium coenophialum may alter an animal's metabolism, growth, and development via shifts in reducing equivalents (NADH).

  13. Three-dimensional mandibular motion in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugolini, Alessandro; Mapelli, Andrea; Segù, Marzia; Zago, Matteo; Codari, Marina; Sforza, Chiarella

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the characteristics and changes in mandibular condylar motion in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Using a 3D motion analyzer, mandibular movements were recorded in 9 patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion and 22 control subjects with Angle Class I jaw relationships. Class III patients had a similar interincisor point displacement but a significantly reduced displacement of both condyles on the sagittal and frontal planes, with smaller translation paths than control subjects (right -9.4 mm; left -4.8 mm). The overall condylar rotation component was larger in Class III patients (right +8.8%; left +7.3%). The largest inter-group significant differences were observed in the first 10% of mouth opening, in which Class III patients had a larger rotating component than control subjects (+20%, p Class III patients, in particular in the translational path.

  14. Separation of yttrium (III) from lanthanoids (III) by solvent extraction with substituted N-Alkylcarbonyl-N-phenylhydroxylamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haraguchi, K.; Ogata, T.; Nakagawa, K.; Saitoh, T.; Kamidate, T.; Watanabe, H.

    1996-01-01

    A series of substituted N-alkylcarbonyl-N-phenylhydroxylamines(R-PHAs) were synthesized and utilized for the extraction of yttrium(III) and lanthanoids(III) in order to obtain effective extractants for the separation of yttrium(III) from the lanthanoids(III) and the mutual separation of the lanthanoids(III). The distribution ratio of yttrium(III) and the lanthanoids(III) between the carbon tetrachloride and the aqueous phases was measured as functions of the pH and the extractant concentration at 298 K at an ionic strength of 0.1 (NaNO 3 ). Yttrium(III) and the lanthanoids(III) were extracted with R-PHAs(HL) as self-adducted chelates of the form, ML 3 (HL) x , where 'x' is 1, 2 or 3 depending on the extraction system. The extractability of the metal ions decreased in the order of R-PHA having a primary, a secondary and a tertiary alkyl substituent attached to the carbonyl group because of the steric hindrance of the alkyl group. The separation factors for both Yb/Eu and Yb/Y pairs increased with increasing branching of the alkyl group of R-PHA. The excellent selectivity of R-PHAs having a tertiary alkyl group was attributable to a greater inductive effect of the tertiary alkyl group than those of the primary and secondary alkyl groups. The substituents at the phenyl group of R-PHAs gave no significant effect on the selectivity, while the extractability was enhanced considerably by introduction of electron withdrawing substituents at appropriate positions of the phenyl group of R-PHAs. (authors)

  15. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A.; Engel, Paul C.; Khan, Amir R.

    2016-05-23

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2–4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P)+as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD+versusNADP+, but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies, as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase fromClostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia colienzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP+cofactor from the parentE. colidomain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity.

  16. High-pressure-induced water penetration into 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagae, Takayuki; Kawamura, Takashi; Chavas, Leonard M. G.; Niwa, Ken; Hasegawa, Masashi; Kato, Chiaki; Watanabe, Nobuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase were determined at pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa. Comparison of these structures gives a detailed picture of the swelling of a cavity at the dimer interface and the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface, which are accompanied by water penetration. Hydrostatic pressure induces structural changes in proteins, including denaturation, the mechanism of which has been attributed to water penetration into the protein interior. In this study, structures of 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 were determined at about 2 Å resolution under pressures ranging from 0.1 to 650 MPa using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Although most of the protein cavities are monotonically compressed as the pressure increases, the volume of one particular cavity at the dimer interface increases at pressures over 340 MPa. In parallel with this volume increase, water penetration into the cavity could be observed at pressures over 410 MPa. In addition, the generation of a new cleft on the molecular surface accompanied by water penetration could also be observed at pressures over 580 MPa. These water-penetration phenomena are considered to be initial steps in the pressure-denaturation process of IPMDH

  17. Crystal structure of a chimaeric bacterial glutamate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tânia; Sharkey, Michael A; Engel, Paul C; Khan, Amir R

    2016-06-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (EC 1.4.1.2-4) catalyse the oxidative deamination of L-glutamate to α-ketoglutarate using NAD(P)(+) as a cofactor. The bacterial enzymes are hexameric, arranged with 32 symmetry, and each polypeptide consists of an N-terminal substrate-binding segment (domain I) followed by a C-terminal cofactor-binding segment (domain II). The catalytic reaction takes place in the cleft formed at the junction of the two domains. Distinct signature sequences in the nucleotide-binding domain have been linked to the binding of NAD(+) versus NADP(+), but they are not unambiguous predictors of cofactor preference. In the absence of substrate, the two domains move apart as rigid bodies, as shown by the apo structure of glutamate dehydrogenase from Clostridium symbiosum. Here, the crystal structure of a chimaeric clostridial/Escherichia coli enzyme has been determined in the apo state. The enzyme is fully functional and reveals possible determinants of interdomain flexibility at a hinge region following the pivot helix. The enzyme retains the preference for NADP(+) cofactor from the parent E. coli domain II, although there are subtle differences in catalytic activity.

  18. Orthodontic Force Application in Correlation with Salivary Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Husin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic tooth movement generate mechanical forces to periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The forces correlate with initial responses of periodontal tissues and involving many metabolic changes. One of the metabolic changes detected in saliva is lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity. Objectives: To evaluate the correlation between orthodontic interrupted force application, lactate dehydrogenase activity and the distance of tooth movement. Methods: upper premolar, pre-retraction of upper canine and 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post-retraction of upper canine with 100g interrupted orthodontic force. Results: duration of force (F=11.926 p 14 and 28 days post-retraction of canine. The region of retraction correlated with the distance of tooth movement (F=7.377 p=0.007. The duration of force correlated with the distance of tooth movement (F=66.554 p=0.000. retraction of canine. Conclusion: This study concluded that orthodontic interrupted force application on canine could increase the distance of tooth movement and LDH activity in saliva.

  19. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markey KA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Keira A Markey,1 Maria Uldall,2 Hannah Botfield,1 Liam D Cato,1 Mohammed A L Miah,1 Ghaniah Hassan-Smith,1 Rigmor H Jensen,2 Ana M Gonzalez,1 Alexandra J Sinclair1 1Neurometabolism, Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; 2Danish Headache Center, Clinic of Neurology, Rigshospitalet-Glostrup, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup, Denmark Abstract: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. Keywords: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, steroid and adipokines, obesity, leptin

  20. Coenzyme- and His-tag-induced crystallization of octopine dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Sander H. J.; Mueller, Andre; Grieshaber, Manfred K.; Schmitt, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    The crystal structure of octopine dehydrogenase revealed a specific role of the His 5 tag in inducing the crystal contacts required for successful crystallization. Over the last decade, protein purification has become more efficient and standardized through the introduction of affinity tags. The choice and position of the tag, however, can directly influence the process of protein crystallization. Octopine dehydrogenase (OcDH) without a His tag and tagged protein constructs such as OcDH-His 5 and OcDH-LEHis 6 have been investigated for their crystallizability. Only OcDH-His 5 yielded crystals; however, they were multiple. To improve crystal quality, the cofactor NADH was added, resulting in single crystals that were suitable for structure determination. As shown by the structure, the His 5 tag protrudes into the cleft between the NADH and l-arginine-binding domains and is mainly fixed in place by water molecules. The protein is thereby stabilized to such an extent that the formation of crystal contacts can proceed. Together with NADH, the His 5 tag obviously locks the enzyme into a specific conformation which induces crystal growth

  1. Studies of. gamma. -ray irradiation effects on tris(. beta. -diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) coordination compounds by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Y.; Endo, K.; Sano, H. (Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science)

    1981-06-01

    Both absorption Moessbauer spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements on tris(..beta..-diketonato)iron(III) and cobalt(III) compounds indicate that ligands which have phenyl group as a substituent are more stable to ..gamma..-ray radiolysis, in accordance with previous results of emission Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of /sup 57/Co-labelled tris (..beta..-diketonato)cobalt(III) compounds.

  2. Structural Basis for Flip-Flop Action of Thiamin Pyrophosphate-Dependent Enzymes Revealed by Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Paulina; Ciszak, Ewa M.; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand

    2003-01-01

    Thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP), the biologically active form of vitamin BI, is a cofactor of enzymes catalyzing reactions involving the cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond adjacent to an oxo group. TPP-dependent enzymes show a common mechanism of TPP activation by: (1) forming the ionic N-H...O(sup -) hydrogen bonding between the N1' atom of the aminopirymidine ring of the coenzyme and intrinsic gamma-carboxylate group of glutamate and (2) imposing an "active" V-conformation that brings the N4' atom of the aminopirymidine to the distance required for the intramolecular C-H.. .N hydrogen bonding with the thiazolium C2 atom. Within these two hydrogen bonds that rapidly exchange protons, protonation of the N1' atom is strictly coordinated with the deprotonation of the 4' -amino group and eventually abstraction of the proton from C2. The human pyruvate dehydrogenase Elp, component of human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of the pyruvate followed by the reductive acetylation of the lipoyl group of dihydrolipoyl acyltransferase. Elp is alpha(sub 2)beta(sub2)-heterotetrameric with a molecular mass of I54 kDa, which has two catalytic sites, each providing TPP and magnesium ion as cofactors and each formed on the interface between the PP and PYR domains. The dynamic nonequivalence of two otherwise chemically equivalent catalytic sites has been observed and the flip-flop mechanism was suggested, according to which two active sites affect each other and in which different steps of the catalytic reaction are performed in each of the sites at any given moment. Based on specific futures of human pyruvate dehydrogenase including rigid and flexible connections between domains that bind the cofactor we propose a mechanistic model for the flip-flop action of this enzyme. We postulate that the dynamic protein environment drives the exchange of tautomers in the 4' -aminopyrimidine ring of the cofactor through a concerted shuttl-like motion of

  3. Protonic equilibria in the reductive half-reaction of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Rudik, Irina; Ghisla, Sandro; Thorpe, Colin

    1998-01-01

    Oxidation of thioester substrates in the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase involves α-proton abstraction by the catalytic base, Glu376, with transfer of a β-hydride equivalent to the flavin prosthetic group. Polarization of bound acyl-CoA derivatives by the recombinant human liver enzyme has been studied with 4-thia-trans-2-enoyl-CoA analogues. Polarization is maximal at low pH, with an apparent pK of 9.2 for complexes with the C8 analogue, and progressively lower pK values as the length of...

  4. The content and ratio of type I and III collagen in skin differ with age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results obtained showed that the mean content of type I and III and type I/III ratio in normal skin differed significantly among age groups (P0.05), with the lowest levels of type I, III, and the highest ratio of type I/III observed in the elderly age group. Differences between normal uninjured skin and hypertrophic scar tissue were ...

  5. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA expression is correlated to clinical outcomes in mycophenolate mofetil-treated kidney transplant patients, whereas inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombogaard, Ferdi; Peeters, Annemiek M. A.; Baan, Carla C.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Quaedackers, Monique E.; Vulto, Arnold G.; Weimar, Willem; van Gelder, Teun

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the pharmacodynamic biomarker inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity in renal transplant recipients has been proposed to reflect the biological effect better than using pharmacokinetic parameters to monitor mycophenolate mofetil therapy. The IMPDH assays are however

  6. Genomic organization and diversity of Clostridium botulinum group III

    OpenAIRE

    Skarin, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) produced by the spore forming strictly anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Seven different types of BoNTs (type A-F) have so far been established on the basis of neutralization with different antibodies. Botulism affects both humans and animals, and there are occasionally large-scale outbreaks of high mortality in animals. Especially large outbreaks of avian botulism have been reported from various countries, including Sweden. Other a...

  7. 76 FR 69693 - Tolerance Crop Grouping Program III

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... following 12 commodities: Almond, Prunus dulcis; Beechnut, Fagus spp.; Brazil nut, Bertholletia excelsa... nut-tree (Ricinodendron heudelotii (Baill.) Heckel) Almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. Webb) Beechnut... following 11 commodities: Apricot, Prunus armeniaca; Cherry, sweet, Prunus avium; Cherry, tart, Prunus...

  8. Group III-Nitride LNAs for Microwave Radiometry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This phase I proposal addresses the need for microwave and millimeter wave Low Noise Amplifiers (LNAs) for remote sensing applications of the earth's atmosphere. In...

  9. Microstructures of group III-nitrides after implantation with gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, P.J.

    2001-05-01

    High doses of gallium have been implanted into layers of aluminium nitride (AIN), indium nitride (InN) and amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiN x ) in an attempt to bond gallium with nitrogen and form binary or ternary alloys. The microstructure of the resultant layers have been characterised using, principally, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation of a high dose of Ga ions into AIN was successful in synthesising a GaN/GaAlN compound. The resultant layers were largely uniform but contained aluminium precipitates near the surface. These precipitates were pure Al and were most common in the region associated with the maximum Ga concentration. Deconvolution of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy peaks indicated that Ga existed in a number of chemical states, including the nitride. Electron diffraction patterns from the implanted layers were closely indexed to both AIN and GaN. A further N implant was used to reduce the concentration of the aluminium precipitates and increase the concentration of GaN bonds. The yield of Ga-N bonds dramatically increased and a reduction in the concentration of Al precipitates was observed. Laser and thermal annealing was performed on the implanted AIN substrates. The near surface regions of the implanted specimens appeared to free of precipitates and bubbles. Laser annealing did have a noticeable effect on the electrical and optical properties of the layers. After laser annealing the conductivity of the Ga implanted layer was lower, indicating that the quality of the material had improved. PL measurements showed that a new PL peak at 2.6 eV appeared after laser annealing. It has been found that implanting InN with gallium can yield Ga-N bonds. However, Ga implants into InN were not as successful at synthesising GaN compounds as those by implanting Ga into AIN, due to the low thermal stability of InN. The implanted InN layers were very irregular and contained large indium precipitates and bubbles. A capping layer was used in an attempt to control the degradation of the implanted layer mechanically, but this was unsuccessful. The evidence from XPS and electron diffraction complemented one another and suggested that Ga-N bonds were in fact present. Thermal and laser anneals were performed in an attempt to lessen the bubble and precipitate damage caused by the implantation of Ga into InN, however no improvement in microstructure uniformity was observed. Gallium implantations into silicon nitride performed by S. A. Almieda (1998) were also studied using various microstructural characterisation techniques. It was found that the implanted Ga existed in a dispersion of colloids (5 nm in diameter). These colloids were found to be void of N, which is surprising since Ga-N bonds were detected by XPS in these specimens. It is proposed that either a low percentage of N remained undetected in the colloids allowing Ga-N bonds to form, or more likely that Ga-N bonds were present at the boundary formed between the Ga colloid and the a-SiN x layer. The microstructure of the layer appeared to be unaffected by the nitrogen concentration in the original a-SiN x layer. Annealing caused a broadening of the Ga colloid depth range and a reduction in the diameter of the colloids. Using CALPHAD, phase diagrams for the Ga-ln-N and Ga-AI-N alloy systems have been proposed. It has been shown that thermodynamic arguments can explain the observations of Al and In precipitation following Ga implantation into AIN and InN, respectively. The coalescence of Ga to form Ga clusters after implantation into a-SiN x is also explained using thermodynamic arguments. (author)

  10. Thermodynamics of solid and liquid group III-V alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Timothy James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1978-10-01

    Solid-state electrochemical techniques are applied to the Ga-In-Sb-O system to measure some thermodynamic properties important for the analysis of solid-liquid phase equilibria in these important semiconductor materials. The standard Gibbs energies of formation of the most stable oxides of gallium and of indium are determined with a high-temperature solid-state electrochemical cell utilizing calcia-stabilized zirconia as the solid electrolyte and a (CO + CO2) gaseous mixture as the reference electrode.

  11. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    area under the curve (AUC) = 5 (Calvert's formula) on day 1 or gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 plus carboplatin AUC = 5 on day 1 every 3 weeks for up to four cycles. The primary end point was health-related quality of life (HRQoL) defined as global quality of life, nausea/vomiting, dyspnea...

  12. Dynamics of fundamental optical transitions in group III nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongxing; Lin, Jing Y.

    1998-04-01

    With the recent rapid development of GaN based optoelectronic devices, a full understanding of the dynamics of fundamental optical transitions in GaN epilayers and quantum wells becomes increasingly important. In this paper, the dynamics of fundamental optical transitions, probed by picosecond time- resolved photoluminescence (PL), in GaN and InGaN epilayers, InxGa1-xN/GaN and GaN/AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) are reviewed. For GaN epilayers, optical transitions in n- and p-type (Mg doped) and semi-insulating GaN epilayers are discussed. Time-resolved PL results on the fundamental optical transitions in these materials, including the impurity-bound excitons and free excitons transitions, are summarized. For MQWs, recombination dynamics of optical transitions in both InxGa1-xN/GaN and GaN/AlxGa1-xN MQWs grown by different methods (MOCVD vs. MBE) are compared with each other as well as with GaN and InGaN epilayers to extrapolate the mechanisms and quantum efficiencies of the optical emissions in these structures. The implications of these results on device applications, in particular on the blue LEDs and laser diodes as well on the lasing mechanisms in GaN blue lasers, are also discussed.

  13. Differences between the succinate dehydrogenase sequences of isopyrazam sensitive Zymoseptoria tritici and insensitive Fusarium graminearum strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubos, Tiphaine; Pasquali, Matias; Pogoda, Friederike; Casanova, Angèle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Beyer, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Forty-one Zymoseptoria tritici strains isolated in Luxembourg between 2009 and 2010 were highly sensitive towards the new succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor (SDHI) isopyrazam, with concentrations inhibiting fungal growth by 50% (EC50) ranging from 0.0281 to 4.53μM, whereas 41 Fusarium graminearum strains isolated in Europe and Northern America between 1969 and 2009 were insensitive with the average rate of inhibition converging towards 28% with increasing isopyrazam concentration. Seven isolates of both species covering the range of isopyrazam sensitivities observed in the present study were selected for the sequencing of the subunits B, C and D of the succinate dehydrogenase (sdh) gene. Predicted sdh amino acid sequences of subunits B, C and D were identical among F. graminearum strains. By comparing with fungal strains where resistance towards SDHIs was previously reported, three variations were unique to F. graminearum; B-D130N located in the iron-sulfur cluster [2Fe-2S], B-A275T located in the [3Fe-4S] cluster and an additional S at amino acid position 83-84 of sdhC, probably modifying structurally the ubiquinone binding site and therefore the biological activity of the fungicide. No variation was found among the Z. tritici strains in subunits B and D. Two variations were observed within the subunit C sequences of Z. tritici strains: C-N33T and C-N34T. The difference in EC50 values between Z. tritici strains with the NN and TT configuration was non-significant at P=0.289. Two outliers in the Z. tritici group with significantly higher EC50 values that were not related to mutations in the sdhB, sdhC, or sdhD were detected. The role of isopyrazam for the control of F. graminearum and Z. tritici in Luxembourg is discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A highly selective biosensor with nanomolar sensitivity based on cytokinin dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faming Tian

    Full Text Available We have developed a N6-dimethylallyladenine (cytokinin dehydrogenase-based microbiosensor for real-time determination of the family of hormones known as cytokinins. Cytokinin dehydrogenase from Zea mays (ZmCKX1 was immobilised concurrently with electrodeposition of a silica gel film on the surface of a Pt microelectrode, which was further functionalized by free electron mediator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP in supporting electrolyte to give a bioactive film capable of selective oxidative cleavage of the N6- side chain of cytokinins. The rapid electron shuffling between freely diffusible DCPIP and the FAD redox group in ZmCKX1 endowed the microbiosensor with a fast response time of less than 10 s. The immobilised ZmCKX1 retained a high affinity for its preferred substrate N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenine (iP, and gave the miniaturized biosensor a large linear dynamic range from 10 nM to 10 µM, a detection limit of 3.9 nM and a high sensitivity to iP of 603.3 µAmM-1cm-2 (n = 4, R2 = 0.9999. Excellent selectivity was displayed for several other aliphatic cytokinins and their ribosides, including N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenine, N6-(Δ2-isopentenyl adenosine, cis-zeatin, trans-zeatin and trans-zeatin riboside. Aromatic cytokinins and metabolites such as cytokinin glucosides were generally poor substrates. The microbiosensors exhibited excellent stability in terms of pH and long-term storage and have been used successfully to determine low nanomolar cytokinin concentrations in tomato xylem sap exudates.

  15. Synthesis of allitol from D-psicose using ribitol dehydrogenase and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize allitol from D-psicose by a combination of novel ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) under optimised production conditions. Methods: RDH and FDH genes were cloned and introduced into pET-22b(+) vectors for expression in Escherichia coli to produce the ...

  16. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Končitíková, R.; Vigouroux, A.; Kopečná, M.; Andree, T.; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, M.; Moréra, S.; Kopečný, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 468, Part: 1 (2015), s. 109-123 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-22322S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) * aldehyde dehydrogenase 7 (ALDH7) * benzaldehyde Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.562, year: 2015

  17. The crystal structure of SDR-type pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase of Mesorhizobium loti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Huy Nhat; Kobayashi, Jun; Mikami, Bunzo; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of pyridoxal to 4-pyridoxolactone and is involved in degradation pathway I of pyridoxine, a vitamin B(6) compound. Its crystal structure was elucidated for the first time. Molecular replacement with (S)-1-phenylthanol dehydrogenase (PDB code 2EW8) was adopted to determine the tertiary structure of the NAD(+)-bound enzyme.

  18. Blood Leukocyte Counts and Genetic Polymorphisms of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 in Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Akira; Brooks, Philip J; Yokoyama, Tetsuji; Mizukami, Takeshi; Matsui, Toshifumi; Kimura, Mitsuru; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2016-03-01

    Roughly 40% of East Asians have inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele, and 90% have highly active alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele. Macrocytosis and macrocytic anemia in alcoholics have been associated with ADH1B and ALDH2 gene variants which increase acetaldehyde (AcH) levels. We investigated the relationship between ADH1B*2, ALDH2*2, and leukocyte counts of Japanese alcoholic men (N = 1,661). After adjusting for age, drinking habits, smoking habits, body mass index, presence of liver cirrhosis, and serum levels of C-reactive protein, we found that total and differential leukocyte counts were lower in the presence of the ALDH2*1/*2 genotype (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype). ALDH2*2/*2 carriers were not found in our study population. Leukocyte, granulocyte, and monocyte counts were also lower in the presence of ADH1B*2 (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype), but the lymphocyte count was higher. The ALDH2*1/*2 genotype was associated with leukocytopenia (counts. The total and differential blood leukocyte counts of Japanese alcoholics were strongly affected by their ADH1B and ALDH2 gene variants. High AcH exposure levels probably play a critical role in the suppression of blood leukocyte counts in alcoholics. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Therapeutic Targeting of the Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex/Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase (PDC/PDK) Axis in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacpoole, Peter W

    2017-11-01

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A, thereby linking glycolysis to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and defining a critical step in cellular bioenergetics. Inhibition of PDC activity by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)-mediated phosphorylation has been associated with the pathobiology of many disorders of metabolic integration, including cancer. Consequently, the PDC/PDK axis has long been a therapeutic target. The most common underlying mechanism accounting for PDC inhibition in these conditions is post-transcriptional upregulation of one or more PDK isoforms, leading to phosphorylation of the E1α subunit of PDC. Such perturbations of the PDC/PDK axis induce a "glycolytic shift," whereby affected cells favor adenosine triphosphate production by glycolysis over mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular proliferation over cellular quiescence. Dichloroacetate is the prototypic xenobiotic inhibitor of PDK, thereby maintaining PDC in its unphosphorylated, catalytically active form. However, recent interest in the therapeutic targeting of the PDC/PDK axis for the treatment of cancer has yielded a new generation of small molecule PDK inhibitors. Ongoing investigations of the central role of PDC in cellular energy metabolism and its regulation by pharmacological effectors of PDKs promise to open multiple exciting vistas into the biochemical understanding and treatment of cancer and other diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  1. The D-Lactate Dehydrogenase from Sporolactobacillus inulinus Also Possessing Reversible Deamination Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Zhu

    Full Text Available Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases are responsible for the conversion of 2-keto acids to 2-hydroxyacids and have a wide range of biotechnological applications. In this study, a D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH from a Sporolactobacillus inulinus strain was experimentally verified to have both the D-LDH and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH activities (reversible deamination. The catalytic mechanism was demonstrated by identification of key residues from the crystal structure analysis and site-directed mutagenesis. The Arg234 and Gly79 residues of this enzyme play a significant role in both D-LDH and GDH activities. His295 and Phe298 in DLDH744 were identified to be key residues for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity only whereas Tyr101 is a unique residue that is critical for GDH activity. Characterization of the biochemical properties contributes to understanding of the catalytic mechanism of this novel D-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme.

  2. Krebs cycle metabolite profiling for identification and stratification of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas due to succinate dehydrogenase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, S; Peitzsch, M.; Rapizzi, E.; Lenders, J.W.M.; Qin, N.; Cubas, A.A. de; Schiavi, F.; Rao, J.U.; Beuschlein, F.; Quinkler, M.; Timmers, H.J.L.M.; Opocher, G.; Mannelli, M.; Pacak, K.; Robledo, M.; Eisenhofer, G.

    2014-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mutations of succinate dehydrogenase A/B/C/D genes (SDHx) increase susceptibility to development of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), with particularly high rates of malignancy associated with SDHB mutations. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether altered succinate dehydrogenase

  3. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia M. Al-Hummayani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of deep anterior crossbite is technically challenging due to the difficulty of placing traditional brackets with fixed appliances. This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors. Treatment was carried out in 2 phases. Phase I treatment was performed by removable appliance “modified Hawley appliance with inverted labial bow,” some modifications were carried out to it to suit the presented case. Positive overbite and overjet was accomplished in one month, in this phase with minimal forces exerted on the lower incisors. Whereas, phase II treatment was performed with fixed appliances (braces to align teeth and have proper over bite and overjet and to close posterior open bite, this phase was accomplished within 11 month.

  4. Fast ejendom III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Hansen, Carsten

    Bogen er det tredje bind af tre planlagte bind om fast ejendom: I Overdragelsen, II Bolighandlen og III Ejerbeføjelsen. Fremstillingens giver et grundigt overblik over centrale områder af en omfattende regulering af fast ejendom, med angivelse af litteratur, hvor læseren kan søge yderligere...... oplysning. En ejer af fast ejendom er på særdeles mange områder begrænset i sin råden sammenlignet med ejeren af et formuegode i almindelighed. Fremstillingen tager udgangspunkt i ejerens perspektiv (fremfor samfundets eller myndighedernes). Både den privatretlige og offentligretlige regulering behandles......, eksempelvis ejendomsdannelsen, servitutter, naboretten, hævd, zoneinddelingen, den fysiske planlægning, beskyttelse af natur, beskyttelse af kultur, forurening fra fast ejendom, erstatning for forurening, jordforurening, ekspropriation, byggeri og adgang til fast ejendom....

  5. Junctions in Axial III-V Heterostructure Nanowires Obtained via an Interchange of Group III Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogstrup, Peter; Yamasaki, Jun; Sørensen, Claus B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an investigation of the morphology and composition of novel types of axial nanowire heterostructures where GaxIn1-xAs is used as barrier material in InAs nanowires. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis we demonstrate ...

  6. Identification and Overexpression of a Bifunctional Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Ethanol Production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Just Mikkelsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh....... Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  7. Properties of xanthine dehydrogenase variants from rosy mutant strains of Drosophila melanogaster and their relevance to the enzyme's structure and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, W A; Burke, J F; Chovnick, A; Dutton, F L; Whittle, J R; Bray, R C

    1996-08-01

    activity to NADH with dyes as oxidising substrate. Mild oxidation of the enzyme converts it, apparently irreversibly, to a form showing full activity to xanthine and pterin. The nature of the group that is oxidised is discussed in the light of redox potential data. It is proposed that the process involves oxidation of the pterin of the molybdenum cofactor from the tetrahydro to a dihydro oxidation state. This conclusion is fully consistent with recent information [Romäo, M. J., Archer, M., Moura, I., Moura. J.J.G., LeGall, J., Engh, R., Schneider, M., Hof, P. & Huber, R. (1995) Science 270. 1170-1176) from X-ray crystallography on the structure of a closely related enzyme from Desulfovibrio gigas. It is proposed, that apparent irreversibility of the oxidative activating process for [G1011E]xanthine dehydrogenase, is due to conversion of its pterin to the tricyclic derivative detected by these workers. The data thus provide the strongest evidence available, that the oxidation state of the pterin can have a controlling influence on the activity of a molybdenum cofactor enzyme. Implications regarding pterin incorporation into xanthine dehydrogenase and in relation to other molybdenum enzymes are discussed.

  8. Lactate dehydrogenase inhibition: exploring possible applications beyond cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Giuseppina; Manerba, Marcella; Di Ianni, Lorenza; Fiume, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) inhibition is considered a worthwhile attempt in the development of innovative anticancer strategies. Unfortunately, in spite of the involvement of several research institutions and pharma-companies, the discovery of LDH inhibitors with drug-like properties seems a hardly resolvable challenge. While awaiting new advancements, in the present review we will examine other pathologic conditions characterized by increased glycolysis and LDH activity, which could potentially benefit from LDH inhibition. The rationale for targeting LDH activity in these contexts is the same justifying the LDH-based approach in anticancer therapy: because of the enzyme position at the end of glycolytic pathway, LDH inhibitors are not expected to hinder glucose metabolism of normal cells. Moreover, we will summarize the latest contributions in the discovery of enzyme inhibitors and try to glance over the reasons underlying the complexity of this research.

  9. Bilateral cataracts associated with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, V; Hasan, S U; Romanchuk, K; Al Awad, E; Mansoor, A; Yusuf, K

    2013-07-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) has an essential role in the defense against cellular oxidative injury. In neonates, the most common manifestation of G6PD deficiency is jaundice and hemolysis due to factors causing oxidative stress. Less known are the ocular associations described with G6PD deficiency, including cataracts. Oxidative injury is involved in the pathogenesis of almost all forms of cataracts, causing the lens proteins to undergo modifications, denaturation and form insoluble aggregates resulting in cataracts. Although cataracts in adult males have been reported in several studies, there are few reports of cataracts in infants with G6PD deficiency. We describe a preterm male neonate with G6PD deficiency who developed bilateral cataracts following an episode of neonatal sepsis and severe hemolysis necessitating an exchange blood transfusion.

  10. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Lopez-Solache, I.; Rendon, J.L.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    The mitochondrial fraction of the dog pancreas showed NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme catalyzes oxidoreduction between androstenedione and testosterone. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for androstenedione was 9.5 +/- 0.9 microM, the apparent Vmax was determined as 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1, and the optimal pH was 6.5. In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, maximal rate of androstenedione reduction was observed at 37 degrees C. The oxidation of testosterone by the enzyme proceeded at the same rate as the reduction of the androstenedione at a pH of 6.8-7.0. The apparent Km value and the optimal pH of the enzyme for testosterone were 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM and 7.5, respectively

  11. Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) deficiency without epilepsy mimicking primary microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Antoine; Vial, Yoann; Haye, Damien; Passemard, Sandrine; Schiff, Manuel; Nasser, Hala; Delanoe, Catherine; Cuadro, Emma; Kom, Rémi; Elanga, Narcisse; Favre, Anne; Drunat, Séverine; Verloes, Alain

    2017-04-25

    Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) deficiency (OMIM 256520) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of serine synthesis, with mostly severe congenital microcephaly, caused by mutations in the PHGDH gene. Fourteen patients reported to date show severe, early onset, drug resistant epilepsy. In a cohort of patients referred for primary microcephaly, compound heterozygosity for two unreported variants in PHGDG was identified by exome sequencing in a pair of sibs who died aged 4.5 months and 4.5 years. They had severe neurological involvement with congenital microcephaly, disorganized EEG, and progressive spasticity, but never had seizures. Exome usage in clinical practice is likely to lead to an expansion of the clinical spectrum of known disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Circadian rhythm in succinate dehydrogenase activity in Neurospora crassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Álvarez Barón

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Neurospora crassa is a widely studied model of circadian rhythmicity. In this fungus, metabolism is controlled by multiple factors which include development, medium characteristics and the circadian clock. The study of the circadian control of metabolism in this fungus could be masked by the use of restrictive media that inhibit growth and development. In this report, the presence of a circadian rhythm in the activity of the enzyme Succinate Dehydrogenase in Neurospora crassa is demonstrated. Rhythmic and arrhythmic Neurospora strains were grown in complete medium without conidiation restriction. A circadian change in the enzymatic activity was found with high values in hours corresponding to the night and a low level during the day. This finding highlights the importance of deeper studies in the circadian control of metabolism in this fungus, given the existence of multiple pathways of regulation of metabolic enzymes and a circadian clock control at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  13. Lactate dehydrogenase activity drives hair follicle stem cell activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimee, Flores; John, Schell; Abby, Krall; David, Jelinek; Matilde, Miranda; Melina, Grigorian; Daniel, Braas; White Andrew, C; Jessica, Zhou; Nick, Graham; Thomas, Graeber; Pankaj, Seth; Denis, Evseenko; Hilary, Coller; Jared, Rutter; Heather, Christofk; Lowry William, E

    2017-01-01

    Summary While normally dormant, Hair Follicle Stem Cells (HFSCs) quickly become activated to divide during a new hair cycle. The quiescence of HFSCs is known to be regulated by a number of intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms. Here we provide several lines of evidence to demonstrate that HFSCs utilize glycolytic metabolism and produce significantly more lactate than other cells in the epidermis. Furthermore, lactate generation appears to be critical for the activation of HFSCs as deletion of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldha) prevented their activation. Conversely, genetically promoting lactate production in HFSCs through mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (Mpc1) deletion accelerated their activation and the hair cycle. Finally, we identify small molecules that increase lactate production by stimulating Myc levels or inhibiting Mpc1 carrier activity and can topically induce the hair cycle. These data suggest that HFSCs maintain a metabolic state that allow them to remain dormant and yet quickly respond to appropriate proliferative stimuli. PMID:28812580

  14. Purification and characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Fusarium oxysporum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Kekos, D.; Macris, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    An NAD(+)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) from Fusarium oxysporum, a key enzyme in the conversion of xylose to ethanol, was purified to homogeneity and characterised. It was homodimeric with a subunit of M-r 48 000, and pI 3.6. It was optimally active at 45degreesC and pH 9-10. It was fully...... stable at pH 6-7 for 24 h and 30degreesC. K-m values for D-xylitol and NAD(+) were 94 mM and 0.14 mM, respectively. Mn2+ at 10 mM increased XDH activity 2-fold and Cu2+ at 10 mM inhibited activity completely....

  15. Identification of a Novel Activator of Mammalian Glutamate Dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hong Q; Smith, Thomas J

    2016-11-29

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) catalyzes the oxidative deamination of l-glutamate and in animals is highly regulated. GDH in hyperinsulinism/hyperammonemia syndrome patients lacks GTP inhibition, resulting in hypersecretion of insulin upon protein consumption. This suggests insulin secretion could be stimulated with GDH activators. A high-throughput screen yielded one potent activator, N1-[4-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)phenyl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)benzene-1-sulfonamide (75-E10). 75-E10 is ∼1000-fold more efficacious than the synthetic activator, BCH, and is at least as effective as ADP. 75-E10 compound is highly effective at alleviating GTP inhibition and may be binding to the ADP site. Unlike ADP, 75-E10 is activated over a broad range of conditions.

  16. 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Hernandez, G.; Lopez-Solache, I.; Rendon, J.L.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Diaz-Zagoya, J.C.

    1988-04-15

    The mitochondrial fraction of the dog pancreas showed NAD(H)-dependent enzyme activity of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. The enzyme catalyzes oxidoreduction between androstenedione and testosterone. The apparent Km value of the enzyme for androstenedione was 9.5 +/- 0.9 microM, the apparent Vmax was determined as 0.4 nmol mg-1 min-1, and the optimal pH was 6.5. In phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, maximal rate of androstenedione reduction was observed at 37 degrees C. The oxidation of testosterone by the enzyme proceeded at the same rate as the reduction of the androstenedione at a pH of 6.8-7.0. The apparent Km value and the optimal pH of the enzyme for testosterone were 3.5 +/- 0.5 microM and 7.5, respectively.

  17. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    /1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1......Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white...... men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence...

  18. [Effect Of Polyelectrolytes on Catalytic Activity of Alcohol Dehydrogenase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, A V; Musina, E V; Kim, A L; Tikhonenko, S A

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent and optical spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with negatively charged polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and dextran sulfate (DS), as well as positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium) (PDADMA). As found, DS and PDADMA did not affect the structural and catalytic enzyme properties. In contrast, PSS slightly decreased the protein self-fluorescence over 1 h of incubation, which is associated with partial destruction of its quaternary (globular) structure. Investigation of the ADH activity with and without PSS showed its dependency on the incubation time and the PSS presence. Sodium chloride (2.0 M and 0.2 M) or ammonium sulfate (0.1 M) added to the reaction mixture did not completely protect the enzyme quaternary structure from the PSS action. However ammonium sulfate or 0.2 M sodium chloride stabilized the enzyme and partially inhibited the negative PSS effect.

  19. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  20. Oxydoreductases activation by γ rayonnement : lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sonia

    2004-01-01

    Ionising radiations, which have already been used for increasing the conservation length of food products, amelioration physicochemical properties of some products of some products and enhancing the rate of some reactions. In fact, we have selected soybean lipoxygenase and yest alcohol dehydrogenase in order to check the comportment of those oxydoreductases with the 60Co-gamma rays. Results reveal a significant effect on the increase of the enzymes activity, stability and productivity. His effect was so much more important when it is anhydrous enzyme to the aqueous one. Enhanced activity and productivity of the enzymes were not affected by the same dose level of irradiation. The irradiating dose 12 KGy active the soybean lipoxygenase as aqueous solution and 8 KGy active this last one under his form anhydrous. Nevertheless, alcohol deshydrogenase is activated by the doses of the interval 30-50Gy. (author). 99 refs

  1. [Activity of blood serum lactate dehydrogenase in diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizir, O O

    1977-01-01

    The activity of lactic dehydrogenase of the blood serum was studied under clinical conditions in 120 patients suffering from diabetes mellitus. Electrophoretic separation of plasma enzymes was used for this purpose. The shifts in the LDH activity proved to be characteristic of all the degrees of diabetes severity, and were expressed in a significant elevation of total LDH, LDH4,5 activity and a decrease of LDH1,2 activity in comparison with healthy individuals. No change of LDH3 activity was noted in mild forms of diabetes. But in severe form the isoenzymatic spectrum was mostly changed on account of LDH3 hyperfermentemia. In mild form of diabetes it approached control values.

  2. Alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphism in barrel cactus populations of Drosophila mojavensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, S; Hocutt, G D; Breitmeyer, C M; Markow, T A; Pfeiler, E

    1996-07-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis revealed that the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH-2) locus was polymorphic in two populations (from Agua Caliente, California and the Grand Canyon, Arizona) of cactophilic Drosophila mojavensis that utilize barrel cactus (Ferocactus acanthodes) as a host plant. Electromorphs representing products of a slow (S) and a fast (F) allele were found in adult flies. The frequency of the slow allele was 0.448 in flies from Agua Caliente and 0.659 in flies from the Grand Canyon. These frequencies were intermediate to those of the low (Baja California peninsula, Mexico) and high (Sonora, Mexico and southern Arizona) frequency Adh-2S populations of D. mojavensis that utilize different species of host cacti.

  3. Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madiraju, Anila K; Erion, Derek M; Rahimi, Yasmeen

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been...... prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered...... hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense...

  4. Over-Expression, Purification and Crystallization of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y. S.; Ciszak, Ewa; Patel, Mulchand

    2000-01-01

    Dehydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3; dihydrolipoan-tide:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.8.1.4) is a common catalytic component found in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, and branched-chain cc-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. E3 is also a component (referred to as L protein) of the glycine cleavage system in bacterial metabolism (2). Active E3 forms a homodimer with four distinctive subdomain structures (FAD binding, NAD+ binding, central and interface domains) with non-covalently but tightly bound FAD in the holoenzyme. Deduced amino acids from cloned full-length human E3 gene showed a total of 509 amino acids with a leader sequence (N-terminal 35 amino acids) that is excised (mature form) during transportation of expressed E3 into mitochondria membrane. So far, three-dimensional structure of human E3 has not been reported. Our effort to achieve the elucidation of the X-ray crystal structure of human E3 will be presented. Recombinant pPROEX-1 expression vector (from GIBCO BRL Life Technologies) having the human E3 gene without leader sequence was constructed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and subsequent ligation, and cloned in E.coli XL1-Blue by transformation. Since pPROEX-1 vector has an internal His-tag (six histidine peptide) located at the upstream region of a multicloning site, one-step affinity purification of E3 using nickelnitriloacetic acid (Ni-NTA) agarose resin, which has a strong affinity to His-tag, was feasible. Also a seven-amino-acid spacer peptide and a recombinant tobacco etch virus protease recognition site (seven amino acids peptide) found between His-tag and first amino acid of expressed E3 facilitated the cleavage of His-tag from E3 after the affinity purification. By IPTG induction, ca. 15 mg of human E3 (mature form) was obtained from 1L LB culture with overnight incubation at 25C. Over 98% of purity of E3 from one-step Ni-NTA agarose affinity purification was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. For

  5. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes patterns in ocular tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rajendra

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH isoenzymes in the serum and aqueous humor was carried out in 15 cases of benign ocular tumour, 15 cases of malignant tumor and 15 normal cases. Cases of both sexes aged between 1 year and 75 years were included. LDH, isoenzymes specially LDH4 and LDH5 are higher and LDH1 and LDH2 lower in sera of patients with malignant tumor specially retinoblastoma as compared to benign tumor cases and control cases. LDH isoenzymes in aqueous humor are significantly higher and show a characteristic pattern in retinoblastoma cases, the concentration was presumably too low in the control, malignant tumor other than retinoblastoma and benign tumor cases as its fractionation was not possible.

  6. A Case of Hyperammonemia Associated with High Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiki Nagaharu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU has been widely used to treat several types of carcinoma, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. In addition to its common side effects, including diarrhea, mucositis, neutropenia, and anemia, 5-FU treatment has also been reported to cause hyperammonemia. However, the exact mechanism responsible for 5-FU-induced hyperammonemia remains unknown. We encountered an esophageal carcinoma patient who developed hyperammonemia when receiving 5-FU-containing chemotherapy but did not exhibit any of the other common adverse effects of 5-FU treatment. At the onset of hyperammonemia, laboratory tests revealed high dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD activity and rapid 5-FU clearance. Our findings suggested that 5-FU hypermetabolism may be one of the key mechanisms responsible for hyperammonemia during 5-FU treatment.

  7. Selection variability for Arg48His in alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B among Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evsyukov, Alexey; Ivanov, Denis

    2013-08-01

    The variant His at codon 48 of the alcohol dehydrogenase gene (ADH1B) results in more efficient ethanol metabolism than with the "typical" codon 48Arg. In this study we introduced selection properties of Arg48His genotypes of ADH1B and estimated fitness in four ethnic-geographical clusters in Asia. Population genetics models were employed that derive observed gene frequencies from fitness relationships among genotypes, to infer the selection pattern of polymorphisms in an indirect manner. The data were analyzed using the model of "complete stationary distribution" by Wright that takes into account random genetic drift, pressure of migrations, mutations, and selection as influential factors of gene frequency. We found that the different population groups showed some variation in the types of selection for Arg48His. Han Chinese from eastern and southeastern China and the Japanese and Korean populations showed stabilizing selection, while the groups from Central Asian and Indochina showed divergent selection. However, all the groups demonstrated a strong positive selection for Arg48His. Copyright © 2013 Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan 48201-1309.

  8. Semiconducting III-V compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Hilsum, C; Henisch, Heinz R

    1961-01-01

    Semiconducting III-V Compounds deals with the properties of III-V compounds as a family of semiconducting crystals and relates these compounds to the monatomic semiconductors silicon and germanium. Emphasis is placed on physical processes that are peculiar to III-V compounds, particularly those that combine boron, aluminum, gallium, and indium with phosphorus, arsenic, and antimony (for example, indium antimonide, indium arsenide, gallium antimonide, and gallium arsenide).Comprised of eight chapters, this book begins with an assessment of the crystal structure and binding of III-V compounds, f

  9. Identification of a mitochondrial external NADPH dehydrogenase by overexpression in transgenic ¤Nicotiana sylvestris¤

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalecka, A.M.; Agius, S.C.; Møller, I.M.

    2004-01-01

    (P)H dehydrogenases, was introduced into Nicotiana sylvestris. Transgenic lines with high transcript and protein levels for St-NDB1 had up to threefold increased activity of external NADPH dehydrogenase in isolated mitochondria as compared to the wild type (WT). In two lines, the external NADPH dehydrogenase activity...

  10. Lactate dehydrogenase A silencing in IDH mutant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnelong, Charles; Chaumeil, Myriam M; Blough, Michael D; Al-Najjar, Mohammad; Stechishin, Owen D; Chan, Jennifer A; Pieper, Russell O; Ronen, Sabrina M; Weiss, Samuel; Luchman, H Artee; Cairncross, J Gregory

    2014-05-01

    Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 gene (IDH1/2) were initially thought to enhance cancer cell survival and proliferation by promoting the Warburg effect. However, recent experimental data have shown that production of 2-hydroxyglutarate by IDH mutant cells promotes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α degradation and, by doing so, may have unexpected metabolic effects. We used human glioma tissues and derived brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) to study the expression of HIF1α target genes in IDH mutant ((mt)) and IDH wild-type ((wt)) tumors. Focusing thereafter on the major glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), we used standard molecular methods and pyrosequencing-based DNA methylation analysis to identify mechanisms by which LDHA expression was regulated in human gliomas. We found that HIF1α-responsive genes, including many essential for glycolysis (SLC2A1, PDK1, LDHA, SLC16A3), were underexpressed in IDH(mt) gliomas and/or derived BTSCs. We then demonstrated that LDHA was silenced in IDH(mt) derived BTSCs, including those that did not retain the mutant IDH1 allele (mIDH(wt)), matched BTSC xenografts, and parental glioma tissues. Silencing of LDHA was associated with increased methylation of the LDHA promoter, as was ectopic expression of mutant IDH1 in immortalized human astrocytes. Furthermore, in a search of The Cancer Genome Atlas, we found low expression and high methylation of LDHA in IDH(mt) glioblastomas. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of downregulation of LDHA in cancer. Although unexpected findings, silencing of LDHA and downregulation of several other glycolysis essential genes raise the intriguing possibility that IDH(mt) gliomas have limited glycolytic capacity, which may contribute to their slow growth and better prognosis.

  11. Biochemical and structural characterization of Plasmodium falciparum glutamate dehydrogenase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Kathleen; Fritz-Wolf, Karin; Kehr, Sebastian; Fischer, Marina; Rahlfs, Stefan; Becker, Katja

    2012-05-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDHs) play key roles in cellular redox, amino acid, and energy metabolism, thus representing potential targets for pharmacological interventions. Here we studied the functional network provided by the three known glutamate dehydrogenases of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The recombinant production of the previously described PfGDH1 as hexahistidyl-tagged proteins was optimized. Additionally, PfGDH2 was cloned, recombinantly produced, and characterized. Like PfGDH1, PfGDH2 is an NADP(H)-dependent enzyme with a specific activity comparable to PfGDH1 but with slightly higher K(m) values for its substrates. The three-dimensional structure of hexameric PfGDH2 was solved to 3.1 Šresolution. The overall structure shows high similarity with PfGDH1 but with significant differences occurring at the subunit interface. As in mammalian GDH1, in PfGDH2 the subunit-subunit interactions are mainly assisted by hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions, whereas in PfGDH1 these contacts are mediated by networks of salt bridges and hydrogen bonds. In accordance with this, the known bovine GDH inhibitors hexachlorophene, GW5074, and bithionol were more effective on PfGDH2 than on PfGDH1. Subcellular localization was determined for all three plasmodial GDHs by fusion with the green fluorescent protein. Based on our data, PfGDH1 and PfGDH3 are cytosolic proteins whereas PfGDH2 clearly localizes to the apicoplast, a plastid-like organelle specific for apicomplexan parasites. This study provides new insights into the structure and function of GDH isoenzymes of P. falciparum, which represent potential targets for the development of novel antimalarial drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity in a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.T. Trindade

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactate dehydrogenase is a citosolic enzyme involved in reversible transformation of pyruvate to lactate. It participates in anaerobic glycolysis of skeletal muscle and red blood cells, in liver gluconeogenesis and in aerobic metabolism of heart muscle. The determination of its activity helps in the diagnosis of various diseases, because it is increased in serum of patients suffering from myocardial infarction, acute hepatitis, muscular dystrophy and cancer. This paper presents a learning object, mediated by computer, which contains the simulation of the laboratory determination serum lactate dehydrogenase activity measured by the spectrophotometric method, based in the decrease of absorbance at 340 nm. Materials and Methods: Initially, pictures and videos were obtained recording the procedure of the methodology. The most representative images were selected, edited and inserted into an animation developed with the aid of the tool Adobe ® Flash ® CS3. The validation of the object was performed by the students of Biochemistry I (Pharmacy-UFRGS from the second semester of 2009 and both of 2010. Results and Discussion: The analysis of students' answers revealed that 80% attributed the excellence of the navigation program, the display format and to aid in learning. Conclusion: Therefore, this software can be considered an adequate teaching resource as well as an innovative support in the construction of theoretical and practical knowledge of Biochemistry. Available at: http://www6.ufrgs.br/gcoeb/LDH

  13. Functional consequences of piceatannol binding to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszon, Joanna; Serafin, Eligiusz; Buczkowski, Adam; Michlewska, Sylwia; Bielnicki, Jakub Antoni; Rodacka, Aleksandra

    2018-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is one of the key redox-sensitive proteins whose activity is largely affected by oxidative modifications at its highly reactive cysteine residue in the enzyme's active site (Cys149). Prolonged exposure to oxidative stress may cause, inter alia, the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds leading to accumulation of GAPDH aggregates and ultimately to cell death. Recently these anomalies have been linked with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Novel evidences indicate that low molecular compounds may be effective inhibitors potentially preventing the GAPDH translocation to the nucleus, and inhibiting or slowing down its aggregation and oligomerization. Therefore, we decided to establish the ability of naturally occurring compound, piceatannol, to interact with GAPDH and to reveal its effect on functional properties and selected parameters of the dehydrogenase structure. The obtained data revealed that piceatannol binds to GAPDH. The ITC analysis indicated that one molecule of the tetrameric enzyme may bind up to 8 molecules of polyphenol (7.3 ± 0.9). Potential binding sites of piceatannol to the GAPDH molecule were analyzed using the Ligand Fit algorithm. Conducted analysis detected 11 ligand binding positions. We indicated that piceatannol decreases GAPDH activity. Detailed analysis allowed us to presume that this effect is due to piceatannol ability to assemble a covalent binding with nucleophilic cysteine residue (Cys149) which is directly involved in the catalytic reaction. Consequently, our studies strongly indicate that piceatannol would be an exceptional inhibitor thanks to its ability to break the aforementioned pathologic disulfide linkage, and therefore to inhibit GAPDH aggregation. We demonstrated that by binding with GAPDH piceatannol blocks cysteine residue and counteracts its oxidative modifications, that induce oligomerization and GAPDH aggregation.

  14. Functional consequences of piceatannol binding to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gerszon

    Full Text Available Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH is one of the key redox-sensitive proteins whose activity is largely affected by oxidative modifications at its highly reactive cysteine residue in the enzyme's active site (Cys149. Prolonged exposure to oxidative stress may cause, inter alia, the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds leading to accumulation of GAPDH aggregates and ultimately to cell death. Recently these anomalies have been linked with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Novel evidences indicate that low molecular compounds may be effective inhibitors potentially preventing the GAPDH translocation to the nucleus, and inhibiting or slowing down its aggregation and oligomerization. Therefore, we decided to establish the ability of naturally occurring compound, piceatannol, to interact with GAPDH and to reveal its effect on functional properties and selected parameters of the dehydrogenase structure. The obtained data revealed that piceatannol binds to GAPDH. The ITC analysis indicated that one molecule of the tetrameric enzyme may bind up to 8 molecules of polyphenol (7.3 ± 0.9. Potential binding sites of piceatannol to the GAPDH molecule were analyzed using the Ligand Fit algorithm. Conducted analysis detected 11 ligand binding positions. We indicated that piceatannol decreases GAPDH activity. Detailed analysis allowed us to presume that this effect is due to piceatannol ability to assemble a covalent binding with nucleophilic cysteine residue (Cys149 which is directly involved in the catalytic reaction. Consequently, our studies strongly indicate that piceatannol would be an exceptional inhibitor thanks to its ability to break the aforementioned pathologic disulfide linkage, and therefore to inhibit GAPDH aggregation. We demonstrated that by binding with GAPDH piceatannol blocks cysteine residue and counteracts its oxidative modifications, that induce oligomerization and GAPDH aggregation.

  15. STRUCTURE AND KINETICS OF MONOFUNCTIONAL PROLINE DEHYDROGENASE FROM THERMUS THERMOPHILUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Tommi A.; Krishnan, Navasona; Becker, Donald F.; Tanner, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) catalyze the two-step oxidation of proline to glutamate. They are distinct monofunctional enzymes in all eukaryotes and some bacteria, but are fused into bifunctional enzymes known as Proline utilization A (PutA) in other bacteria. Here we report the first structure and biochemical data for a monofunctional PRODH. The 2.0 Å resolution structure of Thermus thermophilus PRODH reveals a distorted (βα)8 barrel catalytic core domain and a hydrophobic α-helical domain located above the carboxyl terminal ends of the strands of the barrel. Although the catalytic core is similar to that of the PutA PRODH domain, the FAD conformation of T. thermophilus PRODH is remarkably different and likely reflects unique requirements for membrane association and communication with P5CDH. Also, the FAD of T. thermophilus PRODH is highly solvent exposed compared to PutA due to a 4-Å shift of helix 8. Structure-based sequence analysis of the PutA/PRODH family led us to identify 9 conserved motifs involved in cofactor and substrate recognition. Biochemical studies show that the midpoint potential of the FAD is −75 mV and the kinetic parameters for proline are Km=27 mM and kcat=13 s−1. 3,4-dehydro-L-proline was found to be an efficient substrate and L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid is a competitive inhibitor (KI=1.0 mM). Finally, we demonstrate that T. thermophilus PRODH reacts with O2 producing superoxide. This is significant because superoxide production underlies the role of human PRODH in p53-mediated apoptosis, implying commonalities between eukaryotic and bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. PMID:17344208

  16. The role of histidine residues in glutamate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudball, N.; Bailey-Wood, R.; Thomas, P.

    1972-01-01

    1. Glutamate dehydrogenase was subject to rapid inactivation when irradiated in the presence of Rose Bengal or incubated in the presence of ethoxyformic anhydride. 2. Inactivation in the presence of Rose Bengal led to the photo-oxidation of four histidine residues. Oxidation of three histidine residues had little effect on enzyme activity, but oxidation of the fourth residue led to the almost total loss of activity. 3. Acylation of glutamate dehydrogenase with ethoxyformic anhydride at pH6.1 led to the modification of three histidine residues with a corresponding loss of half the original activity. Acylation at pH7.5 led to the modification of two histidine residues and a total loss of enzyme activity. 4. One of the histidine residues undergoing reaction at pH6.1 also undergoes reaction at pH7.5. 5. The presence of either glutamate or NAD+ in the reaction mixtures at pH6.1 had no appreciable effect. At pH7.5 glutamate caused a marked decrease in both the degree of alkylation and degree of inactivation. NAD+ had no effect on the degree of inactivation at pH7.5 but did modify the extent of acylation. 6. The normal response of the enzyme towards ADP was unaffected by acylation at pH6.1 or 7.5. 7. The normal response of the enzyme towards GTP was altered by treatment at both pH6.1 and 7.5. PMID:4345275

  17. Catalytic properties of lipoamide dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkeviciene, J; Blanchard, J S

    1997-04-15

    Lipoamide dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium smegmatis was purified to homogeneity over 60-fold. Of 20 amino acid residues identified at the amino terminus of the enzyme, 18 and 17 were identical to the sequences of Mycobacterium leprae and Pseudomonas fluorescens lipoamide dehydrogenases, respectively. The visible spectrum of the isolated enzyme was characteristic of a flavin in apolar environment. Reduction of the enzyme with dithionite results in the appearance of an absorbance shoulder at 530-550 nm, suggesting that reducing equivalents of the two-electron reduced enzyme reside predominantly on the redox-active disulfidedithiol. The kinetic mechanism of the forward (NAD+ reducing) and reverse (NADH oxidizing) reactions proved difficult to study due to severe substrate inhibition by NAD+ and NADH. The rate of lipoamide reduction was found to depend upon the NAD+/NADH ratio, with the reaction being activated at low ratios and inhibited at high ratios. The use of 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide allowed initial velocity kinetics to be performed and revealed that the kinetic mechanism is ping pong. In addition to catalyzing the reversible oxidation of dihydrolipoamide, the enzyme displayed high oxidase activity (30% of the lipoamide reduction rate), hydrogen and t-butyl peroxide reductase activity (10% of the lipoamide reduction rate), and both naphthoquinone and benzoquinone reduction (approximately 200% of the lipoamide reduction rate). The enzyme failed to catalyze the redox cycling of nitrocompounds, but could anaerobically reduce nitrofurazone. The lipoamide-reducing reaction was reversibly inactivated by sodium arsenite, but no decrease in diaphorase activity was observed under these conditions.

  18. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopinath eSutendra

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current drug development in oncology is non-selective as it typically focuses on pathways essential for the survival of all dividing cells. The unique metabolic profile of cancer, which is characterized by increased glycolysis and suppressed mitochondrial glucose oxidation provides cancer cells with a proliferative advantage, conducive with apoptosis resistance and even increased angiogenesis. Recent evidence suggests that targeting the cancer-specific metabolic and mitochondrial remodeling may offer selectivity in cancer treatment. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK is a mitochondrial enzyme that is activated in a variety of cancers and results in the selective inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH, a complex of enzymes that converts cytosolic pyruvate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, the substrate for the Krebs’ cycle. Inhibition of PDK with either small interfering RNAs or the orphan drug dichloroacetate (DCA shifts the metabolism of cancer cells from glycolysis to glucose oxidation and reverses the suppression of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. In addition, this therapeutic strategy increases the production of diffusible Krebs’ cycle intermediates and mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS, activating p53 or inhibiting pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic transcription factors like nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α. These effects result in decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis in a variety of cancers with high selectivity. In a small but mechanistic clinical trial in patients with glioblastoma, a highly aggressive and vascular form of brain cancer, DCA decreased tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth, suggesting that metabolic targeting therapies can be translated directly to patients. Therefore, reversing the mitochondrial suppression with metabolic-modulating drugs, like PDK inhibitors holds promise in the rapidly expanding field of metabolic oncology.

  19. Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed ortho-olefination of aryl phosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Bathoju Chandra; Kim, Sunggak

    2013-09-25

    Rhodium(iii)-catalyzed C-H olefination of aryl phosphonic esters is reported for the first time. In this mild and efficient process, the phosphonic ester group is utilized successfully as a new directing group. In addition, mono-olefination for aryl phosphonates is observed using a phosphonic diamide directing group.

  20. IDH mutation status and role of WHO grade and mitotic index in overall survival in grade II–III diffuse gliomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olar, Adriana; Wani, Khalida M; Diefes, Kristin; Heathcock, Lindsey E.; van Thuijl, Hinke F.; Gilbert, Mark R.; Armstrong, Terri S.; Sulman, Erik P.; Cahill, Daniel P.; Vera-Bolanos, Elizabeth; Yuan, Ying; Reijneveld, Jaap C.; Ylstra, Bauke; Wesseling, Pieter; Aldape, Kenneth D.

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse gliomas are up till now graded based upon morphology. Recent findings indicate that isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status defines biologically distinct groups of tumors. The role of tumor grade and mitotic index in patient outcome has not been evaluated following stratification by IDH mutation status. To address this, we interrogated 558 WHO grade II–III diffuse gliomas for IDH1/2 mutations and investigated the prognostic impact of WHO grade within IDH-mutant and wild-type tumor subsets independently. The prognostic impact of grade was modest in IDH-mutant [hazard ratio (HR)=1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.91–1.61] compared to IDH-wild type tumors (HR=1.74, 95% CI=0.95–3.16). Using a dichotomized mitotic index cut-off of 4/1000 tumor cells, we found that while mitotic index was significantly associated with outcome in IDH-wild type tumors (log-rank pIDH-mutant tumors (log-rank p=0.5157, HR=1.10, 95% CI=0.80–1.51), and could demonstrate a statistical interaction (pIDH mutation and mitotic index (i.e. suggesting that the effect of mitotic index on patient outcome is dependent on IDH mutation status). Patient age, an established prognostic factor in diffuse glioma, was significantly associated with outcome only in the IDH-wild type subset, and consistent with prior data, 1p/19q co-deletion conferred improved outcome in the IDH-mutant cohort. These findings suggest that stratification of grade II–III gliomas into subsets defined by the presence or absence of IDH mutation leads to subgroups with distinct prognostic characteristics. Further evaluation of grading criteria and prognostic markers is warranted within IDH-mutant versus IDH-wild type diffuse grade II–III gliomas as independent entities. PMID:25701198