WorldWideScience

Sample records for group higher levels

  1. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, J. I. Burgos; Feliu, Elisenda

    2012-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov co...

  2. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, J I Burgos

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov context, of the higher algebraic Chow groups defined by Bloch. The degree zero group agrees with the arithmetic Chow groups of Burgos. Our new construction is shown to be a contravariant functor and is endowed with a product structure, which is commutative and associative.

  3. Higher-level Innovization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandaru, Sunith; Tutum, Cem Celal; Deb, Kalyanmoy;

    2011-01-01

    we introduce the higher-level innovization task through an application of a manufacturing process simulation for the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process where commonalities among two different Pareto-optimal fronts are analyzed. Multiple design rules are simultaneously deciphered from each front...

  4. Higher Level Orderings on Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min WU; Guang Xing ZENG

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate higher level orderings on modules over commutative rings. On the basis of the theory of higher level orderings on fields and commutative rings, some results involving existence of higher level orderings are generalized to the category of modules over commutative rings. Moreover, a strict intersection theorem for higher level orderings on modules is established.

  5. The relationship between career mobility and occupational expertise : a retrospective study among higher-level Dutch professionals in three age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Beatrice

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between two career-related variables and occupational expertise of higher-level employees from large working organisations in three different age groups. The factors in question are: total number of jobs that have been performed; and the average period

  6. “I Want to be There When He Graduates:” Foster Parents Show Higher Levels of Commitment than Group Care Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Albert; Roben, Caroline K.P.; Maier, Collin; Fabian, Kim; Shauffer, Carole; Dozier, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Group care is a frequent placement for adolescents placed in out of home care when their birth parents’ care is deemed unsafe. In the present study, we assessed whether foster parents show greater commitment to children than group care providers. Given that group care represents a number of living arrangements, we considered both shift care (where staff work shifts and do not live with the children) and cottage care (where staff live for extended periods of time with the children in a group living context). Commitment was assessed using the This Is My Child Interview (adapted for adolescents). Thirty-one foster parents, 18 shift workers, and 28 cottage care providers were interviewed. As predicted, foster parents showed higher levels of commitment than both shift care workers and cottage care providers, and the associations held when children’s externalizing behaviors and the number of children the caregivers had cared for were controlled. The results suggest that foster care promotes greater commitment among caregivers than other out of home placements, and add to other findings that favor foster care as the out of home placement of choice for adolescents. PMID:25937687

  7. Couplerlib: a metadata-driven library for the integration of multiple models of higher and lower trophic level marine systems with inexact functional group matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecham, Jonathan; Bruggeman, Jorn; Aldridge, John; Mackinson, Steven

    2016-03-01

    End-to-end modelling is a rapidly developing strategy for modelling in marine systems science and management. However, problems remain in the area of data matching and sub-model compatibility. A mechanism and novel interfacing system (Couplerlib) is presented whereby a physical-biogeochemical model (General Ocean Turbulence Model-European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model, GOTM-ERSEM) that predicts dynamics of the lower trophic level (LTL) organisms in marine ecosystems is coupled to a dynamic ecosystem model (Ecosim), which predicts food-web interactions among higher trophic level (HTL) organisms. Coupling is achieved by means of a bespoke interface, which handles the system incompatibilities between the models and a more generic Couplerlib library, which uses metadata descriptions in extensible mark-up language (XML) to marshal data between groups, paying attention to functional group mappings and compatibility of units between models. In addition, within Couplerlib, models can be coupled across networks by means of socket mechanisms. As a demonstration of this approach, a food-web model (Ecopath with Ecosim, EwE) and a physical-biogeochemical model (GOTM-ERSEM) representing the North Sea ecosystem were joined with Couplerlib. The output from GOTM-ERSEM varies between years, depending on oceanographic and meteorological conditions. Although inter-annual variability was clearly present, there was always the tendency for an annual cycle consisting of a peak of diatoms in spring, followed by (less nutritious) flagellates and dinoflagellates through the summer, resulting in an early summer peak in the mesozooplankton biomass. Pelagic productivity, predicted by the LTL model, was highly seasonal with little winter food for the higher trophic levels. The Ecosim model was originally based on the assumption of constant annual inputs of energy and, consequently, when coupled, pelagic species suffered population losses over the winter months. By contrast, benthic populations

  8. Increased plasma levels of the high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) are associated with a higher score of gastrointestinal dysfunction in individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinská, K; Bucová, M; Ďurmanová, V; Lakatošová, S; Jánošíková, D; Bakoš, J; Hlavatá, A; Ostatníková, D

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a disorder of neural development characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction, restricted interests and repetitive behavior. The etiology of autism is poorly understood, the evidence indicates that inflammation may play a key role. In autism a high prevalence of gastrointestinal disturbances is reported, that are linked to a low-grade chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is an intranuclear protein that can be passively released from necrotic cells or actively secreted under inflammatory conditions as alarmin or late proinflammatory cytokine. The objective of this study was to measure plasma levels of HMGB1 in individuals with autism and to analyze their association with gastrointestinal symptoms. The study involved 31 subjects with low-functioning autistic disorder aged 2-22 years and 16 healthy controls. Plasma HMGB1 levels were significantly higher in individuals with autism than in controls (13.8+/-11.7 ng/ml vs. 7.90+/-4.0 ng/ml, pautism and its possible association with GI symptoms.

  9. Higher Gauge Theory with String 2-Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Demessie, Getachew Alemu

    2016-01-01

    We give a complete and explicit description of the kinematical data of higher gauge theory on principal 2-bundles with the string 2-group model of Schommer-Pries as structure 2-group. We start with a self-contained review of the weak 2-category Bibun of Lie groupoids, bibundles and bibundle morphisms. We then construct categories internal to Bibun, which allow us to define principal 2-bundles with 2-groups internal to Bibun as structure 2-groups. Using these, we Lie-differentiate the 2-group model of the string group and we obtain the well-known string Lie 2-algebra. Generalizing the differentiation process, we find Maurer-Cartan forms leading us to higher non-abelian Deligne cohomology, encoding the kinematical data of higher gauge theory together with their (finite) gauge symmetries. We end by discussing an example of non-abelian self-dual strings in this setting.

  10. Discrete coherent states for higher Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, L. D.; Balazs, P.; de Gosson, M.; Mouayn, Z.

    2015-12-01

    We consider the quantum dynamics of a charged particle evolving under the action of a constant homogeneous magnetic field, with emphasis on the discrete subgroups of the Heisenberg group (in the Euclidean case) and of the SL(2 , R) group (in the Hyperbolic case). We investigate completeness properties of discrete coherent states associated with higher order Euclidean and hyperbolic Landau levels, partially extending classic results of Perelomov and of Bargmann, Butera, Girardello and Klauder. In the Euclidean case, our results follow from identifying the completeness problem with known results from the theory of Gabor frames. The results for the hyperbolic setting follow by using a combination of methods from coherent states, time-scale analysis and the theory of Fuchsian groups and their associated automorphic forms.

  11. Edaphic and arboricolous oribatid mites (Acari; Oribatida in tropical environments: changes in the distribution of higher level taxonomic groups in the communities of species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Franklin

    Full Text Available We analysed the community of oribatid mites in 25 environments of northern Brazil and one in a rain forest in Peru, encompassing fauna sampled on natural and artificial (nylon-mesh bags substrata, from primary and secondary forests, caatinga, savannahs, flooded forests, bark and epiphytes of trees, and polyculture. A hundred and forty six species are definitively identified from a total of 444 taxa. To determine changes in the community, we took as a basis of comparison the species dominance of Lower Oribatida vs. Oppioidea and Lower Oribatida vs. Poronota. Even considering the different periods in which the inventories were realized and the different sampling methodology compared, the partition of the species of Oribatid mite in larger groups shows tendencies indicating partition of species dominance among the environments studied, showing that they differed in their suitability as habitats for the Oribatid mite community, mainly in respect to the Lower Oribatida, Oppioidea and Poronota composition. These tendencies should be explored in more detail as more becomes known about the species composition in each environment.

  12. Higher level string resonances in four dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wanzhe, E-mail: VicFengHunt@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Taylor, Tomasz R. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2012-03-11

    We study higher level Regge resonances of open superstrings, focusing on the universal part of the Neveu-Schwarz sector common to all D-brane realizations of the standard model. For Regge states with masses far above the fundamental string scale, we discuss the spin-dependence of their decay rates into massless gauge bosons. Extending our previous work on lowest level string excitations, we study the second mass level at which spins range from 0 to 3. We construct the respective vertex operators and compute the amplitudes involving one massive particle and two or three gauge bosons. To illustrate the use of Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relations in superstring theory, we build the four-gluon amplitude from on-shell amplitudes involving string resonances and gauge bosons.

  13. Higher level string resonances in four dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Wan-Zhe; Taylor, Tomasz R.

    2012-03-01

    We study higher level Regge resonances of open superstrings, focusing on the universal part of the Neveu-Schwarz sector common to all D-brane realizations of the standard model. For Regge states with masses far above the fundamental string scale, we discuss the spin-dependence of their decay rates into massless gauge bosons. Extending our previous work on lowest level string excitations, we study the second mass level at which spins range from 0 to 3. We construct the respective vertex operators and compute the amplitudes involving one massive particle and two or three gauge bosons. To illustrate the use of Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten (BCFW) recursion relations in superstring theory, we build the four-gluon amplitude from on-shell amplitudes involving string resonances and gauge bosons.

  14. Mission Groups and the New Politics of British Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakou, Ourania; Tapper, Ted

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and impact of the mission groups in British higher education. The central argument is that given the development of a mass and diversified model of higher education it was inevitable that the higher education institutions would form pressure groups, while increased marketisation and growing inter-institutional…

  15. Good for the group? Explaining apparent group-level selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallegange, I.M.; Egas, M.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that group selection can explain adaptive trait evolution is still controversial. Recent empirical work proposes evidence for group-level adaptation in a social spider, but the findings can also be explained from an individual-level perspective. The challenge remains to identify situations

  16. Is Distributed Cognition Group Level Cognition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Kirk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows that recent arguments from group problem solving and task performance to emergent group level cognition that rest on the social parity and related principles are invalid or question begging. The paper shows that standard attributions of problem solving or task performance to groups require only multiple agents of the outcome, not a group agent over and above its members, whether or not any individual member of the group could have accomplished the task independently.

  17. PCOS women show significantly higher homocysteine level, independent to glucose and E2 level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Zahra; Sadrkhanlou, Rajab-Ali; Nejati, Vahid; Tizro, Gholamreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is reasonable to think that some biochemical characteristics of follicular fluid (FF) surrounding the oocyte may play a critical role in determining the quality of oocyte and the subsequent potential needed to achieve fertilization and embryo development. Objective: This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of FF homocysteine (Hcy) in IVF candidate polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women and any relationships with FF glucose and estradiol (E2) levels. Materials and Methods: In this case control study which was performed in Dr. Tizro Day Care and IVF Center 70 infertile patients were enrolled in two groups: comprising 35 PCOS and 35 non PCOS women. Long protocol was performed for all patients. FF Hcy, glucose and E2 levels were analyzed at the time of oocyte retrieval. Results: It was observed that FF Hcy level was significantly higher in PCOS patients compared with non PCOSs (p<0.01). Observations demonstrated that in PCOS group, the Hcy level increased independent to E2, glucose levels, BMI and age, while the PCOS group showed significantly higher BMI compared with non-PCOS group (p=0.03). However, no significant differences were revealed between groups for FF glucose and E2 levels. Conclusion: Present data showed that although FF glucose and E2 levels were constant in PCOS and non PCOS patients, but the FF Hcy levels in PCOS were significantly increased (p=0.01). PMID:27679823

  18. Summation of Higher Order Effects using the Renormalization Group Equation

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, V; Sherry, T N

    2004-01-01

    The renormalization group (RG) is known to provide information about radiative corrections beyond the order in perturbation theory to which one has calculated explicitly. We first demonstrate the effect of the renormalization scheme used on these higher order effects determined by the RG. Particular attention is payed to the relationship between bare and renormalized quantities. Application of the method of characteristics to the RG equation to determine higher order effects is discussed, and is used to examine the free energy in thermal field theory, the relationship between the bare and renormalized coupling and the effective potential in massless scalar electrodynamics.

  19. Scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrich, Jesper Løve; Nielsen, Søren Føns Vind; Riis, Nicolai Andre Brogaard

    2017-01-01

    Many data-driven approaches exist to extract neural representations of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, but most of them lack a proper probabilistic formulation. We propose a scalable group level probabilistic sparse factor analysis (psFA) allowing spatially sparse maps, component...... pruning using automatic relevance determination (ARD) and subject specific heteroscedastic spatial noise modeling. For task-based and resting state fMRI, we show that the sparsity constraint gives rise to components similar to those obtained by group independent component analysis. The noise modeling...... shows that noise is reduced in areas typically associated with activation by the experimental design. The psFA model identifies sparse components and the probabilistic setting provides a natural way to handle parameter uncertainties. The variational Bayesian framework easily extends to more complex...

  20. Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N = 986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3 %) and sexual aggression (12.6 %) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high-risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs.

  1. Holographic Renormalization Group Structure in Higher-Derivative Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuma, M; Fukuma, Masafumi; Matsuura, So

    2002-01-01

    Classical higher-derivative gravity is investigated in the context of the holographic renormalization group (RG). We parametrize the Euclidean time such that one step of time evolution in (d+1)-dimensional bulk gravity can be directly interpreted as that of block spin transformation of the d-dimensional boundary field theory. This parametrization simplifies the analysis of the holographic RG structure in gravity systems, and conformal fixed points are always described by AdS geometry. We find that higher-derivative gravity generically induces extra degrees of freedom which acquire huge mass around stable fixed points and thus are coupled to highly irrelevant operators at the boundary. In the particular case of pure R^2-gravity, we show that some region of the coefficients of curvature-squared terms allows us to have two fixed points (one is multicritical) which are connected by a kink solution. We further extend our analysis to Minkowskian time to investigate a model of expanding universe described by the act...

  2. Change of direction ability test differentiates higher level and lower level soccer referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Arcos A; Grande, I; Casajús, JA

    2016-01-01

    This report examines the agility and level of acceleration capacity of Spanish soccer referees and investigates the possible differences between field referees of different categories. The speed test consisted of 3 maximum acceleration stretches of 15 metres. The change of direction ability (CODA) test used in this study was a modification of the Modified Agility Test (MAT). The study included a sample of 41 Spanish soccer field referees from the Navarre Committee of Soccer Referees divided into two groups: i) the higher level group (G1, n = 20): 2ndA, 2ndB and 3rd division referees from the Spanish National Soccer League (28.43 ± 1.39 years); and ii) the lower level group (G2, n = 21): Navarre Provincial League soccer referees (29.54 ± 1.87 years). Significant differences were found with respect to the CODA between G1 (5.72 ± 0.13 s) and G2 (6.06 ± 0.30 s), while no differences were encountered between groups in acceleration ability. No significant correlations were obtained in G1 between agility and the capacity to accelerate. Significant correlations were found between sprint and agility times in the G2 and in the total group. The results of this study showed that agility can be used as a discriminating factor for differentiating between national and regional field referees; however, no observable differences were found over the 5 and 15 m sprint tests. PMID:27274111

  3. Do Higher Levels of 4-H Leadership Affect Emotional Intelligence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalico Karr Leech

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The ex post facto, exploratory study sought to determine whether higher levels of 4-H leadership had an effect on level of emotional intelligence. Using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i, the Texas 4-H Council (n = 32 answered questions related to five domains of emotional intelligence. The results for the five domains are as follows: “General Mood” = 104, “Intrapersonal” = 101, “Interpersonal” = 100, “Stress Management” = 100, “Adaptability” = 94 (Scale: effective emotional functioning = 100. The overall EQ-I score was in the average range indicating that individuals in the group are functioning and healthy. Extension professionals should be aware of the lower scores related to “Adaptability” and “Stress Management.” Some things Extension professionals should consider teaching youth include: ensuring youth goals are attainable, keeping youth focused on the issue at hand, establishing concrete protocols with youth, and teaching youth compassion for one another.

  4. Co-Mentoring Support Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Whatley, April; Kealy, William A.

    This paper presents a model for a co-mentoring support group among graduate students and faculty, using as a case study the development of a faculty-student support group in a college of education at a university. This support group began in 1995 and consisted of 11 participants who met formally for one year and have continued to meet informally…

  5. Exploring Group Cohesion in a Higher Education Field Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcarne, Brian Keith

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding into the experience of group cohesion for university students participating in an academic field experience. A mixed methods approach was used following a two-phase, sequential research design to help provide a more complete explanation of how group cohesion was impacted by the field experience.…

  6. Compensatory Policies Attending Equality and Inequality in Mexico Educational Practice among Vulnerable Groups in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, René Pedroza; Monroy, Guadalupe Villalobos; Fabela, Ana María Reyes

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an estimate of the prevalence of social inequality in accessing higher education among vulnerable groups in Mexico. Estimates were determined from statistical data provided by governmental agencies on the level of poverty among the Mexican population. In Mexico, the conditions of poverty and vulnerability while trying to access…

  7. Higher S-dualities and Shephard-Todd groups

    CERN Document Server

    Cecotti, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Seiberg and Witten have shown that in N=2 SQCD with $N_f=2N_c=4$ the S-duality group PSL(2,Z) acts on the flavor charges, which are weights of Spin(8), by triality. There are other N=2 SCFTs in which SU(2) SYM is coupled to strongly-interacting non-Lagrangian matter: their matter charges are weights of $E_6$, $E_7$ and $E_8$ instead of Spin(8). The S-duality group PSL(2,Z) acts on these weights: what replaces Spin(8) triality for the $E_6,E_7,E_8$ root lattices? In this paper we answer the question. The action on the matter charges of (a finite central extension of) PSL(2,Z) factorizes trough the action of the exceptional Shephard--Todd groups $G_4$ and $G_8$ which should be seen as complex analogs of the usual triality group $\\mathfrak{S}_3\\simeq \\mathrm{Weyl}(A_2)$. Our analysis is based on the identification of S-duality for SU(2) gauge SCFTs with the group of automorphisms of the cluster category of weighted projective lines of tubular type.

  8. The Role of State Higher Education Governance Structures in State-Level Higher Education Lobbying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkum, Kurt Richard

    2009-01-01

    Lobbying and lobbyists are integral components of federal and state public policymaking for higher education at the federal and state levels. While the actions and goals of lobbyists appear to be straightforward, the lobbying tactics selected by lobbyists vary for different situations and in different contexts (Browne, 1985; Cook, 1998; Gladieux &…

  9. Yahtzee: An Anonymized Group Level Matching Procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Jason J; Fariss, Christopher J; Settle, Jaime E; Kramer, Adam; Marlow, Cameron; Fowler, James H

    2011-01-01

    Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources in order to conduct their research. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects evermore important. However, strict privacy procedures can make joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors difficult. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as expected theoretically when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  10. Yahtzee: an anonymized group level matching procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J Jones

    Full Text Available Researchers often face the problem of needing to protect the privacy of subjects while also needing to integrate data that contains personal information from diverse data sources. The advent of computational social science and the enormous amount of data about people that is being collected makes protecting the privacy of research subjects ever more important. However, strict privacy procedures can hinder the process of joining diverse sources of data that contain information about specific individual behaviors. In this paper we present a procedure to keep information about specific individuals from being "leaked" or shared in either direction between two sources of data without need of a trusted third party. To achieve this goal, we randomly assign individuals to anonymous groups before combining the anonymized information between the two sources of data. We refer to this method as the Yahtzee procedure, and show that it performs as predicted by theoretical analysis when we apply it to data from Facebook and public voter records.

  11. Higher genus mapping class group invariants from factorizable Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jurgen; Stigner, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Lyubashenko's construction associates representations of mapping class groups Map_{g,n} of Riemann surfaces of any genus g with any number n of holes to a factorizable ribbon category. We consider this construction as applied to the category of bimodules over a finite-dimensional factorizable ribbon Hopf algebra H. For any such Hopf algebra we find an invariant of Map_{g,n} for every g and n. More generally, we obtain such invariants for any pair (H,omega), where omega is a ribbon automorphism of H. Our results are motivated by the quest to understand correlation functions of bulk fields in two-dimensional conformal field theories with chiral algebras that are not necessarily semisimple, so-called logarithmic conformal field theories.

  12. An interval logic for higher-level temporal reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R. L.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Vogt, F. H.; Plaisted, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prior work explored temporal logics, based on classical modal logics, as a framework for specifying and reasoning about concurrent programs, distributed systems, and communications protocols, and reported on efforts using temporal reasoning primitives to express very high level abstract requirements that a program or system is to satisfy. Based on experience with those primitives, this report describes an Interval Logic that is more suitable for expressing such higher level temporal properties. The report provides a formal semantics for the Interval Logic, and several examples of its use. A description of decision procedures for the logic is also included.

  13. Designing multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Whei Ming; Osisek, Paul J; Montgomery, Cynthia; Pellar, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    In the midst of a nursing faculty shortage, many academic institutions hire clinicians who are not formally prepared for an academic role. These novice faculty face an immediate need to develop teaching skills. One area in particular is test construction. To address this need, the authors describe how faculty from one course designed multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels and simultaneously achieved congruence with critical-thinking learning objectives defined by the course.

  14. Group-Level Selection Increases Cooperation in the Public Goods Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Catherine C; Fatas, Enrique; Godoy, Sara; Wilson, Rick K

    2016-01-01

    When groups compete for resources, some groups will be more successful than others, forcing out less successful groups. Group-level selection is the most extreme form of group competition, where the weaker group ceases to exist, becoming extinct. We implement group-level selection in a controlled laboratory experiment in order to study its impact on human cooperation. The experiment uses variations on the standard linear public goods game. Group-level selection operates through competition for survival: the least successful, lowest-earning groups become extinct, in the sense that they no longer are able to play the game. Additional control treatments include group comparison without extinction, and extinction of the least successful individuals across groups. We find that group-level extinction produces very high contributions to the provision of the public good, while group comparison alone or individual extinction fail to cause higher contributions. Our results provide stark evidence that group-level selection enhances within-group cooperation.

  15. Measuring higher cognitive levels by multiple choice questions: a myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, J J; Dorval, J; Levasseur, L

    1987-03-01

    Available evidence is inconclusive as to the ability of multiple choice items to measure different taxonomic levels of the cognitive domain. The present study analysed the tests of the Examen de Synthèse for the years 1982, 1983 and 1984. Items used in the study were those for which a consensus was reached between three judges and committees for a given taxonomic level. The initial part of the study showed that judges do not classify items at random but according to a mental representation which is individual, personal and relatively stable. In examining results obtained by students, the study failed to show any significant difference in item difficulty or discrimination for items classified as measuring memorization, interpretation of data and problem-solving. Correlations between results (scores and ranks) obtained for items involving memorization and those obtained for items involving higher cognitive levels fail to show that different traits are measured. If further studies corroborate these results, then future efforts should be directed at developing other instruments to measure higher cognitive levels.

  16. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A higher-level MRP supertree of placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bininda-Emonds Olaf RP

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The higher-level phylogeny of placental mammals has long been a phylogenetic Gordian knot, with disagreement about both the precise contents of, and relationships between, the extant orders. A recent MRP supertree that favoured 'outdated' hypotheses (notably, monophyly of both Artiodactyla and Lipotyphla has been heavily criticised for including low-quality and redundant data. We apply a stringent data selection protocol designed to minimise these problems to a much-expanded data set of morphological, molecular and combined source trees, to produce a supertree that includes every family of extant placental mammals. Results The supertree is well-resolved and supports both polyphyly of Lipotyphla and paraphyly of Artiodactyla with respect to Cetacea. The existence of four 'superorders' – Afrotheria, Xenarthra, Laurasiatheria and Euarchontoglires – is also supported. The topology is highly congruent with recent (molecular phylogenetic analyses of placental mammals, but is considerably more comprehensive, being the first phylogeny to include all 113 extant families without making a priori assumptions of suprafamilial monophyly. Subsidiary analyses reveal that the data selection protocol played a key role in the major changes relative to a previously published higher-level supertree of placentals. Conclusion The supertree should provide a useful framework for hypothesis testing in phylogenetic comparative biology, and supports the idea that biogeography has played a crucial role in the evolution of placental mammals. Our results demonstrate the importance of minimising poor and redundant data when constructing supertrees.

  18. Cognition = life: Implications for higher-level cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J

    1995-12-01

    Any global consideration of the theme 'Evolution and Cognition' requires a clear definition of what we mean by the term 'cognition'. In contemporary cognitive science, there are two distinct paradigms with contrasting definitions of cognition. The computational theory of mind is based on the syntaxical manipulation of symbolic representations; this paradigm is objectivist because the postulate of a unique independent reality is necessary as a referential basis for semantic grounding of the symbols. The alternative 'constructivist' paradigm is based on the biological metaphor 'cognition = life' and programmatically follows the evolution of cognition from bacteria to civilized humans; it is non-objectivist. There is a definite tendency to consider that the computational theory is appropriate for 'high-level' human cognition, whereas the constructivist approach is appropriate for 'low-level' cognition. This article argues against such a division of labour, since the issue of objectivism is a watershed which continues to demarcate the computational and constructivist paradigms in their respective approaches to higher-level cognition.

  19. Does Group-Level Commitment Predict Employee Well-Being?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Christensen, Karl Bang; Nielsen, Karina

    2015-01-01

    -level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances (T2). The association between group-level AOC (T1) and psychological well-being (T2) was fully mediated by individual-level AOC (T1), and the associations between group-level AOC (T1) and self-reported sickness absence and sleep......OBJECTIVE: To investigate the links between group-level affective organizational commitment (AOC) and individual-level psychological well-being, self-reported sickness absence, and sleep disturbances. METHODS: A total of 5085 care workers from 301 workgroups in the Danish eldercare services...

  20. Higher-Level Hardware Synthesis of the KASUMI Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issam W. Damaj

    2007-01-01

    Programmable Logic Devices (PLDs) continue to grow in size and currently contain several millions of gates.At the same time, research effort is going into higher-level hardware synthesis methodologies for reconfigurable computing that can exploit PLD technology.In this paper, we explore the effectiveness and extend one such formal methodology in the design of massively parallel algorithms.We take a step-wise refinement approach to the development of correct reconfigurable hardware circuits from formal specifications.A functional programming notation is used for specifying algorithms and for reasoning about them.The specifications are realised through the use of a combination of function decomposition strategies, data refinement techniques, and off-the-shelf refinements based upon higher-order functions.The off-the-shelf refinements are inspired by the operators of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP) and map easily to programs in Handel-C (a hardware description language).The Handel-C descriptions are directly compiled into reconfigurable hardware.The practical realisation of this methodology is evidenced by a case studying the third generation mobile communication security algorithms.The investigated algorithm is the KASUMI block cipher.In this paper, we obtain several hardware implementations with different performance characteristics by applying different refinements to the algorithm.The developed designs are compiled and tested under Celoxica's RC-1000 reconfigurable computer with its 2 million gates Virtex-E FPGA.Performance analysis and evaluation of these implementations are included.

  1. Neuropsychological Characteristics and Their Association with Higher-Level Functional Capacity in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Miura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Little is known about the relationship between cognitive functions and higher-level functional capacity (e.g. intellectual activity, social role, and social participation in Parkinson's disease (PD. The purpose of this study was to clarify neuropsychological characteristics and their association with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Methods: Participants were 31 PD patients and 23 demographically matched healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests were conducted. One year later, a questionnaire survey evaluated higher-level functional capacity in daily living. Results: The PD group scored significantly lower than the control group in all cognitive domains, particularly executive function and processing. Executive function, processing speed, language, and memory were significantly correlated with higher-level functional capacity in PD patients. Stepwise regression showed that only executive function (Trail Making Test-B, together with disease severity (HY stage, predicted the higher-level functional capacity. Conclusion: Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between executive function and higher-level functional capacity in patients with PD.

  2. Conflict Management in Student Groups - a Teacher’s Perspective in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Borg

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Students working in groups is a commonly used method of instruction in higher education, popularized by the introduction of problem based learning. As a result, management of small groups of people has become an important skill for teachers. The objective of our study is to investigate why conflicts arise in student groups at the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University and how teachers manage them. We have conducted an exploratory interdepartmental interview study on teachers' views on this matter, interviewing ten university teachers with different levels of seniority. Our results show that conflicts frequently arise in group work, most commonly caused by different levels of ambition among students. We also found that teachers prefer to work proactively against conflicts and stress the student’s responsibility. Finally, we show that teachers at our faculty tend to avoid the more drastic conflict resolution strategies suggested by previous research. The outcome of our study could be used as input to future guidelines on conflict management in student groups.

  3. Multiple Group Analysis in Multilevel Structural Equation Model Across Level 1 Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ehri

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces and evaluates a procedure for conducting multiple group analysis in multilevel structural equation model across Level 1 groups (MG1-MSEM; Ryu, 2014). When group membership is at Level 1, multiple group analysis raises two issues that cannot be solved by a simple extension of the standard multiple group analysis in single-level structural equation model. First, the Level 2 data are not independent between Level 1 groups. Second, the standard procedure fails to take into account the dependency between members of different Level 1 groups within the same cluster. The MG1-MSEM approach provides solutions to these problems. In MG1-MSEM, the Level 1 mean structure is necessary to represent the differences between Level 1 groups within clusters. The Level 2 model is the same regardless of Level 1 group membership. A simulation study examined the performance of MUML (Muthén's maximum likelihood) estimation in MG1-MSEM. The MG1-MSEM approach is illustrated for both a multilevel path model and a multilevel factor model using empirical data sets.

  4. Identifying and Fostering Higher Levels of Geometric Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škrbec, Maja; Cadež, Tatjana Hodnik

    2015-01-01

    Pierre M. Van Hiele created five levels of geometric thinking. We decided to identify the level of geometric thinking in the students in Slovenia, aged 9 to 11 years. The majority of students (60.7%) are at the transition between the zero (visual) level and the first (descriptive) level of geometric thinking. Nearly a third (31.7%) of students is…

  5. Association Between Dental Student-Developed Exam Questions and Learning at Higher Cognitive Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cabezas, Carlos; Anderson, Olivia S; Wright, Mary C; Fontana, Margherita

    2015-11-01

    New dental accreditation standards emphasize that graduates must be competent in the use of critical thinking (a high cognitive-level skill). Despite this new standard, most written assessments in dental school courses are still based on low cognitive-level questions. The aim of this study was to determine if an exercise that allows students to collaboratively write exam questions would help cultivate higher cognitive levels of learning. To evaluate this exercise at one U.S. dental school, the cognitive level (according to Bloom's taxonomy) of multiple-choice exam questions and students' scores across two cohorts in a cariology course were compared. This evaluation took place using a control group in which questions were instructor-generated and an intervention group in which students worked in groups to develop questions. All students in one first-year class participated in the intervention group (n=104); all students in the first-year class two years earlier served as the control group (n=106). Among students in the intervention group, the response rate to a post-intervention survey measuring students' attitudes about the experience was 70% (N=73). The results showed that the students generating their own assessments developed higher cognitive-level exam questions than the instructor-generated assessments. The intervention group (with student-generated assessments) also performed as well or better on tests compared to the control group (with instructor-generated assessments). In the intervention group survey, the vast majority of students agreed that the exercise was helpful for their overall learning experience, but working in teams was said to be the least valuable component of the activity for their learning. This study suggests that student-driven, collaborative assessments can be an important tool for building critical thinking skills in dental classrooms and that it may be worthwhile to expand this type of exercise into other courses.

  6. The cultural evolution of emergent group-level traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    Many of the most important properties of human groups - including properties that may give one group an evolutionary advantage over another - are properly defined only at the level of group organization. Yet at present, most work on the evolution of culture has focused solely on the transmission of individual-level traits. I propose a conceptual extension of the theory of cultural evolution, particularly related to the evolutionary competition between cultural groups. The key concept in this extension is the emergent group-level trait. This type of trait is characterized by the structured organization of differentiated individuals and constitutes a unit of selection that is qualitatively different from selection on groups as defined by traditional multilevel selection (MLS) theory. As a corollary, I argue that the traditional focus on cooperation as the defining feature of human societies has missed an essential feature of cooperative groups. Traditional models of cooperation assume that interacting with one cooperator is equivalent to interacting with any other. However, human groups involve differential roles, meaning that receiving aid from one individual is often preferred to receiving aid from another. In this target article, I discuss the emergence and evolution of group-level traits and the implications for the theory of cultural evolution, including ramifications for the evolution of human cooperation, technology, and cultural institutions, and for the equivalency of multilevel selection and inclusive fitness approaches.

  7. A Coalition Approach to Higher-Level Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    STDF Model The Australian State Transition Data Fusion (STDF) Model ([8],[9],[10]) was developed as a unifying model across the JDL levels of fusion...11]). Figure 9: The JDL Model of Data Fusion The STDF Model is based on two premises. 1. At each level of fusion the world can be assessed in

  8. Charting the course for nurses' achievement of higher education levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol; Katigbak, Carina; Djukic, Maja; Fatehi, Farida

    2012-01-01

    To improve patient outcomes and meet the challenges of the U.S. health care system, the Institute of Medicine recommends higher educational attainment for the nursing workforce. Characteristics of registered nurses (RNs) who pursue additional education are poorly understood, and this information is critical to planning long-term strategies for U.S. nursing education. To identify factors predicting enrollment and completion of an additional degree among those with an associate or bachelor's as their pre-RN licensure degree, we performed logistic regression analysis on data from an ongoing nationally representative panel study following the career trajectories of newly licensed RNs. For associate degree RNs, predictors of obtaining a bachelor's degree are the following: being Black, living in a rural area, nonnursing work experience, higher positive affectivity, higher work motivation, working in the intensive care unit, and working the day shift. For bachelor's RNs, predictors of completing a master's degree are the following: being Black, nonnursing work experience, holding more than one job, working the day shift, working voluntary overtime, lower intent to stay at current employer, and higher work motivation. Mobilizing the nurse workforce toward higher education requires integrated efforts from policy makers, philanthropists, employers, and educators to mitigate the barriers to continuing education.

  9. Higher Level Learning: Universities and Employers Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot-Major, Lee

    2006-01-01

    This publication is a timely reminder of the innovative ways in which universities are providing skilled graduates for all sections of the economy. Working with employers is key to this; as the higher education (HE) sector begins to operate in a competitive market, employer-led provision will enable delivery of the skills that the labour market…

  10. Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Elizabeth Wolfe; Wheeler-Smith, Sara L; Kamdar, Dishan

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing body of research on employee voice—defined as the discretionary communication of ideas, suggestions, or opinions intended to improve organizational or unit functioning—the effects of shared or collective-level cognitions have received scant attention. There has also been relatively little research on voice within work groups. Our goal in this study was to address these important gaps by focusing on the effects of group-level beliefs about voice (i.e., group voice climate) on individual voice behavior within work groups. We conducted a cross-level investigation of voice behavior within 42 groups of engineers from a large chemical company. Consistent with our hypotheses, group voice climate was highly predictive of voice and explained variance beyond the effects of individual-level identification and satisfaction, and procedural justice climate. Also consistent with predictions, the effect of identification on voice was stronger in groups with favorable voice climates. These findings provide evidence that voice is shaped not just by individual attitudes and perceptions of the work context, as past research has shown, but also by group-level beliefs. The results also highlight the importance of broadening our conceptual models of voice to include shared cognitions and of conducting additional cross-level research on voice.

  11. Complimentary lower-level and higher-order systems underpin imitation learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Matthew; Bennett, Simon J; Elliott, Digby; Hayes, Spencer J

    2016-04-01

    We examined whether the temporal representation developed during motor training with reduced-frequency knowledge of results (KR; feedback available on every other trial) was transferred to an imitation learning task. To this end, four groups first practised a three-segment motor sequence task with different KR protocols. Two experimental groups received reduced-frequency KR, one group received high-frequency KR (feedback available on every trial), and one received no-KR. Compared to the no-KR group, the groups that received KR learned the temporal goal of the movement sequence, as evidenced by increased accuracy and consistency across training. Next, all groups learned a single-segment movement that had the same temporal goal as the motor sequence task but required the imitation of biological and nonbiological motion kinematics. Kinematic data showed that whilst all groups imitated biological motion kinematics, the two experimental reduced-frequency KR groups were on average ∼ 800 ms more accurate at imitating movement time than the high-frequency KR and no-KR groups. The interplay between learning biological motion kinematics and the transfer of temporal representation indicates imitation involves distinct, but complementary lower-level sensorimotor and higher-level cognitive processing systems. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of maltreatment and diagnosis across levels of care in group homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane Seifert, Heather T; Farmer, Elizabeth M Z; Wagner, H Ryan; Maultsby, Linda T; Burns, Barbara J

    2015-04-01

    Patterns of Axis I psychiatric diagnosis and maltreatment history were explored among youth in group homes, including match of clinical need to level or restrictiveness of care. Data on demographics, diagnoses, maltreatment, and group home level of care (Level I, II, or III homes, representing lower to higher intensity of supervision and treatment) were obtained from 523 youth who participated in a quasi-experimental study of group homes. Three quarters of youth had a diagnosis and two-thirds of youth had a maltreatment history. Youth in higher level homes had more diagnoses and higher rates of all disorders except adjustment disorders. Youth in Level I homes had a history of more maltreatment types, particularly high rates of neglect. Sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse were most common among youth in higher level homes. Regardless of diagnosis history, comparable proportions of youth had a maltreatment history, and similar patterns were found across levels of care. Together, findings indicate that group homes with varying degrees of restrictiveness serve youth with different psychiatric diagnosis and maltreatment histories. Youth triaged to higher level homes had more diagnoses, while youth placed in the least restrictive homes had a history of more maltreatment subtypes. Further, distinct patterns of diagnosis types and maltreatment subtypes were seen across homes. Implications include the importance of assessing unique clinical needs of youth to promote an appropriate match to level of care and treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The higher you climb: Dark side personality and job level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche-Astrup, Oluf; Jakobsen, Joan; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    provided data on 264 adults based on assessment reports. This paper explored linear and quadratic relationships between personality and de facto job level. More senior managers scored high on Cluster B/Moving Against Others scales of Bold, Colorful and Imaginative, and low on Cautious and Dutiful......The purpose of this study was to explore the idea that there are dark side personality differences in the profiles of people at different levels in organizations. This study replicates and extends existing leadership research by focusing on self-defeating behavioral tendencies. A Danish consultancy....... These Danish data are compared to data from Great Britain and New Zealand which show very similar findings. Practice should take into account that dark side personality traits associated with an assertive, sometimes hostile, interpersonal orientation, predict leadership level up to a point....

  14. The higher you climb: Dark side personality and job level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøtzsche-Astrup, Oluf; Jakobsen, Joan; Furnham, Adrian

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the idea that there are dark side personality differences in the profiles of people at different levels in organizations. This study replicates and extends existing leadership research by focusing on self-defeating behavioral tendencies. A Danish consultancy provided data on 264 adults based on assessment reports. This paper explored linear and quadratic relationships between personality and de facto job level. More senior managers scored high on Cluster B/Moving Against Others scales of Bold, Colorful and Imaginative, and low on Cautious and Dutiful. These Danish data are compared to data from Great Britain and New Zealand which show very similar findings. Practice should take into account that dark side personality traits associated with an assertive, sometimes hostile, interpersonal orientation, predict leadership level up to a point.

  15. Groups travel further: pelagic metamorphosis and polyp clustering allow higher dispersal potential in sun coral propagules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Damián; Navarrete, Sergio A.; Flores, Augusto A. V.

    2014-06-01

    We report that planulae produced by Tubastraea coccinea can metamorphose and aggregate in groups of up to eight polyps in the water column, without previous settlement on benthic substrate. We also evaluated the survival of propagules to test whether different levels of aggregation allowed for longer planktonic life and, therefore, higher dispersal potential. Our results show that pelagic polyps live longer than planulae, probably because they can feed and meet the presumably high-energy demands of swimming. Clusters of two or more individuals lived longer than solitary polyps. However, mortality did not differ between small (2-3 polyps) and large (4-8 polyps) clusters, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to cluster size. Most swimming clusters (80 %) remained alive after 6 months, suggesting that pelagic metamorphosis and cluster formation can be a key life-history feature increasing dispersal potential, population connectivity, and the colonization of new habitats in this invasive species.

  16. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibbett, D.S.; Binder, M.; Bischoff, J.F.; Blackwell, M.; Cannon, P.F.; Eriksson, O.E.; Huhndorf, S.; James, T.; Kirk, P.M.; Lücking, R.; Thorsten Lumbsch, H.; Lutzoni, F.; Brandon Matheny, P.; McLaughlin, D.J.; Powell, M.J.; Redhead, S.; Schoch, C.L.; Spatafora, J.W.; Stalpers, J.A.; Vilgalys, R.; Aime, M.C.; Aptroot, A.; Bauer, R.; Begerow, D.; Benny, G.L.; Castlebury, L.A.; Crous, P.W.; Dai, Y.C.; Gams, W.; Geiser, D.M.; Griffith, G.W.; Gueidan, C.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Hestmark, G.; Hosaka, K.; Humber, R.A.; Hyde, K.D.; Ironside, J.E.; Koljalg, U.; Kurtzman, C.P.; Larsson, K.H.; Lichtwardt, R.; Longcore, J.; Miadlikowska, J.; Miller, A.; Moncalvo, J.M.; Mozley-Standridge, S.; Oberwinkler, F.; Parmasto, E.; Reeb, V.; Rogers, J.D.; Roux, Le C.; Ryvarden, L.; Sampaio, J.P.; Schüssler, A.; Sugiyama, J.; Thorn, R.G.; Tibell, L.; Untereiner, W.A.; Walker, C.; Wang, Z.; Weir, A.; Weiss, M.; White, M.M.; Winka, K.; Yao, Y.J.; Zhang, N.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the kingdom Fungi is proposed, with reference to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, and with input from diverse members of the fungal taxonomic community. The classification includes 195 taxa, down to the level of order, of which 16 are described o

  17. Experiments of Two-level Training in Hungarian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korcsog, Andras; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An experiment designed to train engineering students to two levels of achievement in three-year and five-year programs within a single institution is reported. Organizational and curricular problems created by such integrated schemes are examined. (Author/LBH)

  18. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hibbett, David S; Binder, Manfred; Bischoff, Joseph F; Blackwell, Meredith; Cannon, Paul F; Eriksson, Ove E; Huhndorf, Sabine; James, Timothy; Kirk, Paul M; Lücking, Robert; Thorsten Lumbsch, H; Lutzoni, François; Matheny, P Brandon; McLaughlin, David J; Powell, Martha J; Redhead, Scott; Schoch, Conrad L; Spatafora, Joseph W; Stalpers, Joost A; Vilgalys, Rytas; Aime, M Catherine; Aptroot, André; Bauer, Robert; Begerow, Dominik; Benny, Gerald L; Castlebury, Lisa A; Crous, Pedro W; Dai, Yu-Cheng; Gams, Walter; Geiser, David M; Griffith, Gareth W; Gueidan, Cécile; Hawksworth, David L; Hestmark, Geir; Hosaka, Kentaro; Humber, Richard A; Hyde, Kevin D; Ironside, Joseph E; Kõljalg, Urmas; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Larsson, Karl-Henrik; Lichtwardt, Robert; Longcore, Joyce; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Miller, Andrew; Moncalvo, Jean-Marc; Mozley-Standridge, Sharon; Oberwinkler, Franz; Parmasto, Erast; Reeb, Valérie; Rogers, Jack D; Roux, Claude; Ryvarden, Leif; Sampaio, José Paulo; Schüssler, Arthur; Sugiyama, Junta; Thorn, R Greg; Tibell, Leif; Untereiner, Wendy A; Walker, Christopher; Wang, Zheng; Weir, Alex; Weiss, Michael; White, Merlin M; Winka, Katarina; Yao, Yi-Jian; Zhang, Ning

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive phylogenetic classification of the kingdom Fungi is proposed, with reference to recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, and with input from diverse members of the fungal taxonomic community. The classification includes 195 taxa, down to the level of order, of which 16 are described o

  19. Factors associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms among international university students in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Romeo B; Maria, Madelene Sta; Estanislao, Susana; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2013-11-01

    Over the years, the number of international university students has been increasing in the Philippines. Depression tends to be common among this demographic sector, because of the varying challenges and expectations associated with studying abroad. Depression can be prevented if its symptoms, particularly those at higher levels, are identified and addressed early and effectively. This survey examined the social and demographic factors that are significantly associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. One hundred twenty-six international university students were interviewed using the University Students Depression Inventory. Of the 13 factors analyzed, 3 were found with statistically significant associations with more intense levels of depressive symptoms. These factors were: level of satisfaction with one's financial condition, level of closeness with parents, and level of closeness with peers. In identifying international students with greater risk for depression, characteristics related to their financial condition and primary group relationships can be considered. There is a need to carry out more studies to confirm this initial evidence. The findings can help guide further discourse, research and program to benefit international students with higher levels of depressive symptoms.

  20. Interpretant Levels Presented by Higher Education Students about the Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzovo, Daniel Trevisan; Laburú, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the initial interpretant levels of the seasons of the year presented by students in a physics discipline of undergraduate course of a biological sciences degree at a state university of the south of Brazil. This study is qualitative, it analyzes textual oral representations and images about that astronomical phenomenon. It found that all students showed similar interpretant levels than those without any instruction, focusing their explanation of this concept in the variation of the distance between Earth and the Sun and indeterminate/confused representations. Another important result was the absence of a scientifically correct conception of the subject. The data from this study are in agreement with several studies on the weak training of science teachers in astronomy, and emphasizes the importance of both a re-structuration of the initial training of these future teachers, as well as the continuous teacher training of the working professional ones.

  1. Higher dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ On May 21 2008, Journal of Neuroscience published an online paper from the Institute of Neuroscience, the CAS Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, entitled "Increased dopamine level enhances male-male courtship in Drosophila." This work was done by Mr. LIU Tong, a doctoral candidate, and colleagues under the supervision of Dr. GUO Aike, and in collaboration with Dr. Jean-Francois Ferveur from France.

  2. A higher level classification of all living organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruggiero

    Full Text Available We present a consensus classification of life to embrace the more than 1.6 million species already provided by more than 3,000 taxonomists' expert opinions in a unified and coherent, hierarchically ranked system known as the Catalogue of Life (CoL. The intent of this collaborative effort is to provide a hierarchical classification serving not only the needs of the CoL's database providers but also the diverse public-domain user community, most of whom are familiar with the Linnaean conceptual system of ordering taxon relationships. This classification is neither phylogenetic nor evolutionary but instead represents a consensus view that accommodates taxonomic choices and practical compromises among diverse expert opinions, public usages, and conflicting evidence about the boundaries between taxa and the ranks of major taxa, including kingdoms. Certain key issues, some not fully resolved, are addressed in particular. Beyond its immediate use as a management tool for the CoL and ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System, it is immediately valuable as a reference for taxonomic and biodiversity research, as a tool for societal communication, and as a classificatory "backbone" for biodiversity databases, museum collections, libraries, and textbooks. Such a modern comprehensive hierarchy has not previously existed at this level of specificity.

  3. A higher level classification of all living organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Michael A; Gordon, Dennis P; Orrell, Thomas M; Bailly, Nicolas; Bourgoin, Thierry; Brusca, Richard C; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Guiry, Michael D; Kirk, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    We present a consensus classification of life to embrace the more than 1.6 million species already provided by more than 3,000 taxonomists' expert opinions in a unified and coherent, hierarchically ranked system known as the Catalogue of Life (CoL). The intent of this collaborative effort is to provide a hierarchical classification serving not only the needs of the CoL's database providers but also the diverse public-domain user community, most of whom are familiar with the Linnaean conceptual system of ordering taxon relationships. This classification is neither phylogenetic nor evolutionary but instead represents a consensus view that accommodates taxonomic choices and practical compromises among diverse expert opinions, public usages, and conflicting evidence about the boundaries between taxa and the ranks of major taxa, including kingdoms. Certain key issues, some not fully resolved, are addressed in particular. Beyond its immediate use as a management tool for the CoL and ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), it is immediately valuable as a reference for taxonomic and biodiversity research, as a tool for societal communication, and as a classificatory "backbone" for biodiversity databases, museum collections, libraries, and textbooks. Such a modern comprehensive hierarchy has not previously existed at this level of specificity.

  4. Theorising Dyslexic Student Discussion/Action Groups in UK Higher Education: Research in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jenny; Herrington, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This "research in practice" analyses the experience of operating discussion/action groups with dyslexic students in higher education in three British universities which reflects a shift from the practice of developing "support groups" to a more developmental, proactive stance. It does so in the current UK legislative context…

  5. Web Environments for Group-Based Project Work in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van Nico; Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine

    1997-01-01

    We discuss problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education and describe two courses in which course-specific World Wide Web (Web) environments have evolved over a series of course sequences and are used both as tool environments for group-pro

  6. The Complete Guide to Focus Group Marketing Research for Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topor, Robert S.

    This guide discusses the use of focus groups in marketing research for higher education. It describes the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and examines when it is appropriate to use focus group research, when it is not, and why. The guide describes a step-by-step approach in how to plan, formulate, moderate, and report…

  7. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  8. Learning Groups in MOOCs: Lessons for Online Learning in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Mayende

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available when there is interaction within online learning groups, meaningful learning is achieved. Motivating and sustaining effective student interactions requires planning, coordination and implementation of curriculum, pedagogy and technology. For our aim to understand online learning group processes to identify effective online learning group mechanisms, comparative analysis was used on a massive open online course (MOOC run in 2015 and 2016. Qualitative (interaction on the platform and quantitative (survey methods were used. The findings revealed several possible ways to improve online learning group processes. This paper concludes that course organization helped in increasing individual participation in the groups. Motivation by peers helped to increase sustainability of interaction in the learning groups. Applying these mechanisms in higher education can make online learning groups more effective.

  9. REDUCTION OF CLASSROOM NOISE LEVELS USING GROUP CONTINGENCIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, Brandon M; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Eubanks, Sean L.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated noise standards. Participants received real-time graphed feedback of noise levels and had the opportunity to earn monetary group reinforcement for maintaining a low number of noise v...

  10. Group-level component analyses of EEG: validation and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene eHuster

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-subject or group-level component analysis provides a data-driven approach to study properties of brain networks. Algorithms for group-level data decomposition of functional magnetic resonance imaging data have been brought forward more than a decade ago and have significantly matured since. Similar applications for electroencephalographic data are at a comparatively early stage of development though, and their sensitivity to topographic variability of the electroencephalogram or loose time-locking of neuronal responses has not yet been assessed. This study investigates the performance of independent component analysis (ICA and second order blind source identification (SOBI for data decomposition, and their combination with either temporal or spatial concatenation of data sets, for multi-subject analyses of electroencephalographic data. indent Analyses of simulated sources with different spatial, frequency, and time-locking profiles, revealed that temporal concatenation of data sets with either ICA or SOBI served well to reconstruct sources with both strict and loose time-locking, whereas performance decreased in the presence of topographical variability. The opposite pattern was found with a spatial concatenation of subject-specific data sets.This study proofs that procedures for group-level decomposition of electroencephalographic data can be considered valid and promising approaches to infer the latent structure of multi-subject data sets. Yet, specific implementations need further adaptations to optimally address sources of inter-subject and inter-trial variance commonly found in EEG recordings.

  11. Could Low Vitamin D Levels at Birth Mean Higher MS Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162317.html Could Low Vitamin D Levels at Birth Mean Higher MS Risk? ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Newborns with low levels of vitamin D may have higher odds of developing multiple ...

  12. Adding to the mix: Students use of Facebook groups and blackboard discussion forums in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a case study of the use of Facebook in learning and teaching in higher education. Facebook was used as a venue for online discussion to support the existing Learning Management System (in this case Blackboard in the unit Internet Collaboration and Organisation as part of the Internet Communications degree taught fully online through Open Universities Australia (OUA. Students’ posts to both Facebook and the Blackboard discussion forum were analysed for content, length, and when throughout the study period they were posted. This is significant as much of the previous work in this area has relied on students self-reporting, rather than direct observation of student behaviour. These results were then compared to earlier instances of the same unit that ran within the previous twelve months, one fully online with OUA only using the Blackboard discussion group, and a second taught at Curtin University with both blended learning for students at the University’s Bentley campus as well as fully online for external students, that utilised both Blackboard and Facebook. The results show that Facebook greatly increases the level of student activity in online discussions, both absolutely and in the level of sustained activity across the unit’s study period. Facebook groups also had a different pattern of content from Blackboard. In Blackboard discussion is more focused on the set unit learning content, in Facebook students were using the groups to discuss administration and assignments and also bring in additional material from outside the units set learning materials. Facebook posts, while more sustained over the semester, were shorter in length. This study found that the addition of a Facebook discussion forum does not noticeably impact on the use of Blackboard’s discussion forum, but rather adds a new dimension to the mix of online interaction. The paper concludes that there is value in using both of these forums for student

  13. Obese patients have higher circulating protein levels of dipeptidyl peptidase IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Teuffel, Pauline; Hofmann, Tobias; Buße, Petra; Kobelt, Peter; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F

    2014-11-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) is a protease with broad distribution involved in various homeostatic processes such as immune defense, psychoneuroendocrine functions and nutrition. While DPPIV protein levels were investigated in patients with hyporectic disorders, less is known under conditions of obesity. Therefore, we investigated DPPIV across a broad range of body mass index (BMI). Blood samples from hospitalized patients with normal weight (BMI 18.5-25 kg/m(2)), anorexia nervosa (BMI 50 kg/m(2), n = 15/group) were tested cross-sectionally and DPPIV concentration and total enzyme activity and the DPPIV targets, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) were measured. DPPIV protein expression was detected in human plasma indicated by a strong band at the expected size of 110 kDa and another major band at 50 kDa, likely representing a fragment comprised of two heavy chains. Obese patients had higher DPPIV protein levels compared to normal weight and anorexics (+50%, p0.05), while the concentration/activity ratio was higher in obese patients (p<0.05). Plasma PP levels were highest in anorexic patients (∼ 2-fold increase compared to other groups, p<0.05), whereas GLP-1 did not differ among groups (p<0.05). Taken together, circulating DPPIV protein levels depend on body weight with increased levels in obese resulting in an increased concentration/activity ratio. Since DPPIV deactivates food intake-inhibitory hormones like PP, an increased DPPIV concentration/activity ratio might contribute to reduced food intake-inhibitory signaling under conditions of obesity.

  14. Node Grouping in System-Level Fault Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dafang; XIE Gaogang; MIN Yinghua

    2001-01-01

    With the popularization of network applications and multiprocessor systems,dependability of systems has drawn considerable attention. This paper presents a new technique of node grouping for system-level fault diagnosis to simplify the complexity of large system diagnosis. The technique transforms a complicated system to a group network, where each group may consist of many nodes that are either fault-free or faulty. It is proven that the transformation leads to a unique group network to ease system diagnosis. Then it studies systematically one-step t-faults diagnosis problem based on node grouping by means of the concept of independent point sets and gives a simple sufficient and necessary condition. The paper presents a diagnosis procedure for t-diagnosable systems. Furthermore, an efficient probabilistic diagnosis algorithm for practical applications is proposed based on the belief that most of the nodes in a system are fault-free. The result of software simulation shows that the probabilistic diagnosis provides high probability of correct diagnosis and low diagnosis cost, and is suitable for systems of any kind of topology.

  15. Relationship of biomedical science content acquisition performance to students' level of PBL group interaction: are students learning during PBL group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romito, Laura M; Eckert, George J

    2011-05-01

    This study assessed biomedical science content acquisition from problem-based learning (PBL) and its relationship to students' level of group interaction. We hypothesized that learning in preparation for exams results primarily from individual study of post-case learning objectives and that outcomes would be unrelated to students' group involvement. During dental curricular years 1 and 2, student-generated biomedical learning issues (LIs) were identified from six randomly chosen PBL cases. Knowledge and application of case concepts were assessed with quizzes based on the identified LIs prior to dissemination of the learning objectives. Students and facilitators were surveyed on students' level of group involvement for the assessed LI topics. Year 1 students had significantly higher assessment scores (p=0.0001). For both student classes, means were significantly higher for the recall item (Q1) than for the application item (Q2). Q1 scores increased along with the student's reported role for Year 1 (p=0.04). However, there was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q1 for Year 2 (p=0.20). There was no relationship between the student's reported role and Q2 for Year 1 (p=0.09) or Year 2 (p=0.19). This suggests that students' level of group involvement on the biomedical learning issues did not significantly impact students' assessment performance.

  16. 48 CFR 246.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality requirements. 246.202-4 Section 246.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Requirements 246.202-4 Higher-level contract quality requirements. (1) Higher-level contract quality requirements are used in addition to a standard inspection requirement. (2) Higher-level contract quality...

  17. Higher transcription levels in ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes were associated with higher ascorbic acid accumulation in blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenghong; Wang, Lei; Gu, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Su, Hongyan; Cheng, Xianhao

    2015-12-01

    In our preliminary study, the ripe fruits of two highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars, cv 'Berkeley' and cv 'Bluecrop', were found to contain different levels of ascorbic acid. However, factors responsible for these differences are still unknown. In the present study, ascorbic acid content in fruits was compared with expression profiles of ascorbic acid biosynthetic and recycling genes between 'Bluecrop' and 'Berkeley' cultivars. The results indicated that the l-galactose pathway was the predominant route of ascorbic acid biosynthesis in blueberry fruits. Moreover, higher expression levels of the ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes GME, GGP, and GLDH, as well as the recycling genes MDHAR and DHAR, were associated with higher ascorbic acid content in 'Bluecrop' compared with 'Berkeley', which indicated that a higher efficiency ascorbic acid biosynthesis and regeneration was likely to be responsible for the higher ascorbic acid accumulation in 'Bluecrop'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...... heterozygous seems to be mediated by events in the early stages of the HIV infection.......The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...... lower HIV RNA levels (p = 0.005) and higher CD4 cell counts (p

  19. High mobility group B1 levels in sepsis and Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskici, Zeynep M; Açıkgöz, Şerefden; Pişkin, Nihal; Mungan, Görkem; Can, Murat; Güven, Berrak; Köktürk, Fürüzan

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines trigger coagulant and fibrinolytic systems in sepsis to result in Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) that is an important complication and leads to disseminated hemorrhages and multi-organ failure. High Mobility Group B1 DNA Binding (HMGB1) protein is a cytokine taking part in systemic inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to investigate HMGB1 levels in groups of septic patients with and without DIC.Twenty-one septic patients without DIC and 12 septic patients with DIC from the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) were included in the study. In addition, 20 patients admitted to the ICU without sepsis or DIC and 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Levels of HMGB1, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, protein C, protein S, anti-thrombin III (ATIII), platelet (thrombocyte) and leukocyte count were determined. Levels of fibrinogen, protein C, ATIII and platelet count were significantly lower and D-dimer was significantly higher in the group with sepsis plus DIC compared to the group with sepsis without DIC. Levels of HMGB1 were higher in the group with sepsis and DIC compared to the group with sepsis; however, the difference was not statistically significant and the levels of HGMB1 of both groups were significantly higher compared to ICU and healthy control groups. HMGB1 levels were not significantly different in survivor and non survivor patients. HMGB1 levels did not differ in lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) and urinary tract infection (UTI) in regard to the etiology of sepsis.

  20. The Neuromuscular Qualities of Higher- and Lower-Level Mixed-Martial-Arts Competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lachlan P; Beckman, Emma M; Kelly, Vincent G; Haff, G Gregory

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether the maximal strength, impulse, and power characteristics of competitive mixed-martial-arts (MMA) athletes differ according to competition level. Twenty-nine male semiprofessional and amateur MMA competitors were stratified into either higher-level (HL) or lower-level (LL) performers on the basis of competition grade and success. The 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) squat was used to assess lower-body dynamic strength, and a spectrum of impulse, power, force, and velocity variables were evaluated during an incremental-load jump squat. In addition, participants performed an isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) and 1RM bench press to determine whole-body isometric force and upper-body dynamic strength capabilities, respectively. All force and power variables were expressed relative to body mass (BM). The HL competitors produced significantly superior values across a multitude of measures. These included 1RM squat strength (1.84 ± 0.23 vs 1.56 ± 0.24 kg BM; P = .003), in addition to performance in the incremental-load jump squat that revealed greater peak power (P = .005-.002), force (P = .002-.004), and velocity (P = .002-.03) at each load. Higher measures of impulse (P = .01-.04) were noted in a number of conditions. Average power (P = .002-.02) and velocity (P = .01-.04) at all loads in addition to a series of rate-dependent measures were also superior in the HL group (P = .005-.02). The HL competitors' 1RM bench-press values approached significantly greater levels (P = .056) than the LL group's, but IMTP performance did not differ between groups. Maximal lower-body neuromuscular capabilities are key attributes distinguishing HL from LL MMA competitors. This information can be used to inform evidenced-based training and performance-monitoring practices.

  1. The Two-Level System of Higher Education: Western Traditions and Russian Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druzhilov, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The law on the two-level system of higher education has now gone into effect in Russia: the bachelor's degree will correspond to the first level of higher education, while the master's degree will correspond to the second level. These levels entail separate state educational standards and separate final certification. In the process of adopting…

  2. Understanding Responsive Web Design in Higher Education. ECAR Working Group Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollens, Eric; Rocchio, Rosemary A.; Peterson, Jill Eleanor; Pollack, Brett; Tirpak, Lori; Ward, Christopher Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a publication of the EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research (ECAR) Mobile Strategy and Application Development (MSAD) Working Group. In higher education, nearly every user interaction that takes place on a desktop or laptop browser is also attempted using phones, tablets, watches, and more. As students, faculty, and staff…

  3. Multicultural student group work in higher education: a study on challenges as perceived by students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popov, V.; Brinkman, B.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Mulder, M.; Kuznetsov, A.M.; Noroozi, O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine challenges that are inherent in multicultural student group work (MCSG) in higher education and the differences between students from different cultural backgrounds in how they perceive the importance of challenges in MCSG. For this purpose, a 19-item survey was completed

  4. Career Repertoires of IT Students: A Group Counselling Case Study in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Leena; Vesisenaho, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty about future career prospects has increased enormously for students enrolled in higher education Information Technology (IT) programs. However, many computer science programmes pay little attention to career counselling. This article reports the results of a pilot study intended to develop group counselling for IT students to promote…

  5. Group Work as "Terrains of Learning" for Students in South African Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thondhlana, Gladman; Belluigi, Dina Zoe

    2014-01-01

    A common global perception of group work in the higher education context is that it has the potential to act as a platform which can enable student learning by means of interactions, shared diverse experiences, deep engagement with subject concepts and the achievement of tasks collaboratively. Indeed, in different socio-economic, historical and…

  6. Understanding Responsive Web Design in Higher Education. ECAR Working Group Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollens, Eric; Rocchio, Rosemary A.; Peterson, Jill Eleanor; Pollack, Brett; Tirpak, Lori; Ward, Christopher Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a publication of the EDUCAUSE Center for Analysis and Research (ECAR) Mobile Strategy and Application Development (MSAD) Working Group. In higher education, nearly every user interaction that takes place on a desktop or laptop browser is also attempted using phones, tablets, watches, and more. As students, faculty, and staff…

  7. Career Repertoires of IT Students: A Group Counselling Case Study in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttinen, Leena; Vesisenaho, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    Uncertainty about future career prospects has increased enormously for students enrolled in higher education Information Technology (IT) programs. However, many computer science programmes pay little attention to career counselling. This article reports the results of a pilot study intended to develop group counselling for IT students to promote…

  8. Raising the Participation Rate of the Lower Socio-economic Groups in Higher Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智文

    2008-01-01

    This essay aims to analyze the policy of widening participation in higher education in the UK.The policy was made in the interest of the students with a historically disadvantaged background called "lower socio-ecunomic groups".It analyzes the different possible constraints of those students and what the government can do to help them solve the problems.

  9. Discrete time duration models with group-level heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Honoré, Bo; Hu, Loujia

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic discrete choice panel data models have received a great deal of attention. In those models, the dynamics is usually handled by including the lagged outcome as an explanatory variable. In this paper we consider an alternative model in which the dynamics is handled by using the duration...... in the current state as a covariate. We propose estimators that allow for group-specific effect in parametric and semiparametric versions of the model. The proposed method is illustrated by an empirical analysis of job durations allowing for firm-level effects....

  10. Nominal Group Technique and its Applications in Managing Quality in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafikul Islam

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality management is an important aspect in all kinds of businesses – manufacturing or service. Idea generation plays a pivotal role in managing quality in organizations. It is thenew and innovative ideas which can help corporations to survive in the turbulent business environment. Research in group dynamics has shown that more ideas are generated by individuals working alone but in a group environment than the individuals engaged in a formal group discussion. In Nominal Group Technique (NGT, individuals work alone but in a group setting. This paper shows how NGT can be applied to generate large number of ideas to solve quality related problems specifically in Malaysian higher education setting. The paper also discusses the details of NGT working procedure andexplores the areas of its further applications.

  11. MEDEVAC: survival and physiological parameters improved with higher level of flight medic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Seth R; Apodaca, Amy; Mabry, Robert L

    2013-05-01

    Determine if a higher level of Army flight medic (AFM) training was associated with improved physiological state on arrival to a combat support hospital (CSH). A retrospective study comparing casualties who were evacuated by two AFM units with only Emergency Medical Technicians-Basic (EMT-Bs) to an Army National Guard unit with Critical Care Flight Paramedics (CCFPs) in Afghanistan with an injury severity score >16 in different time periods looking at their 48-hour mortality, hematocrit (HCT), base deficit (BD), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and physiological parameters on arrival to the CSH. The CCFP group had better HCT [36.5 (8.8)] than the EMT-B group [33.1 (11.4); p ≤ 0.001]. BD and SpO2 were better in the CCFP group [-3.2 (4.7)]/[97.8 (4.8)] than the EMT-B group [-4.4 (5.5)]/[96.3 (10.9)] [p ≤ 0.014]. The CCFP group had a 72% lower estimated risk ratio of mortality with an associated improvement in 48-hour survivability of 4.9% versus 15.8% for the EMT-B-group. There is a statistically significant improvement in the HCT, BD, SpO2, and 48-hour survivability at the CSH in the cohort transported by the CCFP group when compared to the cohort transported by the EMT-B group. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  12. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatalović Vorkapić, Sanja; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina

    2013-01-01

    Aim. Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. Methods. The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users) clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A), Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Their average age was 22. Results. In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. Conclusion. Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  13. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatalović Vorkapić Sanja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191 heroin addicts and 97 recreate drug users clients of Centre for the prevention and treatment of drug abuse in Rijeka completed Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire (EPQ R/A, Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI and Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI. Their average age was 22. RESULTS: In the group of heroin addicts, higher levels of anxiety and depression were significantly correlated with higher levels of psychoticism, neuroticism, criminality and addiction. In the group of recreate drug users, higher extraversion and social conformity were determined. Furthermore, in the first group was found even higher depression. However when the anxiety level was compared between these two groups, there was no significant difference. CONCLUSION: Overall, the findings implied that the used measurement instruments could serve as the useful diagnostic tools that could ensure advantageous treatment directions.

  14. Association of higher resistin levels with inflammatory activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Chang; LEI Juan; ZHOU Shu-xian; ZHANG Yu-ling; YUAN Gui-yi; WANG Jing-feng

    2013-01-01

    Background Some studies have shown that serum resistin levels increase in hypertensive patients.Whether the increase of resistin is related to inflammatory or vascular endothelial function is still unknown.We investigated the relationship of increased resistin levels to inflammatory factors and circulating biomarkers of vascular endothelial function in hypertensive patients.Methods One hundred and forty-four nondiabetic patients with new onset,hypertension were recruited.Blood pressure,blood glucose,insulin,resistin,tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α),interleukin-6 (IL-6),von Willebrand factor (vWF),endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO)were measured.The homeostasis model assessment,insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated.Patients were divided into two groups according to the median level of resistin.Cytokine levels and indicators of vascular endothelial function were compared.Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors influencing resistin.Results Serum resistin ranged from 2.57 ng/ml to 20.18 ng/ml in hypertensive patients.High resistin group (>8.36 ng/ml) had higher levels of TNF-α,IL-6,vWF and ET-1 but lower level of NO compared with low resistin group (P <0.01).Resistin was positively correlated with body mass index,systolic blood pressure,HOMA-IR,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,TNF-α and ET-1 but negatively correlated with NO (all P <0.05).Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that HOMA-IR,TNF-α,NO and ET-1 are independent predictors of resistin with standardized regression coefficients of 0.625,0.368,-0.260 and 0.222,respectively (all P <0.01).Conclusions We conclude that higher resistin levels are associated with inflammatory activation and endothelial dysfunction,because patients with essential hypertension have increased TNF-α,IL-6,vWF and ET-1 and decreased NO.Moreover,the statistical association of resistin with TNF-α,NO and ET-1 suggests involvement of resistin in the progression of hypertension by

  15. Trophic groups and modules: two levels of group detection in food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauzens, Benoit; Thébault, Elisa; Lacroix, Gérard; Legendre, Stéphane

    2015-05-06

    Within food webs, species can be partitioned into groups according to various criteria. Two notions have received particular attention: trophic groups (TGs), which have been used for decades in the ecological literature, and more recently, modules. The relationship between these two group concepts remains unknown in empirical food webs. While recent developments in network theory have led to efficient methods for detecting modules in food webs, the determination of TGs (groups of species that are functionally similar) is largely based on subjective expert knowledge. We develop a novel algorithm for TG detection. We apply this method to empirical food webs and show that aggregation into TGs allows for the simplification of food webs while preserving their information content. Furthermore, we reveal a two-level hierarchical structure where modules partition food webs into large bottom-top trophic pathways, whereas TGs further partition these pathways into groups of species with similar trophic connections. This provides new perspectives for the study of dynamical and functional consequences of food-web structure, bridging topological and dynamical analysis. TGs have a clear ecological meaning and are found to provide a trade-off between network complexity and information loss.

  16. Adaptive grouping for the higher-order multilevel fast multipole method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borries, Oscar Peter; Jørgensen, Erik; Meincke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    An alternative parameter-free adaptive approach for the grouping of the basis function patterns in the multilevel fast multipole method is presented, yielding significant memory savings compared to the traditional Octree grouping for most discretizations, particularly when using higher-order basis...... functions. Results from both a uniformly and nonuniformly meshed scatterer are presented, showing how the technique is worthwhile even for regular meshes, and demonstrating that there is no loss of accuracy in spite of the large reduction in memory requirements and the relatively low computational cost....

  17. Eisenstein series for higher-rank groups and string theory amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Michael B; Russo, Jorge G; Vanhove, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Scattering amplitudes of superstring theory are strongly constrained by the requirement that they be invariant under dualities generated by discrete subgroups, E_n(Z), of simply-laced Lie groups in the E_n series (n<= 8). In particular, expanding the four-supergraviton amplitude at low energy gives a series of higher derivative corrections to Einstein's theory, with coefficients that are automorphic functions with a rich dependence on the moduli. Boundary conditions supplied by string and supergravity perturbation theory, together with a chain of relations between successive groups in the E_n series, constrain the constant terms of these coefficients in three distinct parabolic subgroups. Using this information we are able to determine the expressions for the first two higher derivative interactions (which are BPS-protected) in terms of specific Eisenstein series. Further, we determine key features of the coefficient of the third term in the low energy expansion of the four-supergraviton amplitude (which i...

  18. Higher triglyceride serum level increases atherosclerotic index in subjects 50-70 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiem Mawi

    2016-04-01

    Higher triglyceride levels increase AI in subjects 50-70 years of age. Subjects with high serum triglyceride level but without symptoms of cardiovascular disease should be examined for the development of coronary artery blockage.

  19. The consumption of more vegetables and less meat is associated with higher levels of acculturation among Mongolians in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Hwang, Jinah; Lee, Jounghee; Park, Haeryun

    2013-12-01

    Although Mongolian immigrants are a rapidly growing population in South Korea, the 2 countries have distinct diets because of climatic and geographical differences. The Mongolian diet is mostly animal-based with few vegetables and fruits, whereas the Korean diet is largely plant based. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and dietary intakes among Mongolians living in South Korea. We hypothesized that higher levels of acculturation would be associated with higher vegetable, fruit, and plant-based food intakes among Mongolian immigrants. A total of 500 Mongolian immigrants participated in this study conducted between December 2010 and May 2011. To measure the acculturation level, we developed an acculturation scale based on the Suinn-Lew Asian self-identity acculturation scale. Dietary intakes were assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. Associations between acculturation and dietary intakes were investigated using a general linear model adjusted for demographic characteristics. The participants were grouped into either a low-acculturation group or a high-acculturation group. The high-acculturation group reported significantly higher consumption of vegetables and rice and significantly lower consumption of meat, potatoes, and flour products compared with their low-acculturation counterparts. However, a higher level of acculturation was also significantly related to a higher intake of sodium. These findings could be used to tailor nutrition programs to different acculturation levels.

  20. Higher thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor levels are associated with inflammation in attack-free familial Mediterranean fever patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavbek, Nuket; Ceri, Mevlut; Akdeniz, Derya; Kargili, Ayse; Duranay, Murat; Erdemli, Kemal; Akcay, Ali; Guz, Galip

    2014-06-01

    Coagulation abnormalities have been reported in familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) patients with amyloidosis and nephrotic syndrome; but there is not enough data about the continuity of the thrombogenic activity in FMF patients in clinical remission. The purpose of this study was to assess thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) levels and its relationship with fibrinolytic activity and also evaluate relationships between mutations and clinical signs in attack-free patients without amyloidosis. Seventy-nine FMF patients and 40 healthy adults were included. The study group was divided into five groups as follows: first group, homozygote M694V; second group, homozygote M680I; third group, M694V in one allele, the other allele have other mutations or not; fourth group, other mutations; and fifth group, no mutation. Serum TAFI levels were significantly increased in patients compared with healthy individuals (116.64 ± 21.8 vs. 78.48 ± 19.7 μg/mL, p < 0.001) and a positive correlation was detected between TAFI antigen level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein levels (r = 0.247, p = 0.029 and r = 0.252, p = 0.032, respectively). Mean fibrinogen and TAFI levels were significantly higher in Group 1 than the other groups (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively) and in Group 3 it was higher than Groups 2, 4 and 5 (p = 0.04 and p = 0.001, respectively). High level of TAFI antigen in attack-free period of FMF disease shows ongoing subclinical inflammation and hypercoagulability. Clinicians should be careful about thrombosis even in patients at clinical remission. Also, genetic tests must be considered to predict clinical outcome and to reduce complications of FMF disease.

  1. Higher Alu methylation levels in catch-up growth in twenty-year-old offsprings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipan Rerkasem

    Full Text Available Alu elements and long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1 are two major human intersperse repetitive sequences. Lower Alu methylation, but not LINE-1, has been observed in blood cells of people in old age, and in menopausal women having lower bone mass and osteoporosis. Nevertheless, Alu methylation levels also vary among young individuals. Here, we explored phenotypes at birth that are associated with Alu methylation levels in young people. In 2010, 249 twenty-years-old volunteers whose mothers had participated in a study association between birth weight (BW and nutrition during pregnancy in 1990, were invited to take part in our present study. In this study, the LINE-1 and Alu methylation levels and patterns were measured in peripheral mononuclear cells and correlated with various nutritional parameters during intrauterine and postnatal period of offspring. This included the amount of maternal intake during pregnancy, the mother's weight gain during pregnancy, birth weight, birth length, and the rate of weight gain in the first year of life. Catch-up growth (CUG was defined when weight during the first year was >0.67 of the standard score, according to WHO data. No association with LINE-1 methylation was identified. The mean level of Alu methylation in the CUG group was significantly higher than those non-CUG (39.61% and 33.66 % respectively, P < 0.0001. The positive correlation between the history of CUG in the first year and higher Alu methylation indicates the role of Alu methylation, not only in aging cells, but also in the human growth process. Moreover, here is the first study that demonstrated the association between a phenotype during the newborn period and intersperse repetitive sequences methylation during young adulthood.

  2. Mapping biodiversity value worldwide: combining higher-taxon richness from different groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. H.; Gaston, K. J.; Humphries, C. J.

    1997-01-01

    Maps of large-scale biodiversity are urgently needed to guide conservation, and yet complete enumeration of organisms is impractical at present. One indirect approach is to measure richness at higher taxonomic ranks, such as families. The difficulty is how to combine information from different groups on numbers of higher taxa, when these taxa may in effect have been defined in different ways, particularly for more distantly related major groups. In this paper, the regional family richness of terrestrial and freshwater seed plants, amphibians, reptiles and mammals is mapped worldwide by combining: (i) absolute family richness; (ii) proportional family richness; and (iii) proportional family richness weighted for the total species richness in each major group. The assumptions of the three methods and their effects on the results are discussed, although for these data the broad pattern is surprisingly robust with respect to the method of combination. Scores from each of the methods of combining families are used to rank the top five richness hotspots and complementary areas, and hotspots of endemism are mapped by unweighted combination of range-size rarity scores.

  3. Norms as Group-Level Constructs: Investigating School-Level Teen Pregnancy Norms and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Domingue, Benjamin W; Boardman, Jason D

    2014-09-01

    Social norms are a group-level phenomenon, but past quantitative research has rarely measured them in the aggregate or considered their group-level properties. We used the school-based design of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to measure normative climates regarding teen pregnancy across 75 U.S. high schools. We distinguished between the strength of a school's norm against teen pregnancy and the consensus around that norm. School-level norm strength and dissensus were strongly (r = -0.65) and moderately (r = 0.34) associated with pregnancy prevalence within schools, respectively. Normative climate partially accounted for observed racial differences in school pregnancy prevalence, but norms were a stronger predictor than racial composition. As hypothesized, schools with both a stronger average norm against teen pregnancy and greater consensus around the norm had the lowest pregnancy prevalence. Results highlight the importance of group-level normative processes and of considering the local school environment when designing policies to reduce teen pregnancy.

  4. The group exponential lasso for bi-level variable selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breheny, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    In many applications, covariates possess a grouping structure that can be incorporated into the analysis to select important groups as well as important members of those groups. One important example arises in genetic association studies, where genes may have several variants capable of contributing to disease. An ideal penalized regression approach would select variables by balancing both the direct evidence of a feature's importance as well as the indirect evidence offered by the grouping structure. This work proposes a new approach we call the group exponential lasso (GEL) which features a decay parameter controlling the degree to which feature selection is coupled together within groups. We demonstrate that the GEL has a number of statistical and computational advantages over previously proposed group penalties such as the group lasso, group bridge, and composite MCP. Finally, we apply these methods to the problem of detecting rare variants in a genetic association study.

  5. 48 CFR 52.246-11 - Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Quality Requirement. 52.246-11 Section 52.246-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.246-11 Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement. As prescribed in 46.311, insert the following clause: Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement (FEB 1999) The Contractor shall comply...

  6. 48 CFR 46.202-4 - Higher-level contract quality requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality requirements. 46.202-4 Section 46.202-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Quality Requirements 46.202-4 Higher-level contract quality requirements. (a) Requiring compliance with higher-level quality standards is appropriate in...

  7. 48 CFR 46.311 - Higher-level contract quality requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... quality requirement. 46.311 Section 46.311 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... requirement. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-11, Higher-Level Contract Quality Requirement, in solicitations and contracts when the inclusion of a higher-level contract quality requirement...

  8. TEACHER COMMITMENT AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT IN CHEMISTRY AT HIGHER SECONDARY LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    J. S. Angel Mary Jane; Dr. S. Praveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    A teacher is an instrument to provide the academic setting for the learner in the classroom. This study deals with the teacher commitment and student achievement in chemistry at higher secondary level. The major objective of the study is to find out the significant relationship between teacher commitment and student achievement in chemistry at higher secondary level. This study employs the normative survey method. The sample comprises of 200 higher secondary students selected from different s...

  9. Higher levels of psychological distress are associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes during 18 year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, Raphael; Zijlstra, Wobbe P

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews have shown that depression is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limited evidence for general psychological distress to be associated with incident diabetes. The aim of the present study was to test whether persons who report higher levels...... of psychological distress are a risk factor for the development of diabetes during an 18 year follow up period. This association may be potentially mediated by low energy level and impaired health status....... of psychological distress are at increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes during 18 years follow up, adjusted for confounders. METHODS: A prospective analysis using data from 9,514 participants (41 years, SD=14; 44% men) of the British Household Panel Survey. The General Health Questionnaire 12 item version...

  10. EFFECTS OF HIGHER LEVELS OF CHROMIUM AND COPPER ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SERUM PROTEINS IN BROILERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tariq Javed, F, Ahmad. N, Z, Rafique1 and M, Bashir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of higher levels of chromium alone and in combination with copper were investigated in broiler chicks divided into seven equal groups viz. A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Group G served as control receiving no treatment. Groups A, B and F received chromium chloride at the rate of 2 g/kg and nicotinic acid 150 mg/kg feed while C, D and F received chromium chloride 8 g/kg and nicotinic acid 150mg/kg. Broilers of groups A and C received copper sulfate at the rate of 200 mg/kg while groups Band D 400 mg/kg feed. Haematological parameters studied revealed non-significant difference between treatment groups and control in haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocyte counts. However, only at 4th week, lower PCV was observed in birds fed higher levels of chromium chloride alone. Increase in TLC was observed in birds fed low chromium alone or' with low levels of copper. Results of serum proteins including total protein, albumin and globulin during first three weeks showed significantly or relatively lower values in treatment groups than control. Serum globulins generally revealed non-significant difference between treatment groups and control.

  11. Stress Coping Levels and Mental States of Police Vocational School of Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was planned and carried out with the objective of determining stress coping levels and mental state of students attending Police Vocational Schools of Higher Education, in addition to factors effecting these. MATERIAL and METHOD: This desciptive and cross-sectional study consisted of 300 male students enrolled in the 2005-2006 academic year, at Police Vocational School of Higher Education, located in central Erzincan, Turkey. In this study, instead of random sampling, 281 (93.7% students who were present at the school at the time of the study and accepted to partipate in it were included. Data for this study was collected using a desciptive form created by the researchers, Rosenbaum’s Learned Resourcefulness Scale (RLRS and The Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R. During the data analysis, frequency distributions, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA were used; and for analysis of independent groups, t-test was used. RESULTS: Among the students, it was determined that 54.8% were 1. grade, 90.7% had their parents living together, 43.5% had a father and 60.5% had a mother who graduated from elementary school, fathers of 23.5% of students were retired, 93.6% of them had mothers who were home makers. In addition, it was found out that 78.6% of students chose their profession willingly, the average family income of 71.5% of students were at medium levels, 82.9% always believed in themselves and 63.3% of students did not smoke. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that second grade students, those with mothers who are highly educated and those who trusted themselved all the time had significantly high stress coping levels; students who chose their own profession, believed in themselves and did not smoke had significantly low levels of mental symptom indications. CONCLUSION: In this study, the students were determined to posess averge levels of stress coping skills and they were found

  12. Comparison of the Effect of Noise Levels on Stress Response in Two Different Operation Groups in an Orthopedic Surgery Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibe Baytan Yildiz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will

  13. Multi-domain, higher order level set scheme for 3D image segmentation on the GPU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ojaswa; Zhang, Qin; Anton, François;

    2010-01-01

    Level set method based segmentation provides an efficient tool for topological and geometrical shape handling. Conventional level set surfaces are only $C^0$ continuous since the level set evolution involves linear interpolation to compute derivatives. Bajaj et al. present a higher order method t...

  14. Individual-level variation and higher-level interpretations of space use in wide-ranging species: An albatross case study of sampling effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elizabeth Gutowsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecologists and managers need to know the spatial extent of at-sea areas most frequented by the groups of wildlife they study or manage. Defining group-specific ranges and distributions (i.e. space use at the level of species, population, age-class, etc. can help to identify the source or severity of common or distinct threats among different at-risk groups. In biologging studies, this is accomplished by estimating the space use of a group based on a sample of tracked individuals. A major assumption of these studies is consistency in individual movements among members of a group. The implications of scaling up individual-level tracking data to infer higher-level spatial patterns for groups (i.e. size and extent of areas used, overlap or segregation among groups is not well documented for wide-ranging pelagic species with high potential for individual variation in space use. We present a case study exploring the effects of sampling (i.e. number and identity of individuals contributing to an analysis on defining group-specific space use with year-round multi-colony tracking data from two highly vagile species, Laysan (Phoebastria immutabilis and black-footed (P. nigripes albatrosses. The results clearly demonstrate that caution is warranted when defining space use for a specific species-colony-period group based on datasets of small, intermediate, or relatively large sample sizes (ranging from n=3-42 tracked individuals due to a high degree of individual-level variation in movements. Overall, we provide further support to the recommendation that biologging studies aiming to define higher-level patterns in space use exercise restraint in the scope of inference, particularly when pooled Kernel Density Estimation techniques are applied to small datasets for wide-ranging species. Transparent reporting in respect to the potential limitations of the data can in turn better inform both biological interpretations and science-based management

  15. Baseline corticosterone levels are higher in migrating than sedentary common blackbirds in autumn, but not in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Müller, Florian; Klinner, Thomas; Bairlein, Franz

    2015-12-01

    Corticosterone at baseline levels is thought to be mainly involved in the regulation of uptake, storage and release of energy, processes central to avian migration. Consequently, corticosterone levels are thought to be upregulated during migration, but the temporal pattern of its secretion during migration is not well defined. For example, although it appears that corticosterone levels decrease from flight to stopover, it is unknown if levels at stopover are still elevated and it is largely unclear how these levels compare to non-migratory life-history stages. Furthermore, what role corticosterone plays in crucial migratory processes, such as refueling and departure from stopover, is far from understood. We here determined baseline corticosterone levels in migrating and resident common blackbirds (Turdus merula), sampled simultaneously on Helgoland, a stopover site that also supports a sedentary breeding population. In autumn, migrants had higher corticosterone levels than residents, but in spring levels did not differ between the two groups. Corticosterone levels of migrants were very similar in spring and autumn, whereas in residents levels tended to be higher in spring than autumn. Higher levels in residents in spring than autumn most likely reflect the higher daily workload faced by birds during the pre-breeding than the post-breeding period. Our study thus indicates that, relative to the levels observed in residents in autumn, in spring baseline corticosterone levels were moderately elevated in both migrants and residents and that in autumn levels were moderately elevated in migrants only. Currently, corticosterone's main function at stopover is thought to lie in the regulation of departure. Because most migrant blackbirds stay only one or two days on Helgoland, our results are in line with this idea and suggest that migrating blackbirds up-regulated their corticosterone level in anticipation of an oncoming flight bout.

  16. Mentoring the Organization: Helping Principals Bring Schools to Higher Levels of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, Zach

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Frances Fuller's stages of concern, David Hunt's conceptual levels, and Jean Piaget's model of equilibration, a new view of principal leadership is presented. By attending to the preferred learning style of a group, taking into account the level of stress present as a result of initiatives, and listening to the level of…

  17. Mentoring the Organization: Helping Principals Bring Schools to Higher Levels of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelehear, Zach

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on the work of Frances Fuller's stages of concern, David Hunt's conceptual levels, and Jean Piaget's model of equilibration, a new view of principal leadership is presented. By attending to the preferred learning style of a group, taking into account the level of stress present as a result of initiatives, and listening to the level of…

  18. Level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of higher education institution servers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Vidal Andreato

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the level of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and nutritional status of Brazilian higher education institution servers. Method: 134 public servants (80 men and 54 women were evaluated to estimate body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist/hip ratio (WHR, aerobic fitness and blood pressure at rest. Results: most of the servers were classified as insufficiently active (62%. BMI results show a high prevalence of obesity (39% mild and 33% moderate. WC showed a prevalence of high (30% and very high risk (27%, and WHR showed a prevalence of high (28% or very high risk (12%. The ergometric test showed that 41% of the servers presented very poor (17% or poor (24% aerobic fitness and 23%, regular aerobic fitness. Considering blood pressure, 15% of the servers presented blood pressure considered as borderline and 30% considered as hypertension. No associations were found between physical condition (active or inactive with WC (χ2 = 3.4, p = 0.179, WHR (χ2 = 7.0, p = 0.073, aerobic fitness (χ2 = 4.3, p = 0.368 and blood pressure (χ2 = 2.9, p = 0.734. Although no association was observed between physical activity and BMI (χ2 = 7.6, p = 0.062, significance values (p < 0.07 suggested an association trend, with worse ratings for the sedentary group. Closing remarks: among higher education institution servers, there is high prevalence of physical inactivity, obesity and risk factors, and the majority of the sample had aerobic fitness below recommended levels.

  19. Salivary TNFα levels in groups of subjects with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamel, Ehsan B; Hashim, Nada T; Satti, Asim; Gismalla, Bakri G

    2017-01-07

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis are the most common chronic inflammatory diseases with significant pathological and clinical similarities. Numerous studies have indicated a relationship between rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to compare the TNF-α levels in saliva among patients with Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and chronic periodontitis as well as healthy subjects. One hundred and seventy-one patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Fifty-seven patients diagnosed of RA, 57 patients with chronic periodontitis and 57 healthy subjects. These patients have been examined with regard to TNF-α level from salivary samples. Their teeth were examined with regard to Plaque Index , Gingival Index, probing depth and clinical attachment level.All patients were non-smokers. The results revealed a significant difference in all periodontal parameters among the three groups. The chronic periodontitis group showed a significantly higher value in all clinical periodontal parameters in comparison to both the RA and healthy groups. No significant difference was found between salivary TNF-α level among the three study groups. Patients with chronic periodontitis had the highest periodontal indices. However there was no significant difference regarding the level of salivary TNF-α. Hence, suppression of proinflammatory cytokines might prove beneficial in suppressing periodontal diseases among RA patients.

  20. Descriptions of Spoken Language for Higher Level Learners: The Example of Questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on question-response sequences in academic and work settings and examines the type of description of questioning conventionally offered in published English language teaching materials for higher-level learners. (Author/VWL)

  1. Assessing the Need for Higher Levels of Care Among Problem Gambling Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, David M; Arfken, Cynthia L

    2017-03-02

    Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be "probably" or "definitely" willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.

  2. Higher Levels of Psychopathy Predict Poorer Motor Control: Implications for Understanding the Psychopathy Construct

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Michael D.; Bresin, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature suggests that higher levels of psychopathy may be linked to less effective behavioral control. However, several commentators have urged caution in making statements of this type in the absence of direct evidence. In two studies (total N = 142), moment-to-moment accuracy in a motor control task was examined as a function of dimensional variations in psychopathy in an undergraduate population. As hypothesized, motor control was distinctively worse at higher levels of ...

  3. Common marmosets show social plasticity and group-level similarity in personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Sonja E; Burkart, Judith M

    2015-03-06

    The social environment influences animal personality on evolutionary and immediate time scales. However, studies of animal personality rarely assess the effects of the social environment, particularly in species that live in stable groups with individualized relationships. We assessed personality experimentally in 17 individuals of the common marmoset, living in four groups. We found their personality to be considerably modified by the social environment. Marmosets exhibited relatively high plasticity in their behaviour, and showed 'group-personality', i.e. group-level similarity in the personality traits. In exploratory behaviour this was maintained only in the social environment but not when individuals were tested alone, suggesting that exploration tendency is subjected to social facilitation. Boldness, in contrast, showed higher consistency across the social and solitary conditions, and the group-level similarity in trait scores was sustained also outside of the immediate social environment. The 'group-personality' was not due to genetic relatedness, supporting that it was produced by social effects. We hypothesize that 'group-personality' may be adaptive for highly cooperative animals through facilitating cooperation among individuals with similar behavioural tendency.

  4. Emerging Governance in State-Level Higher Education: Competing Pressures and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Brad Leon

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study considered reforms in state-level higher education governance in the United States. Many researchers have suggested the emergence of market-oriented models in higher education governance. This study explored the existence of market-oriented models as well as other reform models in two western states, Utah and Washington. …

  5. Teaching Strategies Adopted by Teachers at Higher Education Level in Kerala: A Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesa, M.; Nisha, E. V.

    2017-01-01

    In the special context of entrepreneurship, employability skill development, Higher Education 2.0 and the Kovalam Declaration 2016, the present article presents a brief review of genres of teaching strategies at higher education level and attempts to bring to the attention of the readers an account of the teaching strategies adopted by teachers at…

  6. Promoting Higher Level Thinking in Psychology: Is Active Learning the Answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Aaron S.; Hagan, Lisa Kindelberger

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate which common instructional methods (active vs. direct) best promote higher level thinking in a psychology course. Over a 5-week period, 71 undergraduates were taught psychology using both active learning and direct instruction. Pre- and post-course assessments were coded as either higher or lower level…

  7. COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF SELF-ESTEEM BY SEX AND LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN TWO GROUPS OF SENIOR ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez Méndez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to observe whether there are differences in the self-esteem score, depending on the level of physical activity (active-sedentary in a sample of senior adults. Twenty-six senior adults participated in the study with an average of 73 ± 9 years of age. The sedentary group (n = 12 belonged to the Santo Domingo Nursing Home in Heredia, Costa Rica, while the active group belonged to the project entitled Modulation of the Aging Process of the Movement for Life Program. Results: No significant differences were found in scores by level of physical activity (t = 0.931, p = 0.363; however, there were significant differences in self-esteem scores by gender (t = -2.255, p = 0.034. It was concluded that the level of physical activity does not affect self-esteem and that men’s level of self-esteem is higher than women’s.

  8. Coping with Higher Sea Levels and Increased Coastal Flooding in New York City. Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitz, Vivien; Horton, Radley; Bader, Daniel A.; Orton, Philip; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    The 837 km New York City shoreline is lined by significant economic assets and dense population vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal flooding. After Hurricane Sandy in 2012, New York City developed a comprehensive plan to mitigate future climate risks, drawing upon the scientific expertise of the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), a special advisory group comprised of university and private-sector experts. This paper highlights current NPCC findings regarding sea level rise and coastal flooding, with some of the City's ongoing and planned responses. Twentieth century sea level rise in New York City (2.8 cm/decade) exceeded the global average (1.7 cm/decade), underscoring the enhanced regional risk to coastal hazards. NPCC (2015) projects future sea level rise at the Battery of 28 - 53 cm by the 2050s and 46 - 99 cm by the 2080s, relative to 2000 - 2004 (mid-range, 25th - 75th percentile). High-end SLR estimates (90th percentile) reach 76 cm by the 2050s, and 1.9 m by 2100. Combining these projections with updated FEMA flood return period curves, assuming static flood dynamics and storm behavior, flood heights for the 100-year storm (excluding waves) attain 3.9-4.5 m (mid-range), relative to the NAVD88 tidal datum, and 4.9 m (high end) by the 2080s, up from 3.4 m in the 2000s. Flood heights with a 1% annual chance of occurrence in the 2000s increase to 2.0 - 5.4% (mid-range) and 12.7% per year (high-end), by the 2080s. Guided by NPCC (2013, 2015) findings, New York City has embarked on a suite of initiatives to strengthen coastal defenses, employing various approaches tailored to specific neighborhood needs. NPCC continues its collaboration with the city to investigate vulnerability to extreme climate events, including heat waves, inland floods and coastal storms. Current research entails higher-resolution neighborhood-level coastal flood mapping, changes in storm characteristics, surge height interactions with sea level rise, and stronger engagement

  9. University-Level Group Piano Instruction and Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Margaret Mary

    2013-01-01

    Group piano courses for undergraduate music majors have been charged with developing the piano skills used by professional musicians; however, the only information available on the use of piano skills by professional musicians has been limited to one profession: public school music teachers. No one has attempted to identify the piano skills used…

  10. University-Level Group Piano Instruction and Professional Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Margaret Mary

    2013-01-01

    Group piano courses for undergraduate music majors have been charged with developing the piano skills used by professional musicians; however, the only information available on the use of piano skills by professional musicians has been limited to one profession: public school music teachers. No one has attempted to identify the piano skills used…

  11. Perceived Effectiveness of Professional Development Programs of Teachers at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sufiana Khatoon; Nasim, Uzma; Tabassum, Farkhanda

    2015-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to assess the perceived effectiveness of professional development programs of teachers at higher educational level. The objectives of the study were: "to assess university level teachers'" opinion about effectiveness of professional development training with reference to quality teaching, to measure…

  12. Masters Level Graduate Student Writing Groups: Exploring Academic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Tosha M.

    2012-01-01

    This action research project explores masters level graduate student writing and academic identity during one semester in an interdisciplinary masters program. Informing this study is a two part theoretical framework including the Academic Literacy Model (Lea and Street) and Wenger's concept of identity. The purpose of this exploration was to…

  13. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Skjødt Worm

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims : The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students’ learning ability. Methods : One hundred and twenty Danish medical students were randomized to six groups all with 20 students (eCases level 1, eCases level 2, eCases level 2+, eTextbook level 1, eTextbook level 2, and eTextbook level 2+. All students participated in a pre-test, Group 1 participated in an interactive case-based e-learning program, while Group 2 was presented with textbook material electronically. The 2+ groups were able to discuss the material between themselves in a web forum. The subject was head injury and associated treatment and observation guidelines in the emergency room. Following the e-learning, all students completed a post-test. Pre- and post-tests both consisted of 25 questions randomly chosen from a pool of 50 different questions. Results : All students concluded the study with comparable pre-test results. Students at Level 2 (in both groups improved statistically significant compared to students at level 1 (p>0.05. There was no statistically significant difference between level 2 and level 2+. However, level 2+ was associated with statistically significant greater student's satisfaction than the rest of the students (p>0.05. Conclusions : This study applies a new way of comparing different types of e-learning using a pre-defined level division and the possibility of peer learning. Our findings show that higher levels of e-learning does in fact provide better results when compared with the same type of e-learning at lower levels. While social interaction in web forums increase student satisfaction, learning ability does not seem to change. Both findings are relevant when designing new e-learning materials.

  14. Higher-level phylogeny of the Hymenoptera inferred from mitochondrial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Higher-level hymenopteran relationships remain unresolved in both morphological and molecular analyses. In this study, we present the most comprehensive analyses of hymenopteran relationships based on 48 mitochondrial (mt) genomes. One complete and two nearly complete mt genomes representing three hymenopteran superfamilies were newly sequenced. We assessed the influence of inclusion/exclusion of 3rd codon positions, alignment approaches, partition schemes and phylogenetic approaches on topology and nodal support within the Hymenoptera. The results showed that the topologies were sensitive to the variation of dataset and analytical approach. However, some robust and highly supported relationships were recovered: the Ichneumonomorpha was monophyletic; the Trigonalyoidea+Megalyroidea and the Diaprioidea+Chalcidoidea were consistently recovered; the Cynipoidea was generally recovered as the sister group to the Diaprioidea+Chalcidoidea. In addition, the monophyletic Aculeata and Proctotrupomorpha were recovered in some analyses. Several gene rearrangements were detected in each of the three newly sequenced mt genomes. Specifically, the Ibalia leucospoides mt genome harbors a large inversion of a gene block from trnE to trnS2. Inverted, duplicated A+T rich regions were detected in the Ibalia leucospoides mt genome, which probably played an important role during the formation of the large gene block inversion via recombination.

  15. Multi-Response Ergonomic Evaluation of Higher Age Group CNC Machine Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ali Khan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work contributes to research on improving performance in a human-CNC machine interface (HCMI environment. A salient contribution of this study is the use of a load cell to measure human performance. The developed novel system can measure cognitive and motor action responses simultaneously. The performance measurement system designed for this work may be used in other fields where systems are operated using control panels and for observing and evaluating the responses of mentally retarded persons (or persons with symptoms of Alzheimer‟s disease. The search time, motor action time and applied force were selected as response variables to accurately evaluate a computer numerically controlled (CNC machine operator‟s performance. Based on a Taguchi experimental design, a full factorial design consisting of 27 (33 experiments was used to collect data on human performance. The collected data were analyzed using grey relational analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and the F-test. ANOVA was performed using Design-Expert software. The designed research was shown to have a reasonable degree of validity via a confirmation test. This study represents an effective approach for the optimization of a higher age group operator-CNC machine interface environment with multi-performance characteristics based on a combination of the Taguchi method and grey relational analysis.

  16. Student's Perceived Level and Teachers' Teaching Strategies of Higher Order Thinking Skills: A Study on Higher Educational Institutions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Divya; Dungsungnoen, Aj Pattaradanai

    2016-01-01

    Higher order thinking skills (HOTS) has portrayed immense industry demand and the major goal of educational institution in imparting education is to inculcate higher order thinking skills. This compiles and mandate the institutions and instructor to develop the higher order thinking skills among students in order to prepare them for effective…

  17. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina; Elias, Merrill; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Buckley, Jonathon

    2015-09-18

    Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA). We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS), conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972), and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX) (n = 1331) were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  18. Intake of Lutein-Rich Vegetables Is Associated with Higher Levels of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Crichton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Levels of physical inactivity, a major contributor to burden of disease, are high in many countries. Some preliminary research suggests that circulating lutein concentrations are associated with high levels of physical activity (PA. We aimed to assess whether the intake of lutein-containing foods, including vegetables and eggs, is associated with levels of PA in two studies conducted in different countries. Dietary data and PA data collected from participants in two cross-sectional studies: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS, conducted in Central New York, USA (n = 972, and the Observation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Luxembourg Study (ORISCAV-LUX (n = 1331 were analyzed. Higher intakes of lutein containing foods, including green leafy vegetables, were associated with higher levels of PA in both study sites. Increasing the consumption of lutein-rich foods may have the potential to impact positively on levels of PA. This needs to be further explored in randomized controlled trials.

  19. The group-level consequences of sexual conflict in multigroup populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Tonsi Eldakar

    Full Text Available In typical sexual conflict scenarios, males best equipped to exploit females are favored locally over more prudent males, despite reducing female fitness. However, local advantage is not the only relevant form of selection. In multigroup populations, groups with less sexual conflict will contribute more offspring to the next generation than higher conflict groups, countering the local advantage of harmful males. Here, we varied male aggression within- and between-groups in a laboratory population of water striders and measured resulting differences in local population growth over a period of three weeks. The overall pool fitness (i.e., adults produced of less aggressive pools exceeded that of high aggression pools by a factor of three, with the high aggression pools essentially experiencing no population growth over the course of the study. When comparing the fitness of individuals across groups, aggression appeared to be under stabilizing selection in the multigroup population. The use of contextual analysis revealed that overall stabilizing selection was a product of selection favoring aggression within groups, but selected against it at the group-level. Therefore, this report provides further evidence to show that what evolves in the total population is not merely an extension of within-group dynamics.

  20. Higher level of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasiuk, Ryszard; Lipowski, Dariusz; Szlufik, Stanislaw; Peplinska, Krystyna; Mikaszewska-Sokolewicz, Malgorzata

    2016-02-12

    Aminoterminal pro-C type natriuretic peptide (NT-proCNP) as an active form of CNP, has been recently proven to be a potential marker of sepsis and to be linked to inflammatory diseases. So far, there are no studies describing the level of NT-proCNP in meningitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of NT-proCNP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with meningitis and to compare it with the serum level of CRP and procalcitonin (PCT) in this group of patients. The results were compared to serum levels of CRP, PCT and CSF levels of cytosis, protein and lactate. NT-proCNP levels were statistically significant between the control group and the meningitis groups (p=0.02; R=0.3). We also noted a correlation between the level of NT-proCNP in the CSF of all of the study groups (controls and meningitis patients) and the CSF levels of cytosis (p0.05; R=0.11). These results suggest that NT-proCNP could be a potential marker of meningitis, but it cannot be used to distinguish between the types of meningitis.

  1. Using higher-level inquiry to improve spatial ability in an introductory geology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Lacey A.

    Visuo-spatial skills, the ability to visually take in information and create a mental image are crucial for success in fields involving science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) as well as fine arts. Unfortunately, due to a lack of curriculum focused on developing spatial skills, students enrolled in introductory college-level science courses tend to have difficulty with spatially-related activities. One of the best ways to engage students in science activities is through a learning and teaching strategy called inquiry. There are lower levels of inquiry wherein learning and problem-solving are guided by instructions and higher levels of inquiry wherein students have a greater degree of autonomy in learning and creating their own problem-solving strategy. A study involving 112 participants was conducted during the fall semester in 2014 at Bowling Green State University (BGSU) in an 1040 Introductory Geology Lab to determine if a new, high-level, inquiry-based lab would increase participants' spatial skills more than the traditional, low-level inquiry lab. The study also evaluated whether a higher level of inquiry differentially affected low versus high spatial ability participants. Participants were evaluated using a spatial ability assessment, and pre- and post-tests. The results of this study show that for 3-D to 2-D visualization, the higher-level inquiry lab increased participants' spatial ability more than the lower-level inquiry lab. For spatial rotational skills, all participants' spatial ability scores improved, regardless of the level of inquiry to which they were exposed. Low and high spatial ability participants were not differentially affected. This study demonstrates that a lab designed with a higher level of inquiry can increase students' spatial ability more than a lab with a low level of inquiry. A lab with a higher level of inquiry helped all participants, regardless of their initial spatial ability level. These findings show that curriculum

  2. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: Financing Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers financing and project economics issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  3. HIV-infected individuals with the CCR delta32/CCR5 genotype have lower HIV RNA levels and higher CD4 cell counts in the early years of the infection than do patients with the wild type. Copenhagen AIDS Cohort Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T L; Eugen-Olsen, J; Hofmann, B;

    1997-01-01

    The relations among serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts, presence of the mutant CCR5-allele in heterozygous form, and clinical outcome was analyzed in 96 patients from the Copenhagen AIDS Cohort. In the early years of the infection, patients with the CCR5 delta32/CCR5 genotype had significantly...

  4. Interest Groups and Governmental Institutions: The Politics of State Funding of Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, David

    2010-01-01

    In attempting to explain state support of public higher education, this study develops a theory-driven, comprehensive conceptualization of the state political system within a larger theoretical framework that consists of state economic and demographic factors and higher education system attributes. Furthermore, although the higher education policy…

  5. Volunteering among Higher Education Students, Focusing on the Micro-level Factors

    OpenAIRE

    HAJNALKA FÉNYES; GABRIELLA PUSZTAI

    2012-01-01

    In our paper, we intend to examine the micro-level factors affecting the volunteering of higher education students. Althoughseveral theories and research studies approach this phenomenon, a relatively small amount of studies examines the volunteeringof higher education students. Based on the literature, the young generation today participates in new types of volunteering, inwhich their motivation is not dominantly altruistic. These results call our attention to the necessity for new measureme...

  6. Towards a higher-level Ensifera phylogeny inferred from mitogenome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhijun; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Nian; Guo, Huifang; Guan, Bei; Di, Juanxia; Shi, Fuming

    2017-03-01

    Although mitogenomes are useful tools for inferring evolutionary history, only a few representative ones can be used for most Ensifera lineages. Thirty-two ensiferan mitogenomes were determined using ABI Sanger sequencing and standard primer walking of 2-3 overlapping Long-PCR fragments, or Illumina® HiSeq2000 for "shotgun" sequenced long-PCR-amplified mitochondrial or total genomic DNA. Six patterns of gene arrangements, including the novel trnR-trnS(AGN)-trnA-trnN-trnG-nad3 in Lipotactes tripyrga (Lipotactinae), were identified from 59 ensiferan mitogenomes. The results suggest that trnM-trnI-trnQ and trnA-trnR-trnE-trnS(AGN)-trnN-trnF rearrangements might be a shared derived character in Pseudophyllinae and Gryllidae, respectively. We found base composition biases in our dataset, which potentially complicate the inference of higher-level ensiferan phylogeny. Site-heterogeneous Bayesian inference (BI) and site-homogeneous maximum likelihood (ML) analyses recovered all ensiferan superfamilies as monophyletic. The site-homogeneous BI analysis failed to recover the monophyly of Stenopelmatoidea. As Schizodactyloidea was only represented by Comicus campestris, its monophyly could not be tested. In the Triassic/Jurassic boundary, Ensifera diverged into grylloid and non-grylloid clades. All analyses confirmed Grylloidea and Gryllotalpoidea as sister groups. Site-heterogeneous BI analysis found Schizodactyloidea as the most basal lineage and sister to the clade formed by Grylloidea and Gryllotalpoidea, but the site-homogeneous analyses placed it basally to the non-grylloid clade and recovered a sister relationship between Tettigonioidea and (Hagloidea, Rhaphidophoroidea, Stenopelmatoidea), although this clade had a low support. The site-heterogeneous BI analysis found Tettigonioidea and Hagloidea were sister groups (posterior probability (PP)=0.99), Stenopelmatoidea was sister to (Tettigonioidea, Hagloidea) (PP>0.91), and Rhaphidophoroidea was basal to the non

  7. Institutional and Program Level Guidelines for Conflict Management in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warters, Bill; Wendy, Smith J.

    2003-01-01

    These guidelines were developed by a national working group seminar hosted by the FIPSE-funded Conflict Management in Higher Education Resource Center. They provide a set of best-practices related to the establishment of conflict-handling services for colleges and universities. Seminar participants were carefully chose to represent faculty,…

  8. Higher Grades and Repeated Recurrence of Hepatic Encephalopathy May Be Related to High Serum Manganese Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobtan, Abdelrahman A; El-Kalla, Ferial S; Soliman, Hanan H; Zakaria, Soha S; Goda, Mohamed A

    2016-02-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a serious complication of liver failure. Until now, the precise pathophysiologic mechanisms are not fully determined. It has been demonstrated that manganese plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. Therefore, we studied manganese levels in serum of cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy in relation to grading and recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy. One hundred persons were enrolled in the study, 80 cirrhotic patients with or without encephalopathy and 20 healthy controls. Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed clinically and by laboratory findings. Serum manganese levels were measured in all participants. The grading of hepatic encephalopathy was significantly correlated to the severity of liver dysfunction. The mean serum manganese level was significantly higher in cirrhotic patients than in controls and in cirrhotic patients with encephalopathy than in those without encephalopathy. It was also significantly higher in patients with advanced grading of hepatic encephalopathy. Serum manganese level was positively correlated to number of recurrences of encephalopathy during a 6-month follow-up period. Serum manganese levels were able to predict recurrence of hepatic encephalopathy within 6 months following the episode. Serum manganese levels are positively correlated to the modified Child-Pugh score of cirrhosis as well as grading and number of recurrences of hepatic encephalopathy. Higher manganese levels seem to be related to worsening of the condition, and its measurement may be used as a predictor of repeated recurrences.

  9. A Potential VEP Biomarker for Mild Cognitive Impairment: Evidence from Selective Visual Deficit of Higher-Level Dorsal Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takao; Horie, Shizuka; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Tanaka, Eri; Nakamura, Norimichi; Goto, Yoshinobu; Kanba, Shigenobu; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Tobimatsu, Shozo

    2016-05-23

    Visual dysfunctions are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to establish a neurophysiological biomarker for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded in aMCI patients who later developed AD (n = 15) and in healthy older (n = 15) and younger controls (n = 15). Visual stimuli were optimized to separately activate lower and higher levels of the ventral and dorsal streams. We compared VEP parameters across the three groups of participants and conducted a linear correlation analysis between VEPs and data from neuropsychological tests. We then used a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to discriminate those with aMCI from those who were healthy older adults. The latency and phase of VEPs to lower-level stimuli (chromatic and achromatic gratings) were significantly affected by age but not by cognitive decline. Conversely, VEP latencies for higher-ventral (faces and kanji-words) and dorsal (kana-words and optic flow motion) stimuli were not affected by age, but they were significantly prolonged in aMCI patients. Interestingly, VEPs for higher-dorsal stimuli were related to outcomes of neuropsychological tests. Furthermore, the ROC analysis showed that the highest areas under the curve were obtained for VEP latencies in response to higher-dorsal stimuli. These results suggest aMCI-related functional impairment specific to higher-level visual processing. Further, dysfunction in the higher-level of the dorsal stream could be an early indicator of cognitive decline. Therefore, we conclude that VEPs associated with higher-level dorsal stream activity can be a sensitive biomarker for early detection of aMCI.

  10. Higher-level goals in the processing of human action events

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, M.L.; Zacks, J.M.; Flores, S.; Howard, L.H.; Woodward, A.L.; Loucks, J.; Meltzoff, A N; Cooper, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a goal critically separates dynamic events involving humans from other events. Human behaviours are motivated by goals, which are known to the actor but typically inferred on the part of the observer. Goals can be hierarchical in nature, such that a collection of sub-goals (e.g., getting a mug, boiling water) can be nested under a higher-level goal (e.g., making tea), which can be further nested under an even higher-level goal (e.g., making breakfast).\\ud The diverse set of tal...

  11. Group level effects of social versus individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei

    2013-06-01

    We study the effects of learning by imitating others within the framework of an iterated game in which the members of two complementary populations interact via random pairing at each round. This allows us to compare both the fitness of different strategies within a population and the performance of populations in which members have access to different types of strategies. Previous studies reveal some emergent dynamics at the population level, when players learn individually. We here investigate a different mechanism in which players can choose between two different learning strategies, individual or social. Imitating behavior can spread within a mixed population, with the frequency of imitators varying over generation time. When compared to a pure population with solely individual learners, a mixed population with both individual and social learners can do better, independently of the precise learning scheme employed. We can then search for the best imitating strategy. Imitating the neighbor with the highest payoff turns out to be consistently superior. This is in agreement with findings in experimental and model studies that have been carried out in different settings.

  12. Study of serum syndecan-1 levels in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Naglaa Abd Elrahman; Lotfy, Hala Mohamed; Farag, Yomna Mohamed; Mahfouz, Rasha Hossam El-Din; Shahin, Rasha Mohamad Hosny

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the serum levels of Syndecan-1 in a group of Egyptian juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients and to study any possible associations with disease activity, renal activity and organ damage. Serum level of Syndecan-1 was assessed in 60 Egyptian JSLE patients and 30 apparently healthy age and gender matched children using ELISA. SLE Disease Activity Index-2000 (SLEDAI-2K), renal SLEDAI-2K, renal activity score and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) Damage Index were assessed for all patients. Serum SDC-1 levels were higher in patients with JSLE than in healthy controls (p<0.001) and were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K (p<0.001), with renal SLEDAI score (p=0.008) and renal activity score (p=0.04). So, Syndecan-1 might be used as a marker for disease activity and renal activity in JSLE patients.

  13. Manufacturing of High Quality Teachers for Chemistry Education at Higher Secondary Level in Current Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *R. Azmat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most influential tool whose efficient use requires the power of determination, devoted work and sacrifice. As teachers are major handler of this tool therefore, they must possess qualities of high education and competency for deliver. Education extends attractive way of life, talent and manners which make an individual a fine civilian. Primary and secondary education is one of the foundation stone of development of children and country. It acts as a vital part in placing the proper institution of child’s cultural, social, moral, emotional, intellectual, physical and spiritual improvement. Primary education contributes to national development while education at post graduate level provides think tank for progress of country. The Secondary education which serves as a link among primary and higher education is expected to prepare young people between the age group of 14-18 in the world of work, who are ready to enter into advanced education. Chemistry is the basis of life, and subject of importance in nation building, acquiring much attention from the world class Universities now days, to build interest and skills into the students for complex education. Chemical education is an active area of research within both the disciplines of chemistry and education, focusing on learning and teaching of chemistry in schools, colleges and universities, with the goals of understanding how students learn chemistry, how best to teach chemistry. The curricula of higher secondary education require special attention at theory and practical level which should build the interest and attraction in chemistry in the age of 14-18. There is need of designing new curricula, covering chemistry in an easiest and attractive way associated with the environment1. Organization of continual workshops for teachers for fresh up courses aimed at building awareness in new themes in chemistry education. Themes1,2 in chemistry education should consist of

  14. Geomorphic evidence for mid Holocene higher sea level from southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, A. D.; Sloss, C. R.; Jones, B. G.; Bristow, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    An elevated sheltered pocket beach sequence at Batemans Bay, NSW, Australia, composed of shelly fine- to medium-grained sand provides geomorphological evidence of higher than present sea level during the mid-Holocene. The sequence is composed of a sand facies with variable amounts of shell and contains a number of well-defined dipping reflectors identified in GPR profiles indicative of a small prograded beach system. This beach succession is overlain by storm or tsunami deposits. This beach deposit probably accumulated between 2500-5000 years ago under relatively high energy conditions within a more open immature estuary during a period of higher sea level. Both deposits have been preserved by a low energy mangrove facies that accumulated after the recent fall in sea level cut off ocean wave activity from the area. The beach sequence adds complementary geomorphic evidence for the mid Holocene sea level highstand previously identified along other parts of the southeast Australian coast.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol levels are higher in patients with delirium versus controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Timothy O

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High plasma cortisol levels can cause acute cognitive and neuropsychiatric dysfunction, and have been linked with delirium. CSF cortisol levels more closely reflect brain exposure to cortisol, but there are no studies of CSF cortisol levels in delirium. In this pilot study we acquired CSF specimens at the onset of spinal anaesthesia in patients undergoing hip fracture surgery, and compared CSF and plasma cortisol levels in delirium cases versus controls. Findings Delirium assessments were performed the evening before or on the morning of operation with a standard battery comprising cognitive tests, mental status assessments and the Confusion Assessment Method. CSF and plasma samples were obtained at the onset of the operation and cortisol levels measured. Twenty patients (15 female, 5 male aged 62 - 93 years were studied. Seven patients were diagnosed with delirium. The mean ages of cases (81.4 (SD 7.2 and controls (80.5 (SD 8.7 were not significantly different (p = 0.88. The median (interquartile range CSF cortisol levels were significantly higher in cases (63.9 (40.4-102.1 nmol/L than controls (31.4 (21.7-43.3 nmol/L; Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.029. The median (interquartile range of plasma cortisol was also significantly higher in cases (968.8 (886.2-1394.4 nmol/L, than controls (809.4 (544.0-986.4 nmol/L; Mann Whitney U, p = 0.036. Conclusions These findings support an association between higher CSF cortisol levels and delirium. This extends previous findings linking higher plasma cortisol and delirium, and suggests that more definitive studies of the relationship between cortisol levels and delirium are now required.

  16. Effect of individual and group housing of mice on the level of radioresistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorozhkina O.V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to examine the effect of individual and group housing of mice on radioresistance. Material and methods. Effects of individual and group housing of mice on immunity and blood systems were studied on ICR (CD-1 and C57BI6 male mice before and after proton irradiation. Results. Group housing of intact animals resulted in a decline in the number of nucleated cells in the femur bone marrow and thymus mass. The irradiation with proton with energy of 171 MeV at a dose of 1 Gy causes a statistically significant greater reduction of the number of nucleated cells in the femur bone marrow in group-housed mice. A trend toward greater safety of the number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood and higher proliferative activity of bone marrow cells, as well as lower level of aberrant mitoses have been noted in individually-housed mice. Reduction processes in the recovery period of radiation sickness take place at a greater rate in group-housed mice. Conclusion. Group housing of male mice causes increased sensitivity of the blood and immunity systems to the effects of radiation and at the same time accelerates processes of radiation recovery.

  17. The Influence of Transformational Leadership on the Level of TQM Implementation in the Higher Education Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argia, Hassan A. A.; Ismail, Aziah

    2013-01-01

    This current research paper investigates the role of transformational leadership on impacting the level of TQM implementation in the higher education sector. In addition, TQM, as a management philosophy, can be implemented successfully only when incorporated into the prevailing learning organization and adequate understanding of transformational…

  18. Re-Setting the Concentration Levels of Students in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lisa A.; Ray, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that college students' concentration levels are limited and hard to maintain. Even though relevant in higher education, scant empirical research exists on interventions to "re-set" their concentration during a college lecture. Using a within-subjects design, four active learning interventions are administered across two…

  19. Wellbeing in the Welfare State: level not higher, distribution not more equitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of

  20. Does peer learning or higher levels of e-learning improve learning abilities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt; Jensen, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The fast development of e-learning and social forums demands us to update our understanding of e-learning and peer learning. We aimed to investigate if higher, pre-defined levels of e-learning or social interaction in web forums improved students' learning ability....

  1. Implementing CLT at Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh: A Review of Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Shidur

    2015-01-01

    CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) was substituted for GTM (Grammar Translation Method) at higher secondary level in Bangladesh in 2001. This replacement of ELT method was a significant change in the English curriculum. This study aimed to determine that the mismanagement of the change is a prime cause of not getting expected CLT outcomes at…

  2. The Views of Children and Parents towards Higher Level Teaching Assistants Who Teach Whole Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keith Edward; O'Connor, Marie

    2012-01-01

    By September 2009 there were approximately 30,000 higher level teaching assistants (HLTAs) in English schools. All of these HLTAs are expected to be able to deliver pre-set lessons in place of a teacher. Often, they are determining the pedagogical approach and range of activities used to deliver the lesson's objectives. Consequently, there is a…

  3. Adrenocortical Production Is Associated with Higher Levels of Luteinizing Hormone in Nonobese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Insulin resistance (IR and ovarian and adrenal hyperandrogenism are a common finding in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. The aim of the present study was to access possible differences in insulin resistance, gonadotropins, and androgens production in obese and nonobese PCOS women. Study Design. We studied 37 PCOS women (16 nonobese and 21 obese and 18 nonobese controls. Fasting glucose, insulin, androgens, and gonadotropins levels were determined. Salivary cortisol was measured basal and in the morning after dexamethasone (DEX 0.25 mg. Results. Nonobese PCOS women showed higher basal salivary cortisol and serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and luteinizing hormone (LH levels than controls and obese PCOS. These hormones levels did not differ between the obese and control groups. After DEX administration no differences were found between the three groups. In PCOS women, salivary cortisol levels showed negative correlation with BMI (r=-0.52; P=0.001 and insulin (r=-0.47; P=0.003 and positive correlation with LH (r=0.40; P=0.016. Conclusion. Our results show an increased adrenocortical production in nonobese PCOS women, not related to IR and associated with a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal suppression. Higher LH levels might be involved in this event.

  4. Higher Serum Levels of Free ĸ plus λ Immunoglobulin Light Chains Ameliorate Survival of Hemodialysis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilo, Florian; Caspari, Christina; Scholze, Alexandra;

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Impaired immune function is common in patients with chronic renal failure. Now, we determined whether serum levels of free immunoglobulin light chains predict mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on hemodialysis. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study...... of 160 hemodialysis patients with a median follow-up of 15 months (interquartile range, 3-44 months). Serum levels of free κ and λ immunoglobulin light chains were measured at the start of the study. The primary end point was mortality from any cause. Results: In survivors, median serum levels of free κ....../l (χ(2) = 5.91; p = 0.015 by log-rank, Mantel-Cox, test). We performed univariate and multivariate regression analysis showing that older age and lower serum levels of free κ plus λ immunoglobulin light chains predicted mortality in hemodialysis patients. Conclusion: Higher serum levels of free κ plus...

  5. Effect of Group Work on EFL Students' Attitudes and Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taqi, Hanan A.; Al-Nouh, Nowreyah A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of group work in classroom activities is a method used for motivating learning and increasing the idea of pleasure through learning. The current study investigates the advantages of group work in exams in the English department, in the College of Basic Education. 40 students in two classes of "The Introduction of Phonetics and…

  6. Using Student Group Work in Higher Education to Emulate Professional Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Colm; McLaughlin, Heather; Eng, Tan Yoke

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of social learning from group work that emulates a professional community of practice. Design/methodology/approach: A thought piece that first, examines the role of group-work projects as part of social learning, then outlines key arguments for social learning based upon applying a…

  7. Genes with stable DNA methylation levels show higher evolutionary conservation than genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruijie; Lv, Wenhua; Luan, Meiwei; Zheng, Jiajia; Shi, Miao; Zhu, Hongjie; Li, Jin; Lv, Hongchao; Zhang, Mingming; Shang, Zhenwei; Duan, Lian; Jiang, Yongshuai

    2015-11-24

    Different human genes often exhibit different degrees of stability in their DNA methylation levels between tissues, samples or cell types. This may be related to the evolution of human genome. Thus, we compared the evolutionary conservation between two types of genes: genes with stable DNA methylation levels (SM genes) and genes with fluctuant DNA methylation levels (FM genes). For long-term evolutionary characteristics between species, we compared the percentage of the orthologous genes, evolutionary rate dn/ds and protein sequence identity. We found that the SM genes had greater percentages of the orthologous genes, lower dn/ds, and higher protein sequence identities in all the 21 species. These results indicated that the SM genes were more evolutionarily conserved than the FM genes. For short-term evolutionary characteristics among human populations, we compared the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density, and the linkage disequilibrium (LD) degree in HapMap populations and 1000 genomes project populations. We observed that the SM genes had lower SNP densities, and higher degrees of LD in all the 11 HapMap populations and 13 1000 genomes project populations. These results mean that the SM genes had more stable chromosome genetic structures, and were more conserved than the FM genes.

  8. The Interrelations of ICT and Professional Identity: Studying Group Formations in the Context of Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Line Helverskov

    2016-01-01

    Technology adoption and application of professionals. Educational practices of higher education are equally affected. New educational programmes emerge and course titles, pedagogies, and curricula are adapted to reflect technological changes. Thus, ICT has become a significant aspect of the content...... and statistics. When studying professional identity in the context of higher education, actors include but is not limited to students, educators, graduates, experienced professionals, but equally tools (including ICTs), curricula, professional legislation and employment statistics. The number or nature...

  9. Factors Identified with Higher Levels of Career Satisfaction of Physicians in Andalusia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Sánchez, Juan Nicolás; Lepnurm, Rein; Morales-Asencio, José Miguel; Delgado, Ana; Domagała, Alicja; Górkiewicz, Maciej

    2014-04-26

    The satisfaction of physicians is a worldwide issue linked with the quality of health services; their satisfaction needs to be studied from a multi-dimensional perspective, considering lower- and higher-order needs. The objectives of this study were to: i) measure the career satisfaction of physicians; ii) identify differences in the dimensions of career satisfaction; and iii) test factors that affect higher- and lower-order needs of satisfaction among physicians working in Andalusian hospitals (Spain). Forty-one percent of 299 eligible physicians participated in a study conducted in six selected hospitals. Physicians reported higher professional, inherent, and performance satisfaction than personal satisfaction. Foreign physicians reported higher levels of personal and performance satisfaction than local physicians, and those who received non-monetary incentives had higher professional and performance satisfaction. In conclusion, physicians in the selected Andalusian hospitals reported low levels of personal satisfaction. Non-monetary incentives were more relevant to influence their career satisfaction. Further investigations are recommended to study differences in the career satisfaction between foreign and local physicians.

  10. Technology and Bloom's Taxonomy: Tools to facilitate higher-level learning in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew Earle

    This research project ties together chemistry data acquisition technology, introductory chemistry laboratory experiments. and Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives into a unified learning model. The goal is to provide faculty and introductory chemistry students with the tools and exercises to experience higher levels of learning, as defined by Bloom's taxonomy. The tools developed as part of this project include data acquisition hardware and software, communications software, and computer simulations that enable higher-level learning situations. A series of five experiments using a discovery-based teaching model are developed as part of the learning model. The experiments bring together the hardware tools, software tools, and learning model to place students in situations that require students to use critical thinking skills and experience higher-level learning. Content-related application problems are also included in the experiments. The experiments are divided into three chemistry units of instruction that build on each other, but can also be used independently. Instructor training is an important part of this project. The successful integration of technology into educational situations cannot be accomplished without the support and understanding of faculty, staff, and teaching assistants. This aspect of the project focuses on shifting teaching and learning paradigms to encourage appropriate technology use and allow technology to become a major aspect of the high-level learning environment. Finally, students were surveyed in an attempt to measure the effectiveness of the learning model. Students were evaluated on chemistry concept retention, as well as their perception of learning. They were also asked how well they enjoyed this form of learning. Along with the tools themselves, this project provides templates that can launch future work in this area. The learning model, data acquisition tools, and experiment writing templates are developed here to provide

  11. Different Levels in Orexin Concentrations and Risk Factors Associated with Higher Orexin Levels: Comparison between Detoxified Opiate and Methamphetamine Addicts in 5 Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA. Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P<0.05. Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than “chasing the dragon” (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2–7.9. No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome.

  12. Higher levels of ATGL are associated with exercise-induced enhancement of lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junetsu Ogasawara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adipose cells, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL catalyzes the first step in adipocyte triacylglyceride hydrolysis, thereby regulating both basal and hormone-stimulated lipolysis. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism(s underlying habitual exercise-induced adaptive modulation of ATGL in white adipocytes via alteration in transcription regulator and lipolytic cofactors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL RESULTS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups a sedentary control group (CG and a habitual exercise group (EG. The EG was subjected to running on a treadmill set at 5 days per week for 9 weeks. The CG was not subjected to running on a treadmill. In the EG, levels of ATGL mRNA and protein were elevated with a significant increase in lipolysis compared with the CG, accompanied by a significant increase in associations of CGI-58 with ATGL protein. Under these conditions, an upregulation of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptorg-2 (PPARg-2 was observed. In the EG, the addition of rosiglitazone further significantly increased the levels of ATGL protein compared with the CG. However, attenuated levels of the ATGL protein in adipocytes were obtained by the addition of insulin, which is known to inhibit the expression of ATGL, in both types of groups. Actually, levels of plasma insulin were significantly reduced in the EG compared with the CG. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that elevated levels of ATGL are involved in the exercise-induced enhancement of lipolysis in primary adipocytes. The exact mechanism(s underlying this phenomenon is associated, at least in part, with upregulated transcriptional activation of PPARg-2. In addition, exercise-induced lower circulation levels of insulin also correlate with habitual exercise-induced higher levels of ATGL in primary adipocytes.

  13. Cutting the Cord: Student-Led Discussion Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, John; McGuinness, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of leaderless group discussions and peer assessment in undergraduate classes to develop teamwork skills and the capacity for independent thought and action students will need on the job. (SK)

  14. Generalization of the tensor renormalization group approach to 3-D or higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Peiyuan

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a way of generalizing the tensor renormalization group (TRG) is proposed. Mathematically, the connection between patterns of tensor renormalization group and the concept of truncation sequence in polytope geometry is discovered. A theoretical contraction framework is therefore proposed. Furthermore, the canonical polyadic decomposition is introduced to tensor network theory. A numerical verification of this method on the 3-D Ising model is carried out.

  15. Higher levels of serum lycopene are associated with reduced mortality in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Meza, Jane L; Soliman, Ghada A; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of mortality. Increased oxidative stress and inflammation may play an important role in the high mortality of individuals with metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have suggested that lycopene intake might be related to the reduced oxidative stress and decreased inflammation. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the hypothesis that lycopene is associated with mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome. A total of 2499 participants 20 years and older with metabolic syndrome were divided into 3 groups based on their serum concentration of lycopene using the tertile rank method. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from years 2001 to 2006 was linked to the mortality file for mortality follow-up data through December 31, 2011, to determine the mortality rate and hazard ratios (HR) for the 3 serum lycopene concentration groups. The mean survival time was significantly higher in the group with the highest serum lycopene concentration (120.6 months; 95% confidence interval [CI], 118.8-122.3) and the medium group (116.3 months; 95% CI, 115.2-117.4), compared with the group with lowest serum lycopene concentration (107.4 months; 95% CI, 106.5-108.3). After adjusting for possible confounding factors, participants in the highest (HR, 0.61; P = .0113) and in the second highest (HR, 0.67; P = .0497) serum lycopene concentration groups showed significantly lower HRs of mortality when compared with participants in the lower serum lycopene concentration. The data suggest that higher serum lycopene concentration has a significant association with the reduced risk of mortality among individuals with metabolic syndrome.

  16. Higher-level fusion for military operations based on abductive inference: proof of principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John

    2006-04-01

    The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.

  17. The Need and Importance of Field Trips at Higher Level in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Fatima Shakil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the importance of educational field trips at higher level in different universities of Karachi. This study was carried out through survey. The population of this study was the students and teachers of both government and private universities. The ideas and views of male and female students and teachers were sought out regarding the importance of educational field trips at higher level. One hundred and fifty respondents including 50 teachersand 100 students were randomly selected. The questionnaire was used as a research instrument which was consisted of 28, 28 items, collected data was analyzed by using simple percentage method. Majority of the respondents had a view that educational field trip ishelpful to cope up with advance learning. A large number of respondents opinioned that educational field trip help to give a practical approach for the curriculum and it is helpful to develop more interest in learning among students.

  18. Disease progression and oxidative stress are associated with higher serum ferritin levels in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Katerine Panichi Zanin; Oliveira, Sayonara R; Kallaur, Ana Paula; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio R; Lozovoy, Marcell Alysson B; de Almeida, Elaine Regina Delicato; Morimoto, Helena Kaminami; Mezzaroba, Leda; Dichi, Isaias; Reiche, Edna Maria Vissoci; Simão, Andréa Name Colado

    2017-02-15

    Hyperferritinemia and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the serum levels of ferritin and to verify their association with oxidative stress markers and MS progression. This study included 164 MS patients, which were divided in two groups according to their levels of ferritin (cut off 125.6μg/L). Oxidative stress was evaluated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence (CL-LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), carbonyl protein, nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), sulfhydryl groups of protein and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). MS patients with elevated levels of ferritin showed higher disease progression (p=0.030), AOPP (p=0.001), and lower plasma NOx levels (p=0.031) and TRAP (p=0.006) than MS patients with lower ferritin levels. The multivariate binary logistic regression analysis showed that increased AOPP and progression of disease were significantly and positively associated with increase of ferritin. The combination of serum ferritin levels and oxidative stress markers were responsible for 13,9% in the disease progression. In conclusion, our results suggest that ferritin could aggravate oxidative stress in patients with MS and contribute to progression of disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Are Productivity Levels Higher in Some European Countries than in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Cette

    2005-01-01

    Estimates produced by the OECD indicate that labour productivity levels are higher in a number of European countries than in the United States, implying that Europe and not the United States is the world technological leader. The author argues that a structural measure of labour productivity, closer to a measure of technical efficiency, would take into account the much lower employment rates and hours of work in Europe. Low employment rates reflect the exclusion of certain low-porductivity gr...

  20. Support Needs of the Most Vulnerable Student Groups in Non-University Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamuliene, Rasa

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the research on support needs of the most vulnerable students in nonuniversity higher education. The research results have revealed that older, part-time students who have family and/or work responsibilities focus on academic information and counselling, foreign language training, distance study centre, legal counselling and…

  1. School Choice Options Limit Access to Higher Education for Various Groups of Students in Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrosse, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco; Picard, France

    2017-01-01

    The choice of selected school options by pupils in secondary school, particularly mathematics and physical sciences, have implications for future educational pathways in higher education [Felouzis, G. (1997). "L'efficacité des enseignants, Sociologie de la relation pédagogique." Paris: Presses Universitaires de France; Moreau, G. (2005).…

  2. INCREASED VASOOCCLUSIVE CRISIS IN “O” BLOOD GROUP SICKLE CELL DISEASE PATIENTS: ASSOCIATION WITH UNDERLYING THROMBOSPONDIN LEVELS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Huneini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objectives: To explore the incidence of vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC in Blood Group “O” sickle cell disease (SCD patients, and correlate it with the blood group and thrombospondin (TSP levels. Methods: In 89 consecutive SCD patients, blood samples were obtained for vWF antigen, collagen binding activity, blood group typing, C-reactive protein, variant hemoglobin analysis (HPLC, Serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels, complete blood counts, liver function tests, LDH and renal function tests during VOC episodes and in steady state conditions. Results: In the steady state SCD patients (n=72, “O” blood group patients (n=37 showed significantly higher median serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels than the non “O” blood group patients [n=35] [p <0.05, Mann-Whitney test], with an inverse relation between VWF:Ag, Factor VIII:C and TSP levels. Furthermore, the serum TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly higher in patients presenting with acute VOC [n=17], and in those with repeated VOC’s (group 1, n=16 especially amongst those patients with blood group “O” [p, <0.05, Mann-Whitney test]. Conclusions: The study shows that there was an inverse relation between TSP and vWF levels, in blood group “O” SCD patients with an upregulation of the TSP levels. Expectedly, during active VOC crisis, the TSP 1 and TSP 2 levels were significantly elevated.    Key Words: VOC; SCD; TSP; vWD; Blood groups

  3. Decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease by continuous infusion of cyclosporine with a higher target blood level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kumi; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Nakasone, Hideki; Arai, Shunya; Nishimoto, Nahoko; Sato, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Takuro; Hosoya, Noriko; Izutsu, Koji; Asai, Takashi; Hangaishi, Akira; Motokura, Toru; Chiba, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2008-03-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA) is the mainstay of pharmacologic prevention of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We previously reported that continuous infusion of CsA with a target blood level between 250 and 400 ng/ml significantly increased the incidence of acute GVHD compared to twice-daily infusion with a target trough level between 150 and 300 ng/ml. Thus, we raised the target level of CsA continuous infusion to 450-550 ng/ml. We treated 33 patients with the higher target level (CsA500) and compared the efficacy and toxicity with those in the 33 historical control patients (CsA300 group). Other transplantation procedures were not changed. The patients' characteristics were equivalent. The average CsA concentration was adjusted around 500 ng/ml and the actual daily dose was maintained at the initial dose (CsA 3mg/kg/day). Toxicities were equivalently observed among the two groups. The incidence of grades II-IV acute GVHD was significantly lower in the CsA500 group (27 vs. 52%, P = 0.033). The target level of CsA was identified as an independent significant risk factor for grades II-IV acute GVHD (P = 0.039), adjusted for the presence of HLA mismatch. The incidence of chronic GVHD was also decreased in the CsA500 group (47 vs. 73%, P = 0.016). We conclude that the toxicity of the continuous CsA infusion with a target level of 450-550 ng/ml is acceptable and the efficacy to prevent acute GVHD is significant. A larger comparative study is warranted to confirm these findings.

  4. Promoting Individual and Group Regulated Learning in Collaborative Settings: An Experience in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onrubia, Javier; Rochera, Maria José; Engel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We present a teaching innovation intervention aimed at promoting individual and group learning regulation in undergraduate students working in a computer supported collaborative learning environment. Participants were 127 students and three teachers of a compulsory course on Educational Psychology at the University of Barcelona (Spain). As a…

  5. Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives: Learning Business Informatics at Higher Educational Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suša Dalia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The term digital natives refer to those born since the 1980s and have been growing up surrounded by technology. On the other hand, digital immigrants are born before 1980s and learned how to use technology later in life. Objectives: Goal of the paper is to explore attitudes of digital native students on the course of Business Informatics at higher educational institutions (HEIs, and to compare them with attitudes of digital immigrants. Methods/Approach: The survey was conducted in 2014 using the sample of first-year Business Informatics students from the Faculty of Economics and Business in Zagreb, Croatia. Results were compared with a research conducted in 1998. Results: In comparison to an earlier research, digital natives perceive their level of competency in the subject of Business Informatics before teaching practices much higher compared to digital immigrants. However, there is still an increase in digital native students’ level of competency in the subject before and after teaching practices. Conclusions: The research confirms a shift from digital immigrants to digital natives who show high level of interest for Business Informatics course topics and find its utility very high. However, constant improvement of delivering knowledge is needed in order to keep these high levels.

  6. Differential Effects of Personal-Level vs Group-Level Racial Discrimination on Health among Black Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Nao; Alderson, Courtney J; Mezuk, Briana

    2016-07-21

    Racial/ethnic minorities in the United States not only experience discrimination personally but also witness or hear about fellow in-group members experiencing discrimination (ie, group-level discrimination). The objective of our study was to examine whether the effects of group-level discrimination on mental and physical health are different from those of personal-level discrimination among Black Americans by drawing upon social psychology research of the Personal/Group Discrimination Discrepancy. We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data from a larger study. One hundred and twenty participants, who self-identified as Black/African Americans during the laboratory sessions (57.5% women, mean age = 48.97, standard deviation = 8.58) in the parent study, were included in our analyses. Perceived personal-level discrimination was assessed with five items that were taken from two existing measures, and group-level racial discrimination was assessed with three items. Self-reported physical and mental health were assessed with a modified version of SF-8. Perceived personal-level racial discrimination was associated with worse mental health. In contrast, perceived group-level racial discrimination was associated with better mental as well as physical health. Perceived group-level racial discrimination may serve as one of several health protective factors even when individuals perceive personal-level racial discrimination. The present findings demonstrate the importance of examining both personal- and group-level experiences of racial discrimination as they independently relate to health outcomes for Black Americans.

  7. Early weight regain after gastric bypass does not affect insulin sensitivity but is associated with higher ghrelin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboli, Robyn A.; Breitman, Igal; Marks-Shulman, Pam A.; Jabbour, Kareem; Melvin, Willie; Williams, Brandon; Clements, Ronald H.; Feurer, Irene D.; Abumrad, Naji N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We sought to determine: 1) if early weight regain between one and two years after RYGB is associated with worsened hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and 2) if preoperative levels of ghrelin and leptin are associated with early weight regain after RYGB. Design and Methods Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity and ghrelin and leptin plasma levels were assessed longitudinally in 45 subjects before RYGB and at one month, six months, one year, and two years post operatively. Weight regain was defined as ≥ 5% increase in body weight between one and two years after RYGB. Results Weight regain occurred in 33% of subjects, with an average increase in body weight of 10 ± 5 % (8.5 ± 3.3 kg). Weight regain was not associated with worsening of peripheral or hepatic insulin sensitivity. Subjects with weight regain after RYGB had higher preoperative and postoperative levels of ghrelin compared to those who maintained or lost weight during this time. Conversely, the trajectories of leptin levels corresponded with the trajectories of fat mass in both groups. Conclusions Early weight regain after RYGB is not associated with a reversal of improvements in insulin sensitivity. Higher preoperative ghrelin levels might identify patients that are more susceptible to weight regain after RYGB. PMID:24777992

  8. A higher level of education amplifies the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán, Antonio; Rodríguez-Laso, Ángel; Pujol, Rogelio; Barrios, Laura

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to estimate if the education level modifies the association of income with disability prevalence in the elderly. Education can have a confounding effect on income or interact with it as a health determinant. It is important to analyze the relationship between socio-economic status and disability in older people, because it helps to better understand health inequalities and organize appropriate social policies. The study is based on the Survey on Disability, Personal Autonomy and Dependency Situations (Spanish National Statistics Institute). Binary logistic regression models are adjusted (bivariate, adjusted for gender and age, with all variables and with the interaction between income and education levels). A bad adjustment of the model is detected and a scobit link is added, which helps to differentiate disabled and non-disabled individuals better. People with difficulty in carrying out activities of daily living are much older, frequently women and with low education and income levels. The significant interaction between education level and income means that the odds of being disabled is 43% less in people of high income compared with people of low income if they are well educated, while it is only 21%, among those with low education. A higher education level amplifies significantly the inverse association between income and disability in the Spanish elderly, what suggests that those with higher education will profit more than those with lower education from universal economic benefits policies aimed at the disabled, increasing health inequalities between groups.

  9. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food frequency questionnaire. Thirteen supermarket chains were stratified into three categories: low, medium, and high cost, based on a market basket of 100 commonly eaten foods. Diet-quality measures were energy density, mean adequacy ratio, and total servings of fruits and vegetables. The analytical sample consisted of 963 adults. Multivariable regressions with robust standard error examined relations between diet quality, supermarket type, attitudes, and SES. Shopping at higher-cost supermarkets was associated with higher-quality diets. These associations persisted after adjusting for SES, but were eliminated after taking attitudinal measures into account. Supermarket shoppers with positive attitudes toward healthy eating had equally higher-quality diets, even if they shopped at low-, medium-, or high-cost supermarkets, independent of SES and other covariates. These findings imply that shopping at low-cost supermarkets does not prevent consumers from having high-quality diets, as long as they attach importance to good nutrition. Promoting nutrition-education strategies among supermarkets, particularly those catering to low-income groups, can help to improve diet quality. PMID:23916974

  10. Relation of nuclear volume and radiosensitivity to ploidy level in higher plants and a yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conger, A.D. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA); Sparrow, A.H.; Schwemmer, S.S.; Klug, E.E.

    1982-01-01

    The relation between ploidy level and radiosensitivity for lethality among plants was examined to see if any major determinant could be found for the relation observed, and if any generalization could be derived. Data are presented on nuclear volume, interphase chromosome volume and acute lethal dose for x% killing for polyploid series of species within 11 genera, 117 species or varieties, of herbaceous higher plants and one species of the yeast Saccharomyces. Radiosensitivity data were obtained for 6 genera, 66 species' or varieties. In general, within any one genus, nuclear volume increases proportional to ploidy level. The relative increase of nuclear volume with ploidy is about the same for all 12 genera; it is less rapid than linear in the range 2x to 4x but almost linear from 4x to the higher ploidy levels. On the average, relative acute lethal dose of haploids is half that of diploids, is about constant from diploid to 10-diploid, and then decreases with increasing ploidy. When we compare the dose absorbed per average chromosome for x% killing, greater consistency is found both within and between genera. In general, the average haploid chromosome, and cell, is twice as sensitive as the diploid. In the range 2- to 10-ploid, chromosome sensitivity remains about constant and equal to the diploid. From 10- to 20-ploid, chromosome sensitivity increases rather smoothly up to about three to four times the diploid value for all six genera of herbaceous plants. Sensitivity of yeast chromosomes increases with ploidy at a faster rate, and to a much greater extent. In the range 2- to 10-ploid, it appears that the sensitizing effect of increased target size is about compensated for by the protective effect of the equivalent increase in genetic redundancy, leading to the net constancy in sensitivity. At the higher ploidy levels, genomic and chromosomal size do not account for the radiosensitivity increase.

  11. Epidemiological investigations of aircrew: an occupational group with low-level cosmic radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeb, Hajo; Hammer, Gaël P; Blettner, Maria

    2012-03-01

    Aircrew and passengers are exposed to low-level cosmic ionising radiation. Annual effective doses for flight crew have been estimated to be in the order of 2-5 mSv and can attain 75 mSv at career end. Epidemiological studies in this occupational group have been conducted over the last 15-20 years, usually with a focus on radiation-associated cancer. These studies are summarised in this note. Overall cancer risk was not elevated in most studies and subpopulations analysed, while malignant melanoma, other skin cancers and breast cancer in female aircrew have shown elevated incidence, with lesser risk elevations in terms of mortality. In some studies, including the large German cohort, brain cancer risk appears elevated. Cardiovascular mortality risks were generally very low. Dose information for pilots was usually derived from calculation procedures based on routine licence information, types of aircraft and routes/hours flown, but not on direct measurements. However, dose estimates have shown high validity when compared with measured values. No clear-cut dose-response patterns pointing to a higher risk for those with higher cumulative doses were found. Studies on other health outcomes have shown mixed results. Overall, aircrew are a highly selected group with many specific characteristics and exposures that might also influence cancers or other health outcomes. Radiation-associated health effects have not been clearly established in the studies available so far.

  12. Volunteering among Higher Education Students. Focusing on the Micro-level Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAJNALKA FÉNYES

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In our paper, we intend to examine the micro-level factors affecting the volunteering of higher education students. Althoughseveral theories and research studies approach this phenomenon, a relatively small amount of studies examines the volunteeringof higher education students. Based on the literature, the young generation today participates in new types of volunteering, inwhich their motivation is not dominantly altruistic. These results call our attention to the necessity for new measurements andindicators of volunteering. The new approach in our research is that we differentiated between the voluntary work of studentsand the voluntary extracurricular activities of students. Among micro-level factors affecting volunteering, we examine the effectsof demographic variables and the students’ social background. However, based on the literature, we suppose that the effect ofreligiosity and values (which are related to the motivations of volunteering of students as well are more pronounced. Regressionmodels are used to examine these effects both on voluntary work and on extracurricular activities of students. Our databases areregional (first, we examine the voluntary activities of students at the University of Debrecen, then the extracurricular activities ofstudents in the so-called Partium region, but our goal is to show general tendencies of volunteering of higher education students,taking into account the possible regional differences as well.

  13. Does Higher Education Level the Playing Field? Socio-Economic Differences in Graduate Earnings

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    Claire Crawford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Education—and in particular higher education—is often regarded as a route to social mobility. For this to be the case, however, the link between family background and adult outcomes must be broken (or at least reduced once we take account of an individual’s education history. This paper provides new evidence on differences in graduates’ earnings by socio-economic background, exploiting rich individual-level data to account for more of the ways in which graduates from different socio-economic backgrounds differ from each other than has been possible in previous research on this topic. We continue to find significant differences between the earnings of graduates from lower and higher socio-economic backgrounds, even after accounting for a rich array of characteristics, skills and experiences from before individuals went to university, as well as their labour market experiences subsequently. These results suggest that it is not enough simply to encourage more young people to go to university, or even to ensure that they graduate with “good” degrees; policymakers interested in increasing social mobility also need to focus on what happens to them once they leave university to ensure that higher education is truly able to “level the playing field” between those from different socio-economic backgrounds.

  14. Higher Pentraxin-3 Levels are Associated With Inflammation in Familial Mediterranean Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Mesudiye; Ceri, Mevlut; Unverdi, Selman; Altay, Mustafa; Senes, Mehmet; Ecemis, Zafer Aydın; Duranay, Murat

    2016-11-01

    Circulating levels of Pentraxin-3 (PTX3) have been shown to increase in several inflammatory conditions. However, there is no information about the levels of PTX3 in patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). This study was designed to evaluate the serum PTX3 levels in patients with FMF during attack and free-attack periods. Twenty FMF patients in attack and free-attack period, and 20 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Blood samples were obtained within the first 24 h of the attack period and between attacks, and levels of white blood cell, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Fibrinogen, high sensitive CRP, and PTX3 were determined. PTX3 levels during the attack period were not significantly different from those in free-attack patients (4.9 ± 4.6 ng/ml vs. 2.8 ± 1.4 ng/ml, P > 0.05). However, both attack and free-attack patients had significantly higher PTX3 levels than healthy controls (4.9 ± 4.6 ng/ml vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001; 2.8 ± 1.4 ng/ml vs. 1.8 ± 0.8 ng/ml, P < 0.025, respectively). PTX3 levels were not markedly affected from FMF attacks, but high level of PTX3 in free-attack period of FMF patients shows ongoing subclinical inflammation. However, further studies are needed to determine its usefulness as a marker in clinical practice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Gender difference of alanine aminotransferase elevation may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels among male adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Chih-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the gender difference of ALT elevation and its association with high hemoglobin levels. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 3547 adolescents (2005 females, mean age of 16.5?.3 years who were negative for hepatitis B surface antigen received health checkups in 2006. Body mass index (BMI, levels of hemoglobin, ALT and cholesterol were measured. ALT >42 U/L was defined as elevated ALT. Elevated ALT levels were detected in 112 of the 3547 participants (3.3%, more prevalent in males than in females (5.4% vs. 1.4%, p11 g/dl in females or >13.5 g/dl in males, but the cumulative cases of elevated ALT increased more quickly in males. Proportion of elevated ALT increased as either the BMI or hemoglobin level rise, more apparent in male adolescents. Logistic regression modeling showed odds ratio (95% confidence interval were 24.7 (15.0-40.6 for BMI ≥27 kg/m(2; 5.5 (2.9-10.4 for BMI 24-27 kg/m(2; 2.7 (1.3-5.5 for Q5 (top 20th percentile hemoglobin level; and 2.6 (1.6-4.1 for male gender. Further separately fitting the logistic models for two genders, the significance of Q5 hemoglobin level only appeared in the males. CONCLUSIONS: High hemoglobin level is a significant risk factor of ALT elevation after control hepatitis B, obesity and gender. Males have greater risk of abnormal liver function which may be associated with higher hemoglobin levels.

  16. Predicting Group-Level Outcome Variables from Variables Measured at the Individual Level: A Latent Variable Multilevel Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croon, Marcel A.; van Veldhoven, Marc J. P. M.

    2007-01-01

    In multilevel modeling, one often distinguishes between macro-micro and micro-macro situations. In a macro-micro multilevel situation, a dependent variable measured at the lower level is predicted or explained by variables measured at that lower or a higher level. In a micro-macro multilevel situation, a dependent variable defined at the higher…

  17. Hybrid: A Definitional Two-Level Approach to Reasoning with Higher-Order Abstract Syntax

    CERN Document Server

    Felty, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Combining higher-order abstract syntax and (co)induction in a logical framework is well known to be problematic. Previous work described the implementation of a tool called Hybrid, within Isabelle HOL, which aims to address many of these difficulties. It allows object logics to be represented using higher-order abstract syntax, and reasoned about using tactical theorem proving and principles of (co)induction. In this paper we describe how to use it in a multi-level reasoning fashion, similar in spirit to other meta-logics such as Twelf. By explicitly referencing provability in a middle layer called a specification logic, we solve the problem of reasoning by (co)induction in the presence of non-stratifiable hypothetical judgments, which allow very elegant and succinct specifications of object logic inference rules.

  18. A multilevel perspective on faultlines: Differentiating the effects between group- and organizational-level faultlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Spell, Chester S; Caldwell, David; Burger, Jerry M

    2016-01-01

    Integrating the literature on faultlines, conflict, and pay, we drew on the basic principles of multilevel theory and differentiated between group- and organizational-level faultlines to introduce a novel multilevel perspective on faultlines. Using multisource, multilevel data on 30 Major League Baseball (MLB) teams, we found that group-level faultlines were negatively associated with group performance, and that internally focused conflict exacerbated but externally focused conflict mitigated this effect. Organizational-level faultlines were negatively related to organizational performance, and were most harmful in organizations with high levels of compensation. Implications for groups and teams in the sports/entertainment and other industries are discussed.

  19. Levels of aggressiveness are higher among alcohol-related suicides: results from a psychological autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachamovich, Eduardo; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo

    2012-09-01

    Suicide is one of the major causes of deaths worldwide. Several studies have showed that alcohol use disorders (AUD) are associated with suicide ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion. The majority of the theoretical conceptualization and the bulk of evidence on suicidal behavior and AUD are based on investigations of nonfatal cases because data on nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more readily available. This study aims to explore demographic, clinical, and behavioral dimensions in a large sample of alcohol-related suicides compared to an age-gender matched sample of non-AUD suicides to identify specific factors associated with AUD suicides. We conducted a psychological autopsy study with 158 pairs of AUD and non-AUD suicides. Findings showed that AUD suicides have lower educational level, more biological children and were more likely to be heavy smokers (OR=3.32). Cases were more likely to have family history of alcohol (OR=1.73) and drug abuse (OR=3.61). Subjects had similar prevalences of depressive disorders, anxiety disorders or psychotic disorders. AUD suicides were more likely to meet criteria for current cocaine abuse/dependence (OR=6.64). With respect to personality disorders, AUD suicides presented higher prevalence of Antisocial Personality Disorder (OR=4.68), and were less likely to meet criteria for Avoidant (OR=0.26) and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders (OR=0.35). Impulsivity scores were higher in AUD suicides (p=0.18), as well as aggression scores (psuicide. After controlling for impulsive-aggressive behaviors, levels of aggression were the only psychopathological feature statistically different between AUD and non-AUD suicides (OR=1.28). In conclusion, higher levels of aggressive behaviors are a specific characteristic of AUD suicides. Apart from substance-related diagnoses, AUD and non-AUD suicides have comparable Axis I psychiatric diagnoses and familial transmission of suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Individuals with autism have higher 8-Iso-PGF2α levels than controls, but no correlation with quantitative assay of Paraoxonase 1 serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Bianca; Niculae, Alexandru-Ștefan; Pop, Tudor Lucian; Răchișan, Andreea Liana

    2017-08-14

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) represents a very large set of neurodevelopmental issues with diverse clinical outcomes. Various hypotheses have been put forth for the etiology of autism spectrum disorder, including issues pertaining to oxidative stress. In this study, we conducted measurements of serum 8-Iso-Prostaglanding F2 α (8-iso-PGF2α, which is the results of non-enzimatically mediated polyunsaturated fatty acid oxidation) in a population of individuals with autism and a control group of age and sex matched controls. A quantitative assay of Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) was conducted. Data regarding comorbidities, structural MRI scans, medication, intelligence quotient (IQ) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale scores (CARS) were also included in our study. Our results show that patients diagnosed with autism have higher levels of 8-iso-PGF2α than their neurotypical counterparts. Levels of this particular metabolite, however, do not correlate with quantitative serum levels of Paraoxonase 1, which has been shown to be altered in individuals with autism. Neither 8-iso-PGF2α nor quantitative levels of PON1 provide any meaningful correlation with clinical or neuroimaging data in this study group. Future research should focus on providing data regarding PON 1 phenotype, in addition to standard quantitative measurements, in relation to 8-iso-PGF2α as well as other clinical and structural brain findings.

  1. Sedentary subjects have higher PAI-1 and lipoproteins levels than highly trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lira Fabio S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Physical exercise protects against the development of cardiovascular disease, partly by lowering plasmatic total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol levels. In addition, it is now established that reduction plasmatic adiponectin and increased C-reactive protein (CRP and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels play a role in the maintenance of an inflammatory state and in the development of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to examine plasma lipid profile and inflammatory markers levels in individual with sedentary lifestyle and/or highly trained athletes at rest. Methods: Fourteen male subjects (sedentary lifestyle n = 7 and highly trained athletes n = 7 were recruited. Blood samples were collected after an overnight fast (~12 h. The plasmatic lipid profile (Triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol, LDL-oxidized and total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, glucose, adiponectin, C - reactive protein and PAI-1 levels were determined. Results: Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, TG and PAI-1 levels were lower in highly trained athletes group in relation to sedentary subjects (p

  2. B lymphocyte stimulator levels in systemic lupus erythematosus: higher circulating levels in African American patients and increased production after influenza vaccination in patients with low baseline levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritterhouse, Lauren L; Crowe, Sherry R; Niewold, Timothy B; Merrill, Joan T; Roberts, Virginia C; Dedeke, Amy B; Neas, Barbara R; Thompson, Linda F; Guthridge, Joel M; James, Judith A

    2011-12-01

    To examine the relationship between circulating B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) levels and humoral responses to influenza vaccination in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients, as well as the effect of vaccination on BLyS levels, and to investigate clinical and serologic features of SLE that are associated with elevated BLyS levels. Clinical history, disease activity measurements, and blood specimens were collected from 60 SLE patients at baseline and after influenza vaccination. Sera were tested for BLyS levels, lupus-associated autoantibodies, serum interferon-α (IFNα) activity, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D), and humoral responses to influenza vaccination. Thirty percent of the SLE patients had elevated BLyS levels, with African American patients having higher BLyS levels than white patients (P = 0.006). Baseline BLyS levels in patients were not correlated with humoral responses to influenza vaccination (P = 0.863), and BLyS levels increased postvaccination only in the subset of patients with BLyS levels in the lowest quartile (P = 0.0003). Elevated BLyS levels were associated with increased disease activity, as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index, physician's global assessment, and Systemic Lupus Activity Measure in white patients (P = 0.035, P = 0.016, and P = 0.018, respectively), but not in African Americans. Elevated BLyS levels were also associated with anti-nuclear RNP (P = 0.0003) and decreased 25(OH)D (P = 0.018). Serum IFNα activity was a significant predictor of elevated BLyS in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.002). Our findings indicate that African American patients with SLE have higher BLyS levels regardless of disease activity. Humoral response to influenza vaccination is not correlated with baseline BLyS levels in SLE patients, and only those patients with low baseline BLyS levels demonstrate an increased BLyS response after vaccination. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Durations of extended mental rehearsals are remarkably reproducible in higher level human performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, L; Shaw, G L; Wright, E L

    1993-12-01

    It has been extremely difficult to quantify temporal aspects of higher level human brain function. We have found that mental rehearsals of musical performance of several minutes duration provide such a measure in that they can be highly reproducible, varying to less than 1%. These remarkable results pose fundamental neurophysiological problems. It is necessary to understand the underlying neuronal bases for this accuracy in the spatial-temporal activity of billions of neurons over minutes without sensory input. Further, they present a powerful constraint on neuronal models of brain function. Such highly reproducible (in duration) mental rehearsals might be used in conjunction with multielectrode EEG recordings to look for reproducible spatial-temporal patterns. Further, we suggest that our results may provide an extremely useful behavioural correlate for high level performance.

  4. Higher Plasma Methylglyoxal Levels are Associated with Incident Cardiovascular Disease in Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanssen, Nordin M J; Scheijen, Jean L J M; Jorsal, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO), a major precursor for advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), is increased in diabetes. In diabetic rodents, inhibition of MGO prevents cardiovascular disease (CVD). Whether plasma MGO levels are associated with incident CVD in people with type 1 diabetes is unknown. We included...... analyzed with Cox regression, with adjustment for sex, age, HbA1c, DN, diabetes duration, smoking, systolic blood pressure, anti-hypertensive medication and BMI. During follow-up, 73 individuals suffered at least one CVD event (36 fatal and 53 non-fatal events). Higher MGO levels were associated with total...... events in individuals with type 1 diabetes. MGO may explain the increased risk, at least in part, for CVD in type 1 diabetes....

  5. Higher-Order Level-Set Method and Its Application in Biomolecular Surfaces Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandrajit L. Bajaj; Guo-Liang Xu; Qin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    We present a general framework for a higher-order spline level-set (HLS) method and apply this to biomolecule surfaces construction. Starting from a first order energy functional, we obtain a general level set formulation of geometric partial differential equation, and provide an efficient approach to solving this partial differential equation using a C2 spline basis. We also present a fast cubic spline interpolation algorithm based on convolution and the Z-transform, which exploits the local relationship of interpolatory cubic spline coefficients with respect to given function data values. One example of our HLS method is demonstrated, which is the construction of biomolecule surfaces (an implicit salvation interface) with their individual atomic coordinates and solvated radii as prerequisites.

  6. Serum creatinine concentration at the onset of uremia: higher levels in black males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G; Shemin, D; Chazan, J A

    1992-06-01

    We compared serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations, estimated creatinine clearances and frequency of uremic symptoms at the start of chronic hemodialysis in all 20 black and 179 white males treated between 1969 and 1983. Serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in black males (16.5 +/- 5.9 mg/dl) than in white males (11.7 +/- 4.7 mg/dl; p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in blood urea nitrogen concentration, estimated creatinine clearance and frequency of uremic symptoms between the two groups. Blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine ratios were lower in black males, (7.3 +/- 1.9) than in white males (11.4 +/- 3.8; p = 0.0001), and only one black male had a ratio greater than 10 compared to 60% of whites. We concluded that black males tend to have higher serum creatinine concentrations than white males at the onset of uremic symptoms, and that higher striated muscle creatinine production in black males and not lower renal function may be the cause.

  7. The antioxidant level of Alaska's wild berries: high, higher and highest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxie Rodgers Dinstel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In the last few years, antioxidants have become the stars of the nutritional world. Antioxidants are important in terms of their ability to protect against oxidative cell damage that can lead to conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease, cancer and heart disease – conditions also linked with chronic inflammation. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Alaska's wild berries may have the potential to help prevent these diseases. Objective . To discover the antioxidant levels of Alaska wild berries and the ways these antioxidant levels translate when preservation methods are applied to the berry. Design . This research centred on both the raw berries and products made from the berries. In the first year, a variety of wild berries were tested to discover their oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC in the raw berries. The second level of the research project processed 4 different berries – blueberries, lingonberries, salmonberries, highbush cranberries – into 8 or 9 products made from these berries. The products were tested for both ORAC as well as specific antioxidants. Results . The Alaska wild berries collected and tested in the first experiment ranged from 3 to 5 times higher in ORAC value than cultivated berries from the lower 48 states. For instance, cultivated blueberries have an ORAC scale of 30. Alaska wild dwarf blueberries measure 85. This is also higher than lower 48 wild blueberries, which had a score of 61. All of the Alaskan berries tested have a level of antioxidant considered nutritionally valuable, ranging from 19 for watermelon berries to 206 for lingonberries on the ORAC scale. With the processed products made from 4 Alaska wild berries, one of the unexpected outcomes of the research was that the berries continued to have levels of antioxidants considered high, despite the effects of commonly used heat-processing techniques. When berries were dehydrated, per gram ORAC values increased. Conclusion

  8. Academic literacy of South African higher education level students: Does vocabulary size matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déogratias Nizonkiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the extent to which vocabulary size matters in academic literacy. Participants (first-year students at North-West University were administered the Vocabulary Levels Test (Schmitt, Schmitt and Clapham 2001. Scores from the test were used to estimate students’ vocabulary size and were subsequently mapped onto the levels distinguished by the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL. Estimates show that, on average, the vocabulary size of first-year students at North-West University is approximately 4,500 word families, a size large enough to allow them to follow lectures in English. Furthermore, students with large vocabularies were found to have higher academic literacy proficiency, which establishes a strong relationship between vocabulary size and academic literacy. This relationship was also observed at the different word frequency bands the Vocabulary Levels Test consists of. These results support previous findings which established a relationship between vocabulary size and reading (cf. Nation 2006, and between vocabulary size and overall language proficiency (cf. Beglar 2010, Meara and Buxton 1987, Meara and Jones 1988, Nation and Beglar 2007, which could be extended to academic literacy. Furthermore, a stronger relationship between vocabulary size and academic literacy was found towards more infrequent word bands, indicating that infrequent word bands may best predict academic literacy. On the basis of these findings, we discuss possible strategies to adopt in order to assist some first-years with expanding their vocabularies. 

  9. Level of evidence and conflict of interest disclosure associated with higher citation rates in orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okike, Kanu; Kocher, Mininder S; Torpey, Jennifer L; Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Mehlman, Charles T; Bhandari, Mohit

    2011-03-01

    To identify the scientific and nonscientific factors associated with rates of citation in the orthopedic literature. All original clinical articles published in three general orthopedics journals between July 2002 and December 2003 were reviewed. Information was collected on variables plausibly related to rates of citation, including scientific and nonscientific factors. The number of citations at 5 years was ascertained and linear regression was used to identify factors associated with rates of citation. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with increased rates of citation at 5 years were high level of evidence (22.2 citations for level I or II vs. 10.8 citations for level III or IV; P=0.0001), large sample size (18.8 citations for sample size of 100 or more vs. 7.9 citations for sample size of 25 or fewer; Pinterest disclosure involving a nonprofit organization (17.4 citations for nonprofit disclosure vs. 10.6 citations for no disclosure; P=0.027), and self-reported conflict of interest disclosure involving a for-profit company (26.1 citations for for-profit disclosure vs. 10.6 citations for no disclosure; P=0.011). High level of evidence, large sample size, representation from multiple institutions, and conflict of interest disclosure are associated with higher rates of citation in orthopedics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Escobar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance.

  11. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  12. Calling all stakeholders: group-level assessment (GLA)-a qualitative and participatory method for large groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Lisa M; Lohmueller, MaryAnn

    2014-08-01

    Group-level assessment (GLA) is a qualitative and participatory large group method in which timely and valid data are collaboratively generated and interactively evaluated with relevant stakeholders leading to the development of participant-driven data and relevant action plans. This method is useful across a wide range of evaluation purposes in many environments. GLA involves bringing a large group of participants together to build a common database through the co-identification of relevant needs, judgments, and priorities. The GLA process proceeds through the following seven steps: climate setting, generating, appreciating, reflecting, understanding, selecting, and action. This article describes the methodological development and process of conducting a GLA and its various applications across the evaluation spectrum. We highlight several exemplars where GLA was used in order to demonstrate the particular nuances of working with different sizes and types of groups and to elaborate on our learnings from the wide applicability of the method.

  13. Group Differences in Student Performance in the Selection to Higher Education: Tests vs Grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Wikström

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Student selection in the Swedish admission to higher education system is based on two fundamentally different performance measures: their criterion-referenced upper secondary grade point average (GPA and their score on a norm-referenced and multiple-choice admissions test [Swedish admissions test (SweSAT]. Several student characteristics are known to affect rankings in such assessments. The objectives of this study are to assess main and interactive effects of several variables that influence rankings obtained from these measures in greater detail than previously attempted and assess the findings from a fairness perspective. The data consist of test scores, upper secondary grades, and background information for SweSAT participants aged 19–25 years, who took the test in the autumn of 2011 (N = 23,214 or spring of 2012 (N = 27,075. The data were analyzed through correlation and regression analyses. The results support previous findings that gender, parents’ education, and immigration status are all influential. Males obtain better SweSAT scores than females, while females obtain better GPAs, in accordance with previous findings regarding gender-related variations in rankings provided by similar instruments. Moreover, we found the same pattern in scores for specific components of the test and grades in specific subjects, suggesting that the test and GPA measure different, gender-related, things. In addition, students with an immigrant background seem to be more highly ranked by grades than by the SweSAT, largely due to differences in assessments of their verbal skills.

  14. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1 matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tractbased spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1.

  15. Supporting Small-Group Learning Using Multiple Web 2.0 Tools: A Case Study in the Higher Education Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laru, Jari; Naykki, Piia; Jarvela, Sanna

    2012-01-01

    In this single-case study, small groups of learners were supported by use of multiple social software tools and face-to-face activities in the context of higher education. The aim of the study was to explore how designed learning activities contribute to students' learning outcomes by studying probabilistic dependencies between the variables.…

  16. The Web as Process Tool and Product Environment for Group-Based Project Work in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine; van Diepen, Nico

    This paper discusses problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education, and describes two technical courses (i.e., courses in online learning and applications of business information technology) at the University of Twente (Netherlands) in which course-specific World Wide Web environments are…

  17. The web as process tool and product environment for group-based project work in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collis, Betty; Andernach, Toine; Diepen, van Nico; Maurer, Hermann

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses problems confronting the use of group-based project work as an instructional strategy in higher education, and describes two technical courses (i.e., courses in online learning and applications of business information technology) at the University of Twente (Netherlands) in whic

  18. Age-dependent lower or higher levels of hair mercury in autistic children than in healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Namyslowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2010-01-01

    An association between autism and early life exposure to mercury is a hotly debated issue. In this study, 91 autistic Polish children, male and female, 3-4 and 7-9 years old, were compared to 75 age- and sex-matched healthy children with respect to: demographic, perinatal, clinical and developmental measures, parental age, birth order, morphometric measures, vaccination history, and hair mercury content. In demographic and perinatal measures there were no consistent differences between the autistic and control groups. Autistic children had a significantly greater prevalence of adverse reactions after vaccinations and abnormal development than controls. Between 45 and 80% of autistic children experienced developmental regress. Autistic children significantly differed from healthy peers in the concentrations of mercury in hair: younger autistics had lower levels, while older - higher levels than their respective controls. The results suggest that autistic children differ from healthy children in metabolism of mercury, which seems to change with age.

  19. Management competencies in higher education: Perceived job importance in relation to level of training required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The increasing changes and demands placed on higher education institutions in the 21st century and resultant impact on the roles and responsibilities of heads of department (HODs have led to an increasing emphasis on the development of core HOD management competencies.Research purpose: The aim of this article is to determine the relationship between a specific set of HOD managerial competencies identified as being important for the job and the level of training required in terms of these competencies.Motivation for the study: Research has provided evidence that HODs are often ill-prepared for their managerial role, which requires the development of specific management competencies to enable them to fulfil their roles effectively.Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental quantitative survey design approach was followed and correlational data analyses were performed. A cross-sectional sample of 41 HODs of 22 departments from various faculties of a higher education institution in Gauteng participated in this study. The Management Competency Inventory (MCI of Visser (2009 was applied as a measure.Main findings: The Pearson product-moment analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between the competencies indicated as being important for the job and the level of training required.Practical/Managerial implications: Training needs of HODs should be formally assessed and the depth of training required in terms of the identified management competencies should be considered in the design of training programmes.Contributions/Value-add: The information obtained in this study may potentially serve as a foundation for the development of an HOD training programme in the South African higher education environment.

  20. Designs for the combination of group- and individual-level data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneuse, Sebastien; Bartell, Scott

    2011-05-01

    Studies of ecologic or aggregate data suffer from a broad range of biases when scientific interest lies with individual-level associations. To overcome these biases, epidemiologists can choose from a range of designs that combine these group-level data with individual-level data. The individual-level data provide information to identify, evaluate, and control bias, whereas the group-level data are often readily accessible and provide gains in efficiency and power. Within this context, the literature on developing models, particularly multilevel models, is well-established, but little work has been published to help researchers choose among competing designs and plan additional data collection. We review recently proposed "combined" group- and individual-level designs and methods that collect and analyze data at 2 levels of aggregation. These include aggregate data designs, hierarchical related regression, two-phase designs, and hybrid designs for ecologic inference. The various methods differ in (i) the data elements available at the group and individual levels and (ii) the statistical techniques used to combine the 2 data sources. Implementing these techniques requires care, and it may often be simpler to ignore the group-level data once the individual-level data are collected. A simulation study, based on birth-weight data from North Carolina, is used to illustrate the benefit of incorporating group-level information. Our focus is on settings where there are individual-level data to supplement readily accessible group-level data. In this context, no single design is ideal. Choosing which design to adopt depends primarily on the model of interest and the nature of the available group-level data.

  1. Insulin resistance is associated with higher cerebrospinal fluid tau levels in asymptomatic APOE ε4 carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Erika J.; O'Grady, J. Patrick; Hoscheidt, Siobhan M.; Racine, Annie M.; Carlsson, Cindy M.; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Puglielli, Luigi; Asthana, Sanjay; Dowling, N. Maritza; Gleason, Carey E.; Anderson, Rozalyn M.; Davenport-Sis, Nancy J.; DeRungs, LeAnn M.; Sager, Mark A.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) is linked with the occurrence of pathological features observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaques. However, the extent to which IR is associated with AD pathology in the cognitively asymptomatic stages of preclinical AD remains unclear. Objective To determine the extent to which IR is linked with amyloid and tau pathology in late-middle-age. Method Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples collected from 113 participants enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention study (mean age = 60.6 years), were assayed for AD-related markers of interest: Aβ42, P-Tau181, and T-Tau. IR was determined using the Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR). Linear regression was used to test the effect of IR, and APOE ε4, on tau and amyloid pathology. We hypothesized that greater IR would be associated with higher CSF P-Tau181 and T-Tau, and lower CSF Aβ42. Results No significant main effects of HOMA-IR on P-Tau181, T-Tau, or Aβ42 were observed; however, significant interactions were observed between HOMA-IR and APOE ε4 on CSF markers related to tau. Among APOE ε4 carriers, higher HOMA-IR was associated with higher P-Tau181 and T-Tau. Among APOE ε4 non-carriers, HOMA-IR was negatively associated with P-Tau181 and T-Tau. We found no effects of IR on Aβ42 levels in CSF. Conclusion IR among asymptomatic APOE ε4 carriers was associated with higher P-Tau181 and T-Tau in late-middle age. The results suggest that IR may contribute to tau-related neurodegeneration in preclinical AD. The findings may have implications for developing prevention strategies aimed at modifying IR in mid-life. PMID:25812851

  2. Motor axon synapses on renshaw cells contain higher levels of aspartate than glutamate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannette S Richards

    Full Text Available Motoneuron synapses on spinal cord interneurons known as Renshaw cells activate nicotinic, AMPA and NMDA receptors consistent with co-release of acetylcholine and excitatory amino acids (EAA. However, whether these synapses express vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs capable of accumulating glutamate into synaptic vesicles is controversial. An alternative possibility is that these synapses release other EAAs, like aspartate, not dependent on VGLUTs. To clarify the exact EAA concentrated at motor axon synapses we performed a quantitative postembedding colloidal gold immunoelectron analysis for aspartate and glutamate on motor axon synapses (identified by immunoreactivity to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter; VAChT contacting calbindin-immunoreactive (-IR Renshaw cell dendrites. The results show that 71% to 80% of motor axon synaptic boutons on Renshaw cells contained aspartate immunolabeling two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling. Moreover, VAChT-IR synapses on Renshaw cells contained, on average, aspartate immunolabeling at 2.5 to 2.8 times above the average neuropil level. In contrast, glutamate enrichment was lower; 21% to 44% of VAChT-IR synapses showed glutamate-IR two standard deviations above average neuropil labeling and average glutamate immunogold density was 1.7 to 2.0 times the neuropil level. The results were not influenced by antibody affinities because glutamate antibodies detected glutamate-enriched brain homogenates more efficiently than aspartate antibodies detecting aspartate-enriched brain homogenates. Furthermore, synaptic boutons with ultrastructural features of Type I excitatory synapses were always labeled by glutamate antibodies at higher density than motor axon synapses. We conclude that motor axon synapses co-express aspartate and glutamate, but aspartate is concentrated at higher levels than glutamate.

  3. Unbiased Group-Level Statistical Assessment of Independent Component Maps by Means of Automated Retrospective Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langers, Dave R. M.

    2010-01-01

    This report presents and validates a method for the group-level statistical assessment of independent component analysis (ICA) outcomes. The method is based on a matching of individual component maps to corresponding aggregate maps that are obtained from concatenated data. Group-level statistics are

  4. Unconscious fearful priming followed by a psychosocial stress test results in higher cortisol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Alexander; von Känel, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Human perception of stress includes an automatic pathway that processes subliminal presented stimuli below the threshold of conscious awareness. Subliminal stimuli can therefore activate the physiologic stress system. Unconscious emotional signals were shown to significantly moderate reactions and responses to subsequent stimuli, an effect called 'priming'. We hypothesized that subliminal presentation of a fearful signal during the Stroop task compared with an emotionally neutral one will prime stress reactivity in a subsequently applied psychosocial stress task, thereby yielding a significant increase in salivary cortisol. Half of 36 participants were repeatedly presented either a fearful face or a neutral one. After this, all underwent a psychosocial stress task. The fearful group showed a significant increase in cortisol levels (p = 0.022). This change was not affected by sex, age and body mass index, and it also did not change when taking resting cortisol levels into account. Post-hoc analyses showed that the increase in cortisol in the fearful group started immediately after the psychosocial stress test. Hence, subliminal exposure to a fearful signal in combination with the Stroop and followed by a psychosocial stress test leads to an increase in stress reactivity.

  5. Higher level phylogeny of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) based on DNA sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Carlos; Wahlberg, Niklas; Weingartner, Elisabet; Kodandaramaiah, Ullasa; Nylin, Sören; Freitas, André V L; Brower, Andrew V Z

    2006-07-01

    We have inferred the first empirically supported hypothesis of relationships for the cosmopolitan butterfly subfamily Satyrinae. We used 3090 base pairs of DNA from the mitochondrial gene COI and the nuclear genes EF-1alpha and wingless for 165 Satyrinae taxa representing 4 tribes and 15 subtribes, and 26 outgroups, in order to test the monophyly of the subfamily and elucidate phylogenetic relationships of its major lineages. In a combined analysis, the three gene regions supported an almost fully resolved topology, which recovered Satyrinae as polyphyletic, and revealed that the current classification of suprageneric taxa within the subfamily is comprised almost completely of unnatural assemblages. The most noteworthy findings are that Manataria is closely related to Melanitini; Palaeonympha belongs to Euptychiina; Oressinoma, Orsotriaena and Coenonympha group with the Hypocystina; Miller's (1968). Parargina is polyphyletic and its components group with multiple distantly related lineages; and the subtribes Elymniina and Zetherina fall outside the Satyrinae. The three gene regions used in a combined analysis prove to be very effective in resolving relationships of Satyrinae at the subtribal and tribal levels. Further sampling of the taxa closely related to Satyrinae, as well as more extensive sampling of genera within the tribes and subtribes for this group will be critical to test the monophyly of the subfamily and establish a stronger basis for future biogeographical and evolutionary studies.

  6. Government and Happiness in 130 Nations: Good Governance Fosters Higher Level and More Equality of Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, J C

    2011-05-01

    There are substantial differences in happiness in nations. Average happiness on scale 0-10 ranges in 2006 from 3.24 in Togo to 8.00 in Denmark and the inequality of happiness, as measured by the standard deviation, ranges from 0.85 in Laos to 3.02 in the Dominican Republic. Much of these differences are due to quality of governance and in particular to 'technical' quality. Once a minimum level is reached, rising technical quality boosts average happiness proportionally. Good governance does not only produce a higher level of happiness, but also lowers inequality of happiness among citizens. The relation between good governance and inequality of happiness is not linear, but follows a bell shaped pattern, inequality of happiness being highest in nations where the quality of government is at a medium level. The relation between the size of government and average happiness depends heavily on the quality of government; good-big government adds to happiness but bad-big government does not. Possible explanations of these findings are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of Intelligent Grouping Based on Learners' Collaboration Competence Level in Online Collaborative Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muuro, Maina Elizaphan; Oboko, Robert; Wagacha, Waiganjo Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore the impact of an intelligent grouping algorithm based on learners' collaborative competency when compared with (a) instructor based Grade Point Average (GPA) method level and (b) random method, on group outcomes and group collaboration problems in an online collaborative learning environment. An intelligent grouping…

  8. Lower activity levels are related to higher plantar pressures in overweight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddiford-Harland, Diane L; Steele, Julie R; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Rachel A; Baur, Louise A

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to establish whether the peak plantar pressures generated by overweight and obese school-age children during walking were associated with their objectively measured physical activity. Physical activity levels of a subset of 73 overweight/obese children from a randomized controlled trial (mean ± SD: age, 8.3 ± 1.1 yr; 47 girls; body mass index z-score, 2.7 ± 0.7) were objectively measured using accelerometers. Plantar pressure distributions were also quantified as the participants walked over a pressure platform. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the strength of the relations between the peak plantar pressures generated during walking and the physical activity levels for overweight/obese children. Peak pressures generated beneath the forefoot during walking were inversely correlated with time spent in different intensity levels of physical activity. Moderate-intensity (r = -0.321, P = 0.007), vigorous-intensity (r = -0.326, P = 0.006), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity (r = -0.342, P = 0.004) physical activity were significantly correlated with middle forefoot pressure and with lateral forefoot pressure (r = -0.248, P = 0.040; r = -0.264, P = 0.028; r = -0.267, P = 0.027, respectively). Lateral midfoot (r = -0.244, P = 0.044) and second toe (r = 0.227, P = 0.021) pressure were also significantly correlated with vigorous-intensity activity. Those children who generated higher pressures beneath their forefoot and midfoot during walking had lower levels of physical activity. Further research is required to determine the long-term effects of excessive body mass on participation in physical activity and whether the walking plantar pressure patterns associated with reduced physical activity are related to foot pain or discomfort.

  9. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  10. Fusion methodologies in crisis management higher level fusion and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book emphasizes a contemporary view on the role of higher level fusion in designing crisis management systems. It provides the formal foundations, architecture, and implementation strategies required for building dynamic current and future situational pictures. It goes on to discuss the state-of-the-art computational approaches to designing such processes and their inherent challenges. This book integrates recent advances in decision theory with those in fusion methodology to define an end-to-end framework for decision support in crisis management. The text discusses modern fusion and decision support methods for dealing with heterogeneous and often unreliable, low fidelity, contradictory, and redundant data and information, as well as rare, unknown, unconventional or even unimaginable critical situations. The book also examines the role of context in situation management, cognitive aspects of decision making and situation management, approaches to domain representation, visualization, as well as the rol...

  11. A Study of the Validity of English Language Testing at the Higher Secondary Level in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhury Mohammad Ali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Validity is considered to be of paramount importance in language testing, and therefore, remains the central concept to all designs and research activities in the field of testing and assessment. Arguably, all researches in language testing are in some senses about validity and the process of validation. In this regard, it is the intent of the present research to investigate the validity of the English language tests employed at the Higher Secondary level in Bangladesh. The research questions addressed concern finding out whether the tests are valid in terms of content and construct. The tests administered at this level are ‘achievement tests’, designed to measure the extent of learning in a prescribed content domain in accordance with explicitly stated objectives of a learning program. The first objective of the study is, therefore, to examine how far the course objectives are reflected in the contents of the existing tests. Secondly, the study makes an assessment of how well these tests measure the abilities they are intended to measure. The findings reveal a great mismatch between what the tests aim at testing and what they actually test. A wide gap is found between the curriculum goals and the existing test format. The study also finds that the Higher Secondary language tests are largely unable to measure the constructs they are based on. The key recommendations to increase the content and construct validity of these tests  include developing  test specifications and designing syllabus in accordance with  course objectives, using direct tests and authentic tasks, sampling widely and unpredictably, arranging  training programs for the language teachers, etc. Keywords: Validity, achievement test, test specifications, syllabus, direct test, authentic task

  12. Association of polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenoreceptor gene with higher levels of parasitic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, C E; Hayden, C M; Tiller, K J; Burton, P R; Hagel, I; Palenque, M; Lynch, N R; Goldblatt, J; LeSouëf, P N

    1999-03-01

    The diminishing incidence of parasitic infection in westernised societies has been suggested to result in an increased prevalance of asthma. Asthma is a polygenic disease and genome screens have shown that genes on chromosome 5q31-33 are strongly linked to the disease. The gene for the beta2-adrenoreceptor is located in this region and two polymorphisms have been identified that result in amino acid changes at positions 16 (ArgGly) and 27 (GlnGlu). To determine whether these polymorphisms influence asthma and parasitic infection, a genotype/phenotype study has been performed on a cohort of 126 children from Coche Island in Venezuela. There is a high incidence of asthma on the island and intestinal helminthiasis is endemic. Genotyping for both polymorphisms was carried out by using the polymerase chain reaction and allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridisation. Genotype frequencies in this cohort were consistent with other studies and both polymorphisms were in significant linkage disequilibrium. Individuals who were homozygous for Arg16 had significantly higher levels of specific IgE to Ascaris lumbricoides (P=0.002), significantly higher A. lumbricoides egg counts (P<0.001) and significantly larger wheal sizes following skin-prick testing with A. lumbricoides allergen (P=0.008). There was no association between either polymorphism and total serum IgE or asthma in this population. A combination of mast cell degranulation and the lung migratory phase of A. lumbricoides larvae may result in bronchoconstriction in infected individuals. These results suggest that the Gly 16 allele confers resistance to high levels of parasitic infection in this population. An alternative explanation for the association is that it may be the result of linkage disequilibrium with other genes in the chromosome 5q31-33 region.

  13. Influence of plant genetic diversity on interactions between higher trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Xoaquín; Mooney, Kailen A

    2013-06-23

    While the ecological consequences of plant diversity have received much attention, the mechanisms by which intraspecific diversity affects associated communities remains understudied. We report on a field experiment documenting the effects of patch diversity in the plant Baccharis salicifolia (genotypic monocultures versus polycultures of four genotypes), ants (presence versus absence) and their interaction on ant-tended aphids, ants and parasitic wasps, and the mechanistic pathways by which diversity influences their multi-trophic interactions. Five months after planting, polycultures (versus monocultures) had increased abundances of aphids (threefold), ants (3.2-fold) and parasitoids (1.7-fold) owing to non-additive effects of genetic diversity. The effect on aphids was direct, as plant genetic diversity did not mediate ant-aphid, parasitoid-aphid or ant-parasitoid interactions. This increase in aphid abundance occurred even though plant growth (and thus aphid resources) was not higher in polycultures. The increase in ants and parasitoids was an indirect effect, due entirely to higher aphid abundance. Ants reduced parasitoid abundance by 60 per cent, but did not affect aphid abundance or plant growth, and these top-down effects were equivalent between monocultures and polycultures. In summary, intraspecific plant diversity did not increase primary productivity, but nevertheless had strong effects across multiple trophic levels, and effects on both herbivore mutualists and enemies could be predicted entirely as an extension of plant-herbivore interactions.

  14. Group Assessment at First Year and Final Degree Level: A Comparative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plastow, N.; Spiliotopoulou, G.; Prior, S.

    2010-01-01

    Group projects are an established but debated pedagogical technique in higher education. The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of combining individual and group marks in assessment. A mixed method design involving correlational and comparative elements was used. The sample included one cohort of students who completed a group…

  15. DHA serum levels were significantly higher in celiac disease patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to depression.

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    Nathalie J M van Hees

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Celiac disease (CD, a genetically predisposed intolerance for gluten, is associated with an increased risk of major depressive disorder (MDD. We investigated whether dietary intake and serum levels of the essential n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexanoic acid (DHA found in fatty fish play a role in this association. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 71 adult CD patients and 31 healthy volunteers, matched on age, gender and level of education, who were not using n-3 PUFA supplements. Dietary intake, as assessed using a 203-item food frequency questionnaire, and serum levels of EPA and DHA were compared in analyses of covariance, adjusting for potential confounders. Serum PUFA were determined using gas chromatography. RESULTS: Mean serum DHA was significantly higher in CD patients (1.72 mass% than controls (1.28 mass% after multivariable adjustment (mean diff. 0.45 mass%; 95% CI: 0.22-0.68; p = 0.001. The mean intake of EPA plus DHA did not differ between CD patients and controls after multivariable adjustment (0.15 and 0.22 g/d, respectively; p = 0.10. There were no significant differences in intake or serum levels of EPA and DHA between any of the CD patient groups (never depressed, current MDD, minor/partially remitted MDD, remitted MDD and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Patients on a long term gluten-free diet had similar intakes of EPA plus DHA compared to controls. Contrary to expectations, DHA serum levels were significantly higher in CD patients compared to healthy controls and were unrelated to MDD status.

  16. Fused RSOS Lattice Models as Higher-Level Nonunitary Minimal Cosets

    CERN Document Server

    Tartaglia, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We consider the Forrester-Baxter RSOS lattice models with crossing parameter $\\lambda=(m'\\!-\\!m)\\pi/m'$ in Regime~III. In the continuum scaling limit, these models are described by the minimal models ${\\cal M}(m,m')$. We conjecture that, for $\\lambda<\\pi/n$, the $n\\times n$ fused RSOS models with $n\\ge 2$ are described by the higher-level coset $(A^{(1)}_1)_k\\otimes (A^{(1)}_1)_n/(A^{(1)}_1)_{k+n}$ at fractional level $k=nM/(M'\\!-\\!M)-2$ with $(M,M')=\\big(nm-(n\\!-\\!1)m',m'\\big)$. To support this conjecture, we investigate the one-dimensional sums arising from Baxter's off-critical corner transfer matrices. In unitary cases ($m=m'\\!-\\!1$) it is known that, up to leading powers of $q$, these coincide with the branching functions $b_{r,s,\\ell}^{m'\\!-n,m'\\!,n}(q)$. For general nonunitary cases ($m

  17. Overgeneral autobiographical memory predicts higher prospective levels of depressive symptoms and intrusions in borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Kris; Pieters, Guido; Claes, Laurence; Berens, Ann; Raes, Filip

    2016-11-01

    Overgeneral memory (OGM), the tendency to retrieve categories of events from autobiographical memory instead of single events, is found to be a reliable predictor for future mood disturbances and post-traumatic symptom severity. Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often report co-morbid episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, we investigated whether OGM would predict depression severity and (post-traumatic) stress symptoms in BPD patients. At admission (N = 54) and at six-month follow-up (N ≥ 31), BPD patients completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders, the Assessment of DSM-IV Personality Disorders, the Autobiographical Memory Test, the Beck Depression Inventory-2nd edition (BDI-II), and the Impact of Event Scale. OGM at baseline predicted (a) higher levels of depressive symptoms at follow-up and (b) more intrusions related to a stressful event over and above baseline levels of borderline symptoms, depressive symptoms, and intrusions, respectively. No association was found between memory specificity and event-related avoidance at follow-up. Despite previous findings suggesting that OGM in BPD is less robust than in MDD and PTSD, our results suggest that memory specificity in BPD patients may have some relevance for the course of depressive and stress symptomatology in BPD.

  18. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

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    Olivier eDupuy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., O2max in order to classifyassign them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit. All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions in which the change in pPrefrontal cortex oxygenation change was evaluated in all participants with a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. system during a computerized Stroop task (which contains executive and non-executive conditions. Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness x Condition interaction (p < .05 such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the switching (executiveExecutive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed ion the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (ΔHbT and ΔHbO2, we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion:Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by O2max show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good

  19. Does foreign direct investment cause higher levels of productivity or do higher levels of productivity attract foreign direct investment? A study in transforming brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Campos Pereira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2013v15n35p82 With this research, it was aimed to investigate the factors that determine the investment decision of foreign investors in the Brazilian industry. Evidence shows that foreign investors are attracted not only by more productive and best performing sectors, but depending on the adopted strategy, they may choose investment projects in sectors that have lower performance levels which offer the potential for growth and the and improvement of efficiency levels and capacity. Granger causality test indicated that not only foreign investment gives more productivity gains, but also this productivity induces more foreign investment inputs. Foreign investors are also attracted by those sectors, which use their assets in an inefficient way in order to generate profits. These sectors may be attractive to foreign investors that want to invest in a more aggressive growth policy in order to get advantages on the availability of inefficiently used assets. These sectors may be also attractive targets to investors who seek to compete directly in relatively less competitive sectors.

  20. Individual and group-level job resources and their relationships with individual work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllemann, Désirée; Brauchli, Rebecca; Jenny, Gregor J; Bauer, Georg F

    2016-06-16

    This study adds a multilevel perspective to the well-researched individual-level relationship between job resources and work engagement. In addition, we explored whether individual job resources cluster within work groups because of a shared psychosocial environment and investigated whether a resource-rich psychosocial work group environment is beneficial for employee engagement over and above the beneficial effect of individual job resources and independent of their variability within groups. Data of 1,219 employees nested in 103 work groups were obtained from a baseline employee survey of a large stress management intervention project implemented in six medium and large-sized organizations in diverse sectors. A variety of important job resources were assessed and grouped to an overall job resource factor with three subfactors (manager behavior, peer behavior, and task-related resources). Data were analyzed using multilevel random coefficient modeling. The results indicated that job resources cluster within work groups and can be aggregated to a group-level job resources construct. However, a resource-rich environment, indicated by high group-level job resources, did not additionally benefit employee work engagement but on the contrary, was negatively related to it. On the basis of this unexpected result, replication studies are encouraged and suggestions for future studies on possible underlying within-group processes are discussed. The study supports the presumed value of integrating work group as a relevant psychosocial environment into the motivational process and indicates a need to further investigate emergent processes involved in aggregation procedures across levels.

  1. Process-oriented guided inquiry learning strategy enhances students' higher level thinking skills in a pharmaceutical sciences course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltis, Robert; Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-02-17

    To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting.

  2. How School Leaders Might Promote Higher Levels of Collective Teacher Efficacy at the Level of School and Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelli, Gail E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaders search for effective leadership practices to ensure success. A quantitative study was conducted to determine what behaviors a leader could use to improve collective teacher efficacy at the level of the entire faculty and at the level of grade level teams. This article focuses on using the inverse relationship between transformational…

  3. Higher minor hemoglobin A2 levels in multiple sclerosis patients correlate with lesser disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan ME

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Muhammed Emin Ozcan,1 Bahri Ince,2 Hasan Huseyin Karadeli,3 Asuman Gedikbasi,4 Talip Asil,3 Meric A Altinoz5 1Department of Neurology, Biruni University, 2Centre for Mood Disorders, Bakirkoy Research and Training Hospital for Psychiatry, 3Department of Neurology, Bezmialem University, 4Department of Biochemistry, Sadi Konuk Bakirkoy State Hospital, 5Department of Immunology, Experimental Medicine Research Institute (DETAE, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Objective: To define whether minor adult hemoglobin A2 (HbA2, α2δ2 exerts any protective activity in multiple sclerosis (MS. Methods: HbA2 levels were measured in 146 MS patients with high performance liquid chromatography and association with MS Severity Scores (MSSS were determined. HbA2 associations with blood count parameters were also studied using blood counts evaluated on the same day of high performance liquid chromatography sampling. Routine biochemical parameters were also determined to rule out elusively influential factors, such as anemia and thyroid disorders. Results: HbA2 levels negatively correlated with MSSS (Spearman correlation, R: -0.186, P=0.025. Exclusion of confounding factors with a generalized linear model revealed an even stronger negative correlation between HbA2 and MSSS (P<0.001. HbA2 positively correlated with red blood cells (RBCs (R=0.350, P<0.001 and in turn, RBCs negatively correlated with MSSS (R=-0.180, P=0.031. Average HbA2 levels were highest among patients treated with interferon β1a. Conclusion: RBC fragility is increased in MS, and recent data suggest that circulating free Hb contributes to neural injury in MS. HbA2 and its oxidative denaturation product hemichrome A2 enhance RBC membrane stability to a greater extent than do major HbA or hemichrome A. Reductions in ischemic cerebrovascular vascular events are reported in β-thalassemia carriers and HbA2 levels are considerably higher in this population. Episodic declines of cerebral blood flow

  4. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from intact classes. A researcher-constructed Biology Cognitive Skills Test was used to collect the quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected through interviews and students' personal documents. The data showed that the participants utilized concept mapping in various ways and they described positive experiences while being engaged in its use. The main challenge cited by teachers was the limited time available for more consistent use. The results showed that the use of concept mapping in advanced level biology can lead to learning gains that exceed those achieved in classes where mainly traditional methods are used. The students in the concept mapping experimental groups performed significantly better than their peers in the control group on both the lower-order (F(1) = 21.508; p < .001) and higher-order (F(1) = 42.842, p < .001) cognitive items of the biology test. A mean effect size of .56 was calculated representing the contribution of treatment to the students' performance on the test items.

  5. Explaining levels of within-group wage inequality in U.S. labor markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, L

    2000-11-01

    Most research on earnings inequality has focused on the growing gap between workers of different races and at different education, age, and income levels, but a large portion of the increasing inequality has actually occurred within these groups. This article focuses on the extent and sources of "within-group" wage inequality in more than 500 labor markets in the United States in 1990. In addition to documenting that within-group wage inequality across regions varies more widely today than over the past several decades, the analysis reveals that two frequently cited explanations of rising wage inequality over time have little impact on within-group wage inequality when measured at the local labor market level: (1) industrial shifts and (2) increased technology and trade. By contrast, flexible and insecure employment conditions (e.g., unemployment, contingent work, and immigration) are associated strongly with high local levels of within-group wage inequality, especially among women.

  6. A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in South Africa's racial groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kenyon, Chris; Dlamini, Sipho; Boulle, Andrew; White, Richard G; Badri, Motasim

    Analyses of individual-level risk factors have not been able to adequately explain why HIV has spread so extensively in southern Africa and why this has occurred especially within certain racial or ethnic groups...

  7. Higher levels of neanderthal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Yang, Melinda A; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K; Durand, Eric Y; Stevison, Laurie S; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-05-01

    Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1-4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50-80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal-modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations.

  8. Dengue patients exhibit higher levels of PrM and E antibodies than their asymptomatic counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Adeline Syin Lian; Rathakrishnan, Anusyah; Wang, Seok Mui; Ponnampalavanar, Sasheela; Manikam, Rishya; Sathar, Jameela; Kumari Natkunam, Santha; Sekaran, Shamala Devi

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus infection is a common tropical disease which often occurs without being detected. These asymptomatic cases provide information in relation to the manifestation of immunological aspects. In this study, we developed an ELISA method to compare neutralizing effects of dengue prM and E antibodies between dengue patients and their asymptomatic household members. Recombinant D2 premembrane (prM) was constructed, cloned, and tested for antigenicity. The recombinant protein was purified and tested with controls by using an indirect ELISA method. Positive dengue serum samples with their asymptomatic pair were then carried out onto the developed ELISA. In addition, commercially available recombinant envelope (E) protein was used to develop an ELISA which was tested with the same set of serum samples in the prM ELISA. Asymptomatic individuals showed preexisting heterotypic neutralizing antibodies. The recombinant prM was antigenically reactive in the developed ELISA. Dengue patients had higher prM and E antibodies compared to their household members. Our study highlights the neutralizing antibodies levels with respect to dengue prM and E between dengue patients and asymptomatic individuals.

  9. Multiple-choice exams: an obstacle for higher-level thinking in introductory science classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F

    2012-01-01

    Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities.

  10. How genetics affects the brain to produce higher-level dysfunctions in myotonic dystrophy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Petrucci, Antonio; Spanò, Barbara; Torso, Mario; Olivito, Giusy; Lispi, Ludovico; Costanzi-Porrini, Sandro; Giulietti, Giovanni; Koch, Giacomo; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Summary Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disorder dominated by muscular impairment and brain dysfunctions. Although brain damage has previously been demonstrated in DM1, its associations with the genetics and clinical/neuropsychological features of the disease are controversial. This study assessed the differential role of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) damage in determining higher-level dysfunctions in DM1. Ten patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 healthy matched controls entered the study. The patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and quantification of CTG triplet expansion. All the subjects underwent MR scanning at 3T, with studies including T1-weighted volumes and diffusion-weighted images. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics were used for unbiased quantification of regional GM atrophy and WM integrity. The DM1 patients showed widespread involvement of both tissues. The extent of the damage correlated with CTG triplet expansion and cognition. This study supports the idea that genetic abnormalities in DM1 mainly target the WM, but GM involvement is also crucial in determining the clinical characteristics of DM1. PMID:26214024

  11. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera based on multiple genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    Full Text Available Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA. Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP, maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s and Bayesian (BEAST molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic.

  12. 77 FR 1778 - U.S.-EU High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE U.S.-EU High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth AGENCY: Office of the United... Working Group on Jobs and Growth, led by U.S. Trade Representative Ron Kirk and EU Trade Commissioner... and investment to support mutually beneficial job creation, economic growth, and...

  13. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  14. Earnings benefit of the individuals with tertiary educational level versus the expansion of higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit T. Kiss

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of students of higher education rose significantly in Hungary in the nineties. Many people forecast the decrease of the income benefit of the higher qualification and the decline of the rates of return for investment in higher education. We analyse the time course of the difference between earnings of the graduates and the secondary school graduates between 1990 and 2008, we show that the value of the diploma decreased only slightly despite of the expansion of higher education.

  15. Allocating Group-Level Payments for Ecosystem Services: Experiences from a REDD+ Pilot in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Z. Robinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Payments for ecosystem services (PES typically reward landowners for managing their land to provide ecosystem services that would not otherwise be provided. REDD+—Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation—is a form of PES aimed at decreasing carbon emissions from forest conversion and extraction in lower-income countries. A key challenge for REDD+ occurs when it is implemented at a group, rather than an individual landowner, level. Whilst achieving a group-level reduction relies on individuals changing their interaction with the forest, incentives are not aligned explicitly at the individual level. Rather, payments are made to a defined group as a single entity in exchange for verified reduced forest loss, as per a PES scheme. In this paper, we explore how REDD+ has been implemented in one multiple-village pilot in Tanzania with the village defining the group. Our findings suggest that considerable attention has been paid towards monitoring, reporting, verification (MRV, and equity. No explicit mechanism ensures individual compliance with the village-level PES, and few villages allocate funds for explicit enforcement efforts to protect the forest from illegal activities undertaken by individual group members or by outsiders. However, the development of village-level institutions, “social fencing,” and a shared future through equal REDD+ payments, factor into decisions that influence the level of compliance at the village level that the program will eventually achieve.

  16. The far-reaching effects of power: at the individual, dyadic, and group levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galinsky, A.D.; Chou, E.Y.; Halevy, N.; Van Kleef, G.A.; Neale, M.A.; Mannix, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This chapter provides a framework that captures the fundamental impacts of power at the individual, dyadic, small group, and organizational levels. Within each level, we trace the psychological, cognitive, and behavioral consequences of having or lacking power. Approach - We integrate theo

  17. Detecting the Subtle Shape Differences in Hemodynamic Responses at the Group Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the hemodynamic response (HDR is still not fully understood due to the multifaceted processes involved. Aside from the overall amplitude, the response may vary across cognitive states, tasks, brain regions, and subjects with respect to characteristics such as rise and fall speed, peak duration, undershoot shape, and overall duration. Here we demonstrate that the fixed-shape or adjusted-shape methods may fail to detect some shape subtleties. In contrast, the estimated-shape method (ESM through multiple basis functions can provide the opportunity to identify some subtle shape differences and achieve higher statistical power at both individual and group levels. Previously, some dimension reduction approaches focused on the peak magnitude, or made inferences based on the area under the curve or interaction, which can lead to potential misidentifications. By adopting a generic framework of multivariate modeling (MVM, we showcase a hybrid approach that is validated by simulations and real data. Unlike the few analyses that were limited to main effect, two- or three-way interactions, we extend the approach to an inclusive platform that is more adaptable than the conventional GLM, achieving a practical equipoise among representation, false positive control, statistical power, and modeling flexibility.

  18. Delineating the boundary and structure of higher trophic level assemblages in the western North Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Takehiro; Kiyota, Masashi; Yonezaki, Shiroh; Murakami, Chisato; Kato, Yoshiki; Sakai, Mitsuo; Wakabayashi, Toshie; Okazaki, Makoto

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the community structure of oceanic higher trophic level (HTL) organisms (e.g., sharks, tunas, salmons, and squids) is fundamental to management of marine resources in a way that ensures their sustainable use and maintains marine ecosystem functionality and biodiversity. We analyzed the spatial structure of HTL assemblages in the western North Pacific Ocean using driftnet survey data collected at latitudes of 35-46 °N along transect lines at 144 °E, 155 °E, and 175.5 °E longitude in July and August 2011. We proposed a new dissimilarity metric segmentation procedure (Dissimilarity Segmentation) based on the differences of mean Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices between two individual driftnet hauls within the same subarea or among different subareas. Dissimilarity Segmentation allowed us to divide the western North Pacific Ocean into three subareas: a northern subarea (>41 °N including 41 °N on the 175.5 °E transect), a transition subarea (37-41 °N), and a southern subarea (<37 °N). The HTL biomass in the northern subarea was high, and the species diversity was low; dominant and common species accounted for most of the biomass. The HTL assemblage in the southern subarea was composed of many species that were uncommon or rare; the biomass was lower, and the species diversity was higher than in the northern subarea. In the transition subarea, neon flying squid accounted for most of the biomass, and although the biomass was intermediate, species diversity was highest among the three subareas. Canonical correspondence analysis with oceanic environmental variables, principally chlorophyll a, sea surface salinity, and sea surface height, as the explanatory variables accounted for 43.6% of the variance of the HTL pelagic species composition. This result suggests that the HTL pelagic community in the western North Pacific is influenced largely by productivity and oceanic physical structure. These results suggest that an analytical approach based on

  19. An Examination of the Relationship between Reading Comprehension, Higher-Level and Lower-Level Reading Sub-Skills in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Using a large adult reading database, we examined the relationships between high-level and low-level reading skills and between multiple reading skills, general cognitive ability, and reading comprehension ability. A principal components analysis found partial dissociability between higher-level skills including reading comprehension, vocabulary…

  20. Diabetes Support Groups Improve Patient’s Compliance and Control Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamrotul Izzah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Providing information is not enough to improve diabetic patient’s compliance and achieve goals of therapy. Patient’s good awareness as well as emotional and social supports from family and community may play an important role to improve their compliance and clinical outcomes. Therefore, diabetes support groups were developed and each support group consisted of two pharmacists, two nurses, diabetic patients and their family members. A total of 70 type 2 diabetic patient’s were enrolled and randomized into support group 1 and support group 2. Patients in the group 1 received information leaflets only, while patient in the group 2 received pharmacist counselling and information leaflets at each meeting. Patient’s awareness of diabetes and compliance with medications were assessed by a short questionnaire at baseline and final follow-up. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels were also evaluated in both groups. At the end of study, the overall patient’s awareness and compliance improved by 61.5%. The random and fasting blood glucose levels decreased over than 30% in the group 2 and around 14% in the group 1. This study reveals that collaboration between health care professionals and community in the diabetes support group might help diabetic patients to increase their knowledge and compliance with the diabetes therapy as well as glycaemic control.

  1. Raising Productivity by Improving Higher Technical Education: Tackling the Level 4 and Level 5 Conundrum. Occasional Paper 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott

    2015-01-01

    England and Wales lag behind competitor nations in the proportion of people with higher technical skills. In this pamphlet, Scott Kelly proposes three overarching reforms to ensure employers have access to the skills they need: (1) There should be a well-defined set of institutions where the core mission is to deliver technical and professional…

  2. Universities and the State in Belgium: Past and Present Dimensions of Higher Education in a Divided Society. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Roger L.

    This paper, part of a series of studies on higher education in different countries, traces the origins of higher education in Belgium to the 1970's. From 1835-1876, Belgium universities were shaped by polarization bewteen Catholics and liberals, uncertainty about the basic institutional patterns in higher education, and the legislative intrusion…

  3. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  4. [The effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on decreasing the level of aggression in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Zeynep; Gökçakan, Dan Zafer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of group-based psychodrama therapy on the level aggression in adolescents. The study included 23 students from Nezihe Yalvac Anatolian Vocational High School of Hotel Management and Tourism that had high aggression scores. Eleven of the participants (6 female, 5 male) constituted the experimental group and 12 (6 male, 6 female) were in the control group. The 34-item Aggression Scale was used to measure level of aggression. We utilized mixed pattern design including experiment-control, pre-test and post test and follow up. The experimental group participated in group-based psychodrama therapy once a week for 90 minutes, for 14 weeks in total. The Aggression Scale was administered to the experimental and control groups before and after treatment; it was additionally administered to the experimental group 16 weeks after treatment. Data were analyzed using ANCOVA and dependent samples t tests. Our analysis shows that group-based psychodrama had an effect on the experimental group in terms of total aggression, anger, hostility, and indirect aggression scores (F=65.109, F=20.175, F=18.593, F=40.987, respectively, P<.001). There was no effect of the group-based treatment on verbal or physical aggression scores. Follow-up indicated that the effect of the therapy was still measureable 16 weeks after the cessation of the therapy. Results of the present study indicate that group-based psychodrama therapy decreased the level of aggression in the experimental group. Current findings are discussed with reference to the literature. Recommendations for further research and for psychiatric counselors are provided.

  5. Higher free thyroxine levels are associated with frailty in older men: the Health In Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu B; Alfonso, Helman; Chubb, Stephen A Paul; Walsh, John P; Hankey, Graeme J; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Flicker, Leon

    2012-05-01

    Frailty is common in the elderly and predisposes to ill-health. Some symptoms of frailty overlap those of thyroid dysfunction, but it is unclear whether differences in thyroid status influence risk of frailty. We evaluated associations between thyroid status and frailty in older men. Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Community-dwelling men aged 70-89 years. Circulating thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (FT(4) ) were assayed. Frailty was assessed as ≥3 of the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses and Loss (FRAIL) scale's 5 domains: fatigue; resistance (difficulty climbing flight of stairs); ambulation (difficulty walking 100 m); illness (>5); or weight loss (>5%), blinded to hormone results. Of 3943 men, 27 had subclinical hyperthyroidism, 431 subclinical hypothyroidism and 608 were classified as being frail (15·4%). There was an inverse log-linear association of TSH with FT(4). There was no association between TSH and frailty. After adjusting for covariates, men with FT(4) in the highest two quartiles had increased odds of being frail (Q3:Q1, odds ratio [OR] = 1·32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1·01-1·73 and Q4:Q1, OR = 1·36, 95% CI = 1·04-1·79, P = 0·010 for trend). Higher FT(4) was associated with fatigue (P = 0·038) and weight loss (P < 0·001). The association between FT(4) and frailty remained significant when the analysis was restricted to euthyroid men. High-normal FT(4) level is an independent predictor of frailty among ageing men. This suggests that even within the euthyroid range, circulating thyroxine may contribute to reduced physical capability. Further studies are needed to clarify the utility of thyroid function testing and the feasibility of preventing or reversing frailty in older men. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Variation in managing asthma: experience at the medical group level in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legorreta, A P; Liu, X; Zaher, C A; Jatulis, D E

    2000-04-01

    To explore the degree of variation in the quality of asthma management among physician groups participating in a managed care network. Cross-sectional observation. The study population consisted of patients with moderate or severe asthma identified through a pharmacy database from a managed care plan in 1996. The patients were surveyed to obtain their assessments of asthma care, including components on quality of care, quality of service, and outcomes of care. We selected 47 physician groups that provided services for at least 35 asthma patients who responded to the survey. Variations in the outcome variables across physician groups were described by quartile, range, and histogram. Compliance with national guidelines varied among physician groups but was generally low. Physician group rates for patient use of steroid inhalers ranged from 10.7% to 45.5% and daily peak flow meter use ranged from 0% to 13.1%. Satisfaction ratings were higher, with overall satisfaction with the quality of asthma care ranging from 74.6% to 94.3%. Outcomes also showed considerable variation among groups. One-month absenteeism rates ranged from 32% to 61%, and 65.7% to 94.3% of respondents did not have an emergency room visit in the past year. The quality of asthma care and service varied significantly across physician groups. Such reports for different physician groups make evidence-based outcomes information directly available to patients and physician groups, help patients make informed healthcare decisions, and stimulate quality improvement efforts by physician groups.

  7. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Paris, José R; Sánchez-Mercado, Ada; Viloria, Ángel L; Donaldson, John

    2013-01-01

    We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  8. Congruence and diversity of butterfly-host plant associations at higher taxonomic levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Ferrer-Paris

    Full Text Available We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1 is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2 has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3 what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea and 1,193 genera (66.3%. The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp. from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae, and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae. We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids, but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.

  9. Osseointegrated implants placed at supracrestal level may harbour higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus – a randomized, controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ribeiro de Moraes Rego

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed at evaluating the bacterial colonization in dental implants inserted in the crestal or supracrestal position and correlated it to radiographic bone measurements. Methods: Thirty-five implants with regular platform in nine patients (mean age 62.4±11.2 years were inserted either at the bone crest level (control group or at a suprecrestal level (test group. Radiographic examination was performed at baseline (implant installation and after 6 months. Clinical and microbiological data were collected after 6 months. Digital radiography was used to assess bone remodeling (marginal bone loss and optical alveolar density. Bacterial profile was analyzed by checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization, including a panel of 40 bacterial species. Results: After 6 months, there were significantly higher counts of Actinomyces gerencseriae (p=0.009 and Streptococcus constellatus (p=0.05 in the test group. No significant differences between test and control groups were observed for marginal bone loss (p=0.725 and optical alveolar density (p=0.975. Probing depth was similar in both groups. Conclusion: Significantly higher counts of A. gerencseriae and S. constellatus were found in implants placed at the supracrestal level compared to the ones placed at the bone level. No relation was found between the installation level of dental implants and peri-implant bone remodeling.

  10. The Effect of Group Counseling Program on 8th Grade Students’ Assertiveness Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail SEÇER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted to determine the effects of group counseling program on elementary school 8th grade students’ assertiveness skills. Study group was formed of 100 students getting educated in Erzurum Kültür Elementary School in 2011-2012 education years. RAE-Rathus Assertiveness Schedule was applied on this group to gather data. 30 students getting lower scores from the inventory have been randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Each group is formed of 15 students. Group counseling program has been carried out for 8 weeks on the experimental group to improve the students’ assertiveness skills. Single-way and two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA has been used in the analysis of the data. The data is analyzed with SPSS 19.00. The results of the study show that assertiveness skills of the students who participate in the group counseling program has increased significantly compared to the control group and to the preexperimental circumstances. Besides, it is determined that the change observed in the experimental group has been occurred separately from the age and socio-economic level variables, and it is determined with the monitoring test applied after four months that this affect is continued. According to this result, it can be said that the applied group counseling program is an effective means to improve the assertiveness skills of elementary school students

  11. Comparison of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide Level between Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Control Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noormohammad Noori

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy is revealed with left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the children with dilated cardiomyopathy and control group regarding the level of Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP and its relationship with echocardiography findings Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 37 children with dilated cardiomyopathy and free of any clinical symptoms and 37 healthy age- and sex-matched children referring to Ali-e-Asghar and Ali Ebne Abitaleb hospitals in Zahedan, Iran. After taking history, echocardiography was performed for both groups. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software and appropriate statistical tests. Results: The two groups were significantly different regarding most of the echocardiographic parameters (P < 0.05. Also, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the mean CGRP levels (P = 0.001. Among echocardiographic parameters, CGRP was directly related to Interventricular Septal dimension in Systole (IVSS (P = 0.022, R = 0.375. However, no significant relationship was observed between CGRP level and Ross classification. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed an increase in CGRP serum levels in the case group. Besides, a direct correlation was observed between CGRP level and IVSS.

  12. Identifying Higher-Education Level Skill Needs in Labor Markets: The Main Tools Usable for Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpaydin, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    There are natural mismatches in the labor market between the demand for higher-educated laborers and the supply of graduates provided by the higher education system in terms of quantity and qualifications. While there are open positions, some graduates still cannot find work. There are various findings indicating that the mismatch between…

  13. In the Red? Debt Levels at Higher Education Institutions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Daguang; Yu, Kai

    2011-01-01

    Borrowing from banks has become a common practice among Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs), and operating with a heavy debt load has become a characteristic of Chinese higher educational development. Substantial financial commitments acquired by HEIs during their rapid expansion since 1998 are now having serious consequences: numerous…

  14. Confronting the Neo-Liberal Brute: Reflections of a Higher Education Middle-Level Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maistry, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The higher education scenario in South Africa is fraught with tensions and contradictions. Publicly funded Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) face a particular dilemma. They are expected to fulfill a social mandate which requires a considered response to the needs of the communities in which they are located while simultaneously aspiring for…

  15. Implementing English Further/Higher Education Partnerships: The Street Level Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Claire

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research into the operation of English further/higher education, with a focus on the role of partnerships in supporting the massification of higher education. The research draws on the bottom-up policy implementation tradition to provide analysis of the effects on partnerships of a quasi-marketised environment. The rationale…

  16. A Comparative Study of Student Satisfaction Level in Distance Learning and Live Classroom at Higher Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Azhar; Mahmood, Sheikh Tariq; Malik, Allah Bakhsh

    2012-01-01

    The technology has embraced the innovative learning methodologies. Distance Learning has taken the place of traditional face-to-face educational environment. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of student satisfaction of graduate distance learning educational psychology course to a traditional classroom educational psychology course…

  17. Higher levels of physical activity are associated with lower hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity to psychosocial stress in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martikainen, Silja; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Feldt, Kimmo; Pyhälä, Riikka; Tammelin, Tuija; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Strandberg, Timo E; Räikkönen, Katri

    2013-04-01

    Children who undertake more physical activity (PA) not only have more optimal physical health but also enjoy better mental health. However, the pathways by which PA affects well-being remain unclear. To address this question, we examined whether objectively measured daytime PA was associated with diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA) activity and HPAA responses to psychosocial stress. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a birth cohort in Helsinki, Finland. We studied 258 8-year-old children. PA was assessed with wrist-worn accelerometers. Overall PA and percentage of time spent in vigorous PA (VPA) were categorized by sex into thirds. Salivary cortisol was measured diurnally and in response to the Trier Social Stress Test for Children. The children in different PA groups did not show differences in diurnal salivary cortisol (P > .10 for overall PA and VPA). Children with the highest levels of overall PA or VPA showed no, or only small, increases over time in salivary cortisol after stress (P = .10 and P =.03 for time in analyses of PA and VPA, respectively), whereas children belonging to the lowest and intermediate thirds showed significant increases over time in salivary cortisol after stress (P ≤ .002 for time in the analyses of overall PA and VPA). These results suggest that children with lower levels of daytime PA have higher HPAA activity in response to stress. These findings may offer insight into the pathways of PA on physical and mental well-being.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment.

  19. Elevated levels of whole blood nickel in a group of Sri Lankan women with endometriosis: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Nalinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis is characterized by the persistence of endometrial tissue in ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. Presence of nickel, cadmium and lead in ectopic endometrial tissue has been reported previously. While any association between blood levels of nickel and endometriosis is yet to be described in literature, conflicting reports are available with regards to cadmium and lead levels in blood and urine. Findings In fifty patients with endometriosis and fifty age-matched controls confirmed by laparoscopy or laparotomy, whole blood samples were collected and digested using supra pure 65% HNO3. Whole blood levels of nickel and lead were measured using Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF while cadmium levels were evaluated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFASS. Women with endometriosis had significantly higher (P=0.016 geometric mean (95% CI whole blood nickel levels [2.6(1.9-3.3 μg/L] as compared to women without endometriosis [0.8 (0.7-0.9 μg/L]. Whole blood levels of cadmium and lead were similar between the two groups. Conclusions Although women with endometriosis in this study population had higher levels of nickel in whole blood compared to controls, whether nickel could be considered as an aetiological factor in endometriosis remains inconclusive in view of the smaller sample that was evaluated.

  20. GMove: Group-Level Mobility Modeling Using Geo-Tagged Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Keyang; Yuan, Quan; Zhang, Luming; Hanratty, Tim; Han, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    Understanding human mobility is of great importance to various applications, such as urban planning, traffic scheduling, and location prediction. While there has been fruitful research on modeling human mobility using tracking data (e.g., GPS traces), the recent growth of geo-tagged social media (GeoSM) brings new opportunities to this task because of its sheer size and multi-dimensional nature. Nevertheless, how to obtain quality mobility models from the highly sparse and complex GeoSM data remains a challenge that cannot be readily addressed by existing techniques. We propose GMove, a group-level mobility modeling method using GeoSM data. Our insight is that the GeoSM data usually contains multiple user groups, where the users within the same group share significant movement regularity. Meanwhile, user grouping and mobility modeling are two intertwined tasks: (1) better user grouping offers better within-group data consistency and thus leads to more reliable mobility models; and (2) better mobility models serve as useful guidance that helps infer the group a user belongs to. GMove thus alternates between user grouping and mobility modeling, and generates an ensemble of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to characterize group-level movement regularity. Furthermore, to reduce text sparsity of GeoSM data, GMove also features a text augmenter. The augmenter computes keyword correlations by examining their spatiotemporal distributions. With such correlations as auxiliary knowledge, it performs sampling-based augmentation to alleviate text sparsity and produce high-quality HMMs. Our extensive experiments on two real-life data sets demonstrate that GMove can effectively generate meaningful group-level mobility models. Moreover, with context-aware location prediction as an example application, we find that GMove significantly outperforms baseline mobility models in terms of prediction accuracy.

  1. GMove: Group-Level Mobility Modeling Using Geo-Tagged Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Keyang; Yuan, Quan; Zhang, Luming; Hanratty, Tim; Han, Jiawei

    2016-08-01

    Understanding human mobility is of great importance to various applications, such as urban planning, traffic scheduling, and location prediction. While there has been fruitful research on modeling human mobility using tracking data (e.g., GPS traces), the recent growth of geo-tagged social media (GeoSM) brings new opportunities to this task because of its sheer size and multi-dimensional nature. Nevertheless, how to obtain quality mobility models from the highly sparse and complex GeoSM data remains a challenge that cannot be readily addressed by existing techniques. We propose GMove, a group-level mobility modeling method using GeoSM data. Our insight is that the GeoSM data usually contains multiple user groups, where the users within the same group share significant movement regularity. Meanwhile, user grouping and mobility modeling are two intertwined tasks: (1) better user grouping offers better within-group data consistency and thus leads to more reliable mobility models; and (2) better mobility models serve as useful guidance that helps infer the group a user belongs to. GMove thus alternates between user grouping and mobility modeling, and generates an ensemble of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) to characterize group-level movement regularity. Furthermore, to reduce text sparsity of GeoSM data, GMove also features a text augmenter. The augmenter computes keyword correlations by examining their spatiotemporal distributions. With such correlations as auxiliary knowledge, it performs sampling-based augmentation to alleviate text sparsity and produce high-quality HMMs. Our extensive experiments on two real-life data sets demonstrate that GMove can effectively generate meaningful group-level mobility models. Moreover, with context-aware location prediction as an example application, we find that GMove significantly outperforms baseline mobility models in terms of prediction accuracy.

  2. Level of Education and Health Status of the Different Social Groups: Case Study Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mirchevska, Lenche; Donev, Doncho; Mojsoska, Snezhana

    2008-01-01

    The educational level is an important indicator within the socioeconomical status for health evaluation and a powerful instrument in promotion of population’s health. In 2000 a study conducted in R. Macedonia, in 15 municipalities with different gross national product per capita, encompassing 1129 examinees older than 18 years. The results of the conducted research showed statistically significant association of the educational level with the morbidity. Higher morbidity emerges in persons tha...

  3. Cortisol levels and aggression in neutered and intact free-roaming female cats living in urban social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, H; Terkel, J

    2010-03-03

    Free-roaming domestic cats in urban areas often live in defined social groups, and the breeding females in these groups tend to form structures of a matrilineal nature. In recent years, resulting from the growing populations of free-roaming cats in many cities worldwide, these cats are being managed using the Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) method. The aims of this study were to explore the hypotheses that (a) neutering reduces aggression in the females living in such social groups; and (b) if such reduction does occur, that it might be accompanied by a reduction in cortisol levels. The study was conducted on eight cat feeding groups in residential neighbourhoods in Tel Aviv, Israel. The municipal veterinary department offers TNR services upon request. Cats are collected from the feeding group and returned to their original group after neutering. We found that neutered females showed reduced aggressiveness as well as reduced cortisol levels compared to the intact females. In addition, those intact females that displayed more aggression had higher cortisol levels compared to the less aggressive intact females. Based on the results of this study it is possible to suggest for the first time a possible relationship between cortisol levels and aggression in free-roaming female domestic cats. This study is an initial step in assessing the long-term effects of Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) on the welfare of the individual cat. If cortisol levels in female cats are reduced after neutering, partly as a result of reduced social and reproductive pressures (as expressed by lower aggression of the neutered females), it is possible that TNR has an added beneficial role in cat welfare in addition to that of control of population size.

  4. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2015-01-01

    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of P...

  5. Higher Education Financing in the New EU Member States : Leveling the Playing Field

    OpenAIRE

    Canning, Mary; Godfrey, Martin; Holzer-Zelazewska, Dorota

    2007-01-01

    The study reviews the experience in the EU8 countries of the emergence of private higher education institutions and introduction of fees for student who do not gain regular admission. This has resulted in a dual-track system that is affecting the equity of access to higher education. The authors have addressed this with a variety of financing mechanisms in the EU8 countries and seek to dev...

  6. A Novel Bit-level Image Encryption Method Based on Chaotic Map and Dynamic Grouping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国基; 沈彦

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,a novel bit-level image encryption method based on dynamic grouping is proposed.In the proposed method,the plain-image is divided into several groups randomly,then permutation-diffusion process on bit level is carried out.The keystream generated by logistic map is related to the plain-image,which confuses the relationship between the plain-image and the cipher-image.The computer simulation results of statistical analysis,information entropy analysis and sensitivity analysis show that the proposed encryption method is secure and reliable enough to be used for communication application.

  7. The Internationalization of Canadian University Research: A Global Higher Education Matrix Analysis of Multi-Level Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Glen A.; Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    To date, much of the research on internationalization and globalization of higher education has focused on the institution or higher education system as the unit of analysis. Institution based studies have focused on the analysis of institutional practices and policies designed to further internationalization. System-level studies focus on state…

  8. Participation in higher education in Australia among under-represented groups: What can we learn from the Higher Education Participation Program to better support Indigenous learners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1988 the release of the Higher Education: A Policy Statement White Paper focused Australia’s national higher education equity policy on “changing the balance of the student population to reflect more closely the composition of society as a whole” (Dawkins 1990, 2-3. While improvement in access and participation has been noted for women, people from non-English speaking backgrounds, and people with disabilities, the interventions has remained less effective for people from Lower Socio-Economic Status (LSES backgrounds, Indigenous peoples; rural, regional and remote residents; (Gale & Tranter, 2011; Koshy & Seymour 2014. In 2009, in response to the Bradley Review (2008, the Australian government set a new agenda again focused on equitable participation in higher education, along with associated equity targets (which have since been abandoned, and funding to enable this reform as well as increased participation. Funding was delivered through the Higher Education Participation and Partnerships Program (HEPPP, renamed the Higher Education Participation Program (HEPP in 2015 (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2015. A range of national partnerships, policy initiatives and programs has been used to facilitate improved achievement in schools as well as enable access, participation and achievement in higher education. These actions have included targeted programs through the use of intervention strategies aimed at widening participation in, and improving access to higher education.

  9. Higher levels of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in rat amniotic fluid than in maternal plasma after subcutaneous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Taxvig, Camilla; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne M; Nellemann, Christine

    2008-12-01

    Parabens are a group of antimicrobial preservatives widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and in foods. Previous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown weak estrogenic effects of some parabens. Thus, especially, exposure of fetus and infants via the mother is a matter of concern. In order to obtain more knowledge about the distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in pregnant rats and pups after perinatal exposure, the presented study was designed. The data show response and distribution of ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal rat plasma, pools of amniotic fluids, placenta, whole-body fetuses, and in fetal liver after dosing of dams with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day from gestational day 7 to 21. After cesarean section of dams, the fluids and tissues were collected, deconjugated, and purified by solid-phase extraction, and ethyl paraben and butyl paraben were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Markedly higher levels of ethyl paraben compared to butyl paraben were found in all fluids and tissues. Both ethyl paraben and butyl paraben in maternal plasma, livers, and whole-body tissues from fetus seemed to be saturated after dosing with >or= 100 mg/kg bw/day, while both compounds were excreted into amniotic fluid in a dose-dependent manner. Significant difference was found between the level of ethyl paraben in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid after dosing with 200 mg/kg bw/day as well as between the levels of butyl paraben in maternal plasma and amniotic fluid after dosing with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw/day.

  10. Evaluating the level of degree programmes in higher education. Design of an empirically underpinned instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    The level of bachelor and master programmes needs to be valid and reliable for taking well-founded decisions on its teaching, learning and assessment. Moreover, the degree programme level needs to be demonstrated validly and reliably in the accreditation system. However, the problem is: What outcome

  11. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  12. The Relations between Lower and Higher Level Comprehension Skills and Their Role in Prediction of Early Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Macarena; Cain, Kate

    2015-01-01

    This study of 4- to 6-year-olds had 2 aims: first, to determine how lower level comprehension skills (receptive vocabulary and grammar) and verbal memory support early higher level comprehension skills (inference and literal story comprehension), and second, to establish the predictive power of these skills on subsequent reading comprehension.…

  13. Investigating the Group-Level Impact of Advanced Dual-Echo fMRI Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Kettinger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-echo fMRI data acquisition has been widely investigated and suggested to optimize sensitivity for detecting the BOLD signal. Several methods have also been proposed for the combination of data with different echo times. The aim of the present study was to investigate how these advance echo combination methods provide advantages over the simple averaging of echoes when state-of-the-art group-level random-effect analyses are performed. Both resting-state and task-based dual-echo fMRI data were collected from 27 healthy adult individuals (14 male, mean age = 25.75 years using standard echo-planar acquisition methods at 3T. Both resting-state and task-based data were subjected to a standard image pre-processing pipeline. Subsequently the two echoes were combined as a weighted average, using four different strategies for calculating the weights: (1 simple arithmetic averaging, (2 BOLD sensitivity weighting, (3 temporal-signal-to-noise ratio weighting and (4 temporal BOLD sensitivity weighting. Our results clearly show that the simple averaging of data with the different echoes is sufficient. Advanced echo combination methods may provide advantages on a single-subject level but when considering random-effects group level statistics they provide no benefit regarding sensitivity (i.e. group-level t-values compared to the simple echo-averaging approach. One possible reason for the lack of clear advantages may be that apart from increasing the average BOLD sensitivity at the single-subject level, the advanced weighted averaging methods also inflate the inter-subject variance. As the echo combination methods provide very similar results, the recommendation is to choose between them depending on the availability of time for collecting additional resting-state data or whether subject-level or group-level analyses are planned.

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency and controllable group velocity in a five-level atomic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jin; Shangqing Gong; Yueping Niu; Shiqi Jin

    2006-01-01

    @@ The optical properties of a five-level atomic system composed of a A-type four-level atomic and a tripod four-level atomic systems are investigated. It is found that the behaviors of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and group velocity can be controlled by choosing appropriate parameters with the interacting dark resonances. In particular, when all the fields are on resonance, the slow light at the symmetric transparency windows with a much broader EIT width is obtained by tuning the intensity of the coupling field in comparison with its sub-system, which provides potential applications in quantum storage and retrieval of light.

  15. A Mathematical Images Group Model to Estimate the Sound Level in a Close-Fitting Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Panza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a special mathematical images model to determine the sound level inside a close-fitting sound enclosure. Such an enclosure is defined as the internal air volume defined by a machine vibration noise source at one wall and a parallel reflecting wall located very close to it and acts as the outside radiating wall of the enclosure. Four smaller surfaces define a parallelepiped for the volume. The main reverberation group is between the two large parallel planes. Viewed as a discrete line-type source, the main group is extended as additional discrete line-type source image groups due to reflections from the four smaller surfaces. The images group approach provides a convergent solution for the case where hard reflective surfaces are modeled with absorption coefficients equal to zero. Numerical examples are used to calculate the sound pressure level incident on the outside wall and the effect of adding high absorption to the front wall. This is compared to the result from the general large room diffuse reverberant field enclosure formula for several hard wall absorption coefficients and distances between machine and front wall. The images group method is shown to have low sensitivity to hard wall absorption coefficient value and presents a method where zero sound absorption for hard surfaces can be used rather than an initial hard surface sound absorption estimate or measurement to predict the internal sound levels the effect of adding absorption.

  16. Health workforce remuneration: Comparing wage levels, ranking, and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Tijdens (Kea); D.H. de Vries (Daniel); S.M. Steinmetz

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finlan

  17. Health Workforce Remuneration: comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; de Vries, D.H.; Steinmetz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, I

  18. Global dimensions for Lie groups at level k and their conformally exceptional quantum subgroups

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We obtain formulae giving global dimensions for fusion categories defined by Lie groups G at level k and for the associated module-categories obtained via conformal embeddings. The results can be expressed in terms of Lie quantum superfactorials of type G. The later are related, for the type Ar, to the quantum Barnes function.

  19. The Effect of Group Logotherapy on Meaning in Life and Depression Levels of Iranian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatmili, Somaye; Sohrabi, Faramarz; Shahrak, Mohammad Ali; Talepasand, Siavash; Nokani, Mostafa; Hasani, Mohaddese

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the effectiveness of group logotherapy in reducing depression and increasing meaning in life levels of university students in Iran. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a pre- post- and follow-up test design. The instruments used were the "Purpose in Life" (PIL) test and the "Beck Depression…

  20. Lowering the Cost Barrier to Higher Education for Undocumented Students: A Promising University-Level Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangasamy, Andrew; Horan, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Undocumented students, many of Hispanic origin, face among the strictest cost barriers to higher education in the United States. Lack of legal status excludes them from most state and all federal financial aid programs. Furthermore, most states require them to pay out-of-state tuition rates at publicly supported institutions. In a new direction,…

  1. Bias in the assessment of regulation activities in studying at the level of higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnaert, A; Janssen, PJ

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparison between two questionnaires about regulation activities related to studying in higher education. The questionnaire developed within a different educational setting appears to be less discriminative and predictive than an equally developed local versio

  2. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  3. Internal and External Influences on Program-Level Curriculum Development in Higher Education Fashion Merchandising Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Janice E.

    2010-01-01

    In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it is critical to identify what influences curriculum…

  4. Does Higher Education Level the Playing Field? Socio-Economic Differences in Graduate Earnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Claire; van der Erve, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Education--and in particular higher education--is often regarded as a route to social mobility. For this to be the case, however, the link between family background and adult outcomes must be broken (or at least reduced) once we take account of an individual's education history. This paper provides new evidence on differences in graduates'…

  5. Non-parametric group-level statistics for source-resolved ERP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Clement; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Delorme, Arnaud; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Makeig, Scott

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new statistical framework for group-level event-related potential (ERP) analysis in EEGLAB. The framework calculates the variance of scalp channel signals accounted for by the activity of homogeneous clusters of sources found by independent component analysis (ICA). When ICA data decomposition is performed on each subject's data separately, functionally equivalent ICs can be grouped into EEGLAB clusters. Here, we report a new addition (statPvaf) to the EEGLAB plug-in std_envtopo to enable inferential statistics on main effects and interactions in event related potentials (ERPs) of independent component (IC) processes at the group level. We demonstrate the use of the updated plug-in on simulated and actual EEG data.

  6. Group personality during collective decision-making: a multi-level approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas-Sitjà, Isaac; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis; Gibon, Céline; Sempo, Grégory

    2015-03-01

    Collective decision-making processes emerge from social feedback networks within a group. Many studies on collective behaviour underestimate the role of individual personality and, as a result, personality is rarely analysed in the context of collective dynamics. Here, we show evidence of sheltering behaviour personality in a gregarious insect (Periplaneta americana), which is characterized by a collective personality at the group level. We also highlight that the individuals within groups exhibited consistent personality traits in their probability of sheltering and total time sheltered during the three trials over one week. Moreover, the group personality, which arises from the synergy between the distribution of behaviour profiles in the group and social amplifications, affected the sheltering dynamics. However, owing to its robustness, personality did not affect the group probability of reaching a consensus. Finally, to prove social interactions, we developed a new statistical method that will be helpful for future research on personality traits and group behaviour. This approach will help to identify the circumstances under which particular group compositions may improve the fitness of individuals in gregarious species.

  7. Antibiotic dispensation by Lebanese pharmacists: a comparison of higher and lower socio-economic levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farah, Rita; Lahoud, Nathalie; Salameh, Pascale; Saleh, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    .... Our objective is to study the dispensing policy of non-medical prescription antibiotics in community pharmacies, assessing the possible influence of the socio-economic level of the area over this practice...

  8. Process-Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning Strategy Enhances Students’ Higher Level Thinking Skills in a Pharmaceutical Sciences Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinden, Nathan; Kruger, Nicholas; Carroll, Ailey; Trumbo, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine if the process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) teaching strategy improves student performance and engages higher-level thinking skills of first-year pharmacy students in an Introduction to Pharmaceutical Sciences course. Design. Overall examination scores and scores on questions categorized as requiring either higher-level or lower-level thinking skills were compared in the same course taught over 3 years using traditional lecture methods vs the POGIL strategy. Student perceptions of the latter teaching strategy were also evaluated. Assessment. Overall mean examination scores increased significantly when POGIL was implemented. Performance on questions requiring higher-level thinking skills was significantly higher, whereas performance on questions requiring lower-level thinking skills was unchanged when the POGIL strategy was used. Student feedback on use of this teaching strategy was positive. Conclusion. The use of the POGIL strategy increased student overall performance on examinations, improved higher-level thinking skills, and provided an interactive class setting. PMID:25741027

  9. Comparison of serum levels of copper and zinc among multiple sclerosis patients and control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Sedighi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several studies done on the role of metals in the occurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS disease, but their roles have not been confirmed yet. Because of the lack of information on this issue, this study compared the serum level of copper and zinc in MS patients with their levels in a control group.This was an analytical, cross-sectional study conducted in Kerman (a medium size city, Iran. We assessed the serum level of copper and zinc in 58 MS patients and 39 healthy individuals, who were selected from the relatives of cases and matched for age and sex.The average serum level of Copper in cases and controls were 93.7 and 88.9 ml/dl, respectively. The corresponding numbers for Zinc were 36.7 and 40.9 ml/dl, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (copper: P = 0.459; zinc: P = 0.249.The groups were matched for age, sex, and family. However, we did not find a considerable difference between the level of these metals in MS patients and controls.

  10. Higher Prostate Cancer Grade Groups Are Detected in Patients Undergoing Multiparametric MRI-targeted Biopsy Compared With Standard Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer B; Thomas, John V; Nix, Jeffrey W; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasound (US) fusion-guided prostate biopsy can detect more clinically significant prostate cancers, which could impact patient management. As many of the studies evaluating MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy were conducted in specialized quaternary care centers, the question remains whether this technology is transferable to general practice. Our study assesses the diagnostic ability of MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy compared with standard biopsy in the new era of prostate cancer Grade Grouping. We reviewed our prostate biopsy database evaluating men who underwent MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy with concurrent standard 12-core extended-sextant biopsy. Patient demographics and pathologic findings were reviewed. All patient biopsies were performed by 1 of 2 urologic oncologists. Tumors were given a Grade Group for each biopsy based on the core with the highest grade in each case. A total of 191 patients underwent MRI/US fusion-guided biopsy with concurrent 12-core extended sextant biopsy, with a cancer detection rate of 56%. The average number of biopsy cores obtained via the targeted approach was significantly less than those obtained by standard biopsy, 4.8 cores versus 12 cores, respectively, Pbiopsy, 41.4% and 49.2%, respectively, P=0.15. However, when comparing the 2 techniques, the degree of detection of ≥Grade Group 3 tumors significantly favored targeted biopsy over standard biopsy (P=0.009). MRI/US fusion-guided prostate biopsy is equivalent to the standard-of-care 12-core biopsy in terms of cancer detection and superior in detecting higher grade disease.

  11. Multi-criteria Group Decision Making Approach for Teacher Recruitment in Higher Education under Simplified Neutrosophic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Mondal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Teacher recruitment is a multi-criteria group decisionmaking process involving subjectivity, imprecision, and fuzziness that can be suitably represented by neutrosophic sets. Neutrosophic set, a generalization of fuzzy sets is characterized by a truth-membership function, falsity-membership function and an indeterminacy-membership function. These functions are real standard or non-standard subsets of ] 0-, 1+[ .There is no restriction on the sum of the functions, so the sum lies between ]0-, 3+[. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable way to deal with imprecise information, when compared to a fuzzy set. The purpose of this study is to develop a neutrosophic multi-criteria group decision-making model based on hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for teacher recruitment in higher education. Eight criteria obtained from expert opinions are considered for recruitment process. The criteria are namely academic performance index, teaching aptitude, subject knowledge, research experience, leadership quality, personality, management capacity, and personal values. In this paper we use the score and accuracy functions and the hybrid score-accuracy functions of single valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs and ranking method for SVNNs. Then, multi-criteria group decision-making method with unknown weights for attributes and incompletely known weights for decision makers is used based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions under single valued neutrosophic environments. We use weight model for attributes based on the hybrid score-accuracy functions to derive the weights of decision makers and attributes from the decision matrices represented by the form of SVNNs to decrease the effect of some unreasonable evaluations. Moreover, we use the overall evaluation formulae of the weighted hybrid scoreaccuracy functions for each alternative to rank the alternatives and recruit the most desirable teachers. Finally, an educational problem for teacher selection is

  12. Frequent Canned Food Use is Positively Associated with Nutrient-Dense Food Group Consumption and Higher Nutrient Intakes in US Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin B. Comerford

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to fresh foods, many canned foods also provide nutrient-dense dietary options, often at a lower price, with longer storage potential. The aim of this study was to compare nutrient-dense food group intake and nutrient intake between different levels of canned food consumption in the US. Consumption data were collected for this cross-sectional study from 9761 American canned food consumers (aged two years and older from The NPD Group’s National Eating Trends® (NET® database during 2011–2013; and the data were assessed using The NPD Group’s Nutrient Intake Database. Canned food consumers were placed into three groups: Frequent Can Users (≥6 canned items/week; n = 2584, Average Can Users (3–5 canned items/week; n = 4445, and Infrequent Can Users (≤2 canned items/week; n = 2732. The results provide evidence that Frequent Can Users consume more nutrient-dense food groups such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and protein-rich foods, and also have higher intakes of 17 essential nutrients including the shortfall nutrients—potassium, calcium and fiber—when compared to Infrequent Can Users. Therefore, in addition to fresh foods, diets higher in nutrient-dense canned food consumption can also offer dietary options which improve nutrient intakes and the overall diet quality of Americans.

  13. Positive Attitude toward Healthy Eating Predicts Higher Diet Quality at All Cost Levels of Supermarkets ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Anju; Monsivais, Pablo; Cook, Andrea J.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Shopping at low-cost supermarkets has been associated with higher obesity rates. This study examined whether attitudes toward healthy eating are independently associated with diet quality among shoppers at low-cost, medium-cost, and high-cost supermarkets. Data on socioeconomic status (SES), attitudes toward healthy eating, and supermarket choice were collected using a telephone survey of a representative sample of adult residents of King County, WA. Dietary intake data were based on a food f...

  14. Projected carbon dioxide to increase grass pollen and allergen exposure despite higher ozone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertine, Jennifer M; Manning, William J; DaCosta, Michelle; Stinson, Kristina A; Muilenberg, Michael L; Rogers, Christine A

    2014-01-01

    One expected effect of climate change on human health is increasing allergic and asthmatic symptoms through changes in pollen biology. Allergic diseases have a large impact on human health globally, with 10-30% of the population affected by allergic rhinitis and more than 300 million affected by asthma. Pollen from grass species, which are highly allergenic and occur worldwide, elicits allergic responses in 20% of the general population and 40% of atopic individuals. Here we examine the effects of elevated levels of two greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), a growth and reproductive stimulator of plants, and ozone (O3), a repressor, on pollen and allergen production in Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). We conducted a fully factorial experiment in which plants were grown at ambient and/or elevated levels of O3 and CO2, to simulate present and projected levels of both gases and their potential interactive effects. We captured and counted pollen from flowers in each treatment and assayed for concentrations of the allergen protein, Phl p 5. We found that elevated levels of CO2 increased the amount of grass pollen produced by ∼50% per flower, regardless of O3 levels. Elevated O3 significantly reduced the Phl p 5 content of the pollen but the net effect of rising pollen numbers with elevated CO2 indicate increased allergen exposure under elevated levels of both greenhouse gases. Using quantitative estimates of increased pollen production and number of flowering plants per treatment, we estimated that airborne grass pollen concentrations will increase in the future up to ∼200%. Due to the widespread existence of grasses and the particular importance of P. pratense in eliciting allergic responses, our findings provide evidence for significant impacts on human health worldwide as a result of future climate change.

  15. Modeling Coastal Erosion, Passive Inundation, and Dynamic Wave Inundation under Higher Sea Level in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Hawaii State legislators recently formed the Interagency Committee on Climate Adaptation to investigate community vulnerability to sea level rise. We developed modeling to provide the committee with assessments of exposure to coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding based on the IPCC RCP 8.5 model of sea level rise over the 21st Century. We model the exposure to coastal erosion using a hybrid equilibrium profile model (Anderson et al., 2015) that combines historical rates of shoreline change with a Bruun-type model of beach profile translation. Results are mapped in a GIS showing the 80th percentile probability of potential erosion at years 2030, 2050, 2075, and 2100. Wave inundation is modeled using XBeach. We use a 3 m significant wave height to represent a seasonal high swell event. A separate simulation was run for each heightened sea level (corresponding to the years previously mentioned); which accounts for changes in wave dynamics due to the change in water level over the reef platform. We use a bare earth topo/bathy LiDAR DEM derived from data collected during the 2013 JBLTX survey of the Hawaiian Islands. XBeach modeling is done along one-dimensional profiles spaced 20 m apart. From this, we develop a gridded product of water depth and velocity for use in a vulnerability analysis. Passive inundation due to sea level rise, the so-called "bath tub" method, provide estimates of storm drain flooding and groundwater inundation. Our analysis of these three impacts of sea level rise, combined - coastal erosion, wave inundation, and passive flooding - are used with other available data in the FEMA Hazus software to estimate exposure and loss of upland assets.

  16. Can a city combat sea level rise alone: the impact of higher seawalls on the neighbors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R. Q.; Stacey, M. T.; Herdman, L.; Hummel, M.; Erikson, L. H.; Barnard, P.

    2016-12-01

    Global mean sea level has been rising by an average of 2 mm every year since 1993. This trend is observed to be accelerating in recent years, and the mean sea level rise is projected to be 1 m by 2100. Coastal communities are beginning to plan for protections against this threat, often requiring alterations to the structure of protective shorelines. As each community takes action, it is not clear how much an individual project (i.e., construction of a seawall, restoration of a marsh, etc. ) changes the regional hydrodynamics and how much the aggregated effects of other communities' projects influence a particular city. Because tidal forcing interacts with the geometry of a coastal embayment, alterations to the shoreline may increase (or decrease) flood risk regionally. There may be even more direct influences between neighboring communities, if the risk of inundation of one increases the risk for the other. This spatial interdependence has been largely neglected in coastal community planning, due in large part to a lack of quantitative information on the interdependence of communities. We have developed a suite of numerical methodologies to address this issue. A Bay-scale model has been established to reproduce the tidal and inundation dynamics under various scenarios for sea level rise. By considering different shoreline configurations, we can evaluate the impact of both local and regional actions on water level and inundation risk. For example, a complete hardening of embayment shores (i.e., a seawall ringing the entire embayment) increases water levels moderately for all communities, increasing the necessary investment in shoreline protections. To complement the forward model calculations, we have developed an adjoint sensitivity analysis tool that can efficiently analyze the importance of all the other coastal projects on a particular city. The quantification of these interdependencies demonstrate the value of coordinated action by communities, and the role

  17. Sources of signal in 62 protein-coding nuclear genes for higher-level phylogenetics of arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the strength of various sources of phylogenetic information that led to recent seemingly robust conclusions about higher-level arthropod phylogeny and to assess the role of excluding or downweighting synonymous change for arriving at those conclusions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study analyzes DNA sequences from 68 gene segments of 62 distinct protein-coding nuclear genes for 80 species. Gene segments analyzed individually support numerous nodes recovered in combined-gene analyses, but few of the higher-level nodes of greatest current interest. However, neither is there support for conflicting alternatives to these higher-level nodes. Gene segments with higher rates of nonsynonymous change tend to be more informative overall, but those with lower rates tend to provide stronger support for deeper nodes. Higher-level nodes with bootstrap values in the 80% - 99% range for the complete data matrix are markedly more sensitive to substantial drops in their bootstrap percentages after character subsampling than those with 100% bootstrap, suggesting that these nodes are likely not to have been strongly supported with many fewer data than in the full matrix. Data set partitioning of total data by (mostly synonymous and (mostly nonsynonymous change improves overall node support, but the result remains much inferior to analysis of (unpartitioned nonsynonymous change alone. Clusters of genes with similar nonsynonymous rate properties (e.g., faster vs. slower show some distinct patterns of node support but few conflicts. Synonymous change is shown to contribute little, if any, phylogenetic signal to the support of higher-level nodes, but it does contribute nonphylogenetic signal, probably through its underlying heterogeneous nucleotide composition. Analysis of seemingly conservative indels does not prove useful. CONCLUSIONS: Generating a robust molecular higher-level phylogeny of Arthropoda is

  18. Adverse childhood experiences and higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese people: results from the JAGES study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amemiya, Airi; Fujiwara, Takeo; Murayama, Hiroshi; Tani, Yukako; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-05-19

    A life-course perspective is essential in understanding the determinants of higher-level functional limitations. We examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on higher-level functional limitations in older people. Data were from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study 2013, a population-based cohort of independent people aged 65 years or older across Japan (n = 19,220). ACEs before the age of 18 were assessed in terms of seven adversities: parental death, parental divorce, parental mental illness, family violence, physical abuse, psychological neglect, and psychological abuse. Associations between the cumulative number of ACEs and higher-level functional limitations were investigated by multivariate Poisson regression with robust error variances, adjusted for age, gender, childhood disadvantage, adult socio-demographics, adult health behaviours, and health status. Of the older people, 36.3% reported at least one ACE. Older people who had experienced two or more ACEs showed significantly greater higher-level functional limitations than those with no ACE in a crude model (prevalence ratio, PR = 1.61, 95% confidence interval, CI = 1.51-1.71). After adjusting the covariates, this association remained (PR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.12-1.27). ACEs showed robust independent effects on higher-level functional limitations among older Japanese without disabilities, even after adjusting for potential covariates in childhood and adulthood. The current findings may help in understanding the impact of the latent effects of ACEs on functional limitations in older people.

  19. The Facebook Experiment: Quitting Facebook Leads to Higher Levels of Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromholt, Morten

    2016-11-01

    Most people use Facebook on a daily basis; few are aware of the consequences. Based on a 1-week experiment with 1,095 participants in late 2015 in Denmark, this study provides causal evidence that Facebook use affects our well-being negatively. By comparing the treatment group (participants who took a break from Facebook) with the control group (participants who kept using Facebook), it was demonstrated that taking a break from Facebook has positive effects on the two dimensions of well-being: our life satisfaction increases and our emotions become more positive. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that these effects were significantly greater for heavy Facebook users, passive Facebook users, and users who tend to envy others on Facebook.

  20. Higher and lower-level relationships of the deep-sea fish order alepocephaliformes (Teleostei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jan Y.; Møller, Peter R.; Lavoué, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Fishes of the order Alepocephaliformes, slickheads and tubeshoulders, constitute a group of deep-sea fishes poorly known in respect to most areas of their biology and systematics. Morphological studies have found alepocephaliform fishes to display a mosaic of synapomorphic and symplesiomorphic...... are alepocephaliforms and unambiguously aligned sequences were subjected to partitioned maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses. Results from the present study support Alepocephaliformes as a genetically distinct otocephalan order as sister clade to Ostariophysi (mostly freshwater fishes comprising Gonorynchiformes...

  1. Error in the learning and teaching of english as a second language at higher education level

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre i Mestre, Eva María

    2011-01-01

    Linguistic error has proven to be a recurrent area of interest for researchers. There exist several types of approaches to error; some studies have focused on specific errors, such as grammatical errors, others on more general or exogenous issues, such as the perception of error of the group object of study, etc. From the point of view of methodology, some have been dedicated to the definition and description of error, while others have studied the identification of erroneous uses of language...

  2. Evaluating the level of degree programmes in higher education: Conceptual design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.B.; Haenen, J.P.P.; Pilot, A.

    2013-01-01

    Evaluating the level of degree programmes became crucial with the Bologna Agreement in 1999 when European ministers agreed to implement common bachelor’s and master’s degree programmes and a common system of quality assurance. The European Quality Assurance system demands evaluation of the degree

  3. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  4. Higher levels of state depression in masculine than in feminine nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arrindell, W.A.; Steptoe, A.; Wardle, J.

    2003-01-01

    Studies using identical measures have identified different levels of depression in different countries or cultures. Until now, however, explanations for such differences, other than methodological ones, have not been empirically addressed. It was hypothesized and found that soft or feminine nations

  5. Higher circulating levels of IGF-1 are associated with longer leukocyte telomere length in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbieri, Michelangela; Paolisso, Giuseppe; Kimura, Masayuki;

    2009-01-01

    Mutations that inhibit the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) extend the lifespan of worms, flies and mice. However, it appears that relatively low circulating levels of IGF-1 in humans are associated with aging-related diseases and diminished longevity. As leukocyte telomere length (LTL...

  6. Socioeconomic Status, Higher-Level Mathematics Courses, Absenteeism, and Student Mobility as Indicators of Work Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folds, Lea D.; Tanner, C. Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relations among socioeconomic status, highest-level mathematics course, absenteeism, student mobility and measures of work readiness of high school seniors in Georgia. Study participants were 476 high school seniors in one Georgia county. The full regression model explained 27.5% of the variance in…

  7. A network-level explanation for the differences in HIV prevalence in South Africa's racial groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chris; Dlamini, Sipho; Boulle, Andrew; White, Richard G; Badri, Motasim

    2009-09-01

    Analyses of individual-level risk factors have not been able to adequately explain why HIV has spread so extensively in southern Africa and why this has occurred especially within certain racial or ethnic groups. Using data from a longitudinal study of a representative sample of adolescents aged 14-22 living in Cape Town, South Africa, this article presents evidence of how differences in individual-level risk factors as well as sexual network structures between different racial or ethnic groups may help explain the differential spread of HIV in South Africa. Particular emphasis is placed on how levels of partner concurrency, respondent concurrency, mutual concurrency, serial concurrency and numbers of sexual partners and an average early age of sexual debut combine in different ways in the different racial or ethnic groups to create networks of sexual partnerships that differ in the density of their interconnections and hence potential for HIV spread. These network-level differences offer a potential explanation for the observed generalised HIV epidemic seen among the population of black South Africans.

  8. JDL level 5 fusion model: user refinement issues and applications in group tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2002-07-01

    The 1999 Joint Director of Labs (JDL) revised model incorporates five levels for fusion methodologies including level 0 for preprocessing, level 1 for object refinement, level 2 for situation refinement, level 3 for threat refinement, and level 4 for process refinement. The model was developed to define the fusion process. However, the model is only for automatic processing of a machine and does not account for human processing. Typically, a fusion architecture supports a user and thus, we propose a Level 5 User refinement to delineate the human from the machine in the process refinement. Typical human in the loop models do not deal with a machine fusion process, but only present the information to the human on a display. We seek to address issues for designing a fusion system which supports a user: trust, workload, attention and situation awareness. In this paper, we overview the need for a Level 5, the issues concerning the human for realizable fusion architectures, and examples where the human is instrumental in the fusion process such as group tracking.

  9. Classical and tree-level approaches to gravitational deflection in higher-derivative gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Accioly, Antonio; Giacchini, Breno; Herdy, Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Among the so-called classical tests of general relativity (GR), light bending has been confirmed with an accuracy that increases as times goes by. Here we study the gravitational deflection of photons within the framework of classical and semiclassical higher-derivative gravity (HDG) -- the only version of GR that is known up to now to be renormalizable along with its matter couplings. Since our computations are restricted to scales much below the Planck cut-off we need not be afraid of the massive spin-2 ghost that haunts HDG. An upper bound on the constant related to the $R^2_{\\mu \

  10. Aggression and cortisol levels in three different group housing routines for lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsson, Ola; Bergqvist, Ann-Sofi; Sjunnesson, Ylva; Eliasson-Selling, Lena; Lundeheim, Nils; Magnusson, Ulf

    2015-02-18

    Lactating sows in Swedish organic piglet production are commonly group-housed with piglets in a multi-suckling pen within 14 days after farrowing. Nursing behaviour may be disturbed when lactating sows are moved to a new environment and mixed with other sows, as they spend more time fighting with other sows and exploring the new surroundings. This can disrupt the inhibitory effect of suckling on ovarian activity and increase the risk of lactational oestrus, making efficient reproductive management difficult. Therefore this study evaluated aggression and levels of the stress hormone cortisol in lactating sows group-housed together with their piglets at one (W1), two (W2) or three (W3) weeks post farrowing. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between the three management routines (W1, W2, W3) regarding number of attacks initiated or received in the mixed group. After mixing, W2 sows had a lower number of shoulder scratches (P sows. Among the W3 sows, there was a lower (P sows were group housed compared to when they were individually housed. The cortisol response, measured as variation in cortisol concentration in saliva, was also lower (P sows compared with W1 sows. For all management routines, sows already living in the new environment (resident sows) initiated more attacks (P sows entering the new environment (intruder sows). Overall, multiparous sows initiated more attacks and received fewer attacks than primiparous sows (P sows at three weeks post farrowing is less stressful than mixing and group housing sows at one week post farrowing. The results also indicate that parity and whether a sow is a resident or intruder in the group housing environment may have an effect on aggression levels when sows are group-housed.

  11. Early umbilical cord clamping contributes to elevated blood lead levels among infants with higher lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro, Camila M; Fornes, Raymond; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Tena Alavez, Gilberto; Eguía-Líz Cedillo, Raúl; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2007-11-01

    To investigate whether infant iron status, modified by umbilical cord clamping time and infant feeding mode, affected infant blood lead concentration at 6 months of age. Participants were a subset of women and their infants randomized to receive early (10 seconds) or delayed (2 minutes) umbilical cord clamping and were monitored to 6 months postpartum in Mexico City. Iron and lead status was analyzed in maternal, placental, and 6-month infant blood samples. Baseline maternal lead exposure data and infant feeding data at 2, 4, and 6 months were collected. In the total sample, maternal blood lead concentration, infant ferritin, and breast-feeding practices predicted infant blood lead concentration. Among infants with higher placental blood lead concentration and breast-fed infants not receiving any iron-fortified formula or milk at 6 months, early clamping increased infant blood lead concentration, an effect mediated in part via decreased infant iron status. Early cord clamping, by decreasing infant iron status, contributes to higher blood lead concentrations at 6 months of age among infants at high risk.

  12. The Role of the Institutional Websites on Students’ School Choice: A Comparison for the Higher Education Levels in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şirvan Şen DEMİR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research is to investigate the effects of the information on tourism higher education institutions’ websites on students’ school choice. Appropriate to the research model, 5-point Likert type survey has been prepared. The data is collected from associate degree, undergraduate and graduate level students at public universities in 6 provinces for the academic years of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 through face to face to interviews as well as email and social media with structured surveys. Obtained data have been analyzed via PASW 18.0 statistical software. The factor analysis, correlation analysis, ANOVA and regression analysis were used. All variables are found to be positively correlated with each other. The results of regression analysis show that institutional image and access to information are the determining factors of students’ school choice at every level higher education. The impact of facilities and academic staff shows variety according to the level higher education.

  13. Higher 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Associated With Lower Proteinuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipov, Jean J; Zlatkov, Borelli K; Dimitrov, Emil P; Svinarov, Dobrin A

    2016-12-01

    Proteinuria is associated with decreased graft and patient survival after kidney transplantation. Increasing evidence shows that vitamin D has antiproteinuric and renoprotective effects. The aim of our study was to assess the influence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels on proteinuria after kidney transplantation. Between May 1, 2012, and November 30, 2012, we tested 395 kidney transplant recipients for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels during their regular visits to our transplant center together with routine blood sampling and proteinuria testing. Patients within 12 months of transplant, who had undergone parathyroidectomy, had unstable graft function, had concomitant intake of calcineurin inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors were not included in the study. Subjects with advanced liver disease, or receiving vitamin D supplementation were also excluded. All laboratory, clinical, and therapeutic factors for proteinuria were taken into consideration. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate log-log regression with backward selection (SPSS version 22.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA), with significance at P proteinuria and history of diabetes mellitus, rejection episode 12 months within testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, and use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (P proteinuria. However, further research is needed to clarify the possible renoprotective properties of vitamin D.

  14. The intelligent anatomy spotter: A new approach to incorporate higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Bipasha; Gouldsborough, Ingrid; Shaw, Frances L

    2016-10-01

    The spotter test is an assessment that has been used widely to test practical knowledge of anatomy. Traditional spotter formats often focus solely on knowledge recall, in addition to being an onerous marking burden on staff where consistency in marking free text responses can be questioned. First-year optometry students at the University of Manchester study the functional anatomy of the eye in the first semester of their first year. Included in the assessment of this unit is a spotter examination worth 45% of the total unit mark. Due to the factors listed above, a new spotter format was designed. Students had to answer three questions per specimen where the answers to the questions were the labeled structures themselves (A, B, C, or D). They had to work out the answer to the question and then work out which of the labeled structures was the correct structure, negating the "cueing effect" of standard multiple choice questions. Examination results were analyzed over a six-year period (control groups 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011; treatment groups 2011/2012, 2012/2013, 2013/2014). There were no significant differences between marks obtained for the new spotter format when compared with the traditional format. The new format spotter tested comprehension rather than just knowledge, and facilitated marking because subjectiveness was erased, and less time was spent determining whether an answer was correct or not. Anat Sci Educ 9: 440-445. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Level of choreographic preparedness of sportsmen of different age groups in sports aerobics

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    Valentina Todorova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the analysis of choreographic preparedness of different age groups of sportsmen on sports aerobics. Material & Methods: videos of competitive programs of the sportsmen, who are specialized in aerobics, different age groups, method of expert evaluations are used for the quantitative analysis of choreographic preparedness; methods of mathematical analysis and synthesis are used for the determination of level of choreographic preparedness of sportsmen. Results: the level of choreographic preparedness is determined on the basis of the rating scale of the criteria of implementation of the competitive programs (Competition rules of 2013–2016 of teams-participants of the Championship of Ukraine for sports aerobics. Conclusions: indicators, to which it is necessary to pay attention in the course of choreographic preparation at stages of long-term training of sportsmen, are defined.

  16. Jacobi Forms of Higher Index and Paramodular Groups in N=2, D=4 Compactifications of String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nazaroglu, Caner

    2013-01-01

    We associate a Jacobi form over a rank s lattice to N=2, D=4 heterotic string compactifications which have s Wilson lines at a generic point in the vector multiplet moduli space. Jacobi forms of index m=1 and m=2 have appeared earlier in the context of threshold corrections to heterotic string couplings. We emphasize that higher index Jacobi forms as well as Jacobi forms of several variables over more generic even lattices also appear and construct models in which they arise. In particular, we construct an orbifold model which can be connected to models that give index m=3, 4 or 5 Jacobi forms through the Higgsing process. Constraints from being a Jacobi form are then employed to get threshold corrections using only partial information on the spectrum. We apply this procedure for index m=3, 4 or 5 Jacobi form examples and also for Jacobi forms over A_2 and A_3 root lattices. Examples with a single Wilson line are examined in detail and we display the relation of Siegel forms over a paramodular group \\Gamma_m ...

  17. Higher levels of circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are correlated with viremia and increased sCD163 levels in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hua; Duan, Zhaojun; Li, Dan; Li, Dongliang; Wang, Zheng; Ren, Li; Shen, Tao; Shao, Yiming

    2015-07-01

    Increased levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) are reported to be highly correlated with cardiovascular events. In this study, the MPA levels in different monocyte subsets and the associations between MPA levels, HIV-1 viremia and monocyte activation were evaluated during HIV-1 infection. The results showed that the percentages of MPAs in all three monocyte subsets were higher in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy controls, and were associated with the plasma viral load in the non-classical and intermediate monocyte subsets. The plasma levels of sCD14 and sCD163 were upregulated in HIV-1 infection and were positively associated with viral loads and negatively associated with CD4 counts. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) was shown to be expressed at significantly lower levels on all three monocyte subsets and was negatively correlated with the sCD163 level. The MPA level was correlated with the levels of plasma sCD163 but negatively correlated with CD163 and PSGL-1 on all three monocyte subsets. An elevated immune activation status was correlated with increased MPA formation, underlying the potential interaction between monocyte activation and MPA formation. This interaction may be related to a higher thromboembolic risk in patients infected with HIV-1.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.66.

  18. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

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    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  19. Do autistic children have higher levels of caries? A cross-sectional study in Turkish children

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    Namal Necmi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess whether the dental caries experience is higher in children with an autistic disorder (AD than in normal children. Three schools for autistic children and three standard elementary schools in Istanbul, Turkey, were included in a cross-sectional study. Subjects were orally examined. Socio-demographic information and data about their oral care habits were obtained from their parents from records. Sixty-two children with AD and 301 children without AD were examined. Their ages varied between 6 and 12 years. Children with AD compared to those without AD had lower experience of caries. Logistic regression analysis of DMFT showed that the dental status was positively affected in younger children (OR = 15.57; 95% CI 7.62, 31.80, children from families with high income (OR = 5.42; 95% CI 2.31, 12.75, children brushing teeth regularly (OR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.10, 3.68, children consuming less sugar (OR = 5.01; 95% CI 2.57, 9.76 and in those with AD (OR=3.99; 95% CI 1.56, 10.19. Children with AD had better caries status than children without AD at younger ages.

  20. Performance Analysis of Coherent Optical Communication System for M-QAM Higher Modulation Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amrinder; Dewra, Sanjeev

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, performance of QAM sequence generator in coherent optical communication system is investigated. Results are obtained for different square constellation types such as 4-QAM, 16-QAM, 64-QAM and 256-QAM using Hyperbolic-secant pulse generator. For the distance of 120 km and bit rate of 10 Gbps, it is investigated that 4-QAM provides maximum Q factor of 33.93 and minimum BER of 6e-253, whereas 16-QAM, 64-QAM & 256-QAM provides Q factor of 31.47, 22.85 & 8 and BER of 5e-218, 3e-116 & 2e-16, respectively. Decrement in Quality factor and increase in BER are observed with increment in the M-value of QAM. It is further observed that Eye opening decreases with increment in levels of QAM.

  1. Distraction sneakers decrease the expected level of aggression within groups: a game-theoretic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Frédérique; Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Hamilton, Ian M; Grant, James W A; Lefebvre, Louis

    2004-08-01

    Hawk-dove games have been extensively used to predict the conditions under which group-living animals should defend their resources against potential usurpers. Typically, game-theoretic models on aggression consider that resource defense may entail energetic and injury costs. However, intruders may also take advantage of owners who are busy fighting to sneak access to unguarded resources, imposing thereby an additional cost on the use of the escalated hawk strategy. In this article we modify the two-strategy hawk-dove game into a three-strategy hawk-dove-sneaker game that incorporates a distraction-sneaking tactic, allowing us to explore its consequences on the expected level of aggression within groups. Our model predicts a lower proportion of hawks and hence lower frequencies of aggressive interactions within groups than do previous two-strategy hawk-dove games. The extent to which distraction sneakers decrease the frequency of aggression within groups, however, depends on whether they search only for opportunities to join resources uncovered by other group members or for both unchallenged resources and opportunities to usurp.

  2. Effect of group size and maize silage dietary levels on behaviour, health, carcass and meat quality of Mediterranean buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, F; De Rosa, G; Barone, C M A; Napolitano, F; Grasso, F; Uzun, P; Di Francia, A

    2016-03-01

    The effects of different dietary levels of maize silage (10% v. 36% DM) and group size (7 v. 14 animals) were assessed on growth performance and in vivo digestibility of 28 male fattening buffaloes. In addition, the effects of diet on meat quality and group size on behaviour and immune response were separately evaluated. Animals were weighed and assigned to three groups. The high silage - low size group (HL) was fed a total mixed ration (TMR) containing 36% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 12.7±2.6 months; BW 382.2±67.7 kg at the start of the study). The low silage - low size group (LL) was fed a TMR containing 10% DM of maize silage and consisted of seven animals (age 13.0±2.7 months; BW 389.4±72.3 kg). The high silage - high size group (HH) was fed the 36% maize silage DM diet and consisted of 14 animals (age 13.9±3.25 months; BW 416.5±73.9 kg). Total space allowance (3.2 indoor+3.2 outdoor m2/animal) was kept constant in the three groups, as well as the ratio of animals to drinkers (seven animals per water bowl) and the manger space (70 cm per animal). Growth performance, carcass characteristics and digestibility were influenced neither by dietary treatment nor by group size, even if the group fed 36% maize silage diet showed a higher fibre digestibility. No effect of diet was found on meat quality. Group size did not affect the behavioural activities with the exception of drinking (1.04±0.35% v. 2.60±0.35%; P<0.01 for groups HL and HH, respectively) and vigilance (2.58±0.46% v. 1.20±0.46%; P<0.05 for groups HL and HH, respectively). Immune responses were not affected by group size.

  3. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: RFP, Contract, and Administrative Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers contracts, Request for Proposals (RFPs), and administrative issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  4. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cliona Ni Mhurchu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  5. Food prices and consumer demand: differences across income levels and ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00). Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.

  6. Higher-level classification of the Archaea: evolution of methanogenesis and methanogens

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    Éric Bapteste

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a phylogenetic approach to analyze the evolution of methanogenesis and methanogens. We show that 23 vertically transmitted ribosomal proteins do not support the monophyly of methanogens, and propose instead that there are two distantly related groups of extant archaea that produce methane, which we have named Class I and Class II. Based on this finding, we subsequently investigated the uniqueness of the origin of methanogenesis by studying both the enzymes of methanogenesis and the proteins that synthesize its specific coenzymes. We conclude that hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis appeared only once during evolution. Genes involved in the seven central steps of the methanogenic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2 are ubiquitous in methanogens and share a common history. This suggests that, although extant methanogens produce methane from various substrates (CO2, formate, acetate, methylated C-1 compounds, these archaea have a core of conserved enzymes that have undergone little evolutionary change. Furthermore, this core of methanogenesis enzymes seems to originate (as a whole from the last ancestor of all methanogens and does not appear to have been horizontally transmitted to other organisms or between members of Class I and Class II. The observation of a unique and ancestral form of methanogenesis suggests that it was preserved in two independent lineages, with some instances of specialization or added metabolic flexibility. It was likely lost in the Halobacteriales, Thermoplasmatales and Archaeoglobales. Given that fossil evidence for methanogenesis dates back 2.8 billion years, a unique origin of this process makes the methanogenic archaea a very ancient taxon.

  7. Splenic Stromal Cells from Aged Mice Produce Higher Levels of IL-6 Compared to Young Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihyun; Miyakawa, Takuya; Shiokawa, Aya; Nakajima-Adachi, Haruyo; Hachimura, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Inflamm-aging indicates the chronic inflammatory state resulting from increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators such as IL-6 in the elderly. Our principle objective was to identify cell types that were affected with aging concerning IL-6 secretion in the murine model. We compared IL-6 production in spleen cells from both young and aged mice and isolated several types of cells from spleen and investigated IL-6 mRNA expression and protein production. IL-6 protein productions in cultured stromal cells from aged mice spleen were significantly high compared to young mice upon LPS stimulation. IL-6 mRNA expression level of freshly isolated stromal cells from aged mice was high compared to young mice. Furthermore, stromal cells of aged mice highly expressed IL-6 mRNA after LPS injection in vivo. These results suggest that stromal cells play a role in producing IL-6 in aged mice and imply that they contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in the elderly. PMID:24729663

  8. Factors in the development of higher levels of reading literacy: Argumentation skills in educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branković Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The highest levels of reading literacy, as defined within PISA study, include the ability to use various cognitive skills, with argumentative skills being one of the most important among them. In the present study our goal was to reveal some of the factors that influence the development of argumentative skills in Serbian schools. We investigated the extent to which argumentative skills are required in PISA reading literacy tasks, as well as the specific difficulties our students have faced on these tasks, through an analysis of student performance. We also conducted an analysis of the educational practice - by doing in-depth interviews with teachers and content analysis of students' textbooks. The results revealed that: 1 Argumentations skills are an important requirement within PISA tasks; 2 Serbian students are mostly successful at basic tasks of recognizing arguments or providing arguments for the given position; they face difficulties answering the tasks which require precise formulation of relevant arguments as well as those demanding meta-cognitive skills (e.g. recognizing persuasive strategies in the given text. Their performance is particularly poor on tasks requiring the combination of information from different sources or information presented in different formats (text, tables, or graphs; 3 There is a significant gap between the requirements for argumentation skills our students usually encounter and PISA reading literacy tasks. In this paper we discuss some of the difficulties and obstacles to encouraging the development of argumentative thinking.

  9. Pursuit tracking and higher levels of skill development in the human pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the human pilot is offered for pursuit tracking tasks; the model encompasses an existing model for compensatory tracking. The central hypothesis in the development of this model states that those primary structural elements in the compensatory model responsible for the pilot's equalization capabilities remain intact in the pursuit model. In this latter case, effective low-frequency inversion of the controlled-element dynamics occurs by feeding-forward derived input rate through the equalization dynamics, with low-frequency phase droop minimized. The sharp reduction in low-frequency phase lag beyond that associated with the disappearance of phase droop is seen to accompany relatively low-gain feedback of vehicle output. The results of some recent motion cue research are discussed and interpreted in terms of the compensatory-pursuit display dichotomy. Tracking with input preview is discussed in a qualitative way. In terms of the model, preview is shown to demand no fundamental changes in structure or equalization and to allow the pilot to eliminate the effective time delays that accrue in the inversion of the controlled-element dynamics. Precognitive behavior is discussed, and a model that encompasses all the levels of skill development outlined in the successive organizations of perception theory is finally proposed.

  10. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambavi Kugananthan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Human milk (HM contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p < 0.0001, n = 287. No association was found between whole HM leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287, supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89. These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  11. Leptin Levels Are Higher in Whole Compared to Skim Human Milk, Supporting a Cellular Contribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugananthan, Sambavi; Lai, Ching Tat; Gridneva, Zoya; Mark, Peter J; Geddes, Donna T; Kakulas, Foteini

    2016-11-08

    Human milk (HM) contains a plethora of metabolic hormones, including leptin, which is thought to participate in the regulation of the appetite of the developing infant. Leptin in HM is derived from a combination of de novo mammary synthesis and transfer from the maternal serum. Moreover, leptin is partially lipophilic and is also present in HM cells. However, leptin has predominately been measured in skim HM, which contains neither fat nor cells. We optimised an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for leptin measurement in both whole and skim HM and compared leptin levels between both HM preparations collected from 61 lactating mothers. Whole HM leptin ranged from 0.2 to 1.47 ng/mL, whilst skim HM leptin ranged from 0.19 to 0.9 ng/mL. Whole HM contained, on average, 0.24 ± 0.01 ng/mL more leptin than skim HM (p leptin and fat content (p = 0.17, n = 287), supporting a cellular contribution to HM leptin. No difference was found between pre- and post-feed samples (whole HM: p = 0.29, skim HM: p = 0.89). These findings highlight the importance of optimising HM leptin measurement and assaying it in whole HM to accurately examine the amount of leptin received by the infant during breastfeeding.

  12. Changing meaning causes coupling changes within higher levels of the cortical hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, T M; Iverson, P; Kiebel, S J; Stephan, K E; Kilner, J M; Friston, K J; Crinion, J T; Price, C J; Leff, A P

    2009-07-14

    Processing of speech and nonspeech sounds occurs bilaterally within primary auditory cortex and surrounding regions of the superior temporal gyrus; however, the manner in which these regions interact during speech and nonspeech processing is not well understood. Here, we investigate the underlying neuronal architecture of the auditory system with magnetoencephalography and a mismatch paradigm. We used a spoken word as a repeating "standard" and periodically introduced 3 "oddball" stimuli that differed in the frequency spectrum of the word's vowel. The closest deviant was perceived as the same vowel as the standard, whereas the other 2 deviants were perceived as belonging to different vowel categories. The neuronal responses to these vowel stimuli were compared with responses elicited by perceptually matched tone stimuli under the same paradigm. For both speech and tones, deviant stimuli induced coupling changes within the same bilateral temporal lobe system. However, vowel oddball effects increased coupling within the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, whereas perceptually equivalent nonspeech oddball effects increased coupling within the right primary auditory cortex. Thus, we show a dissociation in neuronal interactions, occurring at both different hierarchal levels of the auditory system (superior temporal versus primary auditory cortex) and in different hemispheres (left versus right). This hierarchical specificity depends on whether auditory stimuli are embedded in a perceptual context (i.e., a word). Furthermore, our lateralization results suggest left hemisphere specificity for the processing of phonological stimuli, regardless of their elemental (i.e., spectrotemporal) characteristics.

  13. Leadership Provided by Non-Academic Middle-Level Managers in the Australian Higher Education Sector: The Enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkinas, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the leadership behaviours displayed by non-academic middle-level managers in the Australian higher education sector. The study also identifies the importance of these leadership behaviours and the leadership effectiveness of these managers. The integrated competing values framework was used to measure leadership…

  14. Reading Comprehension, Working Memory and Higher-Level Language Skills in Children with SLI and/or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…

  15. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education : the impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students’ choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus

  16. Relationships between Self-assessed Masticatory Ability and Higher Level Functional Capacity among Community-dwelling Young-old Persons

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    Shingo Moriya

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: Self-assessed masticatory ability is significantly and independently related to higher level functional capacity, especially intellectual activity and social role, among young-old persons living independently in the community. It is worthwhile noting masticatory ability when clinicians investigate factors associated with disability in independent living.

  17. "They Call Me Wonder Woman": The Job Jurisdictions and Work-Related Learning of Higher Level Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roger; Hall, Thelma; Cable, Carrie; Eyres, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth interview study of the roles, job jurisdictions and associated learning of higher level teaching assistants (HLTAs). This role has the core purpose of covering classes to enable teacher release for planning, preparation and assessment. HLTAs' individual job jurisdictions are described and discussed as are…

  18. "They Call Me Wonder Woman": The Job Jurisdictions and Work-Related Learning of Higher Level Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roger; Hall, Thelma; Cable, Carrie; Eyres, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on an in-depth interview study of the roles, job jurisdictions and associated learning of higher level teaching assistants (HLTAs). This role has the core purpose of covering classes to enable teacher release for planning, preparation and assessment. HLTAs' individual job jurisdictions are described and discussed as are…

  19. Mathematics Teachers' Level of Knowledge and Practice on the Implementation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Mokhtar, Mahani; Halim, Noor Dayana Abd; Ali, Dayana Farzeeha; Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Kohar, Umar Haiyat Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the level of knowledge and practice on the implementation of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) among mathematics teachers at a secondary school in the district of Terengganu. The study focused on the aspects of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment and compared them with demographic factors of the respondents. It used…

  20. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education : the impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students’ choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus profession

  1. Explaining participation differentials in Dutch higher education: The impact of subjective success probabilities on level choice and field choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Need, A.; Jong, U. de

    2010-01-01

    In this article we examine whether subjective estimates of success probabilities explain the effect of social origin, sex, and ethnicity on students' choices between different school tracks in Dutch higher education. The educational options analysed differ in level (i.e. university versus profession

  2. Higher Reported Levels of Depression, Stress, and Anxiety Are Associated with Increased Endorsement of ADHD Symptoms by Postsecondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Alexander, Sandra J.; Armstrong, Irene T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which postsecondary students endorse symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and whether experienced level of stress, depression, or anxiety are associated with higher reporting of ADHD symptoms. Students attending a combined health and counseling service completed the Conners Adult ADHD Rating…

  3. Parental Level of Education: Associations with Psychological Well-Being, Academic Achievement and Reasons for Pursuing Higher Education in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechter, Melissa; Milevsky, Avidan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to determine the interconnection between parental level of education, psychological well-being, academic achievement and reasons for pursuing higher education in adolescents. Participants included 439 college freshmen from a mid-size state university in the northeastern USA. A survey, including indices of…

  4. Reading Comprehension, Working Memory and Higher-Level Language Skills in Children with SLI and/or Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anita M.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Au, Terry K.-F.; McBride, Catherine; Ng, Ashley K.-H.; Yip, Lesley P.-W.; Lam, Catherine C.-C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined (1) whether working memory and higher-level languages skills--inferencing and comprehension monitoring--accounted for individual differences among Chinese children in Chinese reading comprehension, after controlling for age, Chinese word reading and oral language skills, and (2) whether children with specific language…

  5. Leadership Provided by Non-Academic Middle-Level Managers in the Australian Higher Education Sector: The Enablers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkinas, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to identify the leadership behaviours displayed by non-academic middle-level managers in the Australian higher education sector. The study also identifies the importance of these leadership behaviours and the leadership effectiveness of these managers. The integrated competing values framework was used to measure leadership…

  6. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  7. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. 483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes. Their aligned nucle...

  8. Urinary levels of high mobility group box-1 are associated with disease activity in antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-Tian Ma

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1, a kind of pro-inflammatory mediator, is associated with inflammatory conditions and tissue damage. Our previous study demonstrated that the circulating levels of HMGB1 correlated with disease activity of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV. In the current study, we aimed to measure urinary levels of HMGB1 in AAV patients, correlated them to clinical activity index and analysed the immunohistochemical HMGB1 staining in kidney specimens.50 patients with AAV in active stage and 56 patients with AAV in remission were recruited. The urinary levels of HMGB1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, renal biopsy specimens from 27 patients with active AAV were randomly collected to evaluate the deposition of HMGB1.Urinary HMGB1 levels in AAV patients in active stage were significantly higher than those in AAV patients in remission and healthy controls (1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.38 [0.10-1.35] mg/μmolCr, P=0.001; 1.46 [0.56-3.43] versus 0.48 [0.40-0.60] mg/μmolCr, P=0.000, respectively. Further analysis found that urinary levels of HMGB1 correlated with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r=0.354, p=0.012, C-reactive protein (r=0.289, p=0.042, and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (r=0.350, p=0.013. Renal tissue of active AAV patients showed HMGB1 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm and the extracellular space. The percentage of HMGB1-negative nuclei in renal tissue of patients with active AAV was significantly higher than that in normal controls (60.6±20.2 % versus 2.7±0.6 %, p<0.01.Urinary levels of HMGB1 may be associated with the disease activity in AAV patients.

  9. Comparison of Masking Level Difference in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthy Control Group

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    Soghrat Faghihzadeh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disorder that involves central nervous system. Studies have showed that multiple sclerosis affects behavioral central auditory tests, such as masking release or masking level difference (MLD. The purpose of this study is to compare the masking level difference between multiple sclerosis patients and normal subjects.Methods: This cross sectional and non-interventional study was conducted on 32 multiple sclerosis patients aged between 20-50 years and 32 controls matched for age and gender in Faculty of Rehabilitation, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. masking level difference test was performed on each subject.Results: The mean masking level difference in the two groups was significantly different (p<0.01 however, gender did not prove to play a role in this difference.Conclusion: As part of the multiple sclerosis diagnosis panel, masking level difference test is an efficient modality for evaluation of hearing impairment and monitoring of rehabilitation progress.

  10. Discriminative Dictionary Learning With Two-Level Low Rank and Group Sparse Decomposition for Image Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zaidao; Hou, Biao; Jiao, Licheng

    2016-06-30

    Discriminative dictionary learning (DDL) framework has been widely used in image classification which aims to learn some class-specific feature vectors as well as a representative dictionary according to a set of labeled training samples. However, interclass similarities and intraclass variances among input samples and learned features will generally weaken the representability of dictionary and the discrimination of feature vectors so as to degrade the classification performance. Therefore, how to explicitly represent them becomes an important issue. In this paper, we present a novel DDL framework with two-level low rank and group sparse decomposition model. In the first level, we learn a class-shared and several class-specific dictionaries, where a low rank and a group sparse regularization are, respectively, imposed on the corresponding feature matrices. In the second level, the class-specific feature matrix will be further decomposed into a low rank and a sparse matrix so that intraclass variances can be separated to concentrate the corresponding feature vectors. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. Compared with the other state-of-the-arts on several popular image databases, our model can achieve a competitive or better performance in terms of the classification accuracy.

  11. Effects of Group Work on English Communicative Competence of Chinese International Graduates in United States Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mo

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated 14 Chinese international graduate students' lived experiences with group work and the effects of group work on their English communicative competence. The interview results showed that these participants' attitudes towards group work went through changes from initial inadaptation or dislike to later adaptation…

  12. Higher quality of life and lower depression for people on ART in Uganda as compared to a community control group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Martin

    Full Text Available Provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART to people living with HIV (PLWH has increased globally. Research measuring whether ART restores subjective well-being to "normal" levels is lacking, particularly in resource limited settings. The study objectives are to compare quality of life and depression symptoms for PLWH on ART to a general community population and to explore factors to explain these differences, including socio-economic status and the impact of urban or rural residence. PLWH on ART (n = 263 were recruited from ART delivery sites and participants not on ART (n = 160 were recruited from communities in Wakiso District, Uganda. Participants were interviewed using the translated World Health Organisation Quality of Life brief measure, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist depression section, and questions about socio-economic status, residence as urban or rural and, for PLWH on ART, self-reported adherence and use of HIV counselling. Compared to the community sample and controlling for location of residence, PLWH on ART had significantly higher quality of life (QOL for physical, psychological and environment domains, but not the social domain. These differences were not due to socio-economic status alone. Depression scores were significantly lower for PLWH on ART. Both comparisons controlled for the effect of location of residence. People on ART self-reported high adherence and the majority had used HIV counselling services. Our findings show better QOL amongst PLWH on ART compared to a general community sample, which cannot be explained solely by differences in socio-economic status nor location of residence. The general community sample results point towards the challenges of life in this setting. Access to health services may underpin this difference and further research should explore this finding, in addition to identification of psychological mechanisms that relate to better QOL. ART provision infrastructure has clear benefits

  13. Organochlorine pesticides levels and associated factors in a group of blood donors in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Felipe Parra; Kuno, Rúbia; Lemes, Vera Regina Rossi; Kussumi, Tereza Atsuko; Nakano, Viviane Emi; Rocha, Sonia Bio; de Oliveira, Maria Celeste Cardeal; de Albuquerque Kimura, Iracema; Gouveia, Nelson

    2017-08-01

    The use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) is a worldwide public health concern given that high levels of these compounds in humans and animals can lead to serious health problems. This study aimed to evaluate the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the serum of 547 blood donors in the São Paulo metropolitan region (SPMR) in 2009 and to investigate factors associated with higher levels of these compounds. The OCPs were determined by gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection. Multiple ordinal logistic regression models were employed to determine the factors associated with higher levels. Only β-HCH and p,p'-DDE had a significant number of samples above the limit of quantification. Factors associated with higher levels of β-HCH were age within 26 to 35 years (OR = 3.1 [1.05-9.09]), age within 36 to 45 years (OR = 18.27 [6.89-48.91]), and female gender (OR = 0.44 [0.24-0.82] for men). p,p'-DDE levels were associated with age within 26 to 35 years (OR = 2.65 [1.20-3.45]), age within 36 to 45 years (OR = 4.59 [2.64-7.92]), female gender (OR = 0.86 [0.43-0.94] for men), and previous work with pesticides (OR = 2.88 [1.22-6.84]). Lower levels of p,p'-DDE were associated with an income of 3 to 5 minimum wages (OR = 0.38 [0.19-0.75]) and with intake of foods from animal origin up to twice a week (OR = 0.15 [0.03-0.72]) and more than twice a week (OR = 0.10 [0.02-0.47]). The results of this study indicate that the study group was not exposed to high levels of OCPs.

  14. Group-level self-definition and self-investment: A hierarchical (multicomponent) model of in-group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; van Zomeren, M.; Zebel, S.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Pennekamp, S.F.; Doosje, B.; Ouwerkerk, J.W.; Spears, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows individuals' identification with in-groups to be psychologically important and socially consequential. However, there is little agreement about how identification should be conceptualized or measured. On the basis of previous work, the authors identified 5 specific components

  15. Group-level self-definition and self-investment : A hierarchical (multicomponent) model of in-group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, Colin Wayne; van Zomeren, Martijn; Zebel, Sven; Vliek, Michael L. W.; Pennekamp, Sjoerd F.; Doosje, Bertjan; Ouwerkerk, Jaap W.; Spears, Russell

    Recent research shows individuals' identification with in-groups to be psychologically important and socially consequential. However, there is little agreement about how identification should be conceptualized or measured. On the basis of previous work, the authors identified 5 specific components

  16. Group-level self-definition and self-investment : A hierarchical (multicomponent) model of in-group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, Colin Wayne; van Zomeren, Martijn; Zebel, Sven; Vliek, Michael L. W.; Pennekamp, Sjoerd F.; Doosje, Bertjan; Ouwerkerk, Jaap W.; Spears, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Recent research shows individuals' identification with in-groups to be psychologically important and socially consequential. However, there is little agreement about how identification should be conceptualized or measured. On the basis of previous work, the authors identified 5 specific components o

  17. The Multilevel Latent Covariate Model: A New, More Reliable Approach to Group-Level Effects in Contextual Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludtke, Oliver; Marsh, Herbert W.; Robitzsch, Alexander; Trautwein, Ulrich; Asparouhov, Tihomir; Muthen, Bengt

    2008-01-01

    In multilevel modeling (MLM), group-level (L2) characteristics are often measured by aggregating individual-level (L1) characteristics within each group so as to assess contextual effects (e.g., group-average effects of socioeconomic status, achievement, climate). Most previous applications have used a multilevel manifest covariate (MMC) approach,…

  18. Tolerance of a field grown soybean cultivar to elevated ozone level is concurrent with higher leaflet ascorbic acid level, higher ascorbate-dehydroascorbate redox status, and long term photosynthetic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Robinson, J; Britz, S J

    2000-01-01

    We examined the characteristics of ascorbic acid (ASC) level, dehydroascorbate (DHA) level, and the ASC-DHA redox status in the leaflets of two soybean cultivars grown in a field environment and exposed to elevated ozone (O(3)) levels. These two cultivars, one that preliminary evidence indicated to be O(3)-tolerant (cv Essex), and one that was indicated to be O(3)-sensitive (cv Forrest), were grown in open-top chambers during the summer of 1997. The plants were exposed daily to a controlled, moderately high O(3) level ( approximately 58 nl l(-1) air) in the light, beginning at the seedling stage and continuing to bean maturity. Concurrently, control plants were exposed to carbon-filtered, ambient air containing a relatively low O(3) level ( approximately 24 nl l(-1) air) during the same period. Elevated O(3) did not affect biomass per plant, mature leaf area accretion, or bean yield per plant of cv Essex. In contrast, elevated O(3) level decreased the biomass and bean yield per plant of cv Forrest by approximately 20%. Daily leaflet photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance per unit area did not decrease in either cultivar as a result of prolonged O(3) exposure. A 10% lower mature leaflet area in O(3)-treated cv Forrest plants contributed to an ultimate limitation in long-term photosynthetic productivity (vegetative and bean yield). Possible factors causing cv Essex to be more O(3) tolerant than cv Forrest were: 1) mature leaflets of control and O(3)-treated cv Essex plants consistently maintained a higher daily ASC level than leaflets of cv Forrest plants, and 2) mature leaflets of cv Essex plants maintained a higher daily ASC-DHA redox status than leaflets of cv Forrest plants.

  19. Moving Away from Ones and Zeros, Designing a Ground Data System Based on Higher Levels of Abstraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankenson, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Previous JPL ground systems have been designed with the Ground Data System (GDS) engineer in mind. The focus on these systems has been on packaging and delivery of low level information (frames, packets, telemetry values) to the end user. It was not that long ago when project teams would be huddled over a workstation, examining crude displays of telemetry bits organized in various ways, trying to determine the status of a spacecraft. Understanding the data often required additional levels of GDS expertise, or worse, transformation of the raw data into alternative formats followed by ingestion into other tools so that the data became meaningful. The primary focus was often to answer these types of questions: "Why did this particular frame fail Reed-Solomon decode? Why did this packet get marked as invalid? Why am I missing a block of telemetry from my query?" -- which are completely valid questions to ask from a GDS Engineer's point of view, and large families of tools have been designed to help answer these questions. But these are not the questions that most users care about - which are more like: "Why is the battery state of charge trending down? Show me a summary image report for the last traverse to the target. Show me a data accountability summary for the last DSN pass." Answers to these questions, which are what users are looking for, requires a higher level of abstraction and supporting tools than mining through ones and zeros. JPL has created a next generation capability called the Mission Data Processing and Control System (MPCS) which is designed to support this higher level of abstraction by providing customizable views of the ground system combining collections of lower level information into more meaningful ways. Instead of examining frames, packets, and individual telemetry data points -- MPCS is capable of providing comprehensive summary reports, product status, overall flight/ground event status, as well as payload health summaries. Based on these

  20. Decision-Making Models with Sets of Strategies for Applications to Individuals and Groups in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Wanda E.

    Three decision-making models that have applications for college presidents and administrators are reviewed. While both individual and group decision-making are addressed, emphasis is placed on the importance of group decisions on institutional policy planning. The model of Edmund M. Burke (1979) presents specific decision-making strategies in…

  1. Methods for Dealing with Communication Apprehension in Higher Education Speech Instruction via Use of Small Group Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Charla A.; Dudley, Jack A.

    Noting that many university speech students suffer from communication apprehension (CA) and must face the fear and anxiety of performance in front of the class, a study examined the effectiveness of group discussion, interpersonal communication, public speaking, and small group activities and interactions in reducing CA. Subjects, 57 students,…

  2. "It's a Bit of a Generalisation, but …": Participant Perspectives on Intercultural Group Assessment in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul; Hampton, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on domestic and international students' perceptions of the influence of group diversity on communication, learning, task performance and assessment grades. The study's methodology involved quantitative and qualitative analysis of surveys (N?=?312), focus group interviews of students (n?=?26) and individual staff interviews…

  3. A Basic Study of Metaheuristics Based on Higher Level Structure in Solution Space of Combinatorial Optimization Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, Takahiko; Yasuda, Keiichiro

    Metaheuristics is a new paradigm that aims to obtain an approximate solution within a feasible computation time. To design the effective metaheuristics, strategies of intensification and diversification are essential. This paper proposes an algorithm that has long term policy for realizing intensification and diversification based on higher level structure in solution space. In order to verify the performance, the proposed algorithm is applied to some traveling salesman problems which are typical combinatorial optimization problems.

  4. Resolving the higher-order phylogenetic relationships of the circumtropical Mabuya group (Squamata: Scincidae): An out-of-Asia diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin, Benjamin R; Metallinou, Margarita; Weinell, Jeffrey L; Jackman, Todd R; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-09-01

    Despite an abundance of phylogenetic studies focused on intrageneric relationships of members of the Mabuya group, the intergeneric relationships have remained difficult to resolve. The most-persistent unresolved regions of the phylogeny of the group include: (1) the placement of the Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with respect to the Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis and its taxonomic status; (2) the phylogenetic position of the Cape Verdean Chioninia within the larger Mabuya group; (3) support for the placement of Dasia with respect to the entire group; and (4) the phylogenetic placement of Eutropis novemcarinata with respect to other Eutropis and Dasia. In this study, we include representatives of all these taxa as well as African Eumecia and Neotropical Mabuya. We seek to address these phylogenetic and systematic issues by generating a well-resolved and supported phylogeny for the Mabuya group as a whole that can be used to develop a stable taxonomy and reconstruct the geographic patterns of diversification within the group. To meet these goals, we built a large multi-locus dataset of 11 markers (nine nuclear and two mitochondrial), and performed concatenated and species tree analyses to generate a well-supported phylogeny for the group. Statistical topology tests reject the monophyly of Middle-Eastern Trachylepis with Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis, and to reflect monophyly we place the Middle-Eastern species into a previously described genus, Heremites. Cape-Verdean Chioninia are resolved as the strongly supported sister-group to Afro-Malagasy Trachylepis. Monophyly of the Southeast-Asian genera, Eutropis and Dasia, is not supported, with a clade composed of Dasia+Eutropis novemcarinata more closely related to the rest of the Mabuya group than to the remaining Eutropis. The phylogenetic position of E. novemcarinata renders Eutropis polyphyletic, and we therefore describe and place E. novemcarinata into a new monotypic genus, Toenayar, to preserve monophyly among the genera. In

  5. Organizational fields and competitive groups in higher education: Some lessons from the Bachelor/Master reform in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Krücken, Georg

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of the Bachelor and Master reform in German universities happens at a surprisingly rapid pace. Apparently, a higher education system which by most observers is characterized as being reluctant to change can quickly embrace the Bologna process, which aims at a common European higher education area until 2010. In this article the main driving-forces underlying the rapid reform process are identified with the help of some conceptual tools from the new institutionalism in organ...

  6. Asymptomatic prospective and retrospective cohorts with metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty indicate acquired lymphocyte reactivity varies with metal ion levels on a group basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallab, Nadim J; Caicedo, Marco; McAllister, Kyron; Skipor, Anastasia; Amstutz, Harlan; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2013-02-01

    Some tissues from metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasty revisions have shown evidence of adaptive-immune reactivity (i.e., excessive peri-implant lymphocyte infiltration/activation). We hypothesized that, prior to symptoms, some people with MoM hip arthroplasty will develop quantifiable metal-induced lymphocyte reactivity responses related to peripheral metal ion levels. We tested three cohorts (Group 1: n = 21 prospective longitudinal MoM hip arthroplasty; Group 2: n = 17 retrospective MoM hip arthroplasty; and Group 3: n = 20 controls without implants). We compared implant position, metal-ion release, and immuno-reactivity. MoM cohorts had elevated (p Group 1:1.2 ppb Co, 1.5 ppb Cr; Group 2: 3.4 ppb Co, 5.4 ppb Cr; Group 3: 0.01 ppb Co, 0.1 ppb Cr). However, only after 1-4 years post-op did 56% of Group 1 develop metal-reactivity (vs. 5% pre-op, metal-LTT, SI > 2), compared with 76% of Group 2, and 15% of Group 3 controls (patch testing was a poor diagnostic indicator with only 1/21 Group 1 positive). Higher cup-abduction angles (50° vs. 40°) in Group 1 were associated with higher serum Cr (p Group-1 participants (p Group 1 participants. Our results showed that lymphocyte reactivity to metals can develop within the first 1-4 years after MoM arthroplasty in asymptomatic patients and lags increases in metal ion levels. This increased metal reactivity was more prevalent in those individuals with extreme cup angles and higher amounts of circulating metal. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  7. Analyzing Group Level Effects with Clustered Data Using Taylor Series Linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis L. Huang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Clustered data (e.g., students within schools are often analyzed in educational research where data are naturally nested. As a consequence, multilevel modeling (MLM has commonly been used to study the contextual or group-level (e.g., school effects on individual outcomes. The current study investigates the use of an alternative procedure to MLM: regression using Taylor series linearization (TSL variance estimation. Despite the name, regressions using TSL are straightforward to conduct, can yield consistent and unbiased estimates and standard errors (given the appropriate conditions, and can be performed using a variety of commercially- and freely-available statistical software. I analyze a subsample of the High School and Beyond (HSB dataset using MLM, regression using TSL, and ordinary least squares regression and compare results. In addition, 12,000 random samples are drawn from the HSB dataset of varying level-one and level-two sample sizes in order to compute biases in standard errors based on the different conditions. Sample R and SAS syntax showing how to run regressions using TSL are provided

  8. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Continuous cohomology of groups of volume-preserving and symplectic diffepmorphisms, measurable transfer and higher asymptotic cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Reznikov, A G

    1997-01-01

    I construct the real counterparts (which I call Borel-Bott classes) of the R/Z classes constructed in "Characteristic classes in symplectic topology", to appear, in the cohomology of volume-preserving and symplectomorhisms of a compact (symplectic) manifold.I show that, for the symplectic action of the mapping class group in the moduli space of stable vector bundles over a Riemann surface, the restriction of the first constructed class from the symplectomorphism group gives a generator for the second (bounded) cohomology of the mapping class group.

  10. Circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration are higher in women using hormonal contraceptives: data from two preliminary studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Allison E; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M; Jahn, Allison L; Abercrombie, Heather C

    2014-07-01

    Exogenous cortisol administration has been used to test the influence of glucocorticoids on a variety of outcomes, including memory and affect. Careful control of factors known to influence cortisol and other endogenous hormone levels is central to the success of this research. While the use of hormonal birth control (HBC) is known to exert many physiological effects, including decreasing the salivary cortisol response to stress, it is unknown how HBC influences circulating cortisol levels after exogenous cortisol administration. To determine those effects, we examined the role of HBC on participants' cortisol levels after receiving synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone) in two separate studies. In Study 1, 24 healthy women taking HBC and 26 healthy men were administered a 0.1 mg/kg body weight intravenous dose of hydrocortisone, and plasma cortisol levels were measured over 3 h. In Study 2, 61 participants (34 women; 16 were on HBC) received a 15 mg hydrocortisone pill, and salivary cortisol levels were measured over 6 h. Taken together, results from these studies suggest that HBC use is associated with a greater cortisol increase following cortisol administration. These data have important methodological implications: (1) when given a controlled dose of hydrocortisone, cortisol levels may increase more dramatically in women taking HBC versus women not on HBC or men; and (2) in studies manipulating cortisol levels, women on hormonal contraceptives should be investigated as a separate group.

  11. Comparison the Effect of Student-Based Group Discussion and Lecture Methods Teaching on Midwifery Student\\'s Learning Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour SA.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: True learning needs the utilization of proper teaching methods leading to students’ interests in the learning activities to gain useful learning experiences. Therefore, it is needed to reform the traditional teaching methods and to use new student-focused methods by the educational systems.  The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the student-focused group discussion method and lecture method on the learning level in the Midwifery students. Materials & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 72 third-semester Midwifery bachelor students of Islamic Azad University, Gorgan Branch, were selected via census method to participate in the theoretical clinical pregnancy course presented as lecture and group discussion methods in 2014. The final test was done after the end of the training courses. And, material durability test was done 8 weeks after the end of the course sessions. Data was analyzed, using SPSS 16 software and Wilcoxon Non-parametric Test. Findings: There was a significant difference between the mean scores of all the sessions conducted through lecture method (45.00±8.00 and group discussion method (57.00±10.00; p=0.0001. There was a significant difference in the material durability after 8 weeks between the mean scores of lecture (24.50±13.90 and group discussion (35.10±13.10 methods (p=0.0001. Conclusion: Standard student-focused group discussion training affects the midwifery students’ learning more than the lecture method does and there is higher information durability.  

  12. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  13. Lower vitamin D levels at first trimester are associated with higher risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Marilyn; Battista, Marie-Claude; Doyon, Myriam; Houde, Ghislaine; Ménard, Julie; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Hivert, Marie-France; Perron, Patrice

    2014-08-01

    The progressive increase of insulin resistance observed in pregnancy contributes to the pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). There is controversy whether vitamin D deficiency contributes to abnormal glycemic regulation in pregnancy. We tested the associations between first trimester 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and: 1) the risk of developing GDM; 2) insulin resistance/sensitivity, beta cell function and compensation indices in a large population-based prospective cohort of pregnant women. Participants (n = 655) were seen at first (6-13 weeks) and second (24-28 weeks) trimesters for blood samples. At first trimester, 25OHD levels were measured. At second trimester, glucose and insulin were measured 3 times during the oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), beta cell function (HOMA-B), insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), insulin secretion (AUCins/gluc) and beta cell compensation (ISSI-2). Based on IADPSG criteria, 54 participants (8.2 %) developed GDM. Lower first trimester 25OHD levels were associated with higher risk of developing GDM even after adjustment for vitamin D confounding factors and GDM risk factors (OR = 1.48 per decrease of one SD in 25OHD levels; P = 0.04). Lower first trimester 25OHD levels were associated with higher HOMA-IR (r = - 0.08; P = 0.03), lower Matsuda index (r = 0.13; P = 0.001) and lower ISSI-2 (r = 0.08; P = 0.04). After adjustment for confounders, we found no significant association with HOMA-B and AUCins/gluc. Our results suggest that low levels of 25OHD at first trimester are (1) an independent risk factor for developing GDM and (2) associated with insulin resistance at second trimester.

  14. The ultra-slow NAT2*6A haplotype is associated with reduced higher cognitive functions in an elderly study group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinski, Silvia; Getzmann, Stephan; Gajewski, Patrick D; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Hengstler, Jan G; Falkenstein, Michael; Golka, Klaus

    2015-12-01

    N-Acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) genotype is associated with age-related declines in basic sensory hearing functions. However, the possible modulatory role of NAT2 for higher cognitive functions has not yet been studied. We tested auditory goal-directed behavior and attentional control in 120 NAT2 genotyped subjects (63-88 years), using an auditory distraction paradigm in which participants responded to the duration of long and short tone stimuli. We studied involuntary shifts in attention to task-irrelevant deviant stimuli and applied event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine which cognitive subprocesses are affected by NAT2 status on a neurophysiological level. Relative to the standard stimuli, deviant stimuli decreased performance in the recently described ultra-slow acetylators (NAT2*6A and *7B): The increase in error-corrected reaction times (a combined measure of response speed and accuracy) in ultra-slow acetylators (254 ms increase) was more than twice as high as in the rapid acetylator reference group (111 ms increase; p < 0.01). The increase was still higher than in the other slow acetylators (149 ms increase, p < 0.05). In addition, clear differences were found in the ERP results: Ultra-slow acetylators showed deficits specifically in the automatic detection of changes in the acoustic environment as evidenced by reduced mismatch negativity (MMN, p < 0.005 compared to rapid acetylators). Refocussing of attention after a distracting event was also impaired in the ultra-slow acetylators as evidenced by a reduced re-orienting negativity (RON, p < 0.01 compared to rapid acetylators). In conclusion, the ultra-slow acetylation status was associated with reduced higher cognitive functions.

  15. Individual and group level trajectories of behavioural development in Border collies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Stefanie; Müller, Corsin; Virányi, Zsófia; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2017-01-01

    In order to assess dogs’ personality changes during ontogeny, a cohort of 69 Border collies was followed up from six to 18–24 months. When the dogs were 6, 12, and 18–24 months old, their owners repeatedly filled in a dog personality questionnaire (DPQ), which yielded five personality factors divided into fifteen facets. All five DPQ factors were highly correlated between the three age classes, indicating that the dogs’ personality remained consistent relative to other individuals. Nonetheless, at the group level significant changes with age were found for four of the five DPQ factors. Fearfulness, Aggression towards People, Responsiveness to Training and Aggression towards Animals increased with age; only Activity/Excitability did not change significantly over time. These changes in DPQ factor scores occurred mainly between the ages of 6 and 12 months, although some facets changed beyond this age. No sex differences were found for any of the tested factors or facets, suggesting that individual variation in personality was greater than male/female differences. There were significant litter effects for the factors Fearfulness, Aggression towards People and Activity/Excitability, indicating either a strong genetic basis for these traits or a high influence of the shared early environment. To conclude, from the age of six months, consistency in personality relative to other individuals can be observed in Border collies. However, at the group level, increases in fearful and aggressive behaviours occur up to 12 months and for some traits up to two years, highlighting the need for early interventions. Follow-up studies are needed to assess trajectories of personality development prior to six months and after two years, and to include a wider variety of breeds. PMID:28184101

  16. Epidemiological differences of lower urinary tract symptoms among female subpopulations and group level interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avasarala Atchuta Kameswararao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To study the risk factor profiles of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS among adolescent girls, housewives and working women and its socioeconomic and quality of life losses. 2 To undertake risk factor modifications using the adolescent girls. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional descriptive study followed by educational intervention. Statistical Methods: Cluster sampling, Proportions, confidence intervals, Chi square and t-Tests and Logistic regression. Materials and Methods: House to house survey was done in two villages and one urban ward. Seventy-five housewives, 75 working women and 180 adolescent girls were asked about the risk factors and losses due to LUTS. Three teams of adolescent girls were utilized to bring about behavioral modifications. Impact was measured through user perspectives obtained from the participants. Results: Risk factors, social, economic and quality of life losses were different among the three female populations. Overall prevalence of LUTS among the three groups is 61(18.5%. Improper anal washing technique, malnutrition, presence of vaginal discharge, use of unsanitary menstrual pads, pinworm infestation and use of bad toilets were the significant causes among girls. Presence of sexually transmitted diseases was a contributing factor among housewives and working women. Prolonged sitting the posture was also contributing to LUTS among working women. Seventy-four per cent of beneficiaries expressed that intervention is useful. Conclusions: The causes for LUTS and their consequences were differing among the three female subpopulations. Specific group level interventions using trained girls were successful.

  17. Efficiency and Effectiveness in Higher Education: A Report by the Universities UK Efficiency and Modernisation Task Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Effectiveness, efficiency and value for money are central concerns for the higher education sector. In England, decisions made by the current Government will effect a radical change in the funding for teaching. Institutions will be managing a reduction in public funding for teaching and the transition to the new system of graduate contributions,…

  18. Higher tacrolimus trough levels on days 2-5 post-renal transplant are associated with reduced rates of acute rejection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Seaghdha, C M

    2011-04-06

    We analyzed the association between whole-blood trough tacrolimus (TAC) levels in the first days post-kidney transplant and acute cellular rejection (ACR) rates. Four hundred and sixty-four consecutive, deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients were included. All were treated with a combination of TAC, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Patients were analyzed in four groups based on quartiles of the mean TAC on days 2 and 5 post-transplant: Group 1: median TAC 11 ng\\/mL (n = 122, range 2-13.5 ng\\/mL), Group 2: median 17 ng\\/mL (n = 123, range 14-20 ng\\/mL), Group 3: median 24 ng\\/mL (n = 108, range 20.5-27 ng\\/mL) and Group 4: median 33.5 ng\\/mL (n = 116, range 27.5-77.5 ng\\/mL). A graded reduction in the rates of ACR was observed for each incremental days 2-5 TAC. The one-yr ACR rate was 24.03% (95% CI 17.26-32.88), 22.20% (95% CI 15.78-30.70), 13.41% (95% CI 8.15-21.63) and 8.69% (95% CI 4.77-15.55) for Groups 1-4, respectively (p = 0.003). This study suggests that higher early TACs are associated with reduced rates of ACR at one yr.

  19. Ingroup identification and group-level narcissism as predictors of U.S. citizens' attitudes and behavior toward Arab immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patricia A; Kenworthy, Jared B; Popan, Jason R

    2010-09-01

    In four studies, the authors explored factors contributing to negative attitudes and behavior toward Arab immigrants in the United States. In Study 1, Americans reported greater threat from Arabs, compared to other groups (e.g., Latino, Asian). In Study 2, they tested the effects of ingroup identification and group-level narcissism on attitudes toward Arab, Latino, Asian, and European immigrants. Identification interacted with group narcissism in predicting attitudes toward Arab (but not other) immigrants, such that identification predicted negative attitudes toward Arab immigrants only at mean and high levels of group narcissism. Study 3 explored the convergent and discriminant validity of the group narcissism construct. In Study 4, the authors added a behavioral dependent measure. Again, ingroup identification predicted negative behavior and attitudes toward an Arab immigrant group (but not comparison groups) only at mean and high levels of group narcissism. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  20. Molecular responses during cadmium-induced stress in Daphnia magna: Integration of differential gene expression with higher-level effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soetaert, Anneleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: anneleen.soetaert@ua.ac.be; Vandenbrouck, Tine [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Ven, Karlijn van der [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Maras, Marleen [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Remortel, Piet van [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, Intelligent Systems Laboratory, University of Antwerp, Middelheimlaan 1, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, Ronny [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Coen, Wim M. de [Department of Biology, Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2007-07-20

    DNA microarrays offer great potential in revealing insight into mechanistic toxicity of contaminants. The aim of the present study was (i) to gain insight in concentration- and time-dependent cadmium-induced molecular responses by using a customized Daphnia magna microarray, and (ii) to compare the gene expression profiles with effects at higher levels of biological organization (e.g. total energy budget and growth). Daphnids were exposed to three cadmium concentrations (nominal value of 10, 50, 100 {mu}g/l) for two time intervals (48 and 96 h). In general, dynamic expression patterns were obtained with a clear increase of gene expression changes at higher concentrations and longer exposure duration. Microarray analysis revealed cadmium affected molecular pathways associated with processes such as digestion, oxygen transport, cuticula metabolism and embryo development. These effects were compared with higher-level effects (energy budgets and growth). For instance, next to reduced energy budgets due to a decline in lipid, carbohydrate and protein content, we found an up-regulated expression of genes related to digestive processes (e.g. {alpha}-esterase, cellulase, {alpha}-amylase). Furthermore, cadmium affected the expression of genes coding for proteins involved in molecular pathways associated with immune response, stress response, cell adhesion, visual perception and signal transduction in the present study.

  1. Clinical validation of different echocardiographic motion pictures expert group-4 algorythms and compression levels for telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Paolo; Alimento, Marina; Berna, Giovanni; Cavoretto, Dario; Celeste, Fabrizio; Muratori, Manuela; Guazzi, Maurizio D

    2004-01-01

    Tele-echocardiography is not widely used because of lengthy transmission times when using standard Motion Pictures Expert Groups (MPEG)-2 lossy compression algorythms, unless expensive high bandwidth lines are used. We sought to validate the newer MPEG-4 algorythms to allow further reduction in echocardiographic motion video file size. Four cardiologists expert in echocardiography read blindly 165 randomized uncompressed and compressed 2D and color Doppler normal and pathologic motion images. One Digital Video and 3 MPEG-4 compression algorythms were tested, the latter at 3 decreasing compression quality levels (100%, 65% and 40%). Mean diagnostic and image quality scores were computed for each file and compared across the 3 compression levels using uncompressed files as controls. File dimensions decreased from a range of uncompressed 12-83 MB to MPEG-4 0.03-2.3 MB. All algorythms showed mean scores that were not significantly different from uncompressed source, except the MPEG-4 DivX algorythm at the highest selected compression (40%, p=.002). These data support the use of MPEG-4 compression to reduce echocardiographic motion image size for transmission purposes, allowing cost reduction through use of low bandwidth lines.

  2. Smoking is Associated with Reduced Leptin and Neuropeptide Y Levels and Higher Pain Experience in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I. Bokarewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking deregulates neuroendocrine responses to pain supporting production of neuropeptide Y (NpY by direct stimulation of nicotinic receptors or by inhibiting adipokine leptin. Present study addressed the effect of cigarette smoking on adipokines and pain parameters, in 62 women with fibromyalgia (FM pain syndrome with unknown etiology. Pain was characterized by a visual analogue scale, tender point (TP counts, pressure pain threshold, and neuroendocrine markers NpY and substance P (sP. Levels of IGF-1, leptin, resistin, visfatin, and adiponectin were measured in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Current smokers (n=18 had lower levels of leptin compared to ex-smokers (n=25, P=0.002, while the expected NpY increase was absent in FM patients. In smokers, this was transcribed in higher VAS-pain (P=0.04 and TP count (P=0.03, lower pain threshold (P=0.01, since NpY levels were directly related to the pain threshold (rho=0.414 and inversely related to TP counts (rho=-0.375. This study shows that patients with FM have no increase of NpY levels in response to smoking despite the low levels of leptin. Deregulation of the balance between leptin and neuropeptide Y may be one of the essential mechanisms of chronic pain in FM.

  3. USE OF E-LEARNING TOOLS TO SOLVE GROUP WORK PROBLEMS IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY OF GULF COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HABIB ULLAH KHAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication has a role of heart in all kinds of educational interactions, with the popularization of computer technology for home and office use, teaching methods have changed communication styles from plain lectures to multimedia presentations. These new trends in education are in their infancy, online learning or E-learning, and are quickly becoming an important aspect of education in our future around the world. In spite of easy availability of new multimedia support, still the uses of technological tools of communication in the educational fields are in their initial stages, in the under developing countries like Oman. We have yet to fully experience the transformative effects of these mediums, particularly on web based learning. Group work activities are another main point or task in the high education. Switzer and Shriner [20] were of the view that students are the most obvious party who benefit from group work among students, faculty members, and the community. According to them there are four overlapping types of benefits for students. These are: 1 immediate educational benefits, 2 immediate social benefits, 3 critical thinking benefits, and 4 long-term career benefits. Different researchers were of the opinion that face to face communication will not solve the empowerment problems in group work activities. As, through FTF interaction male dominant role can be produced due to identity of speaker, eye contact, nodding, moving the hands , and facial expressions etc. In this situation suitable adoption of technology can be consider as an alternative mode of communication, where there is a chance of discrimination. This case study will be a further step in addition to the previous technological tools & group work related researches. In this researcher will try to explore that how suitable technological tools can play a role to overcome the group work problems and to increase the performance of the students in the developing countries like

  4. Ordering Power of Separate versus Grouped True-False Tests: Interaction of Type of Test with Knowledge Levels of Examinees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Louis M.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison of the relative ordering power of separate and grouped-items true-false tests indicated that neither type of test was uniformly superior to the other across all levels of knowledge of examinees. Grouped-item tests were found superior for examinees with low levels of knowledge. (Author/CTM)

  5. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  6. Effects of a meditation program on verbal creative levels in a group of studens in late secondary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Justo, Clemente

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the effects of a meditation program on level of verbal creativity (fluency, flexibility and originality in a group of students in Spain’s two-year educational program for university preparation (Bachillerato. Participants formed two groups: a experimental group that participated in a meditation program, and a control group that did not take part in this intervention. Creativitylevels for the two groups were assessed using the verbal battery of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking, with significant improvement found in the experimental group as compared to the control group for the variables studied.

  7. Effects of discipline-based art education and interdisciplinary art education on artistic development and production, higher-level thinking, and attitudes toward science and social studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa Lessenberry

    This research was conducted to assess the effectiveness of discipline-based art education (DBAE) and interdisciplinary art (IA) teaching methods on art production, higher level thinking skills, and attitudes toward science and social studies. Two of the sixth-grade classes at a rural West Tennessee school were taught using the DBAE method and two were given the IA treatment. The evaluation of art production was two-fold using an Evaluation of Student Art Projects (Herberholz & Herberholz, 1994) which anonymously measured each group of projects on creativity, expressiveness, organization of elements and principles of art, craftsmanship, and how the artwork related to academic content. The second appraisal of art products involved emergent categorization with reference to Herberholz and Herberholz's (1994) categories of styles and student artistic development. Higher level thinking skills were determined from the Evaluation of Student Essays which measured academic knowledge, composition, and Bloom's higher level thinking stages of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Student attitudes toward social studies and science before and after treatment were measured using the Estes Attitude Survey (Estes, Johnstone, & Richards, 1975). T-tests, an analysis of variance (Anova) and data analysis were used to evaluate art production. T-tests were also used to evaluate student essays before and after each treatment. Analysis of data indicated no significant differences between the art products of students in DBAE or IA. There were no significant differences in the attitudes or higher level thinking skills between students undergoing the DBAE or IA treatment. The emergent categorization of art production showed that DBAE produced more overall creativity and originality than IA. The researcher believes that students can benefit from a combination of both methods.

  8. Microvascular abnormalities in capillaroscopy correlate with higher serum IL-18 and sE-selectin levels in patients with type 1 diabetes complicated by microangiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Górska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Microvascular abnormalities are one of the most important causes of persistent diabetic complications. The aim of this study was to compare microvascular changes examined by nailfold capillaroscopy with serum concentrations of soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin and IL-18 in type 1 diabetic patients with and without microangiopathy. Serum levels of sE-selectin and IL-18 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 106 patients with type 1 diabetes and in 40 healthy controls. All diabetic patients were evaluated by extensive clinical, laboratory and capillaroscopic studies. Morphological changes were observed by nailfold capillaroscopy in 86 out of 106 (81% diabetic patients. Severe capillaroscopic changes were seen in 32 out of 54 (59% patients with microangiopathy, but in only seven out of 52 (13% patients without microangiopathy. Higher serum levels of sE-selectin (p < 0.001 and IL-18 (p < 0.05 were demonstrated in diabetic patients compared to controls. Significant differences of sE-selectin (p < 0.001 and IL-18 (p < 0.01 serum concentrations were observed between diabetic patients with microangiopathy and controls. Moreover, comparison between patients with and without microangiopathic complications showed a significantly higher capillaroscopic score and sE-selectin serum concentration in the group with microangiopathy (p < 0.001. Furthermore, diabetic patients with severe microvascular changes in capillaroscopy showed significantly higher IL-18 (p < 0.001 and sE-selectin (p < 0.05 serum levels than subgroups without changes or with mild abnormalities. Our findings suggest that abnormalities in nailfold capillaroscopy may reflect the extent of microvascular involvement and are associated with higher sE-selectin and IL-18 serum levels, as well as with microangiopathic complications in diabetic patients. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 104–110

  9. Physical activity level in people with age related white matter changes correlates to better motor performance, lower comorbidity and higher cognitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Anna F; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Bronge, Lena; Olsson, Elisabeth; Amberla, Kaarina; Baezner, Hansjoerg; Crisby, Milita

    2017-07-12

    Physical activity plays a pivotal role in the development of disability and may modify the negative effect of vascular risk factors on progression of both cardio and cerebrovascular disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity level in people with age-related white matter changes as identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to motor performance, cognition and perceived health. Data came from the first year follow up of one participating centers of the LADIS study. Fifty one subjects were first enrolled in the study. Complete first year follow up data was available for 41 subjects. Information on comorbidity, physical activity level, physical function, cognition, level of white matter changes and perceived health was collected. Physical activity level was classified with a yes or no question and with the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI). Only 36% of the subjects in this study were physically active according to the yes/no question. 27.5% of the subjects were active according to the FAI score which evaluates the everyday activities. Being active discriminated subjects with better physical function. Subjects active according to the FAI score had a higher cognitive level (p ≤ 0.01), lower comorbidity (p = 0.02) and performed better on all motor function tasks as assessed by walking speed (p ≤ 0.01) and the Short Physical Performance battery (SPPB) (p ≤ 0.01). Being physically active seems to be a long term protective factor. In our study, the majority of subjects with Age Related White Mattter Changes (ARWMC) with no or mild Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL) disability did not attain recommended level of activity at first year follow up. Whether or not increasing physical activity may slow down cognitive decline and lessen development of disability in physically inactive subjects with manifest ARWC remains to be studied. not applicable.

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhiza increase artemisinin accumulation in Artemisia annua by higher expression of key biosynthesis genes via enhanced jasmonic acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shantanu; Upadhyay, Shivangi; Wajid, Saima; Ram, Mauji; Jain, Dharam Chand; Singh, Ved Pal; Abdin, Malik Zainul; Kapoor, Rupam

    2015-07-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that the formation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) enhances secondary metabolite production in shoots. Despite mounting evidence, relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. This study suggests that increase in artemisinin concentration in Artemisia annua colonized by Rhizophagus intraradices is due to altered trichome density as well as transcriptional patterns that are mediated via enhanced jasmonic acid (JA) levels. Mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher JA levels in leaf tissue that may be due to induction of an allene oxidase synthase gene (AOS), encoding one of the key enzymes for JA production. Non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants were exogenously supplied with a range of methyl jasmonic acid concentrations. When leaves of NM and M plants with similar levels of endogenous JA were compared, these matched closely in terms of shoot trichome density, artemisinin concentration, and transcript profile of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Mycorrhization increased artemisinin levels by increasing glandular trichome density and transcriptional activation of artemisinin biosynthesis genes. Transcriptional analysis of some rate-limiting enzymes of mevalonate and methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathways revealed that AM increases isoprenoids by induction of the MEP pathway. A decline in artemisinin concentration in shoots of NM and M plants treated with ibuprofen (an inhibitor of JA biosynthesis) further confirmed the implication of JA in the mechanism of artemisinin production.

  11. Higher direct bilirubin levels during mid-pregnancy are associated with lower risk of gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaoqun; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Wu, Jiangyue; Wang, Weiye; Li, Xiating; Ding, Huisi; Guo, Yanfang; Gao, Qin; Hu, Xingwen; Xiong, Guoping; Yang, Xuefeng; Hao, Liping; Xiao, Mei; Yang, Nianhong

    2017-01-01

    Bilirubin concentrations have been recently reported to be negatively associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We examined the association between bilirubin concentrations and gestational diabetes mellitus. In a prospective cohort study, 2969 pregnant women were recruited prior to 16 weeks of gestation and were followed up until delivery. The value of bilirubin was tested and oral glucose tolerance test was conducted to screen gestational diabetes mellitus. The relationship between serum bilirubin concentration and gestational weeks was studied by two-piecewise linear regression. A subsample of 1135 participants with serum bilirubin test during 16-18 weeks gestation was conducted to research the association between serum bilirubin levels and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus by logistic regression. Gestational diabetes mellitus developed in 8.5 % of the participants (223 of 2969). Two-piecewise linear regression analyses demonstrated that the levels of bilirubin decreased with gestational week up to the turning point 23 and after that point, levels of bilirubin were increased slightly. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the relative risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus was lower in the highest tertile of direct bilirubin than that in the lowest tertile (RR 0.60; 95 % CI, 0.35-0.89). The results suggested that women with higher serum direct bilirubin levels during the second trimester of pregnancy have lower risk for development of gestational diabetes mellitus.

  12. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  13. Oxytocin, but not vasopressin, impairs social cognitive ability among individuals with higher levels of social anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Benjamin A; Meyer, Meghan L; Dutcher, Janine M; Castle, Elizabeth; Irwin, Michael R; Lieberman, Matthew D; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with social anxiety are characterized by a high degree of social sensitivity, which can coincide with impairments in social cognitive functioning (e.g. theory of mind). Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) have been shown to improve social cognition, and OT has been theorized as a potential therapeutic agent for individuals with social anxiety disorder. However, no study has investigated whether these neuropeptides improve social cognitive ability among socially anxious individuals. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, between-subjects design we investigated whether social anxiety moderated the effects of OT or AVP (vs placebo) on social working memory (i.e. working memory that involves manipulating social information) and non-social working memory. OT vs placebo impaired social working memory accuracy in participants with higher levels of social anxiety. No differences were found for non-social working memory or for AVP vs placebo. Results suggest that OT administration in individuals with higher levels of social anxiety may impair social cognitive functioning. Randomized-controlled trial registration: NCT01680718.

  14. Persistent human Borna disease virus infection modifies the acetylome of human oligodendroglia cells towards higher energy and transporter levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xia [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Forensic Science, Ministry of Justice, Shanghai 200063 (China); Liu, Siwen [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Bode, Liv [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Liu, Chengyu [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhang, Liang [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Wang, Xiao [Institute of Neuroscience and the Collaborative Innovation Center for Brain Science, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Li, Dan [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Lei, Yang [Department of Internal Medicine, University-Town Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Peng, Xiaojun [Jingjie PTM BioLab (Hangzhou) Co. Ltd, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Cheng, Zhongyi [Advanced Institute of Translational Medicine, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); and others

    2015-11-15

    Background: Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic RNA virus persistently infecting mammalian hosts including humans. Lysine acetylation (Kac) is a key protein post-translational modification (PTM). The unexpectedly broad regulatory scope of Kac let us to profile the entire acetylome upon BDV infection. Methods: The acetylome was profiled through stable isotope labeling for cell culture (SILAC)-based quantitative proteomics. The quantifiable proteome was annotated using bioinformatics. Results: We identified and quantified 791 Kac sites in 473 Kac proteins in human BDV Hu-H1-infected and non-infected oligodendroglial (OL) cells. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that BDV infection alters the acetylation of metabolic proteins, membrane-associated proteins and transmembrane transporter activity, and affects the acetylation of several lysine acetyltransferases (KAT). Conclusions: Upon BDV persistence the OL acetylome is manipulated towards higher energy and transporter levels necessary for shuttling BDV proteins to and from nuclear replication sites. - Highlights: • We used SILAC-based proteomics to analyze the acetylome of BDV infected OL cells. • We quantified 791Kac sites in 473 proteins. • Bioinformatic analysis revealed altered acetylation of metabolic proteins et al. • BDV manipulates the OL acetylome towards higher energy and transporter levels. • BDV infection is associated with enriched phosphate-associated metabolic processes.

  15. Higher TNF-α, IGF-1 and leptin levels are found in tasters than non-tasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eWang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Taste perception is controlled by taste cells that are present in the tongue and produce and secrete various metabolic hormones. Recent studies have demonstrated that taste receptors in tongue, gut and the pancreas are associated with local hormone secretion. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a link between taste sensitivity and levels of circulating metabolic hormones in human and whether taste sensitivity is potentially related to peripheral metabolic regulation. 31 subjects were recruited and separated into tasters and non-tasters based on their phenol thiocarbamide (PTC bitter taste test results. Fasting plasma and saliva were collected and levels of hormones and cytokines were assayed. We observed significant differences in both hormone levels and hormone-body mass index (BMI correlation between tasters and non-tasters. Tasters had higher plasma levels of leptin (p=0.05, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (p=0.04, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (p=0.03. There was also a trend towards increased IGF-1 levels in the saliva of tasters (p=0.06. We found a positive correlation between plasma levels of glucose and BMI (R=0.4999, p=0.04 exclusively in non-tasters, not in tasters. In contrast, plasma C-peptide levels were found to be positively correlated to BMI (R=0.5563, p=0.03 in tasters. Saliva TNF-α levels were negatively correlated with BMI in tasters (R= -0.5908, p=0.03. Our findings demonstrate that there are differences in circulating levels of leptin, TNF-α and IGF-1 between tasters and non-tasters. These findings indicate that in addition to regulate eating behaviours, taste perception could also affect energy metabolism by controlling hormone secretion. People with different taste sensitivity may respond differently to the nutrient stimulation. Further work investigating the link between taste perception and peripheral metabolic control could potentially lead to the development of novel therapies for obese

  16. THE FORMATION OF IT COMPETENCE OF THE ACADEMIC STAFF IN A THREE LEVEL SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Boronenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to discuss organizational and methodical bases of formation of ICT competence graduate in the third stage of higher education.Methods. Theoretical methods involve analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, comparison and classification methods, and empirical method of observation.Results. Trends in the selection of the content of the educational program of graduate students at the third level of higher education in the formation of IT competence are presented: education of the valuable relation to the use of IT in professional activities; the formation of readiness to use IT in education and scientific research; the development of IT skills for processing and visualization of experimental data; modeling of processes and phenomena of professional activities; preparation of the teaching staff to the creation of a new information and educational environment among educational organizations; the development of new social and educational role, forming a system of knowledge and skills of students in the field of information; the development of ready-to-use information technology in the management of education. The discipline content «Information and communication technologies in education and research activities» is selected in accordance with a preferred direction of formation of IT competence. Target indicators and indicators of graduates’ IT competences are developed.Scientific novelty. The concept of IT competence of the teaching staff is introduced. The model of discipline «Information and communication technologies in education and research activities» is designed on the basis of evolutionary development of ICT competence of graduate students in the two-level system of higher education content.Practical significance. The proposed content of the course «Information and communication technologies in education and research activities» which is the basis for the formation of IT competence of the teaching staff

  17. Incorporation of serum carcinoembryonic antigen levels into the prognostic grouping system of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Heita; Kotake, Kenjiro; Hosaka, Miki; Hirata, Akira; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Fujita, Shin; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the significance of preoperative serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) on disease-free survival (DFS) in colon cancer and propose a new prognostic grouping system. A multiinstitutional retrospective cohort of 7296 colon cancer patients who underwent R0 surgery between 1997 and 2006 was analyzed. We stratified preoperative serum CEA values into three categories (C-stages): C0 (normal CEA), C1A (up to double the cutoff value), and C1B (more than double the cutoff value) and stratified each TNM stage by C-stage. Multivariate analyses using Cox regression models were used to analyze the significance of C-stage on 5-year DFS. CEA level was an independent factor affecting DFS; the 5-year DFS of patients with C0 and C1, as well as those with C1A and C1B, differed significantly (C0 84.6%, C1 69.8%, C1A 72.7%, and C1B 66.4%, P TNM staging system may facilitate decision making regarding the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer patients.

  18. [Costs of appendicitis treatment by diagnosis-related groups in a third-level pediatric hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlacuilo-Parra, Alberto; Hernández-Hernández, Araceli; Venegas-Dávalos, Martha; Gutiérrez-Hermosillo, Violeta; Guevara-Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; Ambriz-González, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) are widely used in Europe. They allow performing comparisons in hospitals and incurrent hospital payment systems, defining the payment categories. We undertook this study to classify children who underwent appendectomy according to DRGs. Cross-sectional study. Comorbidities, length of hospitalization, histopathologic classification, and DRG classifications were analyzed. We included 313 patients, 62% males, with an average age of 8 ± 3 years; 91% were referred by another hospital and 67% were treated at night. Average length of hospitalization was 4 ± 3 days. There were comorbidities in 8% and surgical complications in 11%. According to histopathology, appendicitis was edematous (11%), suppurative (36%), gangrenous (22%), perforated (29%), and abscessed (2%). At discharge, 97% of the patients were healthy. Total cost for DRG 343 was $10,470,173.00 (Mexican pesos), DRG 342 was $1,227,592.00 and DRG 340 was $511,521.00. The global amount was $12,209,286.00 (Mexican pesos). The unitary cost for treatment of appendectomy for DRG 343 was $37,935.00, for DRG 342 was $49,103.00 and for DRG 340 was $42,626.00 (Mexican pesos). Because 88% of the cases of appendicitis were uncomplicated, this amount of money could be spent to treat these patients in a second-level hospital, using reimbursement 343 without generating additional expenses.

  19. Heterotic compactifications with principal bundles for general groups and general levels

    CERN Document Server

    Distler, J

    2007-01-01

    We examine to what extent heterotic string worldsheets can describe arbitrary E8xE8 gauge fields. The traditional construction of heterotic strings builds each E8 via a Spin(16)/Z2 subgroup, typically realized as a current algebra by left-moving fermions, and as a result, only E8 gauge fields reducible to Spin(16)/Z2 gauge fields are directly realizable in standard constructions. However, there exist perturbatively consistent E8 gauge fields which can not be reduced to Spin(16)/Z2, and so cannot be described within standard heterotic worldsheet constructions. A natural question to then ask is whether there exists any (0,2) SCFT that can describe such E8 gauge fields. To answer this question, we first show how each ten-dimensional E8 partition function can be built up using other subgroups than Spin(16)/Z2, then construct ``fibered WZW models'' which allow us to explicitly couple current algebras for general groups and general levels to heterotic strings. This technology gives us a very general approach to han...

  20. A decrease in intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels is associated with higher mortality in prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Bellosta, Ricardo; Rodriguez-Osorio, Laura; Mas, Sebastian; Abadi, Younes; Rubert, Mercedes; de la Piedra, Concepción; Gracia-Iguacel, Carolina; Mahillo, Ignacio; Ortiz, Alberto; Egido, Jesús; González-Parra, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    The mortality of dialysis patients is 10- to 100-fold higher than in the general population. Baseline serum PTH levels, and more recently, changes in serum PTH levels (ΔPTH) over time, have been associated to mortality in dialysis patients. We explored the relationship between ΔPTH over 1 year with mortality over the next year in a prospective cohort of 115 prevalent hemodialysis patients from a single center that had median baseline iPTH levels within guideline recommendations. Median baseline iPTH levels were 205 (116.5, 400) pg/ml. ΔiPTH between baseline and 1 year was 85.2 ± 57.1 pg/ml. During the second year of follow-up, 27 patients died. ΔiPTH was significantly higher in patients who survived (+157.30 ± 25.82 pg/ml) than in those who died (+39.03 ± 60.95 pg/ml), while baseline iPTH values were not significantly different. The highest mortality (48%) was observed in patients with a decrease in ΔiPTH (ΔiPTH quartile 1, negative ΔiPTH) and the lowest (12%) mortality in quartile 3 ΔiPTH (ΔiPTH increase 101-300 pg/ml). In a logistic regression model, ΔiPTH was associated with mortality with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.998 (95% CI 0.996-0999, p = 0.038). In multivariable analysis, mortality risk was 73% and 88% lower for patients with ΔiPTH 0-100 pg/ml and 101-300 pg/ml, respectively, than for those with a decrease in ΔiPTH. In patients with a decrease in ΔiPTH, the OR for death was 4.131 (1.515-11.27)(p = 0.006). In prevalent hemodialysis patients with median baseline iPTH values within the guideline recommended range, a decrease in ΔiPTH was associated with higher mortality. Further studies are required to understand the mechanisms and therapeutic implications of this observation that challenges current clinical practice.

  1. Dietary lipids do not contribute to the higher hepatic triglyceride levels of fructose- compared to glucose-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Patricia M; Wright, Alan J; Veltien, Andor; van Asten, Jack J A; Tack, Cees J; Jones, John G; Heerschap, Arend

    2014-05-01

    Fructose consumption has been associated with the surge in obesity and dyslipidemia. This may be mediated by the fructose effects on hepatic lipids and ATP levels. Fructose metabolism provides carbons for de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and stimulates enterocyte secretion of apoB48. Thus, fructose-induced hepatic triglyceride (HTG) accumulation can be attributed to both DNL stimulation and dietary lipid absorption. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fructose diet on HTG and ATP content and the contributions of dietary lipids and DNL to HTG. Measurements were performed in vivo in mice by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and novel magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) approaches. Abdominal adipose tissue volume and intramyocellular lipid levels were comparable between 8-wk fructose- and glucose-fed mice. HTG levels were ∼1.5-fold higher in fructose-fed than in glucose-fed mice (PMetabolic flux analysis by (13)C and (2)H MRS showed that this was not due to dietary lipid absorption, but due to DNL stimulation. The contribution of oral lipids to HTG was, after 5 h, 1.60 ± 0.23% for fructose and 2.16 ± 0.35% for glucose diets (P=0.26), whereas that of DNL was higher in fructose than in glucose diets (2.55±0.51 vs.1.13±0.24%, P=0.01). Hepatic energy status, assessed by (31)P MRS, was similar for fructose- and glucose-fed mice. Fructose-induced HTG accumulation is better explained by DNL and not by dietary lipid uptake, while not compromising ATP homeostasis.

  2. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  3. Agreement between aggregate and individual-level measures of income and education: a comparison across three patient groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynd Larry D

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between lower socioeconomic status and poorer health outcomes has been observed using both individual-level and aggregate-level measures of income and education. While both are predictive of health outcomes, previous research indicates poor agreement between individual-level and aggregate-level measures. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of agreement between aggregate-level and individual-level measures of income and education among three distinct patient groups, specifically asthma, diabetes, and rheumatoid patients. Methods Individual-level measures of annual household income and education were derived from three separate surveys conducted among patients with asthma (n = 359, diabetes (n = 281 and rheumatoid arthritis (n = 275. Aggregate-level measures of income and education were derived from the 2001 Canadian census, including both census tract-and dissemination area-level measures. Cross-tabulations of individual-level income by aggregate-level income were used to determine the percentage of income classifications in agreement. The kappa statistic (simple and weighted, Spearman's rank correlations, and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC were also calculated. Individual-level and aggregate-level education was compared using Chi-Square tests within patient groups. Point biserial correlation coefficients between individual-level and aggregate-level education were computed. Results Individual-level income was poorly correlated with aggregate-level measures, which provided the worst estimations of income among patients in the lowest income category at the individual-level. Both aggregate-level measures were best at approximating individual-level income in patients with diabetes, in whom aggregate-level estimates were only significantly different from individual-level measures for patients in the lowest income category. Among asthma patients, the proportion of patients classified by

  4. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They have progressively dominated their environment by the strength and creativity provided by and within their grouping. It is well recognised that human groups are highly structured, and the anthropological literature has loosely classified them according to their size and function, such as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups and so on. Recently, combining data on human grouping patterns in a comprehensive and systematic study, Zhou et al. identified a quantitative discrete hierarchy of group sizes with a preferred scaling ratio close to $3$, which was later confirmed for hunter-gatherer groups and for other mammalian societies. Using high precision large scale Internet-based social network data, we extend these early findings on a very large data set. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of a massive m...

  5. BOUNDEDNESS OF FRACTIONAL MAXIMAL OPERATOR AND THEIR HIGHER ORDER COMMUTATORS IN GENERALIZED MORREY SPACES ON CARNOT GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vagif GULIYEV; Ali AKBULUT; Yagub MAMMADOV

    2013-01-01

    In the article we consider the fractional maximal operator Mα, 0≤αgroup G (i.e., nilpotent stratified Lie group) in the generalized Morrey spaces Mp,ϕ(G), where Q is the homogeneous dimension of G. We find the conditions on the pair (ϕ1,ϕ2) which ensures the boundedness of the operator Mα from one generalized Morrey space Mp,ϕ1 (G) to another Mq,ϕ2 (G), 1 < p ≤ q < ∞, 1/p−1/q = α/Q, and from the space M1,ϕ1 (G) to the weak space W Mq,ϕ2 (G), 1 ≤ q < ∞, 1−1/q = α/Q. Also find conditions on theϕwhich ensure the Adams type boundedness of the Mαfrom Mp,ϕ1p (G) to Mq,ϕ1q (G) for 1

  6. Sensitivity for Diagnosing Group A Streptococcal Pharyngitis from Manufacturers is 10% Higher than Reported in Peer-Reviewed Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachhani, Raj; Patel, Toral; Centor, Robert M; Estrada, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analyses based on peer-reviewed publications report a sensitivity of approximately 85% for rapid antigen streptococcus tests to diagnose group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis. Because these meta-analyses excluded package inserts, we examined the test characteristics of rapid antigen streptococcal tests and molecular methods that manufacturers report in their package inserts. We included tests available in the US market (Food and Drug Administration, period searched 1993-2015) and used package insert data to calculate pooled sensitivity and specificity. To examine quality, we used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. We excluded 26 tests having different trade names but identical methods and data. The study design was prospective in 41.7% (10 of 24). The pooled sensitivity of the most commonly used method, lateral flow/immunochromatographic, was 95% (95% confidence interval [CI] 94-96) and the pooled specificity was 98% (96-98); 7108 patients. The pooled sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction or molecular methods was 98% (95% CI 96-98) and the pooled specificity was 96% (95% CI 95-97); 5685 patients. Package inserts include sponsored studies that overestimate the sensitivity of rapid tests to diagnose GAS pharyngitis by approximately 10%. Physicians should understand that package inserts overestimate diagnostic test utility; a negative test cannot be used to exclude GAS pharyngitis.

  7. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group – its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Salih Jaff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. Blood and saliva from 762 randomly selected apparently healthy adult individuals (480 men and 282 women were examined to determine their ABO and Rhesus blood groups by standard conventional methods, and their secretor status by using Lewis blood grouping and/or hemagglutination inhibition test of saliva. Results showed that 76.1% of the study population were ABH blood group antigens secretors and 23.9% were nonsecretors. The frequencies of secretor status in different ABO blood groups were 70.1% in group A, 67.8% in group B, 67.9% in group AB, and 88.3% in group O. In conclusion, blood group O individuals have significantly higher frequency of secretor status than non-O blood group individuals. This finding would be beneficial to them, protecting them, at least partially, from certain malignancies or allowing them to have less aggressive disease, and this finding might be useful in enhancing further studies and research in this direction.Keywords: blood group O, ABO blood groups, secretor phenotype, frequency, malignancies, prevention and/or treatment

  8. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  9. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Cabaña-Muñoz

    Full Text Available The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems.To determine whether heavy metals (in hair, antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1 and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings.55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years. Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27 with those with more than four (n = 15. As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury.Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity.

  10. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Khattar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause.This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2 were assessed.The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001. However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92 as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72 and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30.We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females.

  11. A Multi Criteria Group Decision-Making Model for Teacher Evaluation in Higher Education Based on Cloud Model and Decision Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-Cheng; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a cloud multi-criteria group decision-making model for teacher evaluation in higher education which is involving subjectivity, imprecision and fuzziness. First, selecting the appropriate evaluation index depending on the evaluation objectives, indicating a clear structural relationship between the evaluation index and…

  12. A high-sugar/low-fiber meal compared with a low-sugar/high-fiber meal leads to higher leptin and physical activity levels in overweight Latina females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Belcher, Britni; Anderson, David; Lane, Christianne Joy; Chou, Chih-Ping; Salter-Venzon, Dawna; Davis, Jaimie N; Hsu, Ya-Wen Janice; Neuhouser, Marian L; Richey, Joyce M; McKenzie, Thomas L; McClain, Arianna; Goran, Michael I; Weigensberg, Marc J

    2009-06-01

    Acute effects of high-sugar/low-fiber meals vs low-sugar/high-fiber meals on hormones and behavior were studied in 10 overweight Latina females, age 11 to 12 years, using a crossover design. In this exploratory pilot study, participants arrived fasted at an observation laboratory on two occasions and randomly received either a high-sugar/low-fiber meal or a low-sugar/high-fiber meal at each visit. Glucose, insulin, and leptin were assayed from serum drawn at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. Ad libitum snacks were provided at 120 minutes. Physical activity was measured using an observational system that provides data on time spent lying down, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity. Data were collected between March 2005 and July 2006. In the high-sugar/low-fiber condition, glucose and leptin levels decreased more slowly, glucose levels were higher at 60 minutes (111.2 mg/dL vs 95.4 mg/dL, P=0.03), and leptin levels were higher at 90 minutes (49.3 ng/mL vs 46.7 ng/mL, P=0.017) than in the low-sugar/high-fiber condition. Meals did not affect insulin or ad libitum dietary intake. Sitting, standing, lying down, and vigorous activity differed by condition, but not walking. Participants were significantly more active in the first 30 to 60 minutes after the high-sugar/low-fiber meal, but after 60 minutes there was a trend for activity to be lower after the high-sugar/low-fiber meal vs the low-sugar/high-fiber meal. High-sugar meals sustain glucose and leptin levels longer, which may play an important role in modulating levels of physical activity in this group at high risk for obesity-related disease.

  13. Higher Lipoprotein (a) Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People – Data from the Berlin Aging Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Nikolaus; Kassner, Ursula; Norman, Kristina; Goldeck, David; Eckardt, Rahel; Pawelec, Graham; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a)], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a) in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old) from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II). We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1) in men with low Lp(a) concentrations (t-test). This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a) levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a) levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a)-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a) levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here. PMID:26421427

  14. Higher Lipoprotein (a Levels Are Associated with Better Pulmonary Function in Community-Dwelling Older People - Data from the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Buchmann

    Full Text Available Reduced pulmonary function and elevated serum cholesterol levels are recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Currently, there is some controversy concerning relationships between cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, serum triglycerides and lung function. However, most previous studies compared patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with healthy controls, and only a small number examined this relationship in population-based cohorts. Moreover, lipoprotein a [Lp(a], another lipid parameter independently associated with cardiovascular diseases, appears not to have been addressed at all in studies of lung function at the population level. Here, we determined relationships between lung function and several lipid parameters including Lp(a in 606 older community-dwelling participants (55.1% women, 68±4 years old from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II. We found a significantly lower forced expiration volume in 1 second (FEV1 in men with low Lp(a concentrations (t-test. This finding was further substantiated by linear regression models adjusting for known covariates, showing that these associations are statistically significant in both men and women. According to the highest adjusted model, men and women with Lp(a levels below the 20th percentile had 217.3ml and 124.2ml less FEV1 and 239.0ml and 135.2ml less FVC, respectively, compared to participants with higher Lp(a levels. The adjusted models also suggest that the known strong correlation between pro-inflammatory parameters and lung function has only a marginal impact on the Lp(a-pulmonary function association. Our results do not support the hypothesis that higher Lp(a levels are responsible for the increased CVD risk in people with reduced lung function, at least not in the group of community-dwelling older people studied here.

  15. Plasma high-mobility group box 1 levels predict mortality after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten V; Pedersen, Sune; Møgelvang, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the potential association between plasma high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels and outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.......We evaluated the potential association between plasma high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) levels and outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention....

  16. Designing for adaptation to novelty and change: functional information, emergent feature graphics, and higher-level control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdukiewicz, John R; Vicente, Kim J

    2002-01-01

    Ecological interface design (EID) is a theoretical framework that aims to support worker adaptation to change and novelty in complex systems. Previous evaluations of EID have emphasized representativeness to enhance generalizability of results to operational settings. The research presented here is complementary, emphasizing experimental control to enhance theory building. Two experiments were conducted to test the impact of functional information and emergent feature graphics on adaptation to novelty and change in a thermal-hydraulic process control microworld. Presenting functional information in an interface using emergent features encouraged experienced participants to become perceptually coupled to the interface and thereby to exhibit higher-level control and more successful adaptation to unanticipated events. The absence of functional information or of emergent features generally led to lower-level control and less success at adaptation, the exception being a minority of participants who compensated by relying on analytical reasoning. These findings may have practical implications for shaping coordination in complex systems and fundamental implications for the development of a general unified theory of coordination for the technical, human, and social sciences. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of human-computer interfaces that improve safety in complex sociotechnical systems.

  17. Development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing higher levels of sulfur dioxide and glutathione to improve beer flavor stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yefu; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Shijie; Wang, Xiaoqiong; Guo, Changhui; Guo, Xuewu; Xiao, Dongguang

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur compounds, such as sulfite (SO(2)), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and glutathione (GSH), play different roles in beer flavor stability. SO(2) and GSH have antiaging effects which are helpful to improve the flavor stability of beer, whereas H(2)S is undesirable to beer flavor because of its unpleasant aroma. Here, we report the development of Saccharomyces cerevisiae which produces higher levels of SO(2) and GSH but lower level of H(2)S to improve beer flavor stability by nongenetic engineering approaches. After two rounds of UV mutagenesis coupled with specific plate screening methods, one promising mutant named MV16 was obtained. Compared with the original strain, the SO(2) and GSH production of MV16 in fermenting liquor increased by 31% and 30.2%, respectively, while H(2)S content decreased by 74.9%, and the DPPH radical clearance and the resistance staling value of beer fermented by MV16 increased by 24.6% and 33.0%, respectively. The antioxidizability of the mutant was improved significantly. The strategy adopted in our study could be used to obtain S. cerevisiae of improved antiaging properties, and the mutant would be safe for public use.

  18. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  19. Fractal multi-level organisation of human groups in a virtual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Benedikt; Sornette, Didier; Thurner, Stefan

    2014-10-06

    Humans are fundamentally social. They form societies which consist of hierarchically layered nested groups of various quality, size, and structure. The anthropologic literature has classified these groups as support cliques, sympathy groups, bands, cognitive groups, tribes, linguistic groups, and so on. Anthropologic data show that, on average, each group consists of approximately three subgroups. However, a general understanding of the structural dependence of groups at different layers is largely missing. We extend these early findings to a very large high-precision large-scale internet-based social network data. We analyse the organisational structure of a complete, multi-relational, large social multiplex network of a human society consisting of about 400,000 odd players of an open-ended massive multiplayer online game for which we know all about their various group memberships at different layers. Remarkably, the online players' society exhibits the same type of structured hierarchical layers as found in hunter-gatherer societies. Our findings suggest that the hierarchical organisation of human society is deeply nested in human psychology.

  20. A higher response of plasma neuropeptide Y, growth hormone, leptin levels and extracellular glycerol levels in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue to Acipimox during exercise in patients with bulimia nervosa: single-blind, randomized, microdialysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitka Kvido

    2011-11-01

    compared to the C group, while the exercise induced a higher increase of glycerol concentrations in sc abdominal AT of BN patients. Plasma glycerol levels decreased more in BN patients and plasma FFA levels were depressed in both groups after the exercise with Aci administration. The exercise induced similar increases in plasma NPY, GH, FFA and glycerol levels, and a similar decrease in the plasma leptin level in both groups. Conclusions We confirm the results of a single-blind, randomized, microdialysis study, i.e. that the Aci-induced elevation in plasma NPY and GH levels during the exercise is higher in BN patients and that Aci increased plasma leptin levels in the post-exercise recovering phase (90-minute more in BN patients. The post-exercise rise (45-minute in AT glycerol is much more attenuated by acute Aci treatment in BN patients. Simultaneously, we found facilitated turnover of plasma glycerol after the exercise together with Aci administration in BN. Our results support the hypotheses that Aci exerts an effect on the FFA-independent and cAMP-dependent mechanism. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12611000955910

  1. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  2. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  3. Small-group learning in an upper-level university biology class enhances academic performance and student attitudes toward group work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Andrew D; Ramer, Leanne M; Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Ramer, Matt S

    2010-12-29

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students--even term high achievers--could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom.

  4. Small-Group Learning in an Upper-Level University Biology Class Enhances Academic Performance and Student Attitudes Toward Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J.; Ramer, Matt S.

    2010-01-01

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students – even term high achievers –could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom. PMID:21209910

  5. Small-group learning in an upper-level university biology class enhances academic performance and student attitudes toward group work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Gaudet

    Full Text Available To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%, suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students--even term high achievers--could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom.

  6. Serum levels of lead and copper in a group of Egyptian children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ehab

    the host immune system, and alter viral genome. There is increasing evidence ... the increased production of total immunoglobulin E. (IgE), which is also ... 1 included 30 asthmatic children during disease quiescence and group 2 included 15 ...

  7. Offspring of parents with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy have higher C-reactive protein levels suggestive of inflammatory processes: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsolova Svetla

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the characteristic extensive tubulointerstitial fibrosis, Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN is usually considered a non-inflammatory disease. Methods We examined a marker of inflammation, C-reactive protein (CRP, in the offspring of patients with BEN, a population at risk for BEN, prior to development of established disease to determine if an inflammatory process could be identified in the early stages of the disease. In 2003/04, 102 adult offspring whose parents had BEN and a control group of 99 adult offspring of non-BEN patients were enrolled in this prospective study. This cohort was re-examined yearly for four consecutive years. Levels of serum CRP were measured in years 3 and 4 and compared between groups. The data were analyzed with mixed models. Results Compared to controls, offspring of BEN parents had statistically higher CRP levels in two consecutive years, suggestive of early inflammatory reactivity. Whenever the mother was affected by BEN (both parents, or mother only, serum CRP was significantly increased, but not if only the father had BEN. CRP was inversely related to kidney cortex width but not to markers or renal function. Conclusion Early stages of BEN may involve inflammatory processes. The observation of a maternal involvement supports the concept of fetal programming, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other chronic kidney diseases.

  8. A large-scale, higher-level, molecular phylogenetic study of the insect order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome C Regier

    Full Text Available Higher-level relationships within the Lepidoptera, and particularly within the species-rich subclade Ditrysia, are generally not well understood, although recent studies have yielded progress. We present the most comprehensive molecular analysis of lepidopteran phylogeny to date, focusing on relationships among superfamilies.483 taxa spanning 115 of 124 families were sampled for 19 protein-coding nuclear genes, from which maximum likelihood tree estimates and bootstrap percentages were obtained using GARLI. Assessment of heuristic search effectiveness showed that better trees and higher bootstrap percentages probably remain to be discovered even after 1000 or more search replicates, but further search proved impractical even with grid computing. Other analyses explored the effects of sampling nonsynonymous change only versus partitioned and unpartitioned total nucleotide change; deletion of rogue taxa; and compositional heterogeneity. Relationships among the non-ditrysian lineages previously inferred from morphology were largely confirmed, plus some new ones, with strong support. Robust support was also found for divergences among non-apoditrysian lineages of Ditrysia, but only rarely so within Apoditrysia. Paraphyly for Tineoidea is strongly supported by analysis of nonsynonymous-only signal; conflicting, strong support for tineoid monophyly when synonymous signal was added back is shown to result from compositional heterogeneity.Support for among-superfamily relationships outside the Apoditrysia is now generally strong. Comparable support is mostly lacking within Apoditrysia, but dramatically increased bootstrap percentages for some nodes after rogue taxon removal, and concordance with other evidence, strongly suggest that our picture of apoditrysian phylogeny is approximately correct. This study highlights the challenge of finding optimal topologies when analyzing hundreds of taxa. It also shows that some nodes get strong support only when

  9. Presenting Twins Are Exposed to Higher Levels of Inflammatory Mediators than Nonpresenting Twins as Early as the Midtrimester of Pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Mi Lee

    Full Text Available Presenting twins are less likely to develop respiratory complications than non-presenting twins. The precise reason for this difference is not well understood, although it is known that the presence of inflammation reduces the risk of respiratory morbidity at birth. To further investigate this association, we compared the concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers in mid-trimester amniotic fluid (AF of asymptomatic twin pairs.The study population consisted of women with twin pregnancies who underwent mid-trimester amniocentesis (15-20 weeks for routine clinical indications and delivered at term. AF was analyzed for pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-15, IFN-γ, TNF-α, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, MMP-12, and chemokines (Complement Factor D/Adipsin, Serpin E1/PAI-1, Adiponectin/Acrp30, CRP, CCL2/MCP-1, Leptin, Resistin using Luminex Performance Assay multiplex kits. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed rank test.A total of 82 twin pairs were enrolled. Mid-trimester AF concentrations of IL-8, MMP-8, CRP, MCP-1, leptin, and resistin were significantly higher in the presenting twin compared with the non-presenting twin (p<0.05 for each. Differences in AF concentrations of IL-8, MMP-8, and CRP persisted after adjustment for the fetal growth restriction at the time of birth and chorionicity.These data suggest that, as early as the mid-trimester, the presenting fetus in an otherwise uncomplicated twin pregnancy is exposed to higher levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (especially IL-8, MMP-8, and CRP than its non-presenting co-twin. Whether this pro-inflammatory milieu reduces the risk of neonatal respiratory morbidity at birth or has other functional implications needs to be further evaluated.

  10. Emergent group level navigation: an agent-based evaluation of movement patterns in a folivorous primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnell, Tyler R; Campennì, Marco; Chapman, Colin A; Gogarten, Jan F; Reyna-Hurtado, Rafael A; Teichroeb, Julie A; Wasserman, Michael D; Sengupta, Raja

    2013-01-01

    The foraging activity of many organisms reveal strategic movement patterns, showing efficient use of spatially distributed resources. The underlying mechanisms behind these movement patterns, such as the use of spatial memory, are topics of considerable debate. To augment existing evidence of spatial memory use in primates, we generated movement patterns from simulated primate agents with simple sensory and behavioral capabilities. We developed agents representing various hypotheses of memory use, and compared the movement patterns of simulated groups to those of an observed group of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus), testing for: the effects of memory type (Euclidian or landmark based), amount of memory retention, and the effects of social rules in making foraging choices at the scale of the group (independent or leader led). Our results indicate that red colobus movement patterns fit best with simulated groups that have landmark based memory and a follow the leader foraging strategy. Comparisons between simulated agents revealed that social rules had the greatest impact on a group's step length, whereas the type of memory had the highest impact on a group's path tortuosity and cohesion. Using simulation studies as experimental trials to test theories of spatial memory use allows the development of insight into the behavioral mechanisms behind animal movement, developing case-specific results, as well as general results informing how changes to perception and behavior influence movement patterns.

  11. Emergent group level navigation: an agent-based evaluation of movement patterns in a folivorous primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler R Bonnell

    Full Text Available The foraging activity of many organisms reveal strategic movement patterns, showing efficient use of spatially distributed resources. The underlying mechanisms behind these movement patterns, such as the use of spatial memory, are topics of considerable debate. To augment existing evidence of spatial memory use in primates, we generated movement patterns from simulated primate agents with simple sensory and behavioral capabilities. We developed agents representing various hypotheses of memory use, and compared the movement patterns of simulated groups to those of an observed group of red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus, testing for: the effects of memory type (Euclidian or landmark based, amount of memory retention, and the effects of social rules in making foraging choices at the scale of the group (independent or leader led. Our results indicate that red colobus movement patterns fit best with simulated groups that have landmark based memory and a follow the leader foraging strategy. Comparisons between simulated agents revealed that social rules had the greatest impact on a group's step length, whereas the type of memory had the highest impact on a group's path tortuosity and cohesion. Using simulation studies as experimental trials to test theories of spatial memory use allows the development of insight into the behavioral mechanisms behind animal movement, developing case-specific results, as well as general results informing how changes to perception and behavior influence movement patterns.

  12. IAEA advisory group meeting on basic and applied problems of nuclear level densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, M.R. (ed.)

    1983-06-01

    Separate entries were made in the data base for 17 of the 19 papers included. Two papers were previously included in the data base. Workshop reports are included on (1) nuclear level density theories and nuclear model reaction cross-section calculations and (2) extraction of nuclear level density information from experimental data. (WHK)

  13. Four-Group Classification Based on Fibrinogen Level and Fibrin Polymerization Associated With Postoperative Bleeding in Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Shingo; Suzuki, Yuji; Sato, Tsunehisa; Kikura, Mutsuhito; Katoh, Takasumi; Sato, Shigehito

    2016-10-01

    Fibrinogen and fibrin formation have a key role in perioperative hemostasis. The aim of this study is to examine the association of postoperative hemostasis with a combined evaluation of the fibrinogen level and fibrin polymerization in cardiac surgery. We retrospectively classified 215 consecutive cardiac surgery patients into 4 groups (Fuji-san classification) that were divided by fibrinogen level fibrinogen thromboelastometry value at 10 minutes with rotational thromboelastometry <6 mm (ie, low fibrin polymerization) at the warming of cardiopulmonary bypass. Four groups resulted; group I, the acceptable range (n = 85); group II, only hypofibrinogenemia (<150 mg/dL, ≥6 mm, n = 63); group III, hypofibrinogenemia and low fibrin polymerization (<150 mg/dL, <6 mm, n = 60); and group IV, only low fibrin polymerization (≥150 mg/dL, <6 mm, n = 7). The risk of chest tube drainage volume greater than 500 mL within the first 24 hours after surgery (with group I as the reference) was increased in group II (odds ratio [OR], 3.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-7.4; P < .01) and group III (OR, 8.5; 95% CI, 3.5-21.7; P < .01), and the risk greater than 1000 mL (with group I as the reference) was increased in group III (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-17.3; P = .03) and group IV (OR, 23.1; 95% CI, 3.2-201.0; P < .01). Intraoperative blood transfusions were decreased by 24.5%, after stratifying the starting amount of fresh frozen plasma by the 4-group classification in the recent consecutive 65 (30.2%) patients (P < .01). The 4-group classification is associated with postoperative bleeding and may improve the quality of perioperative blood transfusion in cardiac surgery.

  14. Age and Assessments of Professional Expertise: The Relationship between Higher Level Employees'Age and Self-assessments or Supervisor Ratings of Professional Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Beatrice

    2001-01-01

    In this article the relationship between higher level employees' age and assessments of professional expertise is described. Hypotheses have been tested with original survey data from 417 higher level employees and 224 direct supervisors. Concerning the analyses of the effects of age, our hypotheses

  15. Memory B cells from older people express normal levels of cyclooxygenase-2 and produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 upon in vitro activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancos, Simona; Phipps, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide the elderly population is increasing. The elderly show deficiencies in immune function. B lymphocytes are essential elements of the immune system responsible for antibody production. This laboratory previously showed that activated human B cells isolated from young adults express cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and that Cox-2 is essential for optimal antibody responses. Recent data suggests that Cox-2 expression decreases with age in mouse bone tissue. There is no information regarding Cox-2 expression in B cells from older human subjects. We investigated the expression and activity of Cox-2 in naïve and memory B cells from older people. We show that B cells from older subjects show similar Cox-2 protein expression and activity, antibody production and proliferation compared to younger people. However, we found that activated memory B cells from older people produce higher levels of IL-6 and IL-10 compared to young adults. Therefore, the dysregulated cytokine production could contribute to immune senescence in the elderly.

  16. Testes mass, but not sperm length, increases with higher levels of polyandry in an ancient sex model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Vrech

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6 ± 1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3 ± 4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4 ± 5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length.

  17. Testes mass, but not sperm length, increases with higher levels of polyandry in an ancient sex model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrech, David E; Olivero, Paola A; Mattoni, Camilo I; Peretti, Alfredo V

    2014-01-01

    There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6 ± 1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3 ± 4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4 ± 5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length.

  18. A multilevel analysis of the demands--control model: is stress at work determined by factors at the group level or the individual level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Yperen, N W; Snijders, T A

    2000-01-01

    This study explored the extent to which negative health-related outcomes are associated with differences between work groups and with differences between individuals within work groups using R.A. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model. The sample consisted of 260 employees in 31 working groups of a national bank in the Netherlands. Results suggest that job demands and job control should be conceptualized as having both group- and individual-level foundations. Support for Karasek's demands-control model was found only when these variables were split into the 2 parts, reflecting shared perceptions and employees' subjective assessment, respectively. One of the most appealing practical implications is that absence rates among homogeneous work groups can be reduced by enhancing actual control on the job.

  19. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Naveed; Tipu, Muhammad Yasin; Ishaq, Muhammad; Cowling, Ann; McGill, David; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Wynn, Peter

    2016-12-05

    The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety.

  20. Importance of the aquatic detritus foodweb in the transfer of radionuclides from water to higher trophic levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, G.A., E-mail: gbird@ecometrix.ca [EcoMetrix Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Uptake of radionuclides from water to decaying elm-leaf discs and their transfer to the amphipod Gammarus lacustris was investigated. Uptake by decomposing elm leaves is microbially mediated. Uptake coefficients, k, for G. lacustris fed contaminated leaf discs were 3.66▾ d{sup -1} for {sup 60}Co, 4.34▾ d{sup -1} for {sup 131}I and 9.74▾ d{sup -1} for {sup 134}Cs, whereas loss rates were -1.08▾ d{sup -1} for {sup 60}Co, -1.07▾ d{sup -1} for {sup 131}I and -1.04▾ d{sup -1} for {sup 134}Cs. Assimilation efficiencies were 11% for leaf material, 53% for {sup 60}Co, 55% for {sup 131}I and 75% for {sup 134}Cs. These results indicate that there is considerable potential for the transfer of radionuclides to higher trophic levels by the detritus-food web. (author)

  1. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Naveed; Tipu, Muhammad Yasin; Ishaq, Muhammad; Cowling, Ann; McGill, David; Warriach, Hassan Mahmood; Wynn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485) were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb) were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003) than in the summer (1.93 ppb). The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001) in summer (18.59%) than in the monsoon season (26.39%). There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001) mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%), small collectors (14.97%), large collectors (27.96%) and retailers (34.52%). This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178) in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb), small collectors (2.23 ppb), large collectors (2.36 ppb) and retailers (2.58 ppb). The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb) and USFDA (0.5 ppb), demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety. PMID:27929386

  2. The intermediates take it all: asymptotics of higher criticism statistics and a powerful alternative based on equal local levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontscharuk, Veronika; Landwehr, Sandra; Finner, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The higher criticism (HC) statistic, which can be seen as a normalized version of the famous Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has a long history, dating back to the mid seventies. Originally, HC statistics were used in connection with goodness of fit (GOF) tests but they recently gained some attention in the context of testing the global null hypothesis in high dimensional data. The continuing interest for HC seems to be inspired by a series of nice asymptotic properties related to this statistic. For example, unlike Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, GOF tests based on the HC statistic are known to be asymptotically sensitive in the moderate tails, hence it is favorably applied for detecting the presence of signals in sparse mixture models. However, some questions around the asymptotic behavior of the HC statistic are still open. We focus on two of them, namely, why a specific intermediate range is crucial for GOF tests based on the HC statistic and why the convergence of the HC distribution to the limiting one is extremely slow. Moreover, the inconsistency in the asymptotic and finite behavior of the HC statistic prompts us to provide a new HC test that has better finite properties than the original HC test while showing the same asymptotics. This test is motivated by the asymptotic behavior of the so-called local levels related to the original HC test. By means of numerical calculations and simulations we show that the new HC test is typically more powerful than the original HC test in normal mixture models.

  3. Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: how do acoustic propagation models impact the performance of higher-level protocols?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Jesús; Malumbres, Manuel P

    2012-01-01

    Several Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocols have been developed in the last years for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). One of the main difficulties to compare and validate the performance of different proposals is the lack of a common standard to model the acoustic propagation in the underwater environment. In this paper we analyze the evolution of underwater acoustic prediction models from a simple approach to more detailed and accurate models. Then, different high layer network protocols are tested with different acoustic propagation models in order to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the obtained results. After several experiments, we can conclude that higher-level protocols are sensitive to both: (a) physical layer parameters related to the network scenario and (b) the acoustic propagation model. Conditions like ocean surface activity, scenario location, bathymetry or floor sediment composition, may change the signal propagation behavior. So, when designing network architectures for UWSNs, the role of the physical layer should be seriously taken into account in order to assert that the obtained simulation results will be close to the ones obtained in real network scenarios.

  4. Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks: How Do Acoustic Propagation Models Impact the Performance of Higher-Level Protocols?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Llor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Medium Access Control (MAC and routing protocols have been developed in the last years for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs. One of the main difficulties to compare and validate the performance of different proposals is the lack of a common standard to model the acoustic propagation in the underwater environment. In this paper we analyze the evolution of underwater acoustic prediction models from a simple approach to more detailed and accurate models. Then, different high layer network protocols are tested with different acoustic propagation models in order to determine the influence of environmental parameters on the obtained results. After several experiments, we can conclude that higher-level protocols are sensitive to both: (a physical layer parameters related to the network scenario and (b the acoustic propagation model. Conditions like ocean surface activity, scenario location, bathymetry or floor sediment composition, may change the signal propagation behavior. So, when designing network architectures for UWSNs, the role of the physical layer should be seriously taken into account in order to assert that the obtained simulation results will be close to the ones obtained in real network scenarios.

  5. Higher Levels of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination and Poorer Composition of Milk Supplied by Informal Milk Marketing Chains in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Aslam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to observe the seasonal variation in aflatoxin M1 and nutritional quality of milk along informal marketing chains. Milk samples (485 were collected from three different chains over a period of one year. The average concentrations of aflatoxin M1 during the autumn and monsoon seasons (2.60 and 2.59 ppb were found to be significantly higher (standard error of the difference, SED = 0.21: p = 0.003 than in the summer (1.93 ppb. The percentage of added water in milk was significantly lower (SED = 1.54: p < 0.001 in summer (18.59% than in the monsoon season (26.39%. There was a significantly different (SED = 2.38: p < 0.001 mean percentage of water added by farmers (6.23%, small collectors (14.97%, large collectors (27.96% and retailers (34.52%. This was reflected in changes in milk quality along the marketing chain. There was no difference (p = 0.178 in concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk collected from the farmers (2.12 ppb, small collectors (2.23 ppb, large collectors (2.36 ppb and retailers (2.58 ppb. The high levels of contamination found in this study, which exceed the standards set by European Union (0.05 ppb and USFDA (0.5 ppb, demand radical intervention by regulatory authorities and mass awareness of the consequences for consumer health and safety.

  6. Assessing group-level participation in fluid teams: testing a new metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paletz, Susannah B F; Schunn, Christian D

    2011-06-01

    Participation is an important factor in team success. We propose a new metric of participation equality that provides an unbiased estimate across groups of different sizes and across those that change size over time. Using 11 h of transcribed utterances from informal, fluid, colocated workgroup meetings, we compared the associations of this metric with coded equality of participation and standard deviation. While coded participation and our metric had similar patterns of findings, standard deviation had a somewhat different pattern, suggesting that it might lead to incorrect assessments with fluid teams. Exploratory analyses suggest that, as compared with mixed-age/status groups, groups of younger faculty had more equal participation and that the presence of negative affect words was associated with more dominated participation. Future research can take advantage of this new metric to further theory on team processes in both face-to-face and distributed settings.

  7. Behavioral suites mediate group-level foraging dynamics in communities of tropical stingless bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, E M; Imperatriz-Fonseca, V L; Nieh, J C

    2010-02-01

    Competition for floral resources is a key force shaping pollinator communities, particularly among social bees. The ability of social bees to recruit nestmates for group foraging is hypothesized to be a major factor in their ability to dominate rich resources such as mass-flowering trees. We tested the role of group foraging in attaining dominance by stingless bees, eusocial tropical pollinators that exhibit high diversity in foraging strategies. We provide the first experimental evidence that meliponine group foraging strategies, large colony sizes and aggressive behavior form a suite of traits that enable colonies to improve dominance of rich resources. Using a diverse assemblage of Brazilian stingless bee species and an array of artificial "flowers" that provided a sucrose reward, we compared species' dominance and visitation under unrestricted foraging conditions and with experimental removal of group-foraging species. Dominance does not vary with individual body size, but rather with foraging group size. Species that recruit larger numbers of nestmates (Scaptotrigona aff. depilis, Trigona hyalinata, Trigona spinipes) dominated both numerically (high local abundance) and behaviorally (controlling feeders). Removal of group-foraging species increased feeding opportunities for solitary foragers (Frieseomelitta varia, Melipona quadrifasciata and Nannotrigona testaceicornis). Trigona hyalinata always dominated under unrestricted conditions. When this species was removed, T. spinipes or S. aff. depilis controlled feeders and limited visitation by solitary-foraging species. Because bee foraging patterns determine plant pollination success, understanding the forces that shape these patterns is crucial to ensuring pollination of both crops and natural areas in the face of current pollinator declines. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00040-009-0055-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized

  8. The relationship between higher social trust and lower late HIV diagnosis and mortality differs by race/ethnicity: results from a state-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Yusuf; Batson, Ashley; Galea, Sandro; Kawachi, Ichiro; Nash, Denis; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-04-06

    Black men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to suffer a disproportionate burden of new HIV diagnoses and mortality. To better understand some of the reasons for these profound disparities, we examined whether the association between social trust and late HIV diagnosis and mortality differed by race/ethnicity, and investigated potential indirect effects of any observed differences. We performed generalized structural equation modelling to assess main and interaction associations between trust among one's neighbours in 2009 (i.e. social trust) and race/ethnicity (Black, White, and Hispanic) predicting late HIV diagnosis (a CD4 count ≤200 cell/µL within three months of a new HIV diagnosis) rates and all-cause mortality rates of persons ever diagnosed late with HIV, across 47 American states for the years 2009-2013. We examined potential indirect effects of state-level HIV testing between social trust and late HIV diagnosis. Social trust data were from the Gallup Healthways Survey, HIV data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and HIV testing from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Covariates included state-level structural, healthcare, and socio-demographic factors including income inequality, healthcare access, and population density. We stratified analysis by transmission group (male-to-male, heterosexual, and injection drug use (IDU)). States with higher levels of social trust had lower late HIV diagnosis rates: Adjusted Rate Ratio [aRR] were consistent across risk groups (0.57; 95%CI 0.53-0.62, male-to-male), (aRR 0.58; 95%CI 0.54-0.62, heterosexual) and (aRR 0.64; 95%CI 0.60-0.69, IDU). Those associations differed by race/ethnicity (all p social trust and late HIV diagnosis across transmission group but for Blacks relative to Whites only. Social trust was associated with lower all-cause mortality rates and that association varied by race/ethnicity within the male-to-male and IDU transmission groups only. Social trust may

  9. FEC coding for QKD at higher photon flux levels based on spatial entanglement of twin beams in PDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshgaran, Fred; Mondin, Marina; Bari, Inam

    2014-10-01

    A major problem with conventional QKD techniques is the raw key transmission rate which for acceptable level of security is generally low. One way to overcome this problem is to create either directly or indirectly a number of parallel QKD transmission channels thus achieving a rate multiplicity equal to the number of parallel channels. This paper explores how a number of parallel Discrete Memoryless Channels (DMCs) can be created from imaging twin beams from a Parametric Down Conversion (PDC) process and examines the performance of FEC coding for information reconciliation over the resulting parallel channels. Twin beams exhibit quantum correlations that has been effectively used as a tool for many applications including calibration of single photon detectors. By now, detection of multimode spatial correlations is a mature field and in principle, only depends on the transmission and detection efficiency of the devices and the channel. In,1-3 the authors utilized their know-how on almost perfect selection of modes of pairwise correlated entangled beams and the optimization of the noise reduction to below the shot-noise level, for absolute calibration of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras. The same basic principle is currently being considered by the same authors for possible use in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD). The main advantage in such an approach would be the ability to work with much higher photon fluxes than that of a single photon regime that is theoretically required for discrete variable QKD applications (in practice, very weak laser pulses with mean photon count below one are used), and the fact that the QKD data rate is increased significantly since multiple equivalent parallel channels result from quantization of symmetric regions into super-pixels. The natural setup of quantization of CCD detection area and subsequent measurement of the correlation statistic needed to detect the presence of the eavesdropper Eve, leads to a number of parallel QKD

  10. Comparison the Effect of Teaching by Group Guided Discovery Learning, Questions & Answers and Lecturing Methods on the Level of Learning and Information Durability of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardanparvar H.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The requirements for revising the traditional education methods and utilization of new and active student-oriented learning methods have come into the scope of the educational systems long ago. Therefore, the new methods are being popular in different sciences including medical sciences. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of teaching through three methods (group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture methods on the learning level and information durability in the nursing students. Instrument & Methods: In the semi-experimental study, 62 forth-semester nursing students of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, who were passing the infectious course for the first time at the first semester of the academic year 2015-16, were studied. The subjects were selected via census method and randomly divided into three groups including group guided discovery, questions and answers, and lecture groups. The test was conducted before, immediately after, and one month after the conduction of the training program using a researcher-made questionnaire. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19 software using Chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, ANOVA with repeated observations, and LSD post-hoc test. Findings: The mean score of the test conducted immediately after the training program in the lecture group was significantly lesser than guided discovery and question and answer groups (p<0.001. In addition, the mean score of the test conducted one month after the training program in guided discovery group was significantly higher than both question and answer (p=0.004 and lecture (p=0.001 groups. Conclusion: Active educational methods lead to a higher level of the students’ participation in the educational issues and provided a background to enhance learning and for better information durability. 

  11. The "Gay Comfort Level": Examining a Media Advocacy Group's Efforts to Combat Youth Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachgal, Tara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…

  12. The Science Advancement through Group Engagement Program: Leveling the Playing Field and Increasing Retention in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donna M.; Curtin-Soydan, Amanda J.; Canelas, Dorian A.

    2014-01-01

    How can colleges and universities keep an open gateway to the science disciplines for the least experienced first-year science students while also maintaining high standards that challenge the students with the strongest possible high school backgrounds? The Science Advancement through Group Engagement (SAGE) project targets cohorts of less…

  13. Combat Air Forces Campaign Level Modernization Planning: A Study in Group Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    problems of influence from dominant individuals, irrelevant conversation, and pressure for conformity . Individuals can influence and dominate the...to counteract 52 the negative effects of dominant personalities, conversation not pursuant to the problem, and open group pressure for conformity ...discussion and debates. However, during the observed process, there was no blatant evidence of pressure for conformity or the exertion of influence

  14. The "Gay Comfort Level": Examining a Media Advocacy Group's Efforts to Combat Youth Homophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachgal, Tara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article scrutinizes the efforts of a media advocacy group to redress the stigma of youth homosexuality among United States youth: a report published in 2003 by the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation called, "How Youth Media Can Help Combat Homophobia Among American Teenagers." The report, authored by Rodger Streitmatter, concluded…

  15. A Phenomenological Exploration of the Experiences of Master's Level Counselor Trainees in Expressive Arts Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Martha Howe

    2010-01-01

    Expressive arts group supervision is the use of music, stories, movement, poetry or prose, role-play or psychodrama, art, guided imagery, or play to help trainees develop reflective skills (Wilkins, 1995), express thoughts and feelings (Knill, Levine & Levine, 2005; Lahad, 2000), develop new perspectives (Gladding, 2005), increase communication…

  16. Using Kirkpatrick's Four-Level-Evaluation Model To Explore the Effectiveness of Collaborative Online Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Colin

    This paper examines two cohorts of students, each engaged in an undergraduate management course, but using different means of engagement. One cohort of 90 students completed a real time learning program integrating group dynamics, action research, team performance, and participative decision-making. A second cohort of 171 students completed the…

  17. Associations of group level popularity with observed behavior and influence in a dyadic context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between popularity in the peer group and adolescents' behavior in a dyadic context. After collecting peer nominations for popularity, 218 early adolescents (Mage=11.0years) in 109 randomly composed same-sex dyads participated in a discussion task where they planne

  18. Higher Levels of Serum Zonulin May Rather Be Associated with Increased Risk of Obesity and Hyperlipidemia, Than with Gastrointestinal Symptoms or Disease Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ohlsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Zonulin is considered a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability, and elevated levels have been found in celiac disease. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between serum zonulin levels and gastrointestinal (GI symptoms, and secondarily, between zonulin levels and anthropometric and metabolic factors. The offspring (n = 363 of the participants of the Malmö Diet and Cancer cardiovascular cohort (MDC-CV were invited to an anthropometric and clinical examination, where fasting plasma glucose levels were measured. Questionnaires about lifestyle factors and medical history were completed along with the Visual Analog Scale for Irritable Bowel Syndrome (VAS-IBS. Zonulin levels were measured in serum by ELISA. Neither GI symptoms nor GI diseases had any influence on zonulin levels. Higher zonulin levels were associated with higher waist circumference (p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.003, and glucose levels (p = 0.036. Higher zonulin levels were associated with increased risk of overweight (p < 0.001, obesity (p = 0.047, and hyperlipidemia (p = 0.048. We cannot detect altered zonulin levels among individuals reporting GI symptoms or GI diseases, but higher zonulin levels are associated with higher waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose, and increased risk of metabolic diseases.

  19. Circulating ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in polygenic forms of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Natalia; Hohendorff, Jerzy; Solecka, Iwona; Szopa, Magdalena; Skupien, Jan; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Malecki, Maciej T

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that regulates appetite. It is likely to be involved in the pathophysiology of varying forms of diabetes. In animal studies, the ghrelin expression was regulated by the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 alpha (HNF1A). Mutations of the HNF1A gene cause maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY). We aimed to assess the circulating ghrelin levels in HNF1A-MODY and in other types of diabetes and to evaluate its association with HNF1A mutation status. Our cohort included 46 diabetic HNF1A gene mutation carriers, 55 type 2 diabetes (T2DM) subjects, 42 type 1 diabetes (T1DM) patients, and 31 glucokinase (GCK) gene mutation carriers with diabetes as well as 51 healthy controls. Plasma ghrelin concentration was measured using the immunoenzymatic assay with polyclonal antibody against the C-terminal fragment of its acylated and desacylated forms. Ghrelin concentrations were 0.75 ± 0.32, 0.70 ± 0.21, 0.50 ± 0.20, and 0.40 ± 0.16 ng/ml in patients with HNF1A-MODY, GCK-MODY, T1DM, and T2DM, respectively. The ghrelin levels were higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in T1DM and T2DM (p diabetic controls (1.02 ± 0.29 ng/ml, p MODY groups and common diabetes types remained significant. Analysis by a HNF1A mutation type indicated that ghrelin concentration is similar in patients with different types of sequence differences. Plasma ghrelin level is higher in HNF1A-MODY and GCK-MODY than in the common polygenic forms of diabetes.

  20. The relationship between personality traits and anxiety/depression levels in different drug abusers' groups

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Since psychosocial characteristics of drug abuse involve mainly specific personality and emotional changes, it is very important to investigate characteristics of addictive personality in relationship with emotional state of the individual. Considering that, the objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between personality structure and emotional state of two different groups: heroin addicts and recreate drug abusers. METHODS: The total of 288 (219 males and 69 females; 191...

  1. Functional group based Ligand binding affinity scoring function at atomic environmental level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadwaj, Pritish Kumar; Lahiri, Tapobrata

    2009-01-01

    Use of knowledge based scoring function (KBSF) for virtual screening and molecular docking has become an established method for drug discovery. Lack of a precise and reliable free energy function that describes several interactions including water-mediated atomic interaction between amino-acid residues and ligand makes distance based statistical measure as the only alternative. Till now all the distance based scoring functions in KBSF arena use atom singularity concept, which neglects the environmental effect of the atom under consideration. We have developed a novel knowledge-based statistical energy function for protein-ligand complexes which takes atomic environment in to account hence functional group as a singular entity. The proposed knowledge based scoring function is fast, simple to construct, easy to use and moreover it tackle the existing problem of handling molecular orientation in active site pocket. We have designed and used Functional group based Ligand retrieval (FBLR) system which can identify and detect the orientation of functional groups in ligand. This decoy searching was used to build the above KBSF to quantify the activity and affinity of high resolution protein-ligand complexes. We have proposed the probable use of these decoys in molecular build-up as a de-novo drug designing approach. We have also discussed the possible use of the said KSBF in pharmacophore fragment detection and pseudo center based fragment alignment procedure. PMID:19255647

  2. Health workforce remuneration: Comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; de Vries, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on remuneration in the Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupations in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, Netherlands, Poland, Russian Feder

  3. Muscle Torque and its Relation to Technique, Tactics, Sports Level and Age Group in Judo Contestants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Grzegorz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of maximal muscle torques at individual stages of development of athletes and to determine the relationship between muscle torques, fighting methods and the level of sports performance.

  4. Differing Levels of Superstitious Beliefs among Three Groups: Psychiatric Inpatients, Churchgoers, and Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sheryl L.

    This study investigated the level of superstitious belief among 175 persons in three categories: persons undergoing inpatient psychiatric treatment, churchgoers, and college students. A 50-item inventory consisting of positive and negative common superstitions, including a 5-item invalidity subscale, was administered. Using a 2 (male, female) x 3…

  5. Supporting Diverse Young Adolescents: Cooperative Grouping in Inclusive Middle-Level Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nicole C.; McKissick, Bethany R.; Ivy, Jessica T.; Moser, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The middle level classroom presents unique challenges to educators who strive to provide opportunities that acknowledge learner diversity in terms of social, cognitive, physical, and emotional development. This is confounded even further within inclusive middle-school classrooms where the responsibility to differentiate instruction is even more…

  6. Job Satisfaction, Anxiety Level and Associated Factors in a Group of Residents in a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Yaşan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study, we aimed to research the job satisfaction among the residents at Dicle University Medical Faculty Hospital, some factors affecting this and some psychological effects of not being pleased with their jobs. With respect to this aim, socio demographic data form, Minnesota Job Satisfaction, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State Trait Anger Scale were given to 140 residents at University who accepted to join this study and were collected the following day. In study, 35 percent of the participants having joined the study weren’t pleased with their works. The number of satisfied residents was higher among the willingly choice making residents in favour of their Works(34.8% than the participants who were unwilling to choice the department (65.2% they are working now (x2:11.046, p<0.01. Beck anxiety results were found to be much higher in the residents who were not pleased with their workers than the workers pleased with their works. Finally, there are some factors determining the job satisfaction. There is relationship between job satisfaction and mental health. Because this can give rise to negative effects on the performance of the work, it is required that some solution ways be found in order to increase the work contention.

  7. Doping Level of Boron-Doped Diamond Electrodes Controls the Grafting Density of Functional Groups for DNA Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švorc, Ĺubomír; Jambrec, Daliborka; Vojs, Marian; Barwe, Stefan; Clausmeyer, Jan; Michniak, Pavol; Marton, Marián; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2015-09-02

    The impact of different doping levels of boron-doped diamond on the surface functionalization was investigated by means of electrochemical reduction of aryldiazonium salts. The grafting efficiency of 4-nitrophenyl groups increased with the boron levels (B/C ratio from 0 to 20,000 ppm). Controlled grafting of nitrophenyldiazonium was used to adjust the amount of immobilized single-stranded DNA strands at the surface and further on the hybridization yield in dependence on the boron doping level. The grafted nitro functions were electrochemically reduced to the amine moieties. Subsequent functionalization with a succinic acid introduced carboxyl groups for subsequent binding of an amino-terminated DNA probe. DNA hybridization significantly depends on the probe density which is in turn dependent on the boron doping level. The proposed approach opens new insights for the design and control of doped diamond surface functionalization for the construction of DNA hybridization assays.

  8. Higher Decorin Levels in Bone Marrow Plasma Are Associated with Superior Treatment Response to Novel Agent-Based Induction in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Myeloma - A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Yi Huang

    Full Text Available The growth of myeloma cells depends on bone marrow (BM stroma consisting of stromal cells, secreted cytokines and the extracellular matrix (ECM. Decorin, a small leucine-rich proteoglycan in the ECM, is a signaling ligand and native anti-tumor agent. However, the role of decorin in patients with myeloma is not clear. We evaluated the correlation between the decorin levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in BM plasma from 121 patients with newly diagnosed myeloma based on their clinical features and treatment response. The median decorin levels in the patients and the normal control group were 12.31 ng/mL [standard deviation (SD, 7.50 ng/mL; range, 2.45 to 44.46 ng/mL] and 10.31 ng/mL (SD, 2.42 ng/mL; range, 4.85-15.14 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001. Using 15.15 ng/mL as a cut-off, 46 patients (38% exhibited higher decorin levels (H-DCN, whereas the other patients exhibited normal to lower decorin levels (NL-DCN. Except for the median age, which was significantly younger in the H-DCN than in the NL-DCN group (60.6 ± 14.0 vs. 65.8 ± 12.2 years, respectively; P = 0.034, there were no differences between the two groups. However, in 79 patients who had received novel agent-based induction, the overall response rate was significantly better in the H-DCN than in the NL-DCN (97 vs. 63%, respectively; P < 0.001, as was the depth of responses (P = 0.008, which were not observed in those who had received chemotherapeutic agents alone. Progression-free survival (PFS was significantly longer in H-DCN than NL-DCN (not reached vs. 19.5 mo, respectively; P = 0.0003. Multivariate analyses indicated that H-DCN, as a significantly independent factor, was associated with better treatment response (odds ratio, 20.014; 95% CI, 2.187-183.150; P = 0.008 and longer PFS (hazard ratio, 0.135; 95% CI, 0.051-0.361; P < 0.001. These findings disclose the potential role of decorin in myeloma and provide a basis for further study on possible synergistic anti

  9. A Joint Forces Group: A Permanent Joint Echelon for the Operational Level of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    Government Printing Office, 1996), 539; A paper by Dr. William Gregor describes in some detail the development of the theater strategic level as well as...the current US command structure. William J. Gregor , Toward a Revolution in Civil-Military Affairs Understanding the United States Military in the...Jay Luvass, trans. G. H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1862; reprint Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press, Publishers

  10. SERUM PROLACTIN LEVEL IN ACNE PATIENTS VERSUS CONTROL GROUP: STUDY ON 14 TO 35 YEARS OLD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Androgens have a main role in acne pathogenesis. The interaction between prolactin and androgens generate the hypothesis of prolactin role in acne pathogenesis. Methods. In a case - control study, 71 women with modearte to severe acne were compaired with 71 healthy women about their serum prolactin levels. Results. Mean of serum prolactin level was 533 632 miu/lit in cases. Mean of serum prolactin level was 365 363 in control group (P > 0.05. There was a significant correlation between serum prolactin level and severity of acne. Discussion. Despite the non significant difference between serum prolactin level in acne patients and healthy women, thare was a significant relationship between serum prolactin level and severity of acne. It may be due to our small sample size. However, the more powerful studies is needed.

  11. Haemoglobin status of adult women of two ethnic groups living in a peri-urban area of Kolkata city, India: a micro-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rohini; Bharati, Premananda

    2003-01-01

    A micro level study on the haemoglobin status of 127 Munda (a tribe) and 174 Poundrakshatriya (Pod) (caste) women were conducted in the peri-urban area of Kolkata City, India. The two ethnic groups were selected in order to find out whether populations residing in the same habitat, with similar medical and health care facilities have similar haemoglobin status. Results indicate that there exists very high percentage of anaemia in both the ethnic groups and 100 percent anaemia was observed among the Munda. Mean haemoglobin level was higher among the women of both the ethnic groups, consuming calorie, protein, iron and folic acid, above the recommended value (Indian Council of Medical Research, 2000). Women below the age of 30 years were found to be more anaemic. Education (P ethnic groups was found to increase with increase in Body Mass Index. Low socioeconomic condition, very low literacy rates, poverty and higher live births may have lowered the haemoglobin level of the women of the Munda population. However, women of both the ethnic groups were found to be anaemic in higher percentage than the state of West Bengal and all India (NFHS, 2000). Linear regression analysis indicated that expenditure on food had positive effect on the haemoglobin level (Pfood expenditure on the haemoglobin level was noticed among the Pod women (Pfood sharing within the households. Thus populations residing with similar medical and health care facilities revealed differences in the haemoglobin level. Differential expenditure pattern and food sharing practice seems to be the major factors responsible for the differences in haemoglobin status among the adult women in this present study. Very low intake of iron and heavy workload may be the reasons for this high percentage of anaemia. Moreover, hookworm infections need to be analyzed, as its prevalence is very high in India and South Asia. One hundred percent anaemia among Munda women is also very alarming. The results suggest that

  12. 高职大学语文小组活动有效性研究%Research on the Effectiveness of Chinese Group Activities in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘美明

    2015-01-01

    The group activity reflects the new concept of the students as the center and the ability as the standard,and it is a main teaching method in the Chinese course of higher vocational colleges.At present,there are some problems in the higher vo-cational Chinese group activities,which affect the effectiveness of the group's activities in many aspects:learning task factors, team members and cooperative relationship factors,teacher role factors,etc..In order to improve the effectiveness of the group activities,it is necessary to design the effective design task,the effective formation of the group,the effective organization of the implementation,effective summary evaluation.%小组活动体现了以学生为中心、以能力为本位的教学新理念,是高职大学语文课程采用的一种主要的教学方式。目前高职语文小组活动还存在一些问题,影响小组活动有效性的因素有多个方面:学习任务因素、小组成员及合作关系因素、教师角色因素等。要提高小组活动的有效性,就必须有效设计任务、有效组建小组、有效组织实施、有效总结评价。

  13. Portfolio Practices in Higher Education in Norway in an International Perspective: Macro-, Meso- and Micro-Level Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysthe, Olga; Engelsen, Knut Steinar

    2011-01-01

    The point of departure for this article is the "chameleon" aspect of portfolios and the diversity of portfolio models and practices in higher education on the international arena today. Our aim is to investigate the contextual character of this diversity by using Norwegian higher education as an example and to show how macro-level…

  14. The effect of presenteeism-related health conditions on employee work engagement levels: A comparison between groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T. de Beer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Awareness of presenteeism-related health conditions is important as the prevalence of these conditions unknowingly influences performance and productivity in organisations.Research purpose: The primary objective of this study was to determine the differences in work engagement levels based on groups of presenteeism-related conditions in employees.Motivation for the study: Awareness of the impact of presenteeism-related conditions on work engagement levels can aid in the crafting of interventions to assist employees who suffer from these conditions, which in turn can boost work engagement levels.Research design, approach and method: Cross-sectional data was collected from an availability sample of employees in the manufacturing sector (N = 3387.Main findings: The results of the multi-group structural equation modelling revealed significant mean differences in work engagement levels between the groups. Practical significance tests revealed significant differences between all the groups. The largest difference was between the group who suffered from no presenteeism-related conditions and the group who suffered from all three conditions included in this study concurrently.Practical/managerial implications: Organisational stakeholders are encouraged to take note of the effects that presenteeism-related health conditions have on work engagement and to consider relevant strategies and interventions to address and alleviate symptoms in order to tend to employee health and obviate the effect on productivity.Contribution: This study found that there were clear practical differences between employees who suffer from the presenteeism-related conditions and those who suffer from none of the conditions. Furthermore, there was also a clear difference when comparing the ‘no condition’ group to a general random sample in which employees might experience some symptoms but not comorbidity.

  15. Quality assurance in radiotherapy: the importance of medical physics staffing levels. Recommendations from an ESTRO/EFOMP joint task group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletti, S; Dutreix, A; Garavaglia, G; Gfirtner, H; Haywood, J; Jessen, K A; Lamm, I L; Mijnheer, B; Noël, A; Nüsslin, F; Rosenow, U; Schneider, P; Seelentag, W; Sheriff, S; Svensson, H; Thwaites, D

    1996-10-01

    The safe application of ionising radiation for diagnosis and therapy requires a high level of knowledge of the underlying processes and of quality assurance. Sophisticated modern equipment can be used effectively for complicated diagnostic and therapeutic techniques only with adequate physics support. In the light of recent analyses and recommendations by national and international societies a joint working group of representatives from ESTRO (European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology) and from EFOMP (European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics) was set up to assess the necessary staffing levels for physics support to radiotherapy. The method used to assess the staffing levels, the resulting recommendations and examples of their practical application are described.

  16. Higher Levels of Osteoprotegerin and Immune Activation/Immunosenescence Markers Are Correlated with Concomitant Bone and Endovascular Damage in HIV-Suppressed Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D'Abramo

    Full Text Available HIV-infected patients appear to have a significantly greater risk of non-AIDS comorbidities such as osteoporosis and atherosclerosis. Subjects with osteoporosis are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease than those with normal bone mass, therefore a possible relation between these two conditions can be hypothesized. In the setting of HIV infection, several factors might contribute to bone disease and endothelial dysfunction. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between bone and cardiovascular disease and to investigate the role of traditional factors, T-cell phenotype and osteoprotegerin in HIV positive subjects on effective antiretroviral therapy. We included 94 HIV positive subjects on antiretroviral therapy with virological suppression and 41 healthy subjects matched for age and gender as a control group. Carotid-Intima Media Thickness (c-IMT and bone mineral density (BMD were performed by ultrasound and DEXA, respectively. CD4+/CD8+ T-cell activation, senescence and osteoprotegerin plasma levels were measured by flow-cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Among HIV positive patients, 56.4% had osteopenia/osteoporosis and 45.7% had pathological c-IMT (>0.9 mm. Subjects with pathological c-IMT and BMD exhibited higher CD4+ and CD8+ activated, CD8+ senescent and osteoprotegerin than subjects with normal c-IMT and BMD. HIV positive subjects with osteopenia/osteoporosis had higher c-IMT than subjects with normal BMD, and linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between BMD and c-IMT. Several factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV positive patients. Osteoprotegerin together with inflammation and immunosenescence in HIV positive patients could affect bone and vascular system and could be considered as a possible common link between these two diseases.

  17. Group-Level Coping as a Moderator between Heterosexism and Sexism and Psychological Distress in Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Dawn M.; Owens, Gina P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine concurrently the relationship between heterosexist events and sexist events and psychological distress and (2) to investigate sexual orientation-based and gender-based group-level coping as potential moderators of the heterosexism-distress and sexism-distress links among 282 lesbian and bisexual women.…

  18. Application of Group-Level Item Response Models in the Evaluation of Consumer Reports about Health Plan Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reise, Steven P.; Meijer, Rob R.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.; Morales, Leo S.; Hays, Ron D.

    2006-01-01

    Group-level parametric and non-parametric item response theory models were applied to the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS[R]) 2.0 core items in a sample of 35,572 Medicaid recipients nested within 131 health plans. Results indicated that CAHPS responses are dominated by within health plan variation, and only weakly…

  19. Pulmonary levels of high-mobility group box 1 during mechanical ventilation and ventilator-associated pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Ishizaka, Akitoshi; Wolthuls, Esther K; Choi, Goda; van der Poll, Tom; Schultz, Marcus J

    2008-01-01

    High-mobility group box (HMGB) 1 is a recently discovered proinflammatory mediator that contributes to acute lung injury. We determined HMGB-1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients during mechanical ventilation (MV) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid

  20. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Group Environment Questionnaire in a Sample of Elite and Regional Level Greek Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, Nikos; Aggelonidis, Yannis

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) adapted to the Greek language. The sample consisted of 586 male and female volleyball players of elite and regional level status. Data were analysed from three time points of a competitive season. For each time point, seven competing…