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Sample records for group hiv infection

  1. Thiolated pyrimidine nucleotides may interfere thiol groups concentrated at lipid rafts of HIV-1 infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanizsai, Szilvia; Ongrádi, Joseph; Aradi, János; Nagy, Károly

    2014-12-01

    Upon HIV infection, cells become activated and cell surface thiols are present in increased number. Earlier we demonstrated in vitro anti-HIV effect of thiolated pyrimidine nucleotide UD29, which interferes thiol function. To further analyse the redox processes required for HIV-1 entry and infection, toxicity assays were performed using HIV-1 infected monolayer HeLaCD4-LTR/ β-gal cells and suspension H9 T cells treated with several thiolated nucleotide derivatives of UD29. Selective cytotoxicity of thiolated pyrimidines on HIV-1 infected cells were observed. Results indicate that thiolated pyrimidine derivates may interfere with -SH (thiol) groups concentrated in lipid rafts of cell membrane and interacts HIV-1 infected (activated) cells resulting in a selective cytotoxicity of HIV-1 infected cells, and reducing HIV-1 entry.

  2. HIV type-1 group O infection in Gabon: low prevalence rate but circulation of genetically diverse and drug-resistant HIV type-1 group O strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Florian; Boué, Vanina; Butel, Christelle; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Sica, Jeanne; Zamba, Chantal; Peeters, Martine; Delaporte, Eric; Rouet, François

    2013-07-01

    The goals of this study conducted in Gabon were to determine the prevalence rate of HIV-1 group O (HIV-1/O) infections and to characterize the genetic diversity of HIV-1/O strains as well as implications on antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance. During 2010-2011, 1,176 samples from HIV-positive subjects were tested at the CIRMF (Centre International de Recherches Médicales de Franceville) retrovirology laboratory using an in-house serotyping assay. Plasma HIV-1/O RNA viral loads (VL) were determined using the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay. After full genome sequencing, drug resistance patterns were analyzed using two different algorithms (Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA et les hépatites virales and Stanford). Overall, four subjects (0.34%) were diagnosed as HIV-1/O infected. One subject, untreated by ARVs, died 2 months after HIV-1/O diagnosis. One was lost to follow-up. Two additional patients, treated with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens, showed CD4 counts Gabon, an accurate diagnosis and a reliable virological follow-up are required in Central Africa to optimize ARV treatments of HIV-1/O-infected patients.

  3. Response of religious groups to HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection in Trinidad

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    Genrich Gillian L

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination are significant determinants of HIV transmission in the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago (T&T, where the adult HIV/AIDS prevalence is 2.5%. T&T is a spiritually-aware society and over 104 religious groups are represented. This religious diversity creates a complex social environment for the transmission of a sexually transmitted infection like HIV/AIDS. Religious leaders are esteemed in T&T's society and may use their position and frequent interactions with the public to promote HIV/AIDS awareness, fight stigma and discrimination, and exercise compassion for people living with HIV/AIDS (PWHA. Some religious groups have initiated HIV/AIDS education programs within their membership, but previous studies suggest that HIV/AIDS remains a stigmatized infection in many religious organizations. The present study investigates how the perception of HIV/AIDS as a sexually transmitted infection impacts religious representatives' incentives to respond to HIV/AIDS in their congregations and communities. In correlation, the study explores how the experiences of PWHA in religious gatherings impact healing and coping with HIV/AIDS. Methods Between November 2002 and April 2003, in-depth interviews were conducted with 11 religious representatives from 10 Christian, Hindu and Muslim denominations. The majority of respondents were leaders of religious services, while two were active congregation members. Religious groups were selected based upon the methods of Brathwaite. Briefly, 26 religious groups with the largest followings according to 2000 census data were identified in Trinidad and Tobago. From this original list, 10 religious groups in Northwest Trinidad were selected to comprise a representative sample of the island's main denominations. In-depth interviews with PWHA were conducted during the same study period, 2002–2003. Four individuals were selected from a care and support

  4. Prevention of HIV infection among migrant population groups in Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr-Pontes, Ligia Regina Sansigolo; González, Fernando; Kendall, Carl; Leão, Elda Maria Area; Távora, Fábio Rocha; Caminha, Iusta; do Carmo, Alexandre Medeiros; França, Marcela Moura; Aguiar, Melícia Holanda

    2004-01-01

    HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights. When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.

  5. [Guidelines for the management of patients with HIV infection. II. Pregnant women and children. Liege Working Group on HIV Infection].

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    Schmitz, V; Nkoghe, D; Hoyoux, C; Dresse, M F

    2000-05-01

    The management of the HIV infected child is nearly identical to the adult. Nevertheless, there are many clinical, immunological and virological details. Difficulties evoked for the adult have an even bigger importance, in view of the foreseeable longevity of these children under treatment. The reduction of the mother to child transmission, thanks to the AZT-caesarean association, must be continued. The use of anti-retroviral drugs during pregnancy requires a sustained attention because of the potential risks and benefits for the foetus and mother. The long-term impact of these drugs, in children exposed during pregnancy, remains unknown. The follow-up of these children therefore remains important.

  6. [Guidelines for the management of patients with HIV infection. I. Adolescents and adults. Liege Working Group on HIV Infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoghe, D; Moutschen, M; Demonty, J

    2000-05-01

    The management of HIV infected patient requires an approach that must put in balance profits expected from a tritherapy (suppression of viral replication, immune reconstitution) and problems related to treatment (difficulty of adherence, side effects, long-term toxicity, resistance). Controversies appear currently on the institution of a precocious treatment, on the use of protease inhibitors at initiation, in order to preserve choices when a modification is necessary. Many concepts, in investigation, are described in the management of a therapeutic failure. Resistance testings progressively find their place in the follow-up. Modes of prophylaxis-interruption of opportunistic infections are established, as well as is the management of professional postexposure. The question remains on how best to advise seropositive couples, about conception, and to elaborate recommendations after non-professional postexposure.

  7. Abnormal hemoglobin genotypes and ABO and rhesus blood groups associated with HIV infection among HIV-exposed infants in North Western Nigeria

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    Buseri FI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fiekumo I Buseri,1 Charity N Okonkwo21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Hemoglobin genotypes and blood groups have been known to be associated with diseases, but the relationship with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection among Nigerian infants is not well known.Objective: This study aims to determine the association between hemoglobin genotypes and blood groups with HIV infection among HIV-exposed Nigerian infants.Methods: This cross-sectional study examined 312 HIV-exposed infants (aged 8–16 months in Sokoto State, Nigeria. HIV screening was performed using the HIV DNA polymerase chain reaction technique on dried blood spots. Hemoglobin electrophoresis and ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups were carried out using standard techniques.Results: This study found 20.5% HIV-1 seropositivity among the infants, with 20.9% of males and 20.1% of females positive for HIV-1. Babies' sex and HIV seropositivity was not significant (χ2=0.27, df=1, P=0.869. The blood group distribution was O (43.3%, A (36.8%, B (15.7%, AB (4.2%, RhD+ (95.6%, and RhD– (4.4%. The combined ABO and Rh blood groups among the study population were O+ (40.1%, A+ (36.2%, B+ (15.1%, AB+ (4.2%, O– (3.2%, A– (0.6%, and B– (0.6%. No AB– baby was found. The association between blood groups and HIV seropositivity was not significant (Fisher’s exact test =9.140; P=0.169; however, group AB+ showed the highest probable association with HIV seropositivity (46.2%, followed by A+ (23.9%. The prevalence of hemoglobin genotypes was AA (71.5%, AS (25.3%, AC (2.2%, and SC (1.0%. Hemoglobin SS and other hemoglobin variants were not found. A significant association (χ2=8.432, df=3, P=0.034 was observed between SC and HIV-1 infection

  8. Prevention of HIV infection among migrant population groups in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerr-Pontes Ligia Regina Sansigolo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.

  9. Prevention of HIV infection among migrant population groups in Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr-Pontes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.

  10. PSYCHOSOCIAL GROUP INTERVENTION AND THE RATE OF DECLINE OF IMMUNOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN ASYMPTOMATIC HIV-INFECTED HOMOSEXUAL MEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, CL; ANTONI, MH; EMMELKAMP, PMG; VEUGELERS, PJ; SANDFORT, TGM; VANDEVIJVER, FAJR; DEVRIES, MJ

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine changes in the rate of decline of immunological parameters after psychosocial group intervention. Subjects were 26 asymptomatic HIV-infected homosexual men who participated in a cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBT; n = 14), or an experiential group therapy p

  11. Comparison and temporal trends of three groups with cryptococcosis: HIV-infected, solid organ transplant, and HIV-negative/non-transplant.

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    Emily W Bratton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA 2010 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the management of cryptococcosis outlined three key populations at risk of disease: (1 HIV-infected, (2 transplant recipient, and (3 HIV-negative/non-transplant. However, direct comparisons of management, severity and outcomes of these groups have not been conducted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Annual changes in frequency of cryptococcosis diagnoses, cryptococcosis-attributable mortality and mortality were captured. Differences examined between severe and non-severe disease within the context of the three groups included: demographics, symptoms, microbiology, clinical management and treatment. An average of nearly 15 patients per year presented at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC with cryptococcosis. Out of 207 study patients, 86 (42% were HIV-positive, 42 (20% were transplant recipients, and 79 (38% were HIV-negative/non-transplant. HIV-infected individuals had profound CD4 lymphocytopenia and a majority had elevated intracranial pressure. Transplant recipients commonly (38% had renal dysfunction. Nearly one-quarter (24% had their immunosuppressive regimens stopped or changed. The HIV-negative/non-transplant population reported longer duration of symptoms than HIV-positive or transplant recipients and 28% (22/79 had liver insufficiency or underlying hematological malignancies. HIV-positive and HIV-negative/non-transplant patients accounted for 89% of severe disease cryptococcosis-attributable deaths and 86% of all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this single-center study, the frequency of cryptococcosis did not change in the last two decades, although the underlying case mix shifted (fewer HIV-positive cases, stable transplant cases, more cases with neither. Cryptococcosis had a relatively uniform and informed treatment strategy, but disease-attributable mortality was still common.

  12. HIV-2 infection: Where are we today?

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    Nayana A Ingole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The choice of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 differs from that for HIV-1, underscoring the importance of differentiating between the two. Aims: The current study was planned to find out the prevalence of HIV-2 infection at our center and to find out the utility of the current diagnostic algorithm in identifying the type of HIV infection. Setting and Design: Retrospective analysis in a tertiary care teaching institute over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed as HIV infected using NACO/WHO HIV testing strategy III were included in the study. They were classified as HIV-1 infected, HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected based on their test results. For discordant samples, immunoblotting result from National Reference Laboratory was considered as final. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 positive groups for age, gender, route of transmission was made using chi squared test. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Of the total of 66,708 patients tested, 5,238 (7.9% were positive for HIV antibodies. 7.62%, 0.14%, 0.08% and 0.004% were HIV-1, HIV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected and HIV type indeterminate (HIV-1 Indeterminate, 2+ respectively. The current algorithm could not differentiate between the types of HIV infection (as HIV-1 or HIV-2 in 63 (1.2% cases. Conclusion: In areas like the Indian subcontinent, where epidemic of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are ongoing, it is important to modify the current diagnostic algorithms to diagnose and confirm HIV-2 infections.

  13. Efficacy of group psychotherapy to reduce depressive symptoms among HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Himelhoch, Seth; Medoff, Deborah R; Oyeniyi, Gloria

    2007-10-01

    Depressed mood is highly prevalent among HIV-infected individuals. Some but not all studies have found group psychotherapy to be efficacious in this population. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blinded, randomized controlled trials to examine efficacy of group psychotherapy treatment among HIV infected with depressive symptoms. We used PubMed, the Cochrane database, and a search of bibliographies to find controlled clinical trials with random assignment to group psychotherapy or control condition among HIV infected patients with depressive symptoms. The principal measure of effect size was the standard difference between means on validated depression inventories. We identified 8 studies that included 665 subjects: 5 used cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), 2 used supportive therapy, and 1 used coping effectiveness training. Three of the 8 studies reported significant effects. The pooled effect size from the random effects model was 0.38 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.53) representing a moderate effect. Heterogeneity of effect was not found to be significant (p = 0.69; I(2) = 0%). Studies reporting use of group CBT had a pooled effect size from the random effects model of 0.37 (95% CI: 0.18-0.56) and was significant. Studies reporting the use of group supportive psychotherapy had a pooled effect size from the random effects model 0.58 (95% CI: -0.05-1.22) and was nonsignificant. The results of this study suggest that group psychotherapy is efficacious in reducing depressive symptoms among, HIV-infected individuals. Of note, women were nearly absent from all studies. Future studies should be directed at addressing this disparity.

  14. Abnormal hemoglobin genotypes and ABO and rhesus blood groups associated with HIV infection among HIV-exposed infants in North Western Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    FI Buseri; Okonkwo CN

    2014-01-01

    Fiekumo I Buseri,1 Charity N Okonkwo21Hematology and Blood Transfusion Science Unit, Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Hemoglobin genotypes and blood groups have been known to be associated with diseases, but the relationship with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Nigerian i...

  15. HIV infections in otolaryngology

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    Rzewnicki, Ireneusz; Olszewska, Ewa; Rogowska-Szadkowska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    Summary HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection may produce no clinical symptoms for 10 years on average. However, after many years of infection most people develop symptoms that indicate progression of the disease. There are no regular characteristic symptoms or early stage, and no logical sequence of AIDS indicator disorders has been observed. People who are not aware of the infection are referred to physicians of various specializations, including otolaryngologists. It is on their knowledge about HIV infections, among other factors, that early diagnosis of the disease depends. Appropriate and quick introduction of anti-retroviral drugs may let a person with HIV live decades longer. PMID:22367140

  16. The Daily Lives of People With HIV Infection: A Qualitative Study of the Control Group in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

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    Metaweh, Maria; Ironson, Gail; Barroso, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disclosure is an expressive writing technique used in psychotherapy to process traumatic and stressful life experiences. While emotional disclosure interventions frequently use control groups, there are few qualitative analyses of these control groups. Our study's purpose was to analyze the control essays written by HIV-infected informants about their daily activities in an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention. Latent and manifest qualitative content analyses revealed prevalent contextual themes within the data. The emergent themes were socioeconomic status (SES), self-care, religiosity/spirituality, and social support. Emotional disclosure control subjects contributed substantial findings in terms of SES, self-care, resiliency, religiosity/spirituality, and social support and altruism.

  17. Science challenging HIV infection.

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    Rao, R R; Lakshi, V

    1993-04-01

    The first accepted report of a novel human, slow virus disease belonging to "lentivirus" known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can be traced to reports of June 1981. HIV-1 and HIV-2 were later found over the period 1984-86 to be unequivocally associated with AIDS. They are two serologically distinct viruses belonging to the same family with the unique properties of integration and latency in the host cell genome and the presence of reverse transcriptase. Typical of all retroviruses, the HIV genome comprises three genes governing the synthesis of all core proteins, replication protein encoding, and envelope proteins. HIV uses the CD4 antigen on T-helper cells, and about 40% of blood monocytes and tissue macrophages as a cell surface receptor. HIV may, however, also infect cells which contain no CD4. Macrophages serve as the main reservoir of HIV and may carry the virus to different organs. Very recently a rare type of white blood cell called the dendritic cell has been found to allow for direct infection by HIV during sexual intercourse. These cells are prominently present in the anal and vaginal mucosa. The authors discuss facts and figures on the HIV epidemic, the Indian scenario, classification of the clinical spectrum, the enzyme immunoassay HIV testing format, Western blot, immunofluorescence antibody, HIV culture, flow cytometry, radio immuno precipitation assay, and the detection of HIV DNA. Significant advances have been made over the last ten years in understanding the pathogenesis of HIV infection and accurately diagnosing infected individuals, with recombinant technology, polymerase chain reaction, and the construction of synthetic hybrid virus rapidly becoming part of routine diagnostics. More sensitive, specific, and rapid techniques are, however, needed for the early diagnosis and management of AIDS cases. The need for more ideal antibody incorporating both regulatory and structural proteins of the virion, preferably manufactured using

  18. New Players in the Same Old Game: Disturbance of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in HIV-1 and Mycobacterium leprae Co-infected Patients

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    Papotto, Pedro Henrique; Maeda, Solange; Tomimori, Jane; Xavier, Marília Brasil; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Kallas, Esper Georges; Carvalho, Karina Inácio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Leprosy control is achieved through a fine-tuning of TH1 and TH2 immune response pattern balance. Given the increasing epidemiological overlay of HIV and M. leprae infections, immune response in co-infected patients consists in an important contemporary issue. Here we describe for the first time the innate lymphoid cells compartment in peripheral blood of leprosy and HIV/M. leprae co-infected patients, and show that co-infection increases group 2 innate lymphoid whilst decreasing group 1 innate lymphoid cells frequencies and function. PMID:26335023

  19. High prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV among HIV-1 infected people from various high-risk groups in China.

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    Hong Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV-1 and HCV is a significant global public health problem and a major consideration for anti-HIV-1 treatment. HCV infection among HIV-1 positive people who are eligible for the newly launched nationwide anti-HIV-1 treatment program in China has not been well characterized. METHODOLOGY: A nationwide survey of HIV-1 positive injection drug uses (IDU, former paid blood donors (FBD, and sexually transmitted cases from multiple provinces including the four most affected provinces in China was conducted. HCV prevalence and genetic diversity were determined. We found that IDU and FBD have extremely high rates of HCV infection (97% and 93%, respectively. Surprisingly, people who acquired HIV-1 through sexual contact also had a higher rate of HCV infection (20% than the general population. HIV-1 subtype and HCV genotypes were amazingly similar among FBD from multiple provinces stretching from Central to Northeast China. However, although patterns of overland trafficking of heroin and distinct HIV-1 subtypes could be detected among IDU, HCV genotypes of IDU were more diverse and exhibited significant regional differences. CONCLUSION: Emerging HIV-1 and HCV co-infection and possible sexual transmission of HCV in China require urgent prevention measures and should be taken into consideration in the nationwide antiretroviral treatment program.

  20. HIV infection in Bophuthatswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was known about HIV infection and AIDS in the country. However, the health authorities were aware of the report ... natal, family planning and sexually transmitted diseases ..... Francis DP, Chin J. The prevention of acquired immunodeficiency.

  1. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmanina, Natella; Phelps, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With the ongoing epidemic of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infections in the pediatric age group, the delivery of safe and effective antiretroviral therapy to children and adolescents is crucial to save the lives of millions of children worldwide. Antiretroviral drugs have been demonstrated to significantly decrease HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, assure normal growth and development, and improve survival and quality of life in children and adolescents. The immunologic response ...

  2. Tobacco smoking in HIV-infected versus general population in france: heterogeneity across the various groups of people living with HIV.

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    Laure Tron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the various groups of people living with HIV (PLWHIV considerably differ regarding socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, their specificities regarding tobacco smoking have been poorly investigated. We aimed to assess patterns of tobacco consumption across the various groups of PLWHIV and to compare them to the general population, accounting for the specific socioeconomic profile of PLWHIV. METHODS: We used data of the ANRS-Vespa2 study, a national representative survey on PLWHIV conducted in France in 2011. Prevalence of past and current tobacco consumption, heavy smoking and strong nicotine dependence were assessed among the various groups of PLWHIV as defined by transmission category, gender and geographic origin, and compared to the French general population using direct standardization and multivariate Poisson regression models, accounting for gender, age, education and geographic origin. RESULTS: Among the 3,019 participants aged 18-85 years (median time since HIV diagnosis: 12 years, 37.5% were current smokers and 22.1% were past smokers, with marked differences across the various groups of PLWHIV. Compared to the general population, the prevalence of regular smoking was increased among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (aPRR: 1.19, 95% confidence interval (95% CI: 1.07-1.32, French-native women (aPRR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.57, and heterosexual French-native men (although not significantly, aPRR: 1.19, 95% CI: 0.98-1.45. Additionally, HIV-infected MSM were significantly less likely to be ex-smokers (aPRR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.64-0.82 than the general population and similar trends were observed among heterosexual French-native men (aPRR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.78-1.02 and women (aPRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.70-1.01. HIV-infected sub-Saharan African migrants were less likely to be regular smokers than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking constitutes a major concern in various groups

  3. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D’ivoire

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    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26495131

  4. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches.

  5. Non-typhoidal Salmonella group D bacteremia and urosepsis in a patient diagnosed with HIV Infection

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    Said Abuhasna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections caused by non-typhoid Salmonella are rare and usually develops in patients with predisposing factors such as immune deficiency or occult urologic problems. This report describes a case where Salmonella Group D was isolated from the blood and urine of a patient with documented human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed urosepsis and was successfully treated with antibiotics.

  6. Non-typhoidal Salmonella group D bacteremia and urosepsis in a patient diagnosed with HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuhasna, Said; Al Jundi, Amer; Rahman, Masood Ur; Said, Walaa

    2012-10-01

    Urinary tract infections caused by non-typhoid Salmonella are rare and usually develops in patients with predisposing factors such as immune deficiency or occult urologic problems. This report describes a case where Salmonella Group D was isolated from the blood and urine of a patient with documented human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who developed urosepsis and was successfully treated with antibiotics.

  7. Pregnancy and HIV infection

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    Mete Sucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535

  8. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  9. MSM同伴群与HIV感染关系%RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PARTNER GROUPS OF MSM AND HIV INFECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宇方; 张洪波; 王君; 于飞; 段毓雯; 魏锁; 佘敏

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] To detennine the relationship between partner groups of MSM and HIV infection. [MethodsJ A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Yibin and Luzhou, No cities of Sichuan province. Fifteen key MSM who were in good relationship among MSM were chosen as cores to recruit the partners by Limiting the recruited partners in each city, finally 405 MSM (30 groups) were investigated with questionnaire which contained social characteristics, knowledge about HIV/AIDS,self-efficacy of condom use , high risk sexual behaviors wih different partners in the last 2 months, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and then they were all tested of HIV antibody. SPSS 13.0 was used for statistical analysis. [Results] The percentages of getting high school education or below, having been married, having a job in HIV-positive MSM were 74.2%, 32.3%,83.9% respectively, which higher than the percentages (52.9% , 17.1%, 64.4%) in the HIV-negative MSM; and the percentage of being homosexual onentation in HIV-positive MSM was 45.2%, which was lower than that (67.1%) in HIV-negative MSM, all Chi Square Test showed significant differences; the percentage of MSM who were having commercial homosexual partners was 24.8%. In the MSM group who were closing contact to HIV-positive (including HIV-positive) in last 2 months,were more than that (14.5%) in other MSM groups. Among the man who had commercial homosexual partners at the last sexual behavior in this group, 72.0% of them who did not use condom, which was more than that (38.6%) in other MSM , the differences were significanT In the MSM group shich had two or more HIV-positive, the percentage of MSM who had more female sexual partners (23.3%) and commercial homosexual partners (25.8%) , which were higher than that (12.3%and 13.3%) in other groups during the last 2 months, Chi Square Test showed significanL differences. And in the MSM group which had three or more HIV-positive, the percentage of MSM who have

  10. Use of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin in HIV type 1-infected children (Pediatric AIDS clinical trials group protocol 273).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E R; Fletcher, C V; Mofenson, L M; Palumbo, P E; Kang, M; Fenton, T; Sapan, C V; Meyer, W A; Shearer, W T; Hawkins, E; Fowler, M G; Bouquin, P; Purdue, L; Sloand, E M; Nemo, G J; Wara, D; Bryson, Y J; Starr, S E; Petru, A; Burchett, S

    2000-02-01

    The clinical, immunologic, and virologic effects and the pharmacokinetics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) human hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were assessed in 30 HIV-infected children aged 2-11 years. All had moderately advanced disease with an immune complex-dissociated (ICD) p24 antigen >70 pg/mL and were on stable antiviral therapy. Three groups of 10 children received 6 monthly infusions of 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of HIVIG, and serial immunologic and virologic assays were performed. HIVIG doses as high as 800 mg/kg were safe and well tolerated. The half-life of HIVIG, determined by serial p24 antibody titers, was 13-16 days, the volume of distribution was 102-113 mL/kg, and clearance was 5.6-6.0 mL/kg/day. Plasma ICD p24 decreased during the infusions, but CD4 cell levels, plasma RNA copy number, cellular virus, immunoglobulin levels, and neutralizing antibody titers were minimally affected by the infusions. Clinical status did not change during the 6-month infusion and 3-month follow-up periods.

  11. [HIV infection and immigration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Susana; Pérez-Molina, José A

    2016-01-01

    Migrants represent around one third of patients newly diagnosed with HIV in Spain and they constitute a population with higher vulnerability to its negative consequences due to the socio-cultural, economical, working, administrative and legal contexts. Migrants are diagnosed later, which worsens their individual prognosis and facilitates the maintenance of the HIV epidemic. In spite of the different barriers they experience to access healthcare in general, and HIV-related services in particular, access to antiretroviral treatment has been similar to that of the autochthonous population. However, benefits of treatment have been not, with women in general and men from Sub-Saharan Africa exhibiting the worse response to treatment. We need to proactively promote earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, the adoption of preventive measures to avoid new infections, and to deliver accessible, adapted and high-quality health-care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Psychotherapeutic strategies for coping with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilber, C

    2000-01-01

    Psychotherapy promotes adaptation to the medical, neuropsychiatric, and psychosocial challenges faced by people with HIV infection. This chapter describes a range of individual and group psychotherapy techniques with demonstrated efficacy in this population.

  13. [Toxocariasis in children and adolescents with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases, HIV infection, hepatitis B and C risk groups: results of serological screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautova, E A; Dovgalev, A S; Astanina, S Iu

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the presence of immunoglobulins class G to Toxocara canis antigens in the sera of children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) with allergic and bronchopulmonary diseases from HIV infection and hepatitis B and C risk groups. A total of 422 dwellers of the Republic of Altai, including 144 subjects aged 1 to 17 years, were examined. Toxocara antibodies were found in 18.8 +/- 3.3% of the children and in 21.9 +/- 2.5% of the adults. The infection rate in children with bronchopulmonary and allergic diseases was 27.1 +/- 5.8 and 14.3 +/- 5.0%, respectively; that in the hepatitis B and C risk groups was 13.1 +/- 6.2%. The children (n = 6) from the HIV infection risk group were seronegative. The infection rate in the adults from the HIV infection and hepatitis risk group was 19.2 +/- 3.5 and 24.3 +/- 3.5%, respectively. Diagnostic antibody titers in the children and adults were determined in 9.0 +/- 2.3 and 8.3 +/- 1.6%, respectively. Immunological assays should be used to rule out toxocariasis in the examinees. If there are seropositive results, specific antiparasitic threatment should be performed.

  14. Racial Differences in Response to Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection: An AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaudo, Heather J.; Smith, Kimberly Y.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Flexner, Charles; Haubrich, Richard; Chen, Yun; Fischl, Margaret A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Riddler, Sharon A.; Gulick, Roy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. In the United States, black individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher rates of virologic failure on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and of death compared to white individuals. The cause for these disparities is uncertain. We sought to examine differences in virologic outcomes among antiretroviral-naive clinical trial participants starting randomized ART and to investigate factors to explain the differences. Methods. Individual-level data from participants initiating ART in 5 AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies were analyzed. Included studies were those conducted during 1998–2006 with a primary outcome of virologic failure. The primary outcome measure was time to virologic failure, regardless of ART changes. Results. A total of 2495 individuals (1151 black; 1344 white) were included with a median follow-up of 129 weeks. Compared to whites, blacks had an increased hazard of virologic failure (hazard ratio [HR]; 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4–1.9; P < .001), with no evidence of heterogeneity across regimens (P = .97); the association remained after adjustment for measured confounders (HR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2–1.6; P < .001). Increased hazard of virologic failure was associated with younger age, higher pretreatment HIV type 1 RNA level, lower pretreatment CD4 cell count, hepatitis C antibody, less education, and recent nonadherence to treatment. Sensitivity analyses with different endpoint definitions demonstrated similar results. Conclusions. In this analysis, blacks had a 40% higher virologic failure risk than whites that was not explained by measured confounders. The observation was consistent over a range of regimens, suggesting that the difference may be driven by social factors; however, biological factors cannot be ruled out. Further research should identify the sources of racial disparities and develop strategies to reduce them. PMID:24046302

  15. Alternating treatment with didanosine and zidovudine versus either drug alone for the treatment of advanced HIV infection. The Alter Study. Nordic HIV Therapy Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstoft, J; Melander, H; Bruun, J N;

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of an alternating regime with zidovudine and didanosine versus treatment with either drug alone were investigated in a randomized, open, controlled trial, 552 patients with advanced HIV infection, 47% of whom had received prior treatment with zidovudine, were enrolled...

  16. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  17. Leishmania / HIV co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjeux, P

    1995-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is transmitted by sandflies, is always present in at least 62 countries and is spreading to areas where it had not existed in the past. VL/HIV co-infections are becoming more and more common. In southern Europe, 25-70% of adult VL cases also have HIV infection. 1.5-9% of AIDS cases have newly acquired or reactivated VL. In the Mediterranean area, VL is the most common opportunistic parasitic infection among AIDS cases (i.e., 100 CD4/mcl). AIDS patients with VL have a much shorter survival period than other AIDS patients. VL can lie dormant for years but emerge clinically if an infected person has immunosuppression. Most VL/HIV co-infections in the western hemisphere are in Brazil. East African countries reporting VL/HIV co-infections include Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, and Sudan. Only one VL/HIV co-infected case has been found in Cameroon and in Guinea Bissau. VL/HIV co-infection cases tend to not have the usual VL clinical signs and symptoms (fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, polyadenopathies), making clinical diagnosis difficult. Since VL test sensitivity in HIV positive patients is reduced 20-40%, it is also difficult to make a serological diagnosis. In the first VL episode of HIV-infected patients, clinicians should use BMA, the safest and most sensitive test. Drug options for VL treatment include pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine, amphotericin B, and amphotericin B encapsulated in liposomes. Treatment failure is rather common in VL/HIV co-infected patients. Researchers from different centers need to conduct trials of various multi-therapy schedules. 70% of VL/HIV co-infected cases in southern Europe use intravenous drugs, suggesting that sharing of needles may account for the co-infection. The World Health Organization has mobilized against VL/HIV co-infections, including setting up a minimal surveillance system.

  18. Accuracy of a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for diagnosis of group B Streptococcus colonization in a cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvea, Maria Isabel S; Joao, Esau C; Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes B; Read, Jennifer S; Fracalanzza, Sergio E L; Souza, Claudia T V; Souza, Maria José de; Torres Filho, Helio M; Leite, Cassiana C F; do Brasil, Pedro E A A

    2017-05-01

    There are limited data regarding Xpert performance to detect Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in HIV-infected pregnant women. We evaluated the accuracy of a rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in a cohort of HIV-infected women. At 35-37 weeks of pregnancy, a pair of combined rectovaginal swabs were collected for two GBS assays in a cohort of sequentially included HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro: (1) culture; and (2) real-time PCR assay [GeneXpert GBS (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA)]. Using culture as the reference, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative-likelihood ratios were estimated. From June 2012 to February 2015, 337 pregnant women met inclusion criteria. One woman was later excluded, due to failure to obtain a result in the index test; 336 were included in the analyses. The GBS colonization rate was 19.04%. Sensitivity and specificity of the GeneXpert GBS assay were 85.94% (95% CI: 75.38-92.42) and 94.85% (95% CI: 91.55-96.91), respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 79.71% (95% CI: 68.78-87.51) and 96.63% (95% CI: 93.72-98.22), respectively. GeneXpert GBS is an acceptable test for the identification of GBS colonization in HIV-infected pregnant women and represents a reasonable option to detect GBS colonization in settings where culture is not feasible.

  19. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients and its relationship with HIV infection, ABO blood groups and life style in a university hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feleke Moges; Afework Kassu; Getahun Mengistu; Solomon Adugna; Berhanu Andualem; Takeshi Nishikawa; Fusao Ota

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) among dyspeptic patients and to assess the relationship between H pylori infection, blood group, HIV infection and life style of the patients.METHODS: In a hospital-based cross-sectional study,patients attending Outpatient Department of University of Gondar Hospital were enrolled. Socio-demographic information was collected using questionnaires. Serum was analyzed for anti-H pylori IgG antibodies using a commercial kit. HIV serostatus was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Blood grouping was performed by slide agglutination tests.RESULTS: A total of 215 dyspeptic patients were included in the study. One hundred and sixteen patients (54%) were females and 99 (46%) were males. Anti-H pylori IgG antibodies were detected in sera of 184 (85.6%) patients. The prevalence was significantly higher in patients aged 50 years and above. Twenty point five percent of the patients were found to be seropositive for HIV. No significant association was found between sex,ABO blood groups, consumption of spicy diets, socioeconomic status and seropositivity for H pylori. However,alcohol consumption was significantly associated with H pylori serology.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection is associated with a history of alcohol intake and older age.The effect of different diet, alcohol and socioeconomic status as risk factors for H pylori infection needs further study.

  20. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicti...

  1. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysiak, Robert; Kedzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kedzierska, Joanna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with a number of adverse consequences, including endocrine disorders. The endocrine changes associated with HIV infection have been studied in depth and, as the results of so far carried out studies suggest, their aetiology is usually multifactoral. Their pathogenesis includes direct infection of endocrine glands by HIV or opportunistic organisms, infiltration by neoplasms and adverse effects of drugs. Endocrine problems that most frequently affect this group of patients include: hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, impaired growth hormone release, lipodystrophy and bone loss. They may develop in both the early as well as late stages of the infection, ranging from subclinical disturbances to overt endocrine symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to review the aetiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated endocrine disturbances with a special emphasis on the most recent literature.

  2. Increased likelihood of bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus and urethra of uncircumcised men in a diverse group of HIV infected and uninfected patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological mechanism of circumcision as potentiating HIV prevention is poorly understood. Foreskin microbiota has been postulated as having a potential role; however, little is known about the relationship between bacterial pathogens and circumcision in adults. Materials and Methods: We sampled the coronal sulcus of a diverse group of circumcised and uncircumcised men (n=315 from a government chest hospital and fertility clinic in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Genital examination was conducted on three groups of men: Group 1 - HIV infected; Group 2 - TB infected; Group 3 - control. Aerobic and anaerobic specimens were cultured according to standard clinical protocols, and results were analyzed following multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Three hundred fifteen study participants - 47.6% of Group 1, 36.5% of Group 2, and 15.9% of Group 3 - were enrolled in the study and included in all analyses. Overall 37.1% of the participants were circumcised without variation across groups (P=0.29. Smegma was observed in 18.7% of the participants with no cases observed in Group 3 (P<0.001. Gram-negative pathogens were more prevalent among study participants in Group 1 (22.7% and Group 2 (30.4% as compared with those in Group 3 (6.0% (P=0.003. In multivariate regression analysis, controlling for group, age, and presence of smegma, uncircumcised men were more likely to be colonized with gram positives [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.9; P<0.05], gram negatives (AOR 2.4; P<0.05, or any pathogen (AOR 2.8; P<0.005. Conclusions: Uncircumcised men in this population in South India are more likely to harbor bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus than do their circumcised counterparts. Future studies should examine the relationship between foreskin microbiota and HIV transmission.

  3. Autoimmune diseases and HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emilie; Duclos, Antoine; Adelaide, Leopold; Miailhes, Patrick; Hot, Arnaud; Ferry, Tristan; Seve, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To describe the clinical manifestations, treatments, prognosis, and prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. All HIV-infected patients managed in the Infectious Diseases Department of the Lyon University Hospitals, France, between January 2003 and December 2013 and presenting an AD were retrospectively included. Thirty-six ADs were found among 5186 HIV-infected patients which represents a prevalence of 0.69% including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 15), inflammatory myositis (IM) (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 4), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) (n = 4), myasthenia gravis (n = 2), Graves’ disease (n = 2), and 1 case of each following conditions: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, Hashimoto thyroiditis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. One patient presented 2 ADs. Thirty patients were known to be HIV-infected when they developed an AD. The AD preceded HIV infection in 2 patients. GBS and HIV infection were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 cases. At AD diagnosis, CD4 T lymphocytes count were higher than 350/mm3 in 63% of patients, between 200 and 350/mm3 in 19% and less than 200/mm3 in 19%. Twenty patients benefited from immunosuppressant treatments, with a good tolerance. ADs during HIV infection are uncommon in this large French cohort. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, sarcoidosis, IM, and GBS appear to be more frequent than in the general population. Immunosuppressant treatments seem to be effective and well tolerated. PMID:28121924

  4. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelissen Marion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the

  5. Plasma proteomic profiling in HIV-1 infected methamphetamine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael Pottiez

    Full Text Available We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV itself. These proteins were involved in complement, coagulation pathways and oxidative stress. Continuous METH use is an unstable condition, altering levels of a number of plasma proteins.

  6. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

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    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  7. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  8. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  9. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulenga, V.; Musiime, V.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Cook, A.D.; Abongomera, G.; Kenny, J.; Chabala, C.; Mirembe, G.; Asiimwe, A.; Owen-Powell, E.; Burger, D.M.; McIlleron, H.; Klein, N.; Chintu, C.; Thomason, M.J.; Kityo, C.; Walker, A.S.; Gibb, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: WHO 2013 guidelines recommend universal treatment for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. No paediatric trials have compared nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa, where most HIV-infected children live. We aimed t

  10. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulenga, V.; Musiime, V.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Cook, A.D.; Abongomera, G.; Kenny, J.; Chabala, C.; Mirembe, G.; Asiimwe, A.; Owen-Powell, E.; Burger, D.M.; McIlleron, H.; Klein, N.; Chintu, C.; Thomason, M.J.; Kityo, C.; Walker, A.S.; Gibb, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: WHO 2013 guidelines recommend universal treatment for HIV-infected children younger than 5 years. No paediatric trials have compared nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa, where most HIV-infected children live. We aimed

  11. Diagnosis of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Infection by HIV DNA PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Shah

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.

  12. Bone disease and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; Tebas, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of bone demineralization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the current therapeutic era has been described in multiple studies, sounding the alarm that we may expect an epidemic of fragility fractures in the future. However, despite noting high overall prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis, recent longitudinal studies that we review here have generally not observed accelerated bone loss during antiretroviral therapy beyond the initial period after treatment initiation. We discuss the continued progress toward understanding the mechanisms of HIV-associated bone loss, particularly the effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and host immune factors on bone turnover. We summarize results of clinical trials published in the past year that studied the safety and efficacy of treatment of bone loss in HIV-infected patients and provide provisional opinions about who should be considered for bone disease screening and treatment.

  13. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-04-02

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI.

  14. Immunity to Diphtheria and Tetanus in HIV-Infected Children

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    A.P. Volokha

    2017-01-01

    (0.22 IU/ml compared to the children not infected with HIV (0.43 IU/ml, p < 0001. Only 18.6 % of children in the study group were protected against both pathogens compared with 41.2 % of children in the control group. HIV-infected children are not immune to diphtheria and tetanus and are at risk of these infections. Conclusions. The main predictor of immune protection against diphtheria and tetanus is an early treatment of HIV infection (in the first 2 years of life, higher levels of CD4 + T-cells at the beginning of ART and ART vaccination after being started on ART. We recommend controlling the level of specific antibodies HIV-infected children who have received vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus before the ART beginning. In case of the absence of protective antibodies an extra booster against these bacterial infections is recommended to HIV-infected children.

  15. Regional differences in use of antiretroviral agents and primary prophylaxis in 3122 European HIV-infected patients. EuroSIDA Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Phillips, A N; Vella, S;

    1997-01-01

    differences. In patients without esophageal candidiasis or other invasive fungal infections, antifungal drugs were far less frequently used in patients from southern and central Europe compared with patients from northern Europe (10%, 10%, and 25%, respectively, p ...Little is known about how widely HIV-related drugs are used outside controlled clinical trials. We therefore assessed factors associated with use of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and primary prophylactic regimens to prevent HIV-associated opportunistic infections. Baseline data from a prospective...... study from May to August 1994, on 3122 consecutive HIV infected patients with a CD4 count

  16. Risk group characteristics and viral transmission clusters in South-East Asian patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE and subtype B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Oyomopito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p < 0.001 as did HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p < 0.001. After adjustment, we found increased subtype B infection among men who have sex with men, relative to heterosexual-reported exposures (odds ratio = 2.4, p < 0.001. We further describe four transmission clusters of eight to 15 treatment naïve, predominantly symptomatic patients (two each for subtype B and CRF01_AE. Risk-group subpopulations differed with respect to the infecting HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.

  17. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  18. Manifestações neurológicas em crianças e adolecentes infectados e expostos ao HIV-1 Neurological findings in a group of children and adolescents exposed and infected by HIV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rocha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O envolvimento do sistema nervoso central SNC na infecção pelo HIV-1 em crianças pode estar evidente desde o início ou demorar muitos anos para se manifestar. Microcefalia, rebaixamento cognitivo, sinais piramidais, distúrbios do humor e do comportamento e complicações pelo uso da terapia antiretroviral são comuns. Este é um trabalho observacional, descritivo e seccional cuja finalidade é descrever as alterações do exame neurológico em um grupo de crianças e adolescentes expostos pelo HIV-1 durante o período perinatal. Foram avaliados 173 pacientes. Muitos pacientes tinham superposição de alterações de exame neurológico e/ou mais de um diagnóstico. As alterações mais comuns foram: retardo do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, atraso de linguagem, deficiência mental, síndrome piramidal, hiporreflexia. O exame neurológico foi alterado em 67% dos casos, mesmo naqueles pacientes soro-revertidos. Sugerimos que existe alto risco para doença neurológica nesse grupo de pacientes e que a progressão da infecção pelo HIV-1 acentua o aparecimento de co-morbidades e comprometimento de seu prognóstico.The CNS infection by HIV-1 in infancy could be present immediately after infection or became manifest later. Microcephalia, mental retardation, pyramidal signs, humor and behavioral disorders and antiretroviral therapy complications are common. This is an observational, sectional and descriptive study about findings on neurological examination of 173 patients in a group of children and adolescents infected and exposed to HIV-1 in perinatal period. Most of them had more than one neurological finding or different diagnosis. The more common findings were: encephalopathy, mental retardation, language delay, pyramidal signs, hyporreflexia. The neurological examination was abnormal in 67% of all patients even in sororeverters. We sugest that this group has a high risk to neurological disease and the development of co-morbidity is directly

  19. Regional differences in use of antiretroviral agents and primary prophylaxis in 3122 European HIV-infected patients. EuroSIDA Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Phillips, A N; Vella, S;

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about how widely HIV-related drugs are used outside controlled clinical trials. We therefore assessed factors associated with use of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and primary prophylactic regimens to prevent HIV-associated opportunistic infections. Baseline data from a prospective ...

  20. Etravirine pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mulligan (Nikki); S. Schalkwijk (Stein); B.M. Best (Brookie); A. Colbers (Angela); J. Wang (Jiajia); E.V. Capparelli (Edmund V.); J. Moltó (José); A.M. Stek (Alice M.); G. Taylor (Graham); E. Smith (Elizabeth); C.H. Tenorio (Carmen Hidalgo); N. Chakhtoura (Nahida); M.E.E. van Kasteren (Marjo); C.V. Fletcher (Courtney V.); M. Mirochnick (Mark); D.M. Burger (David); A. Antinori (Andrea); I.E. van der Ende (Ineke); G. Faetkenheuer (Gerd); C. Giaquinto (Carlo); Y. Gilleece (Yvonne); A. Gingelmaier (Andrea); A. Haberl (Annette); D. Hawkins (David); J. Ivanovic (Jelena); K. Kabeya (Kabamba); J. Lambert (Julien); F. Lyons (Fyona); J.F.J.B. Nellen (Jeannine); E. Nicastri (Emanuelle); J. Rockstroh (Jürgen); C. Schwarze-zander; A. Ruiter (Annemiek de); T. Sadiq (Tariq); A. Ven (André van der); K. Weizsäcker (Katharina); C. Wood (Chris); C. Wyen (Christoph)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. __Methods__ IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected

  1. Etravirine Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, N.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Best, B.M.; Colbers, A.; Wang, J; Capparelli, E.V.; Molto, J.; Stek, A.M.; Taylor, G.; Smith, E.; Tenorio, C.H.; Chakhtoura, N.; Kasteren, M. van; Fletcher, C.V.; Mirochnick, M.; Burger, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. METHODS: IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected pregnant women.

  2. Etravirine pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mulligan (Nikki); S. Schalkwijk (Stein); B.M. Best (Brookie); A. Colbers (Angela); J. Wang (Jiajia); E.V. Capparelli (Edmund V.); J. Moltó (José); A.M. Stek (Alice M.); G. Taylor (Graham); E. Smith (Elizabeth); C.H. Tenorio (Carmen Hidalgo); N. Chakhtoura (Nahida); M.E.E. van Kasteren (Marjo); C.V. Fletcher (Courtney V.); M. Mirochnick (Mark); D.M. Burger (David); A. Antinori (Andrea); I.E. van der Ende (Ineke); G. Faetkenheuer (Gerd); C. Giaquinto (Carlo); Y. Gilleece (Yvonne); A. Gingelmaier (Andrea); A. Haberl (Annette); D. Hawkins (David); J. Ivanovic (Jelena); K. Kabeya (Kabamba); J. Lambert (Julien); F. Lyons (Fyona); J.F.J.B. Nellen (Jeannine); E. Nicastri (Emanuelle); J. Rockstroh (Jürgen); C. Schwarze-zander; A. Ruiter (Annemiek de); T. Sadiq (Tariq); A. Ven (André van der); K. Weizsäcker (Katharina); C. Wood (Chris); C. Wyen (Christoph)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ The study goal was to describe etravirine pharmacokinetics during pregnancy and postpartum in HIV-infected women. __Methods__ IMPAACT P1026s and PANNA are on-going, non-randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multi-center phase-IV prospective studies in HIV-infected

  3. Interleukin-27 is differentially associated with HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in therapy-naive HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai He

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27, a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

  4. 天津市不同感染途径HIV-1感染者流行毒株亚型分析%The genetic subtype of HIV-1 in different groups of HIV-1 infected person in Tianjin City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 郑敏娜; 郭燕; 柏建芸; 程绍辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the molecular epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection in different groups of HIV-1 infected person in Tianjin, and compare the genetic subtype of HIV-1 in this region. Methods Whole blood samples were collected from 100 HIV-1 infected individuals whose routes of infection were confirmed. Nested PCR method was used to amplify gag genes sequences of HIV-1 after DNA extracted. The nucleotide sequence of amplification products was determined, and the genetic subtype was identified by comparative analysis. Results Gag gene fragments of HIV-1 were successfully amplified for 87 samples and 4 kinds of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant gene were found. CRP01-AE was major subtype, accounted for 59.77% ( 52/87) of all positives, which were mainly distributed in the homosexuals and heterosexuals. CRP07_BC was mainly distributed among the intravenous drug users. Conclusions There are at least 4 kinds of HIV-1 gene subtypes in Tianjin, and the distribution of genetic subtype of HIV-1 was a little different among different routes of HIV-1 infection. Therefore, the surveillance in the subtype variation of HIV-1 strains should be strengthened for the better prevention and control of the HIV-1 infection in this area.%目的 了解天津市HIV-1毒株的流行情况,比较不同感染途径HIV-1感染者中流行毒株的亚型分布.方法 采集100例感染途径已知的HIV-1感染者抗凝全血标本,提取DNA,用巢式聚合酶链式反应扩增病毒gag基因,并进行序列测定和亚型分析.结果 100份样品中,有87份样品被成功扩增出HIV-1的gag基因片段,通过系统进化分析,确定天津市HIV-1流行毒株分属4个亚型和重组型,其中CRF01 _AE比例最大,达59.77%(52/87),主要分布在通过同性和异性性传播的HIV-1感染者中,而在通过静注吸毒感染的HIV-1感染者中以CRF07_BC亚型为主.结论 天津市HIV-1流行株至少有4种基因亚型,且不同感染途径HIV-1感染

  5. Renal issues in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayjian, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Kidney disease remains a prominent complication of HIV disease, despite beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of HIV-associated nephropathy, and on kidney function in general populations of HIV infected patients. Persons of African descent continue to bear a disproportionate burden of severe kidney disease, as is true for the general population. Recently identified genetic variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene may contribute to this burden. As is also true for the general population, markers of kidney disease, including microalbuminuria, are sensitive predictors of cardiovascular disease and mortality among persons living with HIV. The emerging experience with kidney transplantation also suggests this to be a viable option in selected patients.

  6. Dengue in HIV infected patients:clinical profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is an important tropical viral infection. It can present with acute febrile illness with possible hemorrhagic complication. Since it is a common infection in the tropical world, concomitance with other diseases can be expected. An important consideration is the co-presentation of dengue with HIV infection. In this specific report, the authors summarize the clinical profiles of dengue patients with HIV infection. Based on the present study, it can be seen that clinical profiles of dengue in any group of HIV infection is not different.

  7. Risk factors associated with sexually transmitted infections among HIV infected men who have sex with men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ping; Wei, Ye; Xia, Hongli; Jiang, Wenjie; Yang, Changqing; Meng, Xiaojun; Peng, Peng; Yang, Yue; Jiang, Liying; Chu, Minjie; Zhuang, Xun

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with sexually transmitted infection and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (STI-HIV) co-infection among men who have sex with men (MSM). A total of 357 HIV-infected participants (84 STI-HIV co-infection and 273 HIV infections only) were recruited from Jiangsu, China. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the related factors associated with STI-HIV co-infection. Marginal structural models were adopted to estimate the effect of transmission drug resistance (TDR) on STI-HIV co-infection. For all participants, logistic regression analyses revealed that those who diagnosed with HIV-1 for longer duration (≥1.8 years) were significantly associated with reduced STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.32–0.96, P = 0.036). In further stratification analysis by antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with longer duration showed consistent significant associations with STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.26–0.83, P = 0.010) among MSM with ART-naïve status. In addition, significant reduced risk for STI-HIV co-infection (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.96–0.99, P = 0.010) were observed in younger (under the average age of 31.03) MSM of the same group. Interestingly, we also found TDR was significantly associated with an increased risk of STI-HIV co-infection risk (OR = 3.84, 95%CI: 1.05–14.03, P = 0.042) in ART-naïve group. Our study highlights a pattern of STI-HIV co-infection among MSM in China and indicates that targeted interventions aimed at encouraging TDR monitoring in MSM with early HIV infection are warranted. PMID:28158317

  8. Efficacy of zidovudine and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin for reducing perinatal HIV transmission from HIV-infected women with advanced disease: results of Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E R; Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Bethel, J; Whitehouse, J; Nugent, R; Moye, J; Glenn Fowler, M; Mathieson, B J; Reichelderfer, P; Nemo, G J; Korelitz, J; Meyer, W A; Sapan, C V; Jimenez, E; Gandia, J; Scott, G; O'Sullivan, M J; Kovacs, A; Stek, A; Shearer, W T; Hammill, H

    1999-03-01

    Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 185 evaluated whether zidovudine combined with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (HIVIG) infusions administered monthly during pregnancy and to the neonate at birth would significantly lower perinatal HIV transmission compared with treatment with zidovudine and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) without HIV antibody. Subjects had baseline CD4 cell counts /=200/microL) but not with time of zidovudine initiation (5.6% vs. 4.8% if started before vs. during pregnancy; P=. 75). The Kaplan-Meier transmission rate for HIVIG recipients was 4. 1% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-6.7%) and for IVIG recipients was 6.0% (2.8%-9.1%) (P=.36). The unexpectedly low transmission confirmed that zidovudine prophylaxis is highly effective, even for women with advanced HIV disease and prior zidovudine therapy, although it limited the study's ability to address whether passive immunization diminishes perinatal transmission.

  9. Coordinated modulation of circulating miR-21 in HIV, HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension, and HIV/HCV co-infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Victoria N.; Park, Joseph; Nikolic, Ivana; Channick, Richard; Yu, Paul B.; De Marco, Teresa; Hsue, Priscilla; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To assess expression of miR-21 in these overlapping comorbidities, we measured plasma miR-21 in HIV with and without PAH and then stratified by concomitant HCV infection. miR-21 was increased in HIV and HIV-PAH versus uninfected subjects, but did not differ between these groups. HIV/HCV co-infection correlated with even higher miR-21 levels within the HIV-infected population. These data reveal specific regulation of plasma miR-21 in HIV, HIV/HCV co-infection, and PAH and suggest that miR-21 may integrate complex disease-specific signaling in the setting of HIV infection. PMID:26473639

  10. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint. Eve

  11. 2009~2014年陕西省艾滋病哨点监测重点人群 HIV 感染和新发感染检测分析%Analysis of HIV Infection and New Infections Detection of AIDS Sentinel Surveillance Focus Groups in Shaanxi Province 2009~2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任强; 常文辉; 张梦妍; 胡婷; 李华; 付钰淋; 邹扬帆; 董丽芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective To learn 2009~2014 Shaanxi Province sentinel surveillance six classes of HIV infection focus groups, and estimates of HIV-1 new infection.Methods Used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)and Western blot (WB)experiments for the 2009~2014 HIV sentinel surveillance Shaanxi Province Category 6 focus groups conducted a total of 77 778 HIV antibody screening and confirmatory testing estimates of HIV-1 new infection.Results 2009~2014 men who had sex with men and people with HIV infection rate were 3.75%,8.77%,3.50%,5.00%,6.20% and 5.75%,and a slow upward trend;HIV-1 new infection were 5.04%,8.96%,5.01%,5.95%,4.68% and 6.39%,the overall downward trend. Young students,drug addicts,sex workers,pregnant women,and male STD clinic attenders five people with HIV infection and HIV-1 new infection were emerging to remain low.But male STD clinic attenders of HIV infection and HIV-1 new in-fection was emerging slowly rising trend.Conclusion Shaanxi MSM HIV infection and HIV-1 new infection were high,but HIV-1 new infection had decreased slowly.Emerging trend should continue to increase the population of the intervention ef-forts.The infection rate in other monitoring population was relatively low but a few people on the rise,the need to take the necessary coping methods.%目的:了解2009~2014年陕西省哨点监测6类重点人群的 HIV 感染率,并估算其 HIV-1新发感染率。方法使用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)和蛋白免疫印迹试验(WB)对2009~2014年陕西省艾滋病哨点监测6类重点人群共计77778人进行 HIV 抗体筛查和确证检测,再应用 BED HIV-1捕获酶联免疫测定法检测其中的确证阳性样品,从而估算其HIV-1新发感染率。结果2009~2014年男男同性性行为人群的 HIV 感染率分别为3.75%,8.77%,3.50%,5.00%,6.20%和5.75%,且呈缓慢上升趋势;HIV-1新发感染率分别为5.04%,8.96%,5.01%,5.95%,4.68%和6.39%,整体呈下降

  12. to prevent hiv infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-10-14

    Oct 14, 2008 ... about other things. ‡ ... deliberately trying to forget the entire experience. .... pleasant nor easy, and almost all of the rape survivors .... make it easier to treat HIV/AIDS in adults, but development of simplified drugs for children ...

  13. A Case of Seronegative HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Spivak, Adam M; Brennan, Tim; O'Connell, Karen; Sydnor, Emily; Thomas M Williams; Robert F. Siliciano; Gallant, Joel E.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV-1 typically seroconvert within weeks of primary infection. In rare cases, patients do not develop antibodies against HIV-1 despite demonstrable infection. We describe an HLA-B*5802 positive individual who presented with AIDS despite repeatedly negative HIV-1 antibody screening tests. Phylogenetic analysis of env clones revealed little sequence diversity, and weak HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell responses were present to Gag epitopes. The patient seroconverted after immun...

  14. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6%) were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42) were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354) of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%), Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%), Entamoeba coli (4.04%), Giardia lamblia (0.25%), Trichuris trichura (0.25%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%). In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%), Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%), Entamoeba coli (21.42%), Giardia lamblia (2.38%), Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25%) and Taenia spp. (0.25%) were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (Pintestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction of free anti-retroviral drugs, opportunistic intestinal infections are still a threat. HIV patients should be screened

  15. Safety and pharmacokinetics of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) immunoglobulin administered to HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns. Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 185 Pharmacokinetic Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, J S; Mofenson, L M; Fletcher, C V; Moye, J; Stiehm, E R; Meyer, W A; Nemo, G J; Mathieson, B J; Hirsch, G; Sapan, C V; Cummins, L M; Jimenez, E; O'Neill, E; Kovacs, A; Stek, A

    1997-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics and safety of hyperimmune anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intravenous immunoglobulin (HIVIG) were evaluated in the first 28 maternal-infant pairs enrolled in a randomized, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-controlled trial of HIVIG maternal-infant HIV transmission prophylaxis. Using 200 mg/kg, mean half-life and volume of distribution (Vd) in women were 15 days and 72 mL/kg, respectively, after one and 32 days and 154 mL/kg after three monthly infusions, with stable 4 mL/kg/day clearance. Transplacental passage occurred. Newborn single-dose half-life, Vd, and clearance were 30 days, 143 mL/kg, and 4 mL/kg/day, respectively. HIVIG rapidly cleared maternal serum immune complex-dissociated p24 antigen, and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels were stable. Mild to moderate adverse clinical effects occurred in 2 of 103 maternal and 2 of 25 infant infusions. No adverse hematologic, blood chemistry, or immunologic effects were seen. HIVIG is well-tolerated in HIV-infected pregnant women and their newborns, clears antigenemia, crosses the placenta, and exhibits pharmacokinetics similar to those of other immunoglobulin preparations.

  16. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age......- and education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced...... volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume...

  17. HLA-associated susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, G; Scorza, R; Lazzarin, A; Marchini, M; Zarantonello, M; D'Arminio, A; Marchisio, P; Plebani, A; Luzzati, R; Costigliola, P

    1992-01-01

    We studied HLA antigen distribution of 50 heterosexual partners of HIV+ drug abusers with more than 1 year of sexual exposure to HIV, 36 children born to seropositive mothers and 61 haemophiliac patients exposed to presumably infectious clotting factor concentrates. B52 and B44 antigens were associated with HIV resistance while B51 was associated with HIV susceptibility. Forty-nine HIV+ drug abusers, spouses of heterosexual partners studied and 25 HIV+ mothers of the children were also typed. DR11 phenotype was associated with infectiousness of HIV+ subjects. Our data suggest that the HLA region controls susceptibility to infection with HIV and infectiousness of HIV+ subjects in different risk groups. PMID:1733633

  18. Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhana A

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.

  19. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal ... Publications » DrugFacts » Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ...

  20. Amyloid and tau cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPPα and sAPPβ, amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (Aβ1-42, and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+ subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC, 25 with central nervous system (CNS opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV- subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease. Results CSF sAPPα and sAPPβ concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF Aβ1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections. Conclusions Parallel reductions of CSF sAPPα and sAPPβ in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those

  1. Vaccination in HIV-Infected Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Vaccines are critical components for protecting HIV-infected adults from an increasing number of preventable diseases. However, missed opportunities for vaccination among HIV-infected persons persist, likely due to concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of vaccines, as well as the changing nature of vaccine guidelines. In addition, the optimal timing of vaccination among HIV-infected adults in regards to HIV stage and receipt of antiretroviral therapy remain important questions. This article provides a review of the current recommendations regarding vaccines among HIV-infected adults and a comprehensive summary of the evidence-based literature of the benefits and risks of vaccines among this vulnerable population. PMID:25029589

  2. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-03-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction.

  3. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Noguera-Julian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156 and Stockholm (n = 84, men who have sex with men (MSM predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction.

  4. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction. PMID:27077120

  5. Two double-blinded, randomized, comparative trials of 4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 and 214.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, R T; Spino, C; Kuritzkes, D; Walker, B D; Valentine, F A; Hirsch, M S; Cooney, E; Friedland, G; Kundu, S; Merigan, T C; McElrath, M J; Collier, A; Plaeger, S; Mitsuyasu, R; Kahn, J; Haslett, P; Uherova, P; deGruttola, V; Chiu, S; Zhang, B; Jones, G; Bell, D; Ketter, N; Twadell, T; Chernoff, D; Rosandich, M

    2000-11-01

    The potential role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific immune responses in controlling viral replication in vivo has stimulated interest in enhancing virus-specific immunity by vaccinating infected individuals with HIV-1 or its components. These studies were undertaken to define patient populations most likely to respond to vaccination, with the induction of novel HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses, and to compare the safety and immunogenicity of several candidate recombinant HIV-1 envelope vaccines and adjuvants. New lymphoproliferative responses (LPRs) developed in 350 cells/mm(3) and were usually strain restricted. Responders tended to be more likely than nonresponders to have an undetectable level of HIV-1 RNA at baseline (P=.067). Induction of new cellular immune responses by HIV-1 envelope vaccines is a function of the immunologic stage of disease and baseline plasma HIV-1 RNA level and exhibits considerable vaccine strain specificity.

  6. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schadé Annemiek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for

  7. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  8. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  9. [Stroke in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Ireneia; Sousa, António; Correia, José

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is changing. New drug treatments have reduced morbidity and mortality of this disease, therefore it is necessary to start treating the HIV infection as a chronical disease. The association of the stroke with the HIV infection was inicially thought to be a result of other opportunistic infeccions and tumors. However, the vascular disease associated with HIV infection has been a subject of research and debate. New evidence shows that the vascular diseases could be a threat for the pacients doing highly active antirretroviral therapy (HAART). In this paper, we review the association between the HIV infection and stroke. Furthermore, we have done an analysis of the risk for the stroke on pacients with HIV infection considering the changes of the infection spectrum by the introduction of HAART.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immunity status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major health problems among HIV seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. In this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed. Methods A study of stool samples from 60 Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Each patient was examined for CD4 count and screened for diarrheal symptoms. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among the HIV-infected patients in this study was 50 %. Non- opportunistic intestinal parasite infections such as hookworms, Opisthorchis viverrini and Ascaris lumbricoides were commonly found in HIV-infected people regardless of immune status with or without diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic intestinal parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia and Strongyloides stercoralis infection were significantly more frequent in the low immunity group with diarrhea. Conclusion Therefore, opportunistic intestinal parasite infection should be suspected in any HIV infected patient with advanced disease presenting with diarrhea. The importance of tropical epidemic non-opportunistic intestinal parasite infections among HIV-infected patients should not be neglected.

  11. Changes in sexual behavior of HIV-infected older adults enrolled in a clinical trial of standalone group psychotherapies targeting depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Travis I; Heckman, Timothy G; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B; Kochman, Arlene

    2015-01-01

    By 2015, one-half of all HIV-positive persons in the U.S. will be 50-plus years of age, and as many as 30 % of older adults living with HIV/AIDS continue to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse. Contemporary positive prevention models often include mental health treatment as a key component of HIV prevention interventions. This secondary data analysis characterized longitudinal patterns of sexual behavior in HIV-positive older adults enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of group mental health interventions and assessed the efficacy of psychosocial treatments that targeted depression to reduce sexual risk behavior. Participants were 295 HIV-positive adults ≥50 years of age experiencing mild to severe depressive symptoms, randomized to one of three study conditions: a 12-session coping improvement group intervention, a 12-session interpersonal support group intervention, or individual therapy upon request. Approximately one-fifth of participants reported one or more occasions of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with HIV-negative sexual partners or persons of unknown HIV serostatus over the study period. Changes in sexual behavior did not vary by intervention condition, indicating that standalone treatments that target and reduce depression may be insufficient to reduce sexual risk behavior in depressed HIV-positive older adults.

  12. Changes in sexual behavior of HIV-infected older adults enrolled in a clinical trial of standalone group psychotherapies targeting depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Travis I.; Heckman, Timothy G.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, one-half of all HIV-positive persons in the U.S. will be 50-plus years of age, and as many as 30% of older adults living with HIV/AIDS continue to engage in unprotected sexual intercourse. Contemporary positive prevention models often include mental health treatment as a key component of HIV prevention interventions. This secondary data analysis characterized longitudinal patterns of sexual behavior in HIV-positive older adults enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of group mental health interventions and assessed the efficacy of psychosocial treatments that targeted depression to reduce sexual risk behavior. Participants were 295 HIV-positive adults ≥ 50 years of age experiencing mild to severe depressive symptoms, randomized to one of three study conditions: a 12-session coping improvement group intervention, a 12-session interpersonal support group intervention, or individual therapy upon request. Approximately one-fifth of participants reported one or more occasions of unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse with HIV-negative sexual partners or persons of unknown HIV serostatus over the study period. Changes in sexual behavior did not vary by intervention condition, indicating that standalone treatments that target and reduce depression may be insufficient to reduce sexual risk behavior in depressed HIV-positive older adults. PMID:24668254

  13. Family Group Psychotherapy to Support the Disclosure of HIV Status to Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Nicastro, Emanuele; Continisio, Grazia Isabella; Storace, Cinzia; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Mango, Carmela; Liguoro, Ilaria; Guarino, Alfredo; Officioso, Annunziata

    2013-01-01

    Disclosure of the HIV status to infected children is often delayed due to psychosocial problems in their families. We aimed at improving the quality of life in families of HIV-infected children, thus promoting disclosure of the HIV status to children by parents. Parents of 17 HIV-infected children (4.2–18 years) followed at our Center for pediatric HIV, unaware of their HIV status, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (8 monthly sessions of family group psychotherapy, FGP) or to t...

  14. Characterization of the gp120 of circulating HIV type 1 in a group of infected Chinese blood/plasma donors with asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Craigo, Jodi K; Ding, Ming; Guo, Yan; Shen, Shengli; Zhou, Yushen; Wu, Hao; Gupta, Phalguni

    2006-11-01

    The C2-V5 regions of the HIV envelope gene were cloned and sequenced from DNA samples of four asymptomatic and five AIDS patients from a cohort of HIV-1-infected Chinese plasma and blood donors. Sequence analysis revealed that regardless of the stage of disease, all the patient's HIV-1 belonged to either clade B' or circulating recombinant form 15 (CRF15) subtype. However, since these blood donors were infected at a time when circulating CRF15 was not known in that region, it is likely these HIV-1 types belong to clade B'. However, the C2-V5 sequences from AIDS patients clustered differently in the phylogenetic tree than those present in asymptomatic patients and showed a significantly higher divergence and lower diversity compared to those from asymptomatic patients. In addition, more syncytia-inducing viral genotypes were present in AIDS patients than in asymptomatic patients. These results contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of circulating HIV-1 in infected Chinese plasma and blood donors, warrant additional investigation of the possible presence of CRF15 in Chinese blood donors, and may have important implications in the future design of therapeutic strategies for treating these infected patients.

  15. Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen S. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.

  16. Subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Marco; Adorni, Fulvio; Casana, Maddalena; Tordato, Federica; Tincati, Camilla; Cicconi, Paola; Bini, Teresa; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2006-11-01

    The correlation between subclinical hypothyroidism [thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)>4 mIU/L with normal free triiodothyroxine and free thyroxine levels], HIV infection and HAART is still unclear. To evaluate the predictive factors of subclinical hypothyroidism in an HIV-infected population, we identified three groups of subjects: G1, subjects on stable highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (for at least 1 year) at baseline and at month 24 (n=97); G2, subjects naive at both baseline and month 24 (n=47); G3, subjects starting HAART at baseline (n=46). The three groups were comparable with respect to age, gender, body weight and prevalence of HCV infection. At baseline, subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 14 subjects in G1 (14.4%), 5 in G2 (10.6%) and 4 in G3 (8.7%) (P=0.18) and these were excluded from the analysis. At month 24, 15 subjects had developed subclinical hypothyroidism: 4 in G1 (4.8%), 3 in G2 (7.1%) and 8 in G3 (19.0%). In the multivariable analysis, the higher increase in total cholesterol was predictive of subclinical hypothyroidism (RR: 1.53 for each additional 10 mg/dL, 95% CI 1.23-1.90; P<0.01); other variables, which were statistically significant in the univariate analysis, such as G3 group, body weight and higher increase in CD4+ cell count and in triglyceride serum levels were not confirmed to be associated with TSH alterations. The occurrence of subclinical hypothyroidism in HIV-positive patients seems to be related to the increase in total cholesterol serum levels occurring after HAART initiation. Thyroid function should be monitored in all HIV-infected subjects, especially in those starting HAART.

  17. HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R.; Phelan, Joan A.; Norman, Robert G.; Fisch, Gene S.; Corby, Patricia M.; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J.; Kokaras, Alexis S.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

  18. The kidney in HIV infection: beyond HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more common in HIV-infected persons than in the general population. AKI is associated with poor health outcomes, including increased risk of heart failure, cardiovascular events, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality. The most common causes of AKI in HIV-infected persons are systemic infections and adverse drug effects. The prevalence of CKD is rising in the HIV-infected population and CKD is increasingly likely to be caused by comorbid conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, that frequently cause CKD in the general population. Guidelines for CKD screening in HIV-infected patients are being revised. It is currently recommended that all patients be screened for creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate and for urine protein at the time of HIV diagnosis. Annual screening is recommended for high-risk patients. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation are all options for treating ESRD in HIV-infected patients. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis offer similar survival in HIV-infected patients with ESRD. In selected patients with well-controlled HIV infection, kidney transplantation is associated with survival intermediate between that in the overall transplant population and that among transplant recipients older than 65 years. This article summarizes a presentation by Christina M. Wyatt, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing medical education program held in Chicago in May 2012, describing AKI and CKD using case illustrations.

  19. Placental pathology in HIV infection at term: a comparison with HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalk, Emma; Schubert, Pawel; Bettinger, Julie A; Cotton, Mark F; Esser, Monika; Slogrove, Amy; Wright, Colleen A

    2017-05-01

    To describe and correlate placental characteristics from pregnancies in HIV-infected and HIV-negative women with maternal and infant clinical and immunological data. Prospective descriptive study of placentas from term, uncomplicated vaginal births in a cohort of HIV-infected (n = 120) and HIV-negative (n = 103) women in Cape Town, South Africa. Microscopic and macroscopic features were used to determine pathological cluster diagnoses. The majority of HIV-infected women received some form of drug treatment for the prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. Data were analysed using logistic regression. HIV-infected women were older (median [IQR] 27.4 years [24-31] vs. 25.8 [23-30]), more likely to be multiparous (81.7% vs. 71.8%) and had lower CD4 counts (median [IQR] 323.5 cells/ml [235-442] vs. 467 [370-656]). There were no differences in gestational age at first antenatal visit or at delivery. The proportion of specimens with placental lesions was similar in both groups (39.2% vs. 44.7%). Half of all samples were below the tenth percentile expected-weight-for-gestation regardless of HIV status. This was unaffected by adjustment for confounding variables. Maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) was more frequent in HIV infection (24.2% vs. 12.6%; P = 0.028), an association which strengthened after adjustment (aOR 2.90 [95% confidence interval 1.11-7.57]). Otherwise the frequency of individual diagnoses did not differ between the groups on multivariate analysis. In this cohort of term, uncomplicated pregnant women, few differences were observed between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups apart from MVM. This lesion may underlie the development of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, which have been observed at higher rates in some HIV-infected women on ART. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  1. Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Sprinz

    Full Text Available Metabolic complications continue to play a major role in the management of HIV infection. Dyslipidemia associated with HIV infection and with the use of combined antiretroviral therapy includes elevations in triglycerides, reduced high-density cholesterol, and variable increases in low-density and total cholesterol. The association between dyslipidemia and specific antiretroviral agents has been underscored. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which HIV and antiretroviral agents lead to dyslipidemia have been hypothesized, but they are still controversial. The potential clinical and pathological consequences of HIV-associated hyperlipidemia are not completely known, but several studies reported an increased risk of coronary artery disease in HIV-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infected persons who have hyperlipidemia should be managed similarly to those without HIV infection in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program. Life style changes are the primary target. Statins and fibrates and/or modification in antiretroviral therapy are possible approaches to this problem.

  2. [The Spanish AIDS Study Group and Spanish National AIDS Plan (GESIDA/Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) recommendations for the treatment of tuberculosis in HIV-infected individuals (Updated January 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Pulido, Federico; Caylá, Joan; Iribarren, José A; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Pérez-Camacho, Inés

    2013-12-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an expert panel of the Grupo de Estudio de Sida (GESIDA [Spanish AIDS Study Group]) and the Plan Nacional sobre el Sida (PNS [Spanish National AIDS Plan]). The document updates current guidelines on the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) in HIV-infected individuals contained in the guidelines on the treatment of opportunistic infections published by GESIDA and PNS in 2008. The document aims to facilitate the management and treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in Spain, and includes specific sections and recommendations on the treatment of drug-sensitive TB, multidrug-resistant TB, and extensively drug-resistant TB, in this population. The consensus guidelines also make recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected patients with TB in special situations, such as chronic liver disease, pregnancy, kidney failure, and transplantation. Recommendations are made on the timing and initial regimens of antiretroviral therapy in patients with TB, and on immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV-infected patients with TB who are receiving antiretroviral therapy. The document does not cover the diagnosis of TB, diagnosis/treatment of latent TB, or treatment of TB in children. The quality of the evidence was evaluated and the recommendations graded using the approach of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics Analysis and Simulation of a Modified HIV Infection Model with a Saturated Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies a modified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection differential equation model with a saturated infection rate. It is proved that if the basic virus reproductive number R0 of the model is less than one, then the infection-free equilibrium point of the model is globally asymptotically stable; if R0 of the model is more than one, then the endemic infection equilibrium point of the model is globally asymptotically stable. Based on the clinical data from HIV drug resistance database of Stanford University, using the proposed model simulates the dynamics of the two groups of patients’ anti-HIV infection treatment. The numerical simulation results are in agreement with the evolutions of the patients’ HIV RNA levels. It can be assumed that if an HIV infected individual’s basic virus reproductive number R0<1 then this person will recover automatically; if an antiretroviral therapy makes an HIV infected individual’s R0<1, this person will be cured eventually; if an antiretroviral therapy fails to suppress an HIV infected individual’s HIV RNA load to be of unpredictable level, the time that the patient’s HIV RNA level has achieved the minimum value may be the starting time that drug resistance has appeared.

  4. [HIV infection - a new disease of internal medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopková, Svatava

    2017-01-01

    Modern antiretroviral treatment belongs to the greatest success of current medicine. HIV infection has gone from a death sentence to a manageable chronic disease which develops several decades. Thanks to treatment advances, people with HIV can and do live long and full lives. In the last two decades, the incidence AIDS defining illnesses have been dramatically reduced especially opportunistic infections and malignancies, whereas the role of non-infection comorbidities has risen than age-matched HIV uninfected adults. These comorbidities include cardiovascular diseases, venous and arterial thrombosis, metabolic disorders, chronic liver and renal diseases, nervous system disorders, osteoporosis and some cancers. This relatively large group of diseases is known as non-AIDS defining or indicating diseases and these diseases are associated in HIV uninfected general population with older age and ageing Most HIV positive individuals on antiretrovirals present an abnormal level of immune activation, inflammation and hypercoagulable condition. These hallmarks are typically seen in older HIV uninfected general population and are associated with aging and the immunosenescent phenotype. The explanation for this phenomenon is unclear. There are multiple factors, which may apply pathophysiologically, including the residual immune dysregulation syndrome and antiretrovirals alone. It is clear that changes in the nature of chronic HIV infection put it in internal medicine. Cardiology, internal medicine, geriatric and oncology syndromes are dominating manifestations in HIV positive patients on antiretrovirals. Care management for HIV infected individuals will need to draw on a wide range of medical disciplines in diagnosis and treatment. Clarification of these phenomena would be beneficial for the treatment of these non-infectious diseases in HIV positive and as well in HIV negative general population.Key words: antiretroviral therapy - HIV infection - immune dysregulation

  5. HIV infection in the South African construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Paul; Govender, Rajen; Edwards, Peter; Lake, Antony

    2017-09-20

    South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalences in the world, and compared with other sectors of the national economy, the construction industry is disproportionately adversely affected. Using data collected nationally from more than 57,000 construction workers, HIV infection among South African construction workers was estimated, together with an assessment of the association between worker HIV serostatus and worker characteristics of gender, age, nature of employment, occupation, and HIV testing history. The HIV infection of construction workers was estimated to be lower than that found in a smaller 2008 sample. All worker characteristics are significantly associated with HIV serostatus. In terms of most at-risk categories: females are more at risk of HIV infection than males; workers in the 30-49 year old age group are more at risk than other age groups; workers employed on a less permanent basis are more at risk; as are workers not having recently tested for HIV. Among occupations in the construction industry, general workers, artisans, and operator/drivers are those most at risk. Besides yielding more up-to-date estimated infection statistics, this research also identifies vulnerable sub-groups as valuable pointers for more targeted workplace interventions by construction firms.

  6. Prevention of HIV infection among migrant population groups in Northeast Brazil O papel da migração na prevenção da infecção pelo HIV no Nordeste Brasileiro

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    Ligia Regina Sansigolo Kerr-Pontes

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection is spreading among the poor, women, and migrant communities in the interior of Northeast Brazil. The research focused on different configurations, beliefs, representations, and forms of social organization of behavior thought to be associated with the population's capacity to efficiently follow AIDS prevention measures. Participants located in neighborhoods known for having large migrant populations were identified by Family Health Program Workers in Fortaleza and Teresina. The study adopted a qualitative methodology. Several belief-system concepts and values, as well as the social organization of sexuality revealed in the study, represent obstacles both to AIDS prevention and condom use. Hunger, lack of prospects, and fear are associated with a social situation of poverty, exclusion, prejudice, and total absence of basic human rights When examined together, these elements define different configurations in the migrants' increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The groups' increased vulnerability relates to the socioeconomic complexity that must be considered in HIV/AIDS control and prevention programs.A infecção pelo HIV entre pobres, mulheres e populações migrantes do interior do Nordeste Brasileiro vem crescendo. As diferentes configurações, crenças e representações e formas de organização do comportamento, associadas à capacidade de seguir adequadamente medidas de prevenção, foram o foco desta investigação. Os participantes foram localizados em bairros com altas taxas de migração através do Programa Saúde da Família em Fortaleza e Teresina. Empregou-se a metodologia qualitativa nesta investigação. Vários sistemas de crenças, valores e organização social da sexualidade desta população representam obstáculos à prevenção da AIDS e inibem o uso do preservativo. Pobreza, falta de perspectiva e medo estão associados à situação de pobreza, exclusão social e preconceito e à total ausência de direitos

  7. Anthropometric differences between HIV-infected individuals prior to antiretroviral treatment and the general population from 1998-2007: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT cohort and NHANES.

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    Benjamin E Atkinson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess differences in body circumferences and body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2 between antiretroviral treatment (ART naïve HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. METHODS: Waist, arm, and thigh circumferences and BMI were measured within the ALLRT and NHANES cohorts between 1998 and 2007. ALLRT is a prospective, longitudinal study of U.S. participants enrolled in randomized HIV treatment studies conducted by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG. NHANES is a representative group of the US population. The cohorts were analyzed in two time periods, to account for trends towards increased adiposity. Anthropometrics were displayed in percentiles by age and sex. Multiple linear regression models examined differences between cohorts. RESULTS: ALLRT had more males (82% versus 48%, p<0.0001, more black participants (32% versus 23%, p<0.0001, and less Hispanics (21% versus 30%, p<0.0001 than NHANES. Mean BMI was smaller in ALLRT males and females compared to NHANES by 1.6-2.4 kg/m(2 (p<0.0001. Mean waist and arm circumferences in both sexes and time periods were significantly smaller in ALLRT than in NHANES (p<0.0001. Mean thigh circumference in ALLRT was also smaller than NHANES among males (p<0.0001 in both time periods and females (p = 0.01 in the early time period. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in anthropometrics existed prior to ART initiation, in this large national cohort of HIV-infected individuals, compared to a representative HIV-uninfected cohort, indicating that HIV and its complications have important effects on body shape. Further longitudinal examination of anthropometrics in this HIV-infected cohort may provide additional insight into disease risk. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00001137 at www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  8. Anthropometric Differences between HIV-Infected Individuals Prior to Antiretroviral Treatment and the General Population from 1998–2007: The AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials (ALLRT) Cohort and NHANES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Benjamin E.; Krishnan, Supriya; Cox, Gary; Hulgan, Todd; Collier, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess differences in body circumferences and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) between antiretroviral treatment (ART) naïve HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons. Methods Waist, arm, and thigh circumferences and BMI were measured within the ALLRT and NHANES cohorts between 1998 and 2007. ALLRT is a prospective, longitudinal study of U.S. participants enrolled in randomized HIV treatment studies conducted by the AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG). NHANES is a representative group of the US population. The cohorts were analyzed in two time periods, to account for trends towards increased adiposity. Anthropometrics were displayed in percentiles by age and sex. Multiple linear regression models examined differences between cohorts. Results ALLRT had more males (82% versus 48%, p<0.0001), more black participants (32% versus 23%, p<0.0001), and less Hispanics (21% versus 30%, p<0.0001) than NHANES. Mean BMI was smaller in ALLRT males and females compared to NHANES by 1.6–2.4 kg/m2 (p<0.0001). Mean waist and arm circumferences in both sexes and time periods were significantly smaller in ALLRT than in NHANES (p<0.0001). Mean thigh circumference in ALLRT was also smaller than NHANES among males (p<0.0001 in both time periods) and females (p = 0.01 in the early time period). Conclusions Differences in anthropometrics existed prior to ART initiation, in this large national cohort of HIV-infected individuals, compared to a representative HIV-uninfected cohort, indicating that HIV and its complications have important effects on body shape. Further longitudinal examination of anthropometrics in this HIV-infected cohort may provide additional insight into disease risk. Trial Registration NCT00001137 at www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:23755215

  9. Endocrine alterations in HIV-infected patients

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    Sujit Kumar Tripathy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and objectives: To study the frequency of thyroid, adrenal and gonadal dysfunction in newly diagnosed HIV-infected patients and to correlate them at different levels of CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: Forty-three HIV-positive cases were included in the study group. Cases were divided into three groups on the basis of CD4 cell count. Serum free T3, free T4, TSH, Cortisol, FSH, LH, testosterone and estradiol were estimated by the radioimmunoassay method. Hormone levels between cases were compared and their correlation with CD4 count was analyzed. Results: Prevalence of gonadal dysfunction (88.3% was the most common endocrine dysfunction followed by thyroid (60.4% and adrenal dysfunction (27.9%. Secondary hypogonadism (68.4% was more common than primary (31.6%. Low T3 syndrome, that is, isolated low free T3, was the most common (25.6% thyroid dysfunction followed by secondary hypothyroidism (16.2% and subclinical hypothyroidism (11.6%. Adrenal excess (16.3% was more common than adrenal insufficiency (11.6%. The difference in hormonal dysfunction between male and female was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05. 27.9% of patients had multiple hormone deficiency. There was negligible or no correlation between CD4 count and serum hormone level. Conclusion: In our study, endocrine dysfunction was quite common among HIV-infected patients but there was no correlation between hormone levels and CD4 count. Endocrine dysfunctions and role of hormone replacement therapy in HIV-infected patient needs to be substantiated by large longitudinal study, so that it will help to reduce morbidity, improve quality of life.

  10. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

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    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  11. Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Anna Karen; Lund, Tamara T.; Birch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy...

  12. Comorbidity and ageing in HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, K.W.

    2017-01-01

    In the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the HIV-infected population is ageing. Studies have suggested that HIV-infected individuals, even if appropriately treated with cART, may be at increased risk for several age-related conditions. In this thesis a variety of age-related co

  13. Comorbidity and ageing in HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, K.W.

    2017-01-01

    In the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the HIV-infected population is ageing. Studies have suggested that HIV-infected individuals, even if appropriately treated with cART, may be at increased risk for several age-related conditions. In this thesis a variety of age-related co

  14. Male reproduction and HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Leeuwen

    2009-01-01

    From its initial presentation in the early nineteen eighties until 1996, HIV-1 infection almost inevitably led to AIDS, which was a death sentence. Because of the short life expectancy, patients were advised against pregnancy. The improved prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection following the int

  15. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  16. Clinical profile of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Khopkar Uday; Raj Sujata; Sukthankar Ashish; Kulkarni M; Wadhwa S

    1992-01-01

    HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chanc...

  17. Clinical profile of HIV infection

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    Khopkar Uday

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chancroid, vegetating pyoderma and angioedema with purpura were unique features noted in this study.

  18. Sports behaviour among HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals in a Berlin cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L; Hechler, D; Jessen, A B; Neumann, K; Jessen, H; Beneke, R

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity has been recommended based on beneficial effects described in HIV-infected patients. However, such guidelines do not take into account actual sport behaviours and general attitudes towards physical activity. To evaluate actual sport activity and attitudes towards sport in HIV-infected versus non-infected individuals we conducted an anonymous questionnaire investigating the prevalence, as well as possible changes, in sports engagement and the overall attitude to physical activity. A total of 283 patients of a general care facility specialized in the treatment of HIV/AIDS in Berlin, Germany, participated; 124 were HIV infected and 159 were non-infected, mostly men who have sex with men (MSM) (88%), with a median age of 35 years. The HIV-infected participants had a median CD4+ count of 554 cells/µL and 48.8% of them were using antiretroviral therapy (ART) at the time of survey. The proportion of patients actually performing physical activity was significantly lower (P = 0.028) within the HIV-infected group (61.3%) than within the non-infected group (74.2%). This difference remained significant after accounting for possible confounders such as age, gender, injecting drug use and sexual preferences. Previously reported sport activity prevalence was similar in both groups on leaving school. From our data we could not identify an association between the time of HIV diagnosis and changes in sports activity. In conclusion, fewer HIV-infected individuals report physical activity than non-infected individuals. Sociodemographic studies to evaluate potential differences in sports behaviour are required in order to inform exercise guidelines for HIV-infected patients.

  19. Características clinicoepidemiológicas de um grupo de mulheres com HIV/AIDS em Salvador-Bahia Clinical-epidemiological characteristics of a group of HIV/AIDS infected women in Salvador-Bahia

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    Ceuci de Lima Xavier Nunes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A expansão da infecção pelo HIV/AIDS entre as mulheres e os mais pobres, são importantes características da epidemia no Brasil e no mundo. Estudo descritivo delineou-se com objetivo de descrever um grupo de 82 mulheres com HIV/AIDS de Salvador - Bahia. A idade média é 32 ± 7,2 anos; 75% têm filhos, 82,5% estão desempregadas e o grau de instrução situa-se entre analfabeto e primeiro grau em 77,8%. O número de parceiros sexuais foi igual ou inferior a cinco na vida em 71% dos casos e 25% relatavam um único parceiro. Quarenta e seis (55,4% mulheres apresentaram 77 episódios de infecções oportunistas. A maioria das pacientes tem baixo grau de instrução, baixa renda e poucos parceiros sexuais. A forma de transmissão foi predominantemente sexual, muitas mulheres adquiriram o vírus com o próprio companheiro/ marido.The increasing number of HIV/AIDS infected women is one of the main characteristics of the AIDS epidemic, besides the wide expansion of the disease among the poor. This study focused on a group of 82 women with AIDS from Salvador - Bahia. The mean age was 32 ± 7.2 years, 75% had children, 82.5% were jobless, and 77.8% were illiterate or only had basic education. The number of sexual partners was five or fewer in 71% of cases and 25% had only one sexual partner. Forty-six (55.4% women reported up to 77 episodes of opportunist infections. The majority of the patients were from the lower classes, with no good education, a low income and few sexual partners. The main via of transmission was heterosexual, and many of the women were infected by their steady partner/husband.

  20. Frequency and correlates of late presentation for HIV infection in France: older adults are a risk group - results from the ANRS-VESPA2 Study, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kayigan d'Almeida; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Aubrière, Cindy; Hamelin, Christine; Spire, Bruno; Lert, France

    2014-01-01

    Correlates of late presentation (LP) for HIV infection in Metropolitan France and French overseas departments (FODs) were assessed among HIV-infected patients recently diagnosed, using data from a large cross-sectional survey, representative of the French HIV-infected population, conducted in 2011. LP was defined as presentation with either clinical AIDS events within the calendar year of diagnosis or CD4 France and FODs. In Metropolitan France, 47.7% of participants were late presenters and 29.3% presented with advanced disease. LP was more frequent among male and female migrants from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA; 58.5% and 56.4%) and non-African heterosexual males (61.8%) than among men who have sex with men (34.8%). In FODs, 53.2% of participants were late presenters and 36.8% presented with an advanced disease. LP was more frequent among men than women (60.6% vs. 45.3%) and among those with a lower level of education (56.6% vs. 47.5%). A consistent positive association was found in adjusted analyses between LP/PAD and increasing age at diagnosis among all subpopulations, in both settings. In Metropolitan France, among men who have sex with men, those self-declaring as bisexual were at higher risk of LP/PAD; among non-African heterosexual males and females, religiosity was associated with increased risk of LP/PAD; and among SSA migrants, those diagnosed within the year following their arrival in France were at higher risk of LP/PAD. Older age at diagnosis is a major risk factor for LP/PAD independently of any other socio-demographic characteristics. Promotion of HIV testing should be renewed to target each subgroup at risk while paying a particular attention to middle-aged or older adults whose attitudes and beliefs towards HIV/AIDS might prevent them from seeking testing.

  1. Oral lesions in HIV+/AIDS adolescents perinatally infected undergoing HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Domínguez-Sánchez, Anitza; Pavía-Ruz, Noris; Muñoz-Hernández, Rocío; Verdugo-Díaz, Roberto; Valles-Medina, Ana-María; Meráz-Acosta, Héctor

    2010-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of the oral lesions related to HIV-infection (HIV-OL) in HIV+/AIDS adolescents (=13 years old), and the differences with HIV+/AIDS children (=3 - orally examined. HIV-OL was diagnosed in accordance with EC-Clearinghouse-World Health Organization. The patients were classifies with respect to their immune status in relation with the CD4+ cell counts as moderately immunodeficient; mildly immunodeficient and severely immunodeficient in accordance to the revised surveillance case definitions for HIV infection among adults, adolescents, and children aged 0.05). Oral candidiasis was the most prevalent oral lesion in both groups. Association (poral candidiasis with a high viral load was observed in both study groups. Adolescents perinatally HIV-infected have a high prevalence of HIV-OL. Oral Candidiasis still is the most frequent oral opportunistic infection. Oral lesions could have association to viral failure in HIV+/AIDS adolescents undergoing HAART.

  2. Proviral HIV-1 DNA in gingival crevicular fluid of HIV-1-infected patients in various stages of HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maticic, M; Poljak, M; Kramar, B; Tomazic, J; Vidmar, L; Zakotnik, B; Skaleric, U

    2000-07-01

    The oral cavity is rarely reported to be a site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, despite detectable virus in saliva and relatively frequent prevalence of periodontal disease in HIV-infected persons yielding increased excretion of mononuclear-cell-enriched gingival fluid. To search for possible sources of HIV in saliva, and using the polymerase chain-reaction technique, we sought the presence and shedding patterns of proviral HIV-1 DNA in gingival crevicular fluid in a group of patients previously determined as HIV-1-seropositive. Periodontal status at the collection sites was monitored by several clinical parameters, including Plaque Index, Gingival Index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected by means of paper points. Proviral HIV-1 DNA was detected in the gingival fluid of 17 out of 35 HIV-1-infected patients. Its detection correlated significantly with higher plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (p = 0.03) and not with peripheral blood CD4+ cell count, the presence of blood in gingival fluid, or oral lesions. There was a significant correlation between clinical attachment loss at the sites of fluid collection and plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (p = 0.002), and borderline correlation between the latter and probing depth (p = 0.54) in the group of patients harboring proviral HIV-1 DNA in gingival crevicular fluid. The results of our study suggest that mononuclear cells present in gingival crevicular fluid and harboring proviral HIV-1 DNA could represent a potential source of HIV-1 in the presence or absence of local bleeding, especially in persons with advanced HIV infection and increased loss of clinical attachment.

  3. Cost/efficacy analysis of preferred Spanish AIDS study group regimens and the dual therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine for initial ART in HIV infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatell Artigas, Josep María; Arribas López, José Ramón; Lázaro Y de Mercado, Pablo; Blasco Bravo, Antonio Javier

    2016-01-01

    The National AIDS Plan and the Spanish AIDS study group (GESIDA) proposes "preferred regimens" (PR) of antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients. In 2013, the recommended regimens were all triple therapy regimens. The Gardel Study assessed the efficacy of a dual therapy (DT) combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus lamivudine (3TC). Our objective is to evaluate the GESIDA PR and the DT regimen LPV/r+3TC cost/efficacy ratios. Decision tree models were built. probability of having viral load <50 copies/mL at week 48. ART regime cost: costs of ART, adverse effects, and drug resistance tests during the first 48 weeks. Cost/efficacy ratios varied between 5,817 and 13,930 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for the DT of LPV/r+3TC and tenofovir DF/emtricitabine+raltegravir, respectively. Taking into account the official Spanish prices of ART, the most efficient regimen was DT of LPV/r+3TC, followed by the triple therapy with non-nucleoside containing regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  4. Management of HIV infected pregnant women in Chonburi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchun, P

    1994-04-01

    This study on birth control methods used, and HIV infection protection of the HIV infected pregnant women in the obstetrics-gynecology department of Chonburi Hospital from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 1993 revealed that there were 27 HIV infected women with less than 24 weeks gestational age, using birth control methods as such 12 women (44.44%) had tubal resection after abortion, 8 women (29.62%) oral contraceptive pills, 5 women (15.51%) injectable contraception, and 2 women (7.40%) norplants. The 106 HIV infected women with more than 24 weeks gestational age were allowed to deliver. The birth control methods were as follows: 19 women (17.92%) tubal resection, 38 women (35.84%) oral contraceptive pills, 49 women (46.22%) injectable contraception. They were all encouraged to use a condom while having sexual intercourse. Only 40 women of this group are still seen in the follow-up clinic and all are found to be healthy, the birth control is effective and HIV infection is in the early stage. The new born babies were not allowed to be breast fed and were followed-up periodically to 18 months old. Twenty five babies received HIV blood test; 7 babies (28%) were found to be HIV infected. The birth control and HIV infection protection used in this study demonstrate no adverse effects on the disease, and the unexpected problems of these women, as well as the health personnel concerned are reduced both economically and socially. This study provides the guidelines of good care for HIV infected pregnant women.

  5. Potential health impacts of heavy metals on HIV-infected population in USA.

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    Xiaohui Xu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Noninfectious comorbidities such as cardiovascular diseases have become increasingly prevalent and occur earlier in life in persons with HIV infection. Despite the emerging body of literature linking environmental exposures to chronic disease outcomes in the general population, the impacts of environmental exposures have received little attention in HIV-infected population. The aim of this study is to investigate whether individuals living with HIV have elevated prevalence of heavy metals compared to non-HIV infected individuals in United States. METHODS: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010 to compare exposures to heavy metals including cadmium, lead, and total mercury in HIV infected and non-HIV infected subjects. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional study, we found that HIV-infected individuals had higher concentrations of all heavy metals than the non-HIV infected group. In a multivariate linear regression model, HIV status was significantly associated with increased blood cadmium (p=0.03 after adjusting for age, sex, race, education, poverty income ratio, and smoking. However, HIV status was not statistically associated with lead or mercury levels after adjusting for the same covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that HIV-infected patients might be significantly more exposed to cadmium compared to non-HIV infected individuals which could contribute to higher prevalence of chronic diseases among HIV-infected subjects. Further research is warranted to identify sources of exposure and to understand more about specific health outcomes.

  6. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children

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    Rachel C Vreeman

    2015-12-01

    challenges, including higher rates of mental health and behavioural disorders. Existing studies have significant methodological limitations, including small sample sizes, inappropriate control groups and heterogeneous definitions, to name a few. Conclusions: Success in treating perinatally HIV-infected children and better understanding of the physical and psychological implications of lifelong HIV infection require that we address a new set of challenges for children. A better understanding of these challenges will guide care providers, researchers and policymakers towards more effective HIV care management for perinatally infected children and their transition to adulthood.

  7. Genotyping and virological characteristics of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected individuals in Sudan

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    Mukhlid Yousif

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In HBV/HIV co-infected Sudanese patients, the ratio of genotype A to non-A was higher than that in mono-infected patients. The genotype E intra-group divergence in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals was significantly higher than that in HBV mono-infected patients.

  8. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

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    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  9. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon L Guthrie

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  10. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan p...

  11. Cryptic Leishmania infantum infection in Italian HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubino Raffaella

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a protozoan diseases caused in Europe by Leishmania (L. infantum. Asymptomatic Leishmania infection is more frequent than clinically apparent disease. Among HIV infected patients the risk of clinical VL is increased due to immunosuppression, which can reactivate a latent infection. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic L. infantum infection in HIV infected patients and to study a possible correlation between Leishmania parasitemia and HIV infection markers. Methods One hundred and forty-five HIV infected patients were screened for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies and L. infantum DNA in peripheral blood. Statistical analysis was carried out by using a univariate regression analysis. Results Antibodies to L. infantum were detected in 1.4% of patients. L. infantum DNA was detected in 16.5% of patients. Significant association for PCR-Leishmania levels with plasma viral load was documented (p = 0.0001. Conclusion In our area a considerable proportion of HIV infected patients are asymptomatic carriers of L. infantum infection. A relationship between high HIV viral load and high parasitemic burden, possibly related to a higher risk of developing symptomatic disease, is suggested. PCR could be used for periodic screening of HIV patients to individuate those with higher risk of reactivation of L. infantum infection.

  12. The incidence of complications after cesarean section in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shevchenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of HIV infection in Ukraine is 1.6% overall, with antenatal prevalence of 0.52%, the highest in Europe. According to national protocol, cesarean section has been recommended for women with viral load above 50 copies/mL to further prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The aim of our study was to compare the infectious complication rates after cesarean delivery in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease who received HAART, and HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from 150 HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease (group I and 150 HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages (group II, who underwent cesarean delivery. Postoperative infectious morbidity in both groups was analyzed according to whether the cesarean section was an elective or emergent delivery. Descriptive, comparison analyses were performed. Results: There was no significant difference between the both groups in terms of gravidity, parity, number of previous cesarean sections, estimated gestational age at time of delivery. It has been shown that HIV-infected women from the group I have 2 times more factors for the appearance of postpartum infectious complications, such as anemia, the urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infections. Both groups of women were statistically more likely to experience postpartum endometritis when being delivered by emergent cesarean section than by elective cesarean section (14.6% versus 4.6%, respectively in the group I and 5.3% versus 0.5%, respectively, in the group II, superficial or deep wound breakdown (22.6% versus 4.6%, respectively, in the first group and 5.3% versus 2.6%, respectively, in the second group. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis was only in 2% of HIV-infected women from the group I. Urinary tract infection had 25% HIV-infected women in the both groups. Overall, the rate of postpartum infectious

  13. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    into 3 groups, according to whether their cell-associated HIV DNA load was or = 2,500 DNA copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clinical progression rates differed significantly between the groups (p HIV DNA load had prognostic value independent......Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...... of serum HIV RNA (p HIV DNA, HIV RNA and CD4 cell counts were all included in a Cox model, only serum HIV RNA had independent prognostic value. Patients heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 allele had significantly lower HIV DNA loads than those homozygous for the normal allele (p

  14. HIV infection is associated with reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prior studies comparing abnormalities in pulmonary function between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons in the current era are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pattern and severity of impairment in pulmonary function in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 300 HIV-infected men and 289 HIV-uninfected men enrolled from 2009 to 2011 in 2 clinical centers of the Lung HIV Study. Participants completed pre- and postbronch...

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Monteiro Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinicall...

  16. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Palacios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis

  17. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...

  18. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  19. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers.

  20. [The HIV infection situation in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate current trends in the development of an epidemic process of HIV infection in Russia. Case report forms entering the Federal Research Methodology Center for AIDS Prevention and Control of the Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, were analyzed. In Russia, the HIV epidemic is on the rise; both the absolute number of people with HIV infection and its rate in the population are increasing. Compared with 2000, there is a shift of the epidemic to older age groups (30-40 years); there are increases in the proportion of women among new HIV-infected cases and in the number of babies born to HIV-positive mothers. Injection drug use remains a major risk factor for HIV transmission; the number of people infected through heterosexual intercourse continues to rise every year. The main reason for a more widespread HIV epidemic is the very low coverage of both vulnerable groups and the general population with prevention programs.

  1. HIV: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Infection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.

  2. Current oral manifestations of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M

    2001-02-01

    The oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection have changed drastically since the introduction of the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries. Recent studies have documented significant reductions in morbidity and mortality rates among HIV-infected patients on HAART. This article focuses on the latest information about the oral manifestations of HIV infection and will discuss the impact of HAART.

  3. Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K; Greenman, Michelle P; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J

    2017-03-01

    Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity after vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. This cross-sectional study was nested within 2 ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia. Dried blood spot cards from youth (5-15 years) in these studies from 2009 to 2013 were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses. HIV-uninfected youth, HIV-infected treatment-naive youth and HIV-infected youth receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared. A total of 617 HIV-uninfected, 144 HIV-infected treatment-naive and 128 HIV-infected youth receiving ART were included in this study. The proportion seropositive for measles virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (92.5%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (74.1%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (71.9%). No differences by age were observed. The proportion seropositive for rubella virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (54.7%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (41.7%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (49.6%), with increases observed by age for all groups. Measles seroprevalence was lower among HIV-infected than uninfected youth, consistent with waning immunity after measles vaccination. HIV-infected youth would benefit from revaccination. Half of all youth in rural Zambia were susceptible to rubella and may need targeting for catch-up rubella campaigns when measles-rubella vaccine is introduced.

  4. HIV/AIDS epidemic in French Guiana: 1979-1997. Groupe d'Etude Clinique de l'Infection VIH en Guyane Française.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobesky, M; Dabis, F; Le Beux, P

    2000-06-01

    The incidence of AIDS in French Guiana remains one of the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean. The annual AIDS incidence rate increased continually from the start of the epidemic until 1995, when it reached 59.3/100,000 population declining thereafter to 26.6 in 1997. The prevalence of HIV in pregnant women was 0.9% in 1993, increasing to 1.3% in 1995, and that in individuals attending sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics was 2.1% in 1996. We included 224 patients in a study of survival after AIDS diagnosis. The principal AIDS-defining diagnosis was tuberculosis in 20.5% of reported cases. The median duration of survival was 10.2 months. Multivariate analysis showed that, patients > or = 45 years at entry progressed more rapidly to AIDS than younger patients. HIV prevention and access to health care should be developed in the various ethnic communities and adapted to cultural status. The progressive implementation of multiple antiretroviral therapies since 1996 may further reduce progression of the disease but early HIV diagnosis is required to improve the overall prognosis of HIV-infected patients.

  5. HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected adults in early HIV-1 infection have elevated CD4+ T cell counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Barbour

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 is often acquired in the presence of pre-existing co-infections, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2. We examined the impact of HSV-2 status at the time of HIV-1 acquisition for its impact on subsequent clinical course, and total CD4+ T cell phenotypes. METHODS: We assessed the relationship of HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection status on CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels over time prior in a cohort of 186 treatment naïve adults identified during early HIV-1 infection. We assessed the activation and differentiation state of total CD4+ T cells at study entry by HSV-2 status. RESULTS: Of 186 recently HIV-1 infected persons, 101 (54% were sero-positive for HSV-2. There was no difference in initial CD8+ T cell count, or differences between the groups for age, gender, or race based on HSV-2 status. Persons with HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infection sustained higher CD4+ T cell counts over time (+69 cells/ul greater (SD = 33.7, p = 0.04 than those with HIV-1 infection alone (Figure 1, after adjustment for HIV-1 RNA levels (-57 cells per 1 log(10 higher HIV-1 RNA, p<0.0001. We did not observe a relationship between HSV-2 infection status with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels over time. HSV-2 acquisition after HIV-1 acquisition had no impact on CD4+ count or viral load. We did not detect differences in CD4+ T cell activation or differentiation state by HSV-2+ status. DISCUSSION: We observed no effect of HSV-2 status on viral load. However, we did observe that treatment naïve, recently HIV-1 infected adults co-infected with HSV-2+ at the time of HIV-1 acquisition had higher CD4+ T cell counts over time. If verified in other cohorts, this result poses a striking paradox, and its public health implications are not immediately clear.

  6. THE MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTION IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Marcaelia Valerian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is a RNA retrovirus which causes the clinical disease termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Mother-to-child transmission is the main source of spreading HIV infection to the child with frequency is as high as 25-30%. This may occurred because of the intrapartum maternal blood exposure, infected genital tract secretions and during breastfeeding. The right combination of ARV treatment and elective section caesarean delivery has been proved to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection prevalence and preventing obstetric complications significantly. Consultation and follow up with specialists is highly recommended.

  7. Pleurisy in tuberculosis and HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical and epidemiological study for 14 years was conducted. Among TB patients, the percentage of persons with mixed infection (TB+HIV infection increased during the observation period from 10 up to 64%. About one third of them had a pleura reaction with an accumulation of fluid between pleura’s petals. Pleuritis in patients with mixed infection were characterized by special features: pleurisy complicated another form of tuberculosis more often, in one-third of patients (29,8% pleural liquid had hemorrhagic type, Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the pleural fluid was detected six times more often. The level of activity of adenosine deaminase and neopterin in the exudate of patients with tuberculosis and HIV infection remained significantly higher than in the control group of persons. These data can be useful in the diagnostics of specific diseases in HIV-infected patients.

  8. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Marianne E; Durao, Solange; Sinclair, David; Irlam, James H; Siegfried, Nandi

    2017-01-01

    ) 0.81, 95% CI 0.7 to 0.94; 1 trial, 3418 participants), but the trial was stopped early due to increased adverse events (elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) levels) in the high dose group. Single or dual micronutrients None of the trials of single or dual micronutrient supplements were adequately powered to assess for effects on mortality or morbidity outcomes. No clinically significant changes in CD4 cell count (data not pooled, 14 trials, 2370 participants, very low or low certainty evidence) or viral load (data not pooled, seven studies, 1334 participants, very low or low certainty evidence), were reported. Supplementation probably does increase blood concentrations of vitamin D and zinc (data not pooled, vitamin D: 4 trials, 299 participants, zinc: 4 trials, 484 participants, moderate certainty evidence) and may also increase blood concentrations of vitamin A (data not pooled, 3 trials, 495 participants, low certainty evidence), especially in those who are deficient. Authors' conclusions The analyses of the available trials have not revealed consistent clinically important benefits with routine multiple micronutrient supplementation in people living with HIV. Larger trials might reveal small but important effects. These findings should not be interpreted as a reason to deny micronutrient supplements for people living with HIV where specific deficiencies are found or where the person's diet is insufficient to meet the recommended daily allowance of vitamins and minerals. Micronutrient supplements for non-pregnant adults with HIV infection Cochrane researchers conducted a review of the effects of micronutrient supplements for people living with HIV. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. After searching for relevant trials up to 18 November 2016, the review authors included 33 trials. Thirteen of these trials included people not on HIV treatment and were conducted in Thailand, Peru, and eight African countries. Nineteen trials included

  9. HIV Infection in the Elderly: Arising Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonaventura C. T. Mpondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally there is an increase in the number of people living with HIV at an advanced age (50 years and above. This is mainly due to prolonged survival following the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Living with HIV at an advanced age has been shown to be associated with a number of challenges, both clinical and immunological. This minireview aims at discussing the challenges encountered by elderly HIV-infected patients.

  10. HIV infection and the kidneys, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta-Jovanović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.

  11. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...... replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...

  12. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...... replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...

  13. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course...... of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted...... the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...

  14. NKT cells in HIV-1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique T cell population that have important immunoregulatory functions and have been shown to be involved in host immunity against a range of microorganisms. It also emerges that they might play a role in HIV-1 infection, and therefore be selectively depleted during the early stages of infection. Recent studies are reviewed regarding the dynamics of NKT depletion during HIV-I infection and their recovery under highly active antiretrovirai treatment (HAART). Possible mechanisms for these changes are proposed based on the recent developments in HIV pathogenesis. Further discussions are focused on HIV's disruption of NKT activation by downregulating CDId expression on antigen presentation cells (APC). HIV-1 protein Nefis found to play the major role by interrupting the intraceilular trafficking of nascent and recycling CDId molecules.

  15. HIV INFECTION STAGE, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY SCHEME AND PATIENT IMMUNE STATUS INFLUENCE ON HIV/TB CO-INFECTION OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mordyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective research of 381 clinical records is conducted to study HIV infection influence on stationary stage of tuberculosis treatment outcome in HIV-TB co-infected patients. All cases were divided depending on a hospitalization outcome on favorable and adverse. At most of patients tuberculosis of respiratory organs met. Immunological researches were conducted, the stage of HIV infection was registered and the issue of purpose of anti-retroviral therapy was resolved. Besides, as indirect signs of an immunodeficiency at the patients with a combination of tuberculosis and HIV infection who were on hospitalization the indicators received when carrying out clinical laboratory trials were analyzed: absolute and relative quantity of lymphocytes according to the general blood test, the contents the globulin fractions and circulating immune complexes concentration according to the clinical chemistry blood test. At an assessment of results in both groups of research more than at a half of patients existence of HIV infection at late stages that speaks about late identification and neglect of an immunodeficiency was revealed. At patients with tuberculosis of lungs in combination with HIV infection at a failure statistically significant decrease in an immunoregulatory index is revealed. It is interesting that the level of CD4 lymphocytes and a stage of HIV infection had no impact on the co-infection’s outcome. However, existence of virus loa ding more than 100 000 copies/ml reduced probability favorable an outcome of treatment of tuberculosis at the patient with HIV infection. Timely purpose of anti-retroviral therapy at patients with co-infection increased chances of treatment of tuberculosis at patients with an immunodeficiency. Frequency of adverse side effect of antiviral therapy met equally often at patients in both groups. Thus, patients at any stages of HIV infection with any forms of tuberculosis, including generalized, had a

  16. Aging-associated symptoms in the physician-patient dialogue in a group of long-term diagnosed HIV-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Fumaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The significant decrease in mortality has resulted in a large number of individuals aged over 50 living with HIV infection. Additionally, the coexistence of certain pathologies suggests premature aging. In this scenario, the presence of aging-associated symptoms in the physician-patient dialogue is yet to be explored. Methods: Cross-sectional observational study to evaluate the presence of aging-associated symptoms in the physician-patient dialogue and to explore the possible differences between genders in a sample of 100 HIV-1 infected subjects diagnosed at least 15 years ago. The survey assessed questions/comments made by the patient, questions/comments made by the physician and patients’ interest in obtaining more information than was provided. Number of patients and percentages were given and compared using the w2 or Fisher exact test (as appropriate. Results: Participants were 60 men and 40 women, diagnosed with HIV infection a median (IQ of 18 (15.7–21 years ago, who had a nadir CD4 and CD4 cell count at the study entry of 172 (95–272 and 543 (403–677, respectively. Eighty percent of the subjects had VL <25 copies and 42% were HCV/HIV co-infected (31 subjects with low fibrosis stage. The infection route had been mainly intravenous drug use (37% and MSM (32%. Men and women had similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Sixty-two percent of the participants acknowledged asking their physicians about aging-associated symptoms (58% men vs 66% women; p=0.50, 48% reported that their physicians had provided information without having been asked (48% men vs 55% women; p=0.51 and 75% confirmed that they would like to have more information about aging-associated symptoms (22% men vs 80% women; p<0.001. Conclusions: Around half of the men and women interviewed had discussed aging-associated symptoms with their physician. However, this seemed insufficient for four-fifths of the women, who would have liked to have obtained

  17. Family group psychotherapy to support the disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicastro, Emanuele; Continisio, Grazia Isabella; Storace, Cinzia; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Mango, Carmela; Liguoro, Ilaria; Guarino, Alfredo; Officioso, Annunziata

    2013-06-01

    Disclosure of the HIV status to infected children is often delayed due to psychosocial problems in their families. We aimed at improving the quality of life in families of HIV-infected children, thus promoting disclosure of the HIV status to children by parents. Parents of 17 HIV-infected children (4.2-18 years) followed at our Center for pediatric HIV, unaware of their HIV status, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (8 monthly sessions of family group psychotherapy, FGP) or to the control group not receiving psychotherapy. Changes in the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB-I) and in the Short-Form State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Sf-STAI), as well as the HIV status disclosure to children by parents, were measured. Ten parents were assigned to the FGP group, while 7 parents to the controls. Psychological well-being increased in 70% of the FGP parents and none of the control group (p=0.017), while anxiety decreased in the FGP group but not in controls (60% vs. 0%, p=0.03). HIV disclosure took place for 6/10 children of the intervention group and for 1/7 of controls. Family group psychotherapy had a positive impact on the environment of HIV-infected children, promoting psychological well-being and the disclosure of the HIV status to children.

  18. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  19. Innate immunity in resistance to HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasin, Mara; Clerici, Mario; Piacentini, Luca

    2010-11-01

    Resistance to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in subjects who do not seroconvert despite multiple exposures to the virus and to the progression to AIDS in HIV‐infected individuals depends on multiple factors involving both the innate and the adaptive immune system. The contribution of natural immunity in preventing HIV infection has so far received little attention, but many recently published articles suggest a key role for Toll‐like receptors, natural killer cells, interleukin‐22, acute‐phase amyloid A protein, and APOBEC3G in conferring resistance to HIV infection. The study of these factors will shed light on HIV pathogenesis and contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to this elusive disease.

  20. Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV infection among African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Lut; Corneli, Amy; Ahmed, Khatija; Agot, Kawango; Lombaard, Johan; Kapiga, Saidi; Malahleha, Mookho; Owino, Fredrick; Manongi, Rachel; Onyango, Jacob; Temu, Lucky; Monedi, Modie Constance; Mak'Oketch, Paul; Makanda, Mankalimeng; Reblin, Ilse; Makatu, Shumani Elsie; Saylor, Lisa; Kiernan, Haddie; Kirkendale, Stella; Wong, Christina; Grant, Robert; Kashuba, Angela; Nanda, Kavita; Mandala, Justin; Fransen, Katrien; Deese, Jennifer; Crucitti, Tania; Mastro, Timothy D; Taylor, Douglas

    2012-08-02

    Preexposure prophylaxis with antiretroviral drugs has been effective in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in some trials but not in others. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 2120 HIV-negative women in Kenya, South Africa, and Tanzania to receive either a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or placebo once daily. The primary objective was to assess the effectiveness of TDF-FTC in preventing HIV acquisition and to evaluate safety. HIV infections occurred in 33 women in the TDF-FTC group (incidence rate, 4.7 per 100 person-years) and in 35 in the placebo group (incidence rate, 5.0 per 100 person-years), for an estimated hazard ratio in the TDF-FTC group of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.59 to 1.52; P=0.81). The proportions of women with nausea, vomiting, or elevated alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly higher in the TDF-FTC group (P=0.04, P<0.001, and P=0.03, respectively). Rates of drug discontinuation because of hepatic or renal abnormalities were higher in the TDF-FTC group (4.7%) than in the placebo group (3.0%, P=0.051). Less than 40% of the HIV-uninfected women in the TDF-FTC group had evidence of recent pill use at visits that were matched to the HIV-infection window for women with seroconversion. The study was stopped early, on April 18, 2011, because of lack of efficacy. Prophylaxis with TDF-FTC did not significantly reduce the rate of HIV infection and was associated with increased rates of side effects, as compared with placebo. Despite substantial counseling efforts, drug adherence appeared to be low. (Supported by the U.S. Agency for International Development and others; FEM-PrEP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00625404.).

  1. Transcriptomic assay of CD8+ T cells in treatment-naive HIV, HCV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV and HCV is very common. It is estimated that over 5 million people are co-infected with HIV and HCV worldwide. Accumulated evidence shows that each virus alters the course of infection of the other one. CD8+ T cells play a crucial role in the eradication of viruses and infected target cells. To the best of our knowledge, no one has investigated the gene expression profiles in HIV/HCV-co-infected individuals. METHODOLOGY: Genome-wide transcriptomes of CD8+ T cells from HIV/HCV-co-infected or mono-infected treatment-naïve individuals were analyzed by microarray assays. Pairwise comparisons were performed and differentially expressed genes were identified followed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR validation. Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAG from Web-based Gene SeT AnaLysis Toolkit (WebGestalt and DAVID bioinformatics resources 6.7 (the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery were used to discover the Gene Ontology (GO categories with significantly enriched gene numbers. The enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways were also obtained by using WebGestalt software. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 110, 24 and 72 transcript IDs were shown to be differentially expressed (> 2-fold and p<0.05 in comparisons between HCV- and HIV-mono-infected groups, HIV/HCV-co-infected and HIV-mono-infected groups, and HIV/HCV-co-infected and HCV-mono-infected groups, respectively. In qRT-PCR assay, most of the genes showed similar expressing profiles with the observation in microarray assays. Further analysis revealed that genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, transcriptional regulation and cytokine responses were significantly altered. These data offer new insights into HIV/HCV co-infections, and may help to identify new markers for the management and treatment of HIV/HCV co-infections.

  2. Profile of HIV-Infected Hispanics with Pancytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pancytopenia is seen in late HIV infection; it is associated with medical complications and with decreased survival. We determined the prevalence of pancytopenia at baseline in a cohort of HIV-positive Hispanics living in Puerto Rico, and compared their socio-demographic, immunological and clinical characteristics. A total of 1202 patients enrolled between 2000 and 2010 were included. They were grouped according to pancytopenia status, defined by having: platelets <150,000 μL, white cell c...

  3. Dendritic cells are less susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than to HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Duvall (Melody); K. Loré (Karin); H. Blaak (Hetty); D.A. Ambrozak (David); W.C. Adams (William); K. Santos (Kathlyn); C. Geldmacher (Christof); J.R. Mascola (John); A.J. McMichael (Andrew); A. Jaye (Assan); H. Whittle (Hilton); S.L. Rowland-Jones (Sarah); R.A. Koup (Richard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dendritic cells (DCs) has been documented in vivo and may be an important contributor to HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. HIV-1-specific CD4+T cells respond to HIV antigens presented by HIV-1-infected DCs and in this process

  4. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  5. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  6. Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: A risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Genital ulcerative disease is one of the risk factors for acquisition of HIV. As HSV-2 infection is currently the most common cause of genital ulcerative disease, it acts as a potential risk factor for HIV infection. The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in HIV seropositive individuals and in the general population, and to ascertain if HSV-2 is a risk factor for developing HIV infection. Methods: The study group included one hundred new HIV seropositive persons irrespective of active genital herpes or history of genital herpes. Fifty age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers were included as controls. In all patients and controls, diagnostic serology was done for HSV-2 using HSV-2-specific glycoprotein IgG2 by indirect immunoassay using the ELISA test. Statistical value ′P′ was calculated using the Chi-squared test. Results: Out of the 100 HIV seropositives, 66 were males and 34 were females with an age range of 20-54 years. In only 22 (19 males and 3 females of these, positive history of genital herpes was obtained. In 49 out of the 100 HIV seropositives, IgG2 antibodies against HSV-2 were detected. In the control group, 11 out of 50 controls were seropositive for HSV-2 IgG2 antibody. There was a statistically significant association between HSV-2 and HIV seropositivity with ′P′ value < 0.005. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity in the HIV-infected group (49% as compared to normal controls (22% was statistically significant. Prior HSV-2 infection could be an important risk factor for acquisition of HIV in our patients.

  7. Distinct cytokine/chemokine network in semen and blood characterize different stages of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Morris, Sheldon R; Margolis, Leonid; Daar, Eric S; Dube, Michael P; Little, Susan J; Smith, David M; Lisco, Andrea; Gianella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine/chemokine network is used by the innate and adaptive immune system to orchestrate effective immune responses. Here, we describe the cross-sectional association between cytokine levels and stage of HIV infection to gain novel insights into HIV-1 immunopathogenesis and identify novel therapeutic targets. Concentrations of 31 cytokine/chemokines were retrospectively measured in blood and seminal plasma collected from 252 individuals enrolled in four well characterized cohorts: HIV-uninfected, untreated HIV-infected in early phase of infection, untreated HIV-infected in late phase of infection, and HIV-infected on antiretroviral therapy with undetectable HIV RNA levels in blood (<50 copies/ml). Cytokine/chemokine levels were measured by multiplex-bead array. Comparisons between groups were performed by Mann-Whitney U-test and P values were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. Presence of HIV-infection skewed the cytokine/chemokine network towards a pro-inflammatory response in both blood and semen compared to HIV-uninfected controls. Such changes emerged within the first weeks of infection and were maintained thereafter: Among untreated HIV-infected individuals, none of the 31 measured cytokines were significantly different between early and later stages of infection. Suppression of plasma HIV RNA with ART did not result in normalization of the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood. In semen, several pro-inflammatory cytokines were even further upregulated in ART-treated compared with HIV-uninfected and HIV-untreated individuals. A profound disruption in the cytokine/chemokine network is evident in blood and semen from the earliest stage of HIV infection shortly after the first detection of systemic viremia. These changes are maintained throughout the chronic phase of the infection and do not normalize despite ART and suppression of plasma HIV RNA.

  8. False-positive tests for syphilis associated with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infection among intravenous drug abusers. Valencian Study Group on HIV Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, I; Bolumar, F; Moreno, R; Pardo, F J; Torres, N; Belda, J; Espacio, A

    1998-11-01

    The role of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus infections in the production of biological false-positive reactions for syphilis was evaluated in two large samples of intravenous drug abusers and homosexual men attending AIDS prevention centers in Spain. A significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for false-positive tests for syphilis [OR 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.76-2.83] was observed for HIV-seropositive intravenous drug abusers; biological false-positive reactions were also more frequent (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.30-2.31) among intravenous drug abusers who were hepatitis B virus seropositive but not among those who were hepatitis C virus seropositive (OR 0.90; 95% CI 0.48-1.69). Among homosexuals, the association between HIV and biological false-positive reactions was restricted to subjects who were also intravenous drug abusers, indicating the crucial role of intravenous drug abuse. Only 20.5% of intravenous drug abusers with a previous biological false-positive reaction yielded a false-positive result in their subsequent visit.

  9. B-cell responses to HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Susan; Fauci, Anthony S

    2017-01-01

    The induction of neutralizing antibodies directed against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has received considerable attention in recent years, in part driven by renewed interest and opportunities for antibody-based strategies for prevention such as passive transfer of antibodies and the development of preventive vaccines, as well as immune-based therapeutic interventions. Advances in the ability to screen, isolate, and characterize HIV-specific antibodies have led to the identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). The majority of these antibodies have been isolated from B cells of chronically HIV-infected individuals with detectable viremia. In this review, we provide insight into the phenotypic and functional attributes of human B cells, with a focus on HIV-specific memory B cells and plasmablasts/cells that are responsible for sustaining humoral immune responses against HIV. We discuss the abnormalities in B cells that occur in HIV infection both in the peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, especially in the setting of persisting viremia. Finally, we consider the opportunities and drawbacks of intensively interrogating antibodies isolated from HIV-infected individuals to guide strategies aimed at developing effective antibody-based vaccine and therapeutic interventions for HIV. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A

    1990-01-01

    During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from...... specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P...

  11. Viral markers in HIV infection and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A L; Dwyer, D E; Dowton, D N

    1993-01-01

    Viral and immune markers are used for monitoring either progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease or response to antiviral therapy. Ideal properties of viral markers are that they are present in all HIV-infected persons at all stages of disease, that they are related to disease pathogenesis, that they can be easily quantitated, that this quantitation correlates rapidly and predictably with both disease stage and response to antivirals, and that they can be developed into rapid, reproducible automated tests. Currently available viral markers include HIV p24 antigenemia (after acid glycine dissociation), anti-p24 antibody titres, quantitative DNA and RNA polymerase chain reaction performed on cells and plasma, and HIV isolate phenotype. In Australia, these markers have been studied in acute HIV seroconversion, in neonatal infection, in body fluids other than blood, and in monitoring of response to antiviral drug therapy.

  12. COURSE FEATURES EPIDEMIC PROCESS HIV INFECTION IN KHARKIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaeva LG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the context of the transformation of the spheres of human living epidemic HIV-infection continues. According to the intensity of the epidemic process of HIV-infection, Ukraine takes one of the first places among the European countries. The epidemic process of the infection is concentrated mainly on the high-risk groups, and there is uneven prevalence. Besides in most cases this distribution can not be explained by the social and economic characteristics of certain territories. Kharkiv region belongs to the territory of Ukraine with the lowest prevalence level of HIV-infection. Though in terms of the social and economic crisis due to hostilities in the east of the country, which the region borders, the epidemic situation may significantly become worse. Work objective: to study the peculiarities of the course of the epidemic process of HIV-infection for the period from 1987 till 2015 in Kharkiv region that will improve the epidemiological surveillance of the infection and develop appropriate preventive measures in modern conditions. Material & methods. The studies were conducted in Kharkiv region, which is a big industrial and administrative center. The city of Kharkiv is located at the crossroads of drug trafficking from Asia and Russia. The reportings and analytics of the Kharkiv regional center for prevention and control of AIDS and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine for the period of 1987 – 2015 were used in the research. The analysis of incidence of HIV prevalence, structure of transmission routes and sex-age groups were carried out using descriptive and evaluative and analytical ways of epidemiological research method. Results & discussion. During 1987 – 2015 in Kharkiv region there were officially registered 7868 cases of HIV-infection what was equal to 4.0 % of the registered cases in Ukraine. Since 1996 a marked upward tendency of the incidence of HIV infection in Kharkiv region (growth rate – +7.0 %, and on the

  13. [Organ transplants in HIV infected patients. Update and recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcan, Laura; Gadano, Adrian; Casetti, Isabel; Villamil, Federico

    2011-01-01

    Until few years ago, HIV infection was an absolute contraindication to consider organ transplants. Since HAART introduction, patient survival increased dramatically, but high mortality due to liver and kidney diseases became evident. For these reasons, this group of patients is now reconsidered for organ transplantation. In 2008, the Argentine Society of Transplants (SAT) and the Argentine Infectious Diseases Society (SADI), encouraged by the increasing published experience on kidney and liver transplants in this population, decided to form a Working Group, to prepare an update on this issue and elaborate practical recommendations for the better management of these patients. The first meeting was held on December 4th 2008. The most important conclusion was that HIV infection did not contraindicate a solid organ transplant. Later on, taking into account the accumulated experience and the available literature, the current document was prepared. HIV infected patients must fulfill certain clinical, immunological, virological and psychosocial criteria to be considered for solid organ transplants. HIV infected recipients of kidney and liver transplants currently show similar short and middle term survival to non HIV infected patients. There is not yet enough data on intrathoracic transplants in these patients in order to include them on a waiting list for these organs-transplants. Interactions between immunosupressors and antiretroviral drugs (specially protease inhibitors) are very important, and require a strict monitoring of immunosupressor levels.

  14. Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

  15. Family physicians and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, N; Crochette, N; Blanchi, S; Lavoix, A; Billaud, E; Baron, C; Abgueguen, P; Perré, P; Rabier, V

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to describe the current and desired involvement of family physicians (FPs) in the treatment of HIV patients (screening practices, potential training and patient follow-up) to reduce the duration and frequency of their hospital treatment. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey between 2011 and 2012 with the support of COREVIH (Regional Coordinating Committee on HIV). We sent a self-assessment questionnaire to all FPs of the Pays de la Loire region to enquire about their HIV screening practices and expectations for the management of HIV patients. A total of 871 FPs completed the questionnaire (response rate: 30.4%). A total of 54.2% said to provide care to HIV patients; the mean number of HIV patients per FP was estimated at 1.4. With regard to HIV screening, 12.2% systematically suggest an HIV serology to their patients and 72.7% always suggest it to pregnant women. About 45.4% of responding FPs said to be willing to manage HIV patients (clinical and biological monitoring, compliance checks and prescription renewal). FPs mainly reported the lack of training and the low number of HIV patients as a barrier to their further involvement in the management of HIV patients. The responding FPs provide care to very few HIV patients. They are, however, willing to be more involved in the routine care of these patients. Medical training provided by COREVIH would help improve HIV screening. The management of HIV patients could thus be handed over to willing FPs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Acute extrapyramidal dysfunction in two HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Regan; Slogrove, Amy; Schoeman, Johan; Marais, Ben; van Zyl, Gert; Maritz, Jean; van Toorn, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    Involvement of the basal ganglia is well documented in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalopathy, often with calcification. High concentrations of HIV protein have been detected in affected basal ganglia, although extrapyramidal dysfunction, in contrast to adults, is infrequently encountered in HIV-infected children. We describe the clinical course, magnetic resonance imaging appearance and outcome of two HIV-infected children who presented with acute debilitating extrapyramidal dysfunction. The cases highlight the importance of immune competence, co-existence of opportunistic infections, HIV testing of all children of HIV-infected mothers and magnetic resonance imaging when assessing the severity and anticipating outcomes of movement disorders in HIV-infected children.

  17. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co-infection

  18. Treatment outcomes in undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kenneth K; Dang, Bich N; Davila, Jessica A; Hartman, Christine; Giordano, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the treatment outcomes of undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection. We sought to compare the treatment outcomes of undocumented and documented patients 12-months after entering HIV care. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naive patients 18 years and older attending their first visit at Thomas Street Health Center in Houston, Texas, between 1/1/2003 and 6/30/2008. The study population of 1,620 HIV-infected adults included 186 undocumented Hispanic, 278 documented Hispanic, 986 Black, and 170 White patients. The main outcome measures were retention in care (quarter years with at least one completed HIV primary care provider visit) and HIV suppression (HIV RNA Undocumented Hispanic patients had lower median initial CD4 cell count (132 cells/mm(3)) than documented Hispanic patients (166 cells/mm(3); P = 0.186), Black patients (226 cells/mm(3); Pundocumented Hispanic patients did as well or better than their documented counterparts. One year after entering HIV care, undocumented Hispanics achieved similar rates of retention in care and HIV suppression as documented Hispanic and White patients. Of note, black patients were significantly less likely to have optimal retention in care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65, CI = 0.45-0.94) or achieve HIV suppression (aOR 0.32, CI = 0.17-0.61) than undocumented Hispanics. Undocumented Hispanic persons with HIV infection enter care with more advanced disease than documented persons, suggesting testing and/or linkage to care efforts for this difficult-to-reach population need intensification. Once diagnosed, however, undocumented Hispanics have outcomes as good as or better than other racial/ethnic groups. Safety net providers for undocumented immigrants are vital for maintaining individual and public health.

  19. Reproductive tract infections in HIV positive women: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Archana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the coexistence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs is not surprising given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of RTIs among infected and noninfected women. Materials and Methods: A case control study of 83 HIV positive women, tested by two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a matched control of 87 HIV negative women were screened for RTIs. They were submitted to gynecological examination and cervical cytology. Results: The mean age for HIV positive women was 30 years and that for HIV negative women was 27 years. 18% HIV positive women had menstrual irregularities compared to 6% in seronegative group ( P = 0.024. Vaginal infections including sexually transmitted infections (STIs were found in 47 (57% HIV positive women and 30 (34% HIV negative women ( P = 0.0037. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common infection (34% in HIV positive women, followed by trichomoniasis (12%. Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was seen in nine HIV positive women versus none in HIV negative women. Cervical cytology showed inflammation in 53 (64% HIV positive women compared to 27 (31% HIV negative women ( P = 0.000023. Genital neoplasia, including carcinoma in situ was observed in 2 (2.5% HIV positive women and in none of the HIV negative women. Conclusion: It is seen that reproductive tract morbidities are common in HIV positive women. So it is imperative that HIV positive women have a complete gynecological evaluation including a Papanicolaou (PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs.

  20. The stochastic dance of early HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J.

    2005-12-01

    The stochastic nature of early HIV infection is described in a series of models, each of which captures aspects of the dance of HIV during the early stages of infection. It is to this highly variable target that the immune response must respond. The adaptability of the various components of the immune response is an important aspect of the system's operation, as the nature of the pathogens that the response will be required to respond to and the order in which those responses must be made cannot be known beforehand. As HIV infection has direct influence over cells responsible for the immune response, the dance predicts that the immune response will be also in a variable state of readiness and capability for this task of adaptation. The description of the stochastic dance of HIV here will use the tools of stochastic models, and for the most part, simulation. The justification for this approach is that the early stages and the development of HIV diversity require that the model to be able to describe both individual sample path and patient-to-patient variability. In addition, as early viral dynamics are best described using branching processes, the explosive growth of these models both predicts high variability and rapid response of HIV to changes in system parameters.In this paper, a basic viral growth model based on a time dependent continuous-time branching process is used to describe the growth of HIV infected cells in the macrophage and lymphocyte populations. Immigration from the reservoir population is added to the basic model to describe the incubation time distribution. This distribution is deduced directly from the modeling assumptions and the model of viral growth. A system of two branching processes, one in the infected macrophage population and one in the infected lymphocyte population is used to provide a description of the relationship between the development of HIV diversity as it relates to tropism (host cell preference). The role of the immune

  1. Chemokine control of HIV-1 infection: Beyond a binding competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuntao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper by Cameron et al. demonstrated that certain chemokines such as CCL19 activate cofilin and actin dynamics, promoting HIV nuclear localization and integration into resting CD4 T cells. Apparently, these chomokines synergize with the viral envelope protein, triggering cofilin and actin dynamics necessary for the establishment of viral latency. This study opens a new avenue for understanding chemokine interaction with HIV. Traditionally, chemokine control of HIV infection focuses on competitive binding and down-modulation of the corecptors, particularly CCR5. This new study suggests that a diverse group of chemokines may also affect HIV infection through synergistic or antagonistic interaction with the viral coreceptor signaling pathways.

  2. Raltegravir with optimized background therapy for resistant HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steigbigel, Roy T; Cooper, David A; Kumar, Princy N;

    2008-01-01

    for the length of follow-up, cancers were detected in 3.5% of raltegravir recipients and in 1.7% of placebo recipients. The overall frequencies of drug-related adverse events were similar in the raltegravir and placebo groups. CONCLUSIONS: In HIV-infected patients with limited treatment options, raltegravir plus......BACKGROUND: Raltegravir (MK-0518) is an inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase active against HIV-1 susceptible or resistant to older antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: We conducted two identical trials in different geographic regions to evaluate the safety and efficacy...... of raltegravir, as compared with placebo, in combination with optimized background therapy, in patients infected with HIV-1 that has triple-class drug resistance in whom antiretroviral therapy had failed. Patients were randomly assigned to raltegravir or placebo in a 2:1 ratio. RESULTS: In the combined studies...

  3. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

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    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  4. Occurrence of occult HCV infection among Hiv infected patients in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatserelia, L; Sharvadze, L; Karchava, M; Dolmazashvili, E; Tsertsvadze, T

    2014-01-01

    Occult hepatitis C (OCI) infection has been known as detectable HCV-RNA in the liver or peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of detectable serum or plasma HCV-RNA. OCI has been detected among different patients groups worldwide, it has been found not only in chronic hepatitis patients of unknown origin, but also among several groups at risk for HCV infection (hemodialysis patients or family members of patients with occult HCV). This occult infection has been reported also in healthy populations without evidence of liver disease. Prevalence of occult Hepatitis C virus has not been investigated in Georgian population, where a rate of HCV infection is highest (6.7%) among Eastern European Countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of occult HCV infection among HIV infected individuals in Georgia. As a pilot study, we have selected three groups of HIV infected patients for analyses: Group 1- HIV infected patients without evidence of liver disease (n=98), group 2- HIV infected patients with cryptogenic liver disease (n=34) and group 3- HIV/HBV co infected patients (n=29). HCV RNA was tested in PBMCs samples by real-time polymerase chain reaction. HCV genotyping was performed by Line-probe assay based on reverse-hybridization technology. Liver fibrosis was evaluated by transient elastography (FibroScan®). HCV-RNA was detected in PBMCs specimens among 2 (2%) subjects from group 1, 4 (12%) subjects from group 2, and 9 (31%) subjects from group 3. HCV genotypes were determined for 14 of 15 OCI subjects resulting following genotype distribution: 6 (46%) - 1b, 3 (23%) - 2a/2c and 5 (38%) - 3a. One samples failed to be genotyped due to extremely low HCV viral load. Our data revealed the occurrence of occult HCV infection in HIV infected patients. No single HCV genotype was predominant in the present study. Liver fibrosis was found more frequently and the fibrosis score was significantly higher in OCI patients versus negative ones

  5. KI and WU polyomaviruses and CD4+ cell counts in HIV-1-infected patients, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Cavallo, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco

    2010-09-01

    To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1-positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1-positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1-positive patients.

  6. Programmatic Implications of Acute and Early HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben M; Kato, Masaya; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Montaner, Julio S G; Williams, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection.

  7. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs...... of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management....

  8. Cost/efficacy analysis of preferred Spanish AIDS study group regimens and the dual therapy with LPV/r+3TC for initial ART in HIV infected adults

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    Josép M Gatell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National AIDS Plan and the Spanish AIDS study group (GESIDA panel of experts propose “preferred regimens” of antiretroviral treatment (ART as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2013 [1]. All these regimens are triple therapy regimens. The Gardel Study assessed the efficacy and safety of a dual therapy (DT combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r 400/100 mg BID+ lamivudine (3TC 150 mg BID [2]. The objective of this study is to evaluate the costs and efficiency of initiating treatment with the GESIDA “preferred regimens” and DT. Materials and Methods: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost/efficacy through decision tree analysis models. Efficacy was defined as the probability of having viral load <50 copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis. Cost of initiating treatment with an ART regime was defined as the costs of ART and its consequences (adverse effects, changes of ART regime and drug resistance tests during the first 48 weeks. The payer perspective (Spanish National Health System was applied considering only differential direct costs: ART (official prizes, management of adverse effects, resistance tests, and determination of HLA B*5701. The setting is Spain and the costs are those of 2013. A sensitivity deterministic analysis was conducted, building three scenarios for each regime: base, most favourable and most unfavourable cases. Results: In the base case scenario, the cost of initiating treatment ranges from 5138 euros for DT, to 12,059 euros for tenofovir DF/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC+raltegravir (RAL. The efficacy ranges between 0.66 for abacavir (ABC/3TC+LPV/r and ABC/3TC+atazanavir (ATV/r, and 0.88 for DT. Efficiency, in terms of cost/efficacy, varies between 5817 and 13,930 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for DT and TDF/FTC+RAL respectively. DT is the most efficient regimen in the most favourable (5503 euros per responder and most unfavourable (6169 euros per responder

  9. Oxidative Imbalance in HIV-1 Infected Patients Treated with Antiretroviral Therapy

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    Antonella Mandas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that oxidative stress is involved in HIV infection. However, the role in oxidative balance of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART is still debated. In our study we assessed serum oxidant and antioxidant levels in an HIV-1-infected population treated with HAART, and compared them with those of untreated HIV-1 patients and HIV-1-negative subjects. The study included 116 HIV-1-infected patients (86 HAART-treated and 30 untreated, and 46 HIV-negative controls. Serum oxidant levels were significantly higher in the HIV-1 treated group as compared to untreated and control groups. In addition, a decrease of serum total antioxidant status was observed in the HIV-1 treated group. To be noted is that patients who rigorously follow antiretroviral therapy (optimal HAART adherence have significantly higher oxidative status than those who do not closely follow the therapy (poor HAART adherence. Analysis of variance revealed no significant further increase in oxidative status in HIV-1-infected patients taking antiretroviral and other drugs with the exception of psychiatric drugs (e.g. anxiolytics or antidepressants. Taken together, our results indicate that HAART may affect oxidative stress in HIV-1-infected patients and suggest that antiretroviral therapy plays an important role in the synergy of HIV infection and oxidative stress.

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

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    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  11. SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV-AIDS PATIENTS

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    S S Madkar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy centre in S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai, were included in the study for finding the spectrum of opportunistic infections. Result: The commonest opportunistic infection seen was tuberculosis (59% of patients, followed by oral candidiasis (37.6% of patients and parasitic diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum(18 % of patients. It was observed that out of 178 patients, maximum 53.3% were in the age group of 29-38 years followed by 21% in the age group of 39-48 years. It was found that 77% were males and 23% were females, with male to female ratio is 3.3:1. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic infection seen in HIV patients. Clinicians should consider HIV in the differential diagnosis and management of all persons with tuberculosis.

  12. Treatment interruptions in HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Marco; Casana, Maddalena; Tincati, Camilla; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella

    2006-09-01

    Despite a high antiviral efficacy, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in clinical practice is often impaired by the long-term toxicity of antiretroviral treatment, the increased rate of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) drug resistance in treated patients and the cost of therapies, so that possible interruption of HAART has to be considered as part of the current clinical practice. However, this strategy is usually followed by a rapid viral rebound with a substantial loss of CD4 T lymphocytes because the HIV suppression with HAART does not result in reconstitution of the HIV-specific immune response. Structured treatment interruption (STI) has already been investigated in HIV-infected subjects with well-controlled viral replication (initiating treatment during primary or chronic HIV infection) and in those with multiple treatment failures. A clear benefit of STI in patients with chronic infection remains controversial and these benefits are more often observed in patients starting treatment during primary HIV infection.

  13. Autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV infections

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    Lucile eEspert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb are among the most lethal human pathogens worldwide, each being responsible for around 1.5 million deaths annually. Moreover, synergy between acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and tuberculosis (TB has turned HIV/M.tb co-infection into a major public health threat in developing countries. In the past decade, autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process, has emerged as a major host immune defense mechanism against infectious agents like M.tb and HIV. Nevertheless, in some instances, autophagy machinery appears to be instrumental for HIV infection. Finally, there is mounting evidence that both pathogens deploy various countermeasures to thwart autophagy. This mini-review proposes an overview of the roles and regulations of autophagy in HIV and M.tb infections with an emphasis on microbial factors. We also discuss the role of autophagy manipulation in the context of HIV/M.tb co-infection. In future, a comprehensive understanding of autophagy interaction with these pathogens will be critical for development of autophagy-based prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for AIDS and TB.

  14. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

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    Tomonori Hoshi

    Full Text Available HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years, adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055 HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047 in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed.

  15. Knowledge of HPV among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, David C; Adler, David; Wallace, Melissa; Bennie, Thola; Abar, Beau; Bekker, Linda-Gail

    The aim of this study is to examine the knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected female adolescents in South Africa. Subjects were recruited from a parent study of HPV infection comprised of females ages 16-21 in Masiphumelele, Cape Town, South Africa. A total of 30 subjects, 15 HIV-infected and 15 HIV-uninfected, were selected via randomization and completed a measure of HPV knowledge, based on a previously validated instrument. The study took place in May 2013. The overall mean score on the measure for all subjects was 43.3% (S.D. 10.9). There was no significant difference in HPV knowledge between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups. Based on results from a previous large-scale study using the same validated measure, this sample scored significantly worse on general HPV knowledge than samples from the US, UK, and Australia. Given the limited knowledge of HPV in this sample, there is greater need for education about the prevention of cervical cancer, specifically among high-risk adolescent women.

  16. Profile of the HIV epidemic in Cape Verde: molecular epidemiology and drug resistance mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected patients from distinct islands of the archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Guimarães, Monick L; Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Morgado, Mariza G

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010-2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR = 1-75) and 47 (IQR = 12-84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_cpx (0.7%) and CRF49_cpx (0.7%), whereas all HIV-2 infections belonged to group A. Transmitted DRM (TDRM) was observed in 3.4% (2/58) of ARTn HIV-1-infected patients (1.7% NRTI, 1.7% NNRTI), but not among those with HIV-2. Among ARTexp patients, DRM was observed in 47.8% (33/69) of HIV-1 (37.7% NRTI, 37.7% NNRTI, 7.4% PI, 33.3% for two classes) and 17.6% (3/17) of HIV-2-infections (17.6% NRTI, 11.8% PI, 11.8% both). This study indicates that Cape Verde has a complex and unique HIV-1 molecular epidemiological scenario dominated by HIV-1 subtypes G, CRF02_AG and F1 and HIV-2 subtype A. The occurrence of TDRM and the relatively high level of DRM among treated patients are of concern. Continuous monitoring of patients on ART, including genotyping, are public policies to be implemented.

  17. Economic costs of HIV infection: an employer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G G; Yin, D D; Lyu, R; Chaikledkaew, U; Louie, S

    2002-01-01

    The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has proven highly effective in treating patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the high cost of the advanced antiretroviral therapy has led to increased financial constraints on both patients and payers. From business firms'perspective, especially those with operations in developing countries, it is crucial to determine the long-term economic cost implications of alternative employment and benefit policies for HIV-infected workers or those at high risk for the disease. A simulation model is developed to predict the comprehensive lifetime economic costs of HIV-infected workers to an employer. This model employs age,CD4(+) cell counts,and plasma HIV-1 RNA level as major predictors of the disease progression and patient survival in the determination of various cost functions. Major cost components considered include direct expenses on health insurance premium,life insurance premium, short-term disability benefits, long-term disability benefits, hiring/training expenses, and indirect costs resulting from reduced or lost productivity at work. An individual model and a group model are derived to estimate the costs of an individual and a group of HIV-infected patients, respectively. Over a 10-year period, following the nonadvanced antiretroviral treatment regimen, the group model predicts that the total lifetime cost of an HIV-infected worker can be as high as U.S. 90,000 dollars to his/her employer, of which 60,000 dollars would be various explicit costs and 30,000 dollars lost work productivity. Sensitivity analysis further demonstrated that changes in the initial level of age,CD4(+) cell count, HIV-1 RNA viral load,CD4(+) cell decline rate, and the costs of medical care influence the dynamics of the cost functions. HIV infection can result in sizable economic costs to an employer over the lifetime course of an infected employee if not treated with the advanced antiretroviral therapy. These cost estimates provide a

  18. HBV and neurological impairment in HIV-infected patients

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    L Manolescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies

  19. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population......, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population....... High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other...

  20. Comparison of the therapeutic dose of warfarin in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients: a study of clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B S; Mokoena, T

    2017-01-01

    Background People infected with HIV are prone to venous thrombosis. Treatment of thrombosis is primarily with warfarin. No studies have addressed the effects of HIV infection on warfarin dose. The aims of this study were to determine whether the therapeutic dose of warfarin and induction time to therapeutic dose in HIV-infected patients differ from that in HIV-uninfected patients. Methods A prospective and retrospective descriptive study of induction time to therapeutic warfarin dose, as well as of ambulant therapeutic warfarin dose, was performed. HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients being treated after deep venous thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism were compared. Sex and use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) were also compared in the groups. Results 234 patients were entered into the study. Induction time to therapeutic warfarin dose did not differ between the 2 groups. The mean therapeutic dose of warfarin was higher in the HIV-infected than the HIV-uninfected group: 6.06 vs 5.72 mg/day, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.29). There was no difference in therapeutic warfarin dose between ARV-naïve groups—HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected patients not on ARVs. Conclusions There appears to be little effect of HIV infection on warfarin dosing. Warfarin therapy should be administered conventionally in HIV-infected patients. PMID:28179414

  1. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

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    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  2. Immune impairment thresholds in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Shingo; Nakaoka, Shinji; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Miura, Yoshiharu; Miura, Tomoyuki

    2009-04-27

    Longitudinal studies of patients infected with HIV-1 reveal a long and variable length of asymptomatic phase between infection and development of AIDS. Some HIV infected patients are still asymptomatic after 15 or more years of infection but some patients develop AIDS within 2 years. The mechanistic basis of the disease progression has remained obscure but many researchers have been trying to explain it. For example, the possible importance of viral diversity for the disease progression and the development of AIDS has been very well worked out in the early-1990s, especially by some important works of Martin A. Nowak. These studies can give an elegant explanation for a variability of asymptomatic phase. Here, a simple mathematical model was used to propose a new explanation for a variable length of asymptomatic phase. The main idea is that the immune impairment rate increases over the HIV infection. Our model suggested the existence of so-called "Risky threshold" and "Immunodeficiency threshold" on the impairment rate. The former implies that immune system may collapse when the impairment rate of HIV exceeds the threshold value. The latter implies that immune system always collapses when the impairment rate exceeds the value. We found that the length of asymptomatic phase is determined stochastically between these threshold values depending on the virological and immunological states. Furthermore, we investigated a distribution of the length of asymptomatic phase and a survival rate of the immune responses in one HIV patient.

  3. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…

  4. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…

  5. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A; Middleton, Richard H

    2013-03-07

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progression to AIDS. Simulation results illustrate how chronic infected macrophages can explain the progression to AIDS provoking viral explosion. Further simulation studies suggest that the proposed model retains its key properties even under moderately large parameter variations. This model provides important insights on how macrophages might play a crucial role in the long term behavior of HIV infection. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tetanus and diphtheria antibodies and response to a booster dose in Brazilian HIV-1-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Tatiana C S; Succi, Regina C M; Weckx, Lily Y; Tavares-Lopes, L; de Moraes-Pinto, M Isabel

    2004-09-09

    Tetanus and diphtheria (Td) antibodies were studied in HIV-1-infected women during puerperium. HIV group (n=61) was compared with Control group (n=101). Twenty-one women from HIV and 13 from Control group who had antibody levels lower than 0.1 IU/mL received a booster with Td vaccine. Antibodies were assessed by double antigen ELISA. Mean tetanus and diphtheria antibody levels from HIV group were lower than those from Control group. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that tetanus and diphtheria antibody levels were decreased by HIV-1-infection, and that was independent of the reduction due to the time interval between last booster and antibody assessment. After a booster dose, both groups had an increase in mean tetanus and diphtheria antibody levels, but in Control group the levels were higher than in HIV group.

  7. Determinants of survival among HIV-infected chronic dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rudolph A; Mendelson, Michael; O'Hare, Ann M; Hsu, Ling Chin; Schoenfeld, Patricia

    2003-05-01

    Over 100 HIV-infected patients have initiated chronic dialysis at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH) since 1985. This study employed retrospective analysis to identify determinants of and trends in survival among HIV-infected patients who have initiated chronic dialysis at SFGH from January 1, 1985 to November 1, 2002 (n = 115). Cohort patient survival was compared with survival after an AIDS-opportunistic illness in all HIV-infected patients in San Francisco during the study period. Higher CD4 count (hazard ratio [HR], 0.86 per 50 cells/mm(3) increase; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.93) and serum albumin (HR, 0.53 per 1 g/dl increase; CI, 0.36 to 0.78) at initiation of dialysis were strongly associated with lower mortality. Survival for those initiating dialysis during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was 16.1 mo versus 9.4 mo for those initiating dialysis before this time, but this difference was not statistically significant. In adjusted analysis, only a non-statistically significant trend toward improved survival during the HAART era was noted (HR, 0.59; CI, 0.34 to 1.04). By comparison, survival for all HIV-infected patients after an AIDS-opportunistic illness in San Francisco increased from 16 mo in 1994 to 81 mo in 1996. The dramatic improvement in survival that has occurred since the mid-1990s for patients with HIV appears to be greatly attenuated in the sub-group undergoing dialysis. Although this may partly reflect confounding by race, injection drug use and HCV co-infection, future attempts to improve survival among HIV-infected dialysis patients should focus on barriers to the effective use of HAART in this group.

  8. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  9. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  10. [Kidney transplant in patients with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossini, Nicola; Sandrini, Silvio; Valerio, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was an absolute contraindication to solid organ transplantation because it was feared that the anti-rejection therapy could result in accelerated HIV disease. At the end of the 1990s it became clear that HIV infection, once deemed a fatal disease, could be effectively turned into a chronic condition by the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Since then, the mortality rate from opportunistic infections has decreased dramatically, while liver and renal insufficiency have become the major causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients in the long term. A growing number of HIV patients develop end-stage renal disease secondary to immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, HIV-associated nephropathy, nephrotoxic effects induced by antiretroviral medication, or diabetic and vascular nephropathy, and therefore need maintenance dialysis. For this reason we have to reconsider kidney transplant as a possible treatment option. During the last decade, the results of many studies have shown that transplantation can be safe and effective as long as the HIV infection is effectively controlled by antiretroviral therapy. The short- and medium-term patient and graft survival rates in HIV-positive transplant recipients are comparable with those of the overall transplant population, but the incidence of acute rejection episodes is higher. The main clinical problem in the management of HIV-positive transplant recipients originates from the interference between immunosuppressive regimens and antiretroviral drugs. Thus, a close collaboration between infectious disease specialists and nephrologists is mandatory in order to optimize transplantation programs in these patients.

  11. Addressing intravaginal practices in women with HIV and at-risk for HIV infection, a mixed methods pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaide, Maria L; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Fischl, Margaret A; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Intravaginal practices (IVPs), include intravaginal cleansing (cleansing the inside of the vagina) or intravaginal insertion of products for hygiene, health or sexuality reasons. IVPs are associated with adverse female health outcomes, development of bacterial vaginosis, HIV acquisition and transmission. A mixed methods approach was used in this study to examine the prevalence of IVP, assess reasons for engagement, and perceptions of IVP among a sample of minority (African-American and Hispanic) women infected, or at-risk, for HIV in Miami, USA, a city with increasing numbers of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV. Three focus groups (total n=20) and quantitative assessments (n=72) were conducted with women infected or uninfected with HIV. In the qualitative assessments, most women reported engaging in both intravaginal cleansing and intravaginal insertion, and stated the main motivation for IVP was hygiene. The quantitative assessments confirmed that cleansing with water alone, soap with water or using commercial douches was common, as well as intravaginal insertion using a cloth or a rag in both HIV-infected and uninfected women. Women with HIV infection reported less use of water and water and soap for IVPs, and reported learning about the potential harm of IVP from their HIV health care providers. Despite their health risks, IVP appeared common in both HIV-infected and at-risk minority women, and interventions to decrease IVP could have important health implications among populations with high rates of IVP, STIs and HIV. PMID:28280394

  12. Maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of HIV-uninfected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Li, Fan; Martelly, Shoria; Byrt, Erin; Rouzier, Vanessa; Leo, Marguerite; Tobin, Nicole; Pannaraj, Pia S; Adisetiyo, Helty; Rollie, Adrienne; Santiskulvong, Chintda; Wang, Shaun; Autran, Chloe; Bode, Lars; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2016-07-27

    More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant's microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.

  13. Parasitic infections in HIV infected individuals: Diagnostic & therapeutic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissapatorn, Veeranoot; Sawangjaroen, Nongyao

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, parasites have been one of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) and one of the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-infected patients. Due to severe immunosuppression, enteric parasitic pathogens in general are emerging and are OIs capable of causing diarrhoeal disease associated with HIV. Of these, Cryptosporidium parvum and Isospora belli are the two most common intestinal protozoan parasites and pose a public health problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. These are the only two enteric protozoan parasites that remain in the case definition of AIDS till today. Leismaniasis, strongyloidiasis and toxoplasmosis are the three main opportunistic causes of systemic involvements reported in HIV-infected patients. Of these, toxoplasmosis is the most important parasitic infection associated with the central nervous system. Due to its complexity in nature, toxoplasmosis is the only parasitic disease capable of not only causing focal but also disseminated forms and it has been included in AIDS-defining illnesses (ADI) ever since. With the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), cryptosporidiosis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, and toxoplasmosis are among parasitic diseases reported in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This review addresses various aspects of parasitic infections in term of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with HIV-infection. PMID:22310820

  14. The timing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and the risk of HBV infection following HIV diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, Michael L; Hullsiek, Katherine Huppler; Chun, Helen M; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Ganesan, Anuradha; Weintrob, Amy C; Barthel, R Vincent; O'Connell, Robert J; Agan, Brian K

    2011-01-01

    To assess associations between the timing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization relative to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnosis and vaccine effectiveness, US Military HIV Natural History Study cohort participants without HBV infection at the time of HIV diagnosis were grouped by vaccination status, retrospectively followed from HIV diagnosis for incident HBV infection, and compared using Cox proportional hazards models. A positive vaccine response was defined as hepatitis B surface antibody level ≥ 10 IU/L. Of 1,877 participants enrolled between 1989 and 2008, 441 (23%) were vaccinated prior to HIV diagnosis. Eighty percent of those who received vaccine doses only before HIV diagnosis had a positive vaccine response, compared with 66% of those who received doses both before and after HIV and 41% of those who received doses only after HIV (P HIV only). Compared with the unvaccinated, persons vaccinated only before HIV had reduced risk of HBV infection after HIV diagnosis (hazard ratio = 0.38, 95% confidence interval: 0.20, 0.75). No reduction in HBV infection risk was observed for other vaccination groups. These data suggest that completion of the vaccine series prior to HIV infection may be the optimal strategy for preventing this significant comorbid infection in HIV-infected persons.

  15. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV. ... Journal Home > Vol 14, No 4 (2013) > ... HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly associated with the development of anogenital ...

  16. The stages of HIV infection and the risk of opportunistic Tuberculosis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roselinda Roselinda

    2016-03-01

    purposive sampling. Therewere 490 HIV patients included in this study. Data were collected using a specific questionnaire. Statisticalanalyses were done using STATA 9.0 version.Results: Among 490 HIV patients, there were 238 (48.6% patients with TB as IO. The precentage ofTB as OI in the younger HIV-infected group was higher than the older group. Among the HIV-infectedpersons, males had a 24 % higher risk of becoming infected with TB than females [adjusted relative risk(RRa=1.24; P=0.023]. Stage 4 HIV-infected persons had 52% risk of TB as OI compared to stages 1-3(RRa=1.55; P=0.000.Conclusion: Patients with stage 4 HIV infection and male were more at risk for developing opportunistictuberculosis infection. (Health Science Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:121-5Keywords: Tuberculosis, HIV, opportunistic infection, Indonesia

  17. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only

  18. Psychopharmacology in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Martin J; Petitto, John M

    2008-06-01

    Neuropsychiatric disorders and syndromes may be underdiagnosed and inadequately treated in individuals infected with HIV. Depression in particular is among the most prevalent diagnoses, and data from controlled clinical studies have shown that antidepressant medications are efficacious and safe for treating depression in HIV-infected persons. A significant shortcoming of this literature is that most of the available data are from studies conducted before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. In addition, apart from antidepressant medications, controlled studies systematically assessing efficacy and safety issues for other classes of psychotropic drugs (e.g., antipsychotic and anxiolytic medications) in HIV-infected persons are lacking. This review summarizes essential findings pertaining to the use of psychotropic medications to treat depression and other neuropsychiatric disorders in the context of HIV. It includes a discussion of clinically relevant treatment considerations (e.g., side effects, drug-drug interactions) derived from the existing literature as well as judgments that clinicians face in the absence of research data. Despite some shortcomings of the existing literature, overall there is compelling evidence that the appropriate use of psychotropic medications (coupled with behavioral therapy) can improve the quality of life of mentally ill HIV-infected individuals.

  19. Completeness of HIV reporting on death certificates for Floridians reported with HIV infection, 2000-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Diana M. Sheehan; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Lieb, Spencer; Maddox, Lorene

    2015-01-01

    HIV mortality is used as a key measure to monitor the impact of HIV throughout the world. It is important that HIV be correctly recorded on death certificates so that the burden of HIV mortality can be tracked accurately. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of failure to correctly report HIV on death certificates and examine patterns of incompleteness by demographic factors. Causes of death on death certificates of people infected with HIV reported to the Florida HIV surve...

  20. EFFECT OF HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY ON VAGINAL Candida spp. ISOLATION IN HIV-INFECTED COMPARED TO HIV-UNINFECTED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Souza Dantas ALCZUK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE for sexually transmitted diseases (STD/AIDS of the city of Maringá, Brazil, from April 1 to October 30, 2011. The yeasts were isolated and identified by phenotypic and molecular methods. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility to fluconazole, itraconazole, nystatin and amphotericin B was tested by the reference microdilution method. Higher frequencies of total vaginal Candida spp. isolation were found in the HIV-infected group than in the control group. However, both groups showed a similar frequency of colonization and VVC. Although C. albicans was the most frequent and sensitive to azolics and polyenes in both HIV-infected and uninfected women, the emerging resistance of C. glabrata to amphotericin B in the HIV-infected women was observed. Although higher frequency of vaginal Candida spp. isolation had been observed in the HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected women, colonization and VVC showed similar frequency in both groups, indicating that HAART appears to protect against vaginal colonization and VVC.

  1. Superior outcomes in HIV-positive kidney transplant patients compared with HCV-infected or HIV/HCV-coinfected recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawinski, Deirdre; Forde, Kimberly A; Eddinger, Kevin; Troxel, Andrea B; Blumberg, Emily; Tebas, Pablo; Abt, Peter L; Bloom, Roy D

    2015-08-01

    The prerequisite for an 'undetectable' HIV viral load has restricted access to transplantation for HIV-infected kidney recipients. However, HCV-infected recipients, owing to the historic limitations of HCV therapy in patients with renal disease, are commonly viremic at transplant and have universal access. To compare the effect of HIV, HCV, and HIV/HCV coinfection on kidney transplant patient and allograft outcomes, we performed a retrospective study of kidney recipients transplanted from January 1996 through December 2013. In multivariable analysis, patient (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.66-1.24) and allograft survival (0.60, 40-0.88) in 492 HIV patients did not differ significantly from the 117,791 patient-uninfected reference group. This was superior to outcomes in both the 5605 patient HCV group for death (1.44, 1.33-1.56) and graft loss (1.43, 1.31-1.56), as well as the 147 patient HIV/HCV coinfected group for death (2.26, 1.45-3.52) and graft loss (2.59, 1.60-4.19). HIV infection did not adversely affect recipient or allograft survival and was associated with superior outcomes compared with both HCV infection and HIV/HCV coinfection in this population. Thus, pretransplant viral eradication and/or immediate posttransplant eradication should be studied as potential strategies to improve posttransplant outcomes in HCV-infected kidney recipients.

  2. To use or not to use a condom: A prospective cohort study comparing contraceptive practices among HIV-infected and HIV-negative youth in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Stella

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unwanted pregnancy and HIV infection are issues of significant concern to young people. Limited data exists on contraceptive decision-making and practices among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people in low resource settings with generalized HIV epidemics. Methods From July 2007 until April 2009, we recruited, and followed up over a one year period, a cohort of 501 HIV-negative and 276 HIV-infected young women and men aged 15-24 years residing in Kampala and Wakiso districts. We compared contraceptive use among HIV-infected and HIV-negative young people and assessed factors associated with contraceptive decision-making and use, using multivariate logistic regression modelling to estimate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Contraceptive use among sexually active HIV-infected young people was 34% while it was 59% among the HIV-negative group. The condom was the most frequently used method of contraception. Only 24% of the HIV-infected used condoms consistently compared to 38% among the negative group OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.38, 0.82. HIV-infected young people were more likely to discuss safe sex behaviour with health workers OR 1.70 (95% CI 1.13, 2.57, though its effect on fertility decision-making was not significant. Throughout the year's follow-up, only 24% among the HIV-negative and 18% among the HIV-infected continued to use contraception while 12% and 28% among the HIV-negative and infected respectively did not use contraception at all. At multivariate analysis, the HIV-infected young people were less likely to maintain contraceptive use. Other factors independently associated with sustained contraceptive use were age of the respondent, marital status and being a male. Conversely, HIV-infected young people were less likely to initiate use of contraception. Being married or in a relationship was associated with higher odds of initiating contraceptive use. Conclusion Compared to the HIV-negative group

  3. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women : Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were anal

  4. Occurrence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women: Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly standa

  5. Occurence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women : Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Direct

  6. Occurence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women : Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed.

  7. Occurrence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women: Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly

  8. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women : Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were

  9. Occurrence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women: Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly standa

  10. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women : Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were anal

  11. Occurence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women : Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Direct

  12. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001...

  13. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Antwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Signs and symptoms associated with HIV positivity observed in this study can be used by health care providers to detect HIV infection early. Moreover, similar to HIV testing in patients with tuberculosis, strategies can be developed for considering Herpes zoster as a predictor of HIV infection.

  14. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  15. Seroprevalence of anti-HCV and hepatitis B surface antigen in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tankhiwale S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is known to influence the natural history of infections with certain hepatitis viruses and interactions between HIV and hepatitis viruses may potentiate HIV replication. There is high degree of epidemiological similarity between hepatitis B virus and HIV as regard to high-risk group and route of transmission. Transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV through blood transfusion and intravenous drug abuse is well documented. Present study deals with the study of concurrent infection of HBV and HCV with HIV infection. In the study of 110 HIV seropositive patients, 34(30.4% were positive for HBV and 8(7.27% for HCV. The difference of concomitant infection was highly significant compared to controls. (p value < 0.0001. Heterosexual high risk behaviour was observed in 89(80.91% of 110 HIV positive patients, out of which 23(25.8% and 5(5.62% were HBsAg and anti-HCV positive respectively. History of transmission was unclear in remaining patients. Concomitant infection of HIV and HBV was found to be significantly more in the symptomatic group (40.68% compared to asymptomatic group (19.6%. As HIV infection is known to affect the natural history of both HBV and HCV infection, screening of their concurrent association is necessary.

  16. Usage of purchased self-tests for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: results of population-based and serial cross-sectional studies among the general population and sexual risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bil, Janneke P; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke G; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Heijman, Titia; Snijder, Marieke B; Davidovich, Udi; Zuure, Freke R

    2017-09-21

    There are limited data on the usage of commercially bought self-tests for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, we studied HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants among the general population and sexual risk groups between 2007 and 2015 in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Data were collected in four different studies among the general population (S1-2) and sexual risk groups (S3-4). S1-Amsterdam residents participating in representative population-based surveys (2008 and 2012; n=6044) drawn from the municipality register; S2-Participants of a population-based study stratified by ethnicity drawn from the municipality register of Amsterdam (2011-2015; n=17 603); S3-Men having sex with men (MSM) participating in an HIV observational cohort study (2008 and 2013; n=597) and S4-STI clinic clients participating in a cross-sectional survey (2007-2012; n=5655). Prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage and its determinants. The prevalence of HIV/STI self-test usage in the preceding 6-12 months varied between 1% and 2% across studies. Chlamydia self-tests were most commonly used, except among MSM in S3. Chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage increased over time among the representative sample of Amsterdam residents (S1) and chlamydia self-test usage increased over time among STI clinic clients (S4). Self-test usage was associated with African Surinamese or Ghanaian ethnic origin (S2), being woman or MSM (S1 and 4) and having had a higher number of sexual partners (S1-2). Among those in the general population who tested for HIV/STI in the preceding 12 months, 5-9% used a self-test. Despite low HIV/STI self-test usage, we observed increases over time in chlamydia and syphilis self-test usage. Furthermore, self-test usage was higher among high-risk individuals in the general population. It is important to continue monitoring self-test usage and informing the public about the unknown quality of available self-tests in the Netherlands and about the pros

  17. HIV-1 and GBV-C co-infection in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Anny Karely; Garzaro, Domingo José; Loureiro, Carmen Luisa; Gutiérrez, Cristina R; Ameli, Gladys; Jaspe, Rossana Celeste; Porto, Leticia; Monsalve, Francisca; Pozada, Ángela; Vázquez, Luzmary; Quiñones-Mateu, Miguel E; Pujol, Flor Helene; Rangel, Héctor Rafael

    2014-07-14

    Co-infection with GB virus C (GBV-C) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) has been associated with prolonged survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of GBV-C infection among HIV-1-infected patients in Venezuela, and to determine the effects of the co-infection on the levels of relevant cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 270 HIV-1-seronegative and 255 HIV-1-seropositive individuals. GBV-C infection was determined by RT-PCR of the NS5 region and genotyped by sequence analysis of the 5´UTR region. HIV-1 strains were characterized by sequence analysis of pol, vif, env, and nef genes. Selected cytokines were evaluated by ELISA. Ninety-seven of 525 (18.5%) plasma samples tested positive for GBV-C RNA. A significantly higher prevalence of GBV-C was found among HIV-1 patients compared to HIV-1-seronegative individuals (67/255, 26% versus 30/270, 11%; p HIV-1+GBV-C+ and HIV-1+GBV-C- (p = 0.014), although no differences in CD4+ cell counts were found between both groups. TNFα concentration was higher in HIV-1+GBV-C- than in HIV-1+GBV-C+ patients (25.9 pg/mL versus 17.3 pg/mL; p = 0.02); RANTES expression levels were more variable in GBV-C co-infected patients and more frequently elevated in HIV-1 mono-infected patients compared to patients co-infected with GBV-C. The previously observed beneficial effect of co-infection with HIV-1 and GBV-C on disease progression is complex and might be due in part to a change in the cytokine environment. More studies are required to understand the interaction between both viruses.

  18. Current status of AIDS and HIV infection in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, S

    1994-01-01

    A total 494 cases of AIDS had been reported to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare in India by October 31, 1993. Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra have the highest number of cases at 152 and 117 respectively, Kerala has 76, Punjab/Chandigarh 47, and Delhi 42, while the other states reported 1-17. More than 90% of cases were in the 15-45 year-old age group. Multipartner sex probably accounts for 80% of infections, blood and blood product transfusions for 12%, and sharing unsterilized drug injecting equipment for 5%. This number of reported cases, however, represents only a small fraction of actual AIDS morbidity in India due to general underreporting; the actual number of AIDS cases is probably in the range of 10,000-20,000 thousand. As for HIV infection, 13,448 of the 1,933,834 individuals tested for HIV through the nationwide surveillance network over the period October 1985-October 1993, were found to be infected. The seropositivity rate increased from 2.5/1000 in 1986 to 11.2/1000 by 1992. The author notes, however, that up to 90% of the population groups screened thus far came from high-risk groups. HIV-infected individuals were found in almost all states and Union Territories, although the major concentration of HIV remains in Bombay which may contain 5-10% of the country's infected individuals. Surveillance reports from the commercial sex workers show a marked rise in HIV prevalence from 10% in 1986 to 32% in 1991. Other hot spots are Pune, Madras, Madurai, and Vellore. The latest studies have shown HIV infection among IV drug users to be 74% in Manipur, 50% in Nagaland, and 6-10% in Mizoram. More than 1.5 million people were estimated to have been infected by the end of 1993. Lack of information from rural and semi-urban areas, however, does not allow estimates and projections beyond the major municipal centers. The author warns that current conditions of HIV infection and AIDS in India strongly resemble those in certain regions of Africa in the 1980s after

  19. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Monteiro

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261 and a comparison group (N = 82 of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France. The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm³ had a higher PWV (P = 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  20. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, P. [Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, D.B. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bandeira, F. [Serviço de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lacerda, H.R. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Chaves, H. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Albuquerque, M.F.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães,FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE (Brazil); Montarroyos, U.R. [Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Ximenes, R.A.A. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count <200 cells/mm{sup 3} had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  1. Receipt of HIV/STD Prevention Counseling by HIV-Infected Adults Receiving Medical Care in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MIZUNO, Yuko; ZHU, Julia; CREPAZ, Nicole; BEER, Linda; PURCELL, David W.; JOHNSON, Christopher H.; VALVERDE, Eduardo E.; SKARBINSKI, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Objective Guidelines recommend risk-reduction counseling by HIV providers to all HIV-infected persons. Among HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States, we estimated prevalence of exposure to three types of HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk-reduction interventions and described the characteristics of persons who received these interventions. Design Data were from the Medical Monitoring Project (MMP), a supplemental HIV surveillance system designed to produce nationally representative estimates of behavioral and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected adults receiving medical care in the United States. Methods Descriptive analyses were conducted to estimate the exposure to each type of HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations between the selected correlates with each exposure variable. Results About 44% of participants reported a one-on-one conversation with a health care provider about HIV/STD prevention, 30% with a prevention program worker, 16% reported participation in a small group risk-reduction intervention, and 52% reported receiving at least one of the three interventions in the past 12 months. Minority race/ethnicity, low income, and risky sexual behavior consistently predicted greater intervention exposure. However, 39% of persons who reported risky sex did not receive any HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. Conclusions HIV-infected persons in care with fewer resources or those who engaged in risk behaviors were more likely to receive HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions. However, less than half of HIV-infected persons in care received HIV/STD prevention counseling from their provider, an intervention that has been shown to be effective and is supported by guidelines. PMID:24056066

  2. Molar incisor hypomineralization in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Natália Silva; Pontes, Alessandra Silva; de Sousa Paz, Hélvis Enri; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; Lima, Marina de Deus Mourade

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among individuals between 7 and 15 years old infected or noninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study was conducted with 33 HIV-infected individuals (study group; SG) and 66 non-HIV-infected schoolchildren (control group; CG), paired by gender and age. Data collection was based on medical records (SG), a questionnaire for caregivers and oral examination for diagnosis of MIH (European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria) and caries (DMFT index and ICDAS). Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression. In SG, MIH (45.5%) and caries (87.9%) had higher prevalence. MIH was associated with use of protease inhibitors in SG (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.21 to 3.77) and incubator need in CG (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.71 to 9.10). HIV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of MIH and dental caries in the permanent dentition.

  3. Gene Therapy for HIV Infections: Intracellular Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Piché

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant advances in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection in the past 10 years, it remains an incurable disease. The inability of traditional drug-based therapies to inhibit HIV replication effectively for extended periods of time has stimulated intense research to develop novel approaches for this disease. Current understanding of HIV molecular biology and pathogenesis has opened the way for the development of gene therapy strategies for HIV infections. In this context, a number of intracellular immunization-based strategies have been evaluated, and some of them have reached the stage of phase I/II human clinical trials. These strategies include the use of single-chain antibodies, capsid-targeted viral inactivation, transdominant negative mutants, ribozymes, antisense oligonucleotides and RNA decoys. While a number of issues remain to be studied before intracellular immunization can be applied to the treatment of HIV infections, the significant progress already made in this field is likely to lead to clinical applications.

  4. A severe manifestation of primary HIV-1 infection in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, Joana; Póvoas, Marta Isabel; Cruz, Carla; Teixeira, Andrea

    2014-10-03

    Primary HIV infection (PHI) is symptomatic in 50-90% of patients with symptoms resembling infectious mononucleosis. The diagnosis, however, is seldom made at first presentation. Clinically severe presentations during primary HIV type 1 infection are considered to occur infrequently. We report a case of a severe manifestation of PHI with meningoencephalitis in the setting of HIV seroconversion in an adolescent girl. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Latini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is responsible for 85% of anal cancers. Recently, anal cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM. Cytology may be a useful tool for the detection of anal precancerous lesions. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM. Materials and Methods: MSM ≥18-year-old attending an STI clinic in Rome (Italy were enrolled. Anal cytologic samples were collected in PreservCyt (Hologic using a Dacron swab. The Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics was used for the detection and genotyping of 37 mucosal HPV types. Liquid-based cytological slides were obtained using a ThinPrep2000 processor (Hologic. The morphology of the anal pap-test was classified following the Bethesda 2001 guidelines. Results: We enrolled 180 HIV-infected (median age 41 years, IQR 33–47 and 438 HIV-uninfected MSM (median age 32 years, IQR: 27–39. Most of the individuals were Caucasian (92.2% and 97.0%, respectively. HPV prevalence, both overall (93.3% vs 72.4%, p<.001 and by high-risk (HR HPV types (80.5% vs 56.0%, p<.001, was significantly higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals. HPV-multiple infections were evidenced in 48.2% of the HIV-uninfected and 76.1% of the HIV-infected MSM (p<.001. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype in both groups (23.3% in HIV-positive and 17.6% in HIV-negative MSM. HPV6 and 84 were the most frequent low-risk types in both cohorts. Anal cytologic abnormalities were found in a significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected MSM (46.1% vs 27.9%, p<.001. H-SILs (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were exclusively observed among the HIV-infected individuals, although at a low prevalence (1.2%. Conclusions: A high prevalence of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities was evidenced in both populations. Nonetheless, HIV-infected MSM showed a

  6. Clinical course of primary HIV infection: consequences for subsequent course of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lindhardt, B O; Jensen, B L;

    1989-01-01

    seroconversion occurred within 12 months. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE--Progression of HIV infection, defined as CD4 lymphocyte count less than 0.5 X 10(9)/l, recurrence of HIV antigenaemia, or progression to Centers for Disease Control group IV. MAIN RESULTS--Median follow up was 670 (range 45-1506) days. An acute......OBJECTIVE--To investigate the impact of the clinical course of the primary HIV infection on the subsequent course of the infection. DESIGN--Prospective documenting of seroconversion, follow up at six month intervals, and analysis of disease progression by life tables. PATIENTS--86 Men in whom...... illness like glandular fever occurred in 46 (53%) subjects. Three year progression rates to Centers for Disease Control group IV was 78% at three years for those who had longlasting illnesses (duration greater than or equal to 14 days) during seroconversion as compared with 10% for those who were free...

  7. Recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a splenectomised HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesne Gilles

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case.

  8. Hyperproinsulinaemia in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hales, CN;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the insulin precursors, intact (IP) and 32-33 split proinsulin (SP), which are elevated in states of insulin resistance and predict type 2 diabetes, would be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO......). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients [18 LIPO and 18 without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) receiving antiretroviral drugs, and seven patients naïve to antiretroviral drugs (NAIVE)] were examined. Insulin precursors were measured during fasting, during an intravenous glucose.......01), but did not differ between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Proinsulin appeared to be increased in HIV-lipodystrophy, but no more than caused by the increased ISR. Nevertheless, the inverse correlations between SP/insulin ratio versus Si(RD) and incremental total proinsulin/insulin ratio versus DI may argue...

  9. Changes in HIV RNA and CD4 cell count after acute HCV infection in chronically HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, L.; Wolf, F. de; Smit, C.; Prins, M.; Meer, J.T. van der; Vanhommerig, J.W.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Schinkel, J.; Geskus, R.B.; Warris, A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the impact of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV-1 disease progression. We investigated CD4 cell count and HIV RNA concentration changes after HCV infection in individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. METHODS: We selected individuals that had the l

  10. CD4+ T cells with an activated and exhausted phenotype distinguish immunodeficiency during aviremic HIV-2 infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buggert, Marcus; Frederiksen, Juliet; Lund, Ole; Betts, Michael R.; Biague, Antonio; Nielsen, Morten; Tauriainen, Johanna; Norrgren, Hans; Medstrand, Patrik; Karlsson, Annika C.; Jansson, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Objective: HIV type 2 (HIV-2) represents an attenuated form of HIV, in which many infected individuals remain ‘aviremic’ without antiretroviral therapy. However, aviremic HIV-2 disease progression exists, and in the current study, we therefore aimed to examine if specific pathological characteristics of CD4+ T cells are linked to such outcome. Design: HIV-seronegative (n = 25), HIV type 1 (HIV-1) (n = 33), HIV-2 (n = 39, of whom 26 were aviremic), and HIV-1/2 dually (HIV-D) (n = 13)-infected study participants were enrolled from an occupational cohort in Guinea-Bissau. Methods: CD4+ T-cell differentiation, activation, exhaustion, senescence, and transcription factors were assessed by polychromatic flow cytometry. Multidimensional clustering bioinformatic tools were used to identify CD4+ T-cell subpopulations linked to infection type and disease stage. Results: HIV-2-infected individuals had early and late-differentiated CD4+ T-cell clusters with lower activation (CD38+HLA-DR+) and exhaustion programmed death-1 (PD-1) than HIV-1 and HIV-D-infected individuals. We also noted that aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals possessed fewer individuals. CD4+ T cells with pathological signs compared to other HIV-infected groups. Still, compared to HIV-seronegative individuals, aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals had T-bet+ CD4+ T cells that showed elevated immune activation/exhaustion, and particularly the frequencies of PD-1+ cells were associated with a suboptimal percentage of CD4+ T cells. Conclusion: Increased frequencies of CD4+ T cells with an activated/exhausted phenotype correlate with exacerbated immunodeficiency in aviremic HIV-2-infected individuals. Thus, these findings encourage studies on the introduction of antiretroviral therapy also to individuals with aviremic HIV-2 infection. PMID:27525551

  11. Psychiatric context of acute/early HIV infection. The NIMH Multisite Acute HIV Infection Study: IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, J Hampton; Higgins, Jenny A; Vigil, Ofilio; Dubrow, Robert; Remien, Robert H; Steward, Wayne T; Casey, Corinna Young; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Correale, Jackie; Ake, Chris; McCutchan, J Allen; Kerndt, Peter R; Morin, Stephen F; Grant, Igor

    2009-12-01

    Acute/early HIV infection is a period of high risk for HIV transmission. Better understanding of behavioral aspects during this period could improve interventions to limit further transmission. Thirty-four participants with acute/early HIV infection from six US cities were assessed with the Mini International Diagnostic Interview, Beck Depression Inventory II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Brief COPE, and an in-depth interview. Most had a pre-HIV history of alcohol or substance use disorder (85%); a majority (53%) had a history of major depressive or bipolar disorder. However, post-diagnosis coping was predominantly adaptive, with only mild to moderate elevations of anxious or depressive mood. Respondents described challenges managing HIV in tandem with pre-existing substance abuse problems, depression, and anxiety. Integration into medical and community services was associated with adaptive coping. The psychiatric context of acute/early HIV infection may be a precursor to infection, but not necessarily a barrier to intervention to reduce forward transmission of HIV among persons newly infected.

  12. Executive summary. Consensus statement of the National AIDS Plan Secretariat, Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine and AIDS Study Group of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology on Emergency and HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Emergency Services (ES) are the cornerstone of our health system and therefore it cannot remain indifferent to the HIV advances that have drastically changed the landscape of the disease, so, emergency specialist updating is not only necessary, it is also essential. The purpose of this paper is to support non-HIV specialist professionals in treating patients with urgent diseases resulting from HIV infection or related to it. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Saxena, Shailendra K; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2012-01-01

    HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  14. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB. Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  15. Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV infection (COCOMO) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Haissman, Judith Melchior; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Ditte Marie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved survival for people living with HIV (PLWHIV). Non-AIDS comorbidities have replaced opportunistic infections as leading causes of mortality and morbidity, and are becoming a key health concern as this population continues....../DESIGN: The Copenhagen comorbidity in HIV-infection (COCOMO) study is an observational, longitudinal cohort study. The study was initiated in 2015 and recruitment is ongoing with the aim of including 1500 PLWHIV from the Copenhagen area. Follow-up examinations after 2 and 10 years are planned. Uninfected controls...... (PBMC), urine, and stool samples are collected in a biobank for future studies. Data will be updated through periodical linking to national databases. DISCUSSION: As life expectancy for PLWHIV improves, it is essential to study long-term impact of HIV and cART. We anticipate that findings from...

  16. Low prevalence of H. pylori Infection in HIV-Positive Patients in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Cícero IS

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study conducted in Northeastern Brazil, evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori infection and the presence of gastritis in HIV-infected patients. Methods There were included 113 HIV-positive and 141 age-matched HIV-negative patients, who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for dyspeptic symptoms. H. pylori status was evaluated by urease test and histology. Results The prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly lower (p H. pylori status and gender, age, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy and the use of antibiotics. A lower prevalence of H. pylori was observed among patients with T CD4 cell count below 200/mm3; however, it was not significant. Chronic active antral gastritis was observed in 87.6% of the HIV-infected patients and in 780.4% of the control group (p = 0.11. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with chronic active gastritis in the antrum in both groups, but it was not associated with corpus chronic active gastritis in the HIV-infected patients. Conclusion We demonstrated that the prevalence of H. pylori was significantly lower in HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative ones. However, corpus gastritis was frequently observed in the HIV-positive patients, pointing to different mechanisms than H. pylori infection in the genesis of the lesion.

  17. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  18. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  19. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...... heterozygous seems to be mediated by events in the early stages of the HIV infection.......The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...... lower HIV RNA levels (p = 0.005) and higher CD4 cell counts (p

  20. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan

    2012-01-01

    tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution...

  1. Fosamprenavir calcium plus ritonavir for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Harrys A; Arduino, Roberto C

    2007-06-01

    Fosamprenavir is a protease inhibitor (PI) approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Fosamprenavir is a prodrug of amprenavir developed to reduce the pill burden yet maintain the unique resistance pattern and efficacy associated with amprenavir. In a head-to-head, noninferiority trial in antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-infected patients, the antiviral efficacy and tolerability of ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir was not inferior to ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, when the PIs were combined with two other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. There are fewer studies published about fosamprenavir use in antiretroviral treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients. The high genetic barrier to the development of resistance to fosamprenavir and the low level of cross-resistance between ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir and other PI regimens are notable. As with amprenavir, gastrointestinal disturbance and rash are the most frequent short-term treatment-limiting events with fosamprenavir. Treatment with ritonavir-boosted fosamprenavir can produce a durable response. To date, fosamprenavir is one of the recommended preferred PI components for the treatment of antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected patients.

  2. Cardiovascular manifestations of HIV infection in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Idris, Nikmah S; Grobbee, Diederick E; Burgner, David; Cheung, Michael M H; Kurniati, Nia; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Uiterwaal, Cuno SPM

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV infection in children is now considered as a chronic condition, in which various non-infectious complications may occur, including those affecting the developing cardiovascular system. As children are expected to survive well into adulthood, understanding childhood as well as potenti

  3. TUBERCULOSIS/HIV CO-INFECTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    employed to help overcome this problem – each of ... and this technology is now being widely scaled up. ... well as rifampicin resistance among HIV-infected .... indicates very limited, low-quality information on .... challenges, and change in the era of anti-retroviral ... Hague: Royal Netherlands tuberculosis Association. 1991.

  4. Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood group B or O donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Hansen, J E; Clausen, H;

    1991-01-01

    not inhibit the HTLV-IIIB/lyB or the HTLV-IIIB/lyO isolate. Specificity of the MAb-mediated inhibition was shown using A-antigen (tetrasaccharide). Thus, HIV infection of PBMC from donors with blood type A appears to induce expression of host-cell-encoded carbohydrate blood group A epitope on HIV which can...

  5. Analysis of Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inlfammatory Syndrome in HIV/TB Co-infected Patients During HAART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivesTo investigate the clinical features of tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inlfammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in patients co-infected with HIV/TB or latent infection during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods HIV-infected patients treated in the Third People’s Hospital of Shenzhen, China between March 2012 and March 2013 were recruited, and divided into 3 groups: 1) HIV/TB co-infection group (n = 50), 2) HIV/MTB latent infection group (n = 50), and 3) HIV infection group (n = 50), with 12-month follow-up. Patients in the HIV/TB co-infection group were treated with HAART 2 weeks after TB therapy. Patients were assessed at different time-points. ResultsThe incidence and mortality rates of TB-IRIS were 40% and 10% in the HIV/TB co-infected patients, and 2% (and no mortality) in the HIV/MTB group. The HIV infected group did not display TB-IRIS or death. About 95% HIV/TB co-infected patients were 20-39 years old when TB-IRIS occurred, and 65% of the patients developed TB-IRIS 2 weeks after HAART. For the co-infection group, those with TB-IRIS (20/20, 100%) had fever, with a signiifcantly higher incidence than those who did not develop TB-IRIS (6.7%, 2/30,P < 0.05). The patients with TB-IRIS in co-infection group displayed markedly higher clinical biochemical markers, acute phase reactants, increased CD4+ cell counts, and 2 log10-decreases of HIV RNA loads, compared with the patients not presenting with TB-IRIS (P < 0.05). Conclusion HIV/TB co-infected patients presented with a high-risk of developing TB-IRIS during HAART treatment. Early diagnosis and treatment could decrease mortality rates in TB-IRIS.

  6. Discrimination against HIV-infected people and the spread of HIV: some evidence from France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Peretti-Watel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA suffer from stigma and discrimination. There is an ongoing debate, however, about whether stigma, fear and discrimination actually fuel the persisting spread of HIV, or slow it down by reducing contacts between the whole population and high-risk minorities. To contribute to this debate, we analysed the relationship between perceived discrimination and unsafe sex in a large sample of French PLWHAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2003, we conducted a national cross-sectional survey among a random sample of HIV-infected patients. The analysis was restricted to sexually active respondents (N = 2,136. Unsafe sex was defined as sexual intercourse without a condom with a seronegative/unknown serostatus partner during the prior 12 months. Separate analyses were performed for each transmission group (injecting drug use (IDU, homosexual contact, heterosexual contact. Overall, 24% of respondents reported experiences of discrimination in their close social environment (relatives, friends and colleagues and 18% reported unsafe sex during the previous 12 months. Both prevalences were higher in the IDU group (32% for perceived discrimination, 23% for unsafe sex. In multivariate analyses, experience of discrimination in the close social environment was associated with an increase in unsafe sex for both PLWHAs infected through IDU and heterosexual contact (OR = 1.65 and 1.80 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly confirms a relationship between discrimination and unsafe sex among PLWHAs infected through either IDU or heterosexual contact. This relationship was especially strong in the heterosexual group that has become the main vector of HIV transmission in France, and who is the more likely of sexual mixing with the general population. These results seriously question the hypothesis that HIV-stigma has no effect or could even reduce the infection spread of HIV.

  7. Identification of infection of an Australian resident with the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, J C; Dwyer, D E; Kazazi, F; Chew, C B; Dowton, D N; Randle, C; Singh, V; Dax, E M; Cunningham, A L

    1992-09-21

    To present the first confirmed case of human immunodeficiency virus infection type 2 (HIV-2) in an Australian resident. HIV-2 infection in a west African man resident in Sydney was diagnosed in 1992 at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, by serological testing. He was asymptomatic and the blood CD4 T-lymphocyte concentration was not significantly reduced. Infection was probably acquired before migration to Australia. The patient was initially tested for HIV-1 antibody as part of an application for permanent residency. He was in no obvious risk group or transmission category. His serum was repeatedly positive by Genetic Systems enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and borderline by Abbott EIA, was reactive to the HIV-2 peptide on a synthetic envelope peptide assay, and was strongly reactive to all HIV-2 specific viral protein bands on an HIV-2 western blot test. HIV-2 was isolated by co-cultivation of the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells and identified by hybridisation using HIV-2 specific oligonucleotide probes, with further confirmation by polymerase chain reaction. The patient was counselled regarding the clinical course and prognosis of HIV-2 infection, the possible indications for zidovudine therapy, modes of transmission of the virus and safer sex precautions. This is the first documented case of HIV-2 infection diagnosed in Australia and raises the possibility of other undetected cases. The cost effectiveness of general testing for HIV-2 needs to be assessed and formal epidemiological sentinel programs should be established to monitor specific Australian populations.

  8. Select neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected women: associations with HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus, and depression, but not leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle J Giesbrecht

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Through implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART remarkable gains have been achieved in the management of HIV infection; nonetheless, the neurocognitive consequences of infection remain a pivotal concern in the cART era. Research has often employed norm-referenced neuropsychological scores, derived from healthy populations (excluding many seronegative individuals at high risk for HIV infection, to characterize impairments in predominately male HIV-infected populations. METHODS: Using matched-group methodology, we assessed 81 HIV-seropositive (HIV+ women with established neuropsychological measures validated for detection of HIV-related impairments, as well as additional detailed tests of executive function and decision-making from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB. RESULTS: On validated tests, the HIV+ women exhibited impairments that were limited to significantly slower information processing speed when compared with 45 HIV-seronegative (HIV- women with very similar demographic backgrounds and illness comorbidities. Additionally, select executive impairments in shifting attention (i.e., reversal learning and in decision-making quality were revealed in HIV+ participants. Modifiers of neurocognition in HIV-infected women included detectable HIV plasma viral load, active hepatitis C virus co-infection, and self-reported depression symptoms. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging, did not significantly differ between HIV+ and HIV- women, nor was LTL associated with overall neurocognition in the HIV+ group. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that well-managed HIV infection may entail a more circumscribed neurocognitive deficit pattern than that reported in many norm-referenced studies, and that common comorbidities make a secondary contribution to HIV-related neurocognitive impairments.

  9. Treatment outcomes in undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth K Poon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the treatment outcomes of undocumented Hispanic immigrants with HIV infection. We sought to compare the treatment outcomes of undocumented and documented patients 12-months after entering HIV care. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of antiretroviral-naive patients 18 years and older attending their first visit at Thomas Street Health Center in Houston, Texas, between 1/1/2003 and 6/30/2008. The study population of 1,620 HIV-infected adults included 186 undocumented Hispanic, 278 documented Hispanic, 986 Black, and 170 White patients. The main outcome measures were retention in care (quarter years with at least one completed HIV primary care provider visit and HIV suppression (HIV RNA <400 copies/mL, both measured 12-months after entering HIV care. RESULTS: Undocumented Hispanic patients had lower median initial CD4 cell count (132 cells/mm(3 than documented Hispanic patients (166 cells/mm(3; P = 0.186, Black patients (226 cells/mm(3; P<0.001, and White patients (264 cells/mm(3; P = 0.001. However, once in care, undocumented Hispanic patients did as well or better than their documented counterparts. One year after entering HIV care, undocumented Hispanics achieved similar rates of retention in care and HIV suppression as documented Hispanic and White patients. Of note, black patients were significantly less likely to have optimal retention in care (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.65, CI = 0.45-0.94 or achieve HIV suppression (aOR 0.32, CI = 0.17-0.61 than undocumented Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Undocumented Hispanic persons with HIV infection enter care with more advanced disease than documented persons, suggesting testing and/or linkage to care efforts for this difficult-to-reach population need intensification. Once diagnosed, however, undocumented Hispanics have outcomes as good as or better than other racial/ethnic groups. Safety net providers for undocumented immigrants are vital for maintaining

  10. Pregnancy Outcomes in HIV-Infected Women: Experience from a Tertiary Care Center in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhwal, Vatsla; Sharma, Aparna; Khoiwal, Kavita; Deka, Dipika; Sarkar, Plaboni; Vanamail, P

    2017-01-01

    There is conflicting data on the effect of HIV infection as well as antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pregnancy outcome. The objectives of this study were to compare pregnancy outcomes in women with and without HIV infection, and to evaluate the effect of HAART on pregnancy in HIV-infected women. This is a prospective case record analysis of 212 HIV-infected women delivering between 2002 and 2015, in a tertiary health care center in India. The pregnancy outcome in HIV-infected women was compared to 238 HIV-uninfected controls. Women received ART for prevention of mother to child transmission as per protocol which varied during the period of study. Effect of use of ART on preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) was analyzed. HIV-infected women were more likely to have PTB, IUGR, and anemia (9.4%, 9.9%, 5.2%) compared to uninfected women (7.6%, 5%, 3.8%), this did not reach statistical significance (P-value = >0.05). The incidence of PIH, diabetes mellitus and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy was similar in both groups. Mean birth weight was significantly lower in neonates of HIV-infected women (2593.60±499g) than HIV-uninfected women (2919±459g) [P-value=0.001]. neonatal intensive care unit admissions were also significantly higher in infants born to HIV-infected women (P-value=0.002). HIV-infected women on ART had decreased incidence of PTB and IUGR. Good antenatal care and multidisciplinary team approach can optimize pregnancy outcomes in HIV-infected women.

  11. Trends in Epidemiology of COPD in HIV-Infected Patients in Spain (1997–2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miguel-Díez, Javier; López-de-Andrés, Ana; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Puente-Maestu, Luis; Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate trends of incidence of hospital admissions and in-hospital mortality (IHM) in HIV-infected patients with COPD in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era in Spain (1997–2012). Methods A retrospective study with data from nationwide population-based COPD diagnoses in the Spanish Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) was performed. We established groups according to their HIV and HCV infections: 1) HIV-uninfected patients; 2) HIV-infected patients (with or without HCV coinfection). Results 1,580,207 patients discharge with a COPD diagnosis were included in the study, 8902 of them were HIV-infected patients (5000 HIV-monoinfected patients and 3902 HIV/HCV-coinfected patients). The HIV-infected patients had higher incidence rates of hospital admissions for COPD than the HIV-uninfected patients during the study period. The HIV-monoinfected patients had higher rates of hospitalizations for COPD than the HIV/HCV-coinfected patients in the early-period cART (1997–1999), but these rates decreased in the first group and increased in the second, being even similar in both groups in the late-period cART (2004–2011). On the other hand, the HIV-infected patients with COPD had higher IHM than the HIV-uninfected patients with COPD. The mortality rates were higher in the HIV-monoinfected patients with COPD than in the HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with COPD in the early-period cART; however, in the late-period cART, the mortality rates trends seems higher in the HIV/HCV group. The likelihood of death in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients with COPD was similar to than in HIV-monoinfected patients with COPD. Conclusions Incidence of hospital admissions for COPD and IHM have decreased among HIV-monoinfected individuals but have increased steadily among HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in the cART era. PMID:27846297

  12. Acute hepatitis C: changing epidemiology and association with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejt, Nick; Gilleece, Yvonne; Fisher, Martin

    2007-03-01

    Over the past 6 to 7 years an increasing incidence of acute hepatitis C virus (AHCV) has been fuelled by two different changing epidemics: (1) a new resurgence of AHCV amongst intravenous drug users (IVDU); and (2) presumed sexually transmitted AHCV amongst predominantly HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). Increasing incidence amongst IVDUs is likely to be a consequence of changing injecting behaviour, possibly related to changes in perception of HIV as well as HCV risk and consequences. Increasing incidence amongst MSM is likely to be a consequence of changing sexual practices, for example number of sexual partners and type of sexual behaviour, as well as increasing availability of recreational drugs associated with sexual risk-taking, and wider availability of casual sexual partners via the internet or sex-on-premises venues. It remains unclear whether the current outbreaks in MSM, predominantly seen in HIV-positive individuals, reflect a predisposition to AHCV secondary to HIV status per se, or whether this reflects differences in behaviour amongst HIV-positive versus HIV-negative MSM, or potentially increased screening (either routine or secondary to abnormal liver function tests) in HIV-positive MSM. The majority of individuals with AHCV are asymptomatic and therefore routine screening of individuals in at-risk groups with abnormal liver function tests should be considered. Previous historical studies suggest that individuals with concomitant HIV infection are far less likely than those without to spontaneously clear HCV. It is currently recommended that such individuals acutely infected with HCV should undergo monitoring of HCV viral load levels to determine whether spontaneous clearance is likely or whether the opportunity for early treatment should be considered.

  13. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from randomized trials are lacking on the benefits and risks of initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have a CD4+ count of more than 350 cells per cubic millimeter. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV......-positive adults who had a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter to start antiretroviral therapy immediately (immediate-initiation group) or to defer it until the CD4+ count decreased to 350 cells per cubic millimeter or until the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS...

  14. Three Postpartum Antiretroviral Regimens to Prevent Intrapartum HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Watts, D. Heather; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Bryson, Yvonne J.; Joao, Esau C.; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Gray, Glenda; Theron, Gerhard; Santos, Breno; Fonseca, Rosana; Kreitchmann, Regis; Pinto, Jorge; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Ceriotto, Mariana; Machado, Daisy; Bethel, James; Morgado, Marisa G.; Dickover, Ruth; Camarca, Margaret; Mirochnick, Mark; Siberry, George; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Bastos, Francisco I.; Xu, Jiahong; Moye, Jack; Mofenson, Lynne M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The safety and efficacy of adding antiretroviral drugs to standard zidovudine prophylaxis in infants of mothers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who did not receive antenatal antiretroviral therapy (ART) because of late identification are unclear. We evaluated three ART regimens in such infants. Methods Within 48 hours after their birth, we randomly assigned formula-fed infants born to women with a peripartum diagnosis of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) infection to one of three regimens: zidovudine for 6 weeks (zidovudine-alone group), zidovudine for 6 weeks plus three doses of nevirapine during the first 8 days of life (two-drug group), or zidovudine for 6 weeks plus nelfinavir and lamivudine for 2 weeks (three-drug group). The primary outcome was HIV-1 infection at 3 months in infants uninfected at birth. Results A total of 1684 infants were enrolled in the Americas and South Africa (566 in the zidovudine-alone group, 562 in the two-drug group, and 556 in the three-drug group). The overall rate of in utero transmission of HIV-1 on the basis of Kaplan–Meier estimates was 5.7% (93 infants), with no significant differences among the groups. Intra-partum transmission occurred in 24 infants in the zidovudine-alone group (4.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.2 to 7.1), as compared with 11 infants in the two-drug group (2.2%; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.9; P = 0.046) and 12 in the three-drug group (2.4%; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.3; P = 0.046). The overall transmission rate was 8.5% (140 infants), with an increased rate in the zidovudine-alone group (P = 0.03 for the comparisons with the two- and three-drug groups). On multivariate analysis, zidovudine monotherapy, a higher maternal viral load, and maternal use of illegal substances were significantly associated with transmission. The rate of neutropenia was significantly increased in the three-drug group (P<0.001 for both comparisons with the other groups). Conclusions In neonates whose mothers did not receive ART

  15. Low clinical relevance of risky alcohol consumption in a selected group of high adherent HIV-infected patients attended in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gonzalez Baeza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, associated factors and its impact on the brain is not well established in clinically stable HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Within the PIVOT neurocognitive sub-study, effectively suppressed HIV-infected adults on either standard cART or ritonavir-boosted PI monotherapy completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT designed to detect risky alcohol consumption. They also completed a brief neuropsychological assessment (NPZ 5 composed by five measures. For this cross-sectional analysis, we calculated rates of hazardous (AUDIT=8–15 or harmful (AUDIT=16–19 consumption and likely dependence (AUDIT>20. We explored the association between risky alcohol intakes (AUDIT>8 and clinical/demographical variables, conducting logistic regressions when significant association was found (p<.05. Also, the association between cognitive performance and alcohol consumption was calculated and adjusted by potential confounders. Results: Of the 146 included participants, the majority were male (86.3%, white (81.5% and educated (mean years on formal education=15, SD=3.9. Average age was 47.6 years (SD=8.7, and 36.3% had risky consumption (29.5% hazardous, 6.2% harmful, 0.7% likely dependence. White ethnicity and male sex were positively associated with risky consumption (Table 1. After adjustments, white ethnicity remained significantly associated with risky consumption (1.64 [95% CI 0.34–2.95]; p=0.013. Better cognitive performance was associated with risky alcohol consumption in the univariate analysis (p<.001. After adjustment by ethnicity, sex and years of education, cognitive performance and risky alcohol consumption maintained significant association (0.45 [95% CI 0.19–0.70] p=0.001. Conclusions: Despite the substantially high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, it was not associated with worse adherence, immunological or quality of life measures in this cohort of

  16. Cellular Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily L; Ronquillo, Rollie; Altmeppen, Hermann; Spudich, Serena S; Price, Richard W; Sinclair, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    In order to characterize the cellular composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in a healthy state and in the setting of chronic pleocytosis associated with HIV-1 (HIV) infection, multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to identify and quantitate cellular phenotypes in CSF derived from HIV-uninfected healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects across a spectrum of disease and treatment. CD4+ T cells were the most frequent CSF population and the CD4:CD8 ratio was significantly increased in the CSF compared to blood (p = 0.0232), suggesting preferential trafficking of CD4+ over CD8+ T cells to this compartment. In contrast, in HIV-infection, CD8+ T cells were the major cellular component of the CSF and were markedly increased compared to HIV-uninfected subjects (p<0.001). As with peripheral blood, the CSF CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in HIV-infected subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Monocytes, B cells and NK cells were rare in the CSF in both groups, although absolute counts of CSF NK cells and B cells were significantly increased in HIV-infected subjects (p<0.05). Our studies show that T cells are the major cellular component of the CSF in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. The CSF pleocytosis characteristic of HIV infection involves all lymphocyte subsets we measured, except for CD4+ T cells, but is comprised primarily of CD8+ T cells. The reduced proportion of CD4+ T cells in the CSF may reflect both HIV-related peripheral loss and changes in trafficking patterns in response to HIV infection in the central nervous system.

  17. Cellular Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid in HIV-1 Infected and Uninfected Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily L Ho

    Full Text Available In order to characterize the cellular composition of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in a healthy state and in the setting of chronic pleocytosis associated with HIV-1 (HIV infection, multi-parameter flow cytometry was used to identify and quantitate cellular phenotypes in CSF derived from HIV-uninfected healthy controls and HIV-infected subjects across a spectrum of disease and treatment. CD4+ T cells were the most frequent CSF population and the CD4:CD8 ratio was significantly increased in the CSF compared to blood (p = 0.0232, suggesting preferential trafficking of CD4+ over CD8+ T cells to this compartment. In contrast, in HIV-infection, CD8+ T cells were the major cellular component of the CSF and were markedly increased compared to HIV-uninfected subjects (p<0.001. As with peripheral blood, the CSF CD4:CD8 ratio was reversed in HIV-infected subjects compared to HIV-uninfected subjects. Monocytes, B cells and NK cells were rare in the CSF in both groups, although absolute counts of CSF NK cells and B cells were significantly increased in HIV-infected subjects (p<0.05. Our studies show that T cells are the major cellular component of the CSF in HIV-infected and uninfected subjects. The CSF pleocytosis characteristic of HIV infection involves all lymphocyte subsets we measured, except for CD4+ T cells, but is comprised primarily of CD8+ T cells. The reduced proportion of CD4+ T cells in the CSF may reflect both HIV-related peripheral loss and changes in trafficking patterns in response to HIV infection in the central nervous system.

  18. Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

  19. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  20. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells promote HIV-1-induced group 3 innate lymphoid cell depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Cheng, Liang; Zhao, Juanjuan; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Liguo; Chen, Weiwei; Nie, Weiming; Reszka-Blanco, Natalia J; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Su, Lishan

    2015-09-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have demonstrated roles in promoting antibacterial immunity, maintaining epithelial barrier function, and supporting tissue repair. ILC3 alterations are associated with chronic inflammation and inflammatory disease; however, the characteristics and relevant regulatory mechanisms of this cell population in HIV-1 infection are poorly understood due in part to a lack of a robust model. Here, we determined that functional human ILC3s develop in lymphoid organs of humanized mice and that persistent HIV-1 infection in this model depletes ILC3s, as observed in chronic HIV-1-infected patients. In HIV-1-infected mice, effective antiretroviral therapy reversed the loss of ILC3s. HIV-1-dependent reduction of ILC3s required plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), IFN-I, and the CD95/FasL pathway, as targeted depletion or blockade of these prevented HIV-1-induced ILC3 depletion in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Finally, we determined that HIV-1 infection induces CD95 expression on ILC3s via a pDC- and IFN-I-dependent mechanism that sensitizes ILC3s to undergo CD95/FasL-mediated apoptosis. We conclude that chronic HIV-1 infection depletes ILC3s through pDC activation, induction of IFN-I, and CD95-mediated apoptosis.

  1. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection-focus on the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Q M; Nguyen, H L; Nguyen, V N; Nguyen, T V A; Sintchenko, V; Marais, B J

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading opportunistic disease and cause of death in patients with HIV infection. In 2013 there were 1.1 million new TB/HIV co-infected cases globally, accounting for 12% of incident TB cases and 360,000 deaths. The Asia-Pacific region, which contributes more than a half of all TB cases worldwide, traditionally reports low TB/HIV co-infection rates. However, routine testing of TB patients for HIV infection is not universally implemented and the estimated prevalence of HIV in new TB cases increased to 6.3% in 2013. Although HIV infection rates have not seen the rapid rise observed in Sub-Saharan Africa, indications are that rates are increasing among specific high-risk groups. This paper reviews the risks of TB exposure and progression to disease, including the risk of TB recurrence, in this vulnerable population. There is urgency to scale up interventions such as intensified TB case-finding, isoniazid preventive therapy, and TB infection control, as well as HIV testing and improved access to antiretroviral treatment. Increased awareness and concerted action is required to reduce TB/HIV co-infection rates in the Asia-Pacific region and to improve the outcomes of people living with HIV. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. HIV, Vascular and Aging Injuries in the Brain of Clinically Stable HIV-Infected Adults: A 1H MRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysique, Lucette A.; Moffat, Kirsten; Moore, Danielle M.; Lane, Tammy A.; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Carr, Andrew; Brew, Bruce J.; Rae, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and premature aging have been hypothesized as new risk factors for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in adults with virally-suppressed HIV infection. Moreover, their significance and relation to more classical HAND biomarkers remain unclear. Methods 92 HIV− infected (HIV+) adults stable on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 30 age-comparable HIV-negative (HIV−) subjects underwent 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of the frontal white matter (targeting HIV, normal aging or CVD-related neurochemical injury), caudate nucleus (targeting HIV neurochemical injury), and posterior cingulate cortex (targeting normal/pathological aging, CVD-related neurochemical changes). All also underwent standard neuropsychological (NP) testing. CVD risk scores were calculated. HIV disease biomarkers were collected and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neuroinflammation biomarkers were obtained in 38 HIV+ individuals. Results Relative to HIV− individuals, HIV+ individuals presented mild MRS alterations: in the frontal white matter: lower N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA) (pHIV*age interaction was associated with lower frontal white matter NAA. CVD risk factors were associated with lower posterior cingulate cortex and caudate NAA in both groups. Past acute CVD events in the HIV+ group were associated with increased mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex. HIV duration was associated with lower caudate NAA; greater CNS cART penetration was associated with lower mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and the degree of immune recovery on cART was associated with higher NAA in the frontal white matter. CSF neopterin was associated with higher mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and frontal white matter. Conclusions In chronically HIV+ adults with long-term viral suppression, current CVD risk, past CVD and age are independent factors for neuronal injury and inflammation. This suggests a tripartite model of HIV, CVD and age likely driven by

  3. HIV transmission rates from persons living with HIV who are aware and unaware of their infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, H Irene; Holtgrave, David R; Maulsby, Catherine

    2012-04-24

    Transmission rate modeling estimated secondary infections from those aware and unaware of their HIV infection. An estimated 49% of transmissions were from the 20% of persons living with HIV unaware of their infection. About eight transmissions would be averted per 100 persons newly aware of their infection; with more infections averted the higher the percentage of persons with viral suppression who can be linked to care. Improving all stages of HIV care would substantially reduce transmission rates.

  4. HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy Have Divergent Effects on Mitochondria in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Caryn G.; Voss, Joachim G.; Rakocevic, Goran; McLaughlin, Mary; Vinton, Carol L.; Huber, Charles; Hu, Xiaojun; Yang, Jun; Huang, Da Wei; Logun, Carolea; Danner, Robert L.; Rangel, Zoila G.; Munson, Peter J.; Orenstein, Jan M.; Rushing, Elisabeth J.; Lempicki, Richard A.; Dalakas, Marinos C.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) affect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content and function, comprehensive evaluations of their effects on mitochondria in muscle, adipose tissue, and blood cells are limited. Methods. Mitochondrial DNA quantification, mitochondrial genome sequencing, and gene expression analysis were performed on muscle, adipose tissue, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from untreated HIV-positive patients, HIV-positive patients receiving nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)–based ART, and HIV-negative controls. Results. The adipose tissue mtDNA/nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio was increased in untreated HIV-infected patients (ratio, 353) and decreased in those receiving ART (ratio, 162) compared with controls (ratio, 255; P < .05 for both comparisons); the difference between the 2 HIV-infected groups was also significant (P = .002). In HIV-infected participants, mtDNA/nDNA in adipose tissue correlated with the level of activation (CD38+/HLA-DR+) for CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. No significant differences in mtDNA content were noted in muscle or PMBCs among groups. Exploratory DNA microarray analysis identified differential gene expression between patient groups, including a subset of adipose tissue genes. Conclusions. HIV infection and ART have opposing effects on mtDNA content in adipose tissue; immune activation may mediate the effects of HIV, whereas NRTIs likely mediate the effects of ART. PMID:22476717

  5. a survey of opportunistic infections in hiv seropositive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The screening for the HIV/AID was done using the Genic II HIV-1/HIV – 2 Test and the screening for opportunistic infections was done using thin and thick blood films, direct wet mount, ... infections include bacterial diseases such as those.

  6. New insights into complications and treatment of HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lelyveld, S.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the complications and treatment of HIV-1 infection in the current era was studied. Life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has increased enormously with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). In line with this observation, we found that the outcome of HIV-infe

  7. Review of cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønborg, Helene Ladefoged; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wejse, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations. Retinitis, pneumonia, and colitis were the most commonly reported CMV manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. Among patients with pulmonary symptoms, the prevalence of CMV pneumonitis varied from 20% to over 60%, whereas CMV was found in 0% to 14% of patients with gastrointestinal manifestations. Cytomegalovirus retinitis was found in 0% to 2.6% of examined HIV-infected individuals. The diagnostics of CMV end-organ diseases were found complex and difficult to interpret in African settings. Cytomegalovirus viremia was correlated with significantly lower CD4 cell count and increase in activated and apoptosis vulnerable T-lymphocytes. Also, CMV coinfection was found to be associated with increased transmission and progression of HIV infection. Moreover, detectable CMV DNA was an independent predictor of HIV transmission and mortality among HIV-infected individuals. Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent in Africa and a common cause of disease manifestations in HIV-infected individuals among all age groups. Cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa is associated with increased transmission and mortality of HIV, but it is a neglected area of research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Impact of HIV-1 infection on the hematological recovery after clinical malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Mulenga, Modest; Chalwe, Victor; Michael, Nambozi; Moerman, Filip; Mukwamataba, Doreen; Colebunders, Robert; D'alessandro, Umberto

    2009-02-01

    Anemia is the most frequent cytopenia in HIV-infected individuals and is often associated with malaria. To assess the impact of HIV-1 on the hematological recovery after a clinical malaria episode. In Ndola, Zambia, a region with high malaria and HIV prevalence, hemoglobin (Hb) was measured in 634 malaria patients 14 and 45 days after antimalarial treatment. Risk factors for hematological recovery were analyzed in a multivariate linear regression model. At enrollment, HIV-1-infected malaria patients had lower Hb compared with HIV-1 uninfected (122.7 vs 136.0 g/L; P < 0.001). In both groups, mean Hb was significantly lower at day 14 posttreatment than day 0 (P < 0.0001) and significantly higher at day 45 than at day 14 (HIV-1 negative: P = 0.0001; HIV-1 infected: P = 0.005). HIV-1 was a risk factor for a larger Hb decrease until day 14 (P < 0.001) and slower recovery until day 45 (P = 0.048). When considering the whole 45-day follow-up period, mean Hb increased in the HIV-1-negative group (+3.54 g/L; 95% confidence interval: 1.37 to 5.70; P = 0.001) but not in the HIV-1-infected group (-0.72 g/L; 95% confidence interval: -3.85 to +2.40; P = 0.64). HIV-1 infection as such (P < 0.0001), not CD4 cell count (P = 0.46), was an independent risk factor for a slower hematological recovery. HIV-1-infected malaria patients had a slower hematological recovery after successful parasite clearance. Malaria preventive measures should be targeted to this high-risk group.

  9. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany E Goldberg

    Full Text Available The oral microbial community (microbiota plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are

  10. Cryptococcal meningitis associated with tuberculosis in HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Urvinderpal; Aditi; Aneja, Pooja; Kapoor, B K; Singh, S P; Purewal, Sukhpreet Singh

    2013-07-01

    Opportunistic infections are common complications of advanced immuno-deficiency in individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. Following involvement of the lung, the central nervous system (CNS) is the second most commonly affected organ. We report two cases of concurrent cryptococcal meningitis and tuberculosis (TB) in HIV infected persons. A high suspicion of multiple opportunistic infections should be kept in mind in HIV seropositive individuals.

  11. Evidence for a "Founder Effect" among HIV-infected injection drug users (IDUs in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanagihara Richard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported a HIV-1 subtype A infection in a community of injection drug users (IDUs in Karachi, Pakistan. We now show that this infection among the IDUs may have originated from a single source. Methods Phylogenetic analysis was performed of partial gag sequences, generated using PCR, from 26 HIV-positive IDU samples. Results Our results showed formation of a tight monophyletic group with an intra-sequence identity of Conclusion Specific measures need to implemented to control transmission of HIV infection in Pakistan through infected migrant workers.

  12. Contribution of intestinal barrier damage, microbial translocation and HIV-1 infection status to an inflammaging signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Steele

    Full Text Available Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging ("inflammaging". Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD and microbial translocation (MT contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear.Plasma biomarkers for IEBD (iFABP, MT (LPS, sCD14, T-cell activation (sCD27, and inflammation (hsCRP, IL-6 were measured in 88 HIV-1 uninfected (HIV(neg and 83 treated, HIV-1-infected (HIV(pos adults from 20-100 years old.Age positively correlated with iFABP (r = 0.284, p = 0.008, sCD14 (r = 0.646, p = <0.0001 and LPS (r = 0.421, p = 0.0002 levels in HIV(neg but not HIV(pos subjects. Age also correlated with sCD27, hsCRP, and IL-6 levels regardless of HIV status. Middle-aged HIV(pos subjects had elevated plasma biomarker levels similar to or greater than those of elderly HIV(neg subjects with the exception of sCD14. Clustering analysis described an inflammaging phenotype (IP based on iFABP, sCD14, sCD27, and hsCRP levels in HIV(neg subjects over 60 years of age. The IP in HIV(neg subjects was used to develop a classification model that was applied to HIV(pos subjects to determine whether HIV(pos subjects under 60 years of age were IP+. HIV(pos IP+ subjects were similar in age to IP- subjects but had a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD based on Framingham risk score (p =  0.01.We describe a novel IP that incorporates biomarkers of IEBD, MT, immune activation as well as inflammation. Application of this novel IP in HIV-infected subjects identified a group at higher risk of CVD.

  13. Invasive Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-13

    In this podcast, CDC's Dr. Chris Van Beneden discusses the dangers of group A strep infections.  Created: 6/13/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/13/2011.

  14. Gender and HIV infection in the context of alcoholism in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muturi, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa account for more than half (58%) of people living with the HIV and it is the only continent where HIV prevalence is higher for women than for men. Studies have attributed alcoholism with the high rates of HIV infection due to its impact on sexual behaviour and arousal. African countries with high rates of alcoholism also reportedly have higher rates of HIV infection. This study explores rural communities' perspectives on the risk factors for HIV infection among women who are in alcohol discordant relationships where the man drinks alcohol excessively. Data were gathered through focus group discussions in rural central Kenya where alcoholism has reached epidemic levels. Key findings indicate the perceived severity of alcoholism, the perceived impact of alcoholism on men's reproductive health and the unmet sexual and reproductive needs of women in alcohol discordant relationships. Women engage in risky sexual behaviours in an attempt to meet these needs. Such risky behaviour in addition to alcohol-related sexual violence and low response-efficacy for safer sexual practices make them vulnerable to HIV infection and enhances the spread of HIV within communities. The study concludes that in preventing HIV infection among women in alcohol communities affected by alcohol, it is important to focus on their response efficacy. Intervention programmes that focus on HIV prevention among older married women and that integrate alcohol and HIV prevention are long overdue.

  15. Immunodeficiency, AIDS-related pneumonia, and risk of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Julia L; Leyden, Wendy A; Chao, Chun R; Horberg, Michael A; Klein, Daniel B; Quesenberry, Charles P; Towner, William J; Silverberg, Michael J

    2017-04-24

    The objective is to clarify the role of immunodeficiency and pneumonia in elevated lung cancer risk among HIV-infected individuals. Cohort study of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in a large integrated healthcare system in California during 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios for lung cancer associated with HIV infection, overall and stratified by recent CD4 cells/μl (HIV-uninfected as reference group), with χ tests for trends across CD4 strata. Fully adjusted models included demographics, cancer risk factors (smoking, drug/alcohol abuse, overweight/obesity), and prior pneumonia. Among 24 768 HIV-infected and 257 600 HIV-uninfected individuals, the lung cancer rate per 100 000 person-years was 66 (n = 80 events) for HIV-infected and 33 (n = 506 events) for HIV-uninfected individuals [rate ratio 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.2]. Overall, HIV-infected individuals were at increased risk of lung cancer after adjustment for demographics and cancer risk factors (rate ratio 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7), but not after additional adjustment for pneumonia (rate ratio 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9-1.6). Lower CD4 cell counts were associated with higher risk of lung cancer in unadjusted and demographics-adjusted models (P cancer risk factors and pneumonia. Compared with HIV-uninfected individuals, HIV-infected individuals with CD4 less than 200 cells/μl were not at increased risk of lung cancer in fully adjusted models. The increased lung cancer risk among HIV patients is attributable to differences in demographics, risk factors such as smoking, and history of pneumonia. Immunodeficiency does not appear to have an independent effect on lung cancer risk.

  16. HIV infection induces morphometrical changes on the oral (buccal mucosa and tongue) epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompermayer, Adriane Bastos; Gil, Francisca Berenice Dias; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; Machado, Maria Ângela Naval; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Fernandes, Angela; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess morphological and morphometrical alterations of oral squamous epithelial cells in type 1 HIV infected individuals. Oral smears were collected from tongue and buccal mucosa of 30 HIV infected (experimental) and 30 non-infected (control) individuals by liquid-based exfoliative cytology. The cells were morphologically analyzed and the nuclear area (NA), the cytoplasmic area (CA) and the nucleus-to-cytoplasm area ratio (NA/CA) were calculated. No morphological differences were found between the groups. The mean values of CA were decreased in tongue (P=.00006) and buccal mucosa (P=.00242) in HIV infected individual, while mean values of NA were increased (P=.00308 and .00095, respectively) in the same group. NA/CA ratio for experimental group was increased in both collected places, with P=.00001 (tongue) and P=.00000 (buccal mucosa). This study revealed that HIV infection was able to induce morphometrical changes on the oral epithelial cells.

  17. Vasculopathy in HIV-infected children – a case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    known pathogen or trigger, or may occur in the absence of an obvious identifiable ... Case reports. Small-vessel disease in HIV-infected children is seen fairly ... precise mechanisms of vascular injury in HIV require further study. SAJCH MAY ...

  18. Osteopaenia and Osteonecrosis in HIV Infection: Report of Two Cases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osteopaenia and Osteonecrosis in HIV Infection: Report of Two Cases. ... diseases and aroused interest in the interaction of HIV and aging The pathogenesis of ... Literature is reviewed to elucidate possible mechanism of disease and a brief ...

  19. Diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the incidence of diabetes in HIV-infected adults receiving ART is between ... 6 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children's Hospital of ... of HIV and DM in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana.

  20. Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection among HIV-Infected Men in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Hun; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Shinwon; Cho, Heerim; Kim, Kye-Hyung; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Eun Ju; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Ki Hyung; Moon, Eunsoo; Cho, Hong Je

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour. A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection. Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.

  1. [Helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa of patients with HIV/AIDS in different clinical stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hong-Bin; Hu, Zhong-Wei; Guo, Jia-Wei

    2009-07-01

    To analyze Helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa of patients with HIV/AIDS in different clinical stages. This study involved 170 patients with HIV/AIDS and 34 HIV-negative patients. All the patients underwent upper endoscopy and antral gastric biopsy to determine the status of Helicobacter pylori infection using aniline red staining and rapid urease test. The patients with HIV/AIDS were stratified based on CD4(+)T lymphocyte counts and clinical setting into asymptomatic HIV infection (A1, A2) group, symptomatic HIV infection (B1, B2) group and AIDS (A3, B3, C1-3) group. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in HIV/AIDS patients was 16.5% (28/170), and in the 3 groups classified, the infection rates were 23.4% (11/47), 14.0% (8/57), and 13.6% (9/66), respectively; the infection rate was 47.1% (16/34) in the control group. Helicobacter pylori infection rate in the gastric mucosa of the patients with HIV/AIDS in different clinical stages was significantly lower than that of the control group (P<0.05); the infection rates in symptomatic HIV-infected (B1, B2) group and AIDS (A3, B3, C1-3) group were significantly lower than that in asymptomatic HIV-infected (A1, A2) group (P<0.05). The low Helicobacter pylori infection rate in HIV/AIDS patients may result from severe immunodeficiency in the gastric mucosa.

  2. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Medical Complications and Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Specific prophylaxis regimens exist for several opportunistic infections, and effective antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of most others. Other AIDS-defining conditions include wasting syndrome and HIV encephalopathy. AIDS-defining malignancies include Kaposi sarcoma, systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Although not an AIDS-defining condition, anal cancer is common in patients with HIV infection. Other HIV-related conditions include thrombocytopenia, recurrent bacterial respiratory infections, HIV-associated nephropathy, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder.

  3. The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mofenson, Lynne M.; COTTON, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in sel...

  4. Dietary intakes of HIV-infected adults in urban UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, K; Goff, L M

    2013-08-01

    Maintaining a good nutritional status is important for immune health and for managing metabolic comorbidities in adults with HIV infection. Little is known about the dietary habits of adults living with HIV infection in the United Kingdom. The aims of this study were to characterise their dietary intakes, and to identify subgroups of patients who may require nutritional counselling and/or food support services. An observational study of adults attending a London HIV out-patient clinic who completed a demographics questionnaire and a structured 24 h diet recall interview was conducted. In all, 196 (162 men, 34 women) adults participated. Forty-three percent (n=66) of men and thirty-six percent (n=11) of women did not consume enough energy to meet their basal metabolic requirements and activity factor. The majority of both men (64%) and women (56%) consumed more than the recommended amount of saturated fat. Self-report of lipodystrophy (B coefficient -2.27 (95% CI -3.92 to -0.61), P=0.008) was associated with lower dietary fibre intake/1000 kcal per day, and a more recent diagnosis of HIV (B coefficient -0.11 (95% CI -0.20 to -0.02), P=0.013) was associated with a higher dietary fibre/1000 kcal intake per day. Recreational drug use was associated with a higher overall calorie (P=0.003) and protein (P=0.001) intake than non-usage after adjusting for basal metabolic requirements and weight, respectively. Our data describe the dietary intakes of a diverse group of adults with HIV infection in the United Kingdom. These dietary habits may have an impact on their overall health and development of other metabolic comorbidities common in people with HIV.

  5. Post-operative complications after caesarean section in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Simone; Bentivoglio, Giorgio

    2003-10-01

    This retrospective study evaluated complications associated with caesarean section in HIV-infected women. For each HIV-positive patient ( n=45) a control group of ten seronegative women ( n=450) was matched for age, number of foetuses, gestational age, indication for caesarean section, status of the membranes and kind of anaesthesia. All women delivered in the same hospital using a uniform protocol. We evaluated the duration of stay in hospital after operation, the need for antibiotics after caesarean section, the incidence of minor postoperative complications (mild anaemia, mild temperature or fever 24 h after surgery, wound haematoma or infection, urinary tract infection, endometritis) and major postoperative complications (severe anaemia, pneumonia, pleural effusion, peritonitis, sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, thromboembolism). Most HIV-positive women (64.5%) had a complicated recovery after surgery. A higher incidence of major and minor postoperative complications were observed in the HIV-positive group than in the control group. There was a statistically significant greater incidence of mild anaemia, mild temperature or fever, urinary tract infection and pneumonia in the HIV-positive group. HIV-positive women with less than 500x10(6) CD4(+) lymphocytest/l had higher post-caesarean section morbidity than HIV-positive women with more than 500x10(6) CD4(+) lymphocytest/l. The median duration of hospital stay was significantly higher in the HIV-positive group (median 7 days) than in the HIV-negative group (median 4 days). The rate of HIV vertical transmission was 8.8%. Higher post-caesarean section morbidity was found in HIV-positive women than in controls. Unfortunately, the HIV-positive women (with low CD4 lymphocytes counts), whose infants theoretically will benefit most from caesarean delivery, are also the women who are most likely to experience post-operative complications.

  6. Superior outcomes in HIV-positive kidney transplant patients compared to HCV-infected or HIV/HCV co-infected recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawinski, Deirdre; Forde, Kimberly A.; Eddinger, Kevin; Troxel, Andrea B.; Blumberg, Emily; Tebas, Pablo; Abt, Peter L.; Bloom, Roy D.

    2015-01-01

    The prerequisite for an “undetectable” HIV viral load has restricted access to transplantation for HIV-infected kidney recipients. However, HCV-infected recipients, due the historic limitations of HCV therapy in patients with renal disease, are commonly viremic at transplant and have universal access. In order to compare the effect of HIV, HCV and HIV/HCV co-infection on kidney transplant patient and allograft outcomes, we performed a retrospective study of kidney recipients transplanted from January 1996 through December 2013. In multivariable analysis, patient (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.66–1.24) and allograft survival (0.60, 40–0.88) in 492 HIV patients did not differ significantly from the 117,791 patient uninfected reference group. This was superior to outcomes in both the 5605 patient HCV group for death (1.44, 1.33–1.56) and graft loss (1.43, 1.31–1.56) as well as the 147 patient HIV/HCV co-infected group for death (2.26, 1.45–3.52) and graft loss (2.59, 1.60–4.19). HIV infection did not adversely affect recipient or allograft survival and was associated with superior outcomes compared to both HCV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in this population. Thus, pre-transplant viral eradication and/ or immediate post-transplant eradication should be studied as potential strategies to improve post-transplant outcomes in HCV-infected kidney recipients. PMID:25807035

  7. Longitudinal Characterization of Depression and Mood States Beginning in Primary HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Though depression is known to frequently afflict those with chronic HIV, mood during the early course of HIV is not well characterized. In a prospective study we assessed mood during primary HIV infection [primary HIV infection (PHI),

  8. Relationship between endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial hypertension in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, Maribel Q; Toro, Rocío; López Vazquez de la Torre, Mariola; Lennie, Vera; Arce, Cristina; Moreno, Victoria; Valencia, Eulalia; Vispo, Eugenia; Almería, Carlos; Mangas, Alipio; Carbonero, Luz M

    2014-11-28

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive, fatal disease with average survival of less than 3 years if left untreated. It is most common in patients infected with HIV. Although the pathogenesis in this population is not fully understood, it is thought that HIV infection, through the immune response and release of different inflammatory mediators such as endothelin-1, may contribute directly to endothelial damage. Our objective was to quantify endothelin-1 levels in HIV-infected patients and determine whether or not there is an association between this marker and PAH. A case-control study in patients attending an infectious diseases clinic. The sample was composed of 79 patients divided into three groups: 23 HIV patients with PAH (HIV+/PAH+), 45 HIV patients without PAH (HIV+/PAH-) and a control group of 11 healthy individuals. The ratio between the HIV+/PAH- and HIV+/PAH+ groups was 2 : 1. Patients were matched by age, sex, risk group and viral load; the control group by age and sex. All patients had blood taken for endothelin-1 plasma quantification. We found lower endothelin-1 levels in the controls than in the HIV+/PAH- group [0.71 pg/ml (interquartile range, IQR 0.54-0.94) vs. 1.13 pg/ml (IQR 0.87-1.38); P = 0.005] and the HIV+/PAH+ cohort [1.16 pg/ml (IQR 0.86-2.37); P = 0.003]. Patients with severe PAH had higher endothelin-1 levels [2.94 pg/ml (IQR 1.81-6.33)] than patients with mild and moderate PAH. Plasma endothelin-1 levels are higher in HIV patients with PAH than in the HIV-noninfected population and levels increase with the severity of the PAH.

  9. Fifteen-Year Trends in the Prevalence of Diabetes among Hospitalized HIV-Infected Patients in Spain (1997-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro-Meca, Alejandro; Jimenez-Trujillo, Isabel; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentin; de Miguel-Diez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe trends in the prevalence of diabetes among hospitalized HIV-infected patients between 1997 and 2012 in Spain and compare them with those of age- and sex-matched non–HIV-infected patients. Methods The study was based on Spanish national hospital discharge data. We performed a retrospective study for the period 1997–2012. HIV infection (HIV-infected versus non–HIV-infected [control group])and calendar period in relation to widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) (1997–1999; 2000–2003; 2004–2007 and 2008–2012), were the exposure variables The outcome variables were diagnosis of diabetes and in-hospital mortality (IHM). Results From 1997 to 2012, we identified 91,752 cases of diabetes: 15,398 in the HIV-infected group (403,277 hospital admissions) and 76,354 in the non–HIV-infected group (1,503,467 hospital admissions). Overall, HIV-infected patients had lower prevalence values for diabetes than non–HIV-infected patients throughout the follow-up (3.8% vs. 5.1%; p<0.001). The prevalence of diabetes increased 1.56-fold among non–HIV-infected patients and 4.2-fold among HIV-infected patients. The prevalence of diabetes in females was almost twice as high in HIV-infected patients as in non–HIV-infected patients during the last study period (4.72% vs. 2.88%; p<0.001). Diabetes showed a protective effect against IHM throughout the study period (aOR = 0.70; 95%CI, 0.65–0.75). Conclusions During the cART era, the prevalence of diabetes has increased sharply among HIV-infected hospitalized patients compared with matched non–HIV-infected subjects. The prevalence of diabetes is rising very fast among HIV-infected women. Diabetes has a protective effect on IHM among HIV-infected patients. Nevertheless, our study has several limitations. No information is available in the database used on important sociodemographic characteristics and relevant clinical variables including duration of the HIV infection, treatments

  10. HIV sequence diversity during the early phase of infection is associated with HIV DNA reductions during antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nidan; Li, Yijia; Han, Yang; Xie, Jing; Li, Taisheng

    2017-06-01

    The association between baseline human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sequence diversity and HIV DNA decay after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains uncharacterized during the early stages of HIV infection. Samples were obtained from a cohort of 17 patients with early HIV infection (HIV-1 envelope (env) gene was amplified via single genome amplification (SGA) to determine the peripheral plasma HIV quasispecies. We categorized HIV quasispecies into two groups according to baseline viral sequence genetic distance, which was determined by the Poisson-Fitter tool. Total HIV DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), viral load, and T cell subsets were measured prior to and after the initiation of ART. The median SGA sequence number was 17 (range 6-28). At baseline, we identified 7 patients with homogeneous viral populations (designated the Homogeneous group) and 10 patients with heterogeneous viral populations (designated the Heterogeneous group) based on SGA sequences. Both groups exhibited similar HIV DNA decay rates during the first 6 months of ART (P > 0.99), but the Homogenous group experienced more prominent decay than the Heterogeneous group after 6 months (P = 0.037). The Heterogeneous group had higher CD4 cell counts after ART initiation; however, both groups had comparable recovery in terms of CD4/CD8 ratios and CD8 T cell activation levels. Viral population homogeneity upon the initiation of ART is associated with a decrease in HIV DNA levels during ART. J. Med. Virol. 89:982-988, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  12. Effect of hepatitis C infection on HIV-induced apoptosis.

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    Tomasz Laskus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV coinfection was reported to negatively affect HIV disease and HIV infection has a deleterious effect on HCV-related liver disease. However, despite common occurrence of HCV/HIV coinfection little is known about the mechanisms of interactions between the two viruses. METHODS: We studied CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and CD19+ B cell apoptosis in 104 HIV-positive patients (56 were also HCV-positive and in 22 HCV/HIV-coinfected patients treated for chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. We also analyzed HCV/HIV coinfection in a Daudi B-cell line expressing CD4 and susceptible to both HCV and HIV infection. Apoptosis was measured by AnnexinV staining. RESULTS: HCV/HIV coinfected patients had lower CD4+ and CD8+ T cell apoptosis and higher CD19+ B cell apoptosis than those with HIV monoinfection. Furthermore, anti-HCV treatment of HCV/HIV coinfected patients was followed by an increase of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell apoptosis and a decrease of CD19+ B cell apoptosis. In the Daudi CD4+ cell line, presence of HCV infection facilitated HIV replication, however, decreased the rate of HIV-related cell death. CONCLUSION: In HCV/HIV coinfected patients T-cells were found to be destroyed at a slower rate than in HIV monoinfected patients. These results suggest that HCV is a molecular-level determinant in HIV disease.

  13. Evaluation of bone alterations in the jaws of HIV-infected menopausal women

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    Bruno Vieira Caputo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has caused a reduction in mortality, thus contributing to an increase in the number of women with HIVࢧAIDS who reach the climacteric period, experience decline in ovarian function, and develop complications of viral infection and HAART, which can accelerate bone loss. The aim of this study was to detect possible alterations in the jaws of HIV-infected women by panoramic radiography. The study comprised a total of 120 women above 40 years of age who were divided into the following two groups: women who are HIV positive (Group I and women with no known HIV infection (Group II. Measurement of the following three radiomorphometric indexes was performed by panoramic radiography: Mental Index (MI, Panoramic Mandibular Index (PMI and Antegonial Depth (AD. A total of 70% of women in the control group and 50% of women in the HIV group were in the postmenopausal period, and the average values of both MI (p = 0.0054 and AD (p < 0.0001 for this period were lower in the HIV group than in the control group. For patients who were in the premenopausal period, the average AD was lower in the HIV group than in the control group (p = 0.0003. Despite the difference in the average age between groups, greater bone resorption in the mandible was found in the group of HIV-positive women.

  14. Migration, Marital Change, and HIV Infection in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Anglewicz, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Research on the relationship between migration and HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa often suggests that migrants are at higher risk of HIV infection because they are more likely to engage in risk behavior than non-migrants, and tend to move to areas with a relatively higher HIV prevalence. While migration may be a risk factor for HIV infection, I instead focus on the possibility that the HIV positive are more likely to migrate. Using a longitudinal dataset of permanent rural residents and ...

  15. PATTERN OF MUCOCUTANEOUS MANIFESTATIONS OF HIV INFECTED PATIENTS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

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    Murugan Swamiappan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Mucocutaneous manifestations occur in more than 90% of HIV infected patients. These manifestations are an early indicator of the presence of HIV infection and also aids in the clinical staging and prognosis as it reflects the underlying immune status. AIM To determine the prevalence and pattern of various mucocutaneous manifestations occurring in people living with HIV (PLHIV. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective chart review of the data collected from the clinical records of all HIV seropositive patients, who had attended the Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI Clinic of Chengalpattu Medical College Hospital, Chengalpattu, Tamil Nadu, during the 3 years period from 2012 to 2015 was carried out. Demographic and clinical data were analysed. RESULTS The total number of HIV seropositive patients attended the STI Clinic were 176 during the study period of 3 years from 2012 to 2015. Among that males were 104 (59.1% and females were 72 (40.9%. The common age group was 35-49 (87 patients, 49.4%. Mucocutaneous manifestations were seen in 117 (66.4% patients. The most common manifestation seen was candidiasis among infections and seborrheic dermatitis among non-infectious dermatoses. CONCLUSION Mucocutaneous manifestations can arouse suspicion of HIV infection in otherwise healthy patients. They can serve as a dependable clinical marker of HIV infection. Awareness of the varied pattern of these manifestations would help in the early diagnosis and management of HIV infection, thereby decreasing the morbidity and improve the quality of life in them

  16. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in Moroccan HIV infected patients

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    Tahar Bajjou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of Occult hepatitis B virus Infection (OBI among antiretroviral treatment na and iuml;ve HIV-1 infected individuals in Morocco and to determine factors favouring its occurrence. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted in the Mohammed V military teaching hospital in Rabat between January 2010 and June 2011. It included patients with confirmed HIV infection, tested negative to serological detection of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and did not received antiviral treatment or hepatitis B vaccine. All samples were tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV antibodies using enzyme immunoassay (ELISA. The detection of HBV DNA was performed by real-time PCR using two specific primers for a gene in the region C of the viral genome. The sensitivity of the technique was 20 copies/ml. Results: A total of 82 samples were analyzed, 19 (23 % were found to have isolated anti-HBc, 07 (8.5% with associated anti-HBc and Anti-HBs. No anti-HCV marker was detected on these screening samples. The HBV DNA was detected in 48 (58% samples, of which, males constituted 58% (28/48. The mean age of these patients was 38 +/- 8.2 (29-56, the median HIV-1 viral load and CD4 cell count HIV-1 infected patients were 127500 (54108-325325 copies/ml and 243 [80-385] cells/mm3 respectively and 27.1% (13/48 of these patients were found to have isolated anti-HBc. A significant correlations between DNA HBV and HIV viral load higher than 100000 copies/ml (P = 0.004, CD4 cell count lower than 400 cells/mm3 (P = 0.013, P = 0.006 and isolated anti-HBc samples (P <0.005 were founded. However there was no significant association with age, sex, transmission mode and clinical stage. Conclusion: The consequences of this high prevalence of OBI in Morocco need to be considered in laboratory diagnosis of HBV infection in HIV infected patients and the PCR seems to be inevitable for a better diagnosis and therapy. [Int J Res Med Sci

  17. HIV Infection among Civilian Applicants for Nigeria Military Service

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    Joshua A. Itsifinus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: HIV/AIDS is a serious social pathology in public health, developmental and security problem since the productive and reproductive age group is mostly affected. This study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among civilian applicants enrolling into military services of Nigeria army where youth’s vulnerability to HIV infection is very high. METHOD: A periodic cross sectional study was carried out amongst the civilian applicants undergoing recruitment into the Nigeria Army between January-February and July-August 2005, to determine their HIV status. Samples were collected from the applicants after interview to collect their socio-demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 12 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 9260 samples collected, 204 (2.2% tested positive for HIV with the highest proportion (73.5% occurring in the 22-25yrs bracket. Infection was detected in both sexes. The mean age of the applicants was 22yrs, with age range of 18-30 yrs and sex ratio of 1:7 (M: F. Age sex-specificity shows aged between 21-24 years have the highest number of HIV-antibody positivity. CONCLUSION: Antibody-positive applicants were identified in all the regions of Nigeria and the prevalence suggests that the epidemiology of transmission is changing both quantitatively and qualitatively because HIV now occurs commonly among young adults in their teens and late 20s and the impact of HIV on the military has grave consequences on the stability of Nigeria. The adoption of routine screening of applicants at point of recruitment, serving and retiring from the military can also be a source of data for understanding the epidemiology of this disease among the civilian and the military but in as HIV counseling and testing is an important continuum of the disease prevention and treatment, there is need to review Nigerian Army HIV and AIDS policy. [TAF Prev Med

  18. HIV/TB Co-infection Among HIV Positive Children Attending Clinics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV/TB Co-infection Among HIV Positive Children Attending Clinics In Imo State ... of tuberculosis in children is partly attributed to the coexisting burden of human ... The factors found to affect TB development significantly were stage of HIV ...

  19. Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Tanaka, Atsushi; Islam, Salequl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1-resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1-resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1-resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5-4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8-18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo.

  20. Clinical management of acute HIV infection: best practice remains unknown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sigall K; Little, Susan J; Rosenberg, Eric S

    2010-10-15

    Best practice for the clinical management of acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains unknown. Although some data suggest possible immunologic, virologic, or clinical benefit of early treatment, other studies show no difference in these outcomes over time, after early treatment is discontinued. The literature on acute HIV infection is predominantly small nonrandomized studies, which further limits interpretation. As a result, the physician is left to grapple with these uncertainties while making clinical decisions for patients with acute HIV infection. Here we review the literature, focusing on the potential advantages and disadvantages of treating acute HIV infection outlined in treatment guidelines, and summarize the presentations on clinical management of acute HIV infection from the 2009 Acute HIV Infection Meeting in Boston, Massachusetts.

  1. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

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    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  2. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Eduardo Lorens

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i group A - 65 co-infected HCV/HIV patients, ii group B - 69 mono-infected HCV patients. The impact of HIV infection on HCV liver disease was analyzed using Child's score, ultrasound findings and liver histology. Patients were subjected to HCV genotyping and anti-HBs dosage. Patients mean age was 42.4 years (±9.1 and 97 (72.4% were males. Injected drug use and homo/bisexual practice were more frequently encountered in the co-infected group: 68.3% and 78.0%, respectively. Antibodies against hepatitis B virus (anti-HBs were found in only 38.1% of the patients (66.7% group A x 33.3% group B. Ten out of 14 individuals (71.4% who had liver disease (Child B or C and 25 out of 34 (73.5% who showed ultrasound evidence of chronic liver disease were in the co-infection group. HCV genotype-2/3 was more frequently encountered in co-infected patients (36.9% group A vs. 21.8% group B. Conclusions: a HIV infection seems to adversely affect the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C, b injected drug use, bi/homosexual practice and genotype-2/3 were more frequently encountered in co-infected patients, c immunization against HBV should be encouraged in these patients.

  3. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rates of HPV infection have been observed in men from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV ... history of HPV infection in cervical cancer in women, less is ... infections, a lower viral load, or produce .... lesions. [56]. While the prevention of anal cancers in high-risk HIV-positive men is a ..... Anal squamous intraepithelial.

  4. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  5. Alterations of nasal mucociliary clearance in association with HIV infection and the effect of guaifenesin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Elizabeth J; Calhoun, Karen H

    2005-01-01

    To determine if human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with a prolonged mucociliary clearance time (MCT) and to evaluate the effect of guaifenesin on MCT in HIV+ patients. A cross-sectional study comparing HIV+ and HIV- volunteers followed by a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of HIV+ patients before and after guaifenesin treatment. Twenty-five HIV+ patients and 29 HIV- controls were enrolled and MCT was measured using the saccharin method. A separate group of 20 HIV+ patients participated in the second arm of the study and underwent saccharin testing before and after a 3-week course of guaifenesin or placebo. All study participants completed a medical history questionnaire, a sinonasal symptom (SNOT-16) survey, and were examined with both anterior rhinoscopy and rigid nasal endoscopy. There was a significant difference (P guaifenesin and placebo groups did not reach statistical significance (P >.05). The HIV+ group had a higher SNOT-16 score compared to HIV- controls (21.1 vs. 7.4, P Guaifenesin therapy in HIV+ patients led to a significant improvement in the SNOT-16 score (P Guaifenesin therapy was associated with improved SNOT-16 scores, although there was not a detectable improvement in MCT. Use of guaifenesin in HIV+ patients with sinonasal disease may lead to improved patient perception of quality of life.

  6. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  7. HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkington, Katherine; Teplin, Linda A.; Mericle, Amy A.; Welty, Leah J.; Romero, Erin G.; Abram, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of psychiatric disorders on human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted infection (HIV/STI) risk behaviors in juvenile justice youths is examined. Prevalence, persistence and prediction are addressed among four mutually exclusive diagnostic groups and results show a high prevalence rate of many HIV/STI sexual risk behaviors that…

  8. KI and WU Polyomaviruses and CD4+ Cell Counts in HIV-1–infected Patients, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Cavallo, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2010-01-01

    To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1–positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1–positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1–positive patients. PMID:20735940

  9. Education about treating patients with HIV infections/AIDS: the student perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seacat, Jason P; Inglehart, Marita Rohr

    2003-06-01

    This study investigated dental and dental hygiene students' a) perceptions of their education about treating patients with HIV infections/AIDS, b) knowledge of universal precautions, c) attitudes towards treating these patients and patients perceived to be at risk for HIV infections, and d) evaluations of potential curricular activities such as discussion groups with HIV-infected patients. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires from 315 dental and 89 dental hygiene students. On average, dental students reported having learned about this topic in fever courses than dental hygiene students. However, dental students answered significantly more knowledge questions about universal precautions correctly than did dental hygiene students. This knowledge increased over the program course. Male students had significantly stronger negative attitudes towards patients at risk for or with HIV infections/AIDS than female students. Overall, dental and dental hygiene students responded positively to the suggested methods for including more material about patients with HIV infections/AIDS such as case studies, discussion groups, and closely supervised clinical experiences. This study shows that dental and dental hygiene students are interested in learning more about treating patients with HIV infections/AIDS. It also adds information to previous research on factors involved in the dental healthcare providers' decisions to treat patients at risk for or with HIV infections/AIDS. The implications of these findings for curriculum development efforts are discussed.

  10. Leukocyte counts and lymphocyte subsets in relation to pregnancy and HIV infection in Malawian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; Gondwe, Esther N; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Jenny M; MacLennan, Calman A

    2017-09-01

    We investigated leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected, pregnant or non-pregnant Malawian women to explore whether HIV infection and pregnancy may act synergistically to impair cellular immunity. We recruited 54 pregnant and 48 non-pregnant HIV-uninfected women and 24 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant HIV-infected Malawian women. We compared peripheral blood leukocyte and lymphocyte subsets between women in the four groups. Parturient HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women had more neutrophils (each P<.0001), but fewer lymphocytes (P<.0001; P=.0014) than non-pregnant women. Both groups had fewer total T cells (P<.0001; P=.002) and CD8(+) T cells (P<.0001; P=.014) than non-pregnant women. HIV-uninfected parturient women had fewer CD4(+) and γδ T cells, B and NK cells (each P<.0001) than non-pregnant women. Lymphocyte subset percentages were not affected by pregnancy. Malawian women at parturition have an increased total white cell count due to neutrophilia and an HIV-unrelated pan-lymphopenia. © 2017 The Author. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. HIV infection in dialysis centers in Italy: a nationwide multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiano di Belgiojoso, G; Trezzi, M; Scorza, D; Barone, M T; Landriani, N; Genderini, A; Bertoli, S

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV infection in dialysis populations varies according to different countries and geographic areas. We performed a nationwide epidemiological study by means of a questionnaire in the period from January 1990 to December 1995. Questions were about whether and which HIV tests were performed and which preventive measures were adopted. A separate survey evaluated the data the HIV-positive patients. Only 62% of the centers responded to the questionnaire, corresponding to 21,500 dialysis patients in 1990 and 27,000 in 1995. The prevalence of HIV-positive subjects was 0,13% for 1995. A total of 48 patients with HIV infection were identified: risk factors were drug abuse in 16 cases, homosexuality in 9, heterosexual contact in 8, transfusion in 7, renal transplant in 3 and unknown cause in 5. Forty-five patients were on hemodialysis, and 3 were receiving peritoneal dialysis. At follow-up, 19 patients died: infection and malnutrition were the most frequent causes of death. The death rate of patients who were already HIV positive when dialysis was started (group 1, 29 cases) was 19.36 deaths/1,000 patient/month. The correlations, performed only for group 1, showed a significantly worse prognosis for patients with CD4 HIV infection in the dialysis population is low, and the outcome of HIV-positive patients in dialysis was found to be better than earlier literature reports. The use of chronic dialysis for HIV patients with uremia should not be discouraged.

  12. Urban legends series: oral manifestations of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, L L; Ramirez-Amador, V; Anaya-Saavedra, G; Nittayananta, W; Carrozzo, M; Ranganathan, K

    2013-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-related oral lesions (HIV-OLs), such as oral candidiasis (OC) and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), have been recognized as indicators of immune suppression since the beginning of the global HIV epidemic. The diagnosis and management of HIV disease and spectrum of opportunistic infection has changed over the past 30 years as our understanding of the infection has evolved. We investigated the following controversial topics: (i) Are oral manifestations of HIV still relevant after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)? (ii) Can we nowadays still diagnose HIV infection through oral lesions? (iii) Is the actual classification of oral manifestations of HIV adequate or does it need to be reviewed and updated? (iv) Is there any novelty in the treatment of oral manifestations of HIV infection? Results from extensive literature review suggested the following: (i) While HAART has resulted in significant reductions in HIV-OLs, many are still seen in patients with HIV infection, with OC remaining the most common lesion. While the relationship between oral warts and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is less clear, the malignant potential of oral human papillomavirus infection is gaining increasing attention. (ii) Effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV from a fatal illness to a chronic manageable condition and as a result expanded screening policies for HIV are being advocated both in developed and in developing countries. Affordable, reliable, and easy-to-use diagnostic techniques have been recently introduced likely restricting the importance of HIV-OLs in diagnosis. (iii) The 1993 EC-Clearinghouse classification of HIV-OLs is still globally used despite controversy on the relevance of periodontal diseases today. HIV-OL case definitions were updated in 2009 to facilitate the accuracy of HIV-OL diagnoses by non-dental healthcare workers in large-scale epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. (iv

  13. Human papillomavirus infection in HIV-1 infected women in Catalonia (Spain: implications for prevention of cervical cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Stuardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High-risk human Papillomavirus infection is a necessary factor for cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and invasive cervical cancer. In HIV-1-infected women, HPV infection is more prevalent and a higher risk of cervical cancer has been identified. We aimed to calculate the prevalence of infection by HR-HPV, determine the factors associated with this infection and abnormal cytology findings and to describe the history of cervical cancer screening in HIV-1-infected women. METHODS: We enrolled 479 HIV-1-infected women from the PISCIS cohort. Each patient underwent a gynecological check-up, PAP smear, HPV AND Hybrid capture, HPV genotyping, and colposcopy and biopsy, if necessary. We applied questionnaires to obtain information on sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical, and cervical screening variables. We present a cross-sectional analysis. RESULTS: Median age was 42 years. The prevalence of HR-HPV infection was 33.2% and that of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL was 3.8%. The most common genotypes were 16(23%, 53(20.3%, and 52(16.2%. The factor associated with HR-HPV infection was age 500 cells/mm(3 (OR,8.4; 95%CI,3.7-19.2, HIV-1 viral load >10,000 copies/mL versus <400 copies/mL (OR,2.1; 95%CI,1.0-4.4, and use of oral contraceptives (OR,2.0; 95%CI,1.0-3.9. Sixty percent of HIV-1-infected women had had one Pap smear within the last 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of HPV infection and cervical lesions in the HIV-1-infected population in Catalonia, as well as the low coverage and frequency of screening in this group, means that better preventive efforts are necessary and should include vaccination against HPV, better accessibility to screening programs, training of health care professionals, and specific health education for HIV-1-infected women.

  14. HIV-2 infection and chemokine receptors usage - clues to reduced virulence of HIV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel; Santos-Costa, Quirina; Moniz-Pereira, José

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) are the causative agents of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Without therapeutic intervention, HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections in humans are characterized by a gradual and irreversible immunologic failure that ultimately leads to the onset of a severe immunodeficiency that constitutes the hallmark of AIDS. In the last two decades AIDS has evolved into a global epidemic affecting millions of persons worldwide. Although sharing several identical properties, HIV-1 and HIV-2 have shown some important differences in vivo. In fact, a significant amount of epidemiologic, clinical and virologic data suggest that HIV-2 is in general less virulent than HIV-1. This reduced virulence is revealed by the longer asymptomatic period and the smaller transmission rate that characteristically are observed in HIV-2 infection. In this context, studies using HIV-2 as a model of a naturally less pathogenic infection could bring important new insights to HIV pathogenesis opening to new strategies to vaccines or therapeutic design. The reasons underlying the reduced pathogenicity of HIV-2 are still essentially unknown and surely are the outcome of a combination of distinct factors. In this review we will discuss the importance and the possible implications in HIV-2 pathogenesis, particularly during the asymptomatic period, of a less fitted interaction between viral envelope glycoproteins and cellular receptors that have been described in the way HIV-2 and HIV-1 use these receptors.

  15. Methamphetamine Enhances HIV-1 Infectivity in Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The US is currently experiencing an epidemic of methamphetamine (Meth) use as a recreational drug. Recent studies also show a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection among Meth users. We report that Meth enhances HIV-1 infectivity of dendritic cells as measured by multinuclear activation of a galactosidase indicator (MAGI) cell assay, p24 assay, and LTR-RU5 amplification. Meth induces increased HIV-1 infection in association with an increase in the HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, and infection ...

  16. THE PLACENTA INFECTED BY HIV AND HPV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón Sandoval OC

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The connection HIV/HPV reaches the placenta through the maternal-fetal transmission from an infected uterus. In this connection HPV has epitheliotropic and cytolytic capabilities which can cause severe alterations to the structure of the placental villi associating with the activity of antivirals that can increase the proportion of these lesions. Objective: To evaluate morphological changes in placental villi of patient with coinfection HIV/HPV. Material and Method: Placenta obtained of patient with low socioeconomic resources and coinfection HIV/HPV at 38 weeks of pregnancy, without another signs of disease, live newborn, which was analized by Light microscopy. Normal placenta was used as control. A protocol of observation that described syncytial nodules,fibrinoid, edema, fibrosis, calcification and immaturity was used. Results: Stem villi appeared with vascular damage to the level of endothelium, muscular layer and tissue that surround to the vessels. Severe degenerative changes in the syncytium and stromal region were observed in different types of villi. Arborization of villi was scarcity. Fibrosis, deposition of fibrinoid and infarcts are notorious. Immature intermediate villi were seen abundant and degenerate. Conclusions: An unknown interaction of HIV/HPV has provoked on the structure of placental villi an effect higher compared when the viral activity of each one virus is produced individually. This viral attack leads to a destructive effect very strong on the placenta.

  17. Hepatitis E virus co-infection in HIV-infected patients in Foggia and Naples in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Gaetano; Grisorio, Benvenuto; Filippini, Pietro; Ferrara, Sergio; Massa, Salvatore; Bulla, Fabio; Martini, Salvatore; Filippini, Alberico; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fazio, Vincenzina

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection represents an emerging infection in developed countries and is thought to be a zoonotic infection. It has recently been described as a new causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis in immunosuppressed subjects, including HIV-infected patients. The aim of this study was to assess the sero-virological prevalence of HEV in HIV patients and in the general population as control group. A prospective and observational cohort study was carried out in two hospitals in southern Italy. The seroprevalence of HEV was determined in a cohort of 959 subjects, 509 (53%) of whom were HIV-positive patients and 450 were from the general population. Serum samples were tested for anti-HEV antibodies; repeatedly positive results were confirmed by a Western blot assay. In positive patients HEV RNA and genotypes were also determined. A total of 46 (4.8%) of the 959 serum samples examined were reactive to anti-HEV Ig and confirmed by Western blotting. The prevalence of HEV antibodies (IgG and/or IgM) was 2.7% in the control group and 6.7% in HIV-infected patients. Anti-HEV IgM was found in 6/46 (13.0%) of the anti-HEV Ig-positive serum samples, in 5/34 HIV patients and in 1/12 of the general population. No HIV-infected patient presented chronic hepatitis with HEV infection alone. This study indicates a higher circulation of HEV in HIV-infected patients, whereas a low prevalence of HEV antibodies in the general Italian population was shown. Chronic hepatitis with HEV alone was absent, while it was present in subjects with HIV-HEV, co-infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV).

  18. Pregnancy incidence and outcomes in women with perinatal HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Laura; Sconza, Rebecca; Foster, Caroline; Tookey, Pat A; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Thorne, Claire

    2017-07-31

    To estimate the incidence of first pregnancy in women living with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) in the United Kingdom and to compare pregnancy management and outcomes with age-matched women with behaviourally acquired HIV (BHIV). The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood is a comprehensive, population-based surveillance study that collects demographic and clinical data on all pregnant women living with HIV, their children, and all HIV-infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The incident rate ratio of first pregnancy was calculated for all women of reproductive age who had been reported to the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood as vertically infected children. These women and their pregnancies were compared to age-matched pregnant women with BHIV. Of the 630 women with PHIV reported in the United Kingdom as children, 7% (45) went on to have at least one pregnancy, with 70 pregnancies reported. The incident rate ratio of first pregnancy was 13/1000 woman-years. The BHIV comparison group comprised 118 women (184 pregnancies). Women with PHIV were more likely to be on combined antiretroviral therapy at conception and have a lower baseline CD4 cell count (P < 0.01 for both). In adjusted analysis, PHIV and a low baseline CD4 cell count were risk factors for detectable viral load near delivery; older age at conception and being on combined antiretroviral therapy at conception reduced this risk. Women with PHIV in the United Kingdom have a low pregnancy incidence, but those who become pregnant are at risk of detectable viral load near delivery, reflecting their often complex clinical history, adherence, and drug resistance issues.

  19. [The tuberculous meningoencephalitis in patients with later stages of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilova, Z H; Savin, A A; Vigriianov, V Yu; Ziuzia, Yu R; Alekseeva, L P; Savin, L A

    2013-01-01

    Based on the examination and treatment of 120 patients with tuberculous meningoencephalitis (TM) in the later stages of HIV infection, the differences between these patients and patients without HIV infection were found. HIV-infected patients with TM had a more acute disease onset, more clinical symptoms of encephalitis confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, more frequent presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis in the cerebrospinal fluid and higher level of resistance to tuberculosis drugs. The morphologic study demonstrated the domination of necrotic and exudative reactions over productive inflammation with destructive abscess-type lesions in the brain matter. The mortality was more than 2 times higher than that in the control group.

  20. Anal Pap Screening for HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men: Practice Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbeck, Monique

    2016-01-01

    HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) have the highest rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer when compared to HIV-uninfected MSM and when compared to HIV-infected heterosexual men and women. Despite significantly increasing rates of anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected MSM, in many settings, no standard protocol is in place to screen for anal dysplasia in this high-risk group. A practice improvement project was conducted at a primary care health center to educate the HIV health care team about anal Pap screening in an effort to increase provider knowledge and rates of anal Pap screening performed as part of primary comprehensive care for HIV-infected MSM. Increased health care provider knowledge of anal Pap screening within this setting resulted in increased anal Pap screening for HIV-infected MSM. Routine screening leads to improved surveillance and treatment of precancerous lesions, decreasing morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected MSM.

  1. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Antiretroviral Drug Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    The advent of combination antiretroviral drug regimens has transformed HIV infection from a fatal illness into a manageable chronic condition. All patients with HIV infection should be considered for antiretroviral therapy, regardless of CD4 count or HIV viral load, for individual benefit and to prevent HIV transmission. Antiretroviral drugs affect HIV in several ways: entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4 T cells; nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription from RNA to DNA via chain-terminating proteins; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription through enzymatic inhibition; integrase strand transfer inhibitors block integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA; protease inhibitors block maturation and production of the virus. Current guidelines recommend six combination regimens for initial therapy. Five are based on tenofovir and emtricitabine; the other uses abacavir and lamivudine. Five include integrase strand transfer inhibitors. HIV specialists should assist with treating patients with complicated HIV infection, including patients with treatment-resistant HIV infection, coinfection with hepatitis B or C virus, pregnancy, childhood infections, severe opportunistic infections, complex drug interactions, significant drug toxicity, or comorbidities. Family physicians can treat most patients with HIV infection effectively by choosing appropriate treatment regimens, monitoring patients closely, and retaining patients in care.

  2. Astrocytes Resist HIV-1 Fusion but Engulf Infected Macrophage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 disseminates to diverse tissues and establishes long-lived viral reservoirs. These reservoirs include the CNS, in which macrophage-lineage cells, and as suggested by many studies, astrocytes, may be infected. Here, we have investigated astrocyte infection by HIV-1. We confirm that astrocytes trap and internalize HIV-1 particles for subsequent release but find no evidence that these particles infect the cell. Astrocyte infection was not observed by cell-free or cell-to-cell routes using diverse approaches, including luciferase and GFP reporter viruses, fixed and live-cell fusion assays, multispectral flow cytometry, and super-resolution imaging. By contrast, we observed intimate interactions between HIV-1-infected macrophages and astrocytes leading to signals that might be mistaken for astrocyte infection using less stringent approaches. These results have implications for HIV-1 infection of the CNS, viral reservoir formation, and antiretroviral therapy.

  3. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B;

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...

  4. [Genetics in the study of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Antonio; Savoldi, Silvana

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years after the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), no effective vaccines are available and there is no cure for the disease. The susceptibility to HIV infection shows a considerable degree of individual heterogeneity, which may be largely due to the genetic variability of the host. In an effort to find the host factors required for viral replication, to identify the crucial pathogenetic pathways, and reveal the full armament of host defenses, there has been a shift from candidate-gene studies to unbiased genomewide genetic and functional studies. Nevertheless, the number of established genetic factors involved in the susceptibility to diseases caused by HIV infection remains small, explaining only 15-20% of the observed heterogeneity, most of which is attributable to polymorphisms of human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Genetic studies, however, have allowed to clarify which genetic variations underlie the adverse response to some antiretroviral drugs (such as HLA-B*5701 in the treatment with abacavir) or the occurrence of renal complications as the disease progresses. The results of these studies already have a possible impact on healthcare practice.

  5. Optimal Use of Raltegravir (Isentress® in the Treatment of HIV-Infected Adults – Canadian Consensus Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rachlis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A meeting of a Canadian group with significant experience and knowledge in HIV management, consisting of five physicians, a pharmacist and an AIDS researcher, was convened. Their goal was to develop guidance for Canadian HIV-treating physicians on the appropriate use of raltegravir (MK-0518, Isentress®, Merck Frosst Canada Inc in HIV-infected adults.

  6. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 infection and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talia H Swartz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 38 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent anti-retroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  7. Efavirenz Plasma Concentrations and HIV Viral Load in HIV/AIDS-tuberculosis Infection Patients Treated with Rifampicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana, Nina; Purwantyastuti; Instiaty; Rusli, Adria

    2016-01-01

    to determine the effect of a rifampicin-containing tuberculosis regimen on efavirenz plasma concentrations and viral load in HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infection patients who received efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy. plasma efavirenz concentrations and HIV viral load were measured in HIV/AIDS patients treated with 600 mg efavirenz-based antiretroviral for 3 to 6 months and in HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infection patients treated with similar antiretroviral regimen plus rifampicin-containing antituberculosis in Sulianti Saroso Infectious disease Hospital, Jakarta. Plasma efavirenz concentration in both groups were compared using Mann-Whitney test, while proportion of patients with viral load >40 copy/mL were analyzed with chi-square test. forty five patients (27 with HIV/AIDS and 18 with HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis infections) were recruited during the period of February to May 2015. The median efavirenz plasma concentration obtained from HIV/AIDS group was 0,680 mg/L(range 0,24 to 5,67 mg/L and that obtained from HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis group was 0.685 mg/L (0.12 -2.23 mg/L) which was not significantly different statistically. The proportion of patients with viral load 40 copies/mL after 3-6 months of ARV treatment in the HIV/AIDS group was 51.9%, and in the HIV/AIDS-Tuberculosis group was 72.2%, which was not significantly different statistically (Chi Square test, p=0.291). plasma efavirenz concentration in HIV/AIDS-tuberculosis patients receiving antiretroviral and rifampicin is not significantly different from that on HIV/AIDS patients without tuberculosis. Proportion of patients with viral load of >40 copy/mL is higher in HIV/AIDS-tuberculosis patients receiving rifampicin compared to HIV/AIDS patients that not receive rifampicin. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance. Confirmatory studies with bigger sample size are needed to clarify the influence of rifampicin on plasma level of efavirenzand and on viral load.

  8. Lipoprotein Particle Subclasses, Cardiovascular Disease and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Duprez, Daniel A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Tracy, Russell; Otvos, James; Cooper, David; Hoy, Jennifer; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Paton, Nicholas I; Friis-Moller, Nina; Lampe, Fiona; Liappis, Angelike P.; Neaton, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Both HIV and treatment for HIV have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Unfavorable lipid changes could offer a possible explanation for the increased risk of CVD. We examined the association of lipoprotein particles with CVD in HIV-infected patients.

  9. Sepsis in HIV-infected patients; epidemiology and host response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huson, M.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we examined the impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology (Part I) of sepsis, and host response (Part II) to sepsis. We studied sepsis patients in Gabon, a setting with a high prevalence of HIV, and in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). In Part I, we found that HIV positive patient

  10. Sepsis in HIV-infected patients; epidemiology and host response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huson, M.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, we examined the impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology (Part I) of sepsis, and host response (Part II) to sepsis. We studied sepsis patients in Gabon, a setting with a high prevalence of HIV, and in Dutch intensive care units (ICUs). In Part I, we found that HIV positive

  11. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections in the Netherlands in 2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer IM de; Op de Coul ELM; Koedijk FDH; Veen MG van; Sighem AI van; Laar MJW van de; CIE

    2006-01-01

    The trend of increasing Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) has partly stabilised in 2005 in the STI sentinel surveillance network. Among men having sex with men (MSM), the number of STI diagnoses remained high and the HIV positivity rate has increased. Moreover, in the national HIV registry (HIV

  12. HUMAN-IMMUNODEFICIENCY-VIRUS (HIV) TYPE-1 INFECTION STATUS AND IN-VITRO SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HIV-INFECTION AMONG HIGH-RISK HIV-1 SERONEGATIVE HEMOPHILIACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LEDERMAN, MM; JACKSON, JB; KRONER, BL; WHITE, GC; EYSTER, ME; ALEDORT, LM; HILGARTNER, MW; KESSLER, CM; COHEN, AR; KIGER, KP; GOEDERT, JJ

    1995-01-01

    Blood samples were obtained from 16 hemophiliacs who had a 50%-94% defined risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV type 1 infection on the basis of treatment history and from 14 controls not at risk for HIV infection. HIV-1 was not detected in any of 12 patient samples by cocultivation nor in 14 p

  13. HIV, vascular and aging injuries in the brain of clinically stable HIV-infected adults: a (1H MRS study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucette A Cysique

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD and premature aging have been hypothesized as new risk factors for HIV associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND in adults with virally-suppressed HIV infection. Moreover, their significance and relation to more classical HAND biomarkers remain unclear. METHODS: 92 HIV- infected (HIV+ adults stable on combined antiretroviral therapy (cART and 30 age-comparable HIV-negative (HIV- subjects underwent (1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS of the frontal white matter (targeting HIV, normal aging or CVD-related neurochemical injury, caudate nucleus (targeting HIV neurochemical injury, and posterior cingulate cortex (targeting normal/pathological aging, CVD-related neurochemical changes. All also underwent standard neuropsychological (NP testing. CVD risk scores were calculated. HIV disease biomarkers were collected and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neuroinflammation biomarkers were obtained in 38 HIV+ individuals. RESULTS: Relative to HIV- individuals, HIV+ individuals presented mild MRS alterations: in the frontal white matter: lower N-Acetyl-Aspartate (NAA (p<.04 and higher myo-inositol (mIo (p<.04; in the caudate: lower NAA (p = .01; and in the posterior cingulate cortex: higher mIo (p<.008- also significant when Holm-Sidak corrected and higher Choline/NAA (p<.04. Regression models showed that an HIV*age interaction was associated with lower frontal white matter NAA. CVD risk factors were associated with lower posterior cingulate cortex and caudate NAA in both groups. Past acute CVD events in the HIV+ group were associated with increased mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex. HIV duration was associated with lower caudate NAA; greater CNS cART penetration was associated with lower mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and the degree of immune recovery on cART was associated with higher NAA in the frontal white matter. CSF neopterin was associated with higher mIo in the posterior cingulate cortex and frontal

  14. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  15. Dysregulation of beta-chemokines in the lungs of HIV-1-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, H; McKenna, S M; Ketoff, N R; Jones, L; Wu, M; Hejal, R; Rich, E A; Toossi, Z

    2001-04-01

    The beta-chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and regulated-on-activation normal T cell, expressed and secreted (RANTES) are not only chemotactic for mononuclear cells but may be important in suppression of HIV-1 replication through competitive binding to the chemokine receptor, CCR5, which is critical to viral entry. In this study, bronchoalveolar cells (BACs) and autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from HIV-1-infected participants who did not manifest clinical signs of lung disease with peripheral CD4 T-cell count >200/mm(3) (n = 7, group with high CD4 count), or CD4 T-cell count CCR5 was assessed. Induction of MIP-1 alpha by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in BAC of HIV-1-infected study subjects from the low CD4 group was less than BAC from healthy study subjects (p HIV-1-infected patients was significantly less than that from healthy study subjects (p CCR5 and MIP-1 alpha in BAC was significantly lower in HIV-1-infected patients compared with in healthy study subjects (p HIV-1-infected patients with high CD4 count was significantly higher than healthy study subjects (p HIV-1 infection in the lung.

  16. Understanding of the risk of HIV infection among the elderly in Ga-Rankuwa, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekalakala-Mokgele, Eucebious

    2014-01-01

    The literature pertaining to the elderly shows that HIV infection among this population is on the increase, suggesting that the elderly population engages in activities risky for HIV infection. Reports on such behaviour include frequent sexual relations with much younger people and having multiple partners. A study was carried out in Ga-Rankuwa, a black township in Gauteng Province, South Africa to explore and describe the understanding of these elderly people regarding their risks of HIV infection and AIDS. Using a qualitative, exploratory design, three focus-group interviews were conducted with 32 women aged over 50 years. Findings revealed that older persons have knowledge about transmission of HIV infection and AIDS. However, a few had misconceptions as to how HIV infection is transmitted, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities play a role. Knowledge of mechanisms of protecting themselves against infection, such as use of a condom during coitus and wearing gloves when caring for infected family members, was also evident. The elderly indicated that they would prefer an older person, who they could identify with, to educate them more about HIV infection and AIDS. Although majority of participants had knowledge of how HIV is transmitted, and issues that put them at risk of transmission, a few the older persons had misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted due to lack of knowledge, as they believed that poor nutrition and sharing facilities can transmit infection. The lack of knowledge underscores the importance of addressing sexual risk with older people. It was very clear that more needs to be done in terms of education campaigns to dispel the myths of HIV infection and to empower the elderly.

  17. HIV Infection and Older Americans: The Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A.; Mermin, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    HIV disease is often perceived as a condition affecting young adults. However, approximately 11% of new infections occur in adults aged 50 years or older. Among persons living with HIV disease, it is estimated that more than half will be aged 50 years or older in the near future. In this review, we highlight issues related to HIV prevention and treatment for HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected older Americans, and outline unique considerations and emerging challenges for public health and patient management in these 2 populations. PMID:22698038

  18. Antiretroviral treatment effect on immune activation reduces cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Elizabeth; Ronquillo, Rollie; Lollo, Nicole; Deeks, Steven G; Hunt, Peter; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T; Spudich, Serena; Price, Richard W

    2008-04-15

    To define the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on activation of T cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, and interactions of this activation with CSF HIV-1 RNA concentrations. Cross-sectional analysis of 14 HIV-negative subjects and 123 neuroasymptomatic HIV-1-infected subjects divided into 3 groups: not on ART (termed "offs"), on ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA >500 copies/mL ("failures"), and on ART with plasma HIV-1 RNA HIV-1, it maintained a coincident relation to CSF HIV-1 in both viremic groups. In addition to correlation with CSF HIV-1 concentrations, CD8 activation in blood and CSF correlated with CSF WBCs and CSF neopterin. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association of blood CD8 T-cell activation, along with plasma HIV-1 RNA and CSF neopterin, with CSF HIV-1 RNA levels. The similarity of CD8 T-cell activation in blood and CSF suggests these cells move from blood to CSF with only minor changes in CD38/HLA-DR expression. Differences in the relation of CD8 activation to HIV-1 concentrations in the blood and CSF in the 2 viremic groups suggest that changes in immune activation not only modulate CSF HIV-1 replication but also contribute to CSF treatment effects. The magnitude of systemic HIV-1 infection and intrathecal macrophage activation are also important determinants of CSF HIV-1 RNA levels.

  19. [Impact of HIV/HBV infection and HIV/HBV co-infection on outcomes of pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Cheng, W T; Zhou, Y B; Jiang, Q W

    2017-06-10

    Both HIV and HBV infection have become major health problems, of global concern, due to the high prevalence in the past few decades. Data from cumulated epidemiological surveys have shown the links between maternal HIV or HBV infection and adverse outcomes on pregnancy. Maternal HIV or HBV infection may also increase the mother-to-child (MTCT) transmission of the two diseases. However, association between HIV-HBV co-infection and adverse pregnancy is still inconclusive. Does maternal HIV-HBV co-infection have an impact on mother-to-child transmission on either HIV or HBV? Study on effective precautionary measures to promote both maternal and child's health is deemed necessary.

  20. Complications of cesarean deliveries among HIV-infected women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtis, Athena P.; Ellington, Sascha; Pazol, Karen; Flowers, Lisa; Haddad, Lisa; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of complications associated with cesarean delivery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the United States and to investigate trends in such complications across four study cycles spanning the implementation of HAART in the United States (1995–1996, 2000–2001, 2005–2006, 2010–2011). Design The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is the largest all-payer hospital inpatient care database in the United States; when weighted to account for the complex sampling design, nationally representative estimates are derived. After restricting the study sample to women aged 15–49 years, our study sample consisted of approximately 1 090 000 cesarean delivery hospitalizations annually. Methods Complications associated with cesarean deliveries were categorized as infection, hemorrhage, or surgical trauma, based on groups of specific International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes. Length of hospitalization, hospital charges, and in-hospital deaths were also examined. Results The rate of complications significantly decreased during the study periods for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. However, rates of infectious complications and surgical trauma associated with cesarean deliveries remained higher among HIV-infected, compared with HIV-uninfected women in 2010–2011, as did prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital deaths. Length of hospitalization decreased over time for cesarean deliveries of HIV-infected women to a greater extent compared with HIV-uninfected women. Conclusion In the United States, rates of cesarean delivery complications decreased from 1995 to 2011. However, rates of infection, surgical trauma, hospital deaths, and prolonged hospitalization are still higher among HIV-infected women. Clinicians should remain alert to this persistently increased risk of cesarean delivery complications among HIV-infected women. PMID:25574961

  1. Development of TIMP1 magnetic nanoformulation for regulation of synaptic plasticity in HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atluri VSR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Venkata Subba Rao Atluri* Rahul Dev Jayant* Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Gabriella Garcia, Thangavel Samikkannu, Adriana Yndart, Ajeet Kaushik, Madhavan Nair Center for Personalized Nanomedicine, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Although the introduction of antiretroviral therapy has reduced the prevalence of severe forms of neurocognitive disorders, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders were observed in 50% of HIV-infected patients globally. The blood–brain barrier is known to be impermeable to most of antiretroviral drugs. Successful delivery of antiretroviral drugs into the brain may induce an inflammatory response, which may further induce neurotoxicity. Therefore, alternate options to antiretroviral drugs for decreasing the HIV infection and neurotoxicity may help in reducing neurocognitive impairments observed in HIV-infected patients. In this study, we explored the role of magnetic nanoparticle (MNP-bound tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP1 protein in reducing HIV infection levels, oxidative stress, and recovering spine density in HIV-infected SK-N-MC neuroblastoma cells. We did not observe any neuronal cytotoxicity with either the free TIMP1 or MNP-bound TIMP1 used in our study. We observed significantly reduced HIV infection in both solution phase and in MNP-bound TIMP1-exposed neuronal cells. Furthermore, we also observed significantly reduced reactive oxygen species production in both the test groups compared to the neuronal cells infected with HIV alone. To observe the effect of both soluble-phase TIMP1 and MNP-bound TIMP1 on spine density in HIV-infected neuronal cells, confocal microscopy was used. We observed significant recovery of spine density in both the test groups when compared to the cells infected with HIV alone, indicting the

  2. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and enteric bacterial pathogens among hospitalized HIV infected versus non-HIV infected patients with diarrhoea in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kownhar, Hayath; Shankar, Esaki Muthu; Rajan, Ramachandran; Vengatesan, Appasamy; Rao, Usha Anand

    2007-01-01

    A prevalence study on Campylobacter jejuni and other enteric bacterial pathogens was carried out in 200 HIV infected and 200 non-HIV infected subjects with diarrhoeal symptoms at an AIDS Hospital in southern India. Diarrhoeal specimens were inoculated onto standard culture media as well as onto Columbia and Campylobacter blood agar media for C. jejuni isolation. All the C. jejuni isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility using Kirby-Bauer's method. A significant difference in recovery rates was observed between the 2 groups in relation to C. jejuni (p < or = 0.02; 95% CI 5.5 (1-10) and Shigella spp. (p < or = 0.02; 95% CI 6.5 (1-12). 21 isolates of Shigella spp., 16 C. jejuni, 5 Salmonella typhi, 3 Arcobacter spp., 3 Yersinia enterocolitica, and 2 Aeromonas hydrophila were recovered from the HIV infected cases. All the C. jejuni isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin whereas 1 strain was resistant to nalidixic acid. Interestingly, all the 29 Shigella spp. (21 from HIV and 8 from non-HIV cases) were resistant to erythromycin and most were resistant to many other antibiotics used. Our observations underline the need for epidemiological investigations to screen C. jejuni and Shigella spp. in HIV infected subjects with diarrhoea and analyse their antibiograms periodically to minimize disease burden in HIV/AIDS.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among the HIV infected people of Manipur, Northeastern India: Emergence of unique recombinant forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adhikarimayum Lakhikumar; Singh, Thiyam Ramsing; Devi, Khuraijam Ranjana; Singh, Lisam Shanjukumar

    2016-11-21

    According to the Joint National Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the northeastern region of India has the highest HIV prevalence in the country. This study was conducted to determine the current HIV-1 molecular epidemiology of Manipur, a state in northeast India. Blood samples from HIV-1 seropositive subjects were collected between June 2011 and February 2014. The partial regions of HIV-1 genes; pol and tat-vpu-env were independently amplified, sequenced, analyzed, and genotyped. Based on all sequences generated from 110 samples using pol and/or tat-vpu-env gene, the overall HIV-1 genotypes distribution of Manipur was as follows: 65.45% (72/110) subtype C, 32.73% (36/110) unique recombinant forms (URFs), and 1.82% (2/110) subtype B. The distribution of HIV-1 genotypes among the risk groups was: heterosexual: 58.33% (35/60) subtype C, 38.33% (23/60) URFs, and 3.34% (2/60) subtype B; intravenous drug users (IDUs): 85.36% (35/41) subtype C, 9.76% (4/41) URFs, and 4.88% (2/41) subtype B; mother to child (MTC): 50% (3/6) URFs and 50% (3/6) subtype C and blood transfusion: 100% (3/3) subtype C. The findings for the first time revealed the emergence of URFs of HIV-1 in Manipur which is predominant among the sexual and MTC risk groups as compared to IDUs. Taking together, this study illustrated that Manipur is the "recombinant hotspot of HIV" of India. The results will provide the clinical importance for continuous monitoring of HIV-infections in order to design appropriate prevention measures to limit the spread of new HIV infections.

  4. HIV-Associated Neuroretinal Disorder in Patients With Well-Suppressed HIV-Infection : A Comparative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; van Den Berg, Thomas J T P; Kooij, Katherine W; Prins, Maria; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Abramoff, Michael D; Reiss, Peter; Verbraak, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Loss of neuroretinal structure and function, ascribed to a 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder' (HIV-NRD), in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections, has been reported in HIV-infected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Whether HIV-infected individu

  5. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection in HIV Coinfected Individuals in Eastern India with Risk Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumyabrata Nag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2 is the cause of most genital herpes while HSV-1 is responsible for orolabial and facial lesions. In immunocompromised individuals, like HIV patients, impaired immunity leads to more frequent symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV infection. Fifty-two blood samples from HIV patients with clinically diagnosed HSV infection were taken as cases, while 45 blood samples each from HIV-infected (HIV control and noninfected patients without any herpetic lesion (non-HIV control were taken as control. Serum was tested for IgM and IgG antibodies of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 by ELISA. The seroprevalence was compared among the three groups of study population, considering the demographic and socioeconomic parameters. The HSV-2 IgM was significantly higher (p<0.005 in the HIV patient group (34.6% than the HIV control (2.2% and non-HIV control (2.2% groups, whereas HSV-2 IgG seroprevalence was higher in both HIV patient (61.5% and HIV control (57.8% groups than the non-HIV control group (17.8%. The prevalence of HSV-2 was significantly higher in persons with multiple partners and in the reproductive age group. The overall seroprevalence of HSV-1 IgM was too low (<5%, whereas it was too high (about 90% with HSV-1 IgG in all three study groups.

  6. [Cofactors in the course of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, L; Carré, N

    Cohorts of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and followed-up since their infection, have identified risk factors of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The risk of progression increases with the subject's age at contamination by 40% for each decade. Other host factors such as certain HLA subtypes would be related to progression. Virus-related factors have also been described. Sexual or transfusional transmission from a highly immunodepressed subject increases the risk of progression in the infected subject. Progression is more rapid in male homosexuals than in heterosexuals, even after exclusion of Kaposi's syndrome. There has been little success in isolating co-infections which might explain this finding. The more rapid progression in homosexuals could be due to infection with particularly virulent strains or particular subtypes. Finally, progresion is more rapid when signs of primary infection are major or prolonged, an observation which probably results from a complex host-virus interaction. Behavioral factors occurring after contamination (pregnancy, continued intravenous drug abuse, tobacco, alcohol) have not been demonstrated until now to play a role in progression.

  7. HIV risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirivongrangson, Pachara; Lolekha, Rangsima; Charoenwatanachokchai, Angkana; Siangphoe, Umaporn; Fox, Kimberley K; Jirarojwattana, Naiyana; Bollen, Liesbeth; Yenyarsan, Naruemon; Lokpichat, Somchai; Suksripanich, Orapin; McConnell, Michelle

    2012-04-01

    We assessed prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STIs), sexual risk behaviors, and factors associated with risk behaviors among HIV-infected MSM attending a public STI clinic serving MSM in Bangkok, Thailand. Between October 2005-October 2007, 154 HIV-infected MSM attending the clinic were interviewed about sexual risk behaviors and evaluated for STIs. Patients were examined for genital ulcers and had serologic testing for syphilis and PCR testing for chlamydia and gonorrhea. Results showed that sexual intercourse in the last 3 months was reported by 131 men. Of these, 32% reported anal sex without a condom. STIs were diagnosed in 41%. Factors associated with having sex without a condom were having a steady male partner, having a female partner and awareness of HIV status <1 month. Sexual risk behaviors and STIs were common among HIV-infected MSM in this study. This highlights the need for increased HIV prevention strategies for HIV-infected MSM.

  8. Complement and HIV-I infection/HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin

    2014-04-01

    The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over 15 years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose-binding lectins (MBL), and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. In addition, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND, as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection.

  9. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with

  10. [Comparative study of pneumococcal bacteremia in patients with and without HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, V; Pérez-Cecilia, E; Santillana, T; Romero, J; Picazo, J J

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study of bacteriemias due to S. pneumoniae in adults is performed, from all the cases observed in our hospital during the 1989-1990 period. We compare the clinical characteristics of the disease depending if the affected patients were infected or not by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the considered period bacteriemia due to S. pneumoniae has been diagnosed in 12 patients with HIV infection and 29 without it. Ten of the twelve patients with HIV infection (83.3%) were in Stage IV (CDC) of the disease, staying the rest in a less developed phase of the disease. Age was significantly higher in non-HIV patients (p < 0.001) and a high percentage of patients in this group (75%) showed some disease considered as predisposing to bacteriemia due to S. pneumoniae. When a respiratory foci was present, VIH positive individuals showed more frequently bilateral radiologic infiltrates and less frequently pleural effusion. Leucocyte count when diagnosis was done were significantly higher in non-HIV group. Sensibility of isolated S. pneumoniae was similar in the two groups, being the immediate mortality related with bacteriemia due to S. pneumoniae higher in the non-HIV group. In our center 29.3% of bacteriemias due to S. pneumoniae are diagnosed in patients with HIV infection. This disease in itself could constitute an added risk factor in the development of bacteriemia due to S. pneumoniae.

  11. Risk management information for HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, A J

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses HIV infection in terms of the risk manager's information needs in the health care environment. The malpractice problem, increasing workman's compensation suits, the greater role of the ombudsman, implementation of the National Practitioner Data Bank, and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations' (JCAHO) emphasis on clinical excellence are conditions which have given greater importance to the risk manager's position. Included in this article are hedges to retrieve various components of risk management and a select bibliography from AIDSLINE.

  12. Relationship of vitamin D, HIV, HIV treatment, and lipid levels in the Women's Interagency HIV Study of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Janice B; Moore, Kelly L; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T; Tien, Phyllis C; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±antiretroviral therapy [ART]) were investigated with Women's Interagency HIV Study data (n = 1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. Sixty-three percent of women had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) was highest in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (17 ng/mL; P HIV treatment. Similarly, vitamin D levels were positively related to triglycerides only in ART-treated HIV-infected women and unrelated to cholesterol.

  13. Treatment of Prolapsing Hemorrhoids in HIV-Infected Patients with Tissue-Selecting Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the outcome of a tissue-selecting therapy stapler (TST for prolapsing hemorrhoids in HIV-infected patients. Sixty-two patients with stage III-IV hemorrhoidal prolapse were treated with TST by a single surgeon between June and November 2014. The TST group comprised 32 patients (4 females, and the TST + HIV group comprised 30 HIV-infected patients (3 females. Age, gender, and preoperative examination as well as intraoperative and postoperative features were assessed. There was no marked difference in hemorrhoidal prolapse between the TST and HIV + TST groups, except for patient satisfaction at 12 months. TST is an effective and safe technique for treatment of prolapsing hemorrhoids in HIV-infected patients.

  14. HSV oropharyngeal shedding among HIV-infected children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Richard; Manji, Karim; Matee, Mecky; Naburi, Helga; Bisimba, Jema; Martinez, Raquel; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Kim, Faith; von Reyn, C Fordham; Palumbo, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oral shedding has not been studied among HIV-positive children in Africa. We sought to evaluate longitudinal oral HSV reactivation in HIV-positive and -negative children. Twenty HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive and 10 HIV-negative children aged 3-12 years in Tanzania were followed prospectively for 14 days. Oral swabs were collected daily and submitted for HSV DNA PCR analysis. Clinical data were collected via chart review and daily diaries. HSV DNA was detected in 10 (50%) of HIV-positive and 4 (40%) of HIV-negative children. Children who shed HSV had virus detected in a median of 21.4% of samples; shedding was intermittent. Median CD4 count among HIV-infected children was 667 cells/µL in those with positive HSV DNA and 886 cells/µL in those who were negative (p = 0.6). Of the HIV-positive children reporting prior sores, five (83%) had positive HSV swabs, whereas the one HIV-negative child with prior sores did not have a PCR-positive swab. HSV is detected frequently in children with and without HIV. HIV-infected children reporting oral sores have a high rate of HSV detection. Given the proven strong interactions between HIV and HSV, further study of co-infection with these viruses is warranted in children.

  15. Neurological profile and neurodevelopment of 88 children infected with HIV and 84 seroreverter children followed from 1995 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Tannous Tahan

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the degree of neurological compromise in HIV-infected children accompanied by the outpatient clinic of infectious diseases and pediatric neurology of the Clinical Hospital of the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR starting in 1995. Long-term progressive prospective and cross sectional study of 88 children infected by HIV and 84 seroreverter children, using data from general neurological examinations, neuroimaging procedures (brain CT scan and neurodevelopmental tests (CAT/CLAMS and DENVER I and II. Neurological and neurodevelopmental alterations were found in 82% of the HIV-infected patients and in 36% of the HIV-seroreverter group (P <0.01. In the CAT/CLAMS test, the development quotient (DQ of the HIV-infected group was significantly lower than that of the HIV-seroreverter group. CAT/CLAMS scores lower than 70 (mental deficiency were found in 31% of the HIV-infected patients during the first year of life and in only 1% of the patients of the HIV-seroreverter group, demonstrating the validity of this screening test for precocious detection of alterations in the neurodevelopment of infected patients. The same occurred with the Denver I and II tests, as the HIV-infected group failed more frequently than the HIV-seroreverter group. Nine HIV-infected children presented altered brain CT scans; calcification of basal ganglia was the main finding (five cases. Encephalopathy due to HIV causes early arrest of neurodevelopment, which can be detected with screening tests during the first year of life.

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION ON HIV INFECTION IN THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN IN 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Yapparov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the  Republic of Bashkortostan the  intense epidemiological  situation on HIV infection remains, spread  of a human   immunodeficiency  virus  among   the  population and augmentation of cumulative number infected and  patients continues.Research objective: detection of nature of epidemic process  of HIV infection in the  Republic of Bashkortostan and the city of Ufa.On  the  basis  of  medical documentation: a registration form No. 058/at “Emergency notice on an infectious disease, food poisoning, unusual reaction to an inoculation”, the card of epidemiological inspection of the center  of HIV infection, the card of an ambulatory, – 23 143 cases  of HIV infection, 5343 cases of death of HIV-positive patients were studied.As a result of research  tendencies of spread  of HIV infection in the republic are taped: body height of number of again taped HIV-positive persons (2015 – 2 907 new cases  of HIV infection, 2014 – 2 862 case, 2013 – 2 475 cases; conservation  of a high  incidence of HIV infection (71,39 on 100 000 population; augmentation of specific gravity of a sexual way of transfer  of the HIV (51,42% realized both at heterosexual contacts and  in group  of men  who have  sex with  men  (48 cases; growth  by 37,9% of number of the died  HIV-positive people of all reasons  and, including, owing  to HIV infection; prevalence among HIV-positive people at the time of identification  of an age category from 31 to 40 years (48,8%.Current  situation demands acceptance of  urgent measures for stabilization and  depression of a case rate the HIV infection  including  carrying   out   scheduled  maintenance with the working population.

  17. Evidence of an increased pathogenic footprint in the lingual microbiome of untreated HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Angeline T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opportunistic oral infections can be found in over 80% of HIV + patients, often causing debilitating lesions that also contribute to deterioration in nutritional health. Although appreciation for the role that the microbiota is likely to play in the initiation and/or enhancement of oral infections has grown considerably in recent years, little is known about the impact of HIV infection on host-microbe interactions within the oral cavity. In the current study, we characterize modulations in the bacterial composition of the lingual microbiome in patients with treated and untreated HIV infection. Bacterial species profiles were elucidated by microarray assay and compared between untreated HIV infected patients, HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, and healthy HIV negative controls. The relationship between clinical parameters (viral burden and CD4+ T cell depletion and the loss or gain of bacterial species was evaluated in each HIV patient group. Results In untreated HIV infection, elevated viremia was associated with significantly higher proportions of potentially pathogenic Veillonella, Prevotella, Megasphaera, and Campylobacter species in the lingual microbiome than observed in healthy controls. The upsurge in the prevalence of potential pathogens was juxtaposed by diminished representation of commensal Streptococcus and Veillonella species. Colonization of Neisseria flavescens was lower in the lingual microbiome of HIV infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy than in uninfected controls. Conclusions Our findings provide novel insights into the potential impact of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy on the community structure of the oral microbiome, and implicate potential mechanisms that may increase the capacity of non-commensal species to gain a stronger foothold.

  18. Regional brain gray and white matter changes in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K. Sarma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART, perinatally infected HIV remains a major health problem worldwide. Although advance neuroimaging studies have investigated structural brain changes in HIV-infected adults, regional gray matter (GM and white matter (WM volume changes have not been reported in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated regional GM and WM changes in 16 HIV-infected youths receiving ART (age 17.0 ± 2.9 years compared with age-matched 14 healthy controls (age 16.3 ± 2.3 years using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based high-resolution T1-weighted images with voxel based morphometry (VBM analyses. White matter atrophy appeared in perinatally HIV-infected youths in brain areas including the bilateral posterior corpus callosum (CC, bilateral external capsule, bilateral ventral temporal WM, mid cerebral peduncles, and basal pons over controls. Gray matter volume increase was observed in HIV-infected youths for several regions including the left superior frontal gyrus, inferior occipital gyrus, gyrus rectus, right mid cingulum, parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, and middle temporal gyrus compared with controls. Global WM and GM volumes did not differ significantly between groups. These results indicate WM injury in perinatally HIV-infected youths, but the interpretation of the GM results, which appeared as increased regional volumes, is not clear. Further longitudinal studies are needed to clarify if our results represent active ongoing brain infection or toxicity from HIV treatment resulting in neuronal cell swelling and regional increased GM volume. Our findings suggest that assessment of regional GM and WM volume changes, based on VBM procedures, may be an additional measure to assess brain integrity in HIV-infected youths and to evaluate success of current ART therapy for efficacy in the brain.

  19. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  20. [Seroprevalence of HBs Ag and of anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people in N'Djamena, Chad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessimbaye, N; Moussa, A M; Mbanga, D; Tidjani, A; Mahamat, S O; Ngawara, M Nahor; Ngarnayal, G; Fissou, H Y; Sangare, L; Ndoutamia, G; Barro, N

    2014-12-01

    This is a prospective study conducted as part of a voluntary testing for HBV, HCV and HIV. The aim of the study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people and a control group of HIV negative people. HIV prevalence among newly diagnosed volunteers is 9.1%. The overall seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies is respectively 13.5% and 2.0%. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCVantibodies in the control group (HIV-negative) is respectively 12.2% and 2%. The seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people (old and new) is respectively 16.1% and 1%.This study, the first one conducted in Chad, has allowed us to know the seroprevalence of HBs Ag and anti-HCV antibodies among HIV infected people.

  1. Primary Oral Tuberculosis as an Indicator of HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. G. Khammissa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary oral tuberculosis that led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our patient had clinically nonspecific ulcers on the labial mucosa and on the ventral surface of the tongue which were diagnosed as being tuberculous only on histological examination. This raised the suspicion of HIV infection that was subsequently confirmed by blood tests. The oral lesions resolved after 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment. Some aspects of the pathogenesis of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection are discussed.

  2. Nutritional status of persons with HIV infection, persons with HIV infection and tuberculosis, and HIV-negative individuals from southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Soumya; Padmapriyadarsini, C; Sukumar, B; Iliayas, Sheikh; Kumar, S Ramesh; Triveni, C; Gomathy, P; Thomas, Beena; Mathew, Minnie; Narayanan, P R

    2008-03-15

    We compared the nutritional status of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection alone, individuals with HIV infection and tuberculosis (after completion of antituberculosis treatment), and HIV-negative individuals and found that malnutrition, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia were most pronounced among HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis. Weight loss was associated with loss of fat in female patients and with loss of body cell mass in male patients.

  3. High-sensitive and rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by IFN-γ release assay among HIV-infected individuals in BCG-vaccinated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Weimin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An accurate test for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is urgently needed in immunosuppressed populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic power of enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay in detecting active and latent tuberculosis in HIV-infected population in bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG-vaccinated area. A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals including 32 active tuberculosis patients were recruited. An ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay, T-SPOT.TB, was used to evaluate the M. tuberculosis ESAT-6 and CFP-10 specific IFN-γ response. Tuberculin skin test (TST was performed for all recruited subjects. Results The subjects were divided into group HIV+ATB (HIV-infected individuals with active tuberculosis, n = 32, group HIV+LTB (HIV-infected individuals with positive results of T-SPOT.TB assay, n = 46 and group HIV only (HIV-infected individuals with negative results of T-SPOT.TB assay and without evidence of tuberculosis infection, n = 22. In group HIV+ATB and HIV+LTB, T-SPOT.TB positive rate in subjects with TST P 85% in patients with TB treatment for less than 1 month and CD4+ T cells ≥200/μl, while for patients treated for more than 3 months and CD4+ T cells Conclusion ELISPOT-based IFN-γ release assay is more sensitive and rapid for the diagnosis of TB infection in Chinese HIV-infected individuals with history of BCG vaccination, and could be an effective tool for guiding preventive treatment with isoniazid in latently infected people and for TB control in China.

  4. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H;

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either...

  5. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico;

    2010-01-01

    To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients.......To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients....

  6. [Tuberculosis and HIV infection in the Kaliningrad Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'min, O A; Turkin, E N; Nikitina, T N; Sergeeva, E G

    2005-01-01

    The first cases of tuberculosis in the HIV infected were notified in the Kaliningrad Region in 1997. A total of 254 HIV-infected persons fell ill with tuberculosis in 1997-2003. In the HIV infected, the number of new cases of tuberculosis increased by 9.9 times in 2003 as compared with 1997; their proportion among the first detected patients with tuberculosis was 8%. In 2003, the incidence of tuberculosis in the HIV infected was 20.7 times greater than that in the general population. In this year, the rates of death in the HIV infected from tuberculosis were 34.6 times higher than those in the general population. The course and outcomes of tuberculoses were followed up in 165 patients with HIV infection. The diagnostic features of tuberculosis are shown in end-stage HIV infection. The findings showed the low efficiency of treatment for tuberculosis in patients with comorbidity. The early detection and treatment of tuberculosis are of priority in antituberculous work among the HIV-infected persons.

  7. The HIV-Infected Patient and Family Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Thomas M.; And Others

    The goal of this study was to examine the complex interplay among family, neuropsychological, psychosocial, psychiatric, and immunological variables with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected homosexual/bisexual men and their families. The subjects were a broad spectrum of 29 outpatient HIV-infected homosexual/bisexual men between the ages…

  8. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma revealing clinically unsuspected HIV infection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Abbade, Luciana P. Fernandes; Guiotoku, Marcelo Massaki; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma more frequently diagnosed in immunosuppressed patients, mainly HIV-infected. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma is extremely rare, and in this patient it was the first clinical manifestation of unsuspected HIV-infection. PMID:27579749

  9. Maraviroc Pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-Infected Pregnant Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colbers, A.; Best, B.; Schalkwijk, S.J.; Wang, J; Stek, A.; Tenorio, C.H.; Hawkins, D.; Taylor, G.; Kreitchmann, R.; Burchett, S.; Haberl, A.; Kabeya, K.; Kasteren, M.E.E. van; Smith, E.; Capparelli, E.; Burger, D.M.; Mirochnick, M.; Ven, A. van der

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women during pregnancy and post partum. METHODS: HIV-infected pregnant women receiving maraviroc as part of clinical care had intensive steady-state 12-hour pharmacokinetic profiles performed

  10. Management of BU-HIV co-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, D. P.; Ford, N.; Vitoria, M.; Christinet, V.; Comte, E.; Calmy, A.; Stienstra, Y.; Eholie, S.; Asiedu, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Buruli Ulcer (BU)-HIV co-infection is an important emerging management challenge for BU disease. Limited by paucity of scientific studies, guidance for management of this co-infection has been lacking. METHODS Initiated by WHO, a panel of experts in BU and HIV management developed guidanc

  11. Varicella vaccination in HIV-1-infected children after immune reconstitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bekker; G.H.A. Westerlaken; H. Scherpbier; S. Alders; H. Zaaijer; D. van Baarle; T. Kuijper

    2006-01-01

    Background: HIV-1-infected children have an increased risk of severe chickenpox. However, vaccination is not recommended in severely immunocompromised children. Objective: Can the live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) Oka strain be safely and effectively given to HIV-1-infected children despi

  12. Management of BU-HIV co-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, D. P.; Ford, N.; Vitoria, M.; Christinet, V.; Comte, E.; Calmy, A.; Stienstra, Y.; Eholie, S.; Asiedu, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Buruli Ulcer (BU)-HIV co-infection is an important emerging management challenge for BU disease. Limited by paucity of scientific studies, guidance for management of this co-infection has been lacking. METHODS Initiated by WHO, a panel of experts in BU and HIV management developed guidanc

  13. Occult hepatitis B virus infection and S gene escape mutants in HIV-infected patients after hepatitis B virus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhani, Arezoo; Mohraz, Minoo; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Banifazl, Mohammad; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Karami, Afsaneh; Foroughi, Maryam; Ramezani, Amitis

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination is recommended for HIV patients. Despite the relative success of HBV vaccination, breakthrough infections can occur infrequently in patients, and it can be due to occult HBV infection, vaccine unresponsiveness and/or emergence of escape mutants. This study assessed the presence of occult HBV infection and S gene escape mutants in HIV-positive patients after HBV vaccination. Ninety-two HIV-positive patients were enrolled in this study, including 52 responders to HBV vaccine and 40 non-responders. All of the cases received HBV vaccine according to routine HBV vaccination protocols. The presence of HBV-DNA was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In HBV-DNA positive samples, the most conserved regions of S gene sequences were amplified by nested PCR and PCR products were sequenced. Occult HBV infection was detected in two cases. Glycine to arginine mutation at residue 145 (G145R) within the 'a' region of the S gene was detected in one of the occult HBV infection cases who was in the non-responder group. This study showed that the prevalence of occult HBV infection and vaccine escape mutants was low in our HBV-vaccinated HIV-positive patients in both responder and non-responder groups, so there was no alarming evidence indicating breakthrough HBV infection in our vaccinated HIV-positive cases. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Depression in women infected with HIV Depressão em mulheres infectadas pelo HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Antakly de Mello

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE:The number of women with HIV infection has been on the rise in recent years, making studies of the psychiatric aspects of this condition very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of major depression in women with HIV infection. METHOD: A total of 120 women were studied, 60 symptomatic (with AIDS symptoms and 60 asymptomatic (without AIDS symptoms. Sociodemographic data were collected, and depressive disorders were identified. The instruments used to evaluate the depressive disorders were the SCID, DSM-IV, 17-item Hamilton depression scale, Hamilton depression scale for nonsomatic symptoms and the Beck depression scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of major depression was 25.8% and was higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of major depressive episodes in women with HIV infection is high, and women with AIDS-related symptoms are more often depressed than are those who have never presented such symptoms.OBJETIVO: Devido ao aumento do número de mulheres infectadas pelo HIV, no Brasil e no mundo, torna-se necessária a realização de estudos que abordem os aspectos psiquiátricos dessa população. Esse estudo tem como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de depressão maior atual e outros transtornos depressivos em mulheres infectadas pelo HIV e comparar essa prevalência entre um grupo de pacientes sintomáticas e outro de assintomáticas. MÉTODO:Utilizou-se um desenho de estudo transversal que avaliou 120 mulheres portadoras do HIV divididas em dois grupos de 60 pacientes, de acordo com a presença, em algum momento da vida, de sintomas relacionados à AIDS (sintomáticas e assintomáticas. Foram avaliadas variáveis sociodemográficas e variáveis relacionadas aos transtornos depressivos. Foram utilizados na avaliação psiquiátrica dos transtornos depressivos o SCID-DSM-IV, escala de Hamilton-17, escala de Hamilton não somática e o inventário de

  15. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in HIV Infected and Non-Infected Patients in a Low HIV Prevalence Region, West-Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control gro...

  16. Executive summary of the consensus statement on assistance to women with HIV infection in the health care sector. National AIDS Plan (PNS) and AIDS Study Group (GeSIDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this paper was to develop a consensus on clinical recommendations for health care assistance for women with HIV infection. To this end, a panel of experts, appointed by the Secretariat of the National AIDS Plan and GeSIDA was assembled, that included internal medicine physicians with expertise in the field of HIV infection, gynecologists, pediatricians and psychologists, with two members of the panel acting as coordinators. Scientific information was reviewed in publications and conference reports up to October 2012. In keeping with the criteria of the Infectious Disease Society of America, two levels of evidence were applied to support the proposed recommendations: the strength of the recommendation according to expert opinion (A, B, C) and the level of empirical evidence (I, II, III), already used in previous documents from SPNS/GESIDA. Multiple recommendations are provided for the clinical management of women with HIV infection, considering both the diagnostic and possible therapeutic strategies. This document presents recommendations for the treatment of women with HIV infection. This must be multidisciplinary, taking into account the differences that can be found in the diagnosis, development of disease and treatment between men and women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Syphilis and HIV co-infection. Epidemiology, treatment and molecular typing of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2015-12-01

    The studies included in this PhD thesis examined the interactions of syphilis, which is caused by Treponema pallidum, and HIV. Syphilis reemerged worldwide in the late 1990s and hereafter increasing rates of early syphilis were also reported in Denmark. The proportion of patients with concurrent HIV has been substantial, ranging from one third to almost two thirds of patients diagnosed with syphilis some years. Given that syphilis facilitates transmission and acquisition of HIV the two sexually transmitted diseases are of major public health concern. Further, syphilis has a negative impact on HIV infection, resulting in increasing viral loads and decreasing CD4 cell counts during syphilis infection. Likewise, HIV has an impact on the clinical course of syphilis; patients with concurrent HIV are thought to be at increased risk of neurological complications and treatment failure. Almost ten per cent of Danish men with syphilis acquired HIV infection within five years after they were diagnosed with syphilis during an 11-year study period. Interestingly, the risk of HIV declined during the later part of the period. Moreover, HIV-infected men had a substantial increased risk of re-infection with syphilis compared to HIV-uninfected men. As one third of the HIV-infected patients had viral loads >1,000 copies/ml, our conclusion supported the initiation of cART in more HIV-infected MSM to reduce HIV transmission. During a five-year study period, including the majority of HIV-infected patients from the Copenhagen area, we observed that syphilis was diagnosed in the primary, secondary, early and late latent stage. These patients were treated with either doxycycline or penicillin and the rate of treatment failure was similar in the two groups, indicating that doxycycline can be used as a treatment alternative - at least in an HIV-infected population. During a four-year study period, the T. pallidum strain type distribution was investigated among patients diagnosed by PCR

  18. Platelets and HIV-1 infection: old and new aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Donato; Pugliese, Agostino

    2008-09-01

    In this review we summarize the data on interaction of platelets with HIV-1 infection. Thrombocytopenia is a common finding among HIV-1 infected patients; several combined factors contribute to low peripheral platelet counts, which are present during all the stages of the disease. In addition, a relationship between platelet count, plasma viral load and disease progression has been reported, and this shows the potential influence platelets may have on the natural history of HIV-1 disease. Several lines of evidence have shown that platelets are an integral part of inflammation, and can be also potent effector cells of innate immune response as well as of adaptive immunity. Thus, we rewieved the role of inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines as activators of platelets during HIV-1 infection. Moreover, platelets show a direct interaction with HIV-1 itself, through different pathogenic mechanisms as binding, engulfment, internalisation of HIV-1, playing a role in host defence during HIV-1 infection, by limiting viral spread and probably by inactivating viral particles. Platelets may also play an intriguing role on endothelial dysfunction present in HIV-1 infection, and this topic begins to receive systematic study, inasmuch as interaction between platelets and endothelial cells is important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in HIV-1 infected patients, especially in those patients treated with antiretroviral drugs. Finally, this review attempts to better define the state of this emerging issue, to focus areas of potential clinical relevance, and to suggest several directions for future research.

  19. Higher rates of triple-class virological failure in perinatally HIV-infected teenagers compared with heterosexually infected young adults in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Judd, A; Lodwick, R; Noguera-Julian, A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the time to, and risk factors for, triple-class virological failure (TCVF) across age groups for children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection and older adolescents and adults with heterosexually acquired HIV infection. METHODS......: We analysed individual patient data from cohorts in the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (COHERE). A total of 5972 participants starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) from 1998, aged

  20. HIV and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men--Bangkok, Thailand, 2005-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    Although efforts to control the heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in Thailand had shown success by the late 1990s, HIV continued to spread in other risk groups, including men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2003, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health-U.S. CDC Collaboration (TUC) started surveillance among MSM in Bangkok, finding an HIV prevalence of 17.3%. By 2005, HIV prevalence in this group had risen to 28.3% and has since stabilized at around 30%. To obtain additional information about HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevalence and incidence in a clinic-based population of MSM, TUC, in collaboration with the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, analyzed data collected at the Silom Community Clinic (SCC), an HIV and STI testing center targeting MSM. This report describes trends in HIV and syphilis prevalence and incidence seen among SCC MSM clients during 2005-2011. At first clinic visit, the prevalence of HIV infection among 4,762 clients was 28.3% and of syphilis (all stages) was 9.8%. Among those returning for HIV or syphilis testing before the end of 2011, the incidence of HIV infection was 6.3 per 100 person-years (PY) and 3.6 per 100 PY for syphilis. These results show ongoing epidemics of HIV and syphilis infection in MSM in Bangkok, underscoring the urgent need for preventive interventions to reduce the spread of HIV and STI in this population.

  1. Hepatitis C and HIV co-infection: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irena Maier; George Y. Wu

    2002-01-01

    Co-infection with hepatitis C virus and humanimmunodeficiency virus is common in certainpopulations. Among HCV(+) persons, 10 % are alsoHIV (+), and among HIV (+) persons, 25 % are alsoHCV(+). Many studies have shown that in intravenousdrug users, co-infection prevalence can be as high as90-95 %. There is increasing evidence supporting theconcept that people infected with HIV have a muchmore rapid course of their hepatitis C infection.Treatment of co-infection is often challenging becausehighly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) therapyis frequently hepatotoxic, especially in the presence ofHCV. The purpose of this review is to describe theeffects that HIV has on hepatitis C, the effects thathepatitis C has on HIV, and the treatment options inthis challenging population.

  2. The Development and Implementation of an Outreach Program to Identify Acute and Recent HIV Infections in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Richard; Stein, Dylan; Hutt, Richard; Hagerty, Robert; Daskalakis, Demetre; Valentine, Fred; Marmor, Michael

    2010-03-05

    Since 2004, the authors have been operating First Call NYU, an outreach program to identify acute and recent HIV infections, also called primary HIV infections, among targeted at-risk communities in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. First Call NYU employed mass media advertising campaigns, outreach to healthcare providers in NYC, and Internet-based efforts including search engine optimization (SEO) and Internet-based advertising to achieve these goals. Between October 2004 and October 2008, 571 individuals were screened through this program, leading to 446 unique, in-person screening visits. 47 primary HIV infections, including 14 acute and 33 recent HIV infections, were identified. Internet and traditional recruitment methods can be used to increase self-referrals for screening following possible exposure to HIV. Community education of at-risk groups, with the goal of increased self-diagnosis of possible acute HIV infection, may be a useful addition to traditional efforts to identify such individuals.

  3. STUDY OF VAGINAL INFECTIONS, CERVICAL CYTOLOGY AND PREVALENCE OF MENSTRUAL PROBLEMS IN HIV INFECTED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balvin Kaur

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study vaginal infections, cervical cytology and prevalence of menstrual problems in HIV seropositive patients. METHODS: Study D esign: hospital based non - randomized prospective observational study. Study Type: case control study. SAMPLE SIZE: 130 cases & 100 contols. INCLUSION CRITERIA: All married women in the age group of 20 - 55 yrs. Cases were taken from the seropositive women register ed at the ART C entre willing to participate. Controls were HIV seronegative women attending gynaecology OPD. RESULTS: Out of the 130 cases, 78.4% were on ART & 21.5% were not on ART. In the present study, 87.09% of cases had abnormal Pap smear results comp ared to 29.09% of controls. 20% of cases had SILs compared to 8.18% of controls. Low grade intraepithelial lesions were 4.56 times more prevalent in cases. In the present study, it was found that 44.4% of SILs were found in cases with CD4 cell count <200/μ l. When studied for lower reproductive tract infections, 54.6% of cases had LRTIs compared to 30% of controls. The most common infection was candidiasis, found in 20% cases vs . 10% controls. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that the prevalence of Pa p smear abnormalities & LRTIs is higher in HIV seropositive women. Hence, periodic gynaecological testing, Pap smear examination & vaginal swab testing should be done in HIV seropositive women to provide timely treatment & early identification of risk fact ors of malignancy.

  4. Co-infection of HIV and intestinal parasites in rural area of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Li-Guang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal parasite infections (IPIs are among the most significant causes of illness and disease of socially and economically disadvantaged populations in developing countries, including rural areas of the People's Republic of China. With the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among rural Chinese populations, there is ample scope for co-infections and there have been increasing fears about their effects. However, hardly any relevant epidemiological studies have been carried out in the country. The aim of the present survey was to assess the IPI infection status among a representative sample of HIV-positive Chinese in rural Anhui province, and compare the findings with those from a cohort of non-infected individuals. Methods A case control study was carried out in a rural village of Fuyang, Anhui province, China. Stool samples of all participants were examined for the presence of intestinal parasites. Blood examination was performed for the HIV infection detection and anemia test. A questionnaire was administered to all study participants. Results A total of 302 HIV positive and 303 HIV negative individuals provided one stool sample for examination. The overall IPI prevalence of intestinal helminth infections among HIV positives was 4.3% (13/302 while it was 5.6% (17/303 among HIV negatives, a non-significant difference. The prevalence of protozoa infections among HIV positives was 23.2% while the rate was 25.8% among HIV negatives. The species-specific prevalences among HIV positives were as follows: 3.6% for hookworm, 0.7% for Trichuris trichiura, zero for Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.3% for Clonorchis sinensis, 1.3% for Giardia intestinalis, 16.2% for Blastocystis hominis, 1.7% for Entamoeba spp. and 8.3% for Cryptosporidium spp.. Cryptosporidium spp. infections were significantly more prevalent among HIV positives (8.3% compared to the HIV negative group (3.0%; P Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly more

  5. Signifiance of hepatitis E virus infection in HIV-infected patients: a challenging issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitis Ramezani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is a small, single-stranded, non-enveloped RNA virus and belongs to the genus Hepevirus in the Hepeviridae family. Currently, the HEV infection is the most frequent cause of acute hepatitis in the world. In recent years, some studies have been demonstrated that immunosuppressed cases, such organ transplant recipients, cases with HIV infection and patients with hematological malignancies are at risk of HEV infection. But it is not clear whether HEV infection is a major concern in HIV infected patients or not? The answer has considerable significance, because HIV and HEV infection are now both highly endemic in many parts of the world. The purpose of this review is to provide data on the prevalence of HEV infection in HIV infected patients for determination of the significance of HEV/HIV co-infection.

  6. Wound infection rates after invasive procedures in HIV-1 seropositive versus HIV-1 seronegative hemophiliacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehrer, J L; Weber, D J; Meyer, A A; Becherer, P R; Rutala, W A; Wilson, B; Smiley, M L; White, G C

    1990-01-01

    One-hundred and two patients with hemophilia A, hemophilia B, or acquired antibody to factor VIII who had undergone invasive procedures were cross referenced with patients participating in an ongoing prospective natural history study of HIV-1 infection in hemophiliacs. Matching revealed that HIV-1 status was known for 83 patients (83%) who had undergone 169 procedures between July 1979 and April 1988. Invasive procedures were classified as clean in 108 patients (63.9%), clean-contaminated in 45 (26.6%), contaminated in 2 (1.2%), and infected in 14 (8.3%). Wound infection rates by HIV-1 status were as follows (95% confidence intervals): HIV+ 1.4% (0% to 5%), HIV- 0% (0% to 9%), and procedure before testing HIV+ 1.5% (0% to 6%). There were no significant differences between the wound infection rates of HIV-positive and HIV-negative hemophiliacs nor in the wound infection rate among all three subgroups of patients (p greater than 0.5, Fisher's Exact Test). We conclude that surgery in HIV-1-infected patients who have not progressed to AIDS does not entail an increased risk of postoperative wound infections. PMID:2322041

  7. Drug-induced reactivation of apoptosis abrogates HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut M Hanauske-Abel

    Full Text Available HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of

  8. Predictors of hypertension in an urban HIV-infected population at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpa, Henry Ohem; Bisong, Elvis Mbu; Enang, Ofem Egbe; Monjok, Emmanuel; Essien, Ekere James

    2017-01-01

    Background The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has remarkably improved the prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, at the expense of the development of long-term complications such as cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and its associated mortality. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HTN and to identify possible predictors among HIV-infected patients attending the HIV Special Treatment Clinic at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out over a 5-month period from February to July 2016. A total of 112 HIV-infected persons were consecutively recruited and their blood pressures were measured in two consecutive clinic visits. They were compared with the HIV-negative control group (n=309). Data collected were analyzed with SPSS 18, and statistical significance was set at P40 years), increased weight and body mass index (BMI), and presence of obesity. Male sex and duration of exposure to HAART and CD4 count levels >200 cells/mm3 were associated with HTN in HIV-infected patients, whereas the absence of family history of HTN was significantly associated with HTN in both groups. However, in a multivariate logistic regression, the predictors of HTN in both groups are absence of family history of HTN and older age in HIV-infected patients and HIV-negative subjects, respectively. Conclusion Traditional risk factors such as older age, increased BMI, and obesity were linked to HTN in both HIV-infected and HIV-negative subjects, but higher CD4 count level and cumulative HAART exposure were associated with HTN in HIV-positive individuals. In a multivariate logistic regression, the predictors of HTN in both groups are absence of family history of HTN and older age in HIV-infected patients and HIV-negative subjects, respectively.

  9. Renal function, urinalysis abnormalities and correlates among HIV-infected Cameroonians naive to antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FolefackKaze, Francois; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Pefura Yone, Eric Walter; NdamFemben, Nelly Sandra; Ashuntantang, Gloria

    2013-11-01

    As per guidelines and recommendations, screening for renal diseases should be performed at the time of diagnosis of human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection; however, this remains largely unimplemented in many settings across Sub-Saharan Africa. We evaluated the renal function, urinalysis abnormalities and their correlates in HIV-infected individuals who were naïve to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This was a cross-sectional study of 2 months' duration involving 104 HIV-infected outpatients naive to HAART (71 women, 68%) attending the HIV clinic of the Yaoundé General Hospital in Cameroon. Renal and urinalysis parameters were measured and the Student t-test and Fischer exact test were used to compare the groups of participants. The mean age and CD4 count were, respectively, 35 ± 10.7 years and 305 ± 202/mL. Fifty-six (54%) patients presented with stages 3 and 4 of HIV infection. Forty-three (41%) patients had urinalysis abnormalities, including proteinuria (36%), leukocyturia (13%) and hematuria (12%). Proteinuria was associated with increased age, advanced stage of HIV infection, decreased CD4 count, hematuria and renal failure (P HIV infection, respectively (P = 0.04). The mean estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate was 100.2 ± 32.7 mL/min; three (3%) patients had renal failure (eGFR patients had reduced kidney function 60 ≤eGFR ≤90 mL/min. There was a high prevalence of decreased kidney function and proteinuria among Cameroonian HIV-infected patients naïve to HAART. Indicators of the severity of HIV infection, including advanced stage and low CD4 count, were associated with urinalysis abnormalities.

  10. Variable patterns of neuropsychological performance in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, S; Suarez, P; Casey, C Y; Cherner, M; Marcotte, T D; Letendre, S; Grant, I; Heaton, R K

    2008-08-01

    Based upon prior findings with group means, a "prototypical pattern" of neuropsychological results with HIV infection has emerged: impaired executive functioning, motor skills, speed of information processing, and learning, with intact memory retention, most language skills, and visuospatial functioning. We examined neuropsychological results from 553 HIV+ adults to determine the number of patterns seen among individuals with HIV infection. Factor analysis of a relatively comprehensive neuropsychological battery identified 6 component factors: verbal memory (VeM), visual memory (ViM), processing speed (PS), attention/working memory (A/WM), executive function (EF), and motor (M). These factor scores were submitted to hierarchical cluster analysis, to determine the appropriate number of clusters or patterns in the cohort. Final cluster membership was then determined by K-means analysis, based on the Lange, Iverson, Senior, and Chelune (2002) method. A 6-cluster solution was found to be most appropriate. The definitions of the clusters were based upon ipsative scoring of factor scores to indicate relative strengths and weaknesses (independent of overall level of performance): Cluster 1: strong EF; Cluster 2: strong M, weak VeM and EF; Cluster 3: strong PS, weak ViM and EF; Cluster 4: strong VeM, weak M; Cluster 5: strong A/WM; Cluster 6: strong VeM, weak EF. Neuropsychological-impairment rates differed across clusters, but all 6 clusters contained substantial numbers of impaired and unimpaired individuals. Cluster membership was not explained by demographic variables or psychiatric or neuromedical confounds. Thus, there does not appear to be a single, prototypical pattern of neuropsychological impairment associated with HIV infection for this battery of representative neuropsychological tests.

  11. HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men Recruited by RDS in Buenos Aires, Argentina: High HIV and HPV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, María A.; Balán, Iván C.; Marone, Rubén; Dolezal, Curtis; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Squiquera, Luis; Barreda, Victoria; Rodriguez Fermepín, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Rey, Jorge; Picconi, María; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Avila, María M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV and other STIs, among MSM from Buenos Aires (2007–2009). Methods Responding Driven Sampling was used for recruitment of MSM. Participants completed a structured web-based survey and provided biological samples. Results A total of 496 MSM were studied for HIV, HBV, HCV, and T pallidum infections. Chlamydia and HPV diagnoses were only performed in 98 and 109 participants, respectively. Prevalence of HIV was 17.3%, HBV 22.9%, HCV 7.5%, T pallidum 20.5%, HPV 83.5%, and C trachomatis 1.7%. In the year prior to the evaluation, 71% of the participants had had sex with men and/or trans and women (MMW) while 29% had not had sex with women (MM). Comparing MM to MMW, prevalence of HIV (30.7% vs. 11.9%, pHIV incidence (5.60 vs. 4.28 per 100 persons-year, p = 0.032). HPV genotypes 16, 6, and 11 were the most frequently found; 40.7% of the MSM had more than one genotype and one high risk genotype was detected in 43.6% of participants. Conclusions Both MM and MMW are at high risk of infection for HIV and other STIs. Rates of HIV, HBV, T pallidum and HPV infections are higher in the MM group. PMID:22768137

  12. Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mda, S.

    2011-01-01

      Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and increased risk of diarrhoea and respiratory infections. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in HIV-infected children. The poor growth, diarrhoea and respiratory infections seen in HIV-infected children may be partly ...

  13. Broadly neutralizing antibodies: An approach to control HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Mahmoud Mohammad; Yaseen, Mohammad Mahmoud; Alqudah, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-02

    Although available antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection to a non-fatal chronic disease, the economic burden of lifelong therapy, severe adverse ART effects, daily ART adherence, and emergence of ART-resistant HIV-1 mutants require prospecting for alternative therapeutic modalities. Indeed, a growing body of evidence suggests that broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies (BNAbs) may offer one such feasible alternative. To evaluate their therapeutic potential in established HIV-1 infection, we sought to address recent advances in pre-clinical and clinical investigations in this area of HIV-1 research. In addition, we addressed the obstacles that may impede the success of such immunotherapeutic approach, suggested strategic solutions, and briefly compared this approach with the currently used ART to open new insights for potential future passive immunotherapy for HIV-1 infection.

  14. PPAR and Liver Injury in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud Lemoine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the introduction of active HIV antiretroviral treatment, AIDS-related morbidity and mortality have markedly decreased and liver diseases are now a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. Chronic liver injury encompasses a wide spectrum of diseases due to HCV and HBV coinfection, drug-related toxicity, and NASH. HIV-infected patients who are receiving treatment present with a high prevalence of metabolic complications and lipodystrophy. Those patients are at high risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, the liver feature of the metabolic syndrome. This review will focus on (1 the liver injuries in HIV-infected patients; (2 both the current experimental and human data regarding PPAR and liver diseases; (3 the interactions between HIV and PPAR; (4 the potential use of PPAR agonists for the management of HIV-related liver diseases.

  15. Renal and urologic emergencies in the HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Stephen Y; Overton, E Turner

    2010-05-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has fundamentally altered the scope of the disease. Acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease from medication toxicity and comorbid noninfectious illnesses are just as likely today as end-organ injury from the virus itself. Chronic immunosuppression renders HIV-infected patients vulnerable to any of several unique urological infections not frequently seen in immunocompetent patients. A deeper understanding of renal and urological emergencies in the context of the HIV-infected patient will better prepare the emergency physician to render optimal care to this rapidly expanding and aging patient population.

  16. THE INCIDENCE OF HIV INFECTIONS IN ARGES POPULATION IN 2012 - 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV from Retroviridae family was isolated in early 80´s but his presence in Africa is much older than we previously thought, before the pandemic spread because of the social changes of 70´s (Cernescu, 1998. The incidence of HIV infections is a constant concern for public health specialists, with inferences for whole population. In this paper we presented the incidence of HIV infections in 2012/2013 period in Arges County, Romania. Studies were made in Laboratories of Public Health Department Arges. Immunoenzymatic methods were used for anti-HIV antibodies detection (Genscreen ULTRA HIV Ag-Ab kit from BIO RAD. The results of the immunoenzymatic tests were presented in order to age and gender of the tested people. New cases of HIV infection were 1.73% in 2012 and 1.10% in 2013 from all investigated samples. The positive samples were frequent in male population, and for 25 -34 years and 35-44 years age groups. Prophylaxis is the best weapon in fight against HIV/AIDS. But the properly way to stop the spread of HIV infections may be the development of vaccine or drugs to stop progression to AIDS (Al-Jabri, 2007.

  17. Reduced raltegravir clearance in HIV-infected liver transplant recipients: an unexpected interaction with immunosuppressive therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Dario; Puoti, Massimo; Sollima, Salvatore; Moioli, Cristina; Foppa, Caterina Uberti; Baldelli, Sara; Clementi, Emilio; Gervasoni, Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation (LTx) is considered a safe procedure in selected HIV-infected patients. In this clinical setting raltegravir is the antiretroviral of choice due to its optimal tolerability and its negligible interactions with immunosuppressive drugs. We aimed at providing data on the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in LTx recipients, on which the available information is inconclusive. In this retrospective multicentre study we characterized the pharmacokinetics of raltegravir in a consecutive series of HIV-infected LTx recipients referred to our laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and compared the obtained profiles with those collected from a control group of HIV-infected patients. Seventeen HIV-infected LTx patients were considered. LTx recipients had significantly higher raltegravir AUC0-12 compared with the control group of HIV-infected patients [14 314 (11 627-19 998) versus 8795 (5218-12 954) ng·h/mL; P < 0.01]. Two LTx patients experienced moderate increments in serum transaminases, nausea and vomiting that improved after raltegravir dose reduction. High raltegravir exposure and acceptable safety profile were observed in HIV-infected LTx recipients. Our results highlight that some patients may obtain an advantage from TDM-guided raltegravir dose adjustments with potential benefits in terms of drug tolerability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Increasing Rates of Obesity Among HIV-Infected Persons During the HIV Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    overweight /obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general...study results may be related to differences in timing of HIV diagnosis and treatment, socioeconomic status , and access to medical care. Of note, our...America Abstract Background: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight /obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected persons are

  19. STI/HIV co-infections in UCH, Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, A O; Lawoyin, T O

    2005-04-01

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are poorly recognised and inadequately treated in Nigeria in spite of the fact that it constitutes a major risk for HIV transmission. This study was carried out to ascertain STI/HIV co-infection rate and to obtain relevant socio-demographic and reproductive health data associated with STIs. This information is urgently needed for designing STI/HIV control strategies. All consenting patients with history suggestive of STI, who attended STI clinic at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, between March and November 2001 were enrolled in the study. Of the 210 patients seen, 98 (46.7%) were males while 112 (53.3%) were females (p > 0.05). One hundred and fifty six (74.3%) of them were aged 20-39 years while only 10 (5.1%) were adolescents. Twenty (9.5%) had laboratory diagnosis of STIs, out of which 6 (30%) were also HIV positive. Among those with STIs, 8 (40%) had gonorrhoea, 8 (40%) had candidiasis, while 4 (25%) were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis. None of the patients' sera was positive for Treponema palladium antibody HIV prevalence rate in the study was 21.9%. Highest rate was found in patients aged 20-29 years while no adolescent and no one over 50 years old was HIV positive. Five (62.5%) of the patients with gonorrhoea were also HIV positive, a lower percentage (25%) of those with trichomoniasis were positive for HIV, while none of those infected with candidiasis was HIV positive. STI/HIV co-infection rate was 30%. This study reveals a high STI/HIV co-infection rate, indicating that there is a need for proper management of STIs as a way of reducing the spread of HIV infection in Nigeria.

  20. Comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis and mortality in persons infected and uninfected with HIV: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in individuals infected with HIV.......We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in individuals infected with HIV....

  1. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W T; Reeds, D N; Mondy, K E; Overton, E T; Grassino, J; Tucker, S; Bopp, C; Laciny, E; Hubert, S; Lassa-Claxton, S; Yarasheski, K E

    2010-07-01

    People living with HIV infection are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV infection are high priorities. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virological or immunological status, or quality of life (QOL) in HIV-infected adults relative to standard of care treatment in a matched control group. Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 weeks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were: 2-h oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4 T-cell count and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36 health-related QOL inventory. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures improved more (P=0.04) in the yoga group (-5 +/- 2 and -3 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively) than in the standard of care group (+1 +/- 2 and+2 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively). However, there was no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass or proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall QOL after yoga. Immune and virological status was not adversely affected. Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low-cost, simple to administer, nonpharmacological, popular behavioural intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors.

  2. Oxidative Stress Markers in Tuberculosis and HIV/TB Co-Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajopadhye, Shreewardhan Haribhau; Mukherjee, Sandeepan R; Chowdhary, Abhay S; Dandekar, Sucheta P

    2017-08-01

    Dysfunction of redox homeostasis has been implicated in many pathological conditions. An imbalance of pro- and anti-oxidants have been observed in Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbidities especially HIV/AIDS. The pro inflammatory milieu in either condition aggravates the physiological balance of the redox mechanisms. The present study therefore focuses on assessing the redox status of patients suffering from TB and HIV-TB co-infection. To assess the oxidative stress markers in the HIV-TB and TB study cohort. The current prospective study was conducted in Haffkine Institute, Parel, Maharashtra, India, during January 2013 to December 2015. Blood samples from 50 patients each suffering from active TB and HIV-TB co-infection were collected from Seth G.S.Medical College and KEM Hospital Mumbai and Group of Tuberculosis Hospital, Sewree Mumbai. Samples were processed and the experiments were carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Haffkine Institute. Samples from 50 healthy volunteers were used as controls. Serum was assessed for pro-oxidant markers such as Nitric Oxide (NO), Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Species (TBARS), C-Reactive Protein (CRP), superoxide anion. Antioxidant markers such as catalase and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) were assessed. Total serum protein, was also assessed. Among the pro-oxidants, serum NO levels were decreased in TB group while no change was seen in HIV-TB group. TBARS and CRP levels showed significant increase in both groups; superoxide anion increased significantly in HIV-TB group. Catalase levels showed decreased activities in TB group. SOD activity significantly increased in HIV-TB but not in TB group. The total serum proteins were significantly increased in HIV-TB and TB groups. The values of Control cohort were with the normal reference ranges. In the present study, we found the presence of oxidative stress to be profound in the TB and HIV-TB co-infection population.

  3. Helicobacter pylori gastritis in HIV-infected patients: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, Daniel T; Morgan, Christopher J; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are different: H. pylori is transmitted by gastro- or fecal-oral routes and is associated with low socioeconomic conditions, while HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, infected body fluids, and transplacentally. If the host responses to these infections were independent, the prevalence of H. pylori should be similar in HIV-infected and non-infected patients. Yet, several studies have detected a lower prevalence of H. pylori in patients with HIV infection, whereas other studies found either no differences or greater rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-positive subjects. To review studies that addressed the issue of these two simultaneous infections and attempt to determine whether reliable conclusions can be drawn from this corpus of often contrasting evidence. Electronic literature search for relevant publications, followed by manual search of additional citations from extracted articles. The initial search yielded 44 publications; after excluding case reports, reviews, narrowly focused articles, and duplicate reports, there remained 29 articles, which are the corpus of this review. With one exception, all studies reported higher rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-negative subjects. Five studies also examined the CD4 lymphocyte counts and found an inverse correlation between the degree of immunosuppression and the prevalence of active H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that it is likely that H. pylori needs a functional immune system to successfully and persistently colonize the human gastric mucosa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Poorer cognitive performance in perinatally HIV-infected children versus healthy socioeconomically matched controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, S.; ter Stege, J.A.; Geurtsen, G.J.; Scherpbier, H.J.; Kuijpers, T.W.; Reiss, P.; Schmand, B.; Pajkrt, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the declining incidence of severe neurological complications such as HIV encephalopathy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in children is still associated with a range of cognitive problems. Although most HIV-infected children in industrialized countries are immigrants

  5. The effect of aging, nutrition, and exercise during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Somarriba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Natasha Schaefer, Tracie L MillerDivision of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patient’s resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.Keywords: HIV replication, aging, diet, nutrition, exercise, immunity

  6. Emergencies related to HIV infection and treatment (part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Chandra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV is a leading cause of mortality in resource limited settings and HIV associated medical emergencies are common emergency centre presentations in high-prevalence settings. HIV attacks the body’s immune system, making infected individuals susceptible to severe infections of multiple organ systems including the respiratory tract, ocular structures, and central nervous system. HIV infected individuals also suffer from unique patterns of cardiac disease, gastrointestinal disturbances, and haematologic and oncologic conditions. Anti-retroviral therapy itself is also associated with numerous side effects, many of which can be life-threatening. Diagnosis and management of HIV infected patients require knowledge of the disease’s pathology and the life threatening complications associated with it. Part 1 of this review discusses the pathophysiology of the disease and respiratory, cardiac, psychiatric, and neurologic complications.

  7. Spontaneous strategy use protects against visual working memory deficits in older adults infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Cameron, Marizela V; Dawson, Matthew S; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W; Grant, Igor

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at particular risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), including dementia. Deficits in attention/working memory are posited to play a central role in the development of HAND among older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible protective benefits of spontaneous strategy use during a visual working memory task in 46 older and 42 younger adults infected with HIV. Results revealed a significant interaction between age and strategy use, with older adults who used a meta-cognitive strategy demonstrating superior working memory performance versus non-strategy users. This effect was not observed in the younger HIV-infected sample and was not better explained by possible confounding factors, such as education, comorbid medical conditions, or HIV disease severity. Within the older group, strategy use was associated with better executive functions and higher estimated verbal intelligence. Findings from this study suggest that working memory declines in older HIV-infected adults are moderated by the use of higher-level mnemonic strategies and may inform cognitive neurorehabilitation efforts to improve cognitive and everyday functioning outcomes in older persons living with HIV infection.

  8. Spontaneous Strategy Use Protects Against Visual Working Memory Deficits in Older Adults Infected with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Cameron, Marizela V.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bondi, Mark W.; Grant, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that older human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults are at particular risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), including dementia. Deficits in attention/working memory are posited to play a central role in the development of HAND among older adults. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible protective benefits of spontaneous strategy use during a visual working memory task in 46 older and 42 younger adults infected with HIV. Results revealed a significant interaction between age and strategy use, with older adults who used a meta-cognitive strategy demonstrating superior working memory performance versus non-strategy users. This effect was not observed in the younger HIV-infected sample and was not better explained by possible confounding factors, such as education, comorbid medical conditions, or HIV disease severity. Within the older group, strategy use was associated with better executive functions and higher estimated verbal intelligence. Findings from this study suggest that working memory declines in older HIV-infected adults are moderated by the use of higher-level mnemonic strategies and may inform cognitive neurorehabilitation efforts to improve cognitive and everyday functioning outcomes in older persons living with HIV infection. PMID:20876195

  9. Enhanced clearance of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Murakowski, Dariusz K; Bournazos, Stylianos; Schoofs, Till; Sarkar, Debolina; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Golijanin, Jovana; Gazumyan, Anna; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Caskey, Marina; Chakraborty, Arup K; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcγ receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells.

  10. SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV-AIDS PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    S S Madkar; Ashok Jaykumar Vankudre; SL Nilekar

    2012-01-01

    Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy...

  11. Oral and airway microbiota in HIV-infected pneumonia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Iwai, S.; Fei, M; Huang, D.; Fong, S.; Subramanian, A.; Grieco, K; Lynch, SV; Huang, L

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased frequency of recurrent pneumonia in HIV-infected patients and recent studies linking the airway bacterial community (microbiota) to acute and chronic respiratory infection, little is known of the oral and airway microbiota that exist in these individuals and their propensity to harbor pathogens despite antimicrobial treatment for acute pneumonia. This pilot study compared paired samples of the oral and airway microbiota from 15 hospitalized HIV-infected patients receivin...

  12. Injection Drug Use and Hepatitis C as Risk Factors for Mortality in HIV-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Margaret T; Justice, Amy C; Birnie, Kate

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-infected individuals with a history of transmission through injection drug use (IDU) have poorer survival than other risk groups. The extent to which higher rates of hepatitis C (HCV) infection in IDU explain survival differences is unclear. METHODS: Adults who started antiretrovi...

  13. Intestinal Damage and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-Exposed and HIV-Infected Zimbabwean Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Chasekwa, Bernard; Rukobo, Sandra; Govha, Margaret; Mutasa, Kuda; Ntozini, Robert; Humphrey, Jean H

    2017-09-15

    Disease progression is rapid in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected infants. Whether intestinal damage and inflammation underlie mortality is unknown. We measured plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP), soluble CD14 (sCD14), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at 6 weeks and 6 months of age in 272 HIV-infected infants who either died (cases) or survived (controls), and in 194 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and 197 HIV-unexposed infants. We estimated multivariable odds ratios for mortality and postnatal HIV transmission for each biomarker using logistic regression. At 6 weeks, HIV-infected infants had higher sCD14 and IL-6 but lower I-FABP than HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants (P HIV-exposed than HIV-unexposed infants (P = .02). At 6 months, HIV-infected infants had highest sCD14, IL-6, and CRP concentrations (P HIV-exposed vs HIV-unexposed infants (P = .04). No biomarker was associated with mortality in HIV-infected infants, or with odds of breast-milk HIV transmission in HIV-exposed infants. HIV-infected infants have elevated inflammatory markers by 6 weeks of age, which increase over time. In contrast to adults and older children, inflammatory biomarkers were not associated with mortality. HEU infants have higher inflammation than HIV-unexposed infants until at least 6 months, which may contribute to poor health outcomes.

  14. Engineering Cellular Resistance to HIV-1 Infection In Vivo Using a Dual Therapeutic Lentiviral Vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P Burke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We described earlier a dual-combination anti-HIV type 1 (HIV-1 lentiviral vector (LVsh5/C46 that downregulates CCR5 expression of transduced cells via RNAi and inhibits HIV-1 fusion via cell surface expression of cell membrane-anchored C46 antiviral peptide. This combinatorial approach has two points of inhibition for R5-tropic HIV-1 and is also active against X4-tropic HIV-1. Here, we utilize the humanized bone marrow, liver, thymus (BLT mouse model to characterize the in vivo efficacy of LVsh5/C46 (Cal-1 vector to engineer cellular resistance to HIV-1 pathogenesis. Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC either nonmodified or transduced with LVsh5/C46 vector were transplanted to generate control and treatment groups, respectively. Control and experimental groups displayed similar engraftment and multilineage hematopoietic differentiation that included robust CD4+ T-cell development. Splenocytes isolated from the treatment group were resistant to both R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1 during ex vivo challenge experiments. Treatment group animals challenged with R5-tropic HIV-1 displayed significant protection of CD4+ T-cells and reduced viral load within peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues up to 14 weeks postinfection. Gene-marking and transgene expression were confirmed stable at 26 weeks post-transplantation. These data strongly support the use of LVsh5/C46 lentiviral vector in gene and cell therapeutic applications for inhibition of HIV-1 infection.

  15. The relationship between maternal-infant antibody levels and vertical transmission of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, D; Coovadia, H M; Bobat, R A; Madurai, S; Sullivan, J L

    1997-04-01

    This study assesses the predictive value of the ratio of HIV-1 antibodies in the newborn at birth to that in the mother for perinatally transmitted infection confirmed subsequently by age 18 months. The ratio of HIV-1 (EIA) antibody levels in the baby at birth to that in the seropositive mother after the first trimester (sequenstration index SI) was available in 114 of a perinatal cohort of 137 infants. We related this ratio to the HIV infection status of the children by 18 months, HIV-1 DNA PCR and HIV-specific IgA antibody detection at birth, between 3 and 6 months, and morbidity and mortality. Thirty-five of the 137 (26 per cent) children were diagnosed as infected by 18 months. The mean (SD) HIV SI was 1.57 (0.88) in 29 infected and 0.83 (0.42) in 85 uninfected infants (P infection were 41 and 98 per cent, respectively. The reason for the higher SI in the infected babies is the combination of lower antibody titres in the transmitting mothers with raised levels in the infected babies. A similar analysis of antibody ratios showed no statistical differences for measles and tetanus (P > 0.1) between HIV infected and uninfected groups. There was a tendency to increased morbidity (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.31) and more severe disease in those with higher HIV-1 SI. Three of 17 (18 per cent) peripheral blood samples from infected children at birth were PCR positive; all had SI's above the threshold. Overall sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 85 per cent each. Eleven of the 29 infected children were HIV-1 specific IgA positive at birth; six (64 per cent) of these had an SI > 1.27. This simple SI of HIV-1 EIA antibodies at birth is comparable to elaborate techniques in its power to predict perinatally acquired infection. It may be a cheap, reliable and rapid screening test for vertically transmitted HIV-1 infection.

  16. Utility of Pooled HIV RNA RT-PCR Assay in Diagnosing Acute HIV Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张麒; 蒋岩; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The P24 antigen test, HIV RNA PCR test,HIV isolation/culture and fourth-generation HIV uniform Ag/Ab assay are being utilized in diagnosing acute HIV infection in different labs. Many factors limit the use of screening for acute HIV in high-risk populations, in blood donors and during voluntary HIV testing, including, cost, technique, sensitivity and specificity. In this review we explore a new NAAT method which involves HIV RNA RT-PCR on pooled samples. This technique is able to screen for acute infections in a large testing volume and may he used as a screening method in high-risk populations and blood donors.

  17. The epidemic of HIV infection and AIDS, promotion of testing, and innovative strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Suligoi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, the incidence of new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2008 was 86.7 cases per one million population, and most cases were attributable to sexual transmission. In Italy, in 2007, the incidence was 60.0 cases per one million population (in the areas in which surveillance exists, and 73.7% of the cases were attributable to sexual transmission. At present, there are an estimated 170 000-180 000 persons living with HIV/AIDS in Italy, some of whom are unaware of being infected. Based on available epidemiological data and taking into consideration the level of risk of exposure to HIV, we describe several proposals for promoting access to HIV testing in diverse population groups and contexts, including some innovative approaches. The promotion of HIV testing is fundamental for public health and human rights and must be associated with treatment, care and prevention activities, which must be guaranteed for the entire population.

  18. Changes in immunological status among newly-diagnosed HIV-infected in Denmark 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh, S.; Lohse, N.; Hansen, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The incidence of new HIV diagnoses in Denmark has remained stable since 1991, but it has increased among the subgroup of homosexual men in recent years. This may reflect an actual increase in newly infected, e.g. as a result of increased risk behaviour, or it may reflect increased HIV....... MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational study based on the Danish HIV Cohort Study, which includes all adults seen at Danish HIV clinics since 1995. RESULTS: From 2000 to 2004 the number of newly-infected homosexual men increased (from 69 to 123), particularly in persons under 30 years (from 5 to 42...... from 0 in 2000 to 23 in 2004. The prevalence of patients with high viral load (and thus potentially at risk of transmitting HIV) decreased in all risk groups. CONCLUSION: Newly-diagnosed homosexual men present at an earlier stage of disease progression and with a better preserved immune system today...

  19. Impaired production of cytokines is an independent predictor of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gerstoft, Jan; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2003-01-01

    With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients.......With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients....

  20. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, William W; Huang, Ming Bo; Addae Konadu, Kateena; Powell, Michael D; Bond, Vincent C

    2015-12-22

    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA) during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM) which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients.

  1. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. Roth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients.

  2. Characteristics of co-infections by HCV and HBV among Brazilian patients infected by HIV-1 and/or HTLV-1

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    Marcia Moreira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1 share the routes of infection with hepatitis viruses B and C. Co-infection by these agents are a common event, but we have scarce knowledge on co-infection by two or more of these agents. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics and risk factors for co-infections by HBV and HCV in patients infected by HIV-1 or/and HTLV-1, in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: In a case-control study we evaluated patients followed in the AIDS and HTLV clinics of Federal University of Bahia Hospital. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics were reviewed, and patients were tested for the presence of serological markers of HBV and HCV infections. HCV-infected patients were tested by PCR to evaluate the presence of viremia. RESULTS: A total of 200 HIV-1, 213 HTLV-1-infected, and 38 HIV-HTLV-co-infected individuals were included. HIV-infected patients were more likely to have had more sexual partners in the lifetime than other patients' groups. HIV-HTLV-co-infected subjects were predominantly male. Patients infected by HTLV or co-infected had a significantly higher frequency of previous syphilis or gonorrhea, while HIV infection was mainly associated with HPV infection. Co-infection was significantly associated to intravenous drug use (IVDU. HBV and/or HCV markers were more frequently found among co-infected patients. HBV markers were more frequently detected among HIV-infected patients, while HCV was clearly associated with IVDU across all groups. AgHBs was strongly associated with co-infection by HIV-HTLV (OR = 22.03, 95% CI: 2.69-469.7, as well as confirmed HCV infection (p = 0.001. Concomitant HCV and HBV infection was also associated with retroviral co-infection. Patients infected by HTLV-1 had a lower chance of detectable HCV viremia (OR = 0.04, 95% CI: 0.002-0.85. CONCLUSIONS: Infection by HCV and/or HBV is frequent among patients presenting retroviral infection, but risk factors and prevalence for each

  3. Abnormalities in body composition and nutritional status in HIV-infected children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, L C de Barros; Gonçalves, E M; de Carvalho, W R G; Guerra-Junior, G; Centeville, M; Aoki, F H; Morcillo, A M; dos Santos Vilela, M M; da Silva, M T N

    2011-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to compare growth, nutritional status and body composition outcomes between a group of 94 HIV-infected children and adolescents on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 364 healthy controls, and to evaluate their association with clinical and lifestyle variables within the HIV-infected group. When compared with the control group, HIV patients had higher risk of stunting (odds ratio [OR] 5.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.83-10.04) and thinness (OR 4.7, 95% CI: 2.44-9.06), higher waist-to-hip ratios (medians 0.89 versus 0.82 for boys and 0.90 versus 0.77 for girls, P HIV-infected children on ART showed significant nutritional status and body composition abnormalities, consistent with the severity of vertical HIV infection and the consequences of prolonged ART.

  4. Risk Factors for Acquisition and Clearance of Oral Human Papillomavirus Infection Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adults

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    Beachler, Daniel C.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Strickler, Howard D.; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Cranston, Ross D.; Burk, Robert D.; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Xiao, Weihong; Guo, Yingshi; Gillison, Maura L.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010–2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld modeling. Through 2013, the 2-year cumulative incidence of any type of oral HPV infection was 34% in HIV-infected persons and 19% in HIV-uninfected persons. However, many of these infections cleared. Seven percent of incident infections and 35% of prevalent infections persisted for at least 2 years. After adjustment for other risk factors, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.2), reduced current CD4 cell count, and increased numbers of oral sex and “rimming” partners increased the risk of incident oral HPV infection, whereas male sex, older age, and current smoking increased the risk of oral HPV persistence (each P < 0.05). This helps explain the consistent associations observed between these factors and prevalent oral HPV infection in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:25480823

  5. Co-infection and risk factors of tuberculosis in a Mexican HIV+ population

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    Roberto Zenteno-Cuevas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The situation of tuberculosis (TB is being modified by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, which is increasing the occurrence of new cases and the generation of drug resistant strains, affecting not only the people infected with HIV, but also their close contacts and the general population, conforming a serious public health concern. However, the magnitudes of the factors associated to this co-infection differ considerably in relation to the population groups and geographical areas. METHODS: In order to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for the co-infection of tuberculosis (TB in a population with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV+ in the Southeast of Mexico, we made the analysis of clinical and epidemiological variables and the diagnosis of tuberculosis by isolation of mycobacteria from respiratory samples. RESULTS: From the 147 HIV+ individuals analyzed, 12 were culture positive; this shows a prevalence of 8% for the co-infection. The only variable found with statistical significance for the co-infection was the number of CD4-T < 200 cells/mm³, OR 13 (95%, CI 2-106 vs 12-109. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report describing the factors associated with tuberculosis co -infection with HIV in a population from Southern Mexico. The low number of CD4 T-cells was the only variable associated with the TB co-infection and the rest of the variables provide scenarios that require specific and particular interventions for this population group.

  6. [Lung disease and HIV infection in children at the Charles de Gaulle university pediatric hospital center in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouéta, Fla; Yé, Diarra; Dao, Lassina; Zoungrana-Kaboré, Alice; Ouédraogo, Sylvie Armelle P; Napon, M; Sawadogo, Alphonse

    2008-01-01

    To compare the clinical and radiological aspects of lung diseases in HIV-positive and HIV-negative children, we conducted a retrospective case control study covering a 3-year period from January 2003 through December 2005 at Charles de Gaulle University Pediatric Hospital Center in Ouagadougou. HIV-positive patients hospitalised for lung disease were matched to HIV-negative patients controls, hospitalised for the same symptoms, by age and date of hospitalisation. The study included 186 patients (93 HIV-positive and 93 HIV-negative) and collected data on age, sex, clinical signs, radiological signs and short-term course. Of the 93 HIV-positive children suspected to have been contaminated by mother-to-child transmission, 92 had HIV1 and 1 had a double infection of HIV1 and 2. The mean age in both groups was 48 months. Clinically severe lung disease (44%) was more common in HIV-positive children. Radiology showed that interstitial syndrome was significantly more common in HIV-positive children (p=0001) with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 60%. The case-fatality rate was 4.2% among HIV-positive children. This study allows us to remind paediatricians of the importance of lung disease in HIV-infected children. Moreover, the vertical transmission responsible for disease in all our patients shows the need to accelerate the scaling up of the program for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in our country.

  7. Characteristics of HIV infected individuals traveling abroad. Results from the +REDIVI Collaborative Network.

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    Pérez-Molina, Jose A; Martinez-Perez, Angela; Serre, Nuria; Treviño, Begoña; Ruiz-Giardín, José Manuel; Torrús, Diego; Goikoetxea, Josune; Echevarría, Esteban Martín; Malmierca, Eduardo; Rojo, Gerardo; Calabuig, Eva; Gutierrez, Belén; Norman, Francesca; Lopez-Velez, Rogelio

    2016-02-01

    The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV- (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV- travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P=.001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P<.001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P=.078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV- travelers the main diagnoses were "healthy" (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  8. Mice chronically infected with chimeric HIV resist peripheral and brain superinfection: a model of protective immunity to HIV.

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    Kelschenbach, Jennifer L; Saini, Manisha; Hadas, Eran; Gu, Chao-Jiang; Chao, Wei; Bentsman, Galina; Hong, Jessie P; Hanke, Tomas; Sharer, Leroy R; Potash, Mary Jane; Volsky, David J

    2012-06-01

    Infection by some viruses induces immunity to reinfection, providing a means to identify protective epitopes. To investigate resistance to reinfection in an animal model of HIV disease and its control, we employed infection of mice with chimeric HIV, EcoHIV. When immunocompetent mice were infected by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of EcoHIV, they resisted subsequent secondary infection by IP injection, consistent with a systemic antiviral immune response. To investigate the potential role of these responses in restricting neurotropic HIV infection, we established a protocol for efficient EcoHIV expression in the brain following intracranial (IC) inoculation of virus. When mice were inoculated by IP injection and secondarily by IC injection, they also controlled EcoHIV replication in the brain. To investigate their role in EcoHIV antiviral responses, CD8+ T lymphocytes were isolated from spleens of EcoHIV infected and uninfected mice and adoptively transferred to isogenic recipients. Recipients of EcoHIV primed CD8+ cells resisted subsequent EcoHIV infection compared to recipients of cells from uninfected donors. CD8+ spleen cells from EcoHIV-infected mice also mounted modest but significant interferon-γ responses to two HIV Gag peptide pools. These findings suggest EcoHIV-infected mice may serve as a useful system to investigate the induction of anti-HIV protective immunity for eventual translation to human beings.

  9. Examining the relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

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    Pamela Sabina Mbabazi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for

  10. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C in HIV-infected patients:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jia Chen; Cheng-BoYu; Wei-Bo Du; Lan-Juan Li

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share similar routes of transmission by sexual intercourse or drug use by parenteral injection, so coinfection is common. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of coinfection with either HCV or HBV in patients infected with HIV. DATA  SOURCES: A meta-analysis was performed to quantify HBV coinfection with HCV in HIV patients. Published studies in the English and Chinese language medical literature involving cohorts of HIV patients concomitantly infected with HBV and/or HCV were collected from the PubMed database, ISI Web of Science, the Cochrane library clinical trials registry, CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure) and Google Scholar, for relevant articles before November 2009. The search was conducted with the following key words: hepatitis C, HCV, hepatitis B, HBV, human immunodeficiency virus, HIV, and coinfection. Data were extracted from relevant studies by two investigators. RevMan 5.0 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. RESULTS: We identified 22 studies involving 17 664 patients. Substantial differences in the HCV rate compared to the HBV rate in HIV patients were found in the overall analysis [odds ratio (OR)=3.00; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.90-4.73]. A subgroup analysis showed similar results in a European group, but not in Asian or African groups. However, a meta-analysis between HIV+HBV+HCV+ and HIV+HBV+HCV- patients showed no significant difference (OR=0.91; 95% CI 0.57-1.45). Although subgroup analysis still lacked essential differences, different regions seemed to have different patterns. CONCLUSIONS: HCV-HIV coinfection is more frequent than HBV-HIV coinfection overall. However, HCV infection does not affect theprevalenceofHBVinfectioninHIV-positivepatients.

  11. Renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients: 2010 update.

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    Trullas, Joan C; Cofan, Federico; Tuset, Montse; Ricart, María J; Brunet, Mercedes; Cervera, Carlos; Manzardo, Christian; López-Dieguez, María; Oppenheimer, Federico; Moreno, Asuncion; Campistol, Josep M; Miro, Jose M

    2011-04-01

    The prognosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved in recent years with the introduction of antiretroviral treatment. While the frequency of AIDS-defining events has decreased as a cause of death, mortality from non-AIDS-related events including end-stage renal diseases has increased. The etiology of chronic kidney disease is multifactorial: immune-mediated glomerulonephritis, HIV-associated nephropathy, thrombotic microangiopathies, and so on. HIV infection is no longer a contraindication to transplantation and is becoming standard therapy in most developed countries. The HIV criteria used to select patients for renal transplantation are similar in Europe and North America. Current criteria state that prior opportunistic infections are not a strict exclusion criterion, but patients must have a CD4+ count above 200 cells/mm(3) and a HIV-1 RNA viral load suppressible with treatment. In recent years, more than 200 renal transplants have been performed in HIV-infected patients worldwide, and mid-term patient and graft survival rates have been similar to that of HIV-negative patients. The main issues in post-transplant period are pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and immunosuppressants, a high rate of acute rejection, the management of hepatitis C virus coinfection, and the high cardiovascular risk after transplantation. More studies are needed to determine the most appropriate antiretroviral and immunosuppressive regimens and the long-term outcome of HIV infection and kidney graft.

  12. Alterations in the gut microbiota associated with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozupone, Catherine A; Li, Marcella; Campbell, Thomas B; Flores, Sonia C; Linderman, Derek; Gebert, Matthew J; Knight, Rob; Fontenot, Andrew P; Palmer, Brent E

    2013-09-11

    Understanding gut microbiota alterations associated with HIV infection and factors that drive these alterations may help explain gut-linked diseases prevalent with HIV. 16S rRNA sequencing of feces from HIV-infected individuals revealed that HIV infection is associated with highly characteristic gut community changes, and antiretroviral therapy does not consistently restore the microbiota to an HIV-negative state. Despite the chronic gut inflammation characteristic of HIV infection, the associated microbiota showed limited similarity with other inflammatory states and instead showed increased, rather than decreased, diversity. Meta-analysis revealed that the microbiota of HIV-infected individuals in the U.S. was most similar to a Prevotella-rich community composition typically observed in healthy individuals in agrarian cultures of Malawi and Venezuela and related to that of U.S. individuals with carbohydrate-rich, protein- and fat-poor diets. By evaluating innate and adaptive immune responses to lysates from bacteria that differ with HIV, we explore the functional drivers of these compositional differences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Update on HIV infection in Mayotte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartigau-Roussin, C; Receveur, M C; Hebert, J C; Giry, C; Pettinelli, M E; Malvy, D

    2007-04-01

    Mayotte is a small French island located in the Indian Ocean between Madagascar and Mozambique. It is one of the four Comorian Islands and has a population of about 200,000. The first cases of AIDS were diagnosed in 1989. Since then, the number of serological tests performed annually has stabilized at around 14000. However the number of new cases and treatment reports appears to be increasing slowly. Five of the 15 cases diagnosed in 2005 were at the AIDS stage. In 2006, 74 people were treated at the Mayotte hospital including 5 children. The mean age of the 69 adult patients was 38 years. Contamination was heterosexual for 71% of the adult cases, homosexual in 13% and transfusional in 3%. Women accounted for 59.5% of adult patients because of antenatal screening. All cases in Mayotte involved HIV type 1 infection. Forty-nine patients are undergoing treatment. Viremia is undetectable in 74% as compared to 85% in 2005. This decrease is due to a drop in attendance from 7.2 in 2005 to fold 4.5 in an island environment where HIV is still considered as a shameful disease.

  14. HEPATITIS B, C AND HIV CO-INFECTIONS SEROPREVALENCE IN A NORTHEAST BRAZILIAN CENTER

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    Lara Gurgel Fernandes TAVORA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The occurrence of HIV and hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV virus associations is of great concern since co-infected patients respond poorly to antiviral treatment and usually progress to chronic and more complicated hepatic disease. In Brazil, these co-infections prevalence is not well known since published data are few and sometimes demonstrate conflicting results. Also, a significant number of co-infected individuals are HBV/HCV asymptomatic carriers, leading to under notification. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of the HBV and HCV infection in a recently diagnosed HIV population in the state of Ceará/Brazil. Methods Retrospective cohort, with >18yo patients diagnosed HIV+ from 2008-2010. First year medical attention information was collected. Results A total of 1.291 HIV+ patients were included. HBV serologies were collected in 52% (23% had previous hepatitis B, 3.7% were co-infected and HCV in 25.4% (1.5% had previous hepatitis C, 5.4% co-infection. The majority of HBV/HIV patients referred multiple sexual partners/year, 28% homosexualism and 20% bisexualism. In the HCV/HIV group 38.8% individuals had > one sexual partner/year and 22.2% used intravenous drugs. Conclusion The study reinforce the need for better training healthcare workers and providing laboratory support for a prompt hepatitis diagnosis and adequate medical management to avoid complications and decrease viral spread.

  15. Profile of HIV-Infected Hispanics with Pancytopenia

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    Eduardo J. Santiago-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pancytopenia is seen in late HIV infection; it is associated with medical complications and with decreased survival. We determined the prevalence of pancytopenia at baseline in a cohort of HIV-positive Hispanics living in Puerto Rico, and compared their socio-demographic, immunological and clinical characteristics. A total of 1202 patients enrolled between 2000 and 2010 were included. They were grouped according to pancytopenia status, defined by having: platelets <150,000 μL, white cell count <4000 μL, and hemoglobin <12 g/dL (women or <13 g/dL (men. Differences were evaluated using Student’s t-test, Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method. The prevalence of pancytopenia was 8.7%. Patients with pancytopenia had lower BMI and lower CD4 count, as well as higher HIV viral load and higher proportions of unemployment, clinical AIDS and antiretroviral treatment (ART use (p < 0.05. One-year mortality rate was significantly higher in patients with pancytopenia (18.1% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001. When stratifying for ART this association persisted for patients who did not receive ART (41.4% vs. 5.2%, p < 0.001, but it was not seen in patients who received treatment (9.2% vs. 5.6%, p = 0.196. Pancytopenia was associated with elements of advanced stages of HIV. ART could reduce the mortality of HIV-patients with pancytopenia to levels comparable to patients without the disorders.

  16. Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand

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    Denise J. Jamieson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

  17. HIV-infected microglia mediate cathepsin B-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenón, Frances; Cantres-Rosario, Yisel; Adiga, Radhika; Gonzalez, Mariangeline; Rodriguez-Franco, Eillen; Langford, Dianne; Melendez, Loyda M

    2015-10-01

    HIV-1-infected mononuclear phagocytes release soluble factors that affect the homeostasis in tissue. HIV-1 can prompt metabolic encephalopathy with the addition of neuronal dysfunction and apoptosis. Recently, we reported that HIV-1 enhances the expression and secretion of bioactive cathepsin B in monocyte-derived macrophages, ultimately contributing to neuronal apoptosis. In this research, we asked if microglia respond to HIV infection similarly by modifying the expression, secretion, and neurotoxic potential of cathepsin B and determined the in vivo relevance of these findings. HIV-1ADA-infected human primary microglia and CHME-5 microglia cell line were assessed for expression and activity of cathepsin B, its inhibitors, cystatins B and C, and the neurotoxicity associated with these changes. Human primary neurons were exposed to supernatants from HIV-infected and uninfected microglia in the presence of cathepsin B inhibitors and apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL. Microglial expression of cathepsin B was validated in brain tissue from HIV encephalitis (HIVE) patients. HIV-infected microglia secreted significantly greater levels of cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C compared to uninfected cells. Increased apoptosis was observed in neurons exposed to supernatants from HIV-1 infected microglia at day 12 post-infection. The cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 and cathepsin B antibody prevented neuronal apoptosis. Increased microglia-derived cathepsin B, cystatin B, and cystatin C and caspase-3+ neurons were detected in HIVE brains compared to controls. Our results suggest that HIV-1-induced cathepsin B production in microglia contributes to neuronal apoptosis and may be an important factor in neuronal death associated with HIVE.

  18. Syphilis and HIV co-infection (PhD-afhandling)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The studies included in this PhD thesis examined the interactions of syphilis, which is caused by Treponema pallidum, and HIV. Syphilis reemerged worldwide in the late 1990s and hereafter increasing rates of early syphilis were also reported in Denmark. The proportion of patients with concurrent...... HIV has been substantial, ranging from one third to almost two thirds of patients diagnosed with syphilis some years. Given that syphilis facilitates transmission and acquisition of HIV the two sexually transmitted diseases are of major public health concern. Further, syphilis has a negative impact...... on HIV infection, resulting in increasing viral loads and decreasing CD4 cell counts during syphilis infection. Likewise, HIV has an impact on the clinical course of syphilis; patients with concurrent HIV are thought to be at increased risk of neurological complications and treatment failure. Almost ten...

  19. HIV Infection and TLR Signalling in the Liver

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    Megan Crane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, liver disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-infected individuals, specifically, in the presence of viral hepatitis coinfection. HIV, a single stranded RNA virus, can bind to and activate both Toll-like receptor (TLR7 and TLR8 in circulating blood mononuclear cells, but little is known about the effect of HIV on TLRs expressed in the liver. HIV can directly infect cells of the liver and HIV-mediated depletion of CD4+ T-cells in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract results in increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS, both of which may impact on TLR signaling in the liver and subsequent liver disease progression. The potential direct and indirect effects of HIV on TLR signaling in the liver will be explored in this paper.

  20. A neglected epidemic: fungal infections in HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong-James, Darius; Meintjes, Graeme; Brown, Gordon D

    2014-03-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of HIV-related mortality globally. Despite widespread rollout of combined antiretroviral therapy, there are still up to 1 million deaths annually from IFIs, accounting for 50% of all AIDS-related death. A historic failure to focus efforts on the IFIs that kill so many HIV patients has led to fundamental flaws in the management of advanced HIV infection. This review, based on the EMBO AIDS-Related Mycoses Workshop in Cape Town in July 2013, summarizes the current state of the-art in AIDS-related mycoses, and the key action points required to improve outcomes from these devastating infections.

  1. Spatial working memory in asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, B; Garghentini, G; Campana, A; Grassi, E; Bertelli, S; Cinque, P; Epifani, M; Lazzarin, A; Scarone, S

    1999-01-01

    Many clinical and research findings converge to indicate that frontal lobe, basal ganglia, and related neuronal connections are primarily involved in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; frontal lobe, mainly the prefrontal cortex, has a specialized role in working memory processes. This study focused on neuropsychological evaluation of the spatial component of working memory in a sample of 34 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects as compared with 34 age- and sex-matched seronegative control subjects. A computer-administered test assessing spatial working memory was used for the neuropsychological evaluation. The findings did not show any spatial working memory impairment during the asymptomatic phase of HIV infection.

  2. Management of HIV-hepatitis B co-infection

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    Marc Mendelson

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV co-infected patients are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. Early recognition of dual infection is a critical factor in directing appropriate therapy, and HBV screening should therefore be undertaken at the time of HIV diagnosis. Vaccination against HBV should be considered for all HIV patients who are not yet infected with HBV. Antiretroviral therapy containing two antiretrovirals active against HBV should be started if the patient either has symptomatic liver disease or is asymptomatic with a CD4 count of <350 cells/µl.

  3. Paradoxical responses in a cohort of HIV-1-infected patients with mycobacterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olalla, J; Pulido, F; Rubio, R; Costa, M A; Monsalvo, R; Palenque, E; Costa, J R; Del, Palacio A

    2002-01-01

    Paradoxical worsening or relapse of opportunistic infections has been described after initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. Retrospective study of a group of 33 HIV-infected patients with mycobacterial disease analysing the incidence and characteristics of patients with and without paradoxical response after starting HAART and/or mycobacterial treatment. Nine patients in the group had paradoxical response. No significant difference of baseline characteristics was observed in these patients. The decrease in viral load was significantly greater among patients with paradoxical response than in patients without. No clinical difference was found in the evolution of HIV-infected patients with mycobacterial disease after the resolution of the episode of paradoxical response.

  4. Management of BU-HIV co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D P; Ford, N; Vitoria, M; Christinet, V; Comte, E; Calmy, A; Stienstra, Y; Eholie, S; Asiedu, K

    2014-09-01

    Buruli Ulcer (BU)-HIV co-infection is an important emerging management challenge for BU disease. Limited by paucity of scientific studies, guidance for management of this co-infection has been lacking. Initiated by WHO, a panel of experts in BU and HIV management developed guidance principles for the management of BU-HIV co-infection based on review of available scientific evidence, current treatment experience, and global recommendations established for management of HIV infection and tuberculosis. The expert panel agreed that all BU patients should be offered quality provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling. In areas with high prevalence of malaria and/or bacterial infections, all patients with HIV co-infection should be started on cotrimoxazole preventative therapy. Combination antibiotic treatment for BU should be commenced before starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) and provided for 8 weeks duration. The suggested combination is rifampicin (10 mg/kg daily up to a maximum of 600 mg/day) plus streptomycin (15 mg/kg daily). An alternative regimen is rifampicin plus clarithromycin (7.5 mg/kg twice daily up to a maximum of 1000 mg daily) although due to drug interactions with antiretroviral drugs this regimen should be used with caution. ART should be initiated in all BU-HIV co-infected patients with symptomatic HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 or 4) regardless of CD4 cell count and in asymptomatic individuals with CD4 count ≤500 cells/mm(3) . If CD4 count is not available, BU-HIV co-infected individuals with category 2 or 3 BU disease should be offered ART. For eligible individuals, ART should be commenced as soon as possible within 8 weeks after commencing BU treatment, and as a priority in those with advanced HIV disease (CD4 ≤ 350 cells/mm(3) or WHO stage 3 or 4 disease). All co-infected patients should be actively screened for tuberculosis before commencing BU treatment and before starting ART. Programmes should implement a monitoring and reporting

  5. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

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    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  6. Assessment of HTLV-I proviral load, HIV viral load and CD4 T cell count in infected subj