WorldWideScience

Sample records for group health research

  1. Focus groups: a strategy for health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Kfouri LOPES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research strategy through open interviews is a qualitative alternative that can capture the meaning embedded in opinions expressed, revealing values and feelings of the research subjects. As a constructivist method it requires the interpretative analysis of the speech. Data collection requires pragmatism from the researcher and absence of stimuli that might induce or inhibit the interviewees. Objective: This study had the following proposals: a to implement the strategy of focus groups as part of the evaluation of the Qualitative Methods discipline in a stricto sensu course; b to search the criteria that determine the patient’s choice of dental professional.Material and methods: In order to achieve the objectives of the research,an exercise was carried out aimed at understanding the content of focus groups through active learning methodology based on the experience and binomial action-reflection. The activity was developed under the theme “Determinants in the relationship established between the dental professional and their patients”, according to the patients’ opinions.The group that coordinated the activity consisted of four dentists,students of the Qualitative Methods discipline, who played the following roles: a mediator; b reporter; c observer; d recording operator.The discussion group was composed of six (N = 6 volunteers from a total of 20 students enrolled in this discipline. The exclusion criteria included those with private dental plans and/or the exclusive users of public health services. The recording was transcribed and submitted to content analysis. To this end the ATLAS.ti 5.0 computer program was used. Results: Patients select the dental professional according to the references they get from others. The personal relationship was highly valued by the group, reinforcing the skills and abilities of sensitivity and commitment to the human being presented in the text of the National Curriculum Guidelines

  2. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

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    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  3. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

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    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  4. Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

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    Langham, W.H.; Storer, J.B.

    1955-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.

  5. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

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    van Ark Gerrit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research. For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector. For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity. These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance, after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms

  6. Research productivity of members of IADR Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group: relationship to professional and personal factors.

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    Milgrom, Peter; Heima, Masahiro; Tomar, Scott; Kunzel, Carol

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the research productivity of the members of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR) Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research Group and examines personal and professional factors related to greater productivity. The findings from previous studies suggested there might be gender discrimination in opportunities for women faculty. Members on the active membership list for this IADR group were surveyed by email. Most were dentists, and three-quarters had external funding for their research. The primary outcome measure was the number of self-reported published articles in PubMed in the preceding twenty-four months. The mean number of these publications was 4.9 (SD=5.1). Gender and time in research were the best predictors of research productivity of this population. There was no difference in time for research between the men and women in this study. Controlling for gender, the best single predictor of research productivity remained percent time spent in research. Overall, the members of the IADR group spent almost three times as much time in research and were more than twice as productive as faculty members as a whole as described in earlier studies. In view of the current emphasis in many countries on addressing the social and behavioral determinants of oral health disparities, the productivity of this area of dental research is very important. Trends toward clinically oriented, non-research-intensive dental schools in the United States and reductions in time and funding available to conduct research should be of concern.

  7. Black and minority ethnic group involvement in health and social care research: A systematic review.

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    Dawson, Shoba; Campbell, Stephen M; Giles, Sally J; Morris, Rebecca L; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh

    2017-08-15

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) in research is growing internationally, but little is known about black and minority ethnic (BME) involvement and the factors influencing their involvement in health and social care research. To characterize and critique the empirical literature on BME-PPI involvement in health and social care research. Systematic searches of six electronic bibliographic databases were undertaken, utilizing both MeSH and free-text terms to identify international empirical literature published between 1990 and 2016. All study designs that report primary data that involved BME groups in health or social care research. Screening was conducted by two reviewers. Data extraction and quality appraisal were performed independently. Data extraction focused on the level(s) of PPI involvement and where PPI activity occurred in the research cycle. Studies were quality-assessed using the guidelines for measuring the quality and impact of user involvement in research. Data were analysed using a narrative approach. Forty-five studies were included with the majority undertaken in the USA focusing on African Americans and indigenous populations. Involvement most commonly occurred during the research design phase and least in data analysis and interpretation. This is the first systematic review investigating BME involvement in health and social care research internationally. While there is a widespread support for BME involvement, this is limited to particular phases of the research and particular ethnic subgroups. There is a need to understand factors that influence BME involvement in all parts of the research cycle. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Methodological Reflections on the Use of Asynchronous Online Focus Groups in Health Research

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    Sarah Williams PhD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet is increasingly used as a tool in qualitative research. In particular, asynchronous online focus groups are used when factors such as cost, time, or access to participants can make conducting face-to-face research difficult. In this article we consider key methodological issues involved in using asynchronous online focus groups to explore experiences of health and illness. The written nature of Internet communication, the lack of physical presence, and the asynchronous, longitudinal aspects enable participants who might not normally contribute to research studies to reflect on their personal stories before disclosing them to the researcher. Implications for study design, recruitment strategies, and ethics should be considered when deciding whether to use this method.

  9. Report of the Independent Expert Group on the Future of European Public Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    The next EU research and innovation framework programme 'Horizon 2020' will address a number of important societal challenges including health, demographic changes and well-being. To prepare the work in these areas, the Health Directorate of the European Commission's Research & Innovation...... the following four questions: What should the thematic priorities for EU funded public health research under Horizon 2020 be? How to best structure European Public Health Research in the future? How to develop stronger links and synergies between EU funded research and national research activities, EU policy...... agendas and national policy agendas? How to improve the uptake of evidence generated from public health research in the development of public health policy? This report summarises the recommendations from Subgroup 2....

  10. A potential model for the first all Wales mental health service user and carer-led research group.

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    Wilson, C; Fothergill, A; Rees, H

    2010-02-01

    This paper will inform mental health service users and carers on how a University in Wales established a service user and carer-led research group. * The group's primary aim will be to undertake its own service user and carer-led research projects. * Mental health service users have undergone empowerment and research training at a University in Wales. This is an important initiative because it is the first service user and carer-led research group in Wales. * This paper is co-authored by a mental health service user and includes transcripts of service users' stories written in their words. Abstract Service user and carer involvement in research has been gaining momentum in recent years. However, this involvement to date has primarily been as research respondents or 'subjects' in research studies. A group of mental health service users at a University in Wales underwent empowerment and research training to enable them to become active participants in the research process; this training was a necessary step to equip mental health service users with the skills to become independent researchers and to carry out service user-led research. We included transcripts from mental health service users on their views of the empowerment and research training received. We are not reporting, in this paper, on the findings from a research study rather it aims to inform readers how a service user and carer-led research group has been established in Wales. The group has two purposes: (1) to train service users in research methodologies, and thus for them to gain essential research skills; and (2) to undertake their own service user and carer-led research projects thereby implementing the research skills they have acquired from the training. The latter is a primary aim of the group; a future paper will report on its development.

  11. Researching the mental health needs of hard-to-reach groups: managing multiple sources of evidence

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    Lamb Jonathan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common mental health problems impose substantial challenges to patients, carers, and health care systems. A range of interventions have demonstrable efficacy in improving the lives of people experiencing such problems. However many people are disadvantaged, either because they are unable to access primary care, or because access does not lead to adequate help. New methods are needed to understand the problems of access and generate solutions. In this paper we describe our methodological approach to managing multiple and diverse sources of evidence, within a research programme to increase equity of access to high quality mental health services in primary care. Methods We began with a scoping review to identify the range and extent of relevant published material, and establish key concepts related to access. We then devised a strategy to collect - in parallel - evidence from six separate sources: a systematic review of published quantitative data on access-related studies; a meta-synthesis of published qualitative data on patient perspectives; dialogues with local stakeholders; a review of grey literature from statutory and voluntary service providers; secondary analysis of patient transcripts from previous qualitative studies; and primary data from interviews with service users and carers. We synthesised the findings from these diverse sources, made judgements on key emerging issues in relation to needs and services, and proposed a range of potential interventions. These proposals were debated and refined using iterative electronic and focus group consultation procedures involving international experts, local stakeholders and service users. Conclusions Our methods break new ground by generating and synthesising multiple sources of evidence, connecting scientific understanding with the perspectives of users, in order to develop innovative ways to meet the mental health needs of under-served groups.

  12. [Memorandum 'Development of health services research in Bavaria from the perspective of the Bavarian State Working Group 'Health Services Research (LAGeV)': status quo - potential - strategies'].

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    Hollederer, A; Braun, G E; Dahlhoff, G; Drexler, H; Engel, J; Gräßel, E; Häusler, E; Heide, H; Heuschmann, P U; Hörl, G; Imhof, H; Kaplan, M; Kasperbauer, R; Klemperer, D; Kolominsky-Rabas, P; Kuhn, J; Lang, M; Langejürgen, R; Lankes, A; Leidl, R; Liebl, B; Loss, J; Ludewig, K; Mansmann, U; Melcop, N; Nagels, K; Nowak, D; Pfundner, H; Reuschenbach, B; Schneider, A; Schneider, W; Schöffski, O; Schreiber, W; Voigtländer, S; Wildner, M; Zapf, A; Zellner, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the memorandum on the development of health services research (HSR) in Bavaria is to operationalise the global objectives of the State Working Group "Health Services Research" (LAGeV) and to collectively define future topics, specific implementation steps, methods as well as ways of working for the future course of the LAGeV. The LAGeV is an expert committee that integrates and links the competencies of different actors from science, politics and health care regarding HSR and facilitates their cooperation. The memorandum is based on an explorative survey among the LAGeV members, which identified the status quo of health services research in Bavaria, potential for development, important constraints, promoting factors, specific recommendations as well as future topics for the further development of HSR in Bavaria. From the perspective of the LAGeV members, the 12 most important future topics are: 1) Interface and networking research, 2) Innovative health care concepts, 3) Health care for multimorbid patients, 4)Health care for chronically ill patients, 5) Evaluation of innovations, processes and technologies, 6) Patient orientation and user focus, 7) Social and regional inequalities in health care, 8) Health care for mentally ill patients, 9) Indicators of health care quality, 10) Regional needs planning, 11) Practical effectiveness of HSR and 12) Scientific use of routine data. Potential for development of HSR in Bavaria lies a) in the promotion of networking and sustainable structures, b) the establishment of an HSR information platform that bundles information and results in regard to current topics and aims to facilitate cooperation as well as c) in the initiation of measures and projects. The latter ought to pinpoint health care challenges and make recommendations regarding the improvement of health care and its quality. The cooperation and networking structures that were established with the LAGeV should be continuously expanded and be used to work

  13. Diversity in Collaborative Research Communities: A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Thesis Writing Group in Public Health

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    Guerin, Cally; Xafis, Vicki; Doda, Diana V.; Gillam, Marianne H.; Larg, Allison J.; Luckner, Helene; Jahan, Nasreen; Widayati, Aris; Xu, Chuangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Writing groups for doctoral students are generally agreed to provide valuable learning spaces for Ph.D. candidates. Here an academic developer and the eight members of a writing group formed in a Discipline of Public Health provide an account of their experiences of collaborating in a multicultural, multidisciplinary thesis writing group. We…

  14. Diversity in Collaborative Research Communities: A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Thesis Writing Group in Public Health

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    Guerin, Cally; Xafis, Vicki; Doda, Diana V.; Gillam, Marianne H.; Larg, Allison J.; Luckner, Helene; Jahan, Nasreen; Widayati, Aris; Xu, Chuangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Writing groups for doctoral students are generally agreed to provide valuable learning spaces for Ph.D. candidates. Here an academic developer and the eight members of a writing group formed in a Discipline of Public Health provide an account of their experiences of collaborating in a multicultural, multidisciplinary thesis writing group. We…

  15. Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group (GMIHRG): Mobilizing Allied Health Students and Community Partners to Put Data into Action.

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    Zertuche, Adrienne D; Spelke, Bridget; Julian, Zoë; Pinto, Meredith; Rochat, Roger

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Despite having an obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) workforce comparable to the national average, Georgia is ranked 50th in maternal mortality and 40th in infant mortality. The Georgia Maternal and Infant Health Research Group (GMIHRG) was founded in 2010 to evaluate and address this paradox. Description In the several years since GMIHRG's inception, its graduate allied health student researchers and advisors have collaborated with community partners to complete several requisite research initiatives. Their initial work demonstrated that over half the Georgia areas outside metropolitan Atlanta lack adequate access to obstetric services, and their subsequent research evaluated the reasons for and the consequences of this maldistribution of obstetric providers. Assessment In order to translate their workforce and outcomes data for use in policymaking and programming, GMIHRG created reader-friendly reports for distribution to a wide variety of stakeholders and prepared concise, compelling presentations with targeted recommendations for change. This commitment to advocacy ultimately enabled them to: (a) inspire the Georgia Study Committees on Medicaid Reform and Medical Education, (b) influence Georgia General Assembly abortion bills, medical scholarship/loan legislation, and appropriations, and (c) motivate programming initiatives to improve midwifery education and perinatal regionalization in Georgia. Conclusion GMIHRG members have employed inventive research methods and maximized collaborative partnerships to enable their data on Georgia's maternal and infant outcomes and obstetric workforce to effectively inform state organizations and policymakers. With this unique approach, GMIHRG serves as a cost-efficient and valuable model for student engagement in the translation of research into advocacy efforts, policy change, and innovative programming.

  16. Implementation intention and planning interventions in Health Psychology: Recommendations from the Synergy Expert Group for research and practice.

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    Hagger, Martin S; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; de Wit, John; Benyamini, Yael; Burkert, Silke; Chamberland, Pier-Eric; Chater, Angel; Dombrowski, Stephan U; van Dongen, Anne; French, David P; Gauchet, Aurelie; Hankonen, Nelli; Karekla, Maria; Kinney, Anita Y; Kwasnicka, Dominika; Hing Lo, Siu; López-Roig, Sofía; Meslot, Carine; Marques, Marta Moreira; Neter, Efrat; Plass, Anne Marie; Potthoff, Sebastian; Rennie, Laura; Scholz, Urte; Stadler, Gertraud; Stolte, Elske; Ten Hoor, Gill; Verhoeven, Aukje; Wagner, Monika; Oettingen, Gabriele; Sheeran, Paschal; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-07-01

    The current article details a position statement and recommendations for future research and practice on planning and implementation intentions in health contexts endorsed by the Synergy Expert Group. The group comprised world-leading researchers in health and social psychology and behavioural medicine who convened to discuss priority issues in planning interventions in health contexts and develop a set of recommendations for future research and practice. The expert group adopted a nominal groups approach and voting system to elicit and structure priority issues in planning interventions and implementation intentions research. Forty-two priority issues identified in initial discussions were further condensed to 18 key issues, including definitions of planning and implementation intentions and 17 priority research areas. Each issue was subjected to voting for consensus among group members and formed the basis of the position statement and recommendations. Specifically, the expert group endorsed statements and recommendations in the following areas: generic definition of planning and specific definition of implementation intentions, recommendations for better testing of mechanisms, guidance on testing the effects of moderators of planning interventions, recommendations on the social aspects of planning interventions, identification of the preconditions that moderate effectiveness of planning interventions and recommendations for research on how people use plans.

  17. Health incentive research and social justice: does the risk of long term harms to systematically disadvantaged groups bear consideration?

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    Wild, Verina; Pratt, Bridget

    2017-03-01

    The ethics of health incentive research-a form of public health research-are not well developed, and concerns of justice have been least examined. In this paper, we explore what potential long term harms in relation to justice may occur as a result of such research and whether they should be considered as part of its ethical evaluation. 'Long term harms' are defined as harms that contribute to existing systematic patterns of disadvantage for groups. Their effects are experienced on a long term basis, persisting even once an incentive research project ends. We will first establish that three categories of such harms potentially arise as a result of health incentive interventions. We then argue that the risk of these harms also constitutes a morally relevant consideration for health incentive research and suggest who may be responsible for assessing and mitigating these risks. We propose that responsibility should be assigned on the basis of who initiates health incentive research projects. Finally, we briefly describe possible strategies to prevent or mitigate the risk of long term harms to members of disadvantaged groups, which can be employed during the design, conduct and dissemination of research projects.

  18. Health Research

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    EPA scientists are helping communities and policymakers develop and implement policies and practices designed to improve public health, especially for groups such as children, the elderly or the socioeconomically disadvantaged.

  19. Improving participation rates for women of color in health research: the role of group cohesion.

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    Smith-Ray, Renae L; Mama, Scherezade; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Estabrooks, Paul A; Lee, Rebecca E

    2012-02-01

    Adherence to physical activity and dietary interventions is a common challenge. Interventions that use group cohesion strategies show promise for increasing adherence, but have not been tested among women of color. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dimensions of group cohesion mediate the association between intervention condition and attendance within a community physical activity program for women of color. African American and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 310) completed measurements at baseline and post-intervention and participated in a social cohesion intervention to improve physical activity and dietary habits. Women were assigned to a physical activity or fruit and vegetable intervention group. Social and task cohesion was measured using the Physical Activity Group Environment Questionnaire (PAGE-Q). Attendance was recorded at each of six intervention sessions. Women were generally middle-age (M age = 46.4 years, SD = 9.1) and obese (M BMI = 34.4 kg/m2, SD = 7.7). The estimate of the mediated effect was significant for all group cohesion constructs, indicating both task constructs-attraction to the group's task (SE = 0.096, CI: -0.599 to -0.221) and group integration around the task (SE = 0.060, CI: -0.092 to -0.328)-and social constructs-attraction to the group's social aspects (SE = 0.046, CI: -0.546 to -0.366) and group integration around social aspects (SE = 0.046, CI: -0.546 to -0.366)-significantly mediated the association between group assignment and attendance. Both task and social constructs are important to improve attendance in health promotion interventions for women of color.

  20. Small Group Research

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    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  1. Reducing health disparities through a culturally centered mentorship program for minority faculty: the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG) experience.

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    Viets, Vanessa Lopez; Baca, Catherine; Verney, Steven P; Venner, Kamilla; Parker, Tassy; Wallerstein, Nina

    2009-08-01

    Ethnic minority faculty members are vastly underrepresented in academia. Yet, the presence of these individuals in academic institutions is crucial, particularly because their professional endeavors often target issues of health disparities. One promising way to attract and retain ethnic minority faculty is to provide them with formal mentorship. This report describes a culturally centered mentorship program, the Southwest Addictions Research Group (SARG, 2003-2007), at the University of New Mexico (UNM) that trained a cadre of minority researchers dedicated to reducing health disparities associated with substance abuse. The SARG was based at UNM's School of Medicine's Institute for Public Health, in partnership with the UNM's Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse, and Addictions. The program consisted of regular research meetings, collaboration with the Community Advisory Board, monthly symposia with renowned professionals, pilot projects, and conference support. The authors collected data on mentee research productivity as outcomes and conducted separate mentee and mentor focus-group interviews to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the SARG program. The SARG yielded positive outcomes as evidenced by mentee increase in grant submissions, publications, and professional presentations. Focus-group qualitative data highlighted program and institutional barriers as well as successes that surfaced during the program. Based on this evaluation, a Culturally Centered Mentorship Model (CCMM) emerged. The CCMM can help counter institutional challenges by valuing culture, community service, and community-based participatory research to support the recruitment and advancement of ethnic minority faculty members in academia.

  2. Environmental health research recommendations from the Inter-Environmental Health Sciences Core Center Working Group on unconventional natural gas drilling operations.

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    Penning, Trevor M; Breysse, Patrick N; Gray, Kathleen; Howarth, Marilyn; Yan, Beizhan

    2014-11-01

    Unconventional natural gas drilling operations (UNGDO) (which include hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) supply an energy source that is potentially cleaner than liquid or solid fossil fuels and may provide a route to energy independence. However, significant concerns have arisen due to the lack of research on the public health impact of UNGDO. Environmental Health Sciences Core Centers (EHSCCs), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), formed a working group to review the literature on the potential public health impact of UNGDO and to make recommendations for needed research. The Inter-EHSCC Working Group concluded that a potential for water and air pollution exists that might endanger public health, and that the social fabric of communities could be impacted by the rapid emergence of drilling operations. The working group recommends research to inform how potential risks could be mitigated. Research on exposure and health outcomes related to UNGDO is urgently needed, and community engagement is essential in the design of such studies.

  3. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  4. Editorial research and the publication process in biomedicine and health: Report from the Esteve Foundation Discussion Group, December 2012.

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    Marušić, Ana; Malički, Mario; von Elm, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that there are more than twenty thousand biomedical journals in the world, research into the work of editors and publication process in biomedical and health care journals is rare. In December 2012, the Esteve Foundation, a non-profit scientific institution that fosters progress in pharmacotherapy by means of scientific communication and discussion organized a discussion group of 7 editors and/or experts in peer review biomedical publishing. They presented findings of past editorial research, discussed the lack of competitive funding schemes and specialized journals for dissemination of editorial research, and reported on the great diversity of misconduct and conflict of interest policies, as well as adherence to reporting guidelines. Furthermore, they reported on the reluctance of editors to investigate allegations of misconduct or increase the level of data sharing in health research. In the end, they concluded that if editors are to remain gatekeepers of scientific knowledge they should reaffirm their focus on the integrity of the scientific record and completeness of the data they publish. Additionally, more research should be undertaken to understand why many journals are not adhering to editorial standards, and what obstacles editors face when engaging in editorial research.

  5. Group Work. Research Brief

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    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  6. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...

  7. Reaching the hard-to-reach: a systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups

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    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to review the literature regarding the barriers to sampling, recruitment, participation, and retention of members of socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in health research and strategies for increasing the amount of health research conducted with socially disadvantaged groups. Methods A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. Searches of electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Social Science Index via Web of Knowledge and CINHAL were conducted for English language articles published up to May 2013. Qualitative and quantitative studies as well as literature reviews were included. Articles were included if they reported attempts to increase disadvantaged group participation in research, or the barriers to research with disadvantaged groups. Groups of interest were those described as socially, culturally or financially disadvantaged compared to the majority of society. Eligible articles were categorised according to five phases of research: 1) sampling, 2) recruitment and gaining consent, 3) data collection and measurement, 4) intervention delivery and uptake, and 5) retention and attrition. Results In total, 116 papers from 115 studies met inclusion criteria and 31 previous literature reviews were included. A comprehensive summation of the major barriers to working with various disadvantaged groups is provided, along with proposed strategies for addressing each of the identified types of barriers. Most studies of strategies to address the barriers were of a descriptive nature and only nine studies reported the results of randomised trials. Conclusions To tackle the challenges of research with socially disadvantaged groups, and increase their representation in health and medical research, researchers and research institutions need to acknowledge extended timeframes, plan for higher resourcing costs and operate via community partnerships. PMID:24669751

  8. Small-Magnitude Effect Sizes in Epigenetic End Points are Important in Children's Environmental Health Studies: The Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center's Epigenetics Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Carrie V; Marsit, Carmen J; Faustman, Elaine; Nadeau, Kari; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Dolinoy, Dana C; Herbstman, Julie; Holland, Nina; LaSalle, Janine M; Schmidt, Rebecca; Yousefi, Paul; Perera, Frederica; Joubert, Bonnie R; Wiemels, Joseph; Taylor, Michele; Yang, Ivana V; Chen, Rui; Hew, Kinjal M; Freeland, Deborah M Hussey; Miller, Rachel; Murphy, Susan K

    2017-04-01

    Characterization of the epigenome is a primary interest for children's environmental health researchers studying the environmental influences on human populations, particularly those studying the role of pregnancy and early-life exposures on later-in-life health outcomes. Our objective was to consider the state of the science in environmental epigenetics research and to focus on DNA methylation and the collective observations of many studies being conducted within the Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Centers, as they relate to the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis. We address the current laboratory and statistical tools available for epigenetic analyses, discuss methods for validation and interpretation of findings, particularly when magnitudes of effect are small, question the functional relevance of findings, and discuss the future for environmental epigenetics research. A common finding in environmental epigenetic studies is the small-magnitude epigenetic effect sizes that result from such exposures. Although it is reasonable and necessary that we question the relevance of such small effects, we present examples in which small effects persist and have been replicated across populations and across time. We encourage a critical discourse on the interpretation of such small changes and further research on their functional relevance for children's health. The dynamic nature of the epigenome will require an emphasis on future longitudinal studies in which the epigenome is profiled over time, over changing environmental exposures, and over generations to better understand the multiple ways in which the epigenome may respond to environmental stimuli.

  9. Health and wellness trends in the oil and gas sector : insights from the Shepell-fgi Research Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This report discussed health and wellness trends in the oil and gas sector in relation to employee assistance program (EAP) data. The data were derived from oil and gas client organizations across Canada for 2008, and represented a population base of 14,685 employees. The data demonstrated that EAP utilization in the petroleum industry increased by approximately 5 per cent from 2006 to 2008. The sector's utilization was 34 per cent higher than the Canadian norm in 2006, and 40 per cent higher than in 2007 and 2008. Females used the EAP to a greater extent than males. A higher proportion of the spouses of workers accessed EAP than the national norm. Employees accessed EAP for assistance with work-life issues; family support services; and substance abuse interventions. Weight management and dietary consultations in relation to disease control were also of concern within the sector. A 66 per cent increase in childcare issues was noted, as well as a 148 per cent increase in eldercare issues, and a 112 per cent increase in addiction issues. The findings indicated that the EAP is being effectively communicated as a relevant and accessible tool. As the industry continues to develop in remote regions, new services and resources will be required to retain existing workforces and attract new employees. Prevention-focused training and services and program for at-risk groups are needed to ensure that employee health and productivity is maintained. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  10. Potential Health Risks from Uranium in Home Well Water: An Investigation by the Apsaalooke (Crow Tribal Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Eggers

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to uranium can damage kidneys, increase long term risks of various cancers, and cause developmental and reproductive effects. Historically, home well water in Montana has not been tested for uranium. Data for the Crow Reservation from the United States Geological Survey (USGS National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE database showed that water from 34 of 189 wells tested had uranium over the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL of 30 μg/L for drinking water. Therefore the Crow Water Quality Project included uranium in its tests of home well water. Volunteers had their well water tested and completed a survey about their well water use. More than 2/3 of the 97 wells sampled had detectable uranium; 6.3% exceeded the MCL of 30 μg/L. Wells downgradient from the uranium-bearing formations in the mountains were at highest risk. About half of all Crow families rely on home wells; 80% of these families consume their well water. An explanation of test results; associated health risks and water treatment options were provided to participating homeowners. The project is a community-based participatory research initiative of Little Big Horn College; the Crow Tribe; the Apsaalooke Water and Wastewater Authority; the local Indian Health Service Hospital and other local stakeholders; with support from academic partners at Montana State University (MSU Bozeman.

  11. Children's Environmental Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conducted in-house, with our federal partners like NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Services (NIEHS), and by external researchers through a research grants program administered through the agency’s Office of Research & Development.

  12. Strengthening public health research for improved health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gea-Izquierdo

    2012-08-01

    prophylaxis methods. The multidisciplinary and multi-center approach in research will provide a better understanding of the processes and quality solutions. The implementation of strategies that encourage the promotion of research will lead to the establishment of joint action lines, allowing a general approach in enhancing biomedical research. In this sense and for social improvement, awareness of researchers in encouraging the detection of social problems is especially relevant. As mentioned it’s estimate the need for establish an adequate framework for public health research in loss-making countries, with results that impact on the advancement of the welfare of the people, advocating to take appropriate actions by the governments and health authorities. Therefore, the primary purpose must be to protect and improve the health of people. This specific aim is positioned on the border between basic research and development, so the contribution of ideas from clinical practice should be used in the treatment of health problems and advance of the prevention. At the same time, promotion of public health training habits will contribute to a better knowledge transfer and implementation of healthy behaviors to collaborate towards the development. There’s an extraordinary opportunity for the establishment of public health research, through the primary consideration of major health problems and providing workable solutions that contribute to improve the existing situation. Overcoming health challenges undoubtedly lead to advance in sustainability in the twenty-first century, producing a social benefit, promoting the progress of humanity in technological and communicative processes, and equity. The competition between research groups should be understood as a mechanism for constructive approach with the ultimate aim to improve society. In turn, the latter must understand and appreciate the progress made through biomedical research, so an effort to scientific communication and

  13. Qualitative research in health

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia Regina Franco Sansigolo Kerr; Carl Kendall

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research and health has become extremely popular in the last 30 years. Since the 80’s, more and more health professionals have engaged in qualitative research. Discriminating a “qualitative research” from quantitative research, though, is a misnomer, since all research is at least part qualitative. After all, when epidemiologists or biostatisticians count something, that category is a qualitative “something”.

  14. The Electromagnetic Compatibility Research Group: research questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Román Campos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department’s Electromag- netic Compatibility Research Group (EMC-UNC activities during the last 30 years. The group was involved in developing experimental tools during the early 1980s, such as constructing high-voltage apparatus, developing high-voltage practical work for students and observing electrical discharges. These tools enabled the group to spend a decade focused on resolving one of the Colombian electrical sector’s main EMC problems: distribution transformer’s failures caused by lightning. For almost a decade this investigation was focused on understanding the causes of the extremely high failure index in Colombian rural areas, especially in the Rionegro basin. The main result of this investigation was a reduction by one order of magnitude in mean 10% distribution transformer failure rate. During this research work a noticeable pattern was observed of several electrically-isolated me- tallic bodies immersed in an electric field (i.e. floating electrodes. This was led to initiating floating electrode studies and for mulating a new scientific question, “How do corona electrical discharges interact with floating electrodes?” This new research question was dealt with during the second half of the 1990s and the first decade of the 2000s. This investigation was related to using electrostatically-accumulated charge on a floating electrode. This question opened up four research areas: gas discharge physics, generating fast current impulses, harvesting energy from the electric field and the possibility of high impedance current sources. This paper has summarised the most relevant work done by the EMC-UNC group on these topics. This floating electrode research work started by formulating four patents. Fresh research questions for the 2010s were related to measuring lightning electromagnetic pulses (LEMP, intentional electromagnetic

  15. Ames vision group research overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of the reseach group is to develop mathematical and computational models of early human vision. These models are valuable in the prediction of human performance, in the design of visual coding schemes and displays, and in robotic vision. To date researchers have models of retinal sampling, spatial processing in visual cortex, contrast sensitivity, and motion processing. Based on their models of early human vision, researchers developed several schemes for efficient coding and compression of monochrome and color images. These are pyramid schemes that decompose the image into features that vary in location, size, orientation, and phase. To determine the perceptual fidelity of these codes, researchers developed novel human testing methods that have received considerable attention in the research community. Researchers constructed models of human visual motion processing based on physiological and psychophysical data, and have tested these models through simulation and human experiments. They also explored the application of these biological algorithms to applications in automated guidance of rotorcraft and autonomous landing of spacecraft. Researchers developed networks for inhomogeneous image sampling, for pyramid coding of images, for automatic geometrical correction of disordered samples, and for removal of motion artifacts from unstable cameras.

  16. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  17. The impact of Cochrane Reviews: a mixed-methods evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the National Institute for Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha; Alderson, Phil; Hamilton, Laura; Martin, Alice; Pinkney, Emma; Iliffe, Steve

    2015-04-01

    The last few decades have seen a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by Cochrane, have been a key component of this movement. The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs) in the UK and it is important that this funding represents value for money. The overall aim was to identify the impacts and likely impacts on health care, patient outcomes and value for money of Cochrane Reviews published by 20 NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007-11. We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, undertook interviews with guideline developers (GDs) and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane Reviews. The evaluation was guided by a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). A total of 3187 new and updated reviews were published on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews between 2007 and 2011, 1502 (47%) of which were produced by the 20 CRGs funded by the NIHR. We found 40 examples where reviews appeared to have influenced primary research and reviews had contributed to the creation of new knowledge and stimulated debate. Twenty-seven of the 60 reviews had 100 or more citations in Google Scholar™ (Google, CA, USA). Overall, 483 systematic reviews had been cited in 247 sets of guidance. This included 62 sets of international guidance, 175 sets of national guidance (87 from the UK) and 10 examples of local guidance. Evidence from the interviews suggested that Cochrane Reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although reviews being a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and GDs were barriers to their use. Cochrane Reviews appeared to have led

  18. Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desegregating health statistics and health research in South Africa. ... group'. as defined dUring apartheid in South Africa, represents a valid political concept ... is likely to ~sult in extensive \\ socio-economic and geographical migration that will ...

  19. Health Research Information Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Health Research Information Tracking System (HRIT) is an expansion of the Child Health Research database that collects and maintains categorization, description,...

  20. The impact of Cochrane Systematic Reviews: a mixed method evaluation of outputs from Cochrane Review Groups supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a growing emphasis on evidence-informed decision-making in health care. Systematic reviews, such as those produced by the Cochrane Collaboration, have been a key component of this movement. The UK National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Systematic Review Programme currently supports 20 Cochrane Review Groups (CRGs). The aim of this study was to identify the impacts of Cochrane reviews published by NIHR-funded CRGs during the years 2007–2011. Methods We sent questionnaires to CRGs and review authors, interviewed guideline developers and used bibliometrics and documentary review to get an overview of CRG impact and to evaluate the impact of a sample of 60 Cochrane reviews. We used a framework with four categories (knowledge production, research targeting, informing policy development and impact on practice/services). Results A total of 1,502 new and updated reviews were produced by the 20 NIHR-funded CRGs between 2007 and 2011. The clearest impacts were on policy with a total of 483 systematic reviews cited in 247 sets of guidance: 62 were international, 175 national (87 from the UK) and 10 local. Review authors and CRGs provided some examples of impact on practice or services, for example, safer use of medication, the identification of new effective drugs or treatments and potential economic benefits through the reduction in the use of unproven or unnecessary procedures. However, such impacts are difficult to objectively document, and the majority of reviewers were unsure if their review had produced specific impacts. Qualitative data suggested that Cochrane reviews often play an instrumental role in informing guidance, although a poor fit with guideline scope or methods, reviews being out of date and a lack of communication between CRGs and guideline developers were barriers to their use. Conclusions Health and economic impacts of research are generally difficult to measure. We found that to be the case with this evaluation

  1. [Effectiveness of smoking cessation in group-based behavioral treatment in association to health status and motivation of participants--own research findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broszkiewicz, Marzenna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of behavioral treatments compare favorably with the pharmacotherapies and community-based interventions. Group-based behavioral programs have been scientifically proven as the effective smoking cessation intervention. Aim of the study was identifying predictors of the efficacy of smoking cessation in health factors: health status and motivation and doctor's advice. Program is a multicomponent group-based behavioral intervention with the elements recommended by the US Public Health Service as the most effective. 517 smokers were included into the program in the outpatient clinic setting in years 2001-2007. A point prevalence abstinence (PPA) was estimated by self-reported smoking cessation. Three homogeneous groups of patients according to their status health were established: participants with tobacco-related diseases n = 182, with psychiatric disorders n = 101 and healthy ones n = 150. 59.6% of participants stopped smoking during four-week program. Program was effective in smoking cessation both for sick and healthy participants. Motivational factors, among others health motivation did not distinguish for whole population as well as for participants with tobacco-related diseases. Lack of doctor's advice increased efficacy of smoking cessation both for the whole population and for group with tobacco-related diseases. Nor health status and motivation neither doctor's advice were predictors of behavioral group-based treatment for tobacco smokers.

  2. Stimulating innovative research in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Annie; Potvin, Louise

    2013-06-01

    The Global Working Group on Health Promotion Research (GWG HPR) of the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) presents a collection of four articles illustrating innovative avenues for health promotion research. This commentary synthesizes the contributions of these articles while attempting to define the contours of research in health promotion. We propose that innovation in research involves the adoption of a reflexive approach wherein consideration of context plays different roles. The reflexive process consists of questioning what is taken for granted in the conceptualization and operationalization of research. It involves linking research findings and its theoretical foundations to characteristics and goals of the field and observed realities, while orienting reflection on specific objects. The reflexive nature of the research activity is of paramount importance for innovation in health promotion. With the publication of this series, the GWG HPR wishes to strengthen health promotion research capacity at the global level and reaffirm health promotion as a specific research domain.

  3. Management of a research group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chard, T

    1991-01-01

    It is generally believed that research and commerce are unique and different activities. However, the criteria of good business management can also be applied to research programmes, with much benefit to the latter. The objectives of both are fundamentally similar: in one case to produce goods and services, in the other to produce scientific papers. The most successful goods and services, and scientific projects, are those which are closely geared to the desires of consumers--whether the latter be the general public or large organisations. Science, like business, requires good leadership and good people-management. The characteristics of a successful science leader are often remarkably similar to those of a business leader. Individuals within any team must be carefully selected, adequately briefed, and then allowed to proceed with the job in hand. Obtaining resources for scientific research is also very similar to the funding of business activities--all come down to competition between different products and services. The end product of scientific research--the published paper--requires marketing in exactly the same way as a business product. Without such marketing the programme is almost always a failure. The effectiveness of a research programme must be monitored with the same care as would be devoted to a business. If research performance does not reach reasonably defined criteria, then resources are generally withdrawn--the equivalent of a bankruptcy in commerce.

  4. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  5. Indigenous Men Taking Their Rightful Place in Society? A Preliminary Analysis of a Participatory Action Research Process with Yarrabah Men's Health Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsey, Komla; Patterson, David; Whiteside, Mary; Baird, Leslie; Baird, Bradley

    2002-01-01

    A participatory action research process was used to support an Aboriginal men's group in Queensland (Australia). Using a reflective approach, the men's group defined principles and values to which they aspired, then identified four strategies to enable them to become constructive members of the community: personal development, employment,…

  6. Translational Researchers' Perceptions of Data Management Practices and Data Curation Needs: Findings from a Focus Group in an Academic Health Sciences Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardyn, Tania P.; Resnick, Taryn; Camina, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    How translational researchers use data is becoming an important support function for libraries to understand. Libraries' roles in this increasingly complex area of Web librarianship are often unclearly defined. The authors conducted two focus groups with physicians and researchers at an academic medical center, the UCLA David Geffen School of…

  7. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS IN MULTI-SITE, MULTI-ETHNIC RESEARCH PROJECTS FOR WOMEN’S HEALTH: A STUDY OF WOMEN ACROSS THE NATION (SWAN) EXAMPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Adler, Shelley R.; Mouton, Charles P.; Ory, Marcia; Underwood, Lynne G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To outline the lessons learned about the use of focus groups for the multi-site, multi-ethnic longitudinal Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Focus groups were designed to identify potential cultural differences in the incidence of symptoms and the meaning of transmenopause among women of diverse cultures, and to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies. Design Inductive and deductive focus groups for a multi-ethnic study. Setting Seven community research sites across the United States conducted focus groups with six ethnic populations: African American, Chinese American, Japanese American, Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican. Patients or Participants Community women from each ethnic group of color. Interventions A set of four/five focus groups in each ethnic group as the formative stage of the deductive, quantitative SWAN survey. Main Outcome Measures Identification of methodological advantages and challenges to the successful implementation of formative focus groups in a multi-ethnic, multi-site population-based epidemiologic study. Results We provide recommendations from our lessons learned to improve the use of focus groups in future studies with multi-ethnic populations. Conclusions Mixed methods using inductive and deductive approaches require the scientific integrity of both research paradigms. Adequate resources and time must be budgeted as essential parts of the overall strategy from the outset of study. Inductive cross-cultural researchers should be key team members, beginning with inception through each subsequent design phase to increase the scientific validity, generalizability, and comparability of the results across diverse ethnic groups, to assure the relevance, validity and applicability of the findings to the multicultural population of focus. PMID:19769020

  8. The Heritage Harbour Health Group: doing it our way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, M S

    1998-01-01

    The Heritage Harbour Health Group is a privately run, nonprofit health care organization founded by the residents of a retirement community for their own use. Such a facility is an original concept, and this article describes how home health care is being provided with a unique blend of professional and volunteer cooperation. Health care professionals may find information and inspiration to conduct their own research into similar programs.

  9. Virology Interest Group | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Virology Interest Group comprises researchers at NIH and in the local area who are interested in virology. The group organizes activities designed to promote interactions and exchange of information.

  10. Mixed Methodology in Group Research: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura R.; Barden, Sejal M.; McDonald, C. Peeper

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is a useful paradigm for group work as it allows exploration of both participant outcomes and "how" or "why" such changes occur. Unfortunately, the group counseling literature is not replete with MMR studies. This article reviews the application of MMR to group contexts and summarizes the corpus of…

  11. Energy Innovation. IVO Group`s Research and Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  12. Energy Innovation. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S.; Fletcher, R. [eds.

    1997-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  13. Energy Innovation. IVO Group`s Research and Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  14. Native Health Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... APP WITH JAVASCRIPT TURNED OFF. THE NATIVE HEALTH DATABASE REQUIRES JAVASCRIPT IN ORDER TO FUNCTION. PLEASE ENTER ... To learn more about searching the Native Health Database, click here. Keywords Title Author Source of Publication ...

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines ... Submission of Manuscript: The International Journal of Health Research uses a journal management ... tablet manufacturing because the process avoids.

  16. Social support network typologies and health outcomes of older people in low and middle income countries--a 10/66 Dementia Research Group population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran A; Prince, Martin; Webber, Martin

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to assess the construct validity of the Wenger social support network typology in low and middle income countries. We hypothesize that, in comparison with the integrated network type, the non-integrated network type is associated with loneliness, depression, poor quality of life (less happiness), poor self-reported health, increased disability and higher care needs. Cross-sectional one-phase surveys were conducted of all residents aged 65 and over in catchment areas in eight low and middle income countries (India, China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Puerto Rico). Wenger's Practitioner Assessment of Network Type (PANT) was used to measure social network type. Family dependent, local self-contained, wider community-focused and private restricted network types were considered non-integrated, in comparison to the locally integrated network type. Overall, 17,031 participants were interviewed. Family dependent and locally integrated network types were the most prevalent. Adjusted pooled estimates across sites showed that loneliness, depression, less happiness, poor health, disability, and need for care were significantly associated with non-integrated network type. The findings of this study support the construct validity of Wenger's network typology in low and middle income countries. However, further research is required to test the criterion validity of Wenger typology using longitudinal data. Identifying older people who are vulnerable could inform the development of social care interventions to support older people and their families in the context of deteriorating health.

  17. The Influence of Setting on Findings Produced in Qualitative Health Research: A Comparison between Face-to-Face and Online Discussion Groups about HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guendalina Graffigna

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors focus their analysis in this article on online focus groups (FGs, in an attempt to describe how the setting shapes the conversational features of the discussion and influences data construction. Starting from a review of current dominant viewpoints, they compare face-to-face discussion groups with different formats of online FGs about AIDS, from a discourse analysis perspective. They conducted 2 face-to-face FGs, 2 chats, 2 forums, and 2 forums+plus+chat involving 64 participants aged 18 to 25 and living in Italy. Their findings seem not only to confirm the hypothesis of a general difference between a face-to-face discussion setting and an Internet-mediated one but also reveal differences among the forms of online FG, in terms of both the thematic articulation of discourse and the conversational and relational characteristics of group exchange, suggesting that exchanges on HIV/AIDS are characterized by the setting. This characterization seems to be important for situating the choice of tool, according to research objectives, and for better defining the technical aspects of the research project.

  18. Group therapy in public mental health services: approaches, patients and group therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, S; Ruud, T

    2014-04-01

    Group therapy is used extensively within public mental health services, but more detailed knowledge is needed. All 25 health authorities in Norway were invited to describe their groups: theory, primary tasks, interventions, structure, patients and therapists. Four hundred twenty-six groups, 296 in community mental health centres and 130 in hospitals, were categorized into nine types, based on theoretical background. Psychodynamic groups were most frequent, followed by cognitive-behavioural, psycho-educative, social skills/coping and art/expressive groups. Weekly sessions of 90 min and treatment duration 12 months was most frequent. Main diagnosis for 2391 patients: depression (517), personality disorder (396), schizophrenia/psychosis (313) and social phobia (249). Patients with depression or personality disorder were mostly in psychodynamic groups, psychosis/bipolar disorder in psycho-educative groups. Cognitive-behavioural groups were used across several diagnoses. Most therapists were nurses, only 50% had a formal training in group therapy. There is a plethora of groups, some based on one theoretical school, while others integrate theory from several 'camps'. Patients with similar diagnosis were offered different group approaches, although some trends existed. More research evidence from regular clinical groups is needed, and clinician-researcher networks should be developed. More group therapists with formal training are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Health Information Literacy Research Project*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz-Rossi, Sabrina; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This research studied hospital administrators' and hospital-based health care providers' (collectively, the target group) perceived value of consumer health information resources and of librarians' roles in promoting health information literacy in their institutions. Methods: A web-based needs survey was developed and administered to hospital administrators and health care providers. Multiple health information literacy curricula were developed. One was pilot-tested by nine hospital libraries in the United States and Canada. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the curriculum and its impact on the target group. Results: A majority of survey respondents believed that providing consumer health information resources was critically important to fulfilling their institutions' missions and that their hospitals could improve health information literacy by increasing awareness of its impact on patient care and by training staff to become more knowledgeable about health literacy barriers. The study showed that a librarian-taught health information literacy curriculum did raise awareness about the issue among the target group and increased both the use of National Library of Medicine consumer health resources and referrals to librarians for health information literacy support. Conclusions: It is hoped that many hospital administrators and health care providers will take the health information literacy curricula and recognize that librarians can educate about the topic and that providers will use related consumer health services and resources. PMID:19851494

  20. The health information literacy research project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Jean P; Kurtz-Rossi, Sabrina; Funk, Carla J

    2009-10-01

    This research studied hospital administrators' and hospital-based health care providers' (collectively, the target group) perceived value of consumer health information resources and of librarians' roles in promoting health information literacy in their institutions. A web-based needs survey was developed and administered to hospital administrators and health care providers. Multiple health information literacy curricula were developed. One was pilot-tested by nine hospital libraries in the United States and Canada. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to evaluate the curriculum and its impact on the target group. A majority of survey respondents believed that providing consumer health information resources was critically important to fulfilling their institutions' missions and that their hospitals could improve health information literacy by increasing awareness of its impact on patient care and by training staff to become more knowledgeable about health literacy barriers. The study showed that a librarian-taught health information literacy curriculum did raise awareness about the issue among the target group and increased both the use of National Library of Medicine consumer health resources and referrals to librarians for health information literacy support. It is hoped that many hospital administrators and health care providers will take the health information literacy curricula and recognize that librarians can educate about the topic and that providers will use related consumer health services and resources.

  1. [Nursing education research groups in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Lino, Mônica Motta; Ferraz, Fabiane; Reibnitz, Kenya Schmidt; Canever, Bruna Pedroso

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the organization of nursing education research groups in Brazil. This is a quantitative, descriptive and documentary study. Census data for 2006 were collected from the CNPq database website. Brazil has 47 education research groups, comprised of 412 researchers, of whom 91% have masters, doctoral or postdoctoral degrees. There are 307 students, of whom 92% are nursing undergraduates. However, only 9% are recipients of young investigator grants. There are also 112 technicians, of whom 75% are nursing professionals; 46% have a masters or doctoral degree. In Brazil, there are a considerable number of nursing education research groups, which contribute significantly to scientific production of nursing knowledge in Latin America. In this scenario, there are many challenges to be overcome: poor interdisciplinary cooperation; limited integration between education and practice; low number of grants awarded to young investigators and significant inequalities between the country's geographic regions in terms of access to research development.

  2. Researching Group Assessment: Jazz in the Conservatoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Elisabeth; Moore, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of research into methods and scorings for jazz assessment in Trinity College of Music, London, focusing on the possibility of introducing group assessment. It considers the advantages of group assessment methods, contrasting these with the more traditional approach, firmly established in conservatoires, of…

  3. Research Assistant Training Manual: Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This manual is a practical training guide for graduate and undergraduate research assistants (RAs) working in the Werklund School of Education, University of Calgary. It may also be applicable to research assistants working in other fields or institutions. The purpose of this manual is to train RAs on how to plan and conduct focus groups for…

  4. [Qualitative research in health services research - discussion paper, Part 2: Qualitative research in health services research in Germany - an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, U; Stamer, M; Holmberg, C; Güthlin, C; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2012-08-01

    This is the second part of a 3-part discussion paper by the working group on "Qualitative Methods" in the German network of health services research (DNVF) that shall contribute to the development of a memorandum concerning qualitative health services research. It aims to depict the different types of qualitative research that are conducted in health services research in Germany. In addition, the authors present a specific set of qualitative data collection and analysis tools to demonstrate the potential of qualitative research for health services research. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH IN HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH - AN OVERVIEW: To give an overview of the types of qualitative research conducted in German health services research, the abstracts of the 8th German Conference on Health Services Research were filtered to identify qualitative or mixed-methods studies. These were then analysed by looking at the context which was studied, who was studied, the aims of the studies, and what type of methods were used. Those methods that were mentioned most often for data collection and analysis are described in detail. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH AT THE CONFERENCE FOR HEALTH SERVICES RESEARCH 2009: Approximately a fifth of all abstracts (n=74) had a qualitative (n=47) or a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative methods (n=27). Research aims included needs assessment (41%), survey development (36%), evaluation (22%), and theorizing (1%). Data collection mostly consisted of one-on-one interviews (n=45) and group discussions (n=29). Qualitative content analysis was named in 35 abstracts, 30 abstracts did not reference their method of analysis. In addition to a quantitative summary of the abstract findings, the diversity of fields addressed by qualitative methods is highlighted. Although drawing conclusions on the use of qualitative methods in German health services research from the analysis of conference abstracts is not possible, the overview we present demonstrates the

  5. Research and health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Suleiman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare investment is critically important for thehealth and well-being of the population, and differenthealth systems are developed to meet the needs andpriorities of each country. What has become clear hasbeen that despite major advances in medicine, scienceand technology, there are major issues related toaccess and equity as well as quality and patient safetyin healthcare services. The issue of patient safety washighlighted by the reports of the Institute of Medicine,USA1,2 and this had received worldwide attention.It is also an irony that despite being in an age ofmajor advances in medicine, science and technology,with the acceptance of evidence-based medicine,so much of medicine and healthcare delivered is oflittle or no proven value. This poses a major challengeon health policy, and on how this can be addressed inany health reform process that focuses on improvingaccess, equity, efficiency and effectiveness in healthcareservices.

  6. A psychodrama group for health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J; Walsh, S

    Although much has been written about psychodrama as a therapeutic and educational method with patients, there is little evidence of its effectiveness as an activity for professional clinicians. The authors describe how the basic elements, phases and techniques of psychodrama have been used with groups of health workers to improve their clinical performance and personal life. The therapy has important applications in helping staff come to terms with the emotional stresses of their work with patients.

  7. The Group Oral Health Movement in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Chaves, Sonia Cristina de Lima; Rossi, Thais Regis Aranha; Barros, Sandra Garrido; Cruz, Denise Nogueira

    2017-06-01

    Group Oral Health (GOH) is a specific phenomenon in time, separate from other "Alternative Odontology", and a theoretical reference for dental practice in healthcare services. This study is an attempt to understand how long "Alternative Odontology" will remain with the social context of struggling for oral health in Brazil, based on the positions of the founding agents and their precursors, bearing in mind the concepts of GOH, GH (Group Health) and the SUS (Unified Healthcare System). We started out with Pierre Bourdieu's Practice Theory, complemented with Gramsci's concept of hegemony and counter-hegemony. We completed 12 in-depth interviews, reviewed the literature and analyzed the scientific output. We also looked at the trajectories of the agents and their capital between 1980 and 2013. The results show that the concept of GOC and GH as a breach with health practices, which gave rise to "Alternative Odontology", prevailed among those with the political will to defend democracy and Healthcare Reforms. Although GOC is a critical proposal, the older "Odontology" remains in scientific journals, and in the practice of oral care.

  8. Continuing education in the family health strategy: rethinking educational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Matumoto, Silvia; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa; Camargo-Borges, Celiane; Kawata, Lauren Suemi; Mishima, Silvana Martins

    2013-01-01

    to analyze the experience of the family health team in resignifying the way to develop educational groups. groups of discussion, with twenty-six biweekly group meetings conducted, with an average of fifteen professionals from the family health team, during the year 2009. The empirical material consisted of the transcription of the groups, on which thematic analysis was performed. two themes were developed and explored from the collective discussions with the team: "The experience and coordination of the groups" and "The work process and educational groups in a service-school". continuing Education in Health developed with the team, not only permitted learning about the educational groups that comprised the population, but also contributed to the team's analysis of its own relationships and its work process that is traversed by institutions. This study contributed to the advancement of scientific knowledge about the process of continuing health education as well as educational groups with the population. Also noteworthy is the research design used, providing reflexivity and critical analysis on the part of the team about the group process experienced in the meetings, appropriating knowledge in a meaningful and transformative manner.

  9. Virtual Focus Groups: New Frontiers in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Turney

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies in the form of learning management systems provide unique and inventive opportunities for qualitative researchers. Their intrinsic ability to record discursive data in text format accurately and to provide safe, secure, and anonymous environments for participants makes them amenable for use as advanced research tools. In this article, the authors report on a collaborative project that tested the potential of online discussion boards for use in virtual focus groups. What the researchers found was that not only was the method theoretically sound, it actually enhanced their ability to connect with difficult-to-access populations that were disparately spread.

  10. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and full-text ... was evaluated by the assay of liver function biochemical ..... Tietz T. Text Book of Clinical Chemistry, W.B..

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-29

    Dec 29, 2009 ... The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to abstract and ..... the regeneration process and production of ... Lipid peroxidation in fatty liver induced by caffeine.

  12. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront is the migrat...

  13. Twitter and Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Twitter is a communication platform that can be used to conduct health science research, but a full understanding of its use remains unclear. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to examine how Twitter is currently being used to conduct research in the health sciences and to consider how it might be used in the future. A time-limited search of the health-related research was conducted, which resulted in 31 peer-reviewed articles for review. Information relating to how Twitter is being used to conduct research was extracted and categorized, and an explanatory narrative was developed. To date, Twitter is largely being used to conduct large-scale studies, but this research is complicated by challenges relating to collecting and analyzing big data. Conversely, the use of Twitter to conduct small-scale investigations appears to be relatively unexplored.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    ... African Journal. Online, African Index Medicus, Open-J-Gate, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) databases ... Commentary. Encouraging Volunteer Participation in Health Research: ... contribution to research. ... Volunteering is the essence of the scholarly work ... the human resources used in social services [11].

  15. Benefit sharing in health research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... [4] Those who contribute to scientific research ought to share ... 2 Managing director; Right to Care, Department of Medicine, Clinical HIV Research Unit, Internal Medicine ..... boration with the United Nations and the World Health Organization ... a benefitsharing model that tempers (not diminish) commercial.

  16. Group health coaching: strengths, challenges, and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Colin; Wolever, Ruth Q; Manning, Linda; Elam, Roy; Moore, Margaret; Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Duskey, Heidi; Anderson, Chelsea; Curtis, Rebecca L; Masemer, Susan; Lawson, Karen

    2013-05-01

    There is great need for cost effective approaches to increase patient engagement and improve health and well-being. Health and wellness coaching has recently demonstrated great promise, but the majority of studies to date have focused on individual coaching (ie, one coach with one client). Newer initiatives are bringing a group coaching model from corporate leadership development and educational settings into the healthcare arena. A group approach potentially increases cost-effective access to a larger number of clients and brings the possible additional benefit of group support. This article highlights some of the group coaching approaches currently being conducted across the United States. The group coaching interventions included in this overview are offered by a variety of academic and private sector institutions, use both telephonic and in-person coaching, and are facilitated by professionally trained health and wellness coaches as well as trained peer coaches. Strengths and challenges experienced in these efforts are summarized, as are recommendations to address those challenges. A working definition of "Group Health and Wellness Coaching" is proposed, and important next steps for research and for the training of group coaches are presented.

  17. Reporting guidelines in health research: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Arun K; Rao, Ashwini; Rajesh, Gururaghavendran; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Mithun B

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary health research has come under close scrutiny, exposing alarming flaws in the reporting of research. The reporting guidelines can aid in identification of poorly reported studies and can bring transparency to health research. The guidelines also help journal editors, peer reviewers, funding agencies, and readers to better discern health research. Reporting guidelines encourage accurate and thorough reporting of fundamental aspects of health research so that the results of studies can be replicated by others. Reporting guidelines are potent tools to improve the practice of research and in reducing reporting bias. For the present review, both electronic and manual literature search was carried out. Electronic databases like PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO host, and Science Direct were searched for extracting relevant articles. Various key words and their combinations were used for literature search like reporting guidelines, checklist, research, publishing standards, study design, medicine, and dentistry. The search results were scrutinized for relevance to the topic and only full text articles in English were incorporated. Various reporting guidelines were identified and grouped under headings based on study design. This review article attempts to highlight the various reporting guidelines in literature relating to health research, its potential applications, and its limitations.

  18. Cultural reflexivity in health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronowitz, Robert; Deener, Andrew; Keene, Danya; Schnittker, Jason; Tach, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Recent public health movements have invoked cultural change to improve health and reduce health disparities. We argue that these cultural discourses have sometimes justified and maintained health inequalities when those with power and authority designated their own social practices as legitimate and healthy while labeling the practices of marginalized groups as illegitimate or unhealthy. This "misrecognition," which creates seemingly objective knowledge without understanding historical and social conditions, sustains unequal power dynamics and obscures the fact that what is deemed legitimate and healthy can be temporally, geographically, and socially relative. We use examples from research across multiple disciplines to illustrate the potential consequences of cultural misrecognition, highlight instances in which culture was invoked in ways that overcame misrecognition, and discuss how cultural reflexivity can be used to improve health research and practice.

  19. Transnational corporations and health: a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Frances Elaine; Margaret Anaf, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Transnational corporations (TNCs) are part of an economic system of global capitalism that operates under a neoliberal regime underpinned by strong support from international organisations such as the World Trade Organization, World Bank, and most nation states. Although TNCs have grown in power and influence and have had a significant impact on population health over the past three decades, public health has not developed an integrated research agenda to study them. This article outlines the shape of such an agenda and argues that it is vital that research into the public health impact of TNCs be pursued and funded as a matter of priority. The four areas of the agenda are: assessing the health and equity impacts of TNCs; evaluating the effectiveness of government regulation to mitigate health and equity impacts of TNCs; studying the work of activist groups and networks that highlight adverse impacts of TNCs; and considering how regulation of capitalism could better promote a healthier and more equitable corporate sector.

  20. Crafting the group: Care in research management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Sarah R; Horst, Maja

    2015-06-01

    This article reports findings from an interview study with group leaders and principal investigators in Denmark, the United Kingdom and the United States. Taking as our starting point current interest in the need to enhance 'responsible research and innovation', we suggest that these debates can be developed through attention to the talk and practices of scientists. Specifically, we chart the ways in which interview talk represented research management and leadership as processes of caring craftwork. Interviewees framed the group as the primary focus of their attention (and responsibilities), and as something to be tended and crafted; further, this process required a set of affective skills deployed flexibly in response to the needs of individuals. Through exploring the presence of notions of care in the talk of principal investigators and group leaders, we discuss the relation between care and craft, reflect on the potential implications of the promotion of a culture of care and suggest how mundane scientific understandings of responsibility might relate to a wider discussion of responsible research and innovation.

  1. Research groups: How big should they be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Cook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between scientific productivity and research group size is important for deciding how science should be funded. We have investigated the relationship between these variables in the life sciences in the United Kingdom using data from 398 principle investigators (PIs. We show that three measures of productivity, the number of publications, the impact factor of the journals in which papers are published and the number of citations, are all positively correlated to group size, although they all show a pattern of diminishing returns—doubling group size leads to less than a doubling in productivity. The relationships for the impact factor and the number of citations are extremely weak. Our analyses suggest that an increase in productivity will be achieved by funding more PIs with small research groups, unless the cost of employing post-docs and PhD students is less than 20% the cost of a PI. We also provide evidence that post-docs are more productive than PhD students both in terms of the number of papers they produce and where those papers are published.

  2. Could Ethical Tensions in Oral Healthcare Management Revealed by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Caregivers Explain Unmet Oral Health Needs? Participatory Research with Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaizot, Alessandra; Hamel, Olivier; Folliguet, Marysette; Herve, Christian; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Trentesaux, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cognitively impaired patients often present poor oral health status that may be explained by ethical tensions in oral healthcare management. This participatory study explored such tensions among adults with intellectual disabilities and with caregivers. The second objective was to specify, with caregivers, the points that should be…

  3. Comparison of legislation, regulations and national health strategies for palliative care in seven European countries (Results from the Europall Research Group): a descriptive study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, K.; Woitha, K.; Ahmed, N.; Menten, J.; Jaspers, B.; Engels, Y.; Ahmedzai, S.H.; Vissers, K.; Hasselaar, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to EU policy, anyone in need of palliative care should be able to have access to it. It is therefore important to investigate which palliative care topics are subject to legislation and regulations in Europe and how these are implemented in (national) health care plans. This pa

  4. [Epistemology as health research propedeutics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Calvo, Manuel; Román Torres, Pilar; Lapetra Peralta, José

    2011-01-01

    The present article advocates the need for epistemological training prior to the study of biostatistics and epidemiology. Taking Plato as the starting point, we reached this conclusion after analysis of the paradigm problems affecting biostatistics and the connotations of causality and research time in major epidemiological designs. External validity is intimately linked to the philosophical problem of induction. Evidence-based health could be renamed as "neopositive health" and could possibly have a French origin.

  5. Vulnerable participants in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Helle Merete; Nanna, Kappel

    2011-01-01

    and leave both professionals and researchers in ethical and moral dilemmas. In the article we specifically focus on the methodological challenges of obtaining informed consent from drug users and terminally ill cancer patients in our PhD-research. The question is how you can illuminate the needs......Ethical guidelines for conducting research are embedded in the Helsinki declaration of 1964. We contend that these abstract and intentionally universal guidelines need to be appropriated for social and health care research in which purpose and methods often deviate from medical research....... The guidelines appear to be instrumental and over simplistic representations of the often ´messy´ realities surrounding the research process which is often guided by relational and local negotiations of ethical solutions. Vulnerable participants, for instance, challenge both professional and research ethics...

  6. Revisiting the use of focus group in social research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Freidin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodological reflections on focus groups presented in this article draw from a research project on middle-class people living in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. The study addresses health discourses and practices in the contemporary scenario characterized by the diversification of specialists, the growing media coverage of recommendations of healthy living and wellbeing, the implementation of public policies on health promotion, and the expansion of the industry of related products and services.  The objective of the article is to reflect, based on our fieldwork experience, on two aspects that have received special attention in the recent methodological literature: the criteria to compose the groups and their consequences on the conversational dynamic, and the strategies to account for the group interaction in data analysis. Included in the latter, we explore the potential of GF research to observe health identity work. We frame our study and the decisions about design issues into the current debates on the variety of uses of the research group methodology.

  7. General Health of Foreign-Origin Groups and Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardian, Nahid; Mahmoudabad, Seyed Saeid Mazloomy; Ardian, Mahdi; Karimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the mental health of marginal settlers (non-native population) may affect other citizens’ health, the present study attempts to investigate the mental health status of marginal settlers of Yazd. Materials and Methods: this study was a descriptive, cross-sectional research, in which 400 of non-native and native population have participated. To study mental health status of people, a questionnaire was used. The first section of this questionnaire was the 28-item questionnaire of GHQ and the second section dealt with demographic characteristics such as age, sex, employment status, household income, and educational level of the father of the family. The collected data was analyzed using statistical operations of Pearson correlation coefficient, T Student, univariate Anova, and non-parametric Chi Square. Results: The results revealed that the average scores of general health were 20.09±9.84 and 17.04±9.54 for native and non-native population, respectively. Among subscales of general health, the highest and lowest average scores belonged to social dysfunctions, which showed a dangerous mental health status, and depression, respectively. There was significant difference between average score of general health and educational level of the father of the family (p<.001). The temporary employment and leased household differs significantly from the average score of general health among native population. It was indicated that sex was one of the most powerful predictors of mental health and people had more mental health when they grew older. Anxiety was the strongest predictor of general health for both groups. Conclusion: It seems that background factors such as educational level and employment status effect general health of people more than living in marginal settlement. PMID:25168986

  8. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  9. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The International Journal of Health Research is an online international journal allowing free unlimited access to ... Those of high quality (not previously ... Quick service and ... taste, satisfaction with service and the perceived ... private hospitals, the quality of services, the .... correctly filled, returned and therefore analyzed.

  10. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research.

  11. Women's groups' perceptions of neonatal and infant health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infant health problems (204 groups, 3484 women), prioritised problems they ... hospitals, seven health centres that provide maternity care and three .... English speaker). ... Verbal consent was given by the groups for the data collected through ...

  12. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  13. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.

  14. Research on American Psychological Health Service Based on Different Groups of People%基于不同人群的美国心理健康服务研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晶红

    2014-01-01

    采用文献资料和逻辑分析等方法,对美国心理健康服务研究中与不同人群相关的文献进行总结与分析,以期从政策导向、服务模式、影响因素、资源利用和质量监管等方面,了解美国对不同人群提供心理健康服务的实践经验和理论成果。%By using the methods of literature and logical analysis, the literatures related to different groups of people in the re-searches on American psychological health service are summa-rized and analyzed, hoping to know about the practice experience and theoretical results of American psychological health service for different groups of people, from aspects such as policy orien-tation, service models, influencing factors, resource utilization , quality monitoring, and so on.

  15. Noise and health in vulnerable groups: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene van Kamp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable or susceptible groups are mentioned in most reviews and documents regarding noise and health. But only a few studies address this issue in a concrete and focused way. Groups at risk most often mentioned in the literature are children, the elderly, the chronically ill and people with a hearing impairment. The other categories encountered are those of sensitive persons, shiftworkers, people with mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia or autism, people suffering from tinnitus, and fetuses and neonates. The mechanism for this vulnerability has not been clearly described and relevant research has seldom focused on the health effects of noise in these groups in an integrated manner. This paper summarizes the outcomes and major conclusions of a systematic, qualitative review of studies over the past 5 years. This review was prepared for the 10 th Conference on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN, 2011. Evidence is reviewed describing effects, groups assumed to be at risk, and mechanisms pertaining to noise sensitivity and learned helplessness.

  16. Qualitative research and its place in health research in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Teijlingen, E; Simkhada, B; Porter, M; Simkhada, P; Pitchforth, E; Bhatta, P

    2011-01-01

    There has been a steady growth in recent decades in Nepal in health and health services research, much of it based on quantitative research methods. Over the same period international medical journals such as The Lancet, the British Medical Journal (BMJ), The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and the Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care and many more have published methods papers outlining and promoting qualitative methods. This paper argues in favour of more high-quality qualitative research in Nepal, either on its own or as part of a mixed-methods approach, to help strengthen the country's research capacity. After outlining the reasons for using qualitative methods, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the three main approaches: (a) observation; (b) in-depth interviews; and (c) focus groups. We also discuss issues around sampling, analysis, presentation of findings, reflexivity of the qualitative researcher and theory building, and highlight some misconceptions about qualitative research and mistakes commonly made.

  17. [Qualitative research in health services research - discussion paper, Part 1: What is the idea?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; Karbach, U; Holmberg, C; Güthlin, C; Patzelt, C; Stamer, M

    2012-08-01

    In this first part of a 3-part discussion paper the working group "Qualitative Methods" in the German Network of Health Services Research (DNVF) identifies the potentials and opportunities qualitative research methods provide for health services research. Many research questions relevant for health services research require the use of qualitative methods. However, the potential of and need for qualitative research in health services research has not yet received sufficient attention from funding bodies. We discuss the applicability and importance of qualitative research for the field of health services research. We then move on to describe the key characteristics of qualitative research that need to be taken into account in health services research. We discuss characteristics such as open-ended (qualitative) data, interpretation of meanings, the search for contradictions, closeness to everyday life, openness towards change or modification of the research question and processes in the context of health services research. To ensure a high-quality approach in qualitative methods for the health services research, sufficient competency in methods and appropriate settings that account for the peculiarities of qualitative methods need to be developed. These include an appropriate time frame and sufficient and qualified personnel to conduct qualitative research. Qualitative research is not a research paradigm in itself rather it comprises of many different and diverging approaches. The goal of this paper is to show the diversity of qualitative research methods, its importance for health services research, and to open up the discussion on strategies for integrating qualitative methods into health services research.

  18. The 2010 IADR--Geriatric Oral Research Group satellite meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Martin

    2012-09-01

    On 12 and 13 July, the 2010 IADR General Session satellite meeting of the IADR - Geriatric Oral Research Group (GORG) - was attended by around 60 participants in the beautiful surroundings of Sitges in the outskirts of Barcelona, Spain. The speakers reflected on the main topics 'Disparities and Expectations in Oral Healthcare: An Elderly Focus' and 'Risks and Benefits of Ageing with a Natural Dentition', which was followed by fruitful discussions in the auditorium and the jointly enjoyed meals. The Sitges meeting comprised lectures of distinguished speakers as well as poster presentations, which discussed and defined the situation of research in the field of gerodontology today as well as the development since the last GORG satellite symposium held on Vancouver Island in 1999. Despite enormous progress over the last 10 years, many important questions concerning economics, regulation, the implementation of oral health care, treatment protocols as well as general health implications of oral disease in the frail and elderly remain still unanswered.

  19. Public health law research: exploring law in public health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Burris, Scott; Hays, Scott

    2012-11-01

    The importance of law in the organization and operation of public health systems has long been a matter of interest to public health lawyers and practitioners, but empirical research on law as a factor in health system performance has been limited in quantity and sophistication. The emergence of Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research within a coordinated effort to strengthen public health research and practice has dramatically changed matters. This article introduces Public Health Law Research as an integral part of Public Health Systems and Services Research, discusses the challenges of integrating the 2 fields, and highlights 2 examples of current research that demonstrate the benefits of an integrated approach to improve the use of law in public health practice.

  20. National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Slideshow More Information on Women's Health Sex / Gender NIH Policy on Sex as a Biological Variable Questions & Answers ... Research Slideshow More Information on Women's Health Sex / Gender NIH Policy on Sex as a Biological Variable Questions & Answers ...

  1. Ethics reflection groups in community health services: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemoen, Lillian; Pedersen, Reidar

    2015-04-17

    Systematic ethics support in community health services in Norway is in the initial phase. There are few evaluation studies about the significance of ethics reflection on care. The aim of this study was to evaluate systematic ethics reflection in groups in community health (including nursing homes and residency), - from the perspectives of employees participating in the groups, the group facilitators and the service managers. The reflection groups were implemented as part of a research and development project. A mixed-methods design with qualitative focus group interviews, observations and written reports were used to evaluate. The study was conducted at two nursing homes, two home care districts and a residence for people with learning disabilities. Participants were employees, facilitators and service managers. The study was guided by ethical standard principles and was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. We found support for ethics reflection as a valuable measure to strengthen clinical practice. New and improved solutions, more cooperation between employees, and improved collaboration with patients and their families are some of the results. No negative experiences were found. Instead, the ethics reflection based on experiences and challenges in the workplace, was described as a win-win situation. The evaluation also revealed what is needed to succeed and useful tips for further development of ethics support in community health services. Ethics reflection groups focusing on ethical challenges from the participants' daily work were found to be significant for improved practice, collegial support and cooperation, personal and professional development among staff, facilitators and managers. Resources needed to succeed were managerial support, and anchoring ethics sessions in the routine of daily work.

  2. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 76 FR 46677 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ58 Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health... Center for Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services... with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group...

  4. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of

  5. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioec

  6. Exposure To Violence And Occupational Satisfaction Of Health Personnal In A Health Group Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcin Balci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, it evaluted that exposure to violence and effect of this exposure to occupational satisfaction of health personel in Melikgazi Health Group Area. Materials And Methods: This cross sectional and descriptive study was performed in April-May 2006. Sampling not planned, it assumed to reach all of health personel. Data were analysed using computer and chi square test were used for statistical analyses. Lesser than 0,05 values were accepted as statistically significant. Results: Of the research group 66,7 % were female and 33,3 % were male. Mean age was 34,48 ± 5,73 years. Of the study participants were working in health center, 80,4 % day time and 19,6 % in night time and mean duration of working was 11,99 ± 5,3 years. Of the study group 57,1 % were chosen profession willingly and 65,5 % of them didn’t want to their children chose same profession. Of the study group 68,2 % were thought their fare were not enough. Of the study group, 50,3 % were experinced verbal and/or physical violence with different degrees. Of the violence victims 63,6 % were working in night shift of health centers and most of them doctors. Conclusion: Exposure to violence during work effects the satisfaction negativeley. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 13-18

  7. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  8. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  9. Group Health Education in Inpatient Rehabilitation: Patients' Role Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C.; Ullrich, Antje; Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Group health education is an important aspect of medical rehabilitation. While interaction and active involvement are important characteristics of group health education, little is known about patients' understanding of their role in this form of education. This study explored patients' understanding of their role in group health…

  10. Health Insurance Competition : The Effect of Group Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Douven, R.C.M.H.; Droge, C.; Mosca, I.

    2010-01-01

    In countries like the US and the Netherlands health insurance is provided by private firms. These private firms can offer both individual and group contracts. The strategic and welfare implications of such group contracts are not well understood. Using a Dutch data set of about 700 group health insu

  11. Groups That Work: Student Achievement in Group Research Projects and Effects on Individual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Renee

    2017-01-01

    Group research projects frequently are used to teach undergraduate research methods. This study uses multivariate analyses to examine the characteristics of higher-achieving groups (those that earn higher grades on group research projects) and to estimate the effects of participating in higher-achieving groups on subsequent individual learning…

  12. Qualitative research methods in drug abuse research: discussing the potential use of focus group in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Beatriz Carlini-Cotrim

    1996-01-01

    Descreve-se e discute-se o grupo focal, método qualitativo de coleta de dados de ampla aplicação na Saúde Pública. Especial ênfase é conferida às potencialidades do uso do grupo focal em investigações, na área de abuso de drogas.The focus group, a qualitative research method useful for Public Health investigation, is described and discussed. The potential application of the focus group method in drug abuse research in Brazil is emphasized.

  13. Productive Group Work for Students. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    There is clear evidence that students who are involved in productive collaborative groups outperform their peers. Cooperative group work also results in improved self-esteem, improved relationships and enhanced social and decision-making skills. Johnson and Johnson (1993) identified the elements of a successful collaborative activity. They include…

  14. Remote sensing information sciences research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under this grant was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing activities at the University of California, Santa Barbara in the areas of georeferenced information systems, matching assisted information extraction from image data and large spatial data bases, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. The research thrusts during the past year are summarized. The projects are discussed in some detail.

  15. Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them. PMID:10444876

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Knowledge and Perceptions of E-Health and Telemedicine. Int J Health ... engineering fields). ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ..... them had a formal computer training.

  17. A Research Agenda for Humanitarian Health Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Matthew; Schwartz, Lisa; Pringle, John; Boulanger, Renaud; Nouvet, Elysée; O'Mathúna, Dónal; Arya, Neil; Bernard, Carrie; Beukeboom, Carolyn; Calain, Philippe; de Laat, Sonya; Eckenwiler, Lisa; Elit, Laurie; Fraser, Veronique; Gillespie, Leigh-Anne; Johnson, Kirsten; Meagher, Rachel; Nixon, Stephanie; Olivier, Catherine; Pakes, Barry; Redwood-Campbell, Lynda; Reis, Andreas; Renaldi, Teuku; Singh, Jerome; Smith, Maxwell; Von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-01-01

    This paper maps key research questions for humanitarian health ethics: the ethical dimensions of healthcare provision and public health activities during international responses to situations of humanitarian crisis. Development of this research agenda was initiated at the Humanitarian Health Ethics Forum (HHE Forum) convened in Hamilton, Canada in November 2012. The HHE Forum identified priority avenues for advancing policy and practice for ethics in humanitarian health action. The main topic areas examined were: experiences and perceptions of humanitarian health ethics; training and professional development initiatives for humanitarian health ethics; ethics support for humanitarian health workers; impact of policies and project structures on humanitarian health ethics; and theoretical frameworks and ethics lenses. Key research questions for each topic area are presented, as well as proposed strategies for advancing this research agenda. Pursuing the research agenda will help strengthen the ethical foundations of humanitarian health action. PMID:25687273

  18. Religion and health: public health research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatters, L M

    2000-01-01

    Research examining the relationships between religion and the health of individuals and populations has become increasingly visible in the social, behavioral, and health sciences. Systematic programs of research investigate religious phenomena within the context of coherent theoretical and conceptual frameworks that describe the causes and consequences of religious involvement for health outcomes. Recent research has validated the multidimensional aspects of religious involvement and investigated how religious factors operate through various biobehavioral and psychosocial constructs to affect health status through proposed mechanisms that link religion and health. Methodological and analytical advances in the field permit the development of more complex models of religion's effects, in keeping with proposed theoretical explanations. Investigations of religion and health have ethical and practical implications that should be addressed by the lay public, health professionals, the research community, and the clergy. Future research directions point to promising new areas of investigation that could bridge the constructs of religion and health.

  19. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  20. Research group honored with Qiu Shi Prize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A research team, headed by CHEN Chuangtian from the CAS Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, XU Zuyan from the CAS Institute of Physics, and JIANG Minhua from Shandong University, has received the Qiu Shi Prize for Outstanding Science & Technology Team Achievement in 2007.

  1. Using mixed methods in health research

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, Shema; Woodman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixe...

  2. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  3. DATUM for Health: Research data management training for health studies

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This collaborative project sought to promote research data management skills of postgraduate research students in the health studies discipline through a specially-developed training programme which focuses on qualitative, unstructured research data. The project aimed to: design and pilot a training programme on research data management for postgraduate research students in health studies as an integral part of a doctoral training programme evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of the tra...

  4. Impact of public health research in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Curtis, Tine

    2004-01-01

    research. Two health surveys have been carried out in Greenland by the National Institute of Public Health, and a follow-up is being planned together with the Directorate of Health. The results have been widely used by politicians, administrators, and health care professionals.......In 1992, the Greenland Home Rule Government took over the responsibility for health care. There has since been a growing cooperation between the Directorate of Health and researchers in Denmark and Greenland, for instance by the Directorate supporting workshops and funding a chair in health...

  5. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  6. [Health research and health technology assessment in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel Antonio; Cabieses, Báltica; Paraje, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Health research is considered an essential element for the improvement of population health and it has been recommended that a share of the national health budget should be allocated to develop this field. Chile has undertaken efforts in the last decades in order to improve the governmental structure created to promote the development of health research, which has increased human resources and funding opportunities. On the other hand, the sustained economic growth of Chile in the last decades suggests that the health expenditure will maintain its increasing trend in the following years. This additional funding could be used to improve coverage of current activities performed in the health system, but also to address the incorporation of new strategies. More recently, health technology assessment (HTA) has been proposed as a process to support decisions about allocation of resources based on scientific evidence. This paper examines the relationship between the development of health research and the HTA process. First, it presents a brief diagnosis of the situation of health research in Chile. Second, it reviews the conceptual basis and the methods that account for the relationship between a HTA process and the development of health research. In particular, it emphasizes the relevance of identifying information gaps where funding additional research can be considered a good use of public resources. Finally, it discusses the challenges and possible courses of action that Chile could take in order to guarantee the continuous improvement of an articulated structure for health research and HTA.

  7. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health .... reported in Canada [10] and among Hispanic ..... plasma volume expansion [29].

  8. Involving Nepali academics in health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; van Teijlingen, E; Khanal, V;

    2013-01-01

    Many academics from Nepal do not involve in research activities. There are several factors hindering the involvement such as inadequate human resources and lack of financial resources. Despite limited human and financial resources, we believe it is still possible to attract many Nepali academics...... in health research. This paper purposes some ideas to increase involvement of Nepali academics in health research....

  9. A translational framework for public health research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogilvie, David; Craig, Peter; Griffin, Simon; Macintyre, Sally; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2009-01-01

    The paradigm of translational medicine that underpins frameworks such as the Cooksey report on the funding of health research does not adequately reflect the complex reality of the public health environment...

  10. A focus group study on primary health care in Johannesburg Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A focus group study on primary health care in Johannesburg Health District: ... Setting and subjects: Groups of nurse clinicians, clinic managers, senior ... Outcome measures: The content was thematically analysed and a model developed.

  11. International research collaboration in maritime health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2011-01-01

    The new ILO-2006-convention and the EU Commission's strategic objectives for the EU maritime transport policy 2008-2018, mentions the necessity of a modern health and safety system for maritime transportation. However, there is no specific strategy for the development of maritime health and safety....... The area is regulated by international standards based on international research-based knowledge on health and safety. Moreover, many of the world's seafarers come from developing countries with specific disease problems like HIV and no possibility of independent maritime health research. The international...... maritime health research is sparse, and an increase in such research is necessary to help benefit needed shipping as a highly globalized industry. This paper presents an example of such research, accompanied by a discussion of methods and opportunities to increase international maritime health research....

  12. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  13. Building health research systems to achieve better health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Block Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics

  14. Building health research systems to achieve better health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González Block, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    Health research systems can link knowledge generation with practical concerns to improve health and health equity. Interest in health research, and in how health research systems should best be organised, is moving up the agenda of bodies such as the World Health Organisation. Pioneering health research systems, for example those in Canada and the UK, show that progress is possible. However, radical steps are required to achieve this. Such steps should be based on evidence not anecdotes. Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS) provides a vehicle for the publication of research, and informed opinion, on a range of topics related to the organisation of health research systems and the enormous benefits that can be achieved. Following the Mexico ministerial summit on health research, WHO has been identifying ways in which it could itself improve the use of research evidence. The results from this activity are soon to be published as a series of articles in HARPS. This editorial provides an account of some of these recent key developments in health research systems but places them in the context of a distinguished tradition of debate about the role of science in society. It also identifies some of the main issues on which 'research on health research' has already been conducted and published, in some cases in HARPS. Finding and retaining adequate financial and human resources to conduct health research is a major problem, especially in low and middle income countries where the need is often greatest. Research ethics and agenda-setting that responds to the demands of the public are issues of growing concern. Innovative and collaborative ways are being found to organise the conduct and utilisation of research so as to inform policy, and improve health and health equity. This is crucial, not least to achieve the health-related Millennium Development Goals. But much more progress is needed. The editorial ends by listing a wide range of topics related to the above

  15. Canadian Institutes of Health Research funding of prison health research: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouyoumdjian, Fiona G; McIsaac, Kathryn E; Foran, Jessica E; Matheson, Flora I

    2017-01-01

    Health research provides a means to define health status and to identify ways to improve health. Our objective was to define the proportion of grants and funding from the Government of Canada's health research investment agency, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), that was awarded for prison health research, and to describe the characteristics of funded grants. In this descriptive study, we defined prison health research as research on the health and health care of people in prisons and at the time of their release. We searched the CIHR Funding Decisions Database by subject and by investigator name for funded grants for prison health research in Canada in all competitions between 2010 and 2014. We calculated the proportion of grants and funding awarded for prison health research, and described the characteristics of funded grants. During the 5-year study period, 21 grants were awarded that included a focus on prison health research, for a total of $2 289 948. Six of these grants were operating grants and 6 supported graduate or fellowship training. In total, 0.13% of all grants and 0.05% of all funding was for prison health research. A relatively small proportion of CIHR grants and funding were awarded for prison health research between 2010 and 2014. If prison health is a priority for Canada, strategic initiatives that include funding opportunities could be developed to support prison health research in Canada.

  16. Consumer involvement in health research: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boote, Jonathan; Telford, Rosemary; Cooper, Cindy

    2002-08-01

    The involvement of consumers in health research is now Department of Health policy within the UK. Despite the existence of policy directives, there is a dearth of knowledge on the effects of such involvement. This paper critically reviews the state of our knowledge on this issue, and maps out a research agenda with the aim of stimulating systematic, empirical inquiry into consumer involvement in health research. The paper discusses definitions of 'the consumer'; considers why consumer involvement is believed to be important to health research; traces the development of the policy; analyses the epistemological and methodological implications of the policy; discusses the various levels of consumer involvement in research; and outlines the objections to the policy that have been put forward by clinicians and researchers. Four questions were identified during the review as being in need of theoretical and empirical attention: (1) how can consumer involvement in health research be further conceptualised? (2) how and why does consumer involvement influence health research? (3) how can the influence of consumers in health research be measured and evaluated? and (4) what factors are associated with 'successful' consumer involvement in health research?

  17. Research experience and research interests of allied health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Delwyne; Taylor, Nicholas F; Taylor, Nicholas; Leggat, Sandra G

    2009-01-01

    Allied heath professionals are expected to utilize evidence-based practices in their workplaces, and there is an increasing expectation that clinicians will become involved in clinical research. With the aim of establishing the level of interest and experience in clinical research among allied health professionals in Australia, 132 allied health professional in Australia were surveyed to determine their level of interest and their level of experience in clinical research. The Research Spider survey tool was used to examine clinicians' level of research experience and level of research interest across ten core areas. These areas included writing a research proposal, using quantitative methods, publishing research, writing and presenting a research report, analysing and interpreting results, using qualitative research methods, critically reviewing literature, finding relevant literature, generating research ideas and applying for research funding. Overall, allied health professionals rated themselves as having "little research experience." While clinicians' level of interest in research was significantly greater than their level of research experience, clinicians as a whole only had "some interest" in research. Fifteen percent of the sample were very interested in research. The results of this study have implications for the implementation of education and support programs aimed at providing clinical research opportunities for allied health professionals.

  18. Privacy and Security in Mobile Health (mHealth) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shifali; Yttri, Jennifer; Nilsen, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Research on the use of mobile technologies for alcohol use problems is a developing field. Rapid technological advances in mobile health (or mHealth) research generate both opportunities and challenges, including how to create scalable systems capable of collecting unprecedented amounts of data and conducting interventions—some in real time—while at the same time protecting the privacy and safety of research participants. Although the research literature in this area is sparse, lessons can be borrowed from other communities, such as cybersecurity or Internet security, which offer many techniques to reduce the potential risk of data breaches or tampering in mHealth. More research into measures to minimize risk to privacy and security effectively in mHealth is needed. Even so, progress in mHealth research should not stop while the field waits for perfect solutions. PMID:26259009

  19. Privacy and Security in Mobile Health (mHealth) Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Shifali; Yttri, Jennifer; Nilse, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    Research on the use of mobile technologies for alcohol use problems is a developing field. Rapid technological advances in mobile health (or mHealth) research generate both opportunities and challenges, including how to create scalable systems capable of collecting unprecedented amounts of data and conducting interventions-some in real time-while at the same time protecting the privacy and safety of research participants. Although the research literature in this area is sparse, lessons can be borrowed from other communities, such as cybersecurity or Internet security, which offer many techniques to reduce the potential risk of data breaches or tampering in mHealth. More research into measures to minimize risk to privacy and security effectively in mHealth is needed. Even so, progress in mHealth research should not stop while the field waits for perfect solutions.

  20. Qualitative research and dental public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslind Preethi George

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Qualitative Research (QR methods are now getting common in various aspects of health and healthcare research and they can be used to interpret, explore, or obtain a deeper understanding of certain aspects of human beliefs, attitudes, or behavior through personal experiences and perspectives. The potential scope of QR in the field of dental public health is immense, but unfortunately, it has remained underutilized. However, there are a number of studies which have used this type of research to probe into some unanswered questions in the field of public health dentistry ranging from workforce issues to attitudes of patients. In recent health research, evidence gathered through QR methods provide understanding to the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting the health status and healthcare of an individual and the population as a whole. This study will provide an overview of what QR is and discuss its contributions to dental public health research.

  1. The increased risk of venous thromboembolism and the use of third generation progestagens: role of bias in observational research. The Transnational Research Group on Oral Contraceptives and the Health of Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M A; Heinemann, L A; MacRae, K D; Bruppacher, R; Spitzer, W O

    1996-07-01

    A matched case-control study was undertaken in 10 centers in Germany and the United Kingdom to explore the association of current use of major combination oral contraceptives with the occurrence of venous thromboembolism. The cases recruited were 505 women aged 16-44 years with venous thromboembolism, controls were 1877 women (at least 3 controls per case) matched for 5-year age group and region without VTE. The main outcome measures were odds ratios derived by comparing current use of a specific oral contraceptive or group of OC against current use of other groups or against no current use of OC. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for venous thromboembolism were: for third generation products (low dose ethinyloestradiol, gestodene and desogestrel) versus second generation products (low dose ethinyloestradiol, no gestodene and desogestrel, 1.5 (1.1 to 2.0), for third versus second generation products with norgestimate included in third generation, 1.6 (1.2 to 2.2). The odds ratios for current use for women aged 16-44 of specific progestagens versus levonorgestrel-containing compounds were 1.7 (1.1 to 2.6) for gestodene, 1.8 (1.2 to 2.6) for desogestrel, 1.9 (1.0 to 3.6) for norgestimate and 1.3 (0.7 to 2.5) for progestagen-only pills. For women aged 25 to 44 likely to be exposed to any of these progestagens, odds ratios for the comparison of progestagens versus levonorgestrel showed a successive increase by market introduction ranging from 1.5 (0.9 to 2.5) for desogestrel with 30 micrograms oestrogen content (introduced 1981) to 2.8 (1.3 to 6.5) for desogestrel with 20 micrograms oestrogen content (introduced 1992) significant in linear trend analysis (p = 0.00012). The influence of norgestimate classification as third or second generation product does not significantly alter the results regarding the association of third generation products and venous thromboembolism. A direct comparison of current use of norgestimate (which is primarily metabolized to

  2. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and molecular biology, and related ... forum for the communication and evaluation of data, methods and findings in health sciences and related ... make adequate information about sexual health available to ... Akintola University of Technology,. Osogbo ...

  3. Global oral health inequalities: task group--implementation and delivery of oral health strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheiham, A; Alexander, D; Cohen, L

    2011-01-01

    their environment. There is a dearth of oral health research on social determinants that cause health-compromising behaviors and on risk factors common to some chronic diseases. The gap between what is known and implemented by other health disciplines and the dental fraternity needs addressing. To re-orient oral...... health research, practice, and policy toward a 'social determinants' model, a closer collaboration between and integration of dental and general health research is needed. Here, we suggest a research agenda that should lead to reductions in global inequalities in oral health....

  4. Group purchasing of workplace health promotion services for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Hammerback, Kristen R; Hannon, Peggy A; McDowell, Julie; Katzman, Avi; Clegg-Thorp, Catherine; Gallagher, John

    2014-07-01

    Small employers are underserved with workplace health promotion services, so we explored the potential for group purchasing of these services. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews of member organizations serving small employers, as well as workplace health promotion vendors, in Washington State. We interviewed 22 employer organizations (chambers of commerce, trade associations, and an insurance trust) and vendors (of fitness facilities, healthy vending machines, fresh produce delivery, weight management services, and tobacco cessation quitlines). Both cautiously supported the idea of group purchasing but felt that small employers' workplace health promotion demand must increase first. Vendors providing off-site services, for example, quitline, found group purchasing more feasible than vendors providing on-site services, for example, produce delivery. Employer member organizations are well-positioned to group purchase workplace health promotion services; vendors are receptive if there is potential profit.

  5. Efficacy of a lay health worker led group antiretroviral medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of a lay health worker led group antiretroviral medication adherence ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... of care, while adherence motivation and skills did not significantly change among the conditions over time.

  6. (Re)searching Methods: Reading Fiction in Literary Response Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    The trouble with education research is that the research is burdened with trouble before it begins. Working as a poststructural education researcher and engaged in a recent research project that sought to engage with questions of teacher identity, I employed an alternative data elicitation method of literary response groups--similar to that of…

  7. Qualitative Methods in Mental Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675

  8. Building the national health information infrastructure for personal health, health care services, public health, and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detmer Don E

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in our nation requires strengthening four major domains of the health care system: personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and health-related research. Many avoidable shortcomings in the health sector that result in poor quality are due to inaccessible data, information, and knowledge. A national health information infrastructure (NHII offers the connectivity and knowledge management essential to correct these shortcomings. Better health and a better health system are within our reach. Discussion A national health information infrastructure for the United States should address the needs of personal health management, health care delivery, public health, and research. It should also address relevant global dimensions (e.g., standards for sharing data and knowledge across national boundaries. The public and private sectors will need to collaborate to build a robust national health information infrastructure, essentially a 'paperless' health care system, for the United States. The federal government should assume leadership for assuring a national health information infrastructure as recommended by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics and the President's Information Technology Advisory Committee. Progress is needed in the areas of funding, incentives, standards, and continued refinement of a privacy (i.e., confidentiality and security framework to facilitate personal identification for health purposes. Particular attention should be paid to NHII leadership and change management challenges. Summary A national health information infrastructure is a necessary step for improved health in the U.S. It will require a concerted, collaborative effort by both public and private sectors. If you cannot measure it, you cannot improve it. Lord Kelvin

  9. A Bibliometric Analysis of Digestive Health Research in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Tuitt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the impact and influence of medical/scientific journals, and of individual researchers has become more widely practiced in recent decades. This is driven, in part, by the increased availability of data regarding citations of research articles, and by increased competition for research funding. Digestive disease research has been identified as a particularly strong discipline in Canada. The authors collected quantitative data on the impact and influence of Canadian digestive health research. The present study involved an analysis of the research impact (Hirsch factor and research influence (Influence factor of 106 digestive health researchers in Canada. Rankings of the top 25 researchers on the basis of the two metrics were dominated by the larger research groups at the University of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, McMaster University (Hamilton, Ontario, and the Universities of Calgary (Calgary, Alberta and Alberta (Edmonton, Alberta, but with representation by other research groups at the Universities of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Western Ontario (London, Ontario and McGill University (Montreal, Quebec. Female and male researchers had similar scores for the two metrics, as did basic scientists versus clinical investigators. Strategic recruitment, particularly of established investigators, can have a major impact on the ranking of research groups. Comparing these metrics over different time frames can provide insights into the vulnerabilities and strengths of research groups.

  10. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  11. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  12. Indexing: Its Importance in Health Education Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Stephen M.; Laflin, Molly T.; Nims, Julia K.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated how health educators could improve literature searches and increase the accessibility of their research to others. A frequency count of databases indexed 84 health education journals and analyzed the 16 top indexes for journal coverage. Results indicated that selecting the appropriate indexes can help health educators more effectively…

  13. A Researcher's Guide to Health Education Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflin, Molly T.; Horowitz, Stephen M.; Nims, Julia K.

    1999-01-01

    Developed a tool to help health-education researchers match manuscript submissions with the most appropriate journals. The Delphi method was used to elicit information from health-education leaders/scholars on primary content areas in health education, preeminent journals, and information about the journals. The results include nine categories and…

  14. Global health and primary care research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, John W.; Starfield, Barbara; van Weel, Chris; Rosser, Walter W.; Haq, Cynthia L.

    2007-01-01

    A strong primary health care system is essential to provide effective and efficient health care in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. Although a direct link has not been proven, we can reasonably expect better economic status when the health of the population is improved. Research in pr

  15. Global health and primary care research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, J.W.; Starfield, B.; Weel, C. van; Rosser, W.W.; Haq, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    A strong primary health care system is essential to provide effective and efficient health care in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. Although a direct link has not been proven, we can reasonably expect better economic status when the health of the population is improved. Research in pr

  16. Global health and primary care research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beasley, J.W.; Starfield, B.; Weel, C. van; Rosser, W.W.; Haq, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    A strong primary health care system is essential to provide effective and efficient health care in both resource-rich and resource-poor countries. Although a direct link has not been proven, we can reasonably expect better economic status when the health of the population is improved. Research in

  17. Productive Research Designs for Health Education Investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Lawrence W.; Gordon, Nancy P.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of productivity in evaluative research is addressed from three perspectives in health education. Two perspectives are scientific, while the third is practical and deals with the implementation of evaluative research. This third perspective is illustrated through an example of a health education program about sexually transmitted…

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal is devoted to the promotion of health sciences and related disciplines ... engineering fields). It seeks ... collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also .... Civil servants, businessmen and.

  19. Introduction: New Research on Migration and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A. Cornelius

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue on migration and health derives from an interdisciplinary research workshop held on May 13-14, 2010 under the auspices of the Center of Expertise on Migration and Health (COEMH, a component of the University of California’s Global Health Institute (UCGHI. The COEMH Research Training Workshop brought together 20 advanced graduate students and recent postdoctoral fellows from throughout the University of California system to present their recently completed or ongoing, fiel...

  20. 75 FR 34571 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ50 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules... respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan... temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers...

  1. Strategic approach to information security and assurance in health research

    OpenAIRE

    Akazawa, Shunichi; Igarashi, Manabu; Sawa, Hirofumi; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2005-01-01

    Information security and assurance are an increasingly critical issue in health research. Whether health research be in genetics, new drugs, disease outbreaks, biochemistry, or effects of radiation, it deals with information that is highly sensitive and which could be targeted by rogue individuals or groups, corporations, national intelligence agencies, or terrorists, looking for financial, social, or political gains. The advents of the Internet and advances in recent information technologies...

  2. Governance of Transnational Global Health Research Consortia and Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-10-01

    Global health research partnerships are increasingly taking the form of consortia of institutions from high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries that undertake programs of research. These partnerships differ from collaborations that carry out single projects in the multiplicity of their goals, scope of their activities, and nature of their management. Although such consortia typically aim to reduce health disparities between and within countries, what is required for them to do so has not been clearly defined. This article takes a conceptual approach to explore how the governance of transnational global health research consortia should be structured to advance health equity. To do so, it applies an account called shared health governance to derive procedural and substantive guidance. A checklist based on this guidance is proposed to assist research consortia determine where their governance practices strongly promote equity and where they may fall short.

  3. 76 FR 46621 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...-AQ07 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under... group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of... to group health plans and group health insurance issuers on August 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: Written...

  4. Research Groups & Research Subjects - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rch Groups & Research Subjects Data detail Data name Research Groups & Research Sub... Number of data entries 174 entries Data item Description Research ID Research ID (Subject number) Institute...tion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Research Groups & Research Subjects - RED | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RED Resea... Organization Section Section (Department) User name User name Experimental title Experimental title (Rese

  5. Focus Groups: A Practical and Applied Research Approach for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Victoria E.; Shoffner, Marie F.

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups are becoming a popular research approach that counselors can use as an efficient, practical, and applied method of gathering information to better serve clients. In this article, the authors describe focus groups and their potential usefulness to professional counselors and researchers. Practical implications related to the use of…

  6. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  7. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  8. [Marketing research in health service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Marketing research is the systematic and objective search for, and analysis of, information relevant to the identification and solution of any problem in the field of marketing. The key words in this definition are: systematic, objective and analysis. Marketing research seeks to set about its task in a systematic and objective fashion. This means that a detailed and carefully designed research plan is developed in which each stage of the research is specified. Such a research plan is only considered adequate if it specifies: the research problem in concise and precise terms, the information necessary to address the problem, the methods to be employed in gathering the information and the analytical techniques to be used to interpret it. Maintaining objectivity in marketing research is essential if marketing management is to have sufficient confidence in its results to be prepared to take risky decisions based upon those results. To this end, as far as possible, marketing researchers employ the scientific method. The characteristics of the scientific method are that it translates personal prejudices, notions and opinions into explicit propositions (or hypotheses). These are tested empirically. At the same time alternative explanations of the event or phenomena of interest are given equal consideration.

  9. Acceptance and commitment group therapy for health anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish...... patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed-up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6...

  10. The Use of Smartphones for Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, E Ray; Yvonne Chan, Yu-Feng; McConnell, Michael V; Shaw, Stanley Y; Trister, Andrew D; Friend, Stephen H

    2017-02-01

    Because of their growing popularity and functionality, smartphones are increasingly valuable potential tools for health and medical research. Using ResearchKit, Apple's open-source platform to build applications ("apps") for smartphone research, collaborators have developed apps for researching asthma, breast cancer, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and Parkinson disease. These research apps enhance widespread participation by removing geographical barriers to participation, provide novel ways to motivate healthy behaviors, facilitate high-frequency assessments, and enable more objective data collection. Although the studies have great potential, they also have notable limitations. These include selection bias, identity uncertainty, design limitations, retention, and privacy. As smartphone technology becomes increasingly available, researchers must recognize these factors to ensure that medical research is conducted appropriately. Despite these limitations, the future of smartphones in health research is bright. Their convenience grants unprecedented geographic freedom to researchers and participants alike and transforms the way clinical research can be conducted.

  11. Health behaviors and participation in health promotion activities among hospital staff: which occupational group performs better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2014-10-22

    Staff health behaviors affect not only their own health but also their provision of health promotion services to their patients. Although different occupational groups work in hospitals, few studies have compared health behaviors among them. The objectives of this study were to examine health behaviors, including physical activity, eating 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day (5 a day), and stress adaptation, and participation in hospital-based health promotion activities by occupational groups in hospitals. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among full-time employees in 100 hospitals across Taiwan. This analysis included 4202 physicians, 31639 nurses, 2315 pharmacists, 8161 other health professionals, and 13079 administrative personnel. Administrative personnel attended more health promotion lectures and clubs/groups than other health professionals, pharmacists and physicians, and those workers participated more than nurses. Participation in health promotion activities provided by hospitals was associated with better practice of health behaviors. After adjustment for socio-demographics and participation in health promotion activities, physicians, pharmacists, and other health professionals reported more 5 a day than administrative staff. Other health professionals reported more physical activity than administrative staff, and they reported more than physicians. Nurses reported the lowest level of physical activity, 5 a day, and stress adaptation of all occupational groups. Nurses had worse health behaviors and less participation in health promotion activities than other groups. Workplace health promotion program for health professionals is needed, with special emphasis on nurses. Hospital-based health promotion programs could take the differences of occupational groups into consideration to tailor programs to the needs of different occupational groups.

  12. Using mixed methods in health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Summary Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methods research, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methods research, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitative methods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methods research is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems. PMID:23885291

  13. Using mixed methods in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Shema; Woodman, Jenny

    2013-06-01

    Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed methods studies. The objective of this paper is to provide an accessible introduction to mixed methods for clinicians and researchers unfamiliar with this approach. We present a synthesis of key methodological literature on mixed methods research, with examples from our own work and that of others, to illustrate the practical applications of this approach within health research. We summarize definitions of mixed methods research, the value of this approach, key aspects of study design and analysis, and discuss the potential challenges of combining quantitative and qualitative methods and data. One of the key challenges within mixed methods research is the successful integration of quantitative and qualitative data during analysis and interpretation. However, the integration of different types of data can generate insights into a research question, resulting in enriched understanding of complex health research problems.

  14. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also ... Government Area. The 'pre-' and ... percentage of missed children, (3) strengthening. RI, and (4) ... Inadequate health facilities (coupled with weak ... finances, drugs, and equipment), lack of ... an opportunity for advancing the study of.

  15. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-10

    Dec 10, 2009 ... software to allow authors track the changes to their submission. All manuscripts ... College of Education (FCE) and presumptive typhoid fever patients that ... Resistance profile of Salmonella species isolated from patients .... decrease in the susceptibility of the isolates .... World Health Organization 2003.

  16. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    (China's largest online database), EBSCO, Index Corpenicus ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on ... E-mail: editor_ijhr@yahoo.com or editor@ijhr.org ... are recurrent and most clinical studies have.

  17. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2009-12-12

    Dec 12, 2009 ... disciplines (including medicine, pharmacy, nursing, biotechnology, cell and ... engineering fields). ... original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special ..... technical assistance during this project.

  18. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    collaboration among scientists, the industry and the healthcare professionals. It will also provide an ... research articles, 3,000 for technical notes, case reports, commentaries and short communications. ..... forced swimming test (FST) in rats61.

  19. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-12-01

    Dec 1, 2008 ... disciplines. The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special .... hand, other dietary compounds enhance iron absorption by ..... utilization can accumulate or cluster in the.

  20. Mental health nursing research: the contemporary context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Marie; Carlyle, Dave

    2007-10-01

    While the need to develop and conduct research has been prominent in mental health nursing for some time, the current funding climate in tertiary institutions has created even more pressure for research outputs. The Research Assessment Exercise is well ingrained in UK institutions, New Zealand is about to enter the second round of the Performance-based Research Funding model, and Australia is committed to a Research Quality Framework. There is much to learn from nursing departments in those countries that have already been part of the process. This paper will present a content analysis of what mental health nursing research is currently being published in nursing journals and discuss the implications of the research assessment exercises on its future. Those mental health nursing articles sampled in the study revealed a shift beginning towards more consumer-focused research was occurring but that there was a need for more research into the effectiveness of specific mental health nursing interventions. Most of the articles also reported on small-scale research. It concludes that research needs to be more clinically orientated and less profession-orientated. It also suggests a need to focus on larger-scale studies possibly situated within a collaborative research programme. These programmes need to be more collaborative both cross-institutional and cross-disciplinary.

  1. Prioritizing young people's emotional health support needs via participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, S E; Milnes, L; Welsby, H; Pryjmachuk, S

    2017-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT?: Young people's mental health is a concern to people around the world. Good emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness, but we need to know more about how to help young people look after their emotional health. We are learning that research is better if the public are involved in it, including children and young people. Therefore, we need to listen carefully to what young people have to say. In this paper, we describe some research that involved young people from start to finish. We were asking what kind of emotional health support would be useful to them. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We developed a useful way to involve young people in research so their voice can be heard. Young people like to use the Internet to find emotional health support and information, but need to know which web sites they can trust. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Our method of bringing young people together to tell us their views was successful. It is important to explore ways to help young people judge the quality of emotional health web sites. Introduction Youth mental health is a global concern. Emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness. Youth value self-care for emotional health, but we need better understanding of how to help them look after their emotional health. Participatory research is relevant, since meaningful engagement with youth via participatory research enhances the validity and relevance of research findings and supports young people's rights to involvement in decisions that concern them. Aim We aimed to develop a participatory approach for involving youth in research about their emotional health support preferences. Method Our team included a young expert-by-experience. We developed a qualitative, participatory research design. Eleven youth (16-18 years) participated in focus groups, followed immediately by a nominal group exercise in which they

  2. Ethics in Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  3. An Investigation of Singing, Health and Well-Being as a Group Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of singing as a group process deriving from two research studies: (i) Study 1: CETL (Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning): C4C (Collaboration for Creativity) Research Project called Singing, Health and Well-being and (ii) Study 2: iSING. The studies consider singing in relation to health…

  4. [Communication in the coordination practices of socioeducational groups in family health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Líliam Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the forms of communication used by coordinators in socioeducational groups in family health programmes. This qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study was conducted with 25 coordinators of groups in eight basic health units from Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data collection comprised non-participant observation and semistructured interviews with the coordinators. The theoretical basis for research was Bakhtin's formulations and references on communication and health. The gathered information showed that the body, health and disease triad was communicated in groups through different channels and at different levels of discourse. Our conclusion is that coordinators must adopt an approach that values the expression of participants, not just regarding the physical dimensions of health, but also the life of each participant, and should use various forms of communication to foster dialogical educational actions and means for interaction in groups.

  5. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    for how well each of the available options performs on each of those outcomes. The hypothesis is that this person-as-researcher is more likely to be able to position themselves as an active participant in a clinical encounter, if they wish, than someone who has engaged with a descriptive decision aid...... and democracy. OBJECTIVE: Our Web-based project aims to increase involvement in health care and health research and is presented in the form of an umbrella protocol for a set of project-specific protocols. We conceptualize the person as a researcher engaged in a continual, living, informal "n-of-1"-type study...... of the effects of different actions and interventions on their health, including those implying contact with health care services. We see their research as primarily carried out in order to make better decisions for themselves, but they can offer to contribute the results to the wider population. We see...

  6. Do structured arrangements for multidisciplinary peer group supervision make a difference for allied health professional outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pim Kuipers,1,2 Susan Pager,1 Karen Bell,3 Fiona Hall,4 Melissa Kendall2,5,6 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Community Science, School of Human Services, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 3Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Queensland, Australia; 4Allied Health Professions Office of Queensland, Health Service and Innovation Division, Queensland, Australia; 5Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 6Transitional Rehabilitation Programme, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Peer group supervision, particularly in multidisciplinary formats, presents a potential means of providing professional support, and specifically clinical supervision, for allied health professionals. Debate exists regarding the extent to which the activities of these groups should be formalized. Results drawn from an evaluation of a large-scale peer group supervision initiative are described. Analysis of 192 responses from professionals involved in peer groups indicates that participants in groups that used formal documentation – which adopted the tools provided in training, and particularly those that used formal evaluation of their groups – rated their groups as having better processes and greater impact. Interestingly, multidisciplinary peer groups were rated as having similar impacts, processes, and purposes as the more homogenous single-discipline groups. It is concluded that the implementation of formal arrangements enhances the processes and outcomes of peer groups implemented for professional support and clinical supervision. Multidisciplinary membership of such groups is perceived as equally beneficial as single-discipline groups. Keywords: allied health, professional supervision, clinical supervision, professional support, multidisciplinary

  7. [User involvement in mental health services research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumm, Silvia; Becker, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    User involvement in mental health services research is discussed in Great Britain, and a number of user-led research initiatives can be found. In Germany, less attention is paid to the concept while virtually no initiatives can be found. The concept of user involvement is introduced by reviewing the relevant literature. After discussion of theoretical and methodological implications, practicability of the concept for mental health services research is illustrated by some examples from Great Britain. User involvement in mental health services may promote the provision of user focused services. User involvement aims at the empowerment of mental health service users and can also improve the quality of mental health services research. Frequently, user-led/collaborative studies are focused on mental health service assessment. Some problematic aspects (e. g. representativeness, knowledge/skills of users) are discussed. Although more research is needed to document the additional benefit of user involvement in mental health services research it is conceivable that the concept will gain in importance.

  8. Pender's health promotion model in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Khorashadizadeh, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    This review shows how researchers use pander's health promotion model. We included all articles in which Pender's health promotion has been used for theoretical framework. Eligible articles were selected according to review of abstracts. Search was conducted using the electronic database from 1990 to 2012. Based on our search, 74 articles with various methodologies were relevant for review. Their aims of these studies were to predict effective factors/barriers in health promotion behaviours, to detect effects of intervention programme for improving health promotion behaviours, test the model, identify quality of life and health promotion behaviour, predict stage of change in related factors that affect health promotion behaviour, prevent the events that interfere with health promotion behaviour, develop another model similar to this model, compare this model with another model, determine the relationship of variables associated to health promotion behaviours.

  9. Health psychology in primary care: recent research and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thielke S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Thielke1, Alexander Thompson2, Richard Stuart31Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center, Puget Sound VA Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Group Health Cooperative, Seattle, WA, USA; 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Over the last decade, research about health psychology in primary care has reiterated its contributions to mental and physical health promotion, and its role in addressing gaps in mental health service delivery. Recent meta-analyses have generated mixed results about the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of health psychology interventions. There have been few studies of health psychology interventions in real-world treatment settings. Several key challenges exist: determining the degree of penetration of health psychology into primary care settings; clarifying the specific roles of health psychologists in integrated care; resolving reimbursement issues; and adapting to the increased prescription of psychotropic medications. Identifying and exploring these issues can help health psychologists and primary care providers to develop the most effective ways of applying psychological principles in primary care settings. In a changing health care landscape, health psychologists must continue to articulate the theories and techniques of health psychology and integrated care, to put their beliefs into practice, and to measure the outcomes of their work.Keywords: health psychology, primary care, integrated care, collaborative care, referral, colocation

  10. [How to design workshops to promote health in community groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Josefina; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Marín Torrens, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies of health promotion is to develop life skills people considering themselves as the main health resource. A workshop has to get its participants become «asset» to make decisions and create health, focusing on the development and acquisition of skills in a motivating group and in order to achieve health objectives. The concepts behind the design of a workshop are: participatory planning, training, meaningful learning, group learning and participatory techniques. The steps to follow to design a workshop and facilitate their application are: Stage 0, founding; initial stage, host and initial evaluation; central or construction stage based learning in the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and skills, and final stage or evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case reports on current topics of special .... greatest penetration of drug in hip and sholder ..... Curr Drug Deliv 2005;. 2:23-33 .... Lee WR., Shen SC., Wang KH., Hu CH. and Fang JY.

  12. International Journal of Health Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    2008-06-02

    Jun 2, 2008 ... The journal welcomes original research papers, reviews and case ... disease, primary lesions of the main hepatic ... SLE in April 2007 based on the 1982 revised ... 2008, she had acute abdominal pain, fever, ... The pathogenesis of thrombosis is unknown ... Evidence of abnormal blood clotting in the.

  13. Rethinking global health research: towards integrative expertise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLachlan Malcolm

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Bamako Call for Action on Research for Health stresses the importance of inter-disciplinary, inter-ministerial and inter-sectoral working. This challenges much of our current research and postgraduate research training in health, which mostly seeks to produce narrowly focused content specialists. We now need to compliment this type of research and research training, by offering alternative pathways that seek to create expertise, not only in specific narrow content areas, but also in the process and context of research, as well as in the interaction of these different facets of knowledge. Such an approach, developing 'integrative expertise', could greatly facilitate better research utilisation, helping policy makers and practitioners work through more evidence-based practice and across traditional research boundaries.

  14. The role of NGOs in global health research for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Lori

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global health research is essential for development. A major issue is the inequitable distribution of research efforts and funds directed towards populations suffering the world's greatest health problems. This imbalance is fostering major attempts at redirecting research to the health problems of low and middle income countries. Following the creation of the Coalition for Global Health Research – Canada (CGHRC in 2001, the Canadian Society for International Health (CSIH decided to review the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs in global health research. This paper highlights some of the prevalent thinking and is intended to encourage new thinking on how NGOs can further this role. Approach This paper was prepared by members of the Research Committee of the CSIH, with input from other members of the Society. Persons working in various international NGOs participated in individual interviews or group discussions on their involvement in different types of research activities. Case studies illustrate the roles of NGOs in global health research, their perceived strengths and weaknesses, and the constraints and opportunities to build capacity and develop partnerships for research. Highlights NGOs are contributing at all stages of the research cycle, fostering the relevance and effectiveness of the research, priority setting, and knowledge translation to action. They have a key role in stewardship (promoting and advocating for relevant global health research, resource mobilization for research, the generation, utilization and management of knowledge, and capacity development. Yet, typically, the involvement of NGOs in research is downstream from knowledge production and it usually takes the form of a partnership with universities or dedicated research agencies. Conclusion There is a need to more effectively include NGOs in all aspects of health research in order to maximize the potential benefits of research. NGOs

  15. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Lucas Pereira; de Campos, Edemilson Antunes

    2014-01-01

    to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups. ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique. four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study. the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  16. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pereira de Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups.METHOD: ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique.RESULTS: four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study.CONCLUSION: the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  17. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    , Comparators, Outcomes, Timings, and Settings (PICOTS) framework. RESULTS: Our underlying hypothesis concerns the person-as-researcher who is equipped with a prescriptive, transparent, expected value-based opinion-an opinion that combines their criterion importance weights with the Best Estimates Available Now...... and democracy. OBJECTIVE: Our Web-based project aims to increase involvement in health care and health research and is presented in the form of an umbrella protocol for a set of project-specific protocols. We conceptualize the person as a researcher engaged in a continual, living, informal "n-of-1"-type study...... the efforts of the "person-as-researcher" as contributing to the total amount of research undertaken in the community, with research not being confined to that undertaken by professional researchers and institutions. This view is fundamentally compatible with both the emancipatory and conventional approaches...

  18. MessageSpace: a messaging system for health research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Rodrigo D.; Akopian, David; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Esparza, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Mobile Health (mHealth) has emerged as a promising direction for delivery of healthcare services via mobile communication devices such as cell phones. Examples include texting-based interventions for chronic disease monitoring, diabetes management, control of hypertension, smoking cessation, monitoring medication adherence, appointment keeping and medical test result delivery; as well as improving patient-provider communication, health information communication, data collection and access to health records. While existing messaging systems very well support bulk messaging and some polling applications, they are not designed for data collection and processing of health research oriented studies. For that reason known studies based on text-messaging campaigns have been constrained in participant numbers. In order to empower healthcare promotion and education research, this paper presents a system dedicated for healthcare research. It is designed for convenient communication with various study groups, feedback collection and automated processing.

  19. Paradigm shifts in disability and health: toward more ethical public health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Katherine E; Raymaker, Dora M

    2013-12-01

    Disability is often considered a health outcome disproportionately experienced by minority groups. It is also possible to view people with disabilities as a minority group that itself experiences health disparities. Calls to reduce these disparities necessitate the inclusion of people with developmental disabilities in research, although resulting ethical issues can thwart scientific progress. Using disability rights principles can help address ethical challenges and promote safe, respectful public health research. Examples include applying human rights frameworks, providing accommodations, attending to power, countering legacies of deficits-based models of disability, and transforming access to science more broadly. Collectively, these strategies can encourage broader engagement in safe, respectful, inclusive public health research aimed at promoting the health and well-being of people with developmental disabilities.

  20. Developing a framework for critiquing health research

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, Kay; Henshaw, Lynne; Taylor, Gina

    2005-01-01

    A new framework for critiquing health-related research is presented in this article. More commonly used existing frameworks tend to have been formulated within the quantitative research paradigm. While frameworks for critiquing qualitative research exist, they are often complex and more suited to the needs of students engaged in advanced levels of study. The framework presented in this article addresses both quantitative and qualitative research within one list of questions. It is argued that...

  1. Training program attracts work and health researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skakon, Janne

    2007-01-01

    Each year in Canada, the costs of disability arising from work-related causes – including workers’ compensation and health-care costs – exceed $6.7 billion. Despite the significant financial and social impacts of worker injury and illness, only a small fraction of Canadian researchers are dedicated...... to examining work disability prevention issues. An innovative program that attracts international students, the Work Disability Prevention Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Program, aims to build research capacity in young researchers and to create a strong network that examines...

  2. Acceptance and commitment group therapy for health anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish...... patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed-up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6...... months compared to baseline: a 49% reduction in health anxiety (Whiteley-7 Index), a 47% decrease in emotional distress (SCL-8) and a 40% decrease in somatic symptoms (SCL-90-R). Furthermore, the patients’ perceptions of their illness (IPQ, a condensed Danish version) were significantly more optimistic...

  3. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  4. Psychology and Health: Research, Practice, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Norine G.

    2003-01-01

    Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…

  5. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  6. Social Factors of Health Vulnerability of Marginalized Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marginalized social groups are part of a certain apotheosis of otherness in present-day anthropological studies, being groups – such as refugees or immigrants – that come from other socio-cultural environments, and are marginalized in the anthropologists’ own environments, or environments socio-culturally similar to these. Groups that are to be considered as marginalized are those that have been put in this position contextually, through displacement from everything that represents life according to human standards, which becomes a continuous/permanent state, i.e. the way of life of the people in question, leading to the destabilization of both their physical and their mental health. The causes of this displacement are social in nature, thus constituting the primary social factors of health vulnerability of displaced populations, and they include wars and armed conflicts, persecution for various reasons, and poverty, i.e. the impossibility of subsisting on resources available in one’s own socio-economic environment. The secondary social factors of health vulnerability of marginalized social groups occur in the environments in which the groups find themselves after having been displaced from their previous socio-cultural environments; they result from the legal status of unwilling newcomers to these environments, and refer to the difficulty or impossibility of accessing the social and health care systems in their new environments.

  7. Allied health research positions: a qualitative evaluation of their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hickman, Ingrid; Hulcombe, Julie; Phillips, Rachel; Mickan, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    Research positions embedded within healthcare settings have been identified as an enabler to allied health professional (AHP) research capacity; however, there is currently limited research formally evaluating their impact. In 2008, a Health Practitioner industrial agreement funded a research capacity building initiative within Queensland Health, Australia, which included 15 new allied health research positions. The present project used a qualitative and realist approach to explore the impact of these research positions, as well as the mechanisms which facilitated or hindered their success within their respective organisations. Forty-four AHP employees from six governmental health services in Queensland, Australia, participated in the study. Individual interviews were undertaken, with individuals in research positions (n = 8) and their reporting line managers (n = 8). Four stakeholder focus groups were also conducted with clinicians, team leaders and professional heads who had engaged with the research positions. Nine key outcomes of the research positions were identified across individual, team/service and organisational/community levels. These outcomes included clinician skill development, increased research activity, clinical and service changes, increased research outputs and collaborations, enhanced research and workplace culture, improved profile of allied health, development of research infrastructure, and professional development of individuals in the research positions. Different mechanisms that influenced these outcomes were identified. These mechanisms were grouped by those related to the (1) research position itself, (2) organisational factors and (3) implementation factors. The present findings highlight the potential value of the research positions for individuals, teams and clinical services across different governmental healthcare services, and demonstrate the impact of the roles on building the internal and external profile of allied health

  8. [Methods of health economic evaluation for health services research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icks, A; Chernyak, N; Bestehorn, K; Brüggenjürgen, B; Bruns, J; Damm, O; Dintsios, C-M; Dreinhöfer, K; Gandjour, A; Gerber, A; Greiner, W; Hermanek, P; Hessel, F; Heymann, R; Huppertz, E; Jacke, C; Kächele, H; Kilian, R; Klingenberger, D; Kolominsky-Rabas, P; Krämer, H; Krauth, C; Lüngen, M; Neumann, T; Porzsolt, F; Prenzler, A; Pueschner, F; Riedel, R; Rüther, A; Salize, H J; Scharnetzky, E; Schwerd, W; Selbmann, H-K; Siebert, H; Stengel, D; Stock, S; Völler, H; Wasem, J; Schrappe, M

    2010-12-01

    On August 30, 2010, the German Network for Health Services Research [Deutsches Netzwerk Versorgungsforschung e. V. (DNVF e. V.)] approved the Memorandum III "Methods for Health Services Research", supported by the member societies mentioned as authors and published in this Journal [Gesundheitswesen 2010; 72: 739-748]. The present paper focuses on methodological issues of economic evaluation of health care technologies. It complements the Memorandum III "Methods for Health Services Research", part 2. First, general methodological principles of the economic evaluations of health care technologies are outlined. In order to adequately reflect costs and outcomes of health care interventions in the routine health care, data from different sources are required (e. g., comparative efficacy or effectiveness studies, registers, administrative data, etc.). Therefore, various data sources, which might be used for economic evaluations, are presented, and their strengths and limitations are stated. Finally, the need for methodological advancement with regard to data collection and analysis and issues pertaining to communication and dissemination of results of health economic evaluations are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Analysing group interaction in focus group research: Impact on content and the role of the moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Grønkjær

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between group participants is considered the distinct advantage and hallmark of focus group research. It is therefore necessary to include the social interaction dynamics in analysing focus group data. Little information is however available on analysis of the social interaction in the group and the analytical outcome for the content of the data. This paper contributes to the discussion of the value of participant interaction in focus group research by analysing sequences of interaction collected recently during a research project. This project utilized focus groups to investigate the perceptions and meanings of alcohol use in Denmark. As a frame for analysing group interaction, elements of conversation analysis were used. The aim of this paper is to illustrate group interaction and its impact on the content of focus group data, and highlight the role and some of the challenges posed by group interaction for moderating the focus group discussion. The interaction analyses led to the construction of four interactional events: Negotiating and constructing normality in interaction, disagreement and/or consensus, homogeneity and the impact on interaction and content, and coming to and making sense of a dead-end (including the risk of hierarchical issues. The interactional events are followed by considerations on the impact they may have on the role of the moderator.

  10. Research in Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Henrique Norman

    2013-04-01

    Atenção Primária (CIAP, mais vinculado ao processo de trabalho como um todo do que à Classificação Internacional das Doenças (CID, que se relaciona mais ao processo de vigilância da morbimortalidade. A CIAP, atualmente na sua segunda versão, classifica o processo de cuidado em três diferentes segmentos: razão de encontro, diagnóstico e processo7. Assim, a CIAP-2 possibilita ao clínico ou pesquisador mudar para uma epidemiologia orientada ao episódio do cuidado, ou seja, permite uma análise ao longo do tempo do episódio de cuidado, na medida que esse se desenvolve, marcado pela transição (ou mudanças na relação entre a razão do encontro ou consulta, diagnóstico e intervenções realizadas. A CIAP-2 também é mais leve e com poucos códigos, se comparada ao CID, pois abarca os problemas mais comuns da prática, com frequência intermediária (definidos por taxa de ocorrência de 1-5/1.000 pacientes/ano ou frequentes (definidos por taxa de ocorrência ? 5/1.000 pacientes/ano7. Essa ferramenta desenvolvida pelos médicos de família é parte integrante da agenda da Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHO – Family International Classification6, entretanto necessita ganhar mais espaço na prática e nas pesquisas em APS no Brasil. A presente edição contribui para essa discussão trazendo três artigos – um de Portugal e dois do Brasil – que abordam o tema da CIAP. O primeiro, Tendência de classificação no Capítulo Z da CIAP-2 entre 2006 e 2011 em um centro de saúde de Medicina Familiar em Coimbra, Portugal, faz uma reflexão sobre o aumento do uso de códigos referentes a problemas sociais, que talvez reflita a crise econômica pela qual está passando Portugal. Já os artigos dos autores brasileiros versam sobre a aplicabilidade da CIAP como ferramenta de estudo da demanda em APS. O artigo A methodological proposal to research patients’ demands and pre-test probabilities in a paper form in primary care settings oferece uma

  11. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end.

  12. Planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers: Factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklöf, Niina; Hupli, Maija; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-03-17

    The aim of this article was to discuss factors related to the researcher, interpreter and asylum seekers when planning focus group interviews with asylum seekers. Focus group interview is one of the basic data collection methods in descriptive nursing and health research. It has been used in multicultural research, allowing an opportunity to participate without literacy and to have linguistic and cultural support from other participants. Asylum seekers form a specific, vulnerable group, and the growing number of asylum seekers increases the need for research related to them. A culturally, methodologically and ethically high-quality focus group interview is based on the researcher's special knowledge and skills, acknowledgement of asylum seekers as both individuals and part of cultural and communal groups, and careful planning of the interpreter's role during the interviews. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Research in child and adolescent telemental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Kathleen M; Palmer, Nancy B; Geyer, John R

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade telepsychiatry, and more broadly telemental health (TMH), services with children and adolescents have been implemented with diverse populations in many geographic areas across the United States. The feasibility and acceptability of child and adolescent TMH have been well demonstrated, but little research exists on the efficacy and effectiveness of TMH in improving the mental health care and outcomes for underserved youth. This article summarizes the state of research in child and adolescent telemental health TMH and examines studies in other areas of telemedicine that may inspire and guide child and adolescent telepsychiatrists to collect data on the process and outcomes of their own work.

  14. Manganese Health Research Program (MHRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    by severing the abdominal aorta. Immediately after death, the head with the lower jaw and skin removed was split in half along the medial...Exposure group (mg Mn/m3) Exposure day Treated/Control p Value Compound Name 1.5 33 0.85 0.0044 Hexanoic Acid 1.5 33 0.70 0.0010 Nicotinamide 1.5...0.04 0.0470 Creatine 1.5 15 0.89 0.0453 Hexanoic Acid 1.5 15 0.78 0.0380 Phenylalanine 1.5 15 0.74 0.0039 Nicotinamide 1.5 15 0.65 0.0035

  15. A personal health information toolkit for health intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizakevich, Paul N; Eckhoff, Randall; Weger, Stacey; Weeks, Adam; Brown, Janice; Bryant, Stephanie; Bakalov, Vesselina; Zhang, Yuying; Lyden, Jennifer; Spira, James

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of mobile health (mHealth) apps, there is a growing demand for better tools for developing and evaluating mobile health interventions. Recently we developed the Personal Health Intervention Toolkit (PHIT), a software framework which eases app implementation and facilitates scientific evaluation. PHIT integrates self-report and physiological sensor instruments, evidence-based advisor logic, and self-help interventions such as meditation, health education, and cognitive behavior change. PHIT can be used to facilitate research, interventions for chronic diseases, risky behaviors, sleep, medication adherence, environmental monitoring, momentary data collection health screening, and clinical decision support. In a series of usability evaluations, participants reported an overall usability score of 4.5 on a 1-5 Likert scale and an 85 score on the System Usability Scale, indicating a high percentile rank of 95%.

  16. Global Manufacturing Research: Experience Exchange Group (EEG) contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an ExperienceExchange Group (EEG) can be involved in a research process in the areaof industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoingresearch in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research itwas after a series...... activities aredescribed and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research processis proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological andquality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities couldpossible contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper endsup looking at future research...

  17. Health charities, unethical research and organizational integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehany, John

    2005-01-01

    Organizations, particularly Catholic hospitals, schools and social service agencies, should re-examine their relationships to health and medical charities promoting unethical research such as human embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning. Part 6 of the Ethical and Religious Directives provides a helpful framework for ethical analysis and action.

  18. Mental health research, ethics and multiculturalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Marion J; Minas, I Harry; Klimidis, Steven

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we examine ethical issues relevant to conducting mental health research with refugees and immigrant communities that have cultural orientations and social organisation that are substantially different to those of the broader Australian community, and we relate these issues to NH&MRC Guidelines. We describe the development and conduct of a mental health research project carried out recently in Melbourne with the Somali community, focusing on ethical principles involved, and relating these to the NH&MRC National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Research Involving Humans, and the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research. The experience of conducting mental health research with the Somali community highlights the fact that the principles of inclusion and benefit enunciated in the NH&MRC document Values and Ethics are particularly pertinent when conducting research with refugees and immigrant communities that are culturally distant to those of the broader Australian community. These principles inform issues of research design and consent, as well as guiding respectful engagement with the participating community and communication of the research findings.

  19. International Group Work Research: Guidelines in Cultural Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, Lorraine J.; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.

    2017-01-01

    This article offers 10 guidelines for conducting international group work research. These guidelines include the importance of establishing relationships, conducting a needs assessment, co-constructing the research questions/design, determining the approach, choosing culturally relevant instruments, choosing culturally responsive group…

  20. Research and development in health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals working in the field of health promotion and education experience certain value conflicts: their professional and personal values, the values of their clients or of the health services clash with pedagogic values such as participation, involvement, learning and competence...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...... the significance that is founded in theory and relevant to the practice of working with values within various cultures and selected settings: schools, local communities, educational institutions and political organisations. The research moreover aims to diversify a number of more general concepts and connections...

  1. Research and development in health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals working in the field of health promotion and education experience certain value conflicts: their professional and personal values, the values of their clients or of the health services clash with pedagogic values such as participation, involvement, learning and competence...... development. My educational research is concerned with the exploration and development of the knowledge about values and health education related to competence development among health professionals. The purpose is to contribute to systematic knowledge development with a view to support and diversify...... the significance that is founded in theory and relevant to the practice of working with values within various cultures and selected settings: schools, local communities, educational institutions and political organisations. The research moreover aims to diversify a number of more general concepts and connections...

  2. Smokers With Behavioral Health Comorbidity Should Be Designated a Tobacco Use Disparity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc L.; Griffiths, Kim Gesell; Cooperman, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Smokers with co-occurring mental illness or substance use disorders are not designated a disparity group or priority population by most national public health and tobacco control groups. These smokers fulfill the criteria commonly used to identify groups that merit special attention: targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, high smoking prevalence rates, heavy economic and health burdens from tobacco, limited access to treatment, and longer durations of smoking with less cessation. A national effort to increase surveillance, research, and treatment is needed. Designating smokers with behavioral health comorbidity a priority group will bring much-needed attention and resources. The disparity in smoking rates among persons with behavioral health issues relative to the general population will worsen over time if their needs remain unaddressed. PMID:23865661

  3. Race-Ethnicity and Health Trajectories: Tests of Three Hypotheses across Multiple Groups and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyson H.; O'Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from…

  4. The focus group technique in electoral research - an experimental project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTOS NEVES, Manuela Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is about the application of focus group method in electoral research and its contribution to the strategic planning of campaigns. The methodological approach and analysis were based on the nature of information that this kind of research may provide. The starting point was an experimental research conducted by the campaign of a re-election candidate to the House of Representatives of the state of Espírito Santo.

  5. [Hospital biomedical research through the satisfaction of a Health Research Institute professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, C; Plá, R; Bellón, J M; Bardinet, T; Buño, I; Bañares, R

    2015-01-01

    A Health Research Institute is a powerful strategic commitment to promote biomedical research in hospitals. To assess user satisfaction is an essential quality requirement. The aim of this study is to evaluate the professional satisfaction in a Health Research Institute, a hospital biomedical research centre par excellence. Observational study was conducted using a satisfaction questionnaire on Health Research Institute researchers. The explored dimensions were derived from the services offered by the Institute to researchers, and are structured around 4 axes of a five-year Strategic Plan. A descriptive and analytical study was performed depending on adjustment variables. Internal consistency was also calculated. The questionnaire was completed by 108 researchers (15% response). The most valued strategic aspect was the structuring Areas and Research Groups and political communication and dissemination. The overall rating was 7.25 out of 10. Suggestions for improvement refer to the need for help in recruitment, and research infrastructures. High internal consistency was found in the questionnaire (Cronbach alpha of 0.9). So far research policies in health and biomedical environment have not been sufficiently evaluated by professionals in our field. Systematic evaluations of satisfaction and expectations of key stakeholders is an essential tool for analysis, participation in continuous improvement and advancing excellence in health research. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S S I; Pardhan, A; Khan, A S; Ahmed, A; Choudry, F J; Pardhan, K; Nayeem, K; Khan, M

    2002-08-01

    To find out the superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups, their implications over the socio-economic development of that group and to what extent can those superstitions be related to their level of literacy. The study was a questionnaire-based survey, 20 subjects from each ethnic group were selected by cluster sampling of residential areas where that particular group has its highest concentration, making a total of 100 subjects. It was found that most people (73%) do have some superstitious beliefs. Fifty percent of people believe in them as a part of culture and tradition, another 25% got them from their elders. No significant difference was found between different racial groups (p value = 0.9). According to literacy rate, 73.5% of literate community and 94.1% illiterate community were found to have superstitions. The occupation of the breadwinner of family didn't have a significant impact over the belief in superstitions (p value = 0.6). Majority of our population believes in superstitions, which are more common in illiterates. These superstitions not only predict health seeking behaviour of a person but also play a major role in shaping the response of a community to any health intervention program. Without the knowledge of these superstitions, effective community participation cannot be achieved.

  7. 75 FR 70114 - Amendment to the Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Amendment to interim final... regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and...

  8. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... amendment to the interim final rules (76 FR 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... rule with request for comments entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules...

  9. 75 FR 70159 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ50 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage... provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar...

  10. New directions for telemental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Terry; Brennan, David M; Chumbler, Neale R; Kobb, Rita; Yellowlees, Peter

    2008-11-01

    Although telemental healthcare has been available for many years, is generally accepted as effective, and has steadily growing numbers of consumers and providers, more and better research in this area needs to be done in order to convince insurers, policymakers, and funding agencies that mental healthcare delivered from a distance is at least as good as that delivered face-to-face. Because there is a wide spectrum of potential mental health disorders that might be encountered, there are significant gaps in telemental health research that need to be addressed before payment for services or funding for large-scale studies of this application can be expected. This white paper will review the current state of telemental health research and will offer suggestions for future directions necessary for telemental research to take in order to firmly establish its effectiveness.

  11. Brokering health policy: coalitions, parties, and interest group influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Michael T

    2006-10-01

    Assuming a position as broker between disconnected interests is one way for an interest group to influence the making of federal health policy. This study demonstrates how groups use their connections with political parties and lobbying coalitions to augment their brokerage positions and enhance their influence over policy making. Evidence is drawn from statistical analysis of 263 interviews with health policy elites and a qualitative case study of the debate over the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. The results explain, in part, how interest groups play their brokerage roles as dispersed actors in a decentralized system, rather than as central mediators that intervene in a wide range of policy disputes.

  12. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Amy J; White Hat, Emily R; Angal, Jyoti; Grey Owl, Victoria; Puumala, Susan E; Baete Kenyon, DenYelle

    2015-12-22

    The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH) was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects), three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology), six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  13. Fostering Social Determinants of Health Transdisciplinary Research: The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. Elliott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Collaborative Research Center for American Indian Health (CRCAIH was established in September 2012 as a unifying structure to bring together tribal communities and health researchers across South Dakota, North Dakota and Minnesota to address American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN health disparities. CRCAIH is based on the core values of transdisciplinary research, sustainability and tribal sovereignty. All CRCAIH resources and activities revolve around the central aim of assisting tribes with establishing and advancing their own research infrastructures and agendas, as well as increasing AI/AN health research. CRCAIH is comprised of three divisions (administrative; community engagement and innovation; research projects, three technical cores (culture, science and bioethics; regulatory knowledge; and methodology, six tribal partners and supports numerous multi-year and one-year pilot research projects. Under the ultimate goal of improving health for AI/AN, this paper describes the overarching vision and structure of CRCAIH, highlighting lessons learned in the first three years.

  14. [Qualitative research methodology in health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedregal, Paula; Besoain, Carolina; Reinoso, Alejandro; Zubarew, Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Health care research requires different methodological approaches such as qualitative and quantitative analyzes to understand the phenomena under study. Qualitative research is usually the least considered. Central elements of the qualitative method are that the object of study is constituted by perceptions, emotions and beliefs, non-random sampling by purpose, circular process of knowledge construction, and methodological rigor throughout the research process, from quality design to the consistency of results. The objective of this work is to contribute to the methodological knowledge about qualitative research in health services, based on the implementation of the study, “The transition process from pediatric to adult services: perspectives from adolescents with chronic diseases, caregivers and health professionals”. The information gathered through the qualitative methodology facilitated the understanding of critical points, barriers and facilitators of the transition process of adolescents with chronic diseases, considering the perspective of users and the health team. This study allowed the design of a transition services model from pediatric to adult health services based on the needs of adolescents with chronic diseases, their caregivers and the health team.

  15. Guidelines to classify subject groups in sport-science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Kevin; Roelands, Bart; Cheung, Stephen S; de Geus, Bas; Rietjens, Gerard; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this systematic literature review was to outline the various preexperimental maximal cycle-test protocols, terminology, and performance indicators currently used to classify subject groups in sport-science research and to construct a classification system for cycling-related research. A database of 130 subject-group descriptions contains information on preexperimental maximal cycle-protocol designs, terminology of the subject groups, biometrical and physiological data, cycling experience, and parameters. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 1-way ANOVA, post hoc Bonferroni (P data on a subject group, researchers apply various terms to define the group. To solve this complexity, the authors introduced the neutral term performance levels 1 to 5, representing untrained, recreationally trained, trained, well-trained, and professional subject groups, respectively. The most cited parameter in literature to define subject groups is relative VO(2max), and therefore no overlap between different performance levels may occur for this principal parameter. Another significant cycling parameter is the absolute PPO. The description of additional physiological information and current and past cycling data is advised. This review clearly shows the need to standardize the procedure for classifying subject groups. Recommendations are formulated concerning preexperimental testing, terminology, and performance indicators.

  16. Absolute and specific measures of research group excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Mryglod, O; Holovatch, Yu; Berche, B

    2012-01-01

    A desirable goal of scientific management is to introduce, if it exists, a simple and reliable way to measure the scientific excellence of publicly-funded research institutions and universities to serve as a basis for their ranking and financing. While citation-based indicators and metrics are easily accessible, they are far from being universally accepted as way to automate or inform evaluation processes or to replace evaluations based on peer review. Here we consider absolute measurements of research excellence at an amalgamated, institutional level and specific measures of research excellence as performance per head. Using biology research institutions in the UK as a test case, we examine the correlations between peer-review-based and citation-based measures of research excellence on these two scales. We find that citation-based indicators are very highly correlated with peer-evaluated measures of group strength but are poorly correlated with group quality. Thus, and almost paradoxically, our analysis indi...

  17. Twenty years of social capital and health research: a glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S; Kawachi, I

    2017-05-01

    Research on social capital in public health is approaching its 20th anniversary. Over this period, there have been rich and productive debates on the definition, measurement and importance of social capital for public health research and practice. As a result, the concepts and measures characterising social capital and health research have also evolved, often drawing from research in the social, political and behavioural sciences. The multidisciplinary adaptation of social capital-related concepts to study health has made it challenging for researchers to reach consensus on a common theoretical approach. This glossary thus aims to provide a general overview without recommending any particular approach. Based on our knowledge and research on social capital and health, we have selected key concepts and terms that have gained prominence over the last decade and complement an earlier glossary on social capital and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. The effectiveness of a health promotion with group intervention by clinical trial. Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Osaba Maria-Antonia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promotion of health and the interventions in community health continue to be one of the pending subjects of our health system. The most prevalent health problems (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes... are for the most part related to life habits. We propose a holistic and integral approach as the best option for tackling behavior and its determinants. The research team has elaborated the necessary educational material to realize group teaching, which we call "Health Workshops". The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these Health Workshops in the following terms: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL, incorporate and maintain a balanced diet, do physical activity regularly, maintain risk factors such as tension, weight, cholesterol within normal limits and diminish cardiovascular risk. Methods/Design Controlled and random clinical testing, comparing a group of persons who have participated in the Health Workshops with a control group of similar characteristics who have not participated in the Health Workshops. Field of study: the research is being done in Health Centers of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Population studied: The group is composed of 108 persons that are actually doing the Health Workshops, and 108 that are not and form the control group. They are assigned at random to one group or the other. Data Analysis: With Student's t-distribution test to compare the differences between numerical variables or their non parametric equivalent if the variable does not comply with the criteria of normality. (Kolmogorov-Smirnof test. Chi-square test to compare the differences between categorical variables and the Logistic Regression Model to analyze different meaningful variables by dichotomous analysis related to the intervention. Discussion The Health Workshop proposed in the present study constitutes an innovative approach in health promotion, placing the emphasis on the person's self

  19. Portraying Reflexivity in Health Services Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, John; Green, Bill

    2016-09-01

    A model is proposed for supporting reflexivity in qualitative health research, informed by arguments from Bourdieu and Finlay. Bourdieu refers to mastering the subjective relation to the object at three levels-the overall social space, the field of specialists, and the scholastic universe. The model overlays Bourdieu's levels of objectivation with Finlay's three stages of research (pre-research, data collection, and data analysis). The intersections of these two ways of considering reflexivity, displayed as cells of a matrix, pose questions and offer prompts to productively challenge health researchers' reflexivity. Portraiture is used to show how these challenges and prompts can facilitate such reflexivity, as illustrated in a research project. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Health and environmental research. Summary of accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-04-01

    This is a short account of a 40-year-old health and environmental research program performed in national laboratories, universities, and research institutes. Under the sponsorship of the federal agencies that were consecutively responsible for the national energy mission, this research program has contributed to the understanding of the human health and environmental effects of emergining energy technologies. In so doing, it has also evolved several nuclear techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of human ills. The form of this presentation is through examples of significant, tangible accomplishments in each of these areas at certain times to illustrate the role and impact of the research program. The narrative of this research program concludes with a perspective of its past and a prospectus on its future.

  1. Promoting public health research in BRICS through a multinational public health prize fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes the establishment of a prize fund to incentivise public health research within the BRICS association, which comprises the five major emerging world economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. This would stimulate cooperative healthcare research within the group and, on the proviso that the benefits of the research are made freely available within the association, would be rewarding for researchers. The results of the research stimulated by the prize would provide beneficial new healthcare technologies, targeting the most vulnerable and needy groups. The proposed fund is consistent with current international patent law and would not only avoid some of the problems associated with the "Health Impact Fund", but also create a new model for healthcare research.

  2. Efficiency Evaluation of Research Groups Using Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehssan Jandaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare efficiency of research groups in the Center of Social and Cultural Research. There are several tools for efficiency evaluation. The method used in this study was Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA in which rate of output is evaluated by input and effective and non-effective units are determined. The first step in DEA is to prepare a list of inputs and outputs. The inputs in this study were personnel and administrative costs, the ratio of group staff to the total staff of the center and person-hours of labor. The outputs of this study contained the number of finished research projects, proportion of allocated budget to the total budget issued and the Percent of the projects’ progress. The survey was carried out in 20 research groups, using DEA method. The analysis indicated that 5 groups were efficient and 3 groups were on border line. To improve non-efficient groups and converting them to efficient ones, we suggest some adjustments in inputs and outputs.

  3. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankivsky, Olena; Reid, Colleen; Cormier, Renee; Varcoe, Colleen; Clark, Natalie; Benoit, Cecilia; Brotman, Shari

    2010-02-11

    Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning and significance of social

  4. Exploring the promises of intersectionality for advancing women's health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark Natalie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women's health research strives to make change. It seeks to produce knowledge that promotes action on the variety of factors that affect women's lives and their health. As part of this general movement, important strides have been made to raise awareness of the health effects of sex and gender. The resultant base of knowledge has been used to inform health research, policy, and practice. Increasingly, however, the need to pay better attention to the inequities among women that are caused by racism, colonialism, ethnocentrism, heterosexism, and able-bodism, is confronting feminist health researchers and activists. Researchers are seeking new conceptual frameworks that can transform the design of research to produce knowledge that captures how systems of discrimination or subordination overlap and "articulate" with one another. An emerging paradigm for women's health research is intersectionality. Intersectionality places an explicit focus on differences among groups and seeks to illuminate various interacting social factors that affect human lives, including social locations, health status, and quality of life. This paper will draw on recently emerging intersectionality research in the Canadian women's health context in order to explore the promises and practical challenges of the processes involved in applying an intersectionality paradigm. We begin with a brief overview of why the need for an intersectionality approach has emerged within the context of women's health research and introduce current thinking about how intersectionality can inform and transform health research more broadly. We then highlight novel Canadian research that is grappling with the challenges in addressing issues of difference and diversity. In the analysis of these examples, we focus on a largely uninvestigated aspect of intersectionality research - the challenges involved in the process of initiating and developing such projects and, in particular, the meaning

  5. Increasing User Involvement in Health Care and Health Research Simultaneously

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Salkeld, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    , Comparators, Outcomes, Timings, and Settings (PICOTS) framework. RESULTS: Our underlying hypothesis concerns the person-as-researcher who is equipped with a prescriptive, transparent, expected value-based opinion-an opinion that combines their criterion importance weights with the Best Estimates Available Now...... for how well each of the available options performs on each of those outcomes. The hypothesis is that this person-as-researcher is more likely to be able to position themselves as an active participant in a clinical encounter, if they wish, than someone who has engaged with a descriptive decision aid...... and democracy. OBJECTIVE: Our Web-based project aims to increase involvement in health care and health research and is presented in the form of an umbrella protocol for a set of project-specific protocols. We conceptualize the person as a researcher engaged in a continual, living, informal "n-of-1"-type study...

  6. NHRC (Naval Health Research Center) Report for 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Lang) "Perspectives on Occupational Health" (Dr. Jones) "Field Studies" (Chaired by Dr. Gunderson) Camp LeJeune , North Carolina, Dr. Eli Breger, 9...Kirkpatrick & Hooper) "Detection of Group Specific Polysaccharide from Group A Streptococcus by ELISA" (Dr. Hilderbrand Mr. Edwards, Dr. Henderson...Rahe) RESEARCH RESULTS were reported and discussions were led with hospital staff at these hospitals and cZinics: Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, 14

  7. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey; Yeskey, Kevin; Garantziotis, Stavros; Arnesen, Stacey; Bennett, April; O'Fallon, Liam; Thompson, Claudia; Reinlib, Les; Masten, Scott; Remington, James; Love, Cindy; Ramsey, Steve; Rosselli, Richard; Galluzzo, Betsy; Lee, Joy; Kwok, Richard; Hughes, Joseph

    2016-07-04

    The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions-such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness.

  8. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey; Yeskey, Kevin; Garantziotis, Stavros; Arnesen, Stacey; Bennett, April; O’Fallon, Liam; Thompson, Claudia; Reinlib, Les; Masten, Scott; Remington, James; Love, Cindy; Ramsey, Steve; Rosselli, Richard; Galluzzo, Betsy; Lee, Joy; Kwok, Richard; Hughes, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions—such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness. PMID:27384574

  9. Integrating Health Research into Disaster Response: The New NIH Disaster Research Response Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Miller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for high quality and timely disaster research has been a topic of great discussion over the past several years. Recent high profile incidents have exposed gaps in knowledge about the health impacts of disasters or the benefits of specific interventions—such was the case with the 2010 Gulf Oil Spill and recent events associated with lead-contaminated drinking water in Flint, Michigan, and the evolving health crisis related to Zika virus disease. Our inability to perform timely research to inform the community about health and safety risks or address specific concerns further heightens anxiety and distrust. Since nearly all disasters, whether natural or man-made, have an environmental health component, it is critical that specialized research tools and trained researchers be readily available to evaluate complex exposures and health effects, especially for vulnerable sub-populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, and those with socioeconomic and environmental disparities. In response, the National Institute of Environmental Health Science has initiated a Disaster Research Response Program to create new tools, protocols, networks of researchers, training exercises, and outreach involving diverse groups of stakeholders to help overcome the challenges of disaster research and to improve our ability to collect vital information to reduce the adverse health impacts and improve future preparedness.

  10. Research Priorities for Fertility and Conception Research as Identified by Multidisciplinary Health Care Practitioners and Researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa J; Spencer, Laura; Russell, Darryl L; Hull, Mary Louise; Robertson, Sarah A; Varcoe, Tamara J; Davies, Michael J; Brown, Hannah M; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-01-13

    The Robinson Research Institute of the University of Adelaide convened a multidisciplinary group of n = 33 clinicians, researchers and representatives of government organisations on the 2 October 2014 for a workshop entitled "Promoting fertility and healthy conception. How do we generate greater reproductive health awareness?" The key aim of the workshop was to assess the body of knowledge that informs clinical practice and government policy, and to identify questions and additional information needed by health practitioners and government representatives working in the field of reproductive health and to frame future research and policy. The workshop identified topics that fell mostly into three categories: lifestyle-related, societal and biological factors. The lifestyle topics included nutrition and diet, exercise, obesity, shift work and other factors deemed to be modifiable at the level of the individual. The societal topics included discussions of matters that are structural, and resistant to change by individuals, including specific ethical issues, social disadvantage, government and educational policies. The biological factors are intrinsic physical states of the individual, and included many factors where there is a dense body of scientific knowledge which may not be readily accessible in less academic language. This workshop thus provided an opportunity to identify further actions that could be undertaken to meet the needs of diverse organisations and groups of professionals with an interest in human fertility. Since so many factors in our social and biological environment can impact fertility and preconception health, it is imperative to involve many disciplines or levels of government or societal organisations that have not traditionally been involved in this area.

  11. Research Priorities for Fertility and Conception Research as Identified by Multidisciplinary Health Care Practitioners and Researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa J. Moran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Robinson Research Institute of the University of Adelaide convened a multidisciplinary group of n = 33 clinicians, researchers and representatives of government organisations on the 2 October 2014 for a workshop entitled “Promoting fertility and healthy conception. How do we generate greater reproductive health awareness?” The key aim of the workshop was to assess the body of knowledge that informs clinical practice and government policy, and to identify questions and additional information needed by health practitioners and government representatives working in the field of reproductive health and to frame future research and policy. The workshop identified topics that fell mostly into three categories: lifestyle-related, societal and biological factors. The lifestyle topics included nutrition and diet, exercise, obesity, shift work and other factors deemed to be modifiable at the level of the individual. The societal topics included discussions of matters that are structural, and resistant to change by individuals, including specific ethical issues, social disadvantage, government and educational policies. The biological factors are intrinsic physical states of the individual, and included many factors where there is a dense body of scientific knowledge which may not be readily accessible in less academic language. This workshop thus provided an opportunity to identify further actions that could be undertaken to meet the needs of diverse organisations and groups of professionals with an interest in human fertility. Since so many factors in our social and biological environment can impact fertility and preconception health, it is imperative to involve many disciplines or levels of government or societal organisations that have not traditionally been involved in this area.

  12. Mapping South African public health research (1975 - 2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parasitology, mental health, and organisation ... Tropical Medicine and International Health ..... National Health Laboratory Service Research Trust. 3 ... Technological Development); PEPFAR = US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief;.

  13. Mental health research priorities for Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, Til; Haro, Josep Maria; Belli, Stefano R; Obradors-Tarragó, Carla; Arango, Celso; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis; Bitter, István; Brunn, Matthias; Chevreul, Karine; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Elfeddali, Iman; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Fiorillo, Andrea; Forsman, Anna K; Hazo, Jean-Baptiste; Kuepper, Rebecca; Knappe, Susanne; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Shôn W; Linszen, Donald; Luciano, Mario; Maj, Mario; McDaid, David; Miret, Marta; Papp, Szilvia; Park, A-La; Schumann, Gunter; Thornicroft, Graham; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina; van Os, Jim; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Walker-Tilley, Tom; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-11-01

    Mental and brain disorders represent the greatest health burden to Europe-not only for directly affected individuals, but also for their caregivers and the wider society. They incur substantial economic costs through direct (and indirect) health-care and welfare spending, and via productivity losses, all of which substantially affect European development. Funding for research to mitigate these effects lags far behind the cost of mental and brain disorders to society. Here, we describe a comprehensive, coordinated mental health research agenda for Europe and worldwide. This agenda was based on systematic reviews of published work and consensus decision making by multidisciplinary scientific experts and affected stakeholders (more than 1000 in total): individuals with mental health problems and their families, health-care workers, policy makers, and funders. We generated six priorities that will, over the next 5-10 years, help to close the biggest gaps in mental health research in Europe, and in turn overcome the substantial challenges caused by mental disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 2016 INCAM Research Symposium: Expanding Person-Centred Care through Integrative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Heather; Gaboury, Isabelle; Balneaves, Lynda G; Tsui, Teresa; Ng, Jeremy Y; Bozinovski, Natalie

    2016-12-01

    The following are abstracts of research presentations given at the 9th INCAM Research Symposium. The theme for this year's conference was "Expanding Person-Centred Care through Integrative Health Research", which was held on November 18 and 19, 2016 at the Toronto Marriott Bloor Yorkville Hotel in Ontario, Canada. The abstracts are grouped under the categories of oral or poster presentation based on their presentation at the Symposium. For more information, please visit: http://www.iscmr.org/content/canadian-chapter---public.

  15. The California Health Policy Research Program - supporting policy making through evidence and responsive research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roby, Dylan H; Jacobs, Ken; Kertzner, Alex E; Kominski, Gerald F

    2014-08-01

    This article explores the creation, design, and execution of a university-based collaboration to provide responsive research and evidence to a group of diverse health care, labor, and consumer stakeholders through convening a funded series of deliberative meetings, research briefs, peer-reviewed journal articles, ad hoc data analyses, and policy analyses. Funded by the California Endowment, the California Health Policy Research Program was created by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley Center for Labor Research and Education, and the UCLA Center for Health Policy Research. The collaboration not only allowed new research and analyses to be used by stakeholders and policy makers in decision making but also allowed university researchers to receive input on the important health policy issues of the day. The guidance of stakeholders in the research and policy analysis process was vital in driving meaningful results during an important time in health policy making in California. The manuscript discusses lessons learned in building relationships with stakeholders; meeting research and analytic needs; engaging stakeholders and policy makers; building capacity for quick-turnaround data collection and analysis, dissemination and publication; and maintaining the collaboration.

  16. Health claims on foods: challenge for clinical research companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essi Sarkkinen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Nutrition and Health Claim Regulation 1924/2006/EC, together with EFSA guidances on the scientific requirements for different type of health claims, is setting the basis for health claim substantiation in the EU. Aim The aim of this presentation is to bring up the key challenges that the food industry and clinical research organizations are facing when meeting these requirements. Results and discussion Key issues in clinical research planning to meet the requirements set for the health claim substantiation are: (1 Selection of right outcome markers since the selection of outcome marker defines actually the formulation of the health claim to be used on food or food ingredient. (2 Selection of right target population since that determines the target consumer group for the food with a health claim. (3 Selection of dose regime and food matrices used since these largely determine the conditions set for the use of the health claim. One of the major challenges in health claim substantiation is the deviant approach to risk factors or biomarkers. From the regulation point of view, a single risk factor approach is emphasized, but from the clinical and scientific point of view the pattern of different risk markers or biomarkers could, in some cases, be a more relevant choice to reflect the final health outcome. This is especially the case in the nutrition and health area because we are often dealing with weak but multiple health effects of certain food items or ingredients. Also the lack of validated well-established biomarkers potent to be affected by diet is a challenge in health claim substantiation.The selection of right target population is often a compromise between choosing a more potential target group to obtain efficacy (i.e. risk factors elevated vs. patient groups and choosing a rationale to generalize the results to wider population (target consumer group.The selection of optimal dosing regime and matrices for a clinical study is

  17. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tiainen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the outcomes of the work is a model for collaborative research. It highlights, among others, the importance of creating a climate for collaboration within the research group and following a process of individual and collaborative writing to achieve the potential benefits of such research. The article also identifies a set of remaining challenges relevant to collaborative research.

  18. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  19. Public health research priorities in Europe seen by non-governmental organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulis, Gabriel; Garrido-Herrero, Lara; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Harvey, Gabrielle; McCarthy, Mark

    2008-12-01

    Public health research is concerned with population health, determinants of health, health systems research, health promotion, environmental health, health protection, disease prevention and research in other fields of public health. During the last decades, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are more often entering the field of public health research. This paper presents results of work within SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe), a European Commission funded study aimed to gather information and produce knowledge on the state of public health research in Europe. A questionnaire survey was developed and conducted among NGOs enrolled in a database held by the European Public Health Alliance (EPHA). There were 80 replies, and the response rate for NGOs that were members of EPHA was 53%. There were no significant statistical differences in the responses when analysed for three European groups ['old' member states (EU 15), accession members states in 2004 (EU 10) and EU-associated countries]. The NGOs reported a relatively large international experience, expressed by participation in international public health research, and more often practice work. The main research priorities reported were general public health, environmental health, ADHD, obesity, nutrition, tobacco control. NGOs showed low correlation between their work field and their proposed public health research priorities. There are growing numbers of NGOs in Europe concerned with public health. This survey indicates their interest also in public health research priorities.

  20. Research Needs and Priorities in Health Informatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, Jytte; Nøhr, Christian; McNair, Peter

    2000-01-01

    research items and 58 supplementary barriers were raised, divided into 14 topics grouped according to homogeneity. The emphasised research topics are business process re-engineering, the electronic patient record and connected inter-operating systems, (support for) evidence-based medicine and clinical...

  1. Anti-groups and action research in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Susanne; Frimann, Søren

    2014-01-01

    and the bibliography, too) in relation to a specific action research process. The aim is to reflect on an organizational change process in which the interpersonal relationships between group, management and organization exhibited anti-group patterns. We show how a psychodynamic approach and, in particular, the concept...... are discussed because both the external consultant’s and the researcher’s roles exert an influence on power and participation when working with conscious and unconscious interpersonal processes in the organization....

  2. Should mental health assessments be integral to domestic violence research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Veena A; Chandra, Prabha S

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensitive issues such as abuse and violence in vulnerable populations poses several ethical dilemmas. An important aspect is the impact of such enquiries on one's mental health. This paper discusses specific ethical issues related to mental health based on violence research conducted and reviewed by the authors. Research on violence among women includes the possibility that some revelations are occurring for the first time and are likely to be emotionally charged. Further, the very act of disclosure may involve emotional risks for the respondent. Psychological distress may be present prior to, during, or following the study. Hence assessing mental health parameters becomes essential and integral to research of this nature. Several issues in methodology are also important in mitigating the level of distress. Research on sensitive issues should either use measures developed in the same culture or those with adequate adaptation. The order of questions, language and method of termination of the interview may often make a difference to its psychological impact. While focus group discussions and semi structured interview schedules are most suited, questionnaires with a less structured and rigid approach may also be used. Preludes may be introduced to facilitate transition between different sections of an interview schedule and to provide a rationale for further enquiry. Obtaining informed consent in violence research should be a process rather than a one-time formality. Reports of adverse events are likely in violence research and hence such studies must include mental health intervention, ongoing follow up, documentation and appropriate referral services. Finally, since the researcher and the subject of the research are both affected in a study of this nature, adequate sensitisation, ongoing training and supervision of research staff are essential. Based on findings from ongoing research on violence and from review of other studies done in India, the paper

  3. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal database. We find that although progress has been made towards implementation of a healthcare system incorporating principles of PHC, further refining the system and targeting improvements effectively will require increased research and evaluation. Particularly in the 7 years since establishment of SAFCI, there has been a dearth of PHC research that makes evaluation of such key national policies impossible. The quantity and quality of PHC research must be improved, especially quasi-experimental studies with adequate control groups. The infrastructure for such studies must be strengthened through improved financing mechanisms, expanded institutional capacity and setting national research priorities. Important for future progress are improved tracking of health indicators, which in Bolivia are often out-of-date or incomplete, and prioritization of focused national research priorities on relevant policy issues. This study aims to serve as an aid towards PHC development efforts at the national level, as well as provide lessons for countries globally attempting to build effective health systems accommodating of a multi-national population in the midst of development.

  4. Privacy, security, and the public health researcher in the era of electronic health record research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Neal D; Sarwate, Anand D

    2016-01-01

    Health data derived from electronic health records are increasingly utilized in large-scale population health analyses. Going hand in hand with this increase in data is an increasing number of data breaches. Ensuring privacy and security of these data is a shared responsibility between the public health researcher, collaborators, and their institutions. In this article, we review the requirements of data privacy and security and discuss epidemiologic implications of emerging technologies from the computer science community that can be used for health data. In order to ensure that our needs as researchers are captured in these technologies, we must engage in the dialogue surrounding the development of these tools.

  5. Developing strategies to enhance health services research capacity in a predominantly rural Canadian health authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jennifer; Bryant Maclean, Leslie; Coward, Patricia; Broemeling, Anne-Marie

    2009-01-01

    gauge the progress of RCB initiatives when there is debate as to what the optimal outcomes and indicators of success are. Most definitions of RCB have focused on enhancing the ability to do research; however, there appears to be growing support for a more inclusive definition that also addresses the ability to use and apply research. The use and application of existing research findings, often referred to as knowledge translation and exchange (KTE), is one means of building organizational research capacity, and is particularly important within a rural health region where time, resources, and research skills are often limited. Dedicated RCB resources and staff support, as well as enthusiasm, academic partnerships, and identification of research 'champions' within the organization, have been critical in building research capacity within the region. Video- and teleconferencing, as well as webcasts, have allowed for expansion of RCB activities to rural/remote communities. Preliminary evaluation parameters to date suggest that the information translated during the RCB activities is motivating different groups within IH to initiate their own research and/or KTE strategies. Although preliminary results indicate improvements in research capacity within the organization, barriers to research participation such as time, funding, and communication are still evident 3 years post-implementation. Additional challenges to building research capacity within a rural health authority include geographical distances, diverse 'hot'/priority topics in need of research support, lack of protected time and limited research-related human resource capacity. The translation of research evidence and enhancement of staff research skills through the IH RCB initiatives has helped to achieve new standards of excellence in the planning, management and delivery of all health services across the predominantly rural health authority.

  6. What are the macro-social health research priorities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Tabrizchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background: Setting research priorities is a scientific process to allocate resources to the best use. In low- and middle-income countries, allocation of limited resources to fundamental issues is more important. So, the present study was conducted to determine social health research priorities.  Methods: In the first step, important issues and research topics of social health were extracted from documents and studies conducted at the national level.In qualitative phase, reciprocating questionnaires were sent and interviews were conducted with experts and stakeholders, social health issues (as members of Delphi. In the next step, the research topics extracted were discussed in small groups (suggested by Council on Health Research for Development to score the proposed priority topics by Delphi members. Finally, the list of priorities (titles that acquired more than 80% of the total score was sent to Delphi members for final approval.  Results: During the study, 220 topics were obtained in four research domains: “description of the problem and its consequences”, “cause finding”, “intervention to eliminate or reduce problems”, and “Management-Policymaking”. Finally, 30 of these topics remained as priority topics. High priority research topics in social health were equity, happiness, economics, and ethics, respectively.  Conclusion: The findings provide a list of research priorities that help researchers carrying out studies that will have the greatest social health impact. Some targeting areas such as happiness and ethics were identified as less attended subjects that need more investment in research policies, management, and governance.

  7. Methods of synthesizing qualitative research studies for health technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Nicola; Jepson, Ruth; Ritchie, Karen

    2011-10-01

    Synthesizing qualitative research is an important means of ensuring the needs, preferences, and experiences of patients are taken into account by service providers and policy makers, but the range of methods available can appear confusing. This study presents the methods for synthesizing qualitative research most used in health research to-date and, specifically those with a potential role in health technology assessment. To identify reviews conducted using the eight main methods for synthesizing qualitative studies, nine electronic databases were searched using key terms including meta-ethnography and synthesis. A summary table groups the identified reviews by their use of the eight methods, highlighting the methods used most generally and specifically in relation to health technology assessment topics. Although there is debate about how best to identify and quality appraise qualitative research for synthesis, 107 reviews were identified using one of the eight main methods. Four methods (meta-ethnography, meta-study, meta-summary, and thematic synthesis) have been most widely used and have a role within health technology assessment. Meta-ethnography is the leading method for synthesizing qualitative health research. Thematic synthesis is also useful for integrating qualitative and quantitative findings. Four other methods (critical interpretive synthesis, grounded theory synthesis, meta-interpretation, and cross-case analysis) have been under-used in health research and their potential in health technology assessments is currently under-developed. Synthesizing individual qualitative studies has becoming increasingly common in recent years. Although this is still an emerging research discipline such an approach is one means of promoting the patient-centeredness of health technology assessments.

  8. Research and Practice Communications Between Oral Health Providers and Prenatal Health Providers: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  9. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  10. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  11. Autoethnography in Health Research: Growing Pains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heewon

    2016-03-01

    Autoethnography is gaining acceptance as a legitimate research method in health science research. The growing volume of published autoethnographies is indicative of this trend. After discussing the methodological tenents of this qualitative research method and its compatibility with health-related research, the author illustrates this trend with examples of published autoethnogrpahic books, theses, and journal articles. While celebrating the potential of autoethnography as a suitable health research method, the author critiques dominatly descriptive and evocative illness self-narratives that may evoke emontionally compelling responses from readers but offer insufficient sociocultural insights about the illness phenomenon. To identify a "desirable" autoethnography that provides not only a "thick description" of personal experiences but also a sociocultural interpration of such experiences, the author recommends both creators and consumers of autoethnography to ask five evaluative questions: (1) Does the autoethnography use authentic and trustworthy data?; (2) Does the autoethnography follow a reliable research process and show the process clearly?; (3) Does the autoethnography follow ethical steps to protect the rights of self and others presented and implicated in the autoethnography?; (4) Does the autoethnography analyze and interpret the sociocultural meaning of the author's personal experiences?; and (5) Does the autoethnography attempt to make a scholarly contribution with its conclusion and engagement of the existing literature?

  12. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  13. Mental Health Support Groups, Stigma, and Self-Esteem : Positive and Negative Implications of Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crabtree, Jason W.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Research into the relationship between stigmatization and well-being suggests that identification with a stigmatized group can buffer individuals from the adverse effects of stigma. In part, this is because social identification is hypothesized to provide a basis for social support which increases

  14. Mental Health Support Groups, Stigma, and Self-Esteem : Positive and Negative Implications of Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crabtree, Jason W.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Research into the relationship between stigmatization and well-being suggests that identification with a stigmatized group can buffer individuals from the adverse effects of stigma. In part, this is because social identification is hypothesized to provide a basis for social support which increases r

  15. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the...

  16. 76 FR 16776 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice... Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service... for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public ] Health...

  17. A prognostic model to predict survival in 867 World Health Organization-defined essential thrombocythemia at diagnosis: a study by the International Working Group on Myelofibrosis Research and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, Francesco; Thiele, Jürgen; Girodon, Francois; Rumi, Elisa; Carobbio, Alessandra; Gisslinger, Heinz; Kvasnicka, Hans Michael; Ruggeri, Marco; Randi, Maria Luigia; Gangat, Naseema; Vannucchi, Alessandro Maria; Gianatti, Andrea; Gisslinger, Bettina; Müllauer, Leonhard; Rodeghiero, Francesco; d'Amore, Emanuele S G; Bertozzi, Irene; Hanson, Curtis A; Boveri, Emanuela; Marino, Filippo; Maffioli, Margherita; Caramazza, Domenica; Antonioli, Elisabetta; Carrai, Valentina; Buxhofer-Ausch, Veronika; Pascutto, Cristiana; Cazzola, Mario; Barbui, Tiziano; Tefferi, Ayalew

    2012-08-01

    Diagnosis of essential thrombocythemia (ET) has been updated in the last World Health Organization (WHO) classification. We developed a prognostic model to predict survival at diagnosis, named IPSET (International Prognostic Score for ET), studying patients with WHO-defined ET. Age 60 years or older, leukocyte count ≥ 11 × 10(9)/L, and prior thrombosis significantly affected survival, by multivariable Cox regression. On the basis of the hazard ratio, we assigned 2 points to age and 1 each to leukocyte count and thrombosis. So, the IPSET model allocated 867 patients into 3 risk categories with significantly different survival: low (sum of points = 0; median survival not reached), intermediate (sum = 1-2; median survival 24.5 years), and high (sum = 3-4, median survival 13.8 years). The IPSET model was further validated in 2 independent cohorts including 132 WHO-defined ET and 234 Polycythemia Vera Study Group-defined ET patients. The IPSET model was able to predict the occurrence of thrombosis, and not to predict post-ET myelofibrosis. In conclusion, IPSET, based on age ≥ 60 years, leukocyte count ≥ 11 × 10(9)/L, and history of thrombosis allows prognostic assessment of WHO-defined ET and the validation process makes IPSET applicable in all patients phenotypically appearing as ET.

  18. Scalable Combinatorial Tools for Health Disparities Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Langston

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite staggering investments made in unraveling the human genome, current estimates suggest that as much as 90% of the variance in cancer and chronic diseases can be attributed to factors outside an individual’s genetic endowment, particularly to environmental exposures experienced across his or her life course. New analytical approaches are clearly required as investigators turn to complicated systems theory and ecological, place-based and life-history perspectives in order to understand more clearly the relationships between social determinants, environmental exposures and health disparities. While traditional data analysis techniques remain foundational to health disparities research, they are easily overwhelmed by the ever-increasing size and heterogeneity of available data needed to illuminate latent gene x environment interactions. This has prompted the adaptation and application of scalable combinatorial methods, many from genome science research, to the study of population health. Most of these powerful tools are algorithmically sophisticated, highly automated and mathematically abstract. Their utility motivates the main theme of this paper, which is to describe real applications of innovative transdisciplinary models and analyses in an effort to help move the research community closer toward identifying the causal mechanisms and associated environmental contexts underlying health disparities. The public health exposome is used as a contemporary focus for addressing the complex nature of this subject.

  19. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekuabata Esau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. The Approach Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Discussion and Conclusions Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health

  20. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-Maclaren, Michelle L; Maclaren, David J; Solomon, Janella; Muse, Alwin; Asugeni, Rowena; Harrington, Humpress; Kekuabata, Esau; Speare, Richard; Clough, Alan R

    2010-10-31

    Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia) collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health research and practice on Malaita, Solomon Islands.

  1. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  2. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  3. Comparing public-health research priorities in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mark; Harvey, Gabrielle; Conceição, Claudia; la Torre, Giuseppe; Gulis, Gabriel

    2009-07-14

    Despite improving trends, countries in Europe continue to face public-health challenges. This study investigated the priorities of stakeholders for research to meet these challenges. Public-health research includes population-level and health-system research, but not clinical or biomedical research. The study drew on data from three surveys undertaken through collaboration in SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe). There was participation of ministries in 18 of 28 (64% response) European countries, from 22 of 39 (56% response) member national associations of the European Public Health Association, and from 80 civil society health organisations (53% of members of the European Public Health Alliance) Public-health research fields included disease control, health promotion and health services. Ministries of health, rather than ministries of science or education, mostly took responsibility for public-health research: they reported varied but well-defined areas for research in relation to national health plans and programmes. National public health associations reported research priorities across most fields of public health, although with some European regional differences. Civil society health organisations prioritised health promotion research nationally, but also health services research internationally. There was less research reported on methods, such as modelling and economic analysis, wider determinants of health, and public-health interventions. Systematic collaboration between stakeholders across European countries would enhance knowledge and promote innovation to address contemporary public-health challenges.

  4. Comparing public-health research priorities in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    la Torre Giuseppe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite improving trends, countries in Europe continue to face public-health challenges. This study investigated the priorities of stakeholders for research to meet these challenges. Methods Public-health research includes population-level and health-system research, but not clinical or biomedical research. The study drew on data from three surveys undertaken through collaboration in SPHERE (Strengthening Public Health Research in Europe. There was participation of ministries in 18 of 28 (64% response European countries, from 22 of 39 (56% response member national associations of the European Public Health Association, and from 80 civil society health organisations (53% of members of the European Public Health Alliance Results Public-health research fields included disease control, health promotion and health services. Ministries of health, rather than ministries of science or education, mostly took responsibility for public-health research: they reported varied but well-defined areas for research in relation to national health plans and programmes. National public health associations reported research priorities across most fields of public health, although with some European regional differences. Civil society health organisations prioritised health promotion research nationally, but also health services research internationally. There was less research reported on methods, such as modelling and economic analysis, wider determinants of health, and public-health interventions. Conclusion Systematic collaboration between stakeholders across European countries would enhance knowledge and promote innovation to address contemporary public-health challenges.

  5. Emotional intelligence vs. health behaviour in selected groups in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between the emotional intelligence of people in late adulthood and their health behaviour not described in the earlier literature on this subject. The objective of the research was to study the impact of emotional abilities on positive mental attitude, preventive behaviour, correct dietary habits and pro-health practice in selected older persons. The inventory of Pro-Health Behaviour (IZZ) by Juczyński Z was applied, together with the Polish adaptation of the INTE Questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence by Ciechanowicz A, Jaworowska A and Matczak A. A total of 199 people were examined. Two groups were taken into consideration: residents of care homes (DPS group) and attendees of the Third Age University (UTW group). Analyses of results showed statistically significant relationships between the variables: emotional intelligence and the individual categories of pro-health behaviour. This correlation had a positive nature: an increase in the intensity of emotional abilities, including the awareness of such abilities, led to the increase of health-care oriented behaviours. The division into DPS and UTW groups proved to be significant for the relationships between emotional intelligence, a positive mental attitude, and correct dietary habits. The result of the study show that pro-health activities are directly associated with the abilities to understand and to control the emotions of older people. The data obtained confirm the positive relationship between the high level of emotional intelligence and pro-health behaviour.

  6. Health literacy: setting an international collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowlands Gillian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in both the policy and research agendas of many countries. During the recent 36th Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, the authors led an audio-taped 3-hour forum, "Studying Health Literacy: Developing an International Collaboration," where the current state of health literacy (HL in the United States (US and United Kingdom (UK was presented and attendees were encouraged to debate a future research agenda. Discussion of Forum Themes The debate centred around three distinct themes, including: (1 refining HL definitions and conceptual models, (2 HL measurement and assessment tools, and (3 developing a collaborative international research agenda. The attendees agreed that future research should be theoretically grounded and conceptual models employed in studies should be explicit to allow for international comparisons to be drawn. Summary and Authors Reflections The importance of HL research and its possible contribution to health disparities is becoming increasingly recognised internationally. International collaborations and comparative studies could illuminate some of the possible determinants of disparities, and also possibly provide a vehicle to examine other research questions of interest.

  7. Las capacidades de investigación en Determinantes Sociales de la Salud de grupos registrados en Colciencias, Colombia (2005-2012 / The ability of the groups registered in Colciencias to conduct research on the social determinants of health, Colombia (2005-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia C. Concha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: analizar las capacidades de investigación en determinantes sociales de la salud (dss existentes en Colombia a partir de la información registrada en la plataforma de Colciencias entre enero del 2005 y abril del 2012, así como la opinión de coordinadores de grupos de investigación. Metodología: se diseñó un estudio observacional descriptivo sobre la base Scienti de Colciencias, específicamente sobre aspectos relacionados con los grupos, los investigadores y la producción científica sobre dss. Se complementó con cuestionarios y grupos focales con previo consentimiento informado y estudio del sistema nacional de investigación. Resultados: entre los 65 grupos registrados en el Programa de Ciencias de la Salud de Colciencias (6% se han publicado 123 productos, mediante artículo científico en idioma español (48%. Privilegian estudios de poblaciones demográficamente relevantes sobre sistemas de salud, inequidad en salud y enfermedades prevalentes, elaborados con métodos empírico analíticos y algunos en proyectos en red de carácter nacional. Las dificultades se refieren al escaso respaldo político e institucional local y nacional para investigar en DSS, poca interacción con formuladores de políticas y con otros grupos en otros idiomas. Conclusiones: predominan los estudios con el enfoque propuesto por la Comisión de Determinantes Sociales de la Salud en 2005. Recomendaciones: fortalecer capacidades de investigación en dss desde diversos enfoques, especialmente los latinoamericanos, desarrollar proyectos colaborativos en red y movilizar acción colectiva con incidencia en políticas de investigación en salud pro equidad. - Objective: This paper focuses on the research groups registered in the Colciencias platform from January 2005 to April 2012 in order to analyze their ability to conduct research on the social determinants of health (sdh as well as the opinion of the coordinators of such groups. Methodology: a

  8. Nutrition and health – transforming research traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanekamp, Jaap C; Bast, Aalt; Calabrese, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, we show that current scientific methodologies used in nutrition science and by regulatory agencies, such as the randomized control trial, limit our understanding of nutrition and health as they are to crude to capture the subtle pleiotropic nature of most nutrients. Thereby, regulatory agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority curb the development of scientific knowledge and industrial innovations within the nutritional field. In order to develop insights into the health impact of certain food and food-components, we need to realize that health is adaptation set within a homeostatic range. Increased performance of health, i.e., the maximum stimulation of health, typically seems 30-60% greater than the control group, with a width of no more than about a factor of ten, clarifying the difficulty of documenting responses of food-endogenous components within the homeostatic range of healthy people. A strategy to record subtle responses of food components is the summation of procentual effects of relevant health outcomes. We illustrate this approach with the action of flavanols on vascular health, specifically endothelial function.

  9. Strategic approach to information security and assurance in health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Shunichi; Igarashi, Manabu; Sawa, Hirofumi; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2005-09-01

    Information security and assurance are an increasingly critical issue in health research. Whether health research be in genetics, new drugs, disease outbreaks, biochemistry, or effects of radiation, it deals with information that is highly sensitive and which could be targeted by rogue individuals or groups, corporations, national intelligence agencies, or terrorists, looking for financial, social, or political gains. The advents of the Internet and advances in recent information technologies have also dramatically increased opportunities for attackers to exploit sensitive and valuable information.Government agencies have deployed legislative measures to protect the privacy of health information and developed information security guidelines for epidemiological studies. However, risks are grossly underestimated and little effort has been made to strategically and comprehensively protect health research information by institutions, governments and international communities.There is a need to enforce a set of proactive measures to protect health research information locally and globally. Such measures should be deployed at all levels but will be successful only if research communities collaborate actively, governments enforce appropriate legislative measures at national level, and the international community develops quality standards, concluding treaties if necessary, at the global level.Proactive measures for the best information security and assurance would be achieved through rigorous management process with a cycle of "plan, do, check, and act". Each health research entity, such as hospitals, universities, institutions, or laboratories, should implement this cycle and establish an authoritative security and assurance organization, program and plan coordinated by a designatedChief Security Officer who will ensure implementation of the above process, putting appropriate security controls in place, with key focus areas such aspolicies and best practices, enforcement

  10. [A transdisciplinary model for public health research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, José Aureliano

    2013-11-01

    Human resources education for health workers has been predominantly discipline-oriented and fragmented, influencing research design and, in turn, scientific output. Several authors argue that university education should transition from disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity. To gather the theoretical underpinnings for this subject of international interest, a literature search was conducted in the PubMed, EBSCO, and SciELO databases in 2012, using the terms "transdisciplinary and translational research" in Spanish and English. The majority of authors believe that identifying problems from different perspectives by specialists and community members and leaders will be conducive to more effective intersectoral interventions. They suggest undertaking organizational change to reshape reshaping work styles and self-organizational forms of scientific activity. Finally, a transdisciplinary model for public health research has been proposed that is based on traditional project design tools, but with variations borrowed from a complex systems approach.

  11. Work group diversity and group performance: an integrative model and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Daan; De Dreu, Carsten K W; Homan, Astrid C

    2004-12-01

    Research on the relationship between work group diversity and performance has yielded inconsistent results. To address this problem, the authors propose the categorization-elaboration model (CEM), which reconceptualizes and integrates information/decision making and social categorization perspectives on work-group diversity and performance. The CEM incorporates mediator and moderator variables that typically have been ignored in diversity research and incorporates the view that information/decision making and social categorization processes interact such that intergroup biases flowing from social categorization disrupt the elaboration (in-depth processing) of task-relevant information and perspectives. In addition, the authors propose that attempts to link the positive and negative effects of diversity to specific types of diversity should be abandoned in favor of the assumption that all dimensions of diversity may have positive as well as negative effects. The ways in which these propositions may set the agenda for future research in diversity are discussed.

  12. Group of experience with the elderly: psychosocial support in health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudicéia Noronha Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the perception of the elderly on the importance of a group of experience. Methods: iIt is an exploratory, descriptive research with qualitative approach, developed at a Basic Health Unit in a county of the Brazilian northeast, with 13 elderly people attending the Group. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysis by the thematic analysis technique. Results: three empirical categories were identified: motivation to seek the group of experience, perspective concerning this group and changes perceived through participation. Conclusion: the group of experience can represent a therapeutic moment for the elderly, serving as support and strengthening the elderly in the social context, making the improvement and development of abilities as well as the obtaining more knowledge for health promotion possible.

  13. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    addition, in some ethnic groups, and for some types of health care services, the use by women is higher compared to that by men. More research is needed to explain these differences.

  14. Methodology series module 10: Qualitative health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maninder Singh Setia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups. Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs or focus group discussions (FGDs. IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  15. Methodology Series Module 10: Qualitative Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Although quantitative designs are commonly used in clinical research, some studies require qualitative methods. These designs are different from quantitative methods; thus, researchers should be aware of data collection methods and analyses for qualitative research. Qualitative methods are particularly useful to understand patient experiences with the treatment or new methods of management or to explore issues in detail. These methods are useful in social and behavioral research. In qualitative research, often, the main focus is to understand the issue in detail rather than generalizability; thus, the sampling methods commonly used are purposive sampling; quota sampling; and snowball sampling (for hard to reach groups). Data can be collected using in-depth interviews (IDIs) or focus group discussions (FGDs). IDI is a one-to-one interview with the participant. FGD is a method of group interview or discussion, in which more than one participant is interviewed at the same time and is usually led by a facilitator. The commonly used methods for data analysis are: thematic analysis; grounded theory analysis; and framework analysis. Qualitative data collection and analysis require special expertise. Hence, if the reader plans to conduct qualitative research, they should team up with a qualitative researcher.

  16. Ethnic Group Differences in Health Outcomes Among Asian American Men in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Paulani; Bowie, Janice V; Juon, Hee-Soon; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-09-01

    The numbers of Asian American men are continually increasing, yet limited research exists on this understudied population. Addressing this lack of research is necessary to better inform how best to improve quality of care. This study examined health outcome differences across ethnically diverse groups of Asian American men in California, compared with non-Hispanic White men. Using data from the 2007, 2009, and 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, distributions of health status and health-related characteristics across ( n = 43,030) racial/ethnic groups of men (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, Other Asian Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites) were calculated. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, odds of reporting fair or poor health were higher among Vietnamese, while odds of diabetes were higher among Korean, Filipino, and Other Asian Americans. Odds of high blood pressure were higher among Filipino and Vietnamese but lower among Other Asian Americans, while odds of disability were lower across all ethnic groups except Filipino and Vietnamese. This study's findings highlight the importance of understanding ethnic heterogeneity to develop culturally appropriate health interventions for Asian American men.

  17. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  18. TEL4Health research at University College Cork (UCC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drachsler, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Drachsler, H. (2013, 12 May). TEL4Health research at University College Cork (UCC). Invited talk given at Application of Science to Simulation, Education and Research on Training for Health Professionals Centre (ASSERT for Health Care), Cork, Ireland.

  19. Health-related Support Groups on the Internet: Linking Empirical Findings to Social Support and Computer-mediated Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B; Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B

    2003-01-01

    This literature review of research on health-related computer-mediated support groups links features of these groups to existing theory from the areas of social support and computer-mediated communication research. The article exams computer-mediated support groups as weak tie networks, focuses on how these support groups facilitate participant similarity and empathic support and identifies changes in supportive communication due to characteristics of the medium.

  20. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, {pi}{sup {plus_minus}}, and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4{pi} acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us.

  1. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoy Maria

    2005-08-01

    given conditions, imply an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and influence seeking for psychiatric care. Comments and Remarks Despite in the migrants some vulnerable groups were identified with respect to health problems, in many European countries there are migrants who fall outside the existing health and social services, something which is particularly true for asylum seekers and undocumented immigrants. In order to address these deficiencies, it is necessary to provide with an adequate financing and a continuity of the grants for research into the multicultural health demand. Finally, there is to highlight the importance of adopting an integrated approach to mental health care that moves away from psychiatric care only.

  2. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  3. Health physics practices at research accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R.H.

    1976-02-01

    A review is given of the uses of particle accelerators in health physics, the text being a short course given at the Health Physics Society Ninth Midyear Topical Symposium in February, 1976. Topics discussed include: (1) the radiation environment of high energy accelerators; (2) dosimetry at research accelerators; (3) shielding; (4) induced activity; (5) environmental impact of high energy accelerators; (6) population dose equivalent calculation; and (7) the application of the ''as low as practicable concept'' at accelerators. (PMA)

  4. Cocoa and health: a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Donovan, Jennifer L; Waterhouse, Andrew L; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-01

    It has been over 10 years since the first mention in a medical journal about cocoa and chocolate as potential sources of antioxidants for health. During this time, cocoa has been found to improve antioxidant status, reduce inflammation and correlate with reduced heart disease risk; with these results, and its popularity, it has received wide coverage in the press. However, after 10 years of research, what is known about the potential health benefits of cocoa and what are the important next steps in understanding this decadent source of antioxidants?

  5. Increasing efficiency of preclinical research by group sequential designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Sophie K.; Rex, Andre; Florez-Vargas, Oscar; Karystianis, George; Schneider, Alice; Wellwood, Ian; Siegerink, Bob; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kimmelman, Jonathan; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of sequential designs, studies evaluating treatments or experimental manipulations in preclinical experimental biomedicine almost exclusively use classical block designs. Our aim with this article is to bring the existing methodology of group sequential designs to the attention of researchers in the preclinical field and to clearly illustrate its potential utility. Group sequential designs can offer higher efficiency than traditional methods and are increasingly used in clinical trials. Using simulation of data, we demonstrate that group sequential designs have the potential to improve the efficiency of experimental studies, even when sample sizes are very small, as is currently prevalent in preclinical experimental biomedicine. When simulating data with a large effect size of d = 1 and a sample size of n = 18 per group, sequential frequentist analysis consumes in the long run only around 80% of the planned number of experimental units. In larger trials (n = 36 per group), additional stopping rules for futility lead to the saving of resources of up to 30% compared to block designs. We argue that these savings should be invested to increase sample sizes and hence power, since the currently underpowered experiments in preclinical biomedicine are a major threat to the value and predictiveness in this research domain. PMID:28282371

  6. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is

  7. Enhancing Astronomy Major Learning Through Group Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.; Hardegree-Ullman, K.; Turner, J.; Shirley, Y. L.; Walker-Lafollette, A.; Scott, A.; Guvenen, B.; Raphael, B.; Sanford, B.; Smart, B.; Nguyen, C.; Jones, C.; Smith, C.; Cates, I.; Romine, J.; Cook, K.; Pearson, K.; Biddle, L.; Small, L.; Donnels, M.; Nieberding, M.; Kwon, M.; Thompson, R.; De La Rosa, R.; Hofmann, R.; Tombleson, R.; Smith, T.; Towner, A. P.; Wallace, S.

    2013-01-01

    The University of Arizona Astronomy Club has been using group research projects to enhance the learning experience of undergraduates in astronomy and related fields. Students work on two projects that employ a peer-mentoring system so they can learn crucial skills and concepts necessary in research environments. Students work on a transiting exoplanet project using the 1.55-meter Kuiper Telescope on Mt. Bigelow in Southern Arizona to collect near-UV and optical wavelength data. The goal of the project is to refine planetary parameters and to attempt to detect exoplanet magnetic fields by searching for near-UV light curve asymmetries. The other project is a survey that utilizes the 12-meter Arizona Radio Observatory on Kitt Peak to search for the spectroscopic signature of infall in nearby starless cores. These are unique projects because students are involved throughout the entire research process, including writing proposals for telescope time, observing at the telescopes, data reduction and analysis, writing papers for publication in journals, and presenting research at scientific conferences. Exoplanet project members are able to receive independent study credit for participating in the research, which helps keep the project on track. Both projects allow students to work on professional research and prepare for several astronomy courses early in their academic career. They also encourage teamwork and mentor-style peer teaching, and can help students identify their own research projects as they expand their knowledge.

  8. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olff, Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The field of mobile health ("m-Health") is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally ("g-Health"). However, few of the mobile applications (apps) have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools-targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment-are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability) and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the "App Store" yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  9. Conducting Nursing Intervention Research in a Cooperative Group Setting – A Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Heidi S.; Nolte, Susan; Edwards, Robert P.; Wenzel, Lari

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To provide a history on nursing science within the Gynecology Oncology Group (GOG); to discuss challenges and facilitators of nursing science in the cooperative group (CG) using a current nurse-led protocol (GOG-0259) as an exemplar; and to propose recommendations aimed at advancing nursing science in the CG setting. Data Source GOG reports and protocol databases, online databases of indexed citations, and experiences from the development and implementation of GOG-0259. Conclusions Benefits of CG research include opportunities for inter-disciplinary collaboration and ability to rapidly accrue large national samples. Challenges include limited financial resources to support non-treatment trials, a cumbersome protocol approval process, and lack of experience with nursing/quality of life intervention studies. Formal structures within GOG need to be created to encourage nurse scientists to become active members; promote collaboration between experienced GOG advanced practice nurses and new nurse scientists to identify nursing research priorities; and consider innovative funding structures to support pilot intervention studies. Implications for Nursing Practice Understanding the CG research process is critical for nurse scientists. A multi-disciplinary team of CG leaders can help investigators navigate a complex research environment and can increase awareness of the value of nursing research. PMID:24559780

  10. 45 CFR 146.145 - Special rules relating to group health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules relating to group health plans. 146.145 Section 146.145 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO....145 Special rules relating to group health plans. (a) Group health plan—(1) Definition. A group...

  11. Criticism of health researches: why and how

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ashrafi-rizi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research is one of the most important ways of science production (1. The purpose of research is exploring the unknown and explaining the variables that affect the human life. In the health sciences the purpose of which is health promotion, research is valued as much as human life (2. In many scientific texts, there is an emphasis on the importance of health researches in the quality of human life; the lack of attention to the quality of the publishing process is considered as the cause of much damage (3-10. The result of health researches is usually published as a paper, thesis, research project and book, the contents of all needs to be assessed. This process is named Research Review or Research Critique (2. Research critique is done during publishing process or after it, and in this paper we deal with it after publishing health texts. The broker chain between information producer and consumers who is the critic (Reviewer and critique journals has been less attended. In short, Soltani indicates that the purpose of critique as a defense of society’s cultural rights is to help the reader to choose the appropriate work, help the writer identify his weak points and his strengths (11, and also prevent damage to the society, especially people’s health. In the critique of health researches, there are two essential stages: in the first stage, the work is studied quickly by the critic (Survey study. The aim of this study is gaining knowledge of the text and usually the bibliographic information of work like title, writer, incentive of work, headings and so on is assessed briefly (12. In the second stage, a critical study is done. The critical study is the most important and most critical step in the reviewing the texts. “In this study, the critic judges as to the accuracy, reliability, or value of the text based on criteria or standards. This type of study is the key to the appropriate understanding. This method is necessary to determine the truth

  12. 76 FR 58007 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  13. 76 FR 67731 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the...

  14. 78 FR 48877 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  15. 78 FR 14798 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... ] Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  16. 78 FR 38345 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  17. 78 FR 69853 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  18. 77 FR 15372 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  19. 75 FR 27121 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the... and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the Patient... implementing the requirements for group health plans and health insurance issuers in the group and individual...

  20. 75 FR 43329 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and External... CFR Part 147 RIN 0991-AB70 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... Administration, Department of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health...

  1. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  2. Qualitative Descriptive Methods in Health Science Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorafi, Karen Jiggins; Evans, Bronwynne

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this methodology paper is to describe an approach to qualitative design known as qualitative descriptive that is well suited to junior health sciences researchers because it can be used with a variety of theoretical approaches, sampling techniques, and data collection strategies. It is often difficult for junior qualitative researchers to pull together the tools and resources they need to embark on a high-quality qualitative research study and to manage the volumes of data they collect during qualitative studies. This paper seeks to pull together much needed resources and provide an overview of methods. A step-by-step guide to planning a qualitative descriptive study and analyzing the data is provided, utilizing exemplars from the authors' research. This paper presents steps to conducting a qualitative descriptive study under the following headings: describing the qualitative descriptive approach, designing a qualitative descriptive study, steps to data analysis, and ensuring rigor of findings. The qualitative descriptive approach results in a summary in everyday, factual language that facilitates understanding of a selected phenomenon across disciplines of health science researchers. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Towards a 'One Health' research and application tool box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Fooks, Anthony R; Kasymbekov, Joldoshbek; Waltner-Toews, David; Tanner, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The 'One Medicine' concept by Calvin Schwabe has seen an unprecedented revival in the last decade and has evolved towards 'One Health' conceptual thinking, emphasising epidemiology and public health. Pathologists rightly recall the contribution of their discipline by close genomic relationship of animals and humans e.g. in cancer genetics. We need to change our 'us versus them' perspective towards a perspective of 'shared risk' between humans and animals. Professional organisations have declared their adhesion, governments have created joint public and animal health working groups and numerous research and surveillance programmes have been incepted as demonstrated on the 'One Health Initiative' website. Above all these beneficial developments, we should not forget however, that there remains a huge divide between human and veterinary medicine borne from unprecedented (over) specialisation of disciplines and increasingly reductionist approaches to scientific inquiry. What is required now is a radical paradigm shift in our approach to global public health with practical approaches and 'hands-on' examples to facilitate its application and accelerating necessary leverage of 'One Health'. We propose elements of an open 'tool box' translating the 'One Health' concept into practical methods in the fields of integrated disease surveillance, joint animal-human epidemiological studies and health services development, which we hope might serve as a discussion basis for mutually agreed practical cooperation between human and animal health with special emphasis on developing countries.

  4. Improving Defense Health Program Medical Research Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-08

    Health (NIH), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , private foundations, and others (Figure 1b). These disparate funding sources may fund...Reed and his team’s discovery and confirmation of the transmission of deadly diseases such as typhoid fever and yellow fever. 5 Researchers also...contributed to the development of intravenous therapy for cholera ; 6 and the development of anti- malarial agents such as chloroquine, doxycycline

  5. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma.

  6. Public health research systems in the European union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Mark

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strengthening health research is an important objective for international health organisations, but there has been less attention to support for health research in Europe. We describe the public-health (population and organisational level research systems in the 27 European Union countries. Methods We developed a typology for describing health research structures based on funding streams and strategies. We drew data from internet sources and asked country informants to review these for consistency and completeness. The structures were described as organograms and narratives in country profiles for each of the 27 EU member states. National public-health research structures included public and independent funding organisations, 'mixed' institutions (which receive funds, and both use and allocate them and provider institutions. Results Most health research is funded through ministries of science or science councils (and sometimes foundations, while parliaments and regions may also contribute. National institutes of public health are usually funded by ministries of health. Many national research organisations both determine research programmes and undertake health research, but there is a move towards public-health sciences within the universities, and a transition from internal grants to competitive funding. Of 27 national research strategies, 17 referred to health and 11 to public health themes. Although all countries had strategies for public health itself, we found little coherence in public-health research programmes. The European Commission has country contact points for both EU research and health programmes, but they do not coordinate with national health-research programmes. Conclusions Public-health research is broadly distributed across programmes in EU countries. Better understanding of research structures, programmes and results would improve recognition for public health in Europe, and contribute to practice. EU

  7. Inclusion of vulnerable groups in health policies: Regional policies on health priorities in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: If access to equitable health care is to be achieved for all, policy documents must mention and address in some detail different needs of groups vulnerable to not accessing such health care. If these needs are not addressed in the policy documents, there is little chance that they will be addressed at the stage of implementation.Objectives: This paper reports on an analysis of 11 African Union (AU policy documents to ascertain the frequency and the extent of mention of 13 core concepts in relation to 12 vulnerable groups, with a specific focus on people with disabilities.Method: The paper applied the EquiFrame analytical framework to the 11 AU policy documents. The 11 documents were analysed in terms of how many times a core concept was mentioned and the extent of information on how the core concept should be addressed at the implementation level. Each core concept mention was further analysed in terms of the vulnerable group in referred to.Results: The analysis of regional AU policies highlighted the broad nature of the reference made to vulnerable groups, with a lack of detailed specifications of different needs of different groups. This is confirmed in the highest vulnerable group mention being for ‘universal’. The reading of the documents suggests that vulnerable groups are homogeneous in their needs, which is not the case. There is a lack of recognition of different needs of different vulnerable groups in accessing health care.Conclusion: The need for more information and knowledge on the needs of all vulnerable groups is evident. The current lack of mention and of any detail on how to address needs of vulnerable groups will significantly impair the access to equitable health care for all.

  8. [Positive psychology orientation: an intervention proposal for group work in mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Patrícia Mendes; Cavalcante Júnior, Francisco Silva

    2009-01-01

    This investigation aims at presenting a positive approach to psychology applied to the field of mental health in the treatment of patients with mental disorders. The intervention here presented was conducted in therapeutic groups with patients from a psychosocial care center (called CAPS). The analysis of the group work was based on three basic concepts: the humanistic approach and its vision of men and the world, the (con)text method of multiple literacies, and positive psychology. Quantitative and qualitative phenomenological research methodologies were used. The research results were divided into categories based on the group work with patients with depression-related disorders. Seeking for a new model of mental health care aimed at preserving the humanistic approach and the rights of the citizen, the Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) emerges as a historical result of the construction of the health/disease concept in order to put into practice the principles guiding the psychiatric reform in Brazil. Within this process, a positive approach to psychology is opening horizons for a practice based on a new view of the subject, emphasizing and developing ' virtuous' aspects like the possibility of achieving health in its broader meaning, together health promotion and the employment of different psychological practices.

  9. Ethics, collective health, qualitative health research and social justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Coelho Zito Guerriero

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe scientific field is characterized by the disputes about the delimitation of the field problems, methods and theories that can be considered scientific. The recognition that it is not neutral, that a researcher is a moral subject, and its practices are moral ones, entail that moral reflections, that is, ethics, should be a core process of every researcher. Therefore ethics is not a heteronomous issue, and cannot be reduced to guidelines. In the first part of this article we examine the need to develop an open approach to the construction of guidelines in a plural scientific field that must take into account diverse paradigms, which implies different values. The Brazilian process of writing guidelines on research ethics for social science and humanities in the context of the Ministry of Health will be discussed as an example. In the second part we expand the analysis of research ethics posing a perspective that integrates qualitative research, social justice and discipline trends. In the final considerations we explore the possibility that research ethics is better discussed taking into account the ontology, epistemology and political values rather than one specific methodological approach or from a dichotomic perspective between biomedicine versus social science and humanities.

  10. Ethics, collective health, qualitative health research and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Iara Coelho Zito; Correa, Fernando Peñaranda

    2015-09-01

    The scientific field is characterized by the disputes about the delimitation of the field problems, methods and theories that can be considered scientific. The recognition that it is not neutral, that a researcher is a moral subject, and its practices are moral ones, entail that moral reflections, that is, ethics, should be a core process of every researcher. Therefore ethics is not a heteronomous issue, and cannot be reduced to guidelines. In the first part of this article we examine the need to develop an open approach to the construction of guidelines in a plural scientific field that must take into account diverse paradigms, which implies different values. The Brazilian process of writing guidelines on research ethics for social science and humanities in the context of the Ministry of Health will be discussed as an example. In the second part we expand the analysis of research ethics posing a perspective that integrates qualitative research, social justice and discipline trends. In the final considerations we explore the possibility that research ethics is better discussed taking into account the ontology, epistemology and political values rather than one specific methodological approach or from a dichotomic perspective between biomedicine versus social science and humanities.

  11. Research Strategies for Biomedical and Health Informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Bakken, Suzanne; de Lusignan, Simon; Kimura, Michio; Koch, Sabine; Mantas, John; Maojo, Victor; Marschollek, Michael; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Moen, Anne; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Leong, Tze Yun; McCray, Alexa T.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Medical informatics, or biomedical and health informatics (BMHI), has become an established scientific discipline. In all such disciplines there is a certain inertia to persist in focusing on well-established research areas and to hold on to well-known research methodologies rather than adopting new ones, which may be more appropriate. Objectives To search for answers to the following questions: What are research fields in informatics, which are not being currently adequately addressed, and which methodological approaches might be insufficiently used? Do we know about reasons? What could be consequences of change for research and for education? Methods Outstanding informatics scientists were invited to three panel sessions on this topic in leading international conferences (MIE 2015, Medinfo 2015, HEC 2016) in order to get their answers to these questions. Results A variety of themes emerged in the set of answers provided by the panellists. Some panellists took the theoretical foundations of the field for granted, while several questioned whether the field was actually grounded in a strong theoretical foundation. Panellists proposed a range of suggestions for new or improved approaches, methodologies, and techniques to enhance the BMHI research agenda. Conclusions The field of BMHI is on the one hand maturing as an academic community and intellectual endeavour. On the other hand vendor-supplied solutions may be too readily and uncritically accepted in health care practice. There is a high chance that BMHI will continue to flourish as an important discipline; its innovative interventions might then reach the original objectives of advancing science and improving health care outcomes. PMID:28119991

  12. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Ferri, Cleusa P; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Dewey, Michael; Gavrilova, Svetlana I; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Krishnamoorthy, ES; McKeigue, Paul; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata MM; Stewart, Robert; Uwakwe, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Methods/design Cross-sectional comprehensive one phase surveys have been conducted of all residents aged 65 and over of geographically defined catchment areas in ten low and middle income countries (India, China, Nigeria, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina), with a sample size of between 1000 and 3000 (generally 2000). Each of the studies uses the same core minimum data set with cross-culturally validated assessments (dementia diagnosis and subtypes, mental disorders, physical health, anthropometry, demographics, extensive non communicable disease risk factor questionnaires, disability/functioning, health service utilisation, care arrangements and caregiver strain). Nested within the population based studies is a randomised controlled trial of a caregiver intervention for people with dementia and their families (ISRCTN41039907; ISRCTN41062011; ISRCTN95135433; ISRCTN66355402; ISRCTN93378627; ISRCTN94921815). A follow up of 2.5 to 3.5 years will be conducted in 7 countries (China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico, Peru and Argentina) to assess risk factors for incident dementia, stroke and all cause and cause-specific mortality; verbal autopsy will be used to identify causes of death. Discussion The 10/66 DRG baseline population-based studies are nearly complete. The incidence phase will be completed in 2009. All investigators are committed to establish an anonymised file sharing archive with monitored public access. Our aim is to create an

  13. Group living in mental health: intersectorality and networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Ferro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The last 20 years has been fruitful to the Psychiatric Reform legislative regulation, creating equipments focused on ally communitarian clinical followup to social inclusion proposals of their target population, therefore the prerogative of network becomes imperative. The Occupational Therapy Course of Federal University of Parana in partnership with an Association in Curitiba has developed Group living as a therapeutic tool for people with mental disorders. Objective: In order to analyze some of the barriers for network’s practice, having as an argumentative background 3 years of experience in conducting the group and the reports of its users. Methods: To achieve the proposed objectives, the results of two methodological approaches are here presented: the experience report in conducting the group and a qualitative-exploratory field research. Data collection was performed using unstructured focused interviews with 11 group participants and the data analysis was carried out through hermeneutic-dialectic analysis. Results and conclusion: We observed the need for a concise and continuous work with the users, in partnership with the involved services that route and assist them. The guarantee of basic social rights appears as essential for the effectiveness of social inclusion of these people.

  14. Climate change, human health, and biomedical research: analysis of the National Institutes of Health research portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Christine M; Balbus, John M; Christian, Carole; Haque, Ehsanul; Howe, Sally E; Newton, Sheila A; Reid, Britt C; Roberts, Luci; Wilhelm, Erin; Rosenthal, Joshua P

    2013-04-01

    According to a wide variety of analyses and projections, the potential effects of global climate change on human health are large and diverse. The U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH), through its basic, clinical, and population research portfolio of grants, has been increasing efforts to understand how the complex interrelationships among humans, ecosystems, climate, climate variability, and climate change affect domestic and global health. In this commentary we present a systematic review and categorization of the fiscal year (FY) 2008 NIH climate and health research portfolio. A list of candidate climate and health projects funded from FY 2008 budget appropriations were identified and characterized based on their relevance to climate change and health and based on climate pathway, health impact, study type, and objective. This analysis identified seven FY 2008 projects focused on climate change, 85 climate-related projects, and 706 projects that focused on disease areas associated with climate change but did not study those associations. Of the nearly 53,000 awards that NIH made in 2008, approximately 0.17% focused on or were related to climate. Given the nature and scale of the potential effects of climate change on human health and the degree of uncertainty that we have about these effects, we think that it is helpful for the NIH to engage in open discussions with science and policy communities about government-wide needs and opportunities in climate and health, and about how NIH's strengths in human health research can contribute to understanding the health implications of global climate change. This internal review has been used to inform more recent initiatives by the NIH in climate and health.

  15. [Primary health care reform and implications for the organizational culture of Health Center Groups in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Claudia; Dussault, Gilles; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2014-01-01

    The health sector's increasing complexity poses major challenges for administrators. There is considerable consensus on workforce quality as a key determinant of success for any health reform. This study aimed to explore the changes introduced by an action-training intervention in the organizational culture of the 73 executive directors of Health Center Groups (ACES) in Portugal during the primary health care reform. The study covers two periods, before and after the one-year ACES training, during which the data were collected and analyzed. The Competing Values Framework allowed observing that after the ACES action-training intervention, the perceptions of the executive directors regarding their organizational culture were more aligned with the practices and values defended by the primary health care reform. The study highlights the need to continue monitoring results over different time periods to elaborate further conclusions.

  16. Energy Innovation 1998. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; McConchie, R.; Fletcher, R. [eds.

    1998-07-01

    The IVO Group is a Finnish company mastering all aspects of the entire energy chain, and also operating extensively on the international market. The Group`s operations concentrate on five business areas: energy, engineering, operation and maintenance, grid services, and energy measurement. The personnel numbers well over 8 800, and the turnover is about FIM 14 billion. The services to customers include the supply of electricity and heat, the planning, construction, operation and maintenance of power plants and transmission systems, the transmission of power, and other services requiring expertise in all the key fields of energy engineering. Mastery of the entire energy chain gives us a substantial competitive edge on international markets, where the IVO Group has been a player for decades. The operations have expanded to the other Nordic countries, which now constitute the home market. Focal areas also include Great Britain, Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. The IVO Group annually invests some FIM 250 million in research and development. A large proportion of this money is used for the development of environmentally benign solutions

  17. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  18. Using animation as an information tool to advance health research literacy among minority participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Duran, Nelida; Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Lack of adequate consumer health information about clinical research contributes to health disparities among low health literate minority multicultural populations and requires appropriate methods for making information accessible. Enhancing understanding of health research can enable such minority multicultural consumers to make informed, active decisions about their own health and research participation. This qualitative study examines the effectiveness and acceptability of an animated video to enhance what we call health research literacy among minority multicultural populations. A team analyzed the transcripts of 58 focus groups of African Americans, Latinos, Native Hawaiians, and Filipinos in Los Angeles/Hawaii. Participants were accepting of animation and the video's cultural appropriateness. Communicating information about health research via animation improved participants' ability to identify personal information-gaps, engage in meaningful community-level dialogue, and ask questions about health research.

  19. Electronic health records: new opportunities for clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coorevits, P; Sundgren, M; Klein, G O; Bahr, A; Claerhout, B; Daniel, C; Dugas, M; Dupont, D; Schmidt, A; Singleton, P; De Moor, G; Kalra, D

    2013-12-01

    Clinical research is on the threshold of a new era in which electronic health records (EHRs) are gaining an important novel supporting role. Whilst EHRs used for routine clinical care have some limitations at present, as discussed in this review, new improved systems and emerging research infrastructures are being developed to ensure that EHRs can be used for secondary purposes such as clinical research, including the design and execution of clinical trials for new medicines. EHR systems should be able to exchange information through the use of recently published international standards for their interoperability and clinically validated information structures (such as archetypes and international health terminologies), to ensure consistent and more complete recording and sharing of data for various patient groups. Such systems will counteract the obstacles of differing clinical languages and styles of documentation as well as the recognized incompleteness of routine records. Here, we discuss some of the legal and ethical concerns of clinical research data reuse and technical security measures that can enable such research while protecting privacy. In the emerging research landscape, cooperation infrastructures are being built where research projects can utilize the availability of patient data from federated EHR systems from many different sites, as well as in international multilingual settings. Amongst several initiatives described, the EHR4CR project offers a promising method for clinical research. One of the first achievements of this project was the development of a protocol feasibility prototype which is used for finding patients eligible for clinical trials from multiple sources.

  20. Characteristics of the Cochrane Oral Health Group systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Lang, Lisa A; Demko, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group (COHG) was formed in 1994 with the aim of producing systematic reviews that primarily include oral health randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to characterize reviews published by the COHG. In September 2013, the COHG database was accessed, and all publications were downloaded. Reviews with no studies identified according to the inclusion criteria were labeled "empty reviews." The complete Cochrane database included a total of 5,697 reviews, of which the COHG database included 142 reviews. Of these 142, 69 (48.6%) did not reach a conclusion, including 20 (14.1%) that were identified as empty reviews. Of the 122 non-empty reviews, 116 (95.1%) were based exclusively on RCTs. The median number of RCTs and patients included in the non-empty reviews were seven and 489, respectively. The median number of included RCTs and patients for reviews that reached conclusions were 12 and 934, respectively, and there were five RCTs and 211 patients for reviews without conclusions. Overall, the characteristics of the Cochrane oral health reviews (OH-CSRs) were similar to Cochrane reviews published in other disciplines (All-CSRs). The authors observed a significant difference in the median number of RCTs and patients included when reviews that reached conclusions were separated from those that did not. A greater proportion of empty reviews were present in OH-CSRs compared with All-CSRs. Turning the Cochrane reviews into a tool that is more relevant in clinical practice will require implementation of a methodology allowing inclusion of non-RCTs while controlling for possible bias.

  1. Health discourse and within-group stigma in professional BDSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Danielle J

    2013-12-01

    This article directly deals with health and stigma within practices of erotic labor. Scant previous literature has focused on erotic laborers' perceptions of stigma and the ways in which regimes of stigmatization operate within their particular social worlds. I use the commercial BDSM (Bondage, Discipline, Sadism, Masochism) "dungeon" as a strategic research site to investigate these workers' conceptions and management of their own stigma, and I find that discourses about stigma are inextricably entwined with concerns about health and wellbeing. Data are derived from ethnographic fieldwork with professional dominatrices ("pro-dommes") who work in New York City and San Francisco as well as in-depth interviews conducted between September 2007 and April 2008. Counter to stereotypes of erotic laborers as violent or as vectors of disease, BDSM workers are in fact not only concerned about safety but professionally invested in it, reinforcing it through an identity politics of hierarchies of erotic labor. There are multiple implications of this work for public perception and policy-implications that could only be brought to light through the ethnographic method.

  2. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxins, ochratoxins, fumonisins, deoxynivalenol, and zearalenone are of significant public health concern as they can cause serious adverse effects in different organs including the liver, kidney, and immune system in humans. These toxic secondary metabolites are produced by filamentous fungi mainly in the genus Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium. It is challenging to control the formation of mycotoxins due to the worldwide occurrence of these fungi in food and the environment. In addition to raw agricultural commodities, mycotoxins tend to remain in finished food products as they may not be destroyed by conventional processing techniques. Hence, much of our concern is directed to chronic health effects through long-term exposure to one or multiple mycotoxins from contaminated foods. Ideally risk assessment requires a comprehensive data, including toxicological and epidemiological studies as well as surveillance and exposure assessment. Setting of regulatory limits for mycotoxins is considered necessary to protect human health from mycotoxin exposure. Although advances in analytical techniques provide basic yet critical tool in regulation as well as all aspects of scientific research, it has been acknowledged that different forms of mycotoxins such as analogs and conjugated mycotoxins may constitute a significant source of dietary exposure. Further studies should be warranted to correlate mycotoxin exposure and human health possibly via identification and validation of suitable biomarkers.

  3. [The narrative in qualitative research in health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer

    2014-04-01

    The marked interest of the human and social sciences in health in narrative studies has led to many forms of incorporation of these contributions in qualitative research in health. It is important to reflect on the contexts and characteristics of this incorporation. To accomplish this, we highlight the core theoretical issues involved and also situate this incorporation in the broader context of the scientific production in the human and social sciences in health. We also stress the contribution of the narrative studies for reflection upon the relations between social structure and action or between specific contexts of social interaction and broader societal contexts. This contribution can be identified in relations established through narrative between interpretation, experience and action throughout the health-disease-care process. It is argued that narratives not only organize interpretations, but can also represent a specific form of social agency. In this sense, the narrative interpretations and narrative performances can be seen as core elements in the social construction of experiences and trajectories of illness and care.

  4. Mobile mental health: a challenging research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Olff

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of mobile health (“m-Health” is evolving rapidly and there is an explosive growth of psychological tools on the market. Exciting high-tech developments may identify symptoms, help individuals manage their own mental health, encourage help seeking, and provide both preventive and therapeutic interventions. This development has the potential to be an efficient cost-effective approach reducing waiting lists and serving a considerable portion of people globally (“g-Health”. However, few of the mobile applications (apps have been rigorously evaluated. There is little information on how valid screening and assessment tools are, which of the mobile intervention apps are effective, or how well mobile apps compare to face-to-face treatments. But how feasible is rigorous scientific evaluation with the rising demands from policy makers, business partners, and users for their quick release? In this paper, developments in m-Health tools—targeting screening, assessment, prevention, and treatment—are reviewed with examples from the field of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder. The academic challenges in developing and evaluating m-Health tools are being addressed. Evidence-based guidance is needed on appropriate research designs that may overcome some of the public and ethical challenges (e.g., equity, availability and the market-driven wish to have mobile apps in the “App Store” yesterday rather than tomorrow.

  5. eHealth research from the user's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Bradford W; Shneiderman, Ben

    2007-05-01

    The application of information technology (IT) to issues of healthcare delivery has had a long and tortuous history in the United States. Within the field of eHealth, vanguard applications of advanced computing techniques, such as applications in artificial intelligence or expert systems, have languished in spite of a track record of scholarly publication and decisional accuracy. The problem is one of purpose, of asking the right questions for the science to solve. Historically, many computer science pioneers have been tempted to ask "what can the computer do?" New advances in eHealth are prompting developers to ask "what can people do?" How can eHealth take part in national goals for healthcare reform to empower relationships between healthcare professionals and patients, healthcare teams and families, and hospitals and communities to improve health equitably throughout the population? To do this, eHealth researchers must combine best evidence from the user sciences (human factors engineering, human-computer interaction, psychology, and usability) with best evidence in medicine to create transformational improvements in the quality of care that medicine offers. These improvements should follow recommendations from the Institute of Medicine to create a healthcare system that is (1) safe, (2) effective (evidence based), (3) patient centered, and (4) timely. Relying on the eHealth researcher's intuitive grasp of systems issues, improvements should be made with considerations of users and beneficiaries at the individual (patient-physician), group (family-staff), community, and broad environmental levels.

  6. Relationships between discrimination in health care and health care outcomes among four race/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Discrimination has been found to be detrimental to health, but less is known about the influence of discrimination in health care. To address this, the current study (1) compared levels of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care among four race/ethnic groups; (2) determined associations between this type of discrimination and health care outcomes; and (3) assessed potential mediators and moderators as suggested by previous studies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used within a population-based sample of 1,699 White, African American, Mexican, and Puerto Rican respondents. Overall, 23% of the sample reported discrimination in health care, with levels varying substantially by race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, this type of discrimination was associated with an increased likelihood of having unmet health care needs (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.90) and lower odds of perceiving excellent quality of care (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.66), but not with the use of a physician when not sick or use of alternative medicine. The mediating role of mental health factors was inconsistently observed and the relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity. These findings expand the literature and provide preliminary evidence that can eventually inform the development of interventions and the training of health care providers.

  7. Leadership for primary health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, David

    2012-10-01

    Over the last decade, I have put together a new theory of leadership. This paper describes its four propositions, which are consistent with the research literature but which lead to conclusions that are not commonly held and seldom put into practice. The first proposition is a model describing the territory of leadership that is different from either the Leadership Qualities Framework, 2006 or the Medical Leadership Competency Framework, 2010, both of which have been devised specifically for the NHS (National Health Service). The second proposition concerns the ill-advised attempt of individuals to become expert in all aspects of leadership: complete in themselves. The third suggests how personality and capability are related. The fourth embraces and recommends the notion of complementary differences among leaders. As the NHS seeks increasing leadership effectiveness, these propositions may need to be considered and their implications woven into the fabric of NHS leader selection and development. Primary Health Care research, like all fields of collective human endeavour, is eminently in need of sound leadership and the same principles that facilitate sound leadership in other fields is likely to be relevant to research teams.

  8. Health services research doctoral core competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Martin, Diane P; Holve, Erin; Millman, Anne

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript presents an initial description of doctoral level core competencies for health services research (HSR). The competencies were developed by a review of the literature, text analysis of institutional accreditation self-studies submitted to the Council on Education for Public Health, and a consensus conference of HSR educators from US educational institutions. The competencies are described in broad terms which reflect the unique expertise, interests, and preferred learning methods of academic HSR programs. This initial set of core competencies is published to generate further dialogue within and outside of the US about the most important learning objectives and methods for HSR training and to clarify the unique skills of HSR training program graduates. PMID:19555485

  9. Health services research doctoral core competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holve Erin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This manuscript presents an initial description of doctoral level core competencies for health services research (HSR. The competencies were developed by a review of the literature, text analysis of institutional accreditation self-studies submitted to the Council on Education for Public Health, and a consensus conference of HSR educators from US educational institutions. The competencies are described in broad terms which reflect the unique expertise, interests, and preferred learning methods of academic HSR programs. This initial set of core competencies is published to generate further dialogue within and outside of the US about the most important learning objectives and methods for HSR training and to clarify the unique skills of HSR training program graduates.

  10. 75 FR 38099 - Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and... March 23, 2010. The Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health... Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health, as directed by Executive Order 13544....

  11. Health and fertility in World Health Organization group 2 anovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Balen, A.; Escobar-Morreale, H. F.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Franks, S.; Glasier, A.; Homburg, R.; La Vecchia, C.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Liebaers, I.; Sunde, A.; Tapanainen, J. S.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.; Evers, J. L. H.

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of ovulation occurs in different types of clinical infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided a classification of ovulation disorders. This review focuses on WHO group 2 anovulation. Searches were performed in Medline/PubMed and EMBASE. Each subject summary was presente

  12. Research on the Group Decision in Manufacturing Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Shuangying; LI Biqiang

    2006-01-01

    scholars research the questions in manufacturing chain from the point of game theory, the research on collectivity decision, which pursues the holistic benefit of manufacturing chain, is limited. The group decision support systems used in the later stage of 1990s includes electronic conference system and working flow system.

  13. Education of Minority Ethnic Groups in Scotland: A Review of Research. SCRE Research Report Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay

    This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…

  14. 77 FR 33220 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office... be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  15. 76 FR 26300 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion Strategy. Public participation during the Web meeting is limited. Members of... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the...

  16. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  17. Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlo Domenico

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc. their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study, obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained. Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc. may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects.

  18. Scientific integrity: critical issues in environmental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Domenico Franco; Vahakangas, Kirsi; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2008-06-05

    Environmental health research is a relatively new scientific area with much interdisciplinary collaboration. Regardless of which human population is included in field studies (e.g., general population, working population, children, elderly, vulnerable sub-groups, etc.) their conduct must guarantee well acknowledged ethical principles. These principles, along with codes of conduct, are aimed at protecting study participants from research-related undesired effects and guarantee research integrity. A central role is attributed to the need for informing potential participants (i.e., recruited subjects who may be enrolled in a study), obtaining their written informed consent to participate, and making them aware of their right to refuse to participate at any time and for any reason. Data protection is also required and communication of study findings must respect participant's willingness to know or not know. This is specifically relevant for studies including biological markers and/or storing biological samples that might be analysed years later to tackle research objectives that were specified and communicated to participants at the time of recruitment or that may be formulated after consent was obtained.Integrity is central to environmental health research searching for causal relations. It requires open communication and trust and any violation (i.e., research misconduct, including fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, conflicting interests, etc.) may endanger the societal trust in the research community as well as jeopardize participation rates in field projects.

  19. Focused Research Group in Correlated Electron and Complex Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ziqiang [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    While the remarkable physical properties of correlated and complex electronic materials hold great promise for technological applications, one of the key values of the research in this field is its profound impact on fundamental physics. The transition metal oxides, pnictides, and chalcogenides play a key role and occupy an especially important place in this field. The basic reason is that the outer shell of transition metals contains the atomic d-orbitals that have small spatial extent, but not too small to behave as localized orbtials. These d-electrons therefore have a small wave function overlap in a solid, e.g. in an octahedral environment, and form energy bands that are relatively narrow and on the scale of the short-range intra-atomic Coulomb repulsion (Hubbard U). In this intermediate correlation regime lies the challenge of the many-body physics responsible for new and unconventional physical properties. The study of correlated electron and complex materials represents both the challenge and the vitality of condensed matter and materials physics and often demands close collaborations among theoretical and experimental groups with complementary techniques. Our team has a track record and a long-term research goal of studying the unusual complexities and emergent behaviors in the charge, spin, and orbital sectors of the transition metal compounds in order to gain basic knowledge of the quantum electronic states of matter. During the funding period of this grant, the team continued their close collaborations between theory, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy and made significant progress and contributions to the field of iron-based superconductors, copper-oxide high-temperature superconductors, triangular lattice transition metal oxide cobaltates, strontium ruthenates, spin orbital coupled iridates, as well as topological insulators and other topological quantum states of matter. These results include both new

  20. The impact of social science research on health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orosz, E

    1994-11-01

    The relationship between research and health policy is discussed from a policy process perspective, describing communication problems in the course of policy formulation, implementation and evaluation. Policy process is often expected by researchers to be rational, having logical sequence of steps and the objective evaluation of alternatives based on scientific knowledge. In fact, policies are often formulated without clear problem identification or based on wrong assumption. The timing of research and policy-making differs. Policy-makers need to respond quickly. Evaluations may be regarded by politicians as embarrassing if they point to a need for significant change. It is not satisfactory to consider only research and policy-making: their relationship is influenced by the media, different interest groups and by the general public. Health policy formulation is embedded in the general policy environment of particular societies. Some countries have a long tradition of consensus-building, while in others health reforms have been formulated and introduced in a centralized way. Traditional bio-medical thinking influences health policy-makers. The importance of social and political acceptability tends to be overlooked. The paper emphasizes that we are experiencing an era of scarcity of resources and growing tension concerning allocation decisions. Existing institutions provide insufficient incentives for policy-makers and researchers to promote public dialogue about such issues. The paper concludes that there is a need for new approaches to policy development and implementation, new structures in policy-making, changes in research financing and co-operation between disciplines and new structures for public participation in policy-making. Research should facilitate more open and democratic dialogue about policy options and the consequences of alternative choices.

  1. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Christine A; Morgan, Philip A; Youll, Penny

    2006-10-18

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated) approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme--the 'Health of Londoners Programme'--in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. A naturalistic-experimental approach was combined with principles of action research. The different commissioning groups within the programme were randomly allocated to either the traditional face-to-face mode or the novel 'virtual' mode. Mainly qualitative data were gathered including observation of all (virtual and face-to-face) commissioning meetings; semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants (n = 32/66); structured questionnaires and interviews with lead researchers of early commissioned projects. All members of the commissioning groups were invited to participate in collaborative enquiry groups which participated actively in the analysis process. The virtual process functioned as intended, reaching timely and relatively transparent decisions that participants had confidence in. Despite the potential for greater access using a virtual approach, few differences were found in practice. Key advantages included physical access, a more flexible and extended time period for discussion, reflection and information gathering and a more transparent decision-making process. Key challenges were the reduction of social cues available in a computer-mediated medium that require novel ways of ensuring appropriate dialogue, feedback and interaction. However, in both modes, the process was influenced by a range of factors and was not technology driven. There is potential for using computer-mediated communication within the research commissioning process. This may enhance access

  2. Evaluation of a 'virtual' approach to commissioning health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Philip A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of a 'virtual' (computer-mediated approach to health research commissioning. This had been introduced experimentally in a DOH programme – the 'Health of Londoners Programme' – in order to assess whether is could enhance the accessibility, transparency and effectiveness of commissioning health research. The study described here was commissioned to evaluate this novel approach, addressing these key questions. Methods A naturalistic-experimental approach was combined with principles of action research. The different commissioning groups within the programme were randomly allocated to either the traditional face-to-face mode or the novel 'virtual' mode. Mainly qualitative data were gathered including observation of all (virtual and face-to-face commissioning meetings; semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of participants (n = 32/66; structured questionnaires and interviews with lead researchers of early commissioned projects. All members of the commissioning groups were invited to participate in collaborative enquiry groups which participated actively in the analysis process. Results The virtual process functioned as intended, reaching timely and relatively transparent decisions that participants had confidence in. Despite the potential for greater access using a virtual approach, few differences were found in practice. Key advantages included physical access, a more flexible and extended time period for discussion, reflection and information gathering and a more transparent decision-making process. Key challenges were the reduction of social cues available in a computer-mediated medium that require novel ways of ensuring appropriate dialogue, feedback and interaction. However, in both modes, the process was influenced by a range of factors and was not technology driven. Conclusion There is potential for using computer-mediated communication within

  3. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: challenges and the potential to advance health equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Greta R

    2014-06-01

    Intersectionality theory, developed to address the non-additivity of effects of sex/gender and race/ethnicity but extendable to other domains, allows for the potential to study health and disease at different intersections of identity, social position, processes of oppression or privilege, and policies or institutional practices. Intersectionality has the potential to enrich population health research through improved validity and greater attention to both heterogeneity of effects and causal processes producing health inequalities. Moreover, intersectional population health research may serve to both test and generate new theories. Nevertheless, its implementation within health research to date has been primarily through qualitative research. In this paper, challenges to incorporation of intersectionality into population health research are identified or expanded upon. These include: 1) confusion of quantitative terms used metaphorically in theoretical work with similar-sounding statistical methods; 2) the question of whether all intersectional positions are of equal value, or even of sufficient value for study; 3) distinguishing between intersecting identities, social positions, processes, and policies or other structural factors; 4) reflecting embodiment in how processes of oppression and privilege are measured and analysed; 5) understanding and utilizing appropriate scale for interactions in regression models; 6) structuring interaction or risk modification to best convey effects, and; 7) avoiding assumptions of equidistance or single level in the design of analyses. Addressing these challenges throughout the processes of conceptualizing and planning research and in conducting analyses has the potential to improve researchers' ability to more specifically document inequalities at varying intersectional positions, and to study the potential individual- and group-level causes that may drive these observed inequalities. A greater and more thoughtful incorporation

  4. Acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) for health anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, T; Fink, P; Jensen, J S; Rief, W; Frostholm, L

    2016-01-01

    Severe health anxiety is frequent and costly, yet rarely diagnosed or treated. Earlier treatment studies show problems with recruitment, dropout and recovery. In the current study, the authors aimed to test the effect of acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) compared to waitlist in patients with severe health anxiety. During March 2010 to April 2012, 126 consecutively referred patients meeting research criteria for severe health anxiety were block-randomized (1:1) to ACT-G or a 10 months' waitlist (Clinicaltrials.gov, no. NCT01158430). Patients allocated to ACT-G were treated in seven groups of nine patients between December 2010 and October 2012 and received nine weekly 3-h group sessions and a booster session consisting of ACT techniques. The primary outcome was decided a priori as the mean change in self-reported illness worry on the Whiteley-7 Index (WI) from baseline to 10 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes were improvement in emotional distress and health-related quality of life at 10 months' follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a statistically significant mean difference of 20.5 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7-29.4, p accepted by the patients. ACT-G seems feasible, acceptable and effective in treating severe health anxiety.

  5. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Ian D

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  6. Knowledge synthesis and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ian D

    2012-02-09

    The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) is Canada's premier health-research funding agency. We fund nearly 14,000 researchers and trainees in four theme areas: biomedical, clinical, health services, and population and public-health research. Our mandate is 'to excel according to international standards of scientific excellence, in the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians, more effective health services and products and a strengthened Canadian health care system'. Knowledge synthesis is a key element of the knowledge-translation objectives of CIHR, as outlined in our definition of knowledge-translation.

  7. Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Clinical Trials: A Crucial Key to Human Health Research Past ... the forefront of human health research today are clinical trials—studies that use human volunteers to help medical ...

  8. Smartphones Could Be a Boon to Heart Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162544.html Smartphones Could Be a Boon to Heart Health Research ... 14, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Dec. 14, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smartphones might revolutionize cardiac research by giving instant, accurate ...

  9. Prioritising young people's emotional health support needs through participatory research

    OpenAIRE

    Kendal, Sarah; Pryjmachuk, Steven; Welsby, Hannah; Milnes, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction\\ud \\ud Youth mental health is a global concern. Emotional health promotes mental health and protects against mental illness. Youth value self-care for emotional health, but we need better understanding of how to help them look after their emotional health. Participatory research is relevant, since meaningful engagement with youth via participatory research enhances the validity and relevance of research findings and supports young people's rights to involvement in decisions that ...

  10. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under the Patient Protection...-AB68 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim...

  11. 75 FR 37242 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ57 Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance..., Health care, Health insurance, Pensions, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Proposed Amendments to... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final...

  12. Occupational risk in health care and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Daniela; Sasco, Annie J; Cann, Cristina I

    2003-04-01

    Working in the health care and research sectors has been linked to various hazards. Studies published in the peer-reviewed literature that are pertinent to the exposures or diseases relevant to these fields were reviewed. The most important exposures include infectious agents, formaldehyde, anesthetic agents, antineoplastic drugs, and ethylene oxide. The best-documented evidence is that of infectious risk primarily among clinical personnel. Monitoring studies of persons occupationally exposed to anesthetics clearly demonstrate behavioral effects, possible risk of reproductive problems, as well as cytogenetic effects of unknown significance. The latter two impairments are also observed among those exposed to antineoplastic drugs and ethylene oxide. Exposure to formaldehyde appears to be associated with nasopharyngeal tumors. Whereas increased risk of cancer of certain sites, particularly the brain and lymphohematopoietic system, is found among research and health care personnel, no specific exposure has been linked to these neoplasms. Although some results are inconsistent, continued environmental and biological monitoring will allow better assessment of exposures and of implemented protection measures. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Biomedical engineering for health research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical engineering is a new area of research in medicine and biology, providing new concepts and designs for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of various diseases. There are several types of biomedical engineering, such as tissue, genetic, neural and stem cells, as well as chemical and clinical engineering for health care. Many electronic and magnetic methods and equipments are used for the biomedical engineering such as Computed Tomography (CT) scans, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans, Electroencephalography (EEG), Ultrasound and regenerative medicine and stem cell cultures, preparations of artificial cells and organs, such as pancreas, urinary bladders, liver cells, and fibroblasts cells of foreskin and others. The principle of tissue engineering is described with various types of cells used for tissue engineering purposes. The use of several medical devices and bionics are mentioned with scaffold, cells and tissue cultures and various materials are used for biomedical engineering. The use of biomedical engineering methods is very important for the human health, and research and development of diseases. The bioreactors and preparations of artificial cells or tissues and organs are described here.

  14. Knowledge translation research in population health: establishing a collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurendeau Marie-Claire

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on knowledge translation in population health. Methods Using the Concept Mapping approach, the research team wanted to identify priority themes for the development of research on KT in population health. Mapping is based on multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis in which statements produced during a brainstorming session are grouped in weighted clusters. The final maps are a visual representation of the priority themes of research on KT. Especially designed for facilitating consensus in the understanding and organization of various concepts, the Concept Mapping method proved suitable for achieving this objective. Results The maps were produced by 19 participants from university settings, and from institutions within the health and social services network. Three main perspectives emerge from this operation: (1 The evaluation of the effectiveness of KT efforts is one of the main research priorities; (2 The importance of taking into consideration user contexts in any KT effort; (3 The challenges related to sharing power for decision-making and action-taking among various stakeholder groups. These perspectives open up avenues of collaboration for stakeholders who are involved in research on KT. Besides these three main perspectives, the concept maps reveal three other trends which should be emphasized. Conclusion The Concept Mapping process reported in this article aimed to provoke collective reflection on the

  15. Research priorities for public mental health in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsman, Anna K; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Aarø, Leif Edvard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ROAdmap for MEntal health Research in Europe project aimed to create an integrated European roadmap for mental health research. Leading mental health research experts across Europe have formulated consensus-based recommendations for future research within the public mental health...... experts were involved in the priority setting process. RESULTS: Twenty priorities for public mental health research were identified through the consensus process. The research priorities were divided into summary principles-encompassing overall recommendations for future public mental health research...... in Europe-and thematic research priorities, including area-specific top priorities on research topics and methods. The priorities represent three overarching goals mirroring societal challenges, that is, to identify causes, risk and protective factors for mental health across the lifespan; to advance...

  16. 78 FR 55731 - Health Workforce Research Center Cooperative Agreement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... workforce policy and planning questions. Though the FOA indicated the intent to fund only one cooperative... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Health Workforce Research Center Cooperative...: The Bureau of Health Professions (BHPr) is announcing a change to its Health Workforce Research...

  17. NATO Advanced Research Institute on Health Services Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Werff, Albert; Hirsch, Gary; Barnard, Keith

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Research Institute on "Health Services Systems" was held under the auspices of the NATO Special Programme Panel on Systems Science as a part of the NATO Science Committee's continuous effort to promote the advancement of science through international cooperation. A special word is said in this respect supra by Pro­ fessor Checkland, Chairman of the Systems Science Panel. The Advanced Research Institute (ARI) was organized for the purpose of bringing together senior scientists to seek a consensus on the assessment of the present state of knowledge on the specific topic of "health services systems" and to present views and recom­ mendations for future health services research directions, which should be of value to both the scientific community and the people in charge of reorienting health services. The conference was structured so as to permit the assembly of a variety of complementary viewpoints through intensive group discussions to be the basis of this final report. Invitees were selected fr...

  18. Qualitative health psychology research: diversity, power, and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Brendan; Deatrick, Janet A

    2015-04-01

    This special issue showcases a range of qualitative research projects conducted by health psychologists with a view to promoting greater uptake and development of qualitative research methods in the field. It is timely because qualitative methods have become prominent across psychology and health research and because major health research funders are now inviting qualitative research to help give voice to patient experiences. As a whole, the papers demonstrate the diversity, power, and impact of qualitative research conducted in health-related settings and show how traditional health psychology methods and concepts can be enriched in the process.

  19. Expert and Advocacy Group Consensus Findings on the Horizon of Public Health Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Modell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description: Among the two leading causes of death in the United States, each responsible for one in every four deaths, heart disease costs Americans $300 billion, while cancer costs Americans $216 billion per year. They also rank among the top three causes of death in Europe and Asia. In 2012 the University of Michigan Center for Public Health and Community Genomics and Genetic Alliance, with the support of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Public Health Genomics, hosted a conference in Atlanta, Georgia to consider related action strategies based on public health genomics. The aim of the conference was consensus building on recommendations to implement genetic screening for three major heritable contributors to these mortality and cost figures: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and Lynch syndrome (LS. Genetic applications for these three conditions are labeled with a “Tier 1” designation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because they have been fully validated and clinical practice guidelines based on systematic review support them. Methodology: The conference followed a deliberative sequence starting with nationally recognized clinical and public health presenters for each condition, followed by a Patient and Community Perspectives Panel, working group sessions for each of the conditions, and a final plenary session. The 74 conference participants represented disease research and advocacy, public health, medicine and nursing, genetics, governmental health agencies, and industry. Participants drew on a public health framework interconnecting policy, clinical intervention, surveillance, and educational functions for their deliberations. Results: Participants emphasized the importance of collaboration between clinical, public health, and advocacy groups in implementing Tier 1 genetic screening. Advocacy groups could help with individual and institutional

  20. Research directions in oral health promotion for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gift, H C

    1992-09-01

    Health education and health promotion facilitate voluntary adoption of behaviors and provide educational, organizational, economic, and environmental supports for behaviors conductive to health. Health education and health promotion are complementary and any effort to eliminate oral disease requires both activities. Federal research initiatives in oral health promotion have encouraged more biomedical and behavioral research on oral health and aging through the establishment of research centers. Other initiatives have been established to speed the generation of basic and clinical research. Recent initiatives encourage research on aging and provide opportunities for oral health promotion during the coming decade. These include Healthy People 2000, the nation's health objectives for the decade; the NIH framework for the development of a strategic plan, and the NIDR Long-Range Research Plan, Broadening the Scope.

  1. Arts-Informed Research Dissemination in the Health Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Lapum

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Arts-informed dissemination of health care research is an emerging field of scholarship. Our team chose to use the arts as a means to disseminate findings from a study about patients’ experiences of open-heart surgery and recovery. We transformed patients’ stories, gathered through interviews and journal writings, into poetry and photographic imagery and displayed this within a 1,739 ft2 art installation titled “The 7,024th Patient.” Our intention was to use the arts as dissemination method that could convey the sentiments and perspectives of patients. To evaluate this novel method of dissemination in the health sciences, we conducted a study to analyze its effect on viewers. We used a narrative methodology with a multimodal theoretical lens. Thirty-four individuals participated in either an individual interview or a focus group. In addition, more than 200 anonymous, written comments were generated at research stations placed throughout the installation. In this article, we present the findings. Participants found this art installation of poetry and imagery to be a valid, meaningful, and authentic representation of patients’ experiences. They also described being immersed into patients’ journeys and evoking self-reflection. Based on this research, arts-informed dissemination is a powerful medium to report findings. Our work provides empirical evidence that expands the different ways to distribute research in the health and social sciences.

  2. Reporting genetic results in research studies: summary and recommendations of an NHLBI working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, Ebony B; Langehorne, Aleisha A; Eckfeldt, John H; Glass, Kathleen C; Jarvik, Gail P; Klag, Michael; Koski, Greg; Motulsky, Arno; Wilfond, Benjamin; Manolio, Teri A; Fabsitz, Richard R; Luepker, Russell V

    2006-05-15

    Prospective epidemiologic studies aid in identifying genetic variants associated with diseases, health risks, and physiologic traits. These genetic variants may eventually be measured clinically for purposes of diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. As evidence of the potential clinical value of such information accrues, research studies face growing pressure to report these results to study participants or their physicians, even before sufficient evidence is available to support widespread screening of asymptomatic persons. There is thus a need to begin to develop consensus on whether and when genetic findings should be reported to participants in research studies. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a Working Group on Reporting Genetic Results in Research Studies to discuss if, when, and how genetic information should be reported to study participants. The Working Group concluded that genetic test results should be reported to study participants when the associated risk for the disease is significant; the disease has important health implications such as premature death or substantial morbidity or has significant reproductive implications; and proven therapeutic or preventive interventions are available. Finally, the Working Group recommended procedures for reporting genetic research results and encouraged increased efforts to create uniform guidelines for this activity.

  3. Scientifically Correct Racism: Health Studies' Unintended Effects against Minority Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Parra Casado, Daniel; Perez, Miguel Angel Mateo

    2007-01-01

    The present paper analyses press releases, news reports and health plans to show how health communication functions in perpetuating dominant racist structures. The paper is mainly concerned with how normal science and health practices can become an instrument for justifying racism and reproducing it in our societies. The examples demonstrate that…

  4. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  5. Striving for better health through health research in post-conflict Timor-Leste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Nelson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Cabinet of Health Research and Development (CHRD has recently been established as the first health research institute in one of the world's newest nations, Timor-Leste. We discuss the development of this initiative to build health research capacity within the context of Timor-Leste's health system, history and future goals.

  6. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological

  7. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  8. Advancing the Science of Qualitative Research to Promote Health Equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Derek M; Shelton, Rachel C; Kegler, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods have long been a part of health education research, but how qualitative approaches advance health equity has not been well described. Qualitative research is an increasingly important methodologic tool to use in efforts to understand, inform, and advance health equity. Qualitative research provides critical insight into the subjective meaning and context of health that can be essential for understanding where and how to intervene to inform health equity research and practice. We describe the larger context for this special theme issue of Health Education & Behavior, provide brief overviews of the 15 articles that comprise the issue, and discuss the promise of qualitative research that seeks to contextualize and illuminate answers to research questions in efforts to promote health equity. We highlight the critical role that qualitative research can play in considering and incorporating a diverse array of contextual information that is difficult to capture in quantitative research.

  9. Citing Dynamic Data - Research Data Alliance working group recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmi, Ari; Rauber, Andreas; Pröll, Stefan; van Uytvanck, Dieter

    2016-04-01

    Geosciences research data sets are typically dynamic: changing over time as new records are added, errors are corrected and obsolete records are deleted from the data sets. Researchers often use only parts of the data sets or data stream, creating specific subsets tailored to their experiments. In order to keep such experiments reproducible and to share and cite the particular data used in a study, researchers need means of identifying the exact version of a subset as it was used during a specific execution of a workflow, even if the data source is continuously evolving. Some geosciences data services have tried to approach this problem by creating static versions of their data sets, and some have simply ignored this issue. The RDA Working Group on Dynamic Data Citation (WGDC) has instead approached the issue with a set of recommendations based upon versioned data, timestamping and a query based subsetting mechanism. The 14 RDA WGDC recommendations on how to adapt a data source for providing identifiable subsets for the long term are: Preparing the Data and the Query Store R1 - Data Versioning R2 - Timestamping R3 - Query Store Facilities Persistently Identifying Specific Data Sets R4 - Query Uniqueness R5 - Stable Sorting R6 - Result Set Verification R7 - Query Timestamping R8 - Query PID R9 - Store the Query R10 - Automated Citation Texts Resolving PIDs and Retrieving the Data - R11 - Landing Page R12 - Machine Actionability Upon modifications to the Data Infrastructure R13 - Technology Migration R14 - Migration Verification We present a detailed discussion of the recommendations, the rationale behind them, and give examples of how to implement them.

  10. Learning from Latino voices: Focus Groups' Insights on Participation in Genetic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Priscilla; Cummings, Cory; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Chartier, Karen G

    2017-08-01

    There is a paucity of genetics research examining alcohol use among Latinos. The purpose of this study is to examine Latino perceptions of participation in alcohol studies that collect biological samples, an important precursor to increasing their participation in genetics research. A synthesis of the literature addressing participation of racial/ethnic minorities in alcohol genetics research was undertaken. We developed a framework of themes related to barriers and facilitators for participation, which we then used to analyze two focus groups held with 18 Latino participants. From the literature review, we identified nine themes related to facilitators of and barriers to participation. They are, on continua: curiosity to disinterest; trust to mistrust; understanding to confusion; safety to danger; inclusion to exclusion; sense of connection to disconnection; hope to despair; ease to hassle; and benefit to cost. Another theme emerged from the focus groups: previous experience to no previous experience with health research. Applying the themes from the literature review to Latino perspectives on providing biological samples for alcohol research helps expand their definition and applicability. Consideration of these themes when designing recruitment/retention materials and strategies may encourage Latino participation in alcohol genetics research. An understanding of these themes and their significance for Latinos is offered in the form of "guiding questions" for researchers to consider as we strive for more inclusive research. Focus group participants were Mexican American; future research should further explore perspectives of this heterogeneous demographic group by studying other Latino subgroups. (Am J Addict 2017;26:477-485). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  11. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...... and private sector commitment.Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria...

  12. From consultation to participation in public health research: reflections on a community-based research partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J; O'Connor, Moira

    2014-12-19

    Road traffic crashes and their outcomes are substantial global public health issues and public health initiatives are increasingly involving relevant community members in order to create sustainable change. This paper describes an applied research project utilizing participatory methods to establish a road trauma support service in Western Australia and reflects on the extent of participation in the community-based research partnership. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) provided the basis for the research project conducted in partnership with 34 government and non-government agency representatives and people affected personally by road trauma and which resulted in 22 recommendations for establishing the service. Attempts to position the group as co-researchers highlighted the dynamic interplay of factors that hinder and enable participation in participatory research. Barriers to participation within the research process included the limited time and funds, reluctance to share authorship, and a lack of clarity regarding roles and processes. Factors that enabled participation were the recognition of each member's expertise, providing different forms and methods of communication, and the reimbursement of costs according to role. In May 2012, the Government of Western Australia announced it would fund the recommendations and Road Trauma Support Western Australia was launched in November 2013. Notwithstanding this successful outcome, there were varied experiences of participation in the research process, and this was despite the use of a research methodology that is by definition participatory, with explicit and embedded participatory structures and processes. The research project shows that elements of CBPR can be incorporated into public health research, even in projects with externally-imposed time and budget constraints.

  13. Why Health Care Needs Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    Today's pediatric health care lacks methods to tap into the emotional state of hospitalized pediatric patients (age 4-6 years). The most frequently used approaches were developed for adults and fail to acknowledge the importance of imaginary experiences and the notion of play that may appeal to c...... communication with young children. At the same time, design research (i.e., the development of new knowledge through the development of a new design) heavily impacts the method....... to children. The scope of this article is to introduce a new design-oriented method of gathering information about the emotional state of pediatric patients using an experimental computer game called the Child Patient game (CPgame). The CPgame was developed at a Danish hospital, and the results...

  14. Health services research: the gradual encroachment of ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nick

    2009-04-01

    There is increasing pressure on researchers and research funding bodies to demonstrate the value of research. Simple approaches, consistent with the biomedical paradigm, based on relating the cost of research to its supposed impact are being investigated and adopted in laboratory and clinical research. While this may be appropriate in such research areas, it should not be applied to health services research which aims to alter the ways policy-makers and managers think about health, disease and health care or, as John Maynard Keynes put it, 'the gradual encroachment of ideas'. By considering six fundamental assumptions about health care that have been successfully challenged and overturned over the past few decades, the profound and sustained impact of health services research can be demonstrated. The application of economic models of 'payback' would fail to recognize such contributions which, in turn, could threaten future funding of health services research.

  15. A Call for Research: The Need to Better Understand the Impact of Support Groups for Suicide Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerel, Julie; Padgett, Jason H.; Conwell, Yeates; Reed, Gerald A., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Support groups for suicide survivors (those individuals bereaved following a suicide) are widely used, but little research evidence is available to determine their efficacy. This paper outlines the pressing public health need to conduct research and determine effective ways to identify and meet the needs of suicide survivors, particularly through…

  16. Bioterrorism and biological threats dominate federal health security research; other priorities get scant attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Shoshana R; Connor, Kathryn; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Pillemer, Francesca Matthews; Mullikin, James M; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-12-01

    The federal government plays a critical role in achieving national health security by providing strategic guidance and funding research to help prevent, respond to, mitigate, and recover from disasters, epidemics, and acts of terrorism. In this article we describe the first-ever inventory of nonclassified national health security-related research funded by civilian agencies of the federal government. Our analysis revealed that the US government's portfolio of health security research is currently weighted toward bioterrorism and emerging biological threats, laboratory methods, and development of biological countermeasures. Eight of ten other priorities identified in the Department of Health and Human Services' National Health Security Strategy-such as developing and maintaining a national health security workforce or incorporating recovery into planning and response-receive scant attention. We offer recommendations to better align federal spending with health security research priorities, including the creation of an interagency working group charged with minimizing research redundancy and filling persistent gaps in knowledge.

  17. [Spanish paediatric research in ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA: research groups and research areas (2003-2009)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Alcaide, G; Valderrama Zurián, J C; Aleixandre Benavent, R; González de Dios, J

    2011-04-01

    Authorships of scientific papers are a significant milestone for researchers. Quantification of authors' contribution in research papers makes it possible to investigate patterns of research collaboration and interactions in scientific community. The objective of this paper is to analyse scientific collaboration and to identify research groups and research areas of ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA. Papers published in ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA between 2003 and 2009 period were selected from Medline. An author name normalization process was carried out. Productivity and scientific collaboration indexes have been determined. Research groups have been identified through co-authorships networks analysis. Thematic areas of research and major domains of research groups have been characterised by means of quantification of Medical Subject Headings terms assigned to documents. An analysis was made of 1,828 documents published by 4,695 authors. The collaboration index (articles) was 5.3 ± 2.3. A total of 97 research groups consisting of between 2 and 80 researchers, which add up 415 researchers have been identified. The main diseases and medical signs studied were asthma (n = 35), multiple abnormalities (n = 28), premature diseases (n = 25), sepsis (n = 24), congenital heart defects (n = 23), respiratory insufficiency (n = 22), HIV infections (n = 21), streptococcal infections (n = 20) and gastroenteritis (n = 20). ANALES DE PEDIATRÍA is one of the most productive Spanish medical journals. Author's collaboration was similar to those observed in other Spanish clinical journals included in Journal Citation Reports. A remarkable number of paediatric research groups publishing on many topics have been identified. Copyright © 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Healthier lives for European minority groups: school and health care, lessons from the Roma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flecha, Ainhoa

    2013-07-24

    On average, the Roma in Europe can expect to die 10 years earlier than the rest of the population, given the health conditions they experience. EU-funded research has informed on successful actions (SA) that when implemented among the Roma provide them new forms of educational participation which have a direct impact on improving their health status, regardless of their educational level. The findings from this research, unanimously endorsed by the European Parliament, have been included in several European Union recommendations and resolutions as part of the EU strategy on Roma inclusion. To analyze these SA, as well as the conditions that promote them and their impact on reducing health inequalities, communicative fieldwork has been conducted with Roma people from a deprived neighbourhood in the South of Spain, who are participating in the previously identified SA. The analysis reveals that these SA enable Roma people to reinforce and enrich specific strategies like improving family cohesion and strengthening their identity, which allow them to improve their overall health. These findings may inform public policies to improve the health condition of the Roma and other vulnerable groups, one goal of the Europe 2020 strategy for a healthier Europe.

  19. Sitting with others: mental health self-help groups in northern Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Alex

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in Self-Help Groups, by mental health services users and caregivers, alike. Research in high-income countries suggests that participation in SHGs is associated with decreased use of inpatient facilities, improved social functioning among service users, and decreased caregiver burden. The formation of SHGs has become an important component of mental health programmes operated by non-governmental organisations (NGOs in low-income countries. However, there has been relatively little research examining the benefits of SHGs in this context. Methods Qualitative research with 18 SHGs, five local non-governmental organisations, community mental health nurses, administrators in Ghana Health Services, and discussions with BasicNeeds staff. Results SHGs have the potential to serve as key components of community mental health programmes in low-resource settings. The strongest evidence concerns how SHGs provide a range of supports, e.g., social, financial, and practical, to service users and caregivers. The groups also appear to foster greater acceptance of service users by their families and by communities at large. Membership in SHGs appears to be associated with more consistent treatment and better outcomes for those who are ill. Discussion This study highlights the need for longitudinal qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the effect of SHGs on clinical, social and economic outcomes of service users and their carers. Conclusions The organisation of SHGs appears to be associated with positive outcomes for service users and caregivers. However, there is a need to better understand how SHGs operate and the challenges they face.

  20. 'More health for the money': an analytical framework for access to health care through microfinance and savings groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen

    2014-10-01

    The main contributors to inequities in health relates to widespread poverty. Health cannot be achieved without addressing the social determinants of health, and the answer does not lie in the health sector alone. One of the potential pathways to address vulnerabilities linked to poverty, social exclusion, and empowerment of women is aligning health programmes with empowerment interventions linked to access to capital through microfinance and self-help groups. This paper presents a framework to analyse combined health and financial interventions through microfinance programmes in reducing barriers to access health care. If properly designed and ethically managed such integrated programmes can provide more health for the money spent on health care.

  1. Improving the use of research evidence in guideline development: 3. Group composition and consultation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO, like many other organisations around the world, has recognised the need to use more rigorous processes to ensure that health care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence. This is the third of a series of 16 reviews that have been prepared as background for advice from the WHO Advisory Committee on Health Research to WHO on how to achieve this. Objective In this review we address the composition of guideline development groups and consultation processes during guideline development. Methods We searched PubMed and three databases of methodological studies for existing systematic reviews and relevant methodological research. We did not conduct systematic reviews ourselves. Our conclusions are based on the available evidence, consideration of what WHO and other organisations are doing and logical arguments. Key questions and answers What should be the composition of a WHO-panel that is set up to develop recommendations? The existing empirical evidence suggests that panel composition has an impact on the content of the recommendations that are made. There is limited research evidence to guide the exact composition of a panel. Based on logical arguments and the experience of other organisations we recommend the following: • Groups that develop guidelines or recommendations should be broadly composed and include important stakeholders such as consumers, health professionals that work within the relevant area, and managers or policy makers. • Groups should include or have access to individuals with the necessary technical skills, including information retrieval, systematic reviewing, health economics, group facilitation, project management, writing and editing. • Groups should include or have access to content experts. • To work well a group needs an effective leader, capable of guiding the group in terms of the task and process, and capable of facilitating

  2. Research on the Public Health of Venue Layout of Changzhutan City Group%长株潭城市群大众健身场馆布局研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李四君

    2013-01-01

      Changzhutan the urban masses stadiums layout as the research object, through literature, mathematical statistics,expert interviews and other methods to analyze the CZT satiation gyms layout of the building, found mainly from existing stadiums government finances is the urban agglomeration benefits of its increased fitness needs, according to the government’t unified plan to develop and improve stadiums, layout and construction projects policy, the joint development of multi-channel financial investment market support mechanisms and systems environment, follow the win-win principle, develop folly functional, project diversification, conveniently small gyms, effectively alleviate the urban agglomeration public gyms inadequate situation.%  以长株潭城市群众体育场馆布局作为研究对象,通过文献资料法、数理统计法、专家访谈等方法,分析了长株潭地区大众健身场馆建设布局。发现现有体育场馆主要来源于政府财政投入和商业性投入建设,难以满足城市群区域内居民日益增涨的健身需求。依据政府统一制定和完善体育场馆规划、布局和建设的政策,联合市场制定多渠道融投资扶持机制和制度环境,遵循双赢原则,开发功能齐全、项目多样化、交通便利的中小型健身场馆,有效缓解城市群大众健身场馆不足局面。

  3. Group-effort applied research: expanding opportunities for undergraduate research through original, class-based research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean D; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's laboratory. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student-one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this article, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience.

  4. 42 CFR 457.805 - State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans. 457.805 Section 457.805 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS...

  5. National Institutes of Health, Office of Research on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Women of Color Research Network Research on Causal Factors and Interventions that Promote and Support the Careers ... Careers Women of Color Research Network Research on Causal Factors and Interventions that Promote and Support the Careers ...

  6. 77 FR 42313 - Recharter of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Public Health. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Corinne Graffunder, Designated Federal Officer (DFO) of... the President establish the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and...

  7. 75 FR 41787 - Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ58 Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health... Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) regarding preventive health services. The IRS is issuing the... Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to...

  8. What young people want from health-related online resources: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2013-08-01

    The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.

  9. Experiences with Recruitment of Marginalized Groups in a Danish Health Promotion Program: A Document Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have found that marginalized groups living in deprived neighborhoods are less likely to participate in health programs compared to the majority of society. This study evaluates recruitment approaches conducted during a national government-funded project in 12 deprived neighborhoods across Denmark between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment approaches could promote participation in health programs within deprived neighborhoods to reach marginalized groups. Method Documents from all 12 of the included municipalities were collected to conduct a document evaluation. The collected documents consisted of 1,500 pages of written material with 12 project descriptions, three midterm and 10 final evaluations. The collected data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Results The results are based on the fact that only 10 municipalities have developed evaluations related to recruitment, and only three evaluations provided a description of which marginalized groups were recruited. Challenges related to recruitment consist of difficulties involving the target group, including general distrust, language barriers and a lack of ability to cope with new situations and strangers. Additional geographical challenges emerged, especially in rural areas. Positive experiences with recruitment approaches were mainly related to relationship building and trust building, especially through face-to-face contact and the project employees’ presence in the neighborhood. Additionally, adjusting some of the interventions and the recruitment strategy increased participation. Conclusion This study found that relation and trust between the residents and the project employees is an important factor in the recruitment of marginalized groups in deprived neighborhoods as well as adjusting the health interventions or recruitment strategy to the target groups. In future research, it is necessary to examine which recruitment approaches are

  10. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  11. Tool development in health care research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Parameaswari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measures of Population Health would need to be compatible across nations and cultures to serve as measures for making global health policy. Health state valuations on the basis of utility instruments such as rating scales, ex. the Visual Analog Scale or methods such as personal trade-off, time trade-off and standard gamble, are one of the critical inputs that contribute to the calcula-tion of summary measures of population health. These methods are supposed to assess an individual’s valuation of hypothetical health states in terms of a single number indicating the value placed on a health state relative to perfect health or death.

  12. Overview of research by the fission group in Trombay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Chourdhury

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear fission studies in Trombay began nearly six decades ago, with the commissioning of the APSARA research reactor. Early experimental work was based on mass, kinetic energy distributions, neutron and X-ray emission in thermal neutron fission of 235U, which were carried out with indigenously developed detectors and electronics instrumentation. With the commissioning of CIRUS reactor and the availability of higher neutron flux, advanced experiments were carried out on ternary fission, pre-scission neutron emission, fragment charge distributions, quarternary fission, etc. In the late eighties, heavy-ion beams from the pelletron-based medium energy heavy-ion accelerator were available, which provided a rich variety of possibilities in nuclear fission studies. Pioneering work on fragment angular distributions, fission time-scales, transfer-induced fission, -ray multiplicities and mass–energy correlations were carried out, providing important information on the dynamics of the fission process. More recently, work on fission fragment -ray spectroscopy has been initiated, to understand the nuclear structure aspects of the neutron-rich fission fragment nuclei. There have also been parallel efforts to carry out theoretical studies in the areas of shell effects, superheavy nuclei, fusion–fission dynamics, fragment angular distributions, etc. to complement the experimental studies. This paper will provide a glimpse of the work carried out by the fission group at Trombay in the above-mentioned topics.

  13. Ethical issues posed by cluster randomized trials in health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donner Allan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cluster randomized trial (CRT is used increasingly in knowledge translation research, quality improvement research, community based intervention studies, public health research, and research in developing countries. However, cluster trials raise difficult ethical issues that challenge researchers, research ethics committees, regulators, and sponsors as they seek to fulfill responsibly their respective roles. Our project will provide a systematic analysis of the ethics of cluster trials. Here we have outlined a series of six areas of inquiry that must be addressed if the cluster trial is to be set on a firm ethical foundation: 1. Who is a research subject? 2. From whom, how, and when must informed consent be obtained? 3. Does clinical equipoise apply to CRTs? 4. How do we determine if the benefits outweigh the risks of CRTs? 5. How ought vulnerable groups be protected in CRTs? 6. Who are gatekeepers and what are their responsibilities? Subsequent papers in this series will address each of these areas, clarifying the ethical issues at stake and, where possible, arguing for a preferred solution. Our hope is that these papers will serve as the basis for the creation of international ethical guidelines for the design and conduct of cluster randomized trials.

  14. Global oral health inequalities: the view from a research funder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Tabak, L A

    2011-05-01

    Despite impressive worldwide improvements in oral health, inequalities in oral health status among and within countries remain a daunting public health challenge. Oral health inequalities arise from a complex web of health determinants, including social, behavioral, economic, genetic, environmental, and health system factors. Eliminating these inequalities cannot be accomplished in isolation of oral health from overall health, or without recognizing that oral health is influenced at multiple individual, family, community, and health systems levels. For several reasons, this is an opportune time for global efforts targeted at reducing oral health inequalities. Global health is increasingly viewed not just as a humanitarian obligation, but also as a vehicle for health diplomacy and part of the broader mission to reduce poverty, build stronger economies, and strengthen global security. Despite the global economic recession, there are trends that portend well for support of global health efforts: increased globalization of research and development, growing investment from private philanthropy, an absolute growth of spending in research and innovation, and an enhanced interest in global health among young people. More systematic and far-reaching efforts will be required to address oral health inequalities through the engagement of oral health funders and sponsors of research, with partners from multiple public and private sectors. The oral health community must be "at the table" with other health disciplines and create opportunities for eliminating inequalities through collaborations that can harness both the intellectual and financial resources of multiple sectors and institutions.

  15. The mental health of Indigenous peoples in Canada: A critical review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Sarah E; Wilson, Kathi

    2017-03-01

    Many scholars assert that Indigenous peoples across the globe suffer a disproportionate burden of mental illness. Research indicates that colonialism and its associated processes are important determinants of Indigenous peoples' health internationally. In Canada, despite an abundance of health research documenting inequalities in morbidity and mortality rates for Indigenous peoples, relatively little research has focused on mental health. This paper provides a critical scoping review of the literature related to Indigenous mental health in Canada. We searched eleven databases and two Indigenous health-focused journals for research related to mental health, Indigenous peoples, and Canada, for the years 2006-2016. Over two hundred papers are included in the review and coded according to research theme, population group, and geography. Results demonstrate that the literature is overwhelmingly concerned with issues related to colonialism in mental health services and the prevalence and causes of mental illness among Indigenous peoples in Canada, but with several significant gaps. Mental health research related to Indigenous peoples in Canada overemphasizes suicide and problematic substance use; a more critical use of the concepts of colonialism and historical trauma is advised; and several population groups are underrepresented in research, including Métis peoples and urban or off-reserve Indigenous peoples. The findings are useful in an international context by providing a starting point for discussions, dialogue, and further study regarding mental health research for Indigenous peoples around the world.

  16. 75 FR 52355 - Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Prevention Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports... exposures. This notice announces the availability of draft National Conversation work group reports for... National Conversation Leadership Council and facilitating the work group process. DATES: Draft work...

  17. A Research-Based Narrative Assignment for Global Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencucha, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on novel approaches to classroom-based global health education despite the growing popularity of this topic in health professional curricula. The purpose of the following paper is to (1) describe the rationale underlying the use of a research-based narrative assignment for global health education, and (2) describe…

  18. The framework of international health research--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Yasmin; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2007-01-01

    Of the global budget for health research, only 10% is spent on the disease burden of 90% of the world's population. Investments in international health research are lacking, hampering health of the poor in particular. Effective vaccines against the world killers HIV, malaria and tuberculosis still...

  19. The West African Health Organization's experience in improving the health research environment in the ECOWAS region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aidam, Jude; Sombié, Issiaka

    2016-01-01

    The West African Health Organization (WAHO) implemented a research development program in West Africa during 2009-2013 using the Knowledge for Better Health Research Capacity Development Framework, developed by Pang et al...

  20. Cultural affiliation and the importance of health care attributes. Marketers can develop segmentation strategies for targeted patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinsky, A L; Stinerock, R

    1998-01-01

    Culturally based values are known to influence consumer purchase decisions, but little is known about how those values affect health care choices. To rectify that situation and provide health care marketers with a framework for developing culturally based segmentation strategies, the authors undertook an exploratory research project in which Hispanic-, African-, and Anglo-Americans were asked to rate the importance of 16 different health care attributes. Those attributes can be grouped under five categories: quality of physician, quality of nurses and other medical staff, economic issues, access to health care, and nonmedically related experiential aspects. Survey responses identified distinct differences in the importance attached to the various attributes by the three cultural groups. The study also looks at the impact of six demographic and social characteristics on the evaluations made by each cultural group. Those characteristics are educational level, gender, age, health status, marital status, and number of people living in the household.

  1. Mental health of scientific researchers. I. Characteristics of job stress among scientific researchers working at a research park in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, T; Matsuzaki, I; Morita, N; Sasahara, S; Satoh, S; Nakamura, H

    2001-04-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of job stress in scientific researchers, a self-administered questionnaire survey for 16,330 workers was carried out at Tsukuba Research Park City, Japan. The data of 7,063 (43%) workers aged 20-59 years old were analyzed, and the characteristics of job stress in 3,290 scientific researchers were compared with those of 1,799 technicians and 1,849 clerks. The researchers perceived higher quantitative and qualitative workload, greater job control (job decision latitude), and greater reward from work, than did the other two job groups. In addition, young male researchers received a large amount of support from their coworkers, while middle-aged male researchers perceived difficulty in personal relationships with their coworkers. From the viewpoints of the demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model, the researchers, particularly men, were typically occupied in active jobs, and the large amount of effort required for their work seemed to be balanced by greater reward from work. Compared with male researchers, however, female researchers perceived lesser job demand, lesser job control, and lesser reward from work. The working environment of female researchers may be related to the so-called career stress of working women. The mental health status of these scientific researchers should be examined directly in a future study.

  2. Civil society organisations, social innovation and health research in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinare, Dace; McCarthy, Mark

    2012-12-01

    European Union strategies and programmes identify research and innovation as a critical dimension for future economic and social development. While European research policy emphasizes support for industry, the health field includes not-for-profit civil society organisations (CSOs) providing social innovation. Yet, the perspectives of CSOs towards health research in Europe are not well understood. STEPS (Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research) was funded by the European Commission's Science in Society research programme. Within the study, we interviewed by telephone respondents of 13 European health CSOs, which represented collectively local and national organizations. Research was valued positively by the respondents. Health CSOs did not seek to do research themselves, but recognized the opportunity of funds in this field and welcomed the possibility of collaborating in research, of using the results from research and of providing input to research agendas. Links between research and users provides knowledge for the public and improves impacts on policy. Research and evaluation can help in demonstrating the benefit of innovative activities, and give support and legitimacy. However, the cultures of, and incentives for, researchers and health CSOs are different, and collaboration requires building trust, a shared language and for the power relations and objectives to match. Health CSOs contribute social innovation in organising services and activities such as advocacy that cannot be satisfactorily met by industry. Engaging CSOs in research and innovation will strengthen the European Research Area.

  3. Aerobics health as means of increasing somatic health of students of special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivneva M.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We prove the feasibility of employment by improving aerobic low intensity (LowImpact - heart rate in the range 128-140 beats / min, or 60-74% of HR max with students of special medical groups with disabilities cardiovascular system. The choice of three varieties of improving aerobics - classical, dance, tap dance - and with the help of laboratory experiment investigated the specificity of their effects on the physical health of students. According to the results of laboratory studies developed two versions of the author's method of application for improving aerobic physical education classes with students with disabilities but cardiac-vascular system, the main difference between them lies in the relationship and the manner of the classical sequence of exercises, dance, step aerobics. By comparing the results of educational experiments proved that both variants techniques contribute significantly improved key indicators of physical health subjects and thus are fairly equal in the nature of exposure.

  4. Ethical and Social Issues in Health Research Involving Incarcerated People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Lewis, Sharon R; Smith, Selina A

    2016-01-01

    The use of inmates in research in the U.S. was restricted by the recommendations of the National Commission and by federal regulations and guidelines that followed. By the 1980s, many health care officials became concerned about the exclusion of inmates from experimental treatments for human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). These developments in ethics occurred in the context of racial/ethnic disparities in health. In this article, ethical considerations in clinical and public health research on HIV in prison and jail settings are considered. Ethical considerations in mental health research are summarized as well as issues pertaining to research involving female inmates. Issues related to oversight of research involving incarcerated people are considered along with the ethics of public health research. The ethics of research involving incarcerated people extends beyond traditional issues in human subjects ethics to include issues within the domains of bioethics and public health ethics.

  5. Health promotion with adolescents: examining theoretical perspectives to guide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Kristen S

    2002-01-01

    A guiding theoretical framework in research serves not only to guide a single research study, but also to link previous and future research that is guided by the same framework. Existing theoretical perspectives appropriate for use with adolescent health promotion research were reviewed. Instead of randomly selecting several theories for comparison, an intensive review of the literature was conducted to identify which theories were most commonly used with adolescent health promotion research. The results of this review revealed some interesting and noteworthy information regarding the state of theory use in adolescent health research for the last decade. Information is provided on theoretical perspectives by journal and year of publication. Trends are analyzed so that nurses can evaluate the current state of the science. Social cognitive theory (Bandura, 1986), the health belief model (Becker, 1978), and the health promotion model (Pender, 1996) emerged as the most significant theories for adolescent health promotion research and thus are discussed at the end of the article.

  6. Experiences with recruitment of marginalized groups in a Danish health promotion program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marianne; Poulsen, Eva Kanstrup; Rytter, Anne Stoffersen

    2016-01-01

    to cope with new situations and strangers. Additional geographical challenges emerged, especially in rural areas. Positive experiences with recruitment approaches were mainly related to relationship building and trust building, especially through face-to-face contact and the project employees' presence...... in the neighborhood. Additionally, adjusting some of the interventions and the recruitment strategy increased participation. CONCLUSION: This study found that relation and trust between the residents and the project employees is an important factor in the recruitment of marginalized groups in deprived neighborhoods...... as well as adjusting the health interventions or recruitment strategy to the target groups. In future research, it is necessary to examine which recruitment approaches are effective under which circumstances to increase participation among marginalized groups....

  7. Conflict, forced displacement and health in Sri Lanka: a review of the research landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Wickramage, Kolitha

    2014-01-01

    Sri Lanka has recently emerged from nearly three decades of protracted conflict, which came to an end five years ago in 2009. A number of researchers have explored the devastating effect the conflict has had on public health, and its impact on Sri Lanka's health system - hailed as a success story in the South Asian region. Remarkably, no attempt has been made to synthesize the findings of such studies in order to build an evidence-informed research platform. This review aims to map the 'research landscape' on the impact of conflict on health in Sri Lanka. Findings highlight health status in select groups within affected communities and unmet needs of health systems in post-conflict regions. We contend that Sri Lanka's post-conflict research landscape requires exploration of individual, community and health system resilience, to provide better evidence for health programs and interventions after 26 years of conflict.

  8. Methodologic issues in research on religion and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Ellison, Christopher G; Strock, Adrienne L

    2004-12-01

    This study examines several methodologic issues in research on religion and health, including the measurement of the concept of religion, research designs, sampling, and statistical controls for assessing the "net" effects of religion on health outcomes. It briefly discusses differences in analytical perspectives that have contributed to the debate about the effects of religion on health. The authors review some of the methodologic problems of past research in this area of study and address what needs to be done to enhance the quality of the research. The authors conclude that the research methodology used in studies of religion and health has improved over time and that it continues to do so.

  9. Exploring health information technology education: an analysis of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgona, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the Health Information Technology Education published research. The purpose of this study was to examine selected literature using variables such as journal frequency, keyword analysis, universities associated with the research and geographic diversity. The analysis presented in this paper has identified intellectually significant studies that have contributed to the development and accumulation of intellectual wealth of Health Information Technology. The keyword analysis suggests that Health Information Technology research has evolved from establishing concepts and domains of health information systems, technology and management to contemporary issues such as education, outsourcing, web services and security. The research findings have implications for educators, researchers, journal.

  10. Cooperation in health: A cluster analysis of 190 research institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Barreto Lang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Webometrics has been recognized as a science with great potential for application in various fields. However, studies in this area are still restricted to the large field of informetrics. Moreover, the debate surrounding the relation between the web and the health field has been dedicated to addressing issues of socioeconomic nature related to universal access and a new division between north and south. Objectives: With the aim of contributing to the broadening of webometrics to other areas of knowledge, this study intends to map on the web, in the light of international cooperation models, relations between major health research institutions. Results: Results showed predominantly thematic groupings, the reflection of a north-south cooperation model and a low expression of relations between institutions of south countries.

  11. Collaborative field research and training in occupational health and ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    1998-01-01

    Networking collaborative research and training in Asian developing countries includes three types of joint activities: field studies of workplace potentials for better safety and health, intensive action training for improvement of working conditions in small enterprises, and action-oriented workshops on low-cost improvements for managers, workers, and farmers. These activities were aimed at identifying workable strategies for making locally adjusted improvements in occupational health and ergonomics. Many improvements have resulted as direct outcomes. Most these improvements were multifaceted, low-cost, and practicable using local skills. Three common features of these interactive processes seem important in facilitating realistic improvements: 1) voluntary approaches building on local achievements; 2) the use of practical methods for identifying multiple improvements; and 3) participatory steps for achieving low-cost results first. The effective use of group work tools is crucial. Stepwise training packages have thus proven useful for promoting local problem-solving interventions based on voluntary initiatives.

  12. [Scientific research in nursing education: Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais research groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Diana Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Lino, Mônica Motta; Canever, Bruna Pedroso; Ferraz, Fabiane; Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral

    2011-06-01

    This study aims to characterize the scientific production of the Research Groups in Nursing Education (RGNE) of the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, in Brazil. This is a documentary quantitative descriptive retrospective research, conducted by searching the CVs of all researchers who are part of the RGNEs in the Lattes database, followed by the search, organization, and evaluation of their scientific production according to Qualis/CAPES. The period studied was from 1995 to 2009 (the last five CAPES triennia) and included articles, books, book chapters, and full papers in conference proceedings. Results show that Rio de Janeiro has the higher number of articles in Nursing Education, highlighting the qualification of researchers at doctorate level. Both states present historic and socio-economic factors that favor scientific development.

  13. Evaluating an interdisciplinary undergraduate training program in health promotion research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Shalini; Harvey, Richard H; Stokols, Daniel; Pine, Kathleen H; Fuqua, Juliana; Shokair, Said M; Whiteley, John M

    2009-04-01

    The University of California at Irvine Interdisciplinary Summer Undergraduate Research Experience (ID-SURE) program had three objectives: (1) designing an interdisciplinary health promotion training curriculum for undergraduate research fellows; (2) developing measures for evaluating and assessing program-related educational processes and products; and (3) comparing these educational process and product measures between groups of students who did or did not receive the training. A total of 101 students participated in the ID-SURE program during 2005, 2006, and 2007. A longitudinal research design was employed whereby students' interdisciplinary attitudes and behaviors were assessed at the beginning and end of the training program. The interdisciplinary and intellectual qualities of students' academic and research products were assessed at the conclusion of the training activities. In addition, ID-SURE participants' interdisciplinary attitudes, behaviors, and research products were compared to those of 70 participants in another fellowship program that did not have an interdisciplinary training component. Exposing undergraduate research fellows to the interdisciplinary curriculum led to increased participation in, and positive attitudes about, interdisciplinary classroom and laboratory activities. Products, such as the integrative and interdisciplinary quality of student research projects, showed no differences when compared to those of undergraduates who were not exposed to the interdisciplinary curriculum. However, undergraduates exposed to the training engaged in more interdisciplinary behaviors at the end of the program than students who were not trained in interdisciplinary research techniques. The findings from this study offer evidence for the efficacy of the ID-SURE program for training undergraduate students in transdisciplinary concepts, methods, and skills that are needed for effective scientific collaboration. Additionally, this study makes two important

  14. Replicating Small Group Research Using the Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragan, John F.; Wright, David W.

    A replication study tested functional theory utilizing untrained full-fledged groups. One hundred forty undergraduate students who were enrolled in a small group communication course at a large midwestern university participated in small group discussions analyzing a plagiarism case used in an original study by R. Y. Hirokawa. Results indicated…

  15. Health Education Research and Practice Literature on Hispanic Health Issues: Have We Lost Sight of the Largest Minority Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2016-03-01

    Hispanics constitute the largest racial/ethnic minority population in the United States and are the fastest growing segment of the population. Knowledge about health needs and practices, effective health promotion programs, and health policy making for Hispanics has the potential to improve population health outcomes for this group. Continued research and practice literature will aid in accomplishing these objectives. However, little is known about the extent of health education-related literature available on Hispanic health issues. In this review, we analyzed research and practice publications in all health education-related journals to assess the volume of articles published on Hispanic health issues. We found that the portion of journal articles devoted to Hispanic health issues varied widely among the journals and that there was a very limited emphasis on Hispanic health-related issues. Journal editors and editorial board members may need to be more proactive in soliciting manuscripts on Hispanic health, and our practitioners may have to improve their professional skills and cultural competence in order to work with Hispanic populations to produce research and practice literature that is of adequate quantity and quality to help improve Hispanics' health.

  16. Promoting and recovering health: meanings produced in community groups within the family health program context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Camargo-Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Healthcare in Brazil has tended to reflect major changes in the healthcare model. New tendencies point to the importance of actions being built up from their context and focused on specific communities. The objective of this study is to describe the meanings of health / illness as produced by community groups within the context of a Family Healthcare Program. Five groups had their single-session discussions taped and recorded, under the coordination of the first author. This material was transcribed and, coupled with field notes, formed the database for this study. The analysis described the meanings of the ideas on which new healthcare proposals are being based, providing visibility for the multiplicity of meanings and denaturalizing fixed lines of discourse on healthcare / illness. The final thoughts, developed from the point of view of social constructionism, indicate that healthcare practices based on the process of constant conversation and negotiation between all the social actors involved is a fertile ground.

  17. [Antibiotic resistance: recommendations from the Advisory Council for Health Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamp-Korstanje, J.A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Advisory Council for Health Research (RGO) advised the Dutch Minister of Health on research into the epidemiology, prevention and research of antibiotic resistance in the Netherlands. Good antimicrobial practice, insight into antibiotic use, implementation of measures to prevent development of r

  18. Environmental Health Research Involving Human Subjects: Ethical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Resnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews some of the ethical issues that arise in environmental health research with human subjects, such as minimizing risks to subjects, balancing benefits and risks in research, intentional exposure studies with human subjects, protecting third parties in research, informing subjects about environmental hazards, communicating health information to subjects, and protecting privacy and confidentiality.

  19. Pacific Health Research Guidelines: The Cartography of an Ethical Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila-Schaaf, Karlo

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 the Health Research Council of New Zealand (HRC) published a set of "Guidelines on Pacific health research". The Guidelines were an attempt to articulate the features of ethical research relationships with Pacific peoples living in Aotearoa New Zealand. This article describes the process of developing these guidelines, using…

  20. The value of evaluating parenting groups: a new researcher's perspective on methods and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Judy

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research project was to evaluate the impact of the Solihull Approach Understanding Your Child's Behaviour (UYCB) parenting groups on the participants' parenting practice and their reported behaviour of their children. Validated tools that met both the Solihull Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and academic requirements were used to establish what changes, if any, in parenting practice and children's behaviour (as perceived by the parent) occur following attendance of a UYCB parenting group. Independent evidence of the efficacy of the Solihull Approach UYCB programme was collated. Results indicated significant increases in self-esteem and parenting sense of competence; improvement in the parental locus of control; a decrease in hyperactivity and conduct problems and an increase in pro-social behaviour, as measured by the 'Strength and Difficulties' questionnaire. The qualitative and quantitative findings corroborated each other, demonstrating the impact and effectiveness of the programme and supporting anecdotal feedback on the success of UYCB parenting groups.

  1. Moving Toward Paradigm-Shifting Research in Health Disparities Through Translational, Transformational, and Transdisciplinary Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Kyu B.; Stoff, David M.; Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Sy, Francisco S.; Stinson, Nathaniel; Ruffin, John

    2010-01-01

    Translational, transdisciplinary, and transformational research stands to become a paradigm-shifting mantra for research in health disparities. A windfall of research discoveries using these 3 approaches has increased our understanding of the health disparities in racial, ethnic, and low socioeconomic status groups. These distinct but related research spheres possess unique environments, which, when integrated, can lead to innovation in health disparities science. In this article, we review these approaches and propose integrating them to advance health disparities research through a change in philosophical position and an increased emphasis on community engagement. We argue that a balanced combination of these research approaches is needed to inform evidence-based practice, social action, and effective policy change to improve health in disparity communities. PMID:20147662

  2. How to minimise the health risks to athletes who compete in weight-sensitive sports review and position statement on behalf of the Ad Hoc Research Working Group on Body Composition, Health and Performance, under the auspices of the IOC Medical Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn; Meyer, Nanna L; Lohman, Timothy G; Ackland, Timothy R; Maughan, Ronald J; Stewart, Arthur D; Müller, Wolfram

    2013-11-01

    A focus on low body weight and body fat content, combined with regulations in some weight-sensitive sports, are considered risk factors for extreme dieting, eating disorders (EDs) and related health consequences among athletes. At present there are, from a health perspective, no generally accepted optimum values for body weight or percentage of fat mass in different sports and there is no 'gold standard' method for body composition assessment in athletes. On the basis of health considerations as well as performance, medical support teams should know how to approach elite athletes who seek to achieve an unrealistic body composition and how to prevent restrictive eating practices from developing into an ED. In addition, these teams must know when to raise the alarm and how to advice athletes who are affected by extreme dieting or clinical EDs. However, there is no consensus on when athletes struggling with extreme dieting or EDs should be referred for specialist medical treatment or removed from competition. Based on the present review, we conclude that there is a need for (1) sport-specific and gender-specific preventive programmes, (2) criteria for raising alarm and 'does not start' (DNS) for athletes with EDs and (3) modifications to the regulations in some sports. Further, the key areas for research identified include the development of standard methods for body composition assessment in elite athletes; screening measures for EDs among athletes; development and testing of prevention programmes; investigating the short and long-term effects of extreme dieting; and EDs on health and performance.

  3. Community assessment workshops: a group method for gathering client experiences of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Toby; Jolley, Gwyn; Baum, Fran; Lawless, Angela; Javanparast, Sara; Labonté, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Community assessment workshops were developed to gather client experiences of primary health care services in Australia. Primary health care services are particularly concerned with working with disadvantaged populations, for whom traditional client survey methods such as written surveys may not be inclusive and accessible. Service staff at six Australian primary health care services, including two Aboriginal-specific services, invited participants to attend workshops in 2011-2012. Participants were offered transport, childcare and an interpreter, and provided with reimbursement for their time. Ten workshops were run with a total of 65 participants who accessed a variety of services and programmes. A mix of age and gender was achieved. The workshops yielded detailed qualitative data and quantitative rankings for nine service qualities: holistic, effective, efficient, culturally respectful, used by those most in need, responsive to the local community, increasing individual control, supports and empowers the community, and mix of treatment, prevention and promotion. Discussions were audio recorded and transcribed for qualitative analysis. The workshop approach succeeded in being (i) inclusive, reaching users from disadvantaged sections of the community; (ii) comprehensive, providing ratings and discussion that took account of the whole service; (iii) richly descriptive, with researchers able to generate detailed feedback; and (iv) more empowering than traditional client survey methods, by allowing more control to participants and greater benefits than surveys of individuals. The community assessment workshops are a method that could be widely applied to health service evaluation research where the goal is to reach disadvantaged communities and provide ratings and detailed analysis of the experience of users. The participants and the research benefited from the group approach, and the workshops provided valuable, actionable information to the health services

  4. Building strong research partnerships between public health and researchers: a VA case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midboe, Amanda M; Elwy, A Rani; Durfee, Janet M; Gifford, Allen L; Yakovchenko, Vera; Martinello, Richard A; Ross, David; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Goetz, Matthew B; Asch, Steven M

    2014-12-01

    We are in a new era of partner-based implementation research, and we need clear strategies for how to navigate this new era. Drawing on principles from community-based participatory research, the Clinical Public Health group of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the HIV/Hepatitis Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (HHQUERI) forged a longstanding partnership that has improved the care of Veterans with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus. An exemplar HIV testing project epitomizes this partnership and is discussed in terms of the lessons learned as a result of our high level of collaboration around design, analysis, implementation, and dissemination across projects over the past several years. Lessons learned through this partnered testing program involve respecting different time horizons among the partners, identifying relevant research questions for both parties, designing flexible studies, engaging all partners throughout the research, and placing an emphasis on relationship building at all times. These lessons and strategies can benefit others conducting partner-based research both within the Veterans Health Administration (VA) and in other integrated healthcare systems.

  5. Public health services and systems research: current state of finance research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Richard C; Bernet, Patrick M; Costich, Julia F

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing recognition that the US public health system should strive for efficiency-that it should determine the optimal ways to utilize limited resources to improve and protect public health. The field of public health finance research is a critical part of efforts to understand the most efficient ways to use resources. This article discusses the current state of public health finance research through a review of public health finance literature, chronicles important lessons learned from public health finance research to date, discusses the challenges faced by those seeking to conduct financial research on the public health system, and discusses the role of public health finance research in relation to the broader endeavor of Public Health Services and Systems Research.

  6. What constitutes an excellent allied health care professional? A multidisciplinary focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paans W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolter Paans, Inge Wijkamp, Egbert Wiltens, Marca V Wolfensberger Research and Innovation Group Talent Development in Higher Education and Society, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, The Netherlands. Background: Determining what constitutes an excellent allied health care professional (AHCP is important, since this is what will guide the development of curricula for training future physical therapists, oral hygienists, speech therapists, diagnostic radiographers, and dietitians. This also determines the quality of care. Aim: To describe perspectives of AHCPs on which characteristics are commonly associated with an excellent AHCP. Methods: AHCPs' perspectives were derived from three focus group discussions. Twenty-one health care professionals participated. The final analysis of the focus group discussions produced eight domains, in which content validity was obtained through a Delphi panel survey of 27 contributing experts. Results: According to the survey, a combination of the following characteristics defines an excellent AHCP: (1 cognizance, to obtain and to apply knowledge in a broad multidisciplinary health care field; (2 cooperativity, to effectively work with others in a multidisciplinary context; (3 communicative, to communicate effectively at different levels in complex situations; (4 initiative, to initiate new ideas, to act proactively, and to follow them through; (5 innovative, to devise new ideas and to implement alternatives beyond current practices; (6 introspective, to self-examine and to reflect; (7 broad perspective, to capture the big picture; and (8 evidence-driven, to find and to use scientific evidence to guide one's decisions. Conclusion: The AHCPs perspectives can be used as a reference for personal improvement for supervisors and professionals in clinical practice and for educational purposes. These perspectives may serve as a guide against which talented students can evaluate themselves. Keywords: clinical

  7. Motivators, enablers, and barriers to building allied health research capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golenko X

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Susan Pager1, Libby Holden2, Xanthe Golenko21Queensland Health Metro South, 2School of Medicine, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaPurpose: A sound, scientific base of high quality research is needed to inform service planning and decision making and enable improved policy and practice. However, some areas of health practice, particularly many of the allied health areas, are generally considered to have a low evidence base. In order to successfully build research capacity in allied health, a clearer understanding is required of what assists and encourages research as well as the barriers and challenges.Participants and methods: This study used written surveys to collect data relating to motivators, enablers, and barriers to research capacity building. Respondents were asked to answer questions relating to them as individuals and other questions relating to their team. Allied health professionals were recruited from multidisciplinary primary health care teams in Queensland Health. Eighty-five participants from ten healthcare teams completed a written version of the research capacity and culture survey.Results: The results of this study indicate that individual allied health professionals are more likely to report being motivated to do research by intrinsic factors such as a strong interest in research. Barriers they identified to research are more likely to be extrinsic factors such as workload and lack of time. Allied health professionals identified some additional factors that impact on their research capacity than those reported in the literature, such as a desire to keep at the “cutting edge” and a lack of exposure to research. Some of the factors influencing individuals to do research were different to those influencing teams. These results are discussed with reference to organizational behavior and theories of motivation.Conclusion: Supporting already motivated allied health professional individuals and teams to

  8. Portrait of public health research in Quebec, 1999 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurendeau, Marie-Claire; Hamel, Marthe; Colin, Christine; Disant, Marie-Jeanne

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the main findings of a descriptive study inventorying public health research in Quebec funded by provincial and federal government bodies between 1999 and 2004. The database was created specifically for this project from the Banque de la recherche sociale et en santé (Health and Social Research Databank) of the Quebec Ministry of Health and Social Services, using a frame of reference to demarcate and categorize research in public health. The results reveal that public health research projects accounted for 13.6% of all projects in the aforementioned database, and were mainly concentrated in the research categories Population Health and Wellness and their Determinants (Etat de santé et de bien-être de la population et ses déterminants) (59.9% of public health projects) and Social Development, Adjustment and Integration (Développement, adaptation et intégration sociale) (44.9% of public health projects). The provincial government funded a higher percentage of projects (59%), but with the exception of scholarships and fellowships, the federal government funded a higher dollar amount. Overall, funding allotted to research in public health was lower than that for other types of research in health and social sciences inventoried in the database. This first inventory of public health research in Quebec provides a means of estimating the volume of research devoted to this field and funding directed to it in comparison with other fields of research in health and social sciences. It also raises questions on the orientation, organization and funding of research in public health.

  9. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act.

  10. Building Health System Capacity Through Implementation Research: Experience of INSPIRE-A Multi-country PMTCT Implementation Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman Owiredu, Morkor; Bellare, Nita B; Chakanyuka Musanhu, Christine C; Oyelade, Taiwo A; Thom, Ellen M; Bigirimana, Francoise; Anyaike, Chukwuma; Eliya, Michael T; Mushavi, Angela; Nyarko, Eugene A; Okello, David O; Zawaira, Felicitas R

    2017-06-01

    The INSPIRE-Integrating and Scaling Up PMTCT through Implementation REsearch-initiative was established as a model partnership of national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) implementation research in 3 high HIV burden countries-Malawi, Nigeria, and Zimbabwe. INSPIRE aimed to link local research groups with Ministries of Health (MOH), build local research capacity, and demonstrate that implementation research may contribute to improving health care delivery and respond to program challenges. We used a mixed methods approach to review capacity building activities, as experienced by health care workers, researchers, and trainers conducted in the 6 INSPIRE projects before and during study implementation. Between 2011 and 2016, over 3400 health care workers, research team members, and community members participated in INSPIRE activities. This included research prioritization exercises, proposal development, good clinical practice and research ethics training, data management and analysis workshops, and manuscript development. Health care workers in clinics and district health offices acknowledged the value of hosting implementation research projects and how the quality of services improved. Research teams acknowledged the opportunities that projects provided for personal development and the value of participating in a multicountry research network. INSPIRE provided an opportunity for African-led research in which researchers worked closely with national MOH to identify priority research questions and implement studies. Close partnerships between research teams and local implementers facilitated project responsiveness to local program issues. Consequently, processes and training needed for study implementation also improved local program management and service delivery. Additional benefits included improved data management, publications, and career development.

  11. Transforming research for food and health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    2012-10-01

    Eating causes up to a quarter of premature deaths from chronic diseases in Europe through poor diet and excess consumption. FAHRE (Food and Health Research in Europe) was funded to determine needs and gaps in research structures and programmes. Most food research links towards agriculture and the environmental sciences, whereas most health research links towards clinical diseases, biochemical pathways and biology. Research on food and health together includes food safety research addressing biological and chemical contaminants, and biotechnology research supporting clinical nutrition. Research for healthy eating must draw on social and behavioural sciences for studies of policy, regulation and interventions. The food industry, across production, retail and catering, must be part of the research programme, and civil society. Better coordination and improved levels of funding are needed in the coming European research programme 'Horizon 2020', and national programmes linked in the Joint Programming Initiative. Transforming the research agenda can give great benefits to Europe's citizens.

  12. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, year four

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    The needs of the remote sensing research and application community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and space station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms are examined. Research conducted was used to extend and expand existing remote sensing research activities in the areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence, and vegetation analysis and modeling. Projects are discussed in detail.

  13. Faculty research productivity in allied health settings: a TQM approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, M; Baker, D; Gable, C; Michael, S; Wintch, K

    1993-01-01

    Faculty research productivity in colleges of allied health has often been discussed in the literature over the last five years. Articles have focused on the problem of faculty research productivity from various viewpoints, but none have used a theoretical framework to analyze the problem. The total quality management (TQM) framework is currently being used in health care to improve quality and productivity. This article uses the TQM framework to synthesize literature concerning faculty research productivity and verifies the current relevance of synthesis findings using an allied health faculty survey. These analyses show that the TQM framework is useful in suggesting ways to increase faculty research productivity in colleges of allied health.

  14. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  15. Strengthening national capacities for researching on Social Determinants of Health (SDH) towards informing and addressing health inequities in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mtenga, Sally; Masanja, Irene M; Mamdani, Masuma

    2016-01-01

    Background Tanzania’s socio-economic development is challenged by sharp inequities between and within urban and rural areas, and among different socio-economic groups. This paper discusses the importance of strengthening SDH research, knowledge, relevant capacities and responsive systems towards addressing health inequities in Tanzania. Methods Based on a conceptual framework for building SDH research capacity, a mapping of existing research systems was undertaken between February and June 20...

  16. Recruitment of Refugees for Health Research: A Qualitative Study to Add Refugees' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Patricia; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Berry, Nicole

    2017-01-29

    Research is needed to understand refugees' health challenges and barriers to accessing health services during settlement. However, there are practical and ethical challenges for engaging refugees as participants. Despite this, there have been no studies to date specifically investigating refugee perspectives on factors affecting engagement in health research. Language-concordant focus groups in British Columbia, Canada, with four government-assisted refugee language groups (Farsi/Dari, Somali, Karen, Arabic) inquired about willingness to participate in health research. Twenty-three variables associated with the willingness of refugees to participate in health research were elicited. Variables related to research design included recruitment strategies, characteristics of the research team members and the nature of the research. Variables related to individual participants included demographic features such as gender and education, attitudes towards research and previous experience with research. This research can be used to increase opportunities for refugees' engagement in research and includes recommendations for subgroups of refugees that may have more difficulties engaging in research.

  17. Recruitment of Refugees for Health Research: A Qualitative Study to Add Refugees’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Patricia; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Berry, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    Research is needed to understand refugees’ health challenges and barriers to accessing health services during settlement. However, there are practical and ethical challenges for engaging refugees as participants. Despite this, there have been no studies to date specifically investigating refugee perspectives on factors affecting engagement in health research. Language-concordant focus groups in British Columbia, Canada, with four government-assisted refugee language groups (Farsi/Dari, Somali, Karen, Arabic) inquired about willingness to participate in health research. Twenty-three variables associated with the willingness of refugees to participate in health research were elicited. Variables related to research design included recruitment strategies, characteristics of the research team members and the nature of the research. Variables related to individual participants included demographic features such as gender and education, attitudes towards research and previous experience with research. This research can be used to increase opportunities for refugees’ engagement in research and includes recommendations for subgroups of refugees that may have more difficulties engaging in research. PMID:28146054

  18. Research culture in allied health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew; Williams, Cylie; Haines, Terry

    2016-06-07

    Research evidence is required to guide optimal allied health practice and inform policymakers in primary health care. Factors that influence a positive research culture are not fully understood, and nor is the impact of a positive research culture on allied health professionals. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that affect allied health research culture and capacity. An extensive search of 11 databases was conducted in June 2015. Studies were included if they were published in English, had full-text availability and reported research findings relating to allied health professions. Study quality was evaluated using the McMaster Critical Review Forms. Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion. A meta-analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity between studies. Allied health professionals perceive that their individual research skills are lower in comparison to their teams and organisation. Motivators for conducting research for allied health professionals include developing skills, increasing job satisfaction and career advancement. Barriers include a lack of time, limited research skills and other work roles taking priority. Multilayered strategies, such as collaborations with external partners and developing research leadership positions, aimed at addressing barriers and enablers, are important to enhance allied health research culture and capacity.

  19. Wireless Spectrum Research & Development Senior Steering Group's Testbed Information Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This application contains a list of Federal R&D sites that are available for public-private collaborative research efforts in the field of spectrum and wireless...

  20. Researchers' Construction of Knowledge from Studying Professional Conversation Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Tillema, Harm

    2007-01-01

    Data from written correspondence and conversations gathered from the authors' study on knowledge construction was used to examine the process of interpretation, or how researchers construct 'knowledge about knowledge construction.' The notion of 'working in the interpretive zone' was used to conceptualize interpretation among researchers as a…

  1. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luba Katz

    Full Text Available Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions.We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments.We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders.Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research

  2. Using Health Care Utilization and Publication Patterns to Characterize the Research Portfolio and to Plan Future Research Investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Luba; Fink, Rebecca V; Bozeman, Samuel R; McNeil, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Government funders of biomedical research are under increasing pressure to demonstrate societal benefits of their investments. A number of published studies attempted to correlate research funding levels with the societal burden for various diseases, with mixed results. We examined whether research funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is well aligned with current and projected veterans' health needs. The organizational structure of the VA makes it a particularly suitable setting for examining these questions. We used the publication patterns and dollar expenditures of VA-funded researchers to characterize the VA research portfolio by disease. We used health care utilization data from the VA for the same diseases to define veterans' health needs. We then measured the level of correlation between the two and identified disease groups that were under- or over-represented in the research portfolio relative to disease expenditures. Finally, we used historic health care utilization trends combined with demographic projections to identify diseases and conditions that are increasing in costs and/or patient volume and consequently represent potential targets for future research investments. We found a significant correlation between research volume/expenditures and health utilization. Some disease groups were slightly under- or over-represented, but these deviations were relatively small. Diseases and conditions with the increasing utilization trend at the VA included hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, hearing loss, sleeping disorders, complications of pregnancy, and several mental disorders. Research investments at the VA are well aligned with veteran health needs. The VA can continue to meet these needs by supporting research on the diseases and conditions with a growing number of patients, costs of care, or both. Our approach can be used by other funders of disease research to characterize their portfolios and to plan research investments.

  3. Group unconscious common orientation: exploratory study at the Basque Foundation for the investigation of mental health group training for therapists

    CERN Document Server

    Trojaola Zapirain, Begona; Carminati, Federico; Gonzalez Torres, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez de Mendivil, Ernesto; Fouassier, Claire; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Martin, Francois; Labarere, Jose; Demongeot, Jacques; Lorincz, Erika Nora

    2014-01-01

    Group phenomena have been used since antiquity in therapeutic, social, economic and political domains. According to Bion, the interactions between group members generate a ``group unconscious'' and its behavior is governed and oriented by Bion's ``basic assumptions.'' The present work has been conducted during group analysis training at the Basque Foundation for the Investigation of Mental Health (OMIE) at Bilbao, consisting of eleven sessions. The participants are presented with an ``absurd questionnaire'' proposing 50 pairs of images, in each of which one image has to be chosen. The results are used to search for evidence in favor of the influence of group dynamics on individual choices of the images proposed in the questionnaire. Our analysis finds some evidence for an effect of group dynamics both on the initial choice of the pictures and on the evolution of the number of changes (swaps) of picture choices across the eleven sessions. We interpret these effects in the light of Bion's view of group dynamics...

  4. Increasing Health Research Literacy through Outreach and Networking: Why Translational Research Should Matter to Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer-White, Molly; Choate, Celeste; Markel, Dorene S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasingly clinical and health research awareness is a priority for health and medical research communities. Translational research, including the prevention and treatment of conditions, relies upon proper funding as well as public participation in research studies. This requires executing more effective communication strategies to…

  5. Training Highly Qualified Health Research Personnel: The Pain in Child Health Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl L von Baeyer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain in Child Health (PICH is a transdisciplinary, international research training consortium. PICH has been funded since 2002 as a Strategic Training Initiative in Health Research of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, with contributions from other funding partners and the founding participation of five Canadian universities. The goal of PICH has been to create a community of scholars in pediatric pain to improve child health outcomes.

  6. The Nursing Research Center on HIV/AIDS Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, William L; Méndez, Marta Rivero; Portillo, Carmen; Padilla, Geraldine; Cuca, Yvette; Vargas-Molina, Ricardo L

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the partnership between the schools of nursing at the University of California San Francisco and the University of Puerto Rico to address the need for nursing research on HIV/AIDS health disparities. The partnership led to the creation of the Nursing Research Center on HIV/AIDS Health Disparities with funding from the National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Nursing Research. We provide background information on the disproportionate impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on racial and ethnic minorities, describe the major predictors of health disparities in persons at risk for or diagnosed with HIV/AIDS using the Outcomes Model for Health Care Research, and outline the major components of the Nursing Research Center. The center's goal is to improve health outcomes for people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS by enhancing the knowledge base for HIV/AIDS care.

  7. Operational definitions in research on religion and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Jankowski, Katherine R B; Flannelly, Laura T

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the historical development of operational definitions and discusses their application to research on religion and health, and their importance for research, in general. The diversity of religious concepts that have been operationalized is described, as well as the development of multi-dimensional self-report measures of religion specifically designed for use in health research. The operational definitions of a variety of health concepts are also described, including the development of multi-dimensional self-report measures of health. Some of the most consistently observed salutary relationships between religion and health are mentioned. The rising interest in spirituality in health research is discussed, along with problems with the current operational definitions of spirituality in healthcare research. The levels of measurement used in various, operationally defined religious and healthcare concepts are highlighted.

  8. Health research in Greenland: start with the children

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvad, Gert; Pedersen, Henning Sloth; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the result of discussion between Jørn Olsen, Henning Sloth Pedersen and Gert Mulvad during the planning of a Health Research Strategy for The Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland. 

  9. World Health Organization Group I Pulmonary Hypertension: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a debilitating disease characterized by pathologic remodeling of the resistance pulmonary arteries, ultimately leading to right ventricular (RV) failure and death. In this article we discuss the definition of PAH, the initial epidemiology based on the National Institutes of Health Registry, and the updated epidemiology gleaned from contemporary registries, pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular dysfunction and proliferation, and RV failure in PAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Marcia; Hopson, Laura; House, Joseph B.; Fischer, Jonathan P.; Dooley-Hash, Suzanne; Hauff, Samantha; Wolff, Margaret S.; Sozener, Cemal; Nypaver, Michele; Moll, Joel; Losman, Eve D.; Carney, Michele; Santen, Sally A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG) of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a work-study graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education. PMID:26594297

  11. Model for Developing Educational Research Productivity: The Medical Education Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Perry

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Education research and scholarship are essential for promotion of faculty as well as dissemination of new educational practices. Educational faculty frequently spend the majority of their time on administrative and educational commitments and as a result educators often fall behind on scholarship and research. The objective of this educational advance is to promote scholarly productivity as a template for others to follow. Methods: We formed the Medical Education Research Group (MERG of education leaders from our emergency medicine residency, fellowship, and clerkship programs, as well as residents with a focus on education. First, we incorporated scholarship into the required activities of our education missions by evaluating the impact of programmatic changes and then submitting the curricula or process as peer-reviewed work. Second, we worked as a team, sharing projects that led to improved motivation, accountability, and work completion. Third, our monthly meetings served as brainstorming sessions for new projects, research skill building, and tracking work completion. Lastly, we incorporated a workstudy graduate student to assist with basic but time-consuming tasks of completing manuscripts. Results: The MERG group has been highly productive, achieving the following scholarship over a three-year period: 102 abstract presentations, 46 journal article publications, 13 MedEd Portal publications, 35 national didactic presentations and five faculty promotions to the next academic level. Conclusion: An intentional focus on scholarship has led to a collaborative group of educators successfully improving their scholarship through team productivity, which ultimately leads to faculty promotions and dissemination of innovations in education.

  12. Research on the Problem and Countermeasures of Group-Buying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yahui; Li, Wei; Cheng, Limin

    The threshold of group-buying is low, so the group-buying develops very fast. But at the same time, there are many goods which have low price and high quality service which is false to get the network users' trust. Therefore, consumers should keep a clear head and avoiding straying into the trap of business, the website of group-buying should strengthen self-construction to safeguard the consumers' interest. In addition, government needs to play its due role to protect the legitimate right of the consumers.

  13. Relational goods in training university groups: A research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietra Daniela Di Paola

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify relational goods in the transcriptions produced by sound recording of a median group experience at University of Palermo. In particular, the present work proposes to analyze the most representative qualities of this phenomenon. The group becomes the elective setting where take place activities promoting professional training and encourages emerging of inter subjective space of relational learning. In this way, the story of relationship between individuals in a contest represents the central lump from which develop personal well-being and the capability to optimize human resources.Keywords: Relational good; Median training group; Well-being

  14. The Efficacy of Group Metacognitive Therapy on Self-Esteem and Mental Health of Patients Suffering from Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Vahid; Hassanzadeh, Ramezan; Mirzaian, Bahram; Fayyazi Bordbar, Mohammad Reza; Feizi, Jaleh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present research aims to analyze the efficacy of group metacognitive therapy (MCT) on self-esteem and mental Health of those who suffer from major depressive disorder. Methods: The research was a randomized clinical controlled trial, using pretest and posttest with 2 months of follow-up. Twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria were selected through available sampling from patients of two psychiatric hospitals of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. They were allocated randomly into two groups of trial (n = 11) and control (n = 11). Citalopram and sertraline were prescribed as antidepressant to both groups. The experimental group also attended nine 90-minute sessions of MCT (a 5-week program). Eysenck self-esteem scale (ESES) and Mental Health Checklist (MHC) were used in pretest, posttest, and follow-up as the study instrument. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using SPSS. Results: ANCOVA revealed that the patients receiving group MCT had significantly increased (p < 0.001) self-esteem in posttest, which remained significant in the follow up (p < 0.001). Moreover, mental health scores had increased in the MCT group (posttest, p < 0.001; follow up, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Group MCT has beneficial therapeutic roles in improving the self-steam and recuperation of mental health in MDD patients. PMID:25053952

  15. An Analysis of Canadian Institute for Health Research Funding for Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deonandan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined patterns of Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR funding on autism spectrum disorder (ASD research. From 1999 to 2013, CIHR funded 190 ASD grants worth $48 million. Biomedical research received 43% of grants (46% of dollars, clinical research 27% (41%, health services 10% (7%, and population health research 8% (3%. The greatest number of grants was given in 2009, but 2003 saw the greatest amount. Funding is clustered in a handful of provinces and institutions, favouring biomedical research and disfavouring behavioural interventions, adaptation, and institutional response. Preference for biomedical research may be due to the detriment of clinical research.

  16. Towards a Critical Health Equity Research Stance: Why Epistemology and Methodology Matter More Than Qualitative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowleg, Lisa

    2017-10-01

    Qualitative methods are not intrinsically progressive. Methods are simply tools to conduct research. Epistemology, the justification of knowledge, shapes methodology and methods, and thus is a vital starting point for a critical health equity research stance, regardless of whether the methods are qualitative, quantitative, or mixed. In line with this premise, I address four themes in this commentary. First, I criticize the ubiquitous and uncritical use of the term health disparities in U.S. public health. Next, I advocate for the increased use of qualitative methodologies-namely, photovoice and critical ethnography-that, pursuant to critical approaches, prioritize dismantling social-structural inequities as a prerequisite to health equity. Thereafter, I discuss epistemological stance and its influence on all aspects of the research process. Finally, I highlight my critical discourse analysis HIV prevention research based on individual interviews and focus groups with Black men, as an example of a critical health equity research approach.

  17. A dissemination research agenda to strengthen health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J L; Green, L W; Frankish, C J; MacLean, D R; Stachenko, S

    1996-01-01

    The question of how to enhance the dissemination of knowledge and the use of innovations related to disease prevention and health promotion was posed to an international group of experts at an invitational research conference held in Vancouver, British Columbia in March 1995. The Canadian Conference on Dissemination Research Strengthening Health Promotion and Disease Prevention was co-sponsored by 15 voluntary organizations, government agencies and industries. It examined advances and gaps in the study of diffusion and adoption of preventive knowledge and practices among health professionals and the public. It was the first national conference of its kind devoted to dissemination research and dissemination of research specifically in health promotion and disease prevention. This paper summarizes the major issues raised in the papers presented at this conference. Policies and strategies for strengthening dissemination research and the dissemination of health promotion knowledge and practices are suggested.

  18. Strategic groups in health care: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Martha M; Rivers, Patrick A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups.

  19. Ethnography: use, potentialities and limits in health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caprara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnography is used more and more often to study different subjects in health domain: the functioning and evaluation of healthcare systems; epidemiological research; laboratorial scientific research; biotechnology research; genetic research, among others. Certain methodological questions arise from critical reading of these works: How has ethnographic research evolved over the last few decades? What elements characterize ethnographic research as applied to healthcare? This paper seeks to reflect on these questions through two successive developments: 1. the evolution of the ethnographic method and its use in research on health; 2. the methodological aspects of an ethnographic study conducted with elderly people in the city of Fortaleza, focusing on participant observation.

  20. Predict group membership of smokers and nonsmokers students Based on coping styles, mental health and Sensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soran Rajabi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main purpose of this research is to survey relation between mental health, sensation seeking and coping style with cigarette smoking. Material and Methods: Sample of this study were 312 boy students, who selected by simple randomly among total boys of Mohaghegh Ardabili university in 2013-14. This study is a correlation study. Data were collected with using the demographic characteristics Questionnaire, mental health of Goldberg, sensation-seeking of Arnet and Lazarus's & Folkman coping style Questionnaires. Results: The result showed that %37.8(n=118 of samples were cigarette smoker and %62.2 (n=194 were non cigarette smokers. The results of discriminant analysis showed that among variables, seeking social support, avoid, the high sensation seeking, coping confrontation, somatization symptoms, responsibility and depression can predict to join the group of male students smokers and nonsmokers.  Seeking social support was the best predictor to be in group of cigarette smoker and non-smoker boy student. Conclusion: This study showed the sensation seeking, coping styles and mental health are effective in approach to cigarette smoking. 

  1. Global health research needs global networking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignaciuk, A.; Leemans, R.

    2012-01-01

    To meet the challenges arising from global environmental change on human health, co-developing common approaches and new alliances of science and society are necessary. The first steps towards defining cross-cutting, health-environment issues were developed by the Global Environmental Change and Hum

  2. Why Health Care Needs Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knutz, Eva; Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2015-01-01

    . Furthermore, the data reveal that pediatric patients display a radically different play pattern than children who are not in hospital. The inquiry takes an interdisciplinary approach; it has obvious health care-related objectives and seeks to meet the urgent need for new methods within health care to optimize...

  3. "It puts a human face on the researched"--A qualitative evaluation of an Indigenous health research governance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Chelsea; Foley, Wendy; Askew, Deborah

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Inala Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Jury for Health Research, and evaluate its usefulness as a model of Indigenous research governance within an urban Indigenous primary health care service from the perspectives of jury members and researchers. Informed by a phenomenological approach and using narrative inquiry, a focus group was conducted with jury members and key informant interviews were undertaken with researchers who had presented to the Community Jury in its first year of operation. The jury was a site of identity work for researchers and jury members, providing an opportunity to observe and affirm community cultural protocols. Although researchers and jury members had differing levels of research literacy, the jury processes enabled respectful communication and relationships to form, which positively influenced research practice, community aspirations and clinical care. The jury processes facilitated transformative research practice among researchers and resulted in transference of power from researchers to the jury members, to the mutual benefit of both. Ethical Indigenous health research practice requires an engagement with Indigenous peoples and knowledge at the research governance level, not simply as subjects or objects of research. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research.

  5. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairumbi, Geoffrey M; Parker, Michael; Fitzpatrick, Raymond; Mike, English C

    2011-10-03

    The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research.The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which ethical principles are enacted in practice and distil lessons on how best

  6. Stakeholders understanding of the concept of benefit sharing in health research in Kenya: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitzpatrick Raymond

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of benefit sharing to enhance the social value of global health research in resource poor settings is now a key strategy for addressing moral issues of relevance to individuals, communities and host countries in resource poor settings when they participate in international collaborative health research. The influence of benefit sharing framework on the conduct of collaborative health research is for instance evidenced by the number of publications and research ethics guidelines that require prior engagement between stakeholders to determine the social value of research to the host communities. While such efforts as the production of international guidance on how to promote the social value of research through such strategies as benefit sharing have been made, the extent to which these ideas and guidelines have been absorbed by those engaged in global health research especially in resource poor settings remains unclear. We examine this awareness among stakeholders involved in health related research in Kenya. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with key informants drawn from within the broader health research system in Kenya including researchers from the mainstream health research institutions, networks and universities, teaching hospitals, policy makers, institutional review boards, civil society organisations and community representative groups. Results Our study suggests that although people have a sense of justice and the moral aspects of research, this was not articulated in terms used in the literature and the guidelines on the ethics of global health research. Conclusion This study demonstrates that while in theory several efforts can be made to address the moral issues of concern to research participants and their communities in resource poor settings, quick fixes such as benefit sharing are not going to be straightforward. We suggest a need to pay closer attention to the processes through which

  7. RESEARCH AND UNIVERSITY IN BRAZIL: organization and institutionalization of research groups in Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Francisca de Souza Campos Vinha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reflections on the still poorly treated and discussed theme. The formation of research groups is a "new" form of organization of academic and scientific work that has recently been institutionalized by the major institutions of higher education, research and development agencies in Brazil. The research groups in Geography were treated mainly on two aspects: as important spaces for socialization of knowledge that has been growing steadily and that subsidize the training of future teachers, foster critical and reflective stance, highlighting the collective work in the study of common themes; and as important socialization spaces of knowledge that has been growing steadily, and as part of the restructuring process initiated in the 1990s, a period that the Groups Directory Research of Brazil (DGPB formalizes the groups with CNPq. By analyzing the role of postgraduate research and its relation to the formation of research groups have demonstrated that besides the expressiveness achieved with the increase of the groups in all regions of the country, this form of organization also brought repercussions to the fields of education and research segments that incorporated resets the world of work and readjusted neoliberal policies. Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre uma temática ainda pouco tratada e discutida. A formação de grupos de pesquisa é uma “nova” forma de organização do trabalho acadêmico e científico que recentemente foi institucionalizado pelos principais centros de Ensino Superior, pesquisas e agências de fomento no Brasil. Os grupos de pesquisa em Geografia foram tratados, sobretudo, diante de dois aspectos: como espaços importantes de socialização do conhecimento que vem crescendo progressivamente e que subsidiam a formação do futuro docente e fomentam a postura crítica e reflexiva, com destaque ao trabalho coletivo no estudo de temas em comum; e como parte do processo de reestruturação produtiva

  8. The development of a competency-based group health teaching performance examination model for BSN graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chun-Yi; Chung, Ue-Lin

    2008-12-01

    Under the current nursing education system in Taiwan, a fair and objective evaluation of group health teaching competency has been lacking for a long time. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a competency-based group health teaching performance examination model for baccalaureate graduates. Action research was the main research methodology used in this study. The research consisted of two phases. In the first phase, a development committee was established. Based on routine discussions, literature reviews and realistic cases, a draft examination model with quasi-clinical situation model content and procedure was developed. Examination Facility Preparations, Simulated Scenarios and Client Recruitments, Examination Result Evaluation (evaluated by teachers) and Learning Guidelines were also prepared. This draft was reviewed twice for expert opinion, a pilot test was done and both the draft and pilot testing were reviewed again before the draft was finalized. The second phase involved refining the examination model by actually practicing the completed draft examination model in a simulated group-teaching setting in order to examine the model's reliability and validity. Fifteen people were involved in this experiment: three nursing personnel each having at least two years' clinical and teaching experience; three nursing students who did not have actual clinical experience and had not taken the course of teaching principles; three senior teachers; and six virtual patients. The responses from the nursing personnel, nursing students, teachers, and virtual patients who participated in the testing were gathered and integrated to refine the model. The model has content, expert and discriminative validity. The reliability of the model was proven by the high consistency in administration and scoring of the model by clinical examiners. This examination model is not only applicable for the proof of students' credit point exemption, but also as an alternative

  9. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) Spring 2005 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the ACHA in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors, access to health information, impediments to academic performance, and perceived norms across a variety of content areas (eg, injury prevention; personal safety and violence; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use; sexual health; weight, nutrition, and exercise; mental health). Twice a year, the ACHA compiles aggregate data from participating institutions in a reference group report for data comparison. Results from the Spring 2005 Reference Group (N = 54,111) are presented in this article.

  10. American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) Spring 2004 Reference Group data report (abridged).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the ACHA in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors, access to health information, impediments to academic performance, and perceived norms across a variety of content areas, including injury prevention; personal safety and violence; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use; sexual health; weight, nutrition, and exercise; and mental health. Twice a year, the ACHA compiles aggregate data from participating institutions in a reference group report for data comparison. Results from the Spring 2004 Reference Group (N = 47,202) are presented in this article.

  11. Breaking through Marginalisation in Public Mental Health Care with Family Group Conferencing : Shame as Risk and Protective Factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gideon; Schout, Gert

    2013-01-01

    From January 2011 until December 2012, forty Family Group Conferences (FGCs) will be studied in the public mental health care (PMHC) setting in the province of Groningen, the Netherlands. Research should yield an answer to whether FGCs are valuable for clients in PMHC as a means to generate social s

  12. Breaking through marginalisation in public mental health care with Family Group Conferencing: shame as risk and protective factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Gideon de; Schout, Gert

    2013-01-01

    From January 2011 until December 2012, forty Family Group Conferences (FGCs) will be studied in the public mental health care (PMHC) setting in the province of Groningen, the Netherlands. Research should yield an answer to whether FGCs are valuable for clients in PMHC as a means to generate social s

  13. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  14. Partnering health disparities research with quality improvement science in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, K Casey; Raphael, Jean L

    2015-02-01

    Disparities in pediatric health care quality are well described in the literature, yet practical approaches to decreasing them remain elusive. Quality improvement (QI) approaches are appealing for addressing disparities because they offer a set of strategies by which to target modifiable aspects of care delivery and a method for tailoring or changing an intervention over time based on data monitoring. However, few examples in the literature exist of QI interventions successfully decreasing disparities, particularly in pediatrics, due to well-described challenges in developing, implementing, and studying QI with vulnerable populations or in underresourced settings. In addition, QI interventions aimed at improving quality overall may not improve disparities, and in some cases, may worsen them if there is greater uptake or effectiveness of the intervention among the population with better outcomes at baseline. In this article, the authors review some of the challenges faced by researchers and frontline clinicians seeking to use QI to address health disparities and propose an agenda for moving the field forward. Specifically, they propose that those designing and implementing disparities-focused QI interventions reconsider comparator groups, use more rigorous evaluation methods, carefully consider the evidence for particular interventions and the context in which they were developed, directly engage the social determinants of health, and leverage community resources to build collaborative networks and engage community members. Ultimately, new partnerships between communities, providers serving vulnerable populations, and QI researchers will be required for QI interventions to achieve their potential related to health care disparity reduction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  15. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  16. A health management system for marine cell group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingfu; Ruan, Mingzhi; Zi, Yiluo

    2017-06-01

    Storage battery plays an important role in the submarine. However, mechanism of its performance deterioration is so complex for the crew to master. A health management system for marine storage batteries is presented in the paper, so that scientific maintenance can be adopted to assure the working reliability of the battery. The system consists of an on-line monitoring subsystem and a performance prediction subsystem. In order to complete the key task of performance prediction, an intelligent forecasting model based on support vector machine is built, which can automatically find out the rule of performance deterioration from historical monitoring data. Validity of the performance prediction has been proved by testing results.

  17. Analyzing and Interpreting Research in Health Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While qualitative research is used when little or nothing is known about the subject, ... and/or grounded theoretical approaches that are analyzable by comparison, ... While qualitative research is interpreted by inductive reasoning, quantitative ...

  18. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18–60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012–3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097–2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466–0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205–0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532–0.932) were protective (p mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers.

  19. Applying for, reviewing and funding public health research in Germany and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, Ansgar; Becher, Heiko; Groenewegen, Peter; Mansmann, Ulrich; Meyer, Thorsten; Pfaff, Holger; Puhan, Milo; Razum, Oliver; Rehfuess, Eva; Sauerborn, Rainer; Strech, Daniel; Wissing, Frank; Zeeb, Hajo; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2016-06-13

    Public health research is complex, involves various disciplines, epistemological perspectives and methods, and is rarely conducted in a controlled setting. Often, the added value of a research project lies in its inter- or trans-disciplinary interaction, reflecting the complexity of the research questions at hand. This creates specific challenges when writing and reviewing public health research grant applications. Therefore, the German Research Foundation (DFG), the largest independent research funding organization in Germany, organized a round table to discuss the process of writing, reviewing and funding public health research. The aim was to analyse the challenges of writing, reviewing and granting scientific public health projects and to improve the situation by offering guidance to applicants, reviewers and funding organizations. The DFG round table discussion brought together national and international public health researchers and representatives of funding organizations. Based on their presentations and discussions, a core group of the participants (the authors) wrote a first draft on the challenges of writing and reviewing public health research proposals and on possible solutions. Comments were discussed in the group of authors until consensus was reached. Public health research demands an epistemological openness and the integration of a broad range of specific skills and expertise. Applicants need to explicitly refer to theories as well as to methodological and ethical standards and elaborate on why certain combinations of theories and methods are required. Simultaneously, they must acknowledge and meet the practical and ethical challenges of conducting research in complex real life settings. Reviewers need to make the rationale for their judgments transparent, refer to the corresponding standards and be explicit about any limitations in their expertise towards the review boards. Grant review boards, funding organizations and research ethics committees

  20. What makes public health studies ethical? Dissolving the boundary between research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Donald J; Ondrusek, Nancy; Dawson, Angus; Emerson, Claudia; Ferris, Lorraine E; Saginur, Raphael; Sampson, Heather; Upshur, Ross

    2014-08-08

    The generation of evidence is integral to the work of public health and health service providers. Traditionally, ethics has been addressed differently in research projects, compared with other forms of evidence generation, such as quality improvement, program evaluation, and surveillance, with review of non-research activities falling outside the purview of the research ethics board. However, the boundaries between research and these other evaluative activities are not distinct. Efforts to delineate a boundary - whether on grounds of primary purpose, temporality, underlying legal authority, departure from usual practice, or direct benefits to participants - have been unsatisfactory.Public Health Ontario has eschewed this distinction between research and other evaluative activities, choosing to adopt a common framework and process to guide ethical reflection on all public health evaluative projects throughout their lifecycle - from initial planning through to knowledge exchange. The Public Health Ontario framework was developed by a working group of public health and ethics professionals and scholars, in consultation with individuals representing a wide range of public health roles. The first part of the framework interprets the existing Canadian research ethics policy statement (commonly known as the TCPS 2) through a public health lens. The second part consists of ten questions that guide the investigator in the application of the core ethical principles to public health initiatives.The framework is intended for use by those designing and executing public health evaluations, as well as those charged with ethics review of projects. The goal is to move toward a culture of ethical integrity among investigators, reviewers and decision-makers, rather than mere compliance with rules. The framework is consonant with the perspective of the learning organization and is generalizable to other public health organizations, to health services organizations, and beyond. Public