WorldWideScience

Sample records for group health classes

  1. Is Group Singing Special? Health, Well-Being and Social Bonds in Community-Based Adult Education Classes Group singing, well-being and social bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, E; Launay, J.; A. Machin; Dunbar, RIM

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (fo...

  2. Is group singing special? Health, well-being and social bonds in community-based adult education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Machin, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N=84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N=51) were followed over seven months. Self-report questionnaire data on mental and physical health, well-being, and social bonding were collected at Months 1, 3 and 7. We demonstrate that physical and mental health and satisfaction with life significantly improved over time in both conditions. Path analysis did not show any indirect effects via social bonding of Condition on health and well-being. However, higher collective-bonding at timepoint 3 significantly predicted increased flourishing, reduced anxiety and improved physical health independently of baseline levels. In contrast, relational-bonding showed no such effects, suggesting that it is feeling part of a group that particularly yields health and well-being benefits. Moreover, these results indicate that singing may not improve health and well-being more than other types of activities. Nonetheless, these findings encourage further work to refine our understanding of the social aspects of community-based adult education classes in promoting health, well-being and community cohesion.

  3. From mapping class groups to automorphism groups of free groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    We show that the natural map from the mapping class groups of surfaces to the automorphism groups of free groups, induces an infinite loop map on the classifying spaces of the stable groups after plus construction. The proof uses automorphisms of free groups with boundaries which play the role...... of mapping class groups of surfaces with several boundary components....

  4. Classroom contexts: connections between class size and within class grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, P; Baines, E; Kutnick, P; Martin, C

    2001-06-01

    There has been a vigorous debate for many years about the educational effects of class size differences, but even if differences have an impact on pupils' academic progress this still leaves unanswered important questions about what mediates the effect. This paper is informed by a classroom contextual perspective, and examines associations between class size and within class groupings (in terms of size and number of groups, adult presence in groups, and type of interaction between grouping members). Age differences in these relationships are also explored. The quantitative study is based on analysis of 3157 groupings, from 672 Reception, Year 2 and Year 5 classes in 331 schools. The qualitative study was based on 12 classes in 8 case study schools, and questionnaire responses completed by over 100 class teachers. Links between size of class and within class groupings were examined on the basis of a 'grouping mapping survey', in which teachers at a given time in the school day provided information on group size and number, adult presence, and type of interaction between pupils, and complementary qualitative analyses of data from teacher-completed questionnaires, and interviews. The number of groups in a class increased with the size of the class. Over all three year groups, small classes had on average just over three groups, while large classes approached six groups. The size of groups in the class decreased with size of class. In class sizes over 25, pupils were more likely to be in a large group of 7-10, while in classes under 25 they were more likely to be in whole class groupings. Qualitative analyses showed that teachers felt that groups of 7-10 pupils had negative educational effects, for example, in terms of the quality and quantity of teaching and children's concentration and contribution in groups. Results suggest that the effects of class size can be best seen as through the size and number of groups, which will then have implications for learning

  5. Conjugacy classes in discrete Heisenberg groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budylin, R Ya [Steklov Mathematical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-01

    We study an extension of a discrete Heisenberg group coming from the theory of loop groups and find invariants of conjugacy classes in this group. In some cases, including the case of the integer Heisenberg group, we make these invariants more explicit. Bibliography: 4 titles.

  6. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively in a variety of…

  7. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  8. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  9. On nilpotent groups and conjugacy classes

    OpenAIRE

    Adan-Bante, Edith

    2005-01-01

    Let $G$ be a nilpotent group and $a\\in G$. Let $a^G=\\{g^{-1}ag\\mid g\\in G\\}$ be the conjugacy class of $a$ in $G$. Assume that $a^G$ and $b^G$ are conjugacy classes of $G$ with the property that $|a^G|=|b^G|=p$, where $p$ is an odd prime number. Set $a^G b^G=\\{xy\\mid x\\in a^G, y\\in b^G\\}$. Then either $a^G b^G=(ab)^G$ or $a^G b^G$ is the union of at least $\\frac{p+1}{2}$ distinct conjugacy classes. As an application of the previous result, given any nilpotent group $G$ and any conjugacy class...

  10. Small generators of the ideal class group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabas, Karim; Diaz, Francisco Diaz Y.; Friedman, Eduardo

    2008-06-01

    Assuming the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, Bach has shown that the ideal class group ļof a number field K can be generated by the prime ideals of K having norm smaller than 12big(logabs{mathrm{Discriminant}(K)}big)^2 . This result is essential for the computation of the class group and units of K by Buchmann's algorithm, currently the fastest known. However, once mathcal{C}ell_K has been computed, one notices that this bound could have been replaced by a much smaller value, and so much work could have been saved. We introduce here a short algorithm which allows us to reduce Bach's bound substantially, usually by a factor 20 or so. The bound produced by the algorithm is asymptotically worse than Bach's, but favorable constants make it useful in practice.

  11. Intrinsic characteristic classes for a local Lie group

    CERN Document Server

    Abadoglu, Ender

    2009-01-01

    For a local Lie group M we define odd order cohomology classes. The first class is an obstruction to globalizability of the local Lie group. The third class coincides with Godbillon-Vey class in a particular case. These classes are secondary as they emerge when curvature vanishes.

  12. Class, Social Suffering, and Health Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2016-01-01

    In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.

  13. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  14. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  15. Uniformly Exponential Growth and Mapping Class Groups of Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J. W.; Aramayona, J.; Shackleton, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    We show that the mapping class group (as well as closely related groups) of an orientable surface with finitely generated fundamental group has uniformly exponential growth. We further demonstrate the uniformly non-amenability of many of these groups.

  16. Postgraduates’ Attitudes towards Group Works in Oral English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕思迪

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated four postgraduates’ attitudes towards group work in oral English class in Tianjin Foreign Studies University. Two sources of data were collected, including interviews and class observations.

  17. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  18. Implementing Small-Group Activities in Large Lecture Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazedjian, Ani; Kolkhorst, Brittany Boyle

    2007-01-01

    This study examines student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of small-group work in a large lecture class. The article considers and illustrates from students' perspectives the ways in which small-group activities could enhance comprehension of course material, reduce anonymity associated with large lecture classes, and promote student…

  19. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  20. Defining Social Class Across Time and Between Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dov; Shin, Faith; Liu, Xi; Ondish, Peter; Kraus, Michael W

    2017-08-01

    We examined changes over four decades and between ethnic groups in how people define their social class. Changes included the increasing importance of income, decreasing importance of occupational prestige, and the demise of the "Victorian bargain," in which poor people who subscribed to conservative sexual and religious norms could think of themselves as middle class. The period also saw changes (among Whites) and continuity (among Black Americans) in subjective status perceptions. For Whites (and particularly poor Whites), their perceptions of enhanced social class were greatly reduced. Poor Whites now view their social class as slightly but significantly lower than their poor Black and Latino counterparts. For Black respondents, a caste-like understanding of social class persisted, as they continued to view their class standing as relatively independent of their achieved education, income, and occupation. Such achievement indicators, however, predicted Black respondents' self-esteem more than they predicted self-esteem for any other group.

  1. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Aşçı

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining sex differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no sex differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes.

  2. Group cohesion in exercise classes: An examination of gender and type of exercise class differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Akpınar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Group cohesion has been attributed to the higher levels of attendance and performance and lower levels of drop-outs in exercise classes. Cohesion can be affected by different type of exercise classes and gender. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to compare the group cohesion levels of martial arts participants (aikido, taekwondo, karate, and kendo with aerobic-like participants (aerobics, aero-steps, phys-gym, and high-low aerobics. This causal comparative study also aimed at examining gender differences in group cohesion in exercise classes. There were 140 participants (Mage=28.1 SD= 8.01 and female= 138 male= 2 in aerobic-like classes and 137 participants (Mage= 22.2 SD= 3.8 and female= 48 male= 89 in martial arts classes. Results revealed no gender differences between the groups on the perceptions of cohesion. On the other hand, except for individual attractions to the group-task dimension, participants of martial art classes had higher levels of group cohesion than the participants of aerobic-like classes. Consequently, it was concluded that different types of exercise classes may have different levels of cohesion and those differences were discussed within the context of exercise classes

  3. Getting Started: Informal Small-Group Strategies in Large Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James L.; Robinson, Pamela

    2000-01-01

    Describes a number of informal "turn-to-your-neighbor" approaches that create an active learning environment in college lecture settings. These include: launching class in discussion, breaking up the lecture for comprehension checks, closing class with small-group conversation, and debriefing exams. (DB)

  4. [Social class and health in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Rocha, Katia B; Borrell, Carme; Vallebuona, Clelia; Ibáñez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Sollar, Orielle

    2012-02-01

    This paper reviews the principal concepts of social class, occupation, and social stratification, and their contribution to the analysis of the social determinants of health (SDH), and reviews empirical studies conducted in Latin America that use employment relations as an SDH. The review focuses on studies of the relationship between health and social class based on neo-Weberian or neo-Marxist perspectives. A search of the BIREME Virtual Health Library and the SciELO database found 28 articles meeting these characteristics. This relative dearth contrasts with the profusion of papers that use these approaches written in Europe and in the United States, with a long tradition in the analysis of SDH. In this regard, the political and programmatic implications of research on social class and employment relations are different from and complementary to studies of health gradients associated with income and education. Globalization of employment relations requires the development of new concepts to explain and measure the mechanisms of action of the SDH going beyond what is strictly labor related; in particular, the importance in the current Latin American reality of the impact of informal work on health.

  5. Characteristic Classes and Integrable Systems for Simple Lie Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, A; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of our previous paper \\cite{LOSZ}. For simple complex Lie groups with non-trivial center, i.e. classical simply-connected groups, $E_6$ and $E_7$ we consider elliptic Modified Calogero-Moser systems corresponding to the Higgs bundles with an arbitrary characteristic class. These systems are generalization of the classical Calogero-Moser (CM) systems related to a simple Lie groups and contain CM systems related to some (unbroken) subalgebras. For all algebras we construct a special basis, corresponding to non-trivial characteristic classes, the explicit forms of Lax operators and Hamiltonians.

  6. On a Class of p-Soluble Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Ballester-Bolinches; R. Esteban-Romero; M.C. Pedraza-Aguilera

    2005-01-01

    Let p be a prime. The class of all p-soluble groups G such that every p-chief factor of G is cyclic and all p-chief factors of G are G-isomorphic is studied in this paper.Some results on T-, PT-, and PST-groups are also obtained.

  7. Finite Groups with Three Conjugacy Class Sizes of some Elements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qingjun Kong

    2012-08-01

    Let be a finite group. We prove as follows: Let be a -solvable group for a fixed prime . If the conjugacy class sizes of all elements of primary and biprimary orders of are $\\{1,p^a,n\\}$ with and two positive integers and (,)=1, then is -nilpotent or has abelian Sylow -subgroups.

  8. Ideal Class Groups and Subgroups of Real Quadratic Function Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we study the real quadratic function fields K=k(D), given a necessary and sufficient condition for the ideal class group H(K) of any real quadratic function field K to have a cyclic subgroup of order n, and obtained eight series of such fields. The ideal class numbers h(OK) of K in the series all have a factor n.

  9. Reducibility of quantum representations of mapping class groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fjelstad, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide a general condition for the reducibility of the Reshetikhin–Turaev quantum representations of the mapping class groups. Namely, for any modular tensor category with a special symmetric Frobenius algebra with a non-trivial genus one partition function, we prove that the qu......In this paper we provide a general condition for the reducibility of the Reshetikhin–Turaev quantum representations of the mapping class groups. Namely, for any modular tensor category with a special symmetric Frobenius algebra with a non-trivial genus one partition function, we prove...... that the quantum representations of all the mapping class groups built from the modular tensor category are reducible. In particular, for SU(N) we get reducibility for certain levels and ranks. For the quantum SU(2) Reshetikhin–Turaev theory we construct a decomposition for all even levels. We conjecture...

  10. Some special classes of n-abelian groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantino Delizia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Let n be an integer. A group G is said to be n-abelian if the map phi_n that sends g to g^n is an endomorphism of G. Then (xy^n=x^ny^n for all x,y in G, from which it follows [x^n,y]=[x,y]^n=[x,y^n]. It is also easy to see that a group G is n-abelian if and only if it is (1-n-abelian. If nneq 0,1 and G is an n-abelian group, then the quotient group G/Z(G has finite exponent dividing n(n-1. This implies that every torsion-free n-abelian group is abelian. We denote by B_n and C_n the classes of all groups G for which phi_n is a monomorphism and an epimorphism of G, respectively. Then B_0=C_0 contains only the trivial group, B_1=C_1 is the class of all groups, and B_-1=C_-1 is the class of all abelian groups. Furthermore, with |n|>1, G is in B_n if and only if G is an n-abelian group having no elements of order dividing |n|. Similarly, G is in C_n if and only if G is n-abelian and for every g in G there exists an element x in G such that g=x^n. We also set A_n=B_ncap C_n. In this paper we give a characterization for groups in B_n and for groups in C_n. We also obtain an arithmetic description of the set of all integers n such that a group G is in A_n.

  11. A Poisson type formula for Hardy classes on Heisenberg's group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopushansky O.V.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hardy type class of complex functions with infinite many variables defined on the Schrodinger irreducible unitary orbit of reduced Heisenberg group, generated by the Gauss density, is investigated. A Poisson integral type formula for their analytic extensions on an open ball is established. Taylor coefficients for analytic extensions are described by the associatedsymmetric Fock space.

  12. Conjugacy Class Sizes and Solvability of Finite Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qinhui Jiang; Changguo Shao

    2013-05-01

    Let be a finite group and * be the set of primary, biprimary and triprimary elements of . We prove that if the conjugacy class sizes of * are {1,,,} with positive coprime integers and ,then is solvable. This extends a recent result of Kong (Manatsh. Math. 168(2)(2012) 267–271).

  13. Isomorphism classes and automorphism groups of algebras of Weyl type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU; Yucai(苏育才); ZHAO; Kaiming(赵开明)

    2002-01-01

    In one of our recent papers, the associative and the Lie algebras of Weyl type A[D] = A F[D] were defined and studied, where A is a commutative associative algebra with an identity element over a field F of any characteristic, and F[D] is the polynomial algebra of a commutative derivation subalgebra D of A. In the present paper, a class of the above associative and Lie algebras A[D] with F being a field of characteristic 0, D consisting of locally finite but not locally nilpotent derivations of A, are studied. The isomorphism classes and automorphism groups of these associative and Lie algebras are determined.

  14. Twisted Conjugacy Classes in Abelian Extensions of Certain Linear Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mubeena, T

    2011-01-01

    Given an automorphism $\\phi:\\Gamma\\lr \\Gamma$, one has an action of $\\Gamma$ on itself by $\\phi$-twisted conjugacy, namely, $g.x=gx\\phi(g^{-1})$. The orbits of this action are called $\\phi$-twisted conjugacy classes. One says that $\\Gamma$ has the $R_\\infty$-property if there are infinitely many $\\phi$-twisted conjugacy classes for every automorphism $\\phi$ of $\\Gamma$. In this paper we show that $\\SL(n,\\bz)$ and its congruence subgroups have the $R_\\infty$-property. Further we show that any (countable) abelian extension of $\\Gamma$ has the $R_\\infty$-property where $\\Gamma$ is a torsion free non-elementary hyperbolic group, or $\\SL(n,\\bz), \\Sp(2n,\\bz)$ or a principal congruence subgroup of $\\SL(n,\\bz)$ or the fundamental group of a complete Riemannian manifold of constant negative curvature.

  15. Class-preserving automorphisms of some finite -groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Gumber; Mahak Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Let be a finite -group of order 5, where is a prime. We give necessary and sufficient conditions on such that has a non-inner class-preserving automorphism. As a consequence, we give short and alternate proofs of results of Yadav (§5 of Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) 118 (2008) 1–11) and Kalra and Gumber (Theorem 4.2 of Indian J. Pure Appl. Math. 44 (2013) 711–725).

  16. Dehn twists and free subgroups of symplectic mapping class groups

    CERN Document Server

    Keating, Ailsa

    2012-01-01

    Given two Lagrangian spheres in an exact symplectic manifold, we find conditions under which the Dehn twists about them generate a free non-abelian subgroup of the symplectic mapping class group. This extends a result of Ishida for Riemann surfaces. The proof generalises the categorical version of Seidel's long exact sequence to arbitrary powers of a fixed Dehn twist. We also show that the Milnor fibre of any isolated degenerate hypersurface singularity contains such pairs of spheres.

  17. Cohomology of mapping class groups and the abelian moduli space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Villemoes, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    We consider a surface Σ of genus g≥3 , either closed or with exactly one puncture. The mapping class group Γ of Σ acts symplectically on the abelian moduli space M=Hom(π 1 (Σ),U(1))=Hom(H 1 (Σ),U(1)) , and hence both L 2 (M) and C ∞ (M) are modules over Γ . In this paper, we prove that both the c...

  18. Invariant generalized ideal classes - structure theorems for $p$-class groups in $p$-extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Georges Gras

    2017-02-01

    We give, in sections 2 and 3, an english translation of: Classes g\\acute{e}n\\acute{e}ralis\\acute{e}es invariantes, J. Math. Soc. Japan, 46, 3 (1994), with some improvements and with notations and definitions in accordance with our book: Class Field Theory: From Theory to Practice, SMM, Springer-Verlag, 2nd corrected printing 2005. We recall, in section 4, some structure theorems for finite $\\mathbb{Z}_p[G]$-modules ($G\\simeq\\mathbb{Z}/p\\mathbb{Z}$) obtained in: Sur les$\\scr l$-classes d’id\\acute{e}aux dans les extensions cycliques relatives de degr\\acute{e} premier $\\mathcal{l}$, Annales de l’Institut Fourier, 23, 3 (1973). Then we recall the algorithm of local normic computations which allows to obtain the order and (potentially) the structure of a $p$-class group in a cyclic extension of degree $p$. In section 5, we apply this to the study of the structure of relative $p$-class groups of Abelian extensions of prime to $p$ degree, using the Thaine–Ribet–Mazur–Wiles–Kolyvagin ‘principal theorem’, and the notion of ‘admissible sets of prime numbers’ in a cyclic extension of degree $p$, from: Sur la structure des groupes de classes relatives, Annales de l’Institut Fourier, 43, 1 (1993). In conclusion, we suggest the study, in the same spirit, of some deep invariants attached to the $p$-ramification theory (as dual form of non-ramification theory) and which have become standard in a $p$-adic framework. Since some of these techniques have often been rediscovered, we give a substantial (but certainly incomplete) bibliography which may be used to have a broad view on the subject.

  19. Embedding mapping class groups into finite products of trees

    OpenAIRE

    Hume, David

    2012-01-01

    We prove the equivalence between a relative bottleneck property and being quasi-isometric to a tree-graded space. As a consequence, we deduce that the quasi-trees of spaces defined axiomatically by Bestvina-Bromberg-Fujiwara are quasi-isometric to tree-graded spaces. Using this we prove that mapping class groups quasi-isometrically embed into a finite product of simplicial trees. In particular, these groups have finite Assouad-Nagata dimension, direct embeddings exhibiting $\\ell^p$ compressio...

  20. Comparison of Intercanine and Intermolar Width Between Cleft Lip Palate and Normal Class I Occlusion Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahaj, Aiyesha; Ahmed, Imtiaz

    2015-11-01

    To determine the mean difference of arch dimensions (both intercanine and intermolar width) between cleft lip palate and normal class I occlusion group. Cross-sectional analytic study. Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, [Dow University of Health Sciences (DUHS)], Karachi, from March 2012 to April 2013. Group 1 consisted of 32 subjects with complete repaired, non-syndromic unilateral and bilateral cleft lip palate. Group 2 consisted of 32 subjects with normal facial morphology and class I occlusion. Exclusion criteria were cleft lip palate subjects with systemic diseases, any arch expansion procedure, incomplete repaired palate, open fistulas, developmental or acquired craniofacial muscular deformities, autoimmune conditions, syndromes, endocrine abnormalities, neurological problems, or previous history of orthodontic treatment and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, history of trauma, impacted or missing teeth, periodontally involved teeth, subdivision molar classification, skeletal base II and III with molar class I. The transverse width (intercanine and intermolar width) of dental casts was measured with the help of digital caliper. The intercanine width was measured between cusp tips of the canine while the intermolar width distance was measured between mesiobuccal cusp tips of first molars, and buccal grooves of the mandibular first molars in both cleft lip palate and normal class I occlusion group, respectively. There were 64 subjects with mean 14.7 ±6.8 years in the cleft palate and 14.7 ±6.3 years in the normal group. There was statistically significant differences found between intercanine and intermolar width in maxillary arch (p < 0.001). In mandibular arch, only intercanine width has showed significant difference (p < 0.001) between cleft and normal occlusion class I group. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine width was found to be significantly reduced in cleft lip palate group (both unilateral and bilateral) as

  1. Generating the Mobius group with involution conjugacy classes

    CERN Document Server

    Basmajian, Ara

    2010-01-01

    A {\\it $k$-involution} is an involution with a fixed point set of codimension $k$. The conjugacy class of such an involution, denoted $S_k$, generates $\\text{M\\"ob}(n)$-the the group of isometries of hyperbolic $n$-space-if $k$ is odd, and its orientation preserving subgroup if $k$ is even. In this paper, we supply effective lower and upper bounds for the $S_k$ word length of $\\text{M\\"ob}(n)$ if $k$ is odd, and the $S_k$ word length of $\\text{M\\"ob}^+(n)$, if $k$ is even. As a consequence, for a fixed codimension $k$ the length of $\\text{M\\"ob}^{+}(n)$ with respect to $S_k$, $k$ even, grows linearly with $n$ with the same statement holding in the odd case. Moreover, the percentage of involution conjugacy classes for which $\\text{M\\"ob}^{+}(n)$ has length two approaches zero, as $n$ approaches infinity.

  2. Health care consumption and consumer social class: a different look at the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S

    1989-09-01

    Both the need and potential for market segmentation in the health care industry have grown substantially. Social class, a consumer behavior construct applied widely in other marketing contexts, may be useful as a basis for health care segmentation. Using a random sample of 997 households in the Pacific Northwest, the author investigates health care attitudes and behaviors across social class groups. Social class is found to be related positively and significantly to several aspects of health care, including personal health, interest, expenditures, satisfaction, and switching behavior.

  3. Conjugacy classes of periodic elements in Garside groups

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Eon-Kyung

    2010-01-01

    Let $G$ be a Garside group with Garside element $\\Delta$. An element $g\\in G$ is said to be 'periodic' if some power of it is a power of $\\Delta$. In this paper, we study the conjugacy classes of periodic elements in Garside groups. By a classical theorem of Brouwer, Kerekjarto and Eilenberg, an $n$-braid is periodic if and only if it is conjugate to a power of one of two specific roots of $\\Delta^2$. We generalize this to Garside groups by showing that every periodic element is conjugate to a power of a root of $\\Delta^m$ where $\\Delta^m$ is the minimal positive power of $\\Delta$ which is central. For periodic elements in Garside groups, we introduce the notions of slimness and precentrality, and show that the super summit set of a slim, precentral periodic element is closed under any partial cycling. For the conjugacy problem, we may assume the slimness without loss of generality. For the Artin groups of type $A_n$, $B_n$, $D_n$, $I_2(e)$ and the braid group of the complex reflection group of type $(e,e,n)$...

  4. Social space, social class and Bourdieu: health inequalities in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.

  5. Centralizers of Camina $p$-groups of nilpotence class $3$

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Let $G$ be a Camina $p$-group of nilpotence class $3$. We prove that if $G' < C_G (G')$, then $|Z(G)| \\le |G':G_3|^{1/2}$. We also prove that if $G/G_3$ has only one or two abelian subgroups of order $|G:G'|$, then $G' < C_G (G')$. If $G/G_3$ has $p^a + 1$ abelian subgroups of order $|G:G'|$, then either $G' < C_G (G')$ or $|Z(G)| \\le p^{2a}$.

  6. Health lifestyles and the absence of the Russian middle class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, William C

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the pivotal role of social stratification in Russia's health crisis. The primary level causal factor is increased mortality from heart disease and alcohol-related poisonings and accidents. In order to understand the origin of the primary causes, it is necessary to look further for secondary level factors. Whereas policy and stress are important, the leading secondary determinant is negative health lifestyles. The question then arises: What is the source of this lifestyle? This question necessitates a search for tertiary level causes and the absence of a strong middle class in Russia is identified. In Western society, the middle class, especially the upper middle class, is the social carrier of positive health lifestyles across class boundaries. The Russian middle class has not initiated positive health lifestyles countering the predominately negative health lifestyle practices because a middle class similar to that in the West does not exist. Russia needs a civil society in which a similarly stable and empowered middle class can promote positive health lifestyles within its own stratum and elsewhere in the class structure; until this happens, the health situation in that country may not stabilise for the better.

  7. Higher genus mapping class group invariants from factorizable Hopf algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Jurgen; Stigner, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Lyubashenko's construction associates representations of mapping class groups Map_{g,n} of Riemann surfaces of any genus g with any number n of holes to a factorizable ribbon category. We consider this construction as applied to the category of bimodules over a finite-dimensional factorizable ribbon Hopf algebra H. For any such Hopf algebra we find an invariant of Map_{g,n} for every g and n. More generally, we obtain such invariants for any pair (H,omega), where omega is a ribbon automorphism of H. Our results are motivated by the quest to understand correlation functions of bulk fields in two-dimensional conformal field theories with chiral algebras that are not necessarily semisimple, so-called logarithmic conformal field theories.

  8. Using a Virtual Class to Demonstrate Computer-Mediated Group Dynamics Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Vicker, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    We report about an active learning demonstration designed to use a virtual class to present computer-mediated group communication course concepts to show that students can learn about these concepts in a virtual class. We designated 1 class period as a virtual rather than face-to-face class, when class members "attended" virtually using…

  9. Student Attitudes Towards Change From Ability Grouping To Heterogeneous Grouping At A University Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bahar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is ample research on student grouping at primary, middle and high school level but it is a controversial issue for universities educating the high and low achievers in the same classes, reflecting confusion about whether scholarship and tuition fee students should be taught together. This study aims to shed light on what the student population at university thinks about heterogeneous grouping after seeing effects of ability grouping, about which there is almost no evidence. Students in an undergraduate department who started the academic year at two different sections grouped according to their prior achievement took courses in mixed ability classes the following semesters. They were given a questionnaire in three intervals asking them about their expectations and opinions of grouping before and after mixing and then after one year of study. 45 students responded to any two questionnaires and 15 responded to all three questionnaires. For the repeated measures design, Friedman test was carried out to see the change of ideas from time1 to time3 and Mann-Witney U test was used to see the differences in ideas between scholarship students and tuition-fee students. MannWhitney U test was carried out to test whether there was a difference in the GPAs of scholarship and tuition-fee students between time1 and time3. Students expressed a change in their attitudes about achievement and how the other group influenced them. GPAs of high ability students increased after they started being in educated in mixed ability class, realizing the fears of low achievers.

  10. Creative class as the leading group of modern society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Y. Sakalo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article one of the modern approaches to the social structure of the society is considered. The creative class is determined as the main driving force and as a leading social class of modern society. The author studies the history of the concept of creative class, and R. Florida’s concept in particular, and determines its characteristics and peculiarities. The influence of the creative class on the society, on its transformation processes, and the system of social values is analyzed. The role of creative class in developing creative and innovative economy of the post­industrial society era is found out. The author considers the relationship between the creative class and the other social classes of modern society. The essence of the concept of creativity is defined, and one of the most important problems of the modern era that is a constant conflict between creativity and organization is examined. The comparative historical analysis of the so­called «institutional»/ «industrial» and «creative»/ «post­industrial» era is made. The role of the creative class in developing and social changing the modern American society is studied. The questions of forming and developing creative class in modern Ukrainian society are analyzed, and the peculiarities and problems of this process are figured out. The need of state support for forming national creative class, for its strengthening and growth is emphasized.

  11. The heterogeneous health latent classes of elderly people and their socio-demographic characteristics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Fan; Tian, Wei-Hua; Yao, Hui-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The health care needs of elderly people were influenced by their heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify the health latent classes of elderly people by using latent class analysis to deal with heterogeneity and examine their socio-demographic characteristics. Data came from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) in Taiwan. In total, 2449 elderly individuals with available health indicators were examined in latent class analysis (LCA), and 2217 elderly community-dwellings with complete socio-demographic data were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression. Four health latent classes were identified which included 1066 (43.5%) people in the High Comorbidity (HC), 152 (6.2%) in the Functional Impairment (FI), 252 (10.3%) in the Frail (FR), and 979 (40.0%) in the Relatively Healthy (RH) group. Multinomial logistic regressions revealed socio-demographic characteristics among health classes. The variables associated with an increased likelihood of being in the FR group were age, female, and living with families. They were also correlated to ethnicity and educations. Apart from age and gender, the Functional Impairment group was less likely to be ethnicity of Hakka, more likely to live with others than were the RH group. The HC group tended to be younger, with higher educations, and more likely to live in urban area than the Functional Impairment group. The correlations between health classes and socio-demographic factors were discussed. The health status of elderly people includes a variety of health indicators. A person-centered approach is critical to identify the health heterogeneity of elderly people and manage their care needs by targeting differential aging.

  12. On the 16-rank of class groups of quadratic number fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    We prove two new density results about 16-ranks of class groups of quadratic number fields. They can be stated informally as follows. Let C(D) denote the class groups of the quadratic number field of discriminant D. Theorem A. The class group C(-4p) has an element of order 16 for one-fourth of pri

  13. On the 16-rank of class groups of quadratic number fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milovic, D.

    2016-01-01

    We prove two new density results about 16-ranks of class groups of quadratic number fields. They can be stated informally as follows. Let C(D) denote the class groups of the quadratic number field of discriminant D. Theorem A. The class group C(-4p) has an element of order 16 for one-fourth of

  14. Teacher Perceptions of Heterogeneous Ability Grouping in Secondary Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Nicole Cox

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to provide the best academic opportunities for all students, many high schools create heterogeneous classes by removing existing academic tracks or by offering only 1 level of course. Research has indicated that separating students by ability often exacerbates existing academic inequity; however, mixed ability classes can also create…

  15. Engaging Students in Large Health Classes with Active Learning Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Steven; Combs, Sue; Huelskamp, Amelia; Hritz, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Creative K-12 health teachers can engage students in large classes by utilizing active learning strategies. Active learning involves engaging students in higher-order tasks, such as analysis and synthesis, which is a crucial element of the movement toward what is commonly called "learner-centered" teaching. Health education teachers who…

  16. 49 CFR 173.141 - Class 9-Assignment of packing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 9-Assignment of packing group. 173.141...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions Classification, Packing Group Assignments... packing group. The packing group of a Class 9 material is as indicated in column 5 of the § 172.101 table....

  17. 49 CFR 173.125 - Class 4-Assignment of packing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 4-Assignment of packing group. 173.125...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions Classification, Packing Group Assignments... packing group. (a) The packing group of a Class 4 material is assigned in column (5) of the §...

  18. 49 CFR 173.121 - Class 3-Assignment of packing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 3-Assignment of packing group. 173.121...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions Classification, Packing Group Assignments... packing group. (a) The packing group of a Class 3 material is as assigned in column 5 of the §...

  19. 49 CFR 173.137 - Class 8-Assignment of packing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 8-Assignment of packing group. 173.137...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions Classification, Packing Group Assignments... packing group. The packing group of a Class 8 material is indicated in Column 5 of the § 172.101...

  20. THE EFFECT OF BETWEEN CLASS ABILITY GROUPING ON SCIENCE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND SELF ESTEEM OF SIXTH CLASS STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Karademir, Çigdem Aldan

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is to expose the effects of between class ability grouping on science academic achievement and self esteem of sixth class students. As a result, according to the achievement test, there couldn't be found a meaningful difference between the experiment and the control group (p>0.05), beside this there was found a meaningful difference between high, medium and low classes (p0.05). According to the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, there couldn't be found a meaningful ...

  1. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-02-01

    To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.

  2. Oral health status in older adults with social security in Mexico City: Latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Ángel; García-Peña, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. Results: In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as “Edentulous” (15.2%), “Class 1 = Unfavorable” (13.7%), “Class 2 = Somewhat favorable” (10.4%), and “Class 3 = Favorable” (60.7%). Using “Class 3 = Favorable” as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. Conclusion: The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico. PMID:24596632

  3. Binnendifferenzierung im Urteil von Gesamtschullehrern = Comprehensive School Teachers on Within-Class Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, Peter M.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes teachers' attitudes regarding the value and practicality of adapting their teaching to the needs of heterogeneous classes. Surveys teachers and administrators in five German comprehensive schools. Finds that teachers do not support the view that within-class grouping may be a viable alternative to systems of across-class setting by…

  4. Health behaviour among adolescents in Denmark: influence of school class and individual risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes...... the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other...... adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption...

  5. Gateway to Success for At-Risk Students in a Large-Group Introductory Chemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Diana; Verdel, Ellen

    2001-02-01

    Thirty-six entering freshmen of a designated "at-risk" population were divided between two classes of introductory chemistry for nonscience majors. Seventeen students were placed in a typical large-group lecture (n = 210) class, and the remaining 19 were placed in a special class with enrollment restricted to the selected, at-risk students. To assure equity and control for consistency, both lecture classes met at the same time. The two female instructors gave the same lectures to each class. At-risk students from both sections were required to attend supplemental instruction sections led by the same teaching assistant, and the same instructor graded all assignments. Students of both classes were encouraged to form informal collaborative groups to complete 10 in-class problem sets, which were graded on an individual basis. The at-risk students from the large-group lecture (average = 75.5) outperformed students enrolled in the special class (average = 70.6). All targeted students were successful in the large-group lecture class; however, three at-risk students in the smaller class were unsuccessful. Scaffolding from a more diverse population in the larger group may be one reason for this unexpected outcome. In the larger lecture class, students rated the collaborative assignments as being most beneficial to their success.

  6. Ethnic density in school classes and adolescent mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M; Dorsselaer, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study set out to examine the association between ethnic composition of school classes and prevalence of internalising and externalising problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority students. Methods Data were derived from the Dutch 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged C

  7. Integrating Sexual Minority Health Issues into a Health Assessment Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse, Jordon D; Nesteby, J Aleah; Randall, Carla E

    2015-01-01

    The health needs of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) population are traditionally overlooked by the health care community and are rendered invisible by most nursing school curricula. Initial contact with a nurse during a health history and assessment can have an impact on whether the person will feel comfortable disclosing his or her identity, returning for services, or following plans of care. Because the first interaction with a nurse can be critical, the health assessment course is an appropriate place in the curriculum to discuss the needs of the LGBT community. This article includes a discussion of unique health risks to the LGBT population, benefits, and challenges of incorporating these issues into the classroom and recommendations for including the care of this population into a health assessment nursing course. Specific communication techniques are provided that may be helpful during history taking and physical examination with a patient who is LGBT. Guidance regarding physical examination of the transgender patient is also included. These suggestions will be helpful to nurse faculty who teach health assessment, nursing students, educators who design and implement professional development and continuing education for established nurses, preceptors in the clinical setting, and any nurse who is unfamiliar with the needs and concerns specific to the LGBT population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Inequalities in health by social class dimensions in European countries of different political traditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Espelt (Albert); C. Borrell (Carme); M. Rodriguez-Sanz (Maica); C. Muntaner (Carles); M.I. Pasarin (María Isabel); J. Benach (Joan); M.M. Schaap (Maartje); A.E. Kunst (Anton); V. Navarro (Vicente)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To compare inequalities in self-perceived health in the population older than 50 years, in 2004, using Wright's social class dimensions, in nine European countries grouped in three political traditions (Social democracy, Christian democracy and Late democracies). Methods: Cros

  9. Piano Performance: Group Classes for the Lifelong Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddon, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative research presents data relating to eight amateur pianists who completed a 10-week Piano Performance course for lifelong learners at the University of York, UK. This article discusses the development of learning through the impact of group participation, challenges faced by learners and pedagogical strategies used by the leader to…

  10. Characteristics of Motivated L2 Class Groups: From Language Teachers' and Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lilian Ya-hui

    2014-01-01

    In most learning situations, learners are learning with their peers, and the teacher is teaching to a class, not to an individual learner. As it is indisputable that learners conceptualize their learning as occurring in a group, it is logical to assume that the class group has some effect on learners' learning. Thus, it could be constructive to…

  11. The G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, C; Smajilovic, S; Wellendorph, P;

    2014-01-01

    GPRC6A (G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A) is a class C G protein-coupled receptor, that has been cloned from human, mouse and rat. Several groups have shown that the receptor is activated by a range of basic and small aliphatic L-α-amino acids of which L-arginine, L...

  12. Subgroups of ideal class groups of real quadratic algebraic function fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Kunpeng(王鲲鹏); ZHANG; Xianke(张贤科)

    2003-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient condition on real quadratic algebraic function fields K is given for theirideal class groups H(K) to contain cyclic subgroups of order n. And eight series of such real quadratic functionfields K are obtained whose ideal class groups contain cyclic subgroups of order n. In particular, the ideal classnumbers of these function fields are divisible by n.

  13. The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Zeynep; Owan, Hideo; Pan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We combine class performance data from an undergraduate management course with students' personal records to examine how group diversity affects group work performance and individual learning. Students are exogenously assigned to groups. We find that, on average, male-dominant groups performed worse in their group work and learned less (based…

  14. The Impact of Group Diversity on Class Performance: Evidence from College Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Zeynep; Owan, Hideo; Pan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    We combine class performance data from an undergraduate management course with students' personal records to examine how group diversity affects group work performance and individual learning. Students are exogenously assigned to groups. We find that, on average, male-dominant groups performed worse in their group work and learned less (based…

  15. The effect of subjective and objective social class on health-related quality of life: new paradigm using longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-08-08

    To investigate the impact of the gap between subjective and objective social status on health-related quality of life. We analyzed data from 12,350 participants aged ≥ 18 years in the Korean Health Panel Survey. Health-related quality of life was measured by EuroQol-Visual analogue scale. Objective (income and education) and subjective social class (measured by MacArthur scale) was classified into three groups (High, Middle, Low). In terms of a gap between objective and subjective social class, social class was grouped into nine categories ranging from High-High to Low-Low. A linear mixed model was used to investigate the association between the combined social class and health-related quality of life. The impact of the gap between objective and subjective status on Health-related quality of life varied according to the type of gap. Namely, at any given subjective social class, an individual's quality of life declined with a decrease in the objective social class. At any given objective social class (e.g., HH, HM, HL; in terms of both education and income), an individual's quality of life declined with a one-level decrease in subjective social class. Our results suggest that studies of the relationship between social class and health outcomes may consider the multidimensional nature of social status.

  16. A psychodrama group for health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J; Walsh, S

    Although much has been written about psychodrama as a therapeutic and educational method with patients, there is little evidence of its effectiveness as an activity for professional clinicians. The authors describe how the basic elements, phases and techniques of psychodrama have been used with groups of health workers to improve their clinical performance and personal life. The therapy has important applications in helping staff come to terms with the emotional stresses of their work with patients.

  17. The Group Oral Health Movement in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Catharina Leite Matos; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Chaves, Sonia Cristina de Lima; Rossi, Thais Regis Aranha; Barros, Sandra Garrido; Cruz, Denise Nogueira

    2017-06-01

    Group Oral Health (GOH) is a specific phenomenon in time, separate from other "Alternative Odontology", and a theoretical reference for dental practice in healthcare services. This study is an attempt to understand how long "Alternative Odontology" will remain with the social context of struggling for oral health in Brazil, based on the positions of the founding agents and their precursors, bearing in mind the concepts of GOH, GH (Group Health) and the SUS (Unified Healthcare System). We started out with Pierre Bourdieu's Practice Theory, complemented with Gramsci's concept of hegemony and counter-hegemony. We completed 12 in-depth interviews, reviewed the literature and analyzed the scientific output. We also looked at the trajectories of the agents and their capital between 1980 and 2013. The results show that the concept of GOC and GH as a breach with health practices, which gave rise to "Alternative Odontology", prevailed among those with the political will to defend democracy and Healthcare Reforms. Although GOC is a critical proposal, the older "Odontology" remains in scientific journals, and in the practice of oral care.

  18. Mental Health and Educational Experiences Among Black Youth: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Theda; Lindsey, Michael A; Xiao, Yunyu; Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Joe, Sean

    2017-07-28

    Disproportionately lower educational achievement, coupled with higher grade retention, suspensions, expulsions, and lower school bonding make educational success among Black adolescents a major public health concern. Mental health is a key developmental factor related to educational outcomes among adolescents; however, traditional models of mental health focus on absence of dysfunction as a way to conceptualize mental health. The dual-factor model of mental health incorporates indicators of both subjective wellbeing and psychopathology, supporting more recent research that both are needed to comprehensively assess mental health. This study applied the dual-factor model to measure mental health using the National Survey of American Life-Adolescent Supplement (NSAL-A), a representative cross-sectional survey. The sample included 1170 Black adolescents (52% female; mean age 15). Latent class analysis was conducted with positive indicators of subjective wellbeing (emotional, psychological, and social) as well as measures of psychopathology. Four mental health groups were identified, based on having high or low subjective wellbeing and high or low psychopathology. Accordingly, associations between mental health groups and educational outcomes were investigated. Significant associations were observed in school bonding, suspensions, and grade retention, with the positive mental health group (high subjective wellbeing, low psychopathology) experiencing more beneficial outcomes. The results support a strong association between school bonding and better mental health and have implications for a more comprehensive view of mental health in interventions targeting improved educational experiences and mental health among Black adolescents.

  19. 49 CFR 173.129 - Class 5, Division 5.2-Assignment of packing group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class 5, Division 5.2-Assignment of packing group... SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Definitions Classification, Packing Group... 5.2—Assignment of packing group. All Division 5.2 materials are assigned to Packing Group II...

  20. Lay theories about social class buffer lower-class individuals against poor self-rated health and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W

    2015-03-01

    The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals.

  1. A kind of signature scheme based on class groups of quadratic fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董晓蕾; 曹珍富

    2004-01-01

    Quadratic-field cryptosystem is a cryptosystem built from discrete logarithm problem in ideal class groups of quadratic fields(CL-DLP). The problem on digital signature scheme based on ideal class groups of quadratic fields remained open, because of the difficulty of computing class numbers of quadratic fields. In this paper, according to our researches on quadratic fields, we construct the first digital signature scheme in ideal class groups of quadratic fields, using q as modulus, which denotes the prime divisors of ideal class numbers of quadratic fields. Security of the new signature scheme is based fully on CL-DLP. This paper also investigates realization of the scheme, and proposes the concrete technique. In addition, the technique introduced in the paper can be utilized to realize signature schemes of other kinds.

  2. The Power Structure of 2-Generator 2-Groups of Class Two

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Friedrich L. Kluempen

    2002-01-01

    In 1934, Hall introduced regular p-groups. Any regular 2-group is abelian. A regular p-group is power closed, exponent closed, strongly semi-pabelian, and an exact power margin group. The study of these properties and relationships among them constitutes the investigation of the power structure of a p-group. In this paper, we classify 2-generator 2-groups of nilpotency class two according to their power structure.

  3. Which Setting to Choose: Comparison of Whole-Class vs. Small-Group Computer Simulation Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara K.; Bell, Randy L.

    2014-01-01

    Studies considering whole-class use of computer simulations are limited, despite the increasing interest in this mode of use. The current study explored how a collection of computer simulations was integrated into both whole-class and small-group instructional settings during a high school chemistry unit on atomic structure. Participants included…

  4. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard P.; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Laylin, Jeff; Szoke, Carolyn; Petrillo, Tai; Culey, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). The CW-FIT program includes four elements designed from…

  5. The School Attitudes of a Group of Working-Class Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, Susan

    Ethnographic field research done with a group of working class girls in upstate New York examined the structures of schools that maintain gender and class distinctions and the culture of the girls themselves. Most of the field work was participant-observation at after-school and summer programs at a Girls Incorporated site in a mid-sized…

  6. Equidistribution of geodesics on homology classes and analogues for free groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petridis, Y.N.; Risager, Morten

    2005-01-01

    We investigate how often geodesics have homology in a fixed set of the homology lattice of a compact Riemann surface. We prove that closed geodesics are equidistributed on a random set of homology classes and certain arithmetic sets. We explain the analogues for free groups, conjugacy classes...

  7. Addressing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan: gender, class and exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Zubia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After more than two decades of the Safe Motherhood Initiative and Millennium Development Goals aimed at reducing maternal mortality, women continue to die in childbirth at unacceptably high rates in Pakistan. While an extensive literature describes various programmatic strategies, it neglects the rigorous analysis of the reasons these strategies have been unsuccessful, especially for women living at the economic and social margins of society. A critical gap in current knowledge is a detailed understanding of the root causes of disparities in maternal health care, and in particular, how gender and class influence policy formulation and the design and delivery of maternal health care services. Taking Pakistan as a case study, this research builds upon two distinct yet interlinked conceptual approaches to understanding the phenomenon of inequity in access to maternal health care: social exclusion and health systems as social institutions. Methods/Design This four year project consists of two interrelated modules that focus on two distinct groups of participants: (1 poor, disadvantaged women and men and (2 policy makers, program managers and health service providers. Module one will employ critical ethnography to understand the key axes of social exclusion as related to gender, class and zaat and how they affect women’s experiences of using maternal health care. Through health care setting observations, interviews and document review, Module two will assess policy design and delivery of maternal health services. Discussion This research will provide theoretical advances to enhance understanding of the power dynamics of gender and class that may underlie poor women’s marginalization from health care systems in Pakistan. It will also provide empirical evidence to support formulation of maternal health care policies and health care system practices aimed at reducing disparities in maternal health care in Pakistan. Lastly, it

  8. Medical students perceive better group learning processes when large classes are made to seem small.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Hommes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Medical schools struggle with large classes, which might interfere with the effectiveness of learning within small groups due to students being unfamiliar to fellow students. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of making a large class seem small on the students' collaborative learning processes. DESIGN: A randomised controlled intervention study was undertaken to make a large class seem small, without the need to reduce the number of students enrolling in the medical programme. The class was divided into subsets: two small subsets (n=50 as the intervention groups; a control group (n=102 was mixed with the remaining students (the non-randomised group n∼100 to create one large subset. SETTING: The undergraduate curriculum of the Maastricht Medical School, applying the Problem-Based Learning principles. In this learning context, students learn mainly in tutorial groups, composed randomly from a large class every 6-10 weeks. INTERVENTION: The formal group learning activities were organised within the subsets. Students from the intervention groups met frequently within the formal groups, in contrast to the students from the large subset who hardly enrolled with the same students in formal activities. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three outcome measures assessed students' group learning processes over time: learning within formally organised small groups, learning with other students in the informal context and perceptions of the intervention. RESULTS: Formal group learning processes were perceived more positive in the intervention groups from the second study year on, with a mean increase of β=0.48. Informal group learning activities occurred almost exclusively within the subsets as defined by the intervention from the first week involved in the medical curriculum (E-I indexes>-0.69. Interviews tapped mainly positive effects and negligible negative side effects of the intervention. CONCLUSION: Better group learning processes can be

  9. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  10. Species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five agroforestry classes in Tabasco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der J.C.; Peña-Álvarez, B.; Arriaga-Weiss, S.L.; Hernández-Daumás, S.

    2012-01-01

    We studied species, functional groups, and habitat preferences of birds in five classes of agroforestry systems: agroforests, animal agroforestry, linear agroforestry, sequential agroforestry, and crops under tree cover in Tabasco, Mexico. Sampling sites were >2 km from natural forest fragments.

  11. Group Classification and Exact Solutions of a Class of Variable Coefficient Nonlinear Wave Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ding-Jiang; MEI Jian-Qin; ZHANG Hong-Qing

    2009-01-01

    Complete group classification of a class of variable coefficient (1 + 1)-dimensional wave equations is performed.The possible additional equivalence transformations between equations from the class under consideration and the conditional equivalence groups are also investigated. These allow simplification of the results of the classification and further applications of them. The derived Lie symmetries are used to construct exact solutions of special forms of these equations via the classical Lie method. Nonclassical symmetries of the wave equations are discussed.

  12. Improvements in the computation of ideal class groups of imaginary quadratic number fields

    CERN Document Server

    Biasse, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    We investigate improvements to the algorithm for the computation of ideal class groups described by Jacobson in the imaginary quadratic case. These improvements rely on the large prime strategy and a new method for performing the linear algebra phase. We achieve a significant speed-up and are able to compute ideal class groups with discriminants of 110 decimal digits in less than a week.

  13. International migration to Canada: the post-birth health of mothers and infants by immigration class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Anita J; Dougherty, Geoffrey; Wahoush, Olive; Saucier, Jean-François; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Stanger, Elizabeth; Palmer, Becky; Merry, Lisa; Stewart, Donna E

    2013-01-01

    There are over 214 million international migrants worldwide, half of whom are women, and all of them assigned by the receiving country to an immigration class. Immigration classes are associated with certain health risks and regulatory restrictions related to eligibility for health care. Prior to this study, reports of international migrant post-birth health had not been compared between immigration classes, with the exception of our earlier, smaller study in which we found asylum-seekers to be at greatest risk for health concerns. In order to determine whether refugee or asylum-seeking women or their infants experience a greater number or a different distribution of professionally-identified health concerns after birth than immigrant or Canadian-born women, we recruited 1127 migrant (and in Canada immigration class (refugee, asylum-seeker, immigrant, or Canadian-born). Between February 2006 and May 2009, we followed them from childbirth (in one of eleven birthing centres in Montreal or Toronto) to four months and found that at one week postpartum, asylum-seeking and immigrant women had greater rates of professionally-identified health concerns than Canadian-born women; and at four months, all three migrant groups had greater rates of professionally-identified concerns. Further, international migrants were at greater risk of not having these concerns addressed by the Canadian health care system. The current study supports our earlier findings and highlights the need for case-finding and services for international migrant women, particularly for psychosocial difficulties. Policy and program mechanisms to address migrants' needs would best be developed within the various immigration classes.

  14. [Social class, health inequalities, and health-related behaviors of working people in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; González Rodríguez, María José; Baksai, Pamela Bernales; Vallebuona, Clelia; Borrell, Carme; Solar, Orielle

    2013-05-01

    To analyze links between social class and health-related indicators and behaviors in Chilean workers, from a neo-Marxian perspective. A cross-sectional study based on the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Health, and Quality of Life of Workers in Chile, done in 2009-2010 (n = 9 503). Dependent variables were self-perceived health status and mental health, examined using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). Health-related behavior variables included tobacco use and physical activity. The independent variable was neo-Marxian social class. Descriptive analyses of prevalence were performed and odds ratio (OR) models and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated. Medium employers (between 2 and 10 employees) reported a lower prevalence of poor health (21.6% [OR 0.68; 95%CI 0.46-0.99]). Unskilled managers had the lowest mental health risk (OR 0.43; 95%CI 0.21-0.88), with differences between men and women. Large employers (more than 10 employees) reported smoking the least, while large employers, expert supervisors, and semi-skilled workers engaged in significantly more physical activity. Large employers and expert managers have the best health-related indicators and behaviors. Formal proletarians, informal proletarians, and unskilled supervisors, however, have the worst general health indicators, confirming that social class is a key determinant in the generation of population health inequalities.

  15. Right-angled Artin groups and a generalized isomorphism problem for finitely generated subgroups of mapping class groups

    CERN Document Server

    Koberda, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Consider the mapping class group $\\Mod_{g,n}$ of a surface of finite type and a finite collection $F$ of mapping classes. In this paper we prove that there are positive exponents such that after replacing the elements of $F$ by the corresponding powers, they generate a right-angled Artin group. Under some further suitable hypotheses, these mapping classes are the vertex generators of the underlying graph, or form a right-angled Artin system in the terminology which we shall develop. We prove an analogous result for a finite volume real and complex hyperbolic $n$-manifolds, thus establishing the primary result as a rank one type phenomenon for the mapping class group. We also show the unsolvability of the isomorphism problem for finitely generated subgroups of $\\Mod_{g,n}$, and prove a homological rigidity result for right-angled Artin groups which implies a solution to the isomorphism problem for right-angled Artin groups. We thus solve a generalized isomorphism problem for finitely generated subgroups of $\\M...

  16. News DidacticApproaches in a Health Care Graduation Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Barreto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the educator must focus not only on acquiring cognitive knowledge, but also on other matters and competences (social, political, instrumental ones. This work took placein a private college in Recife and  was had as objectiveto verify the efficiency of the application of ne wsdidactic strategies in graduation classes.This study comprised students subscribed in Medical technology (B andPharmacy   (F/2008. Students were separated in groups regarding their college period and course (B1, B2, F1, F2. The class, divided in two stages, used different didactic strategies to explain its contents: 1st unit: besides the conventionalapproaches (explanatory class, exercises and laboratory classes, new educative activities were included (research practice in the library  and problem solving classes in the laboratory; 2nd unit: conventional approach alone. In the end of each unit, students were evaluated with a theoretical exam (with objective and subjective questions. It was shown that the arithmetic means of the gradesobtained by the 1st unit students  (B1=9,1;  B2=8,8; F1=9,7;  F2=9,5 were greater, in comparison with the 2nd unit ones (B1=7,3;   B2=7,6;  F1=7,6;  F2=8,0. The research and the problem solving classes created multiple interactions opportunities among the group subjects, which may have influenced the results. The total of subjects of each group (B1=60;  B2=34;  F1=50;  F2=35 has also been evaluated, and it was seen that there was no influence of such matter on the obtained results.   Therefore, it may be concluded t hat, the work towards the whole development of the human being demands new didactic approaches and diversification of educationalactivities.

  17. Focus groups: a strategy for health research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Kfouri LOPES

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research strategy through open interviews is a qualitative alternative that can capture the meaning embedded in opinions expressed, revealing values and feelings of the research subjects. As a constructivist method it requires the interpretative analysis of the speech. Data collection requires pragmatism from the researcher and absence of stimuli that might induce or inhibit the interviewees. Objective: This study had the following proposals: a to implement the strategy of focus groups as part of the evaluation of the Qualitative Methods discipline in a stricto sensu course; b to search the criteria that determine the patient’s choice of dental professional.Material and methods: In order to achieve the objectives of the research,an exercise was carried out aimed at understanding the content of focus groups through active learning methodology based on the experience and binomial action-reflection. The activity was developed under the theme “Determinants in the relationship established between the dental professional and their patients”, according to the patients’ opinions.The group that coordinated the activity consisted of four dentists,students of the Qualitative Methods discipline, who played the following roles: a mediator; b reporter; c observer; d recording operator.The discussion group was composed of six (N = 6 volunteers from a total of 20 students enrolled in this discipline. The exclusion criteria included those with private dental plans and/or the exclusive users of public health services. The recording was transcribed and submitted to content analysis. To this end the ATLAS.ti 5.0 computer program was used. Results: Patients select the dental professional according to the references they get from others. The personal relationship was highly valued by the group, reinforcing the skills and abilities of sensitivity and commitment to the human being presented in the text of the National Curriculum Guidelines

  18. [Latent classes of personality disorders: group comparisons and course of psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Julia; Schöttke, Henning

    2013-09-01

    Using latent class analysis the Personality Disorder Screening (PDS) classifies patients into 4 groups: personality disordered (PD) patients (PDS+), healthy patients (PDS -) and 2 hybrid classes with exaggerated personality styles (histrionic/dependent and avoidant/obsessive-compulsive). The present study investigated if the PDS groups differ concerning sociodemographic and clinical variables, psychological distress and treatment outcome. We analyzed the PDS response patterns of 555 outpatients. PDS+ group membership is associated with typical PD characteristics, chronic depression and a high level of general psychological distress. Patients of both hybrid classes are found to show average psychological distress. The treatment was effective for all patients. Membership in the histrionic/dependent hybrid class is associated with early drop out from outpatient therapy.

  19. Groups in Which 2-Generator Subgroups Are Nilpotent of Bounded Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Costantino Delizia

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study some properties of groups in which subgroups with a fixed number of generators are nilpotent. In particular, we discuss nilpotency of torsion-free groups in which 2-generator subgroups are nilpotent of class at most 4.

  20. A new class of group field theories for 1st order discrete quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oriti, D.; Tlas, T.

    2008-01-01

    Group Field Theories, a generalization of matrix models for 2d gravity, represent a 2nd quantization of both loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity. In this paper, we construct a new class of Group Field Theory models, for any choice of spacetime dimension and signature, whose Feynman

  1. A new class of group field theories for 1st order discrete quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oriti, D.; Tlas, T.

    2008-01-01

    Group Field Theories, a generalization of matrix models for 2d gravity, represent a 2nd quantization of both loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity. In this paper, we construct a new class of Group Field Theory models, for any choice of spacetime dimension and signature, whose Feynman a

  2. Topological Representations of $U_q(sl_2)$ on the Torus and the Mapping Class Group

    CERN Document Server

    Crivelli, M; Wieczerkowski, C; Felder, Giovanni

    1993-01-01

    We compute the mapping class group action on cycles on the configuration space of the torus with one puncture, with coefficients in a local system arising in conformal field theory. This action commutes with the topological action of the quantum group $U_q(sl_2)$, and is given in vertex form.

  3. A new class of group field theories for 1st order discrete quantum gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oriti, D.; Tlas, T.

    2008-01-01

    Group Field Theories, a generalization of matrix models for 2d gravity, represent a 2nd quantization of both loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity. In this paper, we construct a new class of Group Field Theory models, for any choice of spacetime dimension and signature, whose Feynman a

  4. The genus one Complex Quantum Chern-Simons representation of the Mapping Class Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Marzioni, Simone

    In this paper we compute explicitly, following Witten’s prescription, the quantum representation of the mapping class group in genus one for complex quantum Chern-Simons theory associated to the complex gauge group SL(2, C). We use the k’th order Weil-Gel’fand-Zak transform to exhibit an explicit...

  5. Realization of a certain class of semi-groups as value semi-groups of valuations

    OpenAIRE

    M. Moghaddam

    2008-01-01

    Given a well-ordered semi-group $\\Gamma$ with a minimal system of generators of ordinal type at most $\\omega n$ and of rational rank $r$, which satisfies a positivity and increasing condition, we construct a zero-dimensional valuation centered on the ring of polynomials with $r$ variables such that the semi-group of the values of the polynomial ring is equal to $\\Gamma$. The construction uses a generalization of Favre and Jonsson's version of MacLane's sequence of key-polynomials.

  6. Common Mental Disorders among Occupational Groups: Contributions of the Latent Class Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kionna Oliveira Bernardes Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 is widely used for evaluating common mental disorders. However, few studies have evaluated the SRQ-20 measurements performance in occupational groups. This study aimed to describe manifestation patterns of common mental disorders symptoms among workers populations, by using latent class analysis. Methods. Data derived from 9,959 Brazilian workers, obtained from four cross-sectional studies that used similar methodology, among groups of informal workers, teachers, healthcare workers, and urban workers. Common mental disorders were measured by using SRQ-20. Latent class analysis was performed on each database separately. Results. Three classes of symptoms were confirmed in the occupational categories investigated. In all studies, class I met better criteria for suspicion of common mental disorders. Class II discriminated workers with intermediate probability of answers to the items belonging to anxiety, sadness, and energy decrease that configure common mental disorders. Class III was composed of subgroups of workers with low probability to respond positively to questions for screening common mental disorders. Conclusions. Three patterns of symptoms of common mental disorders were identified in the occupational groups investigated, ranging from distinctive features to low probabilities of occurrence. The SRQ-20 measurements showed stability in capturing nonpsychotic symptoms.

  7. Stress, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse Problems in a Sample of Diversion Program Youths: An Exploratory Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Richard; Briones, Rhissa; Gulledge, Laura; Karas, Lora; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Greenbaum, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Reflective of interest in mental health and substance abuse issues among youths involved with the justice system, we performed a latent class analysis on baseline information collected on 100 youths involved in two diversion programs. Results identified two groups of youths: Group 1: a majority of the youths, who had high levels of delinquency,…

  8. Women's groups' perceptions of neonatal and infant health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infant health problems (204 groups, 3484 women), prioritised problems they ... hospitals, seven health centres that provide maternity care and three .... English speaker). ... Verbal consent was given by the groups for the data collected through ...

  9. Transforming a large-class lecture course to a smaller-group interactive course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Adam M; Pollack, Gary M

    2010-11-10

    To transition a large pharmacokinetics course that was delivered using a traditional lecture format into a smaller-group course with a discussion format. An e-book and Web-based multimedia learning modules were utilized to facilitate students' independent learning which allowed the number of classes they were required to attend to be reduced from 3 to 1 per week. Students were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 weekly class sessions. The majority of lecture time was replaced with active-learning activities including discussion, problem solving, and case studies to encourage higher-order learning. Changes in course delivery were assessed over a 4-year period by comparing students' grades and satisfaction ratings on course evaluations. Although student satisfaction with the course did not improve significantly, students preferred the smaller-group setting to a large lecture-based class. The resources and activities designed to shift responsibility for learning to the students did not affect examination grades even though a larger portion of examination questions focused on higher orders of learning (eg, application) in the smaller-group format. Transitioning to a smaller-group discussion format is possible in a pharmacokinetics course by increasing student accountability for acquiring factual content outside of the classroom. Students favored the smaller-class format over a large lecture-based class.

  10. The geometry of right angled Artin subgroups of mapping class groups

    CERN Document Server

    Clay, Matt; Mangahas, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    We describe sufficient conditions which guarantee that a finite set of mapping classes generate a right-angled Artin group quasi-isometrically embedded in the mapping class group. Moreover, under these conditions, the orbit map to Teichmuller space is a quasi-isometric embedding for both of the standard metrics. As a consequence, we produce infinitely many genus h surfaces (for any h at least 2) in the moduli space of genus g surfaces (for any g at least 3) for which the universal covers are quasi-isometrically embedded in the Teichmuller space.

  11. The use of computer simulations in whole-class versus small-group settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Lara Kathleen

    This study explored the use of computer simulations in a whole-class as compared to small-group setting. Specific consideration was given to the nature and impact of classroom conversations and interactions when computer simulations were incorporated into a high school chemistry course. This investigation fills a need for qualitative research that focuses on the social dimensions of actual classrooms. Participants included a novice chemistry teacher experienced in the use of educational technologies and two honors chemistry classes. The study was conducted in a rural school in the south-Atlantic United States at the end of the fall 2007 semester. The study took place during one instructional unit on atomic structure. Data collection allowed for triangulation of evidence from a variety of sources approximately 24 hours of video- and audio-taped classroom observations, supplemented with the researcher's field notes and analytic journal; miscellaneous classroom artifacts such as class notes, worksheets, and assignments; open-ended pre- and post-assessments; student exit interviews; teacher entrance, exit and informal interviews. Four web-based simulations were used, three of which were from the ExploreLearning collection. Assessments were analyzed using descriptive statistics and classroom observations, artifacts and interviews were analyzed using Erickson's (1986) guidelines for analytic induction. Conversational analysis was guided by methods outlined by Erickson (1982). Findings indicated (a) the teacher effectively incorporated simulations in both settings (b) students in both groups significantly improved their understanding of the chemistry concepts (c) there was no statistically significant difference between groups' achievement (d) there was more frequent exploratory talk in the whole-class group (e) there were more frequent and meaningful teacher-student interactions in the whole-class group (f) additional learning experiences not measured on the assessment

  12. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander K R van Zon

    Full Text Available The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioeconomic position, the health outcome, gender, and as to whether socioeconomic health inequalities are measured in absolute or in relative terms. The aim is to investigate whether absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender.The study sample was derived from the baseline measurement of the LifeLines Cohort Study and consisted of 95,432 participants. Socioeconomic position was measured as educational level and household income. Physical and mental health were measured with the RAND-36. Age concerned eleven 5-years age groups. Absolute inequalities were examined by comparing means. Relative inequalities were examined by comparing Gini-coefficients. Analyses were performed for both health outcomes by both educational level and household income. Analyses were performed for all age groups, and stratified by gender.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome, and gender. Absolute inequalities were most pronounced for mental health by household income. They were larger in younger than older age groups. Relative inequalities were most pronounced for physical health by educational level. Gini-coefficients were largest in young age groups and smallest in older age groups.Absolute and relative socioeconomic health inequalities differed cross-sectionally across age groups by indicator of socioeconomic position, health outcome and gender. Researchers should critically consider the implications of choosing a specific age group, in addition to the indicator of socioeconomic position and

  13. Incivility among Group Mates in English Classes at a Japanese Women's University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.; Kimura, Harumi; Greliche, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Incivilities are words and actions that may be perceived as impolite. This article reports a study of perceptions of and experiences with incivilities during group activities in English class. Participants were 119 students at a women's university in Japan. They completed the Pair/Groupwork Incivility Scale, a Japanese-language instrument, which…

  14. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  15. Infinite loop space structure(s) on the stable mapping class group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Tillmann introduced two infinite loop space structures on the plus construction of the classifying space of the stable mapping class group, each with different computational advantages. The first one uses disjoint union on a suitable cobordism category, whereas the second uses an operad which...

  16. A chord diagrammatic presentation of the mapping class group of a once bordered surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bene, Alex

    2010-01-01

    The Ptolemy groupoid is a combinatorial groupoid generated by elementary moves on marked trivalent fatgraphs with three types of relations. Through the fatgraph decomposition of Teichmüller space, the Ptolemy groupoid is a mapping class group equivariant subgroupoid of the fundamental path groupo...

  17. Research and Teaching: Aligning Assessment to Instruction--Collaborative Group Testing in Large- Enrollment Science Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marcelle; Roberts, Tina M.; Freyermuth, Sharyn K.; Witzig, Stephen B.; Izci, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The authors describe a collaborative group-testing strategy implemented and studied in undergraduate science classes. This project investigated how the assessment strategy relates to student performance and perceptions about collaboration and focused on two sections of an undergraduate biotechnology course taught in separate semesters.

  18. Conceding in Disagreements during Small Group Interactions in Academic Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Using conversation analysis as a methodological and analytical framework, this study presents a sequential analysis of disagreement episodes in small group interactions in an advanced academic writing class. Closer scrutiny of the sequences reveals that in order to bring disagreements to a close, participants make use of an array of interactional…

  19. A New Class of Amphiphiles Bearing Rigid Hydrophobic Groups for Solubilization and Stabilization of Membrane Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chae, Pil Seok; Rasmussen, Søren G F; Rana, Rohini R;

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional amphiphiles: Conferring aqueous solubility on membrane proteins generally requires the use of a detergent or other amphiphilic agent. A new class of amphiphiles was synthesized, based on steroidal lipophilic groups, and evaluated with several membrane proteins. The results show th...

  20. Equidistribution of geodesics on homology classes and analogues for free groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petridis, Yiannis N.; Risager, Morten S.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how often geodesics have homology in a fixed set of the homology lattice of a compact Riemann surface. We prove that closed geodesics are equidistributed on any set with asymptotic density with respect to a specific norm. We explain the analogues for free groups, conjugacy classes...

  1. [Living conditions and life experiences of working-class groups in Rio de Janeiro: rethinking dengue control and popular mobilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, R M; Valla, V V

    2001-01-01

    Using narratives of an experience with popular mobilization during the 1986-91 dengue epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the authors discuss the scientific research and technical counseling involving basic sanitation conditions for vulnerable social groups. They present research results on water distribution in the slums from the Leopoldina area of the city. The research stemmed from demands by community leaders at local forums discussing health conditions. Gathering, systematizing, and analyzing the data were based on what they call "shared knowledge construction", resulting by crossing accumulated scientific knowledge with popular knowledge produced as a result of living conditions and life experiences among working-class groups. Finally, the authors comment on the need for local health professionals to be aware of relationships between epidemic and endemic processes and protection of life.

  2. Class-Preserving Coleman Automorphisms of Finite Groups Whose Second Maximal Subgroups Are TI-Subgroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengxing LI; Jinke HAI

    2013-01-01

    Recall that a subgroup H of a finite group G is called a TI-subgroup if H ∩ Hg =1or H for each g ∈ G.Suppose that G is a finite group whose second maximal subgroups are TI-subgroups.It is shown that every class-preserving Coleman automorphism of G is an inner automorphism.As an immediate consequence of this result,we obtain that the normalizer property holds for G.

  3. A New Class of Group Field Theories for 1st Order Discrete Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Oriti, D; Tlas, T.

    2007-01-01

    Group Field Theories, a generalization of matrix models for 2d gravity, represent a 2nd quantization of both loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity. In this paper, we construct a new class of Group Field Theory models, for any choice of spacetime dimension and signature, whose Feynman amplitudes are given by path integrals for clearly identified discrete gravity actions, in 1st order variables. In the 3-dimensional case, the corresponding discrete action is that of 1st order Regg...

  4. 76 FR 46677 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ58 Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health... Center for Consumer Information & Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services... with respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group...

  5. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of

  6. Absolute and Relative Socioeconomic Health Inequalities across Age Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zon, Sander K. R.; Bultmann, Ute; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The magnitude of socioeconomic health inequalities differs across age groups. It is less clear whether socioeconomic health inequalities differ across age groups by other factors that are known to affect the relation between socioeconomic position and health, like the indicator of socioec

  7. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.

  8. Aerobics health as means of increasing somatic health of students of special medical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivneva M.M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We prove the feasibility of employment by improving aerobic low intensity (LowImpact - heart rate in the range 128-140 beats / min, or 60-74% of HR max with students of special medical groups with disabilities cardiovascular system. The choice of three varieties of improving aerobics - classical, dance, tap dance - and with the help of laboratory experiment investigated the specificity of their effects on the physical health of students. According to the results of laboratory studies developed two versions of the author's method of application for improving aerobic physical education classes with students with disabilities but cardiac-vascular system, the main difference between them lies in the relationship and the manner of the classical sequence of exercises, dance, step aerobics. By comparing the results of educational experiments proved that both variants techniques contribute significantly improved key indicators of physical health subjects and thus are fairly equal in the nature of exposure.

  9. A new class of group field theories for first order discrete quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriti, D [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, Utrecht 3584 TD (Netherlands); Tlas, T [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: d.oriti@phys.uu.nl, E-mail: t.tlas@damtp.cam.ac.uk

    2008-04-21

    Group field theories, a generalization of matrix models for 2D gravity, represent a second quantization of both loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity. In this paper, we construct a new class of group field theory models, for any choice of spacetime dimension and signature, whose Feynman amplitudes are given by path integrals for clearly identified discrete gravity actions, in first order variables. In the three-dimensional case, the corresponding discrete action is that of first order Regge calculus for gravity (generalized to include higher order corrections), while in higher dimensions, they correspond to a discrete BF theory (again, generalized to higher order) with an imposed orientation restriction on hinge volumes, similar to that characterizing discrete gravity. This new class of group field theories may represent a concrete unifying framework for loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity approaches.

  10. A New Class of Group Field Theories for 1st Order Discrete Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Oriti, Daniele

    2007-01-01

    Group Field Theories, a generalization of matrix models for 2d gravity, represent a 2nd quantization of both loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum gravity. In this paper, we construct a new class of Group Field Theory models, for any choice of spacetime dimension and signature, whose Feynman amplitudes are given by path integrals for clearly identified discrete gravity actions, in 1st order variables. In the 3-dimensional case, the corresponding discrete action is that of 1st order Regge calculus for gravity (generalized to include higher order corrections), while in higher dimensions, they correspond to a discrete BF-theory (again, generalized to higher order) with an imposed orientation restriction on hinge volumes, similar to that characterizing discrete gravity. The new models shed also light on the large distance or semi-classical approximation of spin foam models. This new class of group field theories may represent a concrete unifying framework for loop quantum gravity and simplicial quantum grav...

  11. Disability pension by occupational class - the impact of work-related factors: The Hordaland Health Study Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knudsen Ann

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The social gradient in disability pension is well recognized, however mechanisms accounting for the gradient are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between occupational class and subsequent disability pension among middle-aged men and women, and to what extent work-related factors accounted for the association. Methods A subsample (N = 7031 of the population-based Hordaland Health Study (HUSK conducted in 1997-99, provided self-reported information on health and work-related factors, and were grouped in four strata by Erikson, Goldthorpe and Portocareros occupational class scheme. The authors obtained follow-up data on disability pension by linking the health survey to national registries of benefit (FD-trygd. They employed Cox regression analysis and adjusted for gender, health (medical conditions, mental health, self-perceived health, somatic symptoms and work-related factors (working hours, years in current occupation, physical demands, job demands, job control. Results A strong gradient in disability pension by occupational class was found. In the fully adjusted model the risk (hazard ratio ranged from 1.41 (95% CI 0.84 to 2.33 in the routine non-manual class, 1.87 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.27 in the skilled manual class and 2.12 (95% CI 1.14 to 3.95 in the unskilled manual class, employing the administrator and professional class as reference. In the gender and health-adjusted model work-related factors mediated the impact of occupational class on subsequent disability pension with 5% in the routine non-manual class, 26% in the skilled manual class and 24% in the unskilled manual class. The impact of job control and physical demands was modest, and mainly seen among skilled and unskilled manual workers. Conclusions Workers in the skilled and unskilled manual classes had a substantial unexplained risk of disability pension. Work-related factors only had a moderate impact on the disability risk

  12. [Health-care utilization in elderly (Spain 2006-2012): Influence of health status and social class].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Solsona, Sofía; Sartolo, M Teresa; Rabanaque, M José

    2016-04-01

    to explore health-care utilization (primary and specialized health-care, hospitalizations, day hospital and emergency services) and overuse in elderly in Spain, considering the influence of health status, sex, social class and its temporal trend. cross sectional study in two phases. Spain. people surveyed in the National Health Surveys 2006 and 2011-12. Health status was measured using self-rated and diagnosed health (number and diagnoses). Social class was obtained from the last occupation of the main supporter (manual and non-manual workers). Logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting by sex, age, health status, social class and year, obtaining its predictive capacity. the percentage of elderly population with health-care utilization decreased during the period analyzed. Women who belonged to the manual workers category presented the highest prevalence of low health (low self-rated health in 2006: 70.6%). Low health status was associated with a higher utilization of health-care services. Self-rated health was a better predictor of health-care utilization and overuse than diagnosed health, getting the highest predictive capacity for specialized health-care (C = 0.676). Old people from low social class used with higher frequency primary health-care and emergency services. On the other hand, specialized health-care and day hospital were more used by high social classes. inequalities in health and health-care utilization have been observed in elderly according social class. It is necessary to consider self-rated health as a health-care utilization predictor and to review our health-care services accessibility and equity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Conjugacy classes in Sylow p-subgroups of finite Chevalley groups in bad characteristic

    CERN Document Server

    Bradley, John D

    2012-01-01

    Let $U = \\mathbf U(q)$ be a Sylow $p$-subgroup of a finite Chevalley group $G = \\mathbf G(q)$. In [GR}] R\\"ohrle and the second author determined a parameterization of the conjugacy classes of $U$, for $\\mathbf G$ of small rank when $q$ is a power of a good prime for $\\mathbf G$. As a consequence they verified that the number $k(U)$ of conjugacy classes of $U$ is given by a polynomial in $q$ with integer coefficients. In the present paper, we consider the case when $p$ is a bad prime for $\\mathbf G$. We obtain a parameterization of the conjugacy classes of $U$, when $\\mathbf G$ has rank less than or equal to 4, and $\\mathbf G$ is not of type $F_4$. In these cases we deduce that $k(U)$ is given by a polynomial in $q$ with integer coefficients; this polynomial is different from the polynomial for good primes.

  14. Group Health Education in Inpatient Rehabilitation: Patients' Role Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpf, Andrea C.; Ullrich, Antje; Nagl, Michaela; Farin, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Group health education is an important aspect of medical rehabilitation. While interaction and active involvement are important characteristics of group health education, little is known about patients' understanding of their role in this form of education. This study explored patients' understanding of their role in group health…

  15. Health Insurance Competition : The Effect of Group Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Douven, R.C.M.H.; Droge, C.; Mosca, I.

    2010-01-01

    In countries like the US and the Netherlands health insurance is provided by private firms. These private firms can offer both individual and group contracts. The strategic and welfare implications of such group contracts are not well understood. Using a Dutch data set of about 700 group health insu

  16. Health status transitions in community-living elderly with complex care needs: a latent class approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béland François

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For older persons with complex care needs, accounting for the variability and interdependency in how health dimensions manifest themselves is necessary to understand the dynamic of health status. Our objective is to test the hypothesis that a latent classification can capture this heterogeneity in a population of frail elderly persons living in the community. Based on a person-centered approach, the classification corresponds to substantively meaningful groups of individuals who present with a comparable constellation of health problems. Methods Using data collected for the SIPA project, a system of integrated care for frail older people (n = 1164, we performed latent class analyses to identify homogenous categories of health status (i.e. health profiles based on 17 indicators of prevalent health problems (chronic conditions; depression; cognition; functional and sensory limitations; instrumental, mobility and personal care disability Then, we conducted latent transition analyses to study change in profile membership over 2 consecutive periods of 12 and 10 months, respectively. We modeled competing risks for mortality and lost to follow-up as absorbing states to avoid attrition biases. Results We identified four health profiles that distinguish the physical and cognitive dimensions of health and capture severity along the disability dimension. The profiles are stable over time and robust to mortality and lost to follow-up attrition. The differentiated and gender-specific patterns of transition probabilities demonstrate the profiles' sensitivity to change in health status and unmasked the differential relationship of physical and cognitive domains with progression in disability. Conclusion Our approach may prove useful at organization and policy levels where many issues call for classification of individuals into pragmatically meaningful groups. In dealing with attrition biases, our analytical strategy could provide critical

  17. Latent classes of childhood trauma exposure predict the development of behavioral health outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, E D; Van Eck, K; Musci, R J; Hart, S R; Storr, C L; Breslau, N; Wilcox, H C

    2015-11-01

    To develop latent classes of exposure to traumatic experiences before the age of 13 years in an urban community sample and to use these latent classes to predict the development of negative behavioral outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. A total of 1815 participants in an epidemiologically based, randomized field trial as children completed comprehensive psychiatric assessments as young adults. Reported experiences of nine traumatic experiences before age 13 years were used in a latent class analysis to create latent profiles of traumatic experiences. Latent classes were used to predict psychiatric outcomes at age ⩾13 years, criminal convictions, physical health problems and traumatic experiences reported in young adulthood. Three latent classes of childhood traumatic experiences were supported by the data. One class (8% of sample), primarily female, was characterized by experiences of sexual assault and reported significantly higher rates of a range of psychiatric outcomes by young adulthood. Another class (8%), primarily male, was characterized by experiences of violence exposure and reported higher levels of antisocial personality disorder and post-traumatic stress. The final class (84%) reported low levels of childhood traumatic experiences. Parental psychopathology was related to membership in the sexual assault group. Classes of childhood traumatic experiences predict specific psychiatric and behavioral outcomes in adolescence and young adulthood. The long-term adverse effects of childhood traumas are primarily concentrated in victims of sexual and non-sexual violence. Gender emerged as a key covariate in the classes of trauma exposure and outcomes.

  18. Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them. PMID:10444876

  19. Classifying substance use disorder treatment facilities with co-located mental health services: A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Pia M; Furr-Holden, C Debra; Strain, Eric C; Crum, Rosa M; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-06-01

    The Affordable Care Act calls for increased integration and coordination of behavioral health services, as people with co-occurring disorders (CODs), meeting criteria for both substance use and psychiatric disorders, are overrepresented in treatment samples. Nationwide estimates of mental health (MH) service co-location in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment facilities are needed. We empirically derived a multiple-indicator categorization of services for CODs in SUD treatment facilities. We used latent class analysis to categorize 14,037 SUD treatment facilities in the United States and territories included in the 2012 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services. Latent class indicators included MH screening and diagnosis, MH support services, psychiatric medications, groups for CODs, and psychosocial approaches. Multinomial logistic regression compared facility-identified primary focus (i.e., SUD, MH, mix of SUD-MH, and general/other) and other facility characteristics across classes. A four-class solution was chosen with the following classes: Comprehensive MH/COD Services (25%), MH without COD Services (25%), MH Screening Services (21%), and Limited MH Services (29%). The former two classes with co-located MH services were less likely to report a SUD-primary focus than the latter classes reporting only MH screening or Limited MH Services. Only the Comprehensive MH/COD Services class also had a high probability of providing special groups for CODs. Approximately half of SUD treatment facilities were in classes with co-located mental health services, but only a quarter provided comprehensive COD services. Future studies should assess differences in patient experiences and treatment outcomes across facilities with and without COD services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Social class, psychosocial occupational risk factors, and the association with self-rated health and mental health in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Kátia Bones; Muntaner, Carles; Solar, Orielle; Borrell, Carme; Bernales, Pamela; González, María José; Ibañez, Ciro; Benach, Joan; Vallebuona, Clélia

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the association between social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors and self-rated health and mental health in a Chilean population. A cross-sectional study analyzed data from the First National Survey on Employment, Work, Quality of Life, and Male and Female Workers in Chile (N = 9,503). The dependent variables were self-rated health status and mental health. The independent variables were social class (neo-Marxist), psychosocial occupational risk factors, and material deprivation. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. There were inequalities in the distribution of psychosocial occupational risk factors by social class and sex. Furthermore, social class and psychosocial occupational risk factors were associated with unequal distribution of self-rated health and mental health among the working population in Chile. Occupational health interventions should consider workers' exposure to socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors.

  1. On reducibility of mapping class group representations: the SU(N) case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Fjelstad, Jens

    2010-01-01

    A such that the torus partition function Z(A) of the corresponding conformal field theory is non-trivial, implying reducibility of the genus 1 representation of the modular group, then the representation of the genus g mapping class group constructed from C is reducible for every g\\geq 1. We also extend the number...... rational conformal field theories, making use of Frobenius algebras and their representations in modular categories. Given a modular category C, a rational conformal field theory can be constructed from a Frobenius algebra A in C. We show that if C contains a symmetric special Frobenius algebra...

  2. Stable cohomology of the universal Picard varieties and the extended mapping class group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebert, Johannes; Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    We study the moduli spaces which classify smooth surfaces along with a complex line bundle. There are homological stability and Madsen--Weiss type results for these spaces (mostly due to Cohen and Madsen), and we discuss the cohomological calculations which may be deduced from them. We then relate...... these spaces to (a generalisation of) Kawazumi's extended mapping class groups, and hence deduce cohomological information about these. Finally, we relate these results to complex algebraic geometry. We construct a holomorphic stack classifying families of Riemann surfaces equipped with a fibrewise holomorphic...... line bundle, which is a gerbe over the universal Picard variety, and compute its holomorphic Picard group....

  3. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...

  4. Racial ideology and explanations for health inequalities among middle-class whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Nagoshi, C; Diala, C

    2001-01-01

    Middle-class whites' explanations for racial inequalities in health can have a profound impact on the type of questions addressed in epidemiology and public health research. These explanations also constitute a subset of white racial ideology (i.e., racism) that in itself powerfully affects the health of non-whites. This study begins to examine the nature of attributions for racial inequalities in health among university students who by definition are likely to be involved in the research, policy, and service professions (the upper middle class). Investigation of the degree to which middle-class whites attribute racial inequalities in cardiovascular health (between themselves and African Americans, American Indians, or Asian Americans) to biological, social, or lifestyle factors reveals that whites tend to attribute their own health to lifestyle choice and to biology rather than to social factors. These results suggest that contemporary middle-class whites' "self-serving" explanations for racial inequalities in health are comprised of two beliefs: implicit biologism (race is an attribute of organisms rather than a social relation) and liberal belief in self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility--some of the core lay beliefs of the worldview that sustains neoliberal capitalism. Contemporary white middle-class explanations for racial inequalities in health appear to include assumptions that justify class inequality. Liberal approaches to racism in public health are bound to miss a key component of racial ideology that is currently used to justify racial and class inequalities.

  5. Problematizing Social Justice in Health Pedagogy and Youth Sport: Intersectionality of Race, Ethnicity, and Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagkas, Symeon

    2016-09-01

    Social justice education recognizes the discrepancies in opportunities among disadvantaged groups in society. The purpose of the articles in this special topic on social justice is to (a) provide a critical reflection on issues of social justice within health pedagogy and youth sport of Black and ethnic-minority (BME) young people; (b) provide a framework for the importance of intersectionality research (mainly the intersection of social class, race, and ethnicity) in youth sport and health pedagogy for social justice; and (c) contextualize the complex intersection and interplay of social issues (i.e., race, ethnicity, social classes) and their influence in shaping physical culture among young people with a BME background. The article argues that there are several social identities in any given pedagogical terrain that need to be heard and legitimized to avoid neglect and "othering." This article suggests that a resurgence of interest in theoretical frameworks such as intersectionality can provide an effective platform to legitimize "non-normative bodies" (diverse bodies) in health pedagogy and physical education and sport by voicing positionalities on agency and practice.

  6. Social class and health: the puzzling counter-example of British South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R; Wright, W; Hunt, K

    1998-11-01

    British South Asians (with ancestry from the Indian subcontinent) provided a puzzling exception to the British class gradient in mortality during the 1970s. On the assumption that class gradients in health are produced mainly by gradients in standard of living, this might be due to a break in the relation of class to standard of living (change in class structure), or by a break in the relation of standard of living to patterns of health behaviour and health risk (change in class lifestyles). Data on these characteristics are available from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study, where 159 South Asians aged 30-40 (mean age 35) were sampled alongside 319 of the general population in Glasgow. As regards changes in class structure, results indicate that the underclass thesis, which suggests that ethnic minorities are forced into less eligible jobs or into a separate labour market or into unemployment, resulting in a standard of living below that of the general population, still holds good for British South Asians in categories from social class III non-manual downwards. It does not hold good for owners of small businesses, where Sikhs and Hindus in particular have a standard of living equivalent to general population counterparts. However, prosperity is not predictable from levels of education in the subcontinent and from this and other signs it appears that a wholesale redistribution of class chances is occurring among British South Asians, disrupting inter-and intra-generational continuities in the relation between class and standard of living. There is little sign of change in class lifestyles, i.e. in the relation between standard of living and health behaviour or health risk. As yet, though, the new distribution of standard of living is affecting patterns of health behaviour and health risk more strongly than symptom experience or chronic illness, suggesting that a class gradient in health will re-emerge.

  7. 8-Ranks of Class Groups of Quadratic Number Fields and Their Densities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin YUE

    2011-01-01

    For F=Q(√εpq1/2),ε∈{±1,±2},primes-p≡q≡1 mod 4,we give the necessary and sufficient conditions for 8-ranks of narrow class groups of F equal to 1 or 2 such that we can calculate their densities.All results are stated in terms of congruence relations of p,q modulo 2n,the quartic residue smbol(p/q)4 and binary quadratic forms such as qh(-2p)/4=x2+2py2,where h(-2p)is the class number of Q(√-2p1/2).The results are very useful for numerical computations.

  8. The Heritage Harbour Health Group: doing it our way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, M S

    1998-01-01

    The Heritage Harbour Health Group is a privately run, nonprofit health care organization founded by the residents of a retirement community for their own use. Such a facility is an original concept, and this article describes how home health care is being provided with a unique blend of professional and volunteer cooperation. Health care professionals may find information and inspiration to conduct their own research into similar programs.

  9. A focus group study on primary health care in Johannesburg Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A focus group study on primary health care in Johannesburg Health District: ... Setting and subjects: Groups of nurse clinicians, clinic managers, senior ... Outcome measures: The content was thematically analysed and a model developed.

  10. Semi-longitudinal Study of the Mcnamara Cephalometric Triangle in Class II and Class III Subjects Grouped by Cervical Vertebrae Maturation Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Guillén, Luis E; Fitzcarrald, Fernando D; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    The aim was to compare the McNamara cephalometric triangle values in untreated normodivergent Class II and Class III malocclusion subjects of Latin American origin grouped by cervical vertebrae maturation stage to an untreated Class I malocclusion normodivergent control group. The study was conducted on a sample of 610 pretreatment lateral cephalograms (250 male, 360 female), examined and grouped according to their anteroposterior skeletal relationship (Class I, II or III), cervical vertebrae maturation stage (Pre Pubertal Peak P1 = CS1 and CS2, Pubertal Peak P2= CS3 and CS4, and Post Pubertal Peak P3 = CS5 and CS6) and sex. Co-A, Co-Gn and ENA-Me were measured in each lateral cephalogram. ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests were performed to determine differences between the groups. The results showed that in males, the greatest maxillary and mandibular dimensional increases occurred during the P3 stage (CS5 to CS6), while in females, they occurred in the P2 stage (CS3 to CS4). The Co-A and Co-Gn showed significant differences between the malocclusion classes (pClass II subjects and the mandibular lengths in Class III subjects were already higher at the beginning of the period evaluated (P1). A worsening trend for the Class II and III malocclusions was identified during the period evaluated. Finally, changes in the McNamara cephalometric triangle values were markedly different in the three normodivergent skeletal malocclusion classes. In these Latin American subjects the pubertal growth spurt occurred at different times with respect to the Caucasian and Asian norms.

  11. The effects of training group exercise class instructors to adopt a motivationally adaptive communication style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Quested, E; Hancox, J

    2016-06-10

    Drawing from self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), we developed and tested an intervention to train fitness instructors to adopt a motivationally adaptive communication style when interacting with exercisers. This was a parallel group, two-arm quasi-experimental design. Participants in the intervention arm were 29 indoor cycling instructors (n = 10 for the control arm) and 246 class members (n = 75 for the control arm). The intervention consisted of face-to-face workshops, education/information video clips, group discussions and activities, brainstorming, individual planning, and practical tasks in the cycling studio. Instructors and exercisers responded to validated questionnaires about instructors' use of motivational strategies and other motivation-related variables before the first workshop and at the end of the third and final workshop (4 months later). Time × arm interactions revealed no significant effects, possibly due to the large attrition of instructors and exercisers in the control arm. Within-group analyses in the intervention arm showed that exercisers' perceptions of instructor motivationally adaptive strategies, psychological need satisfaction, and intentions to remain in the class increased over time. Similarly, instructors in the intervention arm reported being less controlling and experiencing more need satisfaction over time. These results offer initial promising evidence for the positive impact of the training.

  12. Sarcoidosis HLA class II genotyping distinguishes differences of clinical phenotype across ethnic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroe; Woodhead, Felix A.; Ahmad, Tariq; Grutters, Jan C.; Spagnolo, Paolo; van den Bosch, Jules M.M.; Maier, Lisa A.; Newman, Lee S.; Nagai, Sonoko; Izumi, Takateru; Wells, Athol U.; du Bois, Roland M.; Welsh, Kenneth I.

    2010-01-01

    The HLA class II (DRB1 and DQB1) associations with sarcoidosis have been studied by several groups but often without consistent results. In this paper, we consider the hypothesis that observed inconsistencies relate to distinct, genetically encoded disease phenotypes which differ in prevalence between centres. We therefore typed HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 in 340 UK, 139 Dutch and 163 Japanese sarcoidosis patients and, respectively, 354, 218 and 168 healthy controls from these populations. We applied consistent phenotyping and genotyping and investigated associations between HLA class II alleles and distinct disease phenotypes within and between ethnic groups. DRB1*01 and DQB1*0501 are protective against all manifestations of sarcoidosis. Lung-predominant sarcoidosis is associated with DRB1*12 and *14. Löfgren's syndrome is a common sarcoidosis phenotype in the Dutch and is strongly associated with the DRB1*0301 allele. This phenotype is not seen among the Japanese in whom DRB1*0301 is absent. The same allele is protective for UK uveitis. Sarcoid uveitis is common in Japan. The DRB1*04–DQB1*0301 haplotype is a risk factor for this disease manifestation in Japanese and UK subjects but protective for sarcoidosis overall. We show that distinct sarcoidosis phenotypes have similar genetic associations across ethnic groups. The disease case mix differs between centres and may be explained by different ethnic allelic frequencies. PMID:20685690

  13. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in prostate cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, P; Jobim, L F; Salim, P H; Koff, W J; Wilson, T J; Jobim, M R; Schwartsmann, G; Roesler, R; Jobim, M

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with a significant increase in incidence and mortality in men over 50 years of age. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study is to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with prostate cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred patients with prostate cancer and 185 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSP. When both groups were compared, no significant differences were found for HLA-C group 1 and group 2, HLA-Bw4, HLA-A3 and A11. No difference was seen either in KIR frequency between patients with prostate cancer and controls. In conclusion, our data suggest no potential role for the KIR gene system in prostate cancer.

  14. Focus group discussion: a tool for health and medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2008-03-01

    Focus group discussion is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gather to discuss a specified topic or an issue to generate data. The main characteristic of a focus group is the interaction between the moderator and the group, as well as the interaction between group members. The objective is to give the researcher an understanding of the participants' perspective on the topic in discussion. Focus groups are rapidly gaining popularity in health and medical research. This paper presents a general introduction of the use of focus groups as a research tool within the context of health research, with the intention of promoting its use among researchers in healthcare. A detailed methodology for the conduct of focus groups and analysis of focus group data are discussed. The potentials and limitations of this qualitative research technique are also highlighted.

  15. Lie group analysis method for two classes of fractional partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Jiang, Yao-Lin

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we deal with two classes of fractional partial differential equation: n order linear fractional partial differential equation and nonlinear fractional reaction diffusion convection equation, by using the Lie group analysis method. The infinitesimal generators general formula of n order linear fractional partial differential equation is obtained. For nonlinear fractional reaction diffusion convection equation, the properties of their infinitesimal generators are considered. The four special cases are exhaustively investigated respectively. At the same time some examples of the corresponding case are also given. So it is very convenient to solve the infinitesimal generator of some fractional partial differential equation.

  16. History of antimicrobial drug discovery: Major classes and health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, Rustam

    2017-06-01

    The introduction of antibiotics into clinical practice revolutionized the treatment and management of infectious diseases. Before the introduction of antibiotics, these diseases were the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in human populations. This review presents a brief history of discovery of the main antimicrobial classes (arsphenamines, β-lactams, sulphonamides, polypeptides, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, amphenicols, lipopeptides, macrolides, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, streptogramins, ansamycins, quinolones, and lincosamides) that have changed the landscape of contemporary medicine. Given within a historical timeline context, the review discusses how the introduction of certain antimicrobial classes affected the morbidity and mortality rates due to bacterial infectious diseases in human populations. Problems of resistance to antibiotics of different classes are also extensively discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Migration-related health inequalities: showing the complex interactions between gender, social class and place of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we briefly review theories and findings on migration and health from the health equity perspective, and then analyse migration-related health inequalities taking into account gender, social class and migration characteristics in the adult population aged 25-64 living in Catalonia, Spain. On the basis of the characterisation of migration types derived from the review, we distinguished between immigrants from other regions of Spain and those from other countries, and within each group, those from richer or poorer areas; foreign immigrants from low-income countries were also distinguished according to duration of residence. Further stratification by sex and social class was applied. Groups were compared in relation to self-assessed health in two cross-sectional population-based surveys, and in relation to indicators of socio-economic conditions (individual income, an index of material and financial assets, and an index of employment precariousness) in one survey. Social class and gender inequalities were evident in both health and socio-economic conditions, and within both the native and immigrant subgroups. Migration-related health inequalities affected both internal and international immigrants, but were mainly limited to those from poor areas, were generally consistent with their socio-economic deprivation, and apparently more pronounced in manual social classes and especially for women. Foreign immigrants from poor countries had the poorest socio-economic situation but relatively better health (especially men with shorter length of residence). Our findings on immigrants from Spain highlight the transitory nature of the 'healthy immigrant effect', and that action on inequality in socio-economic determinants affecting migrant groups should not be deferred.

  18. Reduction theory for mapping class groups and applications to moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Leuziger, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    Let $S=S_{g,p}$ be a compact, orientable surface of genus $g$ with $p$ punctures and such that $d(S):=3g-3+p>0$. The mapping class group $\\textup{Mod}_S$ acts properly discontinuously on the Teichm\\"uller space $\\mathcal T(S)$ of marked hyperbolic structures on $S$. The resulting quotient $\\mathcal M(S)$ is the moduli space of isometry classes of hyperbolic surfaces. We provide a version of precise reduction theory for finite index subgroups of $\\textup{Mod}_S$, i.e., a description of exact fundamental domains. As an application we show that the asymptotic cone of the moduli space $\\mathcal M(S)$ endowed with the Teichm\\"uller metric is bi-Lipschitz equivalent to the Euclidean cone over the finite simplicial (orbi-) complex $ \\textup{Mod}_S\\backslash\\mathcal C(S)$, where $\\mathcal C(S)$ of $S$ is the complex of curves of $S$. We also show that if $d(S)\\geq 2$, then $\\mathcal M(S)$ does \\emph{not} admit a finite volume Riemannian metric of (uniformly bounded) positive scalar curvature in the bi-Lipschitz class...

  19. Job Satisfaction among Health-Care Staff in Township Health Centers in Rural China: Results from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haipeng; Tang, Chengxiang; Zhao, Shichao; Meng, Qingyue; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2017-09-22

    Background: The lower job satisfaction of health-care staff will lead to more brain drain, worse work performance, and poorer health-care outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify patterns of job satisfaction among health-care staff in rural China, and to investigate the association between the latent clusters and health-care staff's personal and professional features; Methods: We selected 12 items of five-point Likert scale questions to measure job satisfaction. A latent-class analysis was performed to identify subgroups based on the items of job satisfaction; Results: Four latent classes of job satisfaction were identified: 8.9% had high job satisfaction, belonging to "satisfied class"; 38.2% had low job satisfaction, named as "unsatisfied class"; 30.5% were categorized into "unsatisfied class with the exception of interpersonal relationships"; 22.4% were identified as "pseudo-satisfied class", only satisfied with management-oriented items. Low job satisfaction was associated with specialty, training opportunity, and income inequality. Conclusions: The minority of health-care staff belong to the "satisfied class". Three among four subgroups are not satisfied with income, benefit, training, and career development. Targeting policy interventions should be implemented to improve the items of job satisfaction based on the patterns and health-care staff's features.

  20. The effects of a self-esteem program incorporated into health and physical education classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hsiang-Ru; Lu, Chang-Ming; Jwo, Jiunn-Chern; Lee, Pi-Hsia; Chou, Wei-Lun; Wen, Wan-Yu

    2009-12-01

    Self-esteem, a key construct of personality, influences thoughts, actions, and feelings. Adolescence is a critical stage to the development of self-esteem. Taiwan currently offers no self-esteem building curriculum in the public education system. Therefore, incorporating self-esteem-related teaching activities into the existing curriculum represents a feasible approach to enhance self-esteem in middle school students. This study aimed to explore the effects on junior high school students' self-esteem of a self-esteem program incorporated into the general health and physical education curriculum. A quasi-experimental research design was used, and 184 seventh-grade students at two junior high schools in Taipei City were randomly selected and separated into two groups. The experimental group received one 32-week self-esteem program incorporated into their regular health and physical education curriculum, which was administered in three 45-minute-session classes each week. The control group received the regular health and physical education with no specially designed elements. During the week before the intervention began and the week after its conclusion, each participant's global and academic, physical, social, and family self-esteem was assessed. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. For all participants, the experimental group was significantly superior to the control group in respect to physical self-esteem (p = .02). For girls, the experimental group was significantly superior to the control group in family self-esteem (p = .02). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of global self-esteem. This study provides preliminary evidence that incorporating self-esteem activities into the regular school health and physical education curriculum can result in minor effects in students' physical self-esteem and family self-esteem. Findings may provide teachers and school administrators with information to help them design

  1. Group Projects as a Method of Promoting Student Scientific Communication and Collaboration in a Public Health Microbiology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Kristen L. W.; Baker, Jason C.

    2009-01-01

    Communication of scientific and medical information and collaborative work are important skills for students pursuing careers in health professions and other biomedical sciences. In addition, group work and active learning can increase student engagement and analytical skills. Students in our public health microbiology class were required to work…

  2. The effect of subjective and objective social class on health-related quality of life: new paradigm using longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the impact of the gap between subjective and objective social status on health-related quality of life. Methods We analyzed data from 12,350 participants aged ≥18 years in the Korean Health Panel Survey. Health-related quality of life was measured by EuroQol-Visual analogue scale. Objective (income and education) and subjective social class (measured by MacArthur scale) was classified into three groups (High, Middle, Low). In terms of a gap between objective and subj...

  3. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Gaveras, Eleni; Blum, Austin; Tô-Camier, Alexice; Nanema, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. Methods This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10–15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages. Results About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes) of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class) and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class), demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class). Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, pfamily-level poverty and violence in the family. PMID:27764155

  4. Group purchasing of workplace health promotion services for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey R; Hammerback, Kristen R; Hannon, Peggy A; McDowell, Julie; Katzman, Avi; Clegg-Thorp, Catherine; Gallagher, John

    2014-07-01

    Small employers are underserved with workplace health promotion services, so we explored the potential for group purchasing of these services. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews of member organizations serving small employers, as well as workplace health promotion vendors, in Washington State. We interviewed 22 employer organizations (chambers of commerce, trade associations, and an insurance trust) and vendors (of fitness facilities, healthy vending machines, fresh produce delivery, weight management services, and tobacco cessation quitlines). Both cautiously supported the idea of group purchasing but felt that small employers' workplace health promotion demand must increase first. Vendors providing off-site services, for example, quitline, found group purchasing more feasible than vendors providing on-site services, for example, produce delivery. Employer member organizations are well-positioned to group purchase workplace health promotion services; vendors are receptive if there is potential profit.

  5. Efficacy of a lay health worker led group antiretroviral medication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of a lay health worker led group antiretroviral medication adherence ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... of care, while adherence motivation and skills did not significantly change among the conditions over time.

  6. Group therapy in public mental health services: approaches, patients and group therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, S; Ruud, T

    2014-04-01

    Group therapy is used extensively within public mental health services, but more detailed knowledge is needed. All 25 health authorities in Norway were invited to describe their groups: theory, primary tasks, interventions, structure, patients and therapists. Four hundred twenty-six groups, 296 in community mental health centres and 130 in hospitals, were categorized into nine types, based on theoretical background. Psychodynamic groups were most frequent, followed by cognitive-behavioural, psycho-educative, social skills/coping and art/expressive groups. Weekly sessions of 90 min and treatment duration 12 months was most frequent. Main diagnosis for 2391 patients: depression (517), personality disorder (396), schizophrenia/psychosis (313) and social phobia (249). Patients with depression or personality disorder were mostly in psychodynamic groups, psychosis/bipolar disorder in psycho-educative groups. Cognitive-behavioural groups were used across several diagnoses. Most therapists were nurses, only 50% had a formal training in group therapy. There is a plethora of groups, some based on one theoretical school, while others integrate theory from several 'camps'. Patients with similar diagnosis were offered different group approaches, although some trends existed. More research evidence from regular clinical groups is needed, and clinician-researcher networks should be developed. More group therapists with formal training are needed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Acoustic environment challenges for the unique communication conditions in group learning classes in elementary school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Louis; Lubman, David; Pearsons, Karl

    2005-04-01

    Unlike the traditional ``sage-on-the-stage'' configuration of many K-12 classrooms, the group learning or ``guide-on-the-side'' configuration does not involve communication between a teacher in front of a seated class of 20 to 30 students. Instead, it can involve, most of the time, communication between the teacher and each of several small groups of students interacting, aurally, with each other. To maintain the desired 15 dB signal-to-noise ratio intended as the rationale for the ANSI standard, S12.60-2002 on classroom acoustics, the ``noise'' heard by participants in one of the groups is likely to include the speech levels generated by the participants in the other groups as well as the background noise in the unoccupied classroom. Thus, specification of the speech level within (i.e. the ``signal''), and between (i.e. part of the ``noise'') the learning groups, must be considered. Data available to evaluate these speech levels are reviewed and possible models considered to account for the Lombard effect for voice levels of both the teacher and the students. Some of the gaps in these data are suggested as a challenge to stimulate further studies on speech levels of teachers and students in a wide range of communication conditions.

  8. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  9. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  10. The Differences between Novice and Expert Group-Piano Teaching Strategies: A Case Study and Comparison of Beginning Group Piano Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Pamela D.

    2014-01-01

    This case study compares the teaching strategies employed by a novice and an expert instructor of two beginning children's group-piano classes. In the United States, there is a century-long tradition of teaching piano to children in groups, and group teaching is championed in pedagogy texts and at professional educator conferences throughout…

  11. Using TPSR as a Teaching Strategy in Health Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Health education and physical education are essential components of a school's coordinated health and physical education (HPE) curriculum. Traditionally, teachers have taught the subject matters in these programs using a skill development approach to enhance students' personal and social responsibility. Physical education teachers have been using…

  12. Continuing education in the family health strategy: rethinking educational groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Cinira Magali; Matumoto, Silvia; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa; Camargo-Borges, Celiane; Kawata, Lauren Suemi; Mishima, Silvana Martins

    2013-01-01

    to analyze the experience of the family health team in resignifying the way to develop educational groups. groups of discussion, with twenty-six biweekly group meetings conducted, with an average of fifteen professionals from the family health team, during the year 2009. The empirical material consisted of the transcription of the groups, on which thematic analysis was performed. two themes were developed and explored from the collective discussions with the team: "The experience and coordination of the groups" and "The work process and educational groups in a service-school". continuing Education in Health developed with the team, not only permitted learning about the educational groups that comprised the population, but also contributed to the team's analysis of its own relationships and its work process that is traversed by institutions. This study contributed to the advancement of scientific knowledge about the process of continuing health education as well as educational groups with the population. Also noteworthy is the research design used, providing reflexivity and critical analysis on the part of the team about the group process experienced in the meetings, appropriating knowledge in a meaningful and transformative manner.

  13. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Gottschall, Jinger S.; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to com...

  14. Clients′ viewpoints about the quality of services in the premarital counseling classes in Tabriz health centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Mohebbi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study results can provide suitable information for health policy providers to improve the quality of premarital counseling classes. In order to develop a relatively stable behavior in young couples, it is recommended that the quality of the classes would be overemphasized.

  15. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  16. Fish Health Data - Captive Broodstock Gene Rescue Program for Odd Year Class Elwha River Pink Salmon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conduct captive brood stock gene rescue program for Elwha River odd-year class pink salmon. All fresh mortalities larger than 100 mm are sent to Fish Health for...

  17. Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bosma (Hans); H. van de Mheen (Dike); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study con

  18. 75 FR 34571 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ50 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules... respect to group health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan... temporary regulations provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers...

  19. [Education and occupational social class: their relationship as indicators of socio-economic position to study social inequalities in health using health interview surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coma, A; Martí, M; Fernández, E

    2003-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between social class based on occupation and level of education in the study of social inequalities in health and use of health services. DESSIGN: Cross-sectional study (health interview survey). General population of the city of Cornellà de Llobregat (Spain). Representative sample of subjects aged 14 years old or over (1043 men and 1101 women) who personally answered the questionnaire. We analyse the association between social class and level of studies and different independent variables (self-perceived health, smoking, medical visits) by means of logistic regression. The proportion of men who declare their self-perceived health as poor is higher among those who have low education (45.4%) than among those who have primary education level or higher (25.9%). The prevalence of smoking shows a similar pattern (54.2% versus 41.5%), with a gradient effect, which is statistically non-significant. However, these differences are no longer evident if social class is used to group the individuals. No clear association is observed between the use of health services and socio economic level. We need to use several indicators of socioeconomic position to evaluate social inequalities In this disadvantaged population, level of education seems to be a good indicator to study social inequalities in health.

  20. 76 FR 46621 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...-AQ07 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Coverage of Preventive Services Under... group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and individual markets under provisions of... to group health plans and group health insurance issuers on August 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: Written...

  1. A Case Study of Markdale High School's Implementation of Heterogeneously-Grouped Classes in English, Mathematics, Science, and Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006)…

  2. Health-improving possibilities of usage of aerobics in the senior classes of comprehensive school.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk T.N.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article is opened health-improving possibilities of use of aerobics at physical training lessons in the senior classes. The technique of carrying out of lessons of physical training in the senior classes with use of different kinds of aerobics is proved and developed, and also their influence on indicators of health of senior pupils is investigated. It is shown that employment by aerobics promotes considerable improvement of health of senior pupils, increase of mood, state of health and activity.

  3. Acceptance and commitment group therapy for health anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish...... patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed-up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6...

  4. Health behaviors and participation in health promotion activities among hospital staff: which occupational group performs better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Huang, Nicole; Chien, Li-Yin

    2014-10-22

    Staff health behaviors affect not only their own health but also their provision of health promotion services to their patients. Although different occupational groups work in hospitals, few studies have compared health behaviors among them. The objectives of this study were to examine health behaviors, including physical activity, eating 5 portions of fruits and vegetables per day (5 a day), and stress adaptation, and participation in hospital-based health promotion activities by occupational groups in hospitals. This cross-sectional survey was conducted among full-time employees in 100 hospitals across Taiwan. This analysis included 4202 physicians, 31639 nurses, 2315 pharmacists, 8161 other health professionals, and 13079 administrative personnel. Administrative personnel attended more health promotion lectures and clubs/groups than other health professionals, pharmacists and physicians, and those workers participated more than nurses. Participation in health promotion activities provided by hospitals was associated with better practice of health behaviors. After adjustment for socio-demographics and participation in health promotion activities, physicians, pharmacists, and other health professionals reported more 5 a day than administrative staff. Other health professionals reported more physical activity than administrative staff, and they reported more than physicians. Nurses reported the lowest level of physical activity, 5 a day, and stress adaptation of all occupational groups. Nurses had worse health behaviors and less participation in health promotion activities than other groups. Workplace health promotion program for health professionals is needed, with special emphasis on nurses. Hospital-based health promotion programs could take the differences of occupational groups into consideration to tailor programs to the needs of different occupational groups.

  5. 8-ranks of Class Groups of Some Imaginary Quadratic Number Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Mei; WU Qin YUE

    2007-01-01

    Let F = Q(√-p1p2) be an imaginary quadratic field with distinct primes p1 ≡ p2≡ 1 mod 8 and the Legendre symbol (p1/p2) = 1. Then the 8-rank of the class group of F is equal to 2 if and only if the following conditions hold: (1) The quartic residue symbols (p1/p2)4 = (p2/p1)4 = 1; (2) Either both p1 and p2 are represented by the form a2 + 32b2 over Z and ph2+(2p1)/4 = x2 - 2p1y2, x,y ∈ Z, or both pi and p2 are not represented by the form a2 + 32b2 over Z and ph2+(2p1)/4 = ε(2x2 - p1y2), x,y ∈ Z,ε∈{±1}, where h+(2p1) is the narrow class number of Q(2√2p1). Moreover, we also generalize these results.

  6. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in breast cancer and control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobim, Maria Regina; Jobim, Mariana; Salim, Patrícia H; Portela, Pâmela; Jobim, Luiz Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Bittelbrunn, Ana Cristina; Menke, Carlos Henrique; Biazús, Jorge Villanova; Roesler, Rafael; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the main cause of cancer-related death among women, with a 0.5% increase in incidence per year. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with breast cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred thirty patients with breast cancer and 272 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSO. When both groups were compared, the presence of inhibitory KIR2DL2 receptors was significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy controls. No significant differences were found for HLA-C2 and HLA-Bw4. However, a higher frequency of HLA-C1 in breast cancer patients was observed. These findings suggest a potential role for the KIR gene system in breast cancer. Further studies to confirm this observation are warranted.

  7. Entanglement entropy and boundary renormalization group flow: Exact results in the Ising universality class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornfeld, Eyal; Sela, Eran

    2017-08-01

    The entanglement entropy in one-dimensional critical systems with boundaries has been associated with the noninteger ground-state degeneracy. This quantity, being a characteristic of boundary fixed points, decreases under renormalization group flow, as predicted by the g theorem. Here, using conformal field theory methods, we exactly calculate the entanglement entropy in the boundary Ising universality class. Our expression can be separated into the well-known bulk term and a boundary entanglement term, displaying a universal flow between two boundary conditions, in accordance with the g theorem. These results are obtained within the replica trick approach, where we show that the associated twist field, a central object generating the geometry of an n -sheeted Riemann surface, can be bosonized, giving simple analytic access to multiple quantities of interest. We argue that our result applies to other models falling into the same universality class. This includes the vicinity of the quantum critical point of the two-channel Kondo model, allowing one to track in real space the presence of a region containing one-half of a qubit with entropy 1/2 log(2 ) , associated with a free local Majorana fermion.

  8. Relativistic Chasles' theorem and the conjugacy classes of the inhomogeneous Lorentz group

    CERN Document Server

    Minguzzi, E

    2013-01-01

    This work is devoted to the relativistic generalization of Chasles' theorem, namely to the proof that every proper orthochronous isometry of Minkowski spacetime, which sends some point to its chronological future, is generated through the frame displacement of an observer which moves with constant acceleration and constant angular velocity. The acceleration and angular velocity can be chosen either aligned or perpendicular, and in the latter case the angular velocity can be chosen equal or smaller than than the acceleration. We start reviewing the classical Euler's and Chasles' theorems both in the Lie algebra and group versions. We recall the relativistic generalization of Euler's theorem and observe that every (infinitesimal) transformation can be recovered from information of algebraic and geometric type, the former being identified with the conjugacy class and the latter with some additional geometric ingredients (the screw axis in the usual non-relativistic version). Then the proper orthochronous inhomog...

  9. Group health coaching: strengths, challenges, and next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Colin; Wolever, Ruth Q; Manning, Linda; Elam, Roy; Moore, Margaret; Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Duskey, Heidi; Anderson, Chelsea; Curtis, Rebecca L; Masemer, Susan; Lawson, Karen

    2013-05-01

    There is great need for cost effective approaches to increase patient engagement and improve health and well-being. Health and wellness coaching has recently demonstrated great promise, but the majority of studies to date have focused on individual coaching (ie, one coach with one client). Newer initiatives are bringing a group coaching model from corporate leadership development and educational settings into the healthcare arena. A group approach potentially increases cost-effective access to a larger number of clients and brings the possible additional benefit of group support. This article highlights some of the group coaching approaches currently being conducted across the United States. The group coaching interventions included in this overview are offered by a variety of academic and private sector institutions, use both telephonic and in-person coaching, and are facilitated by professionally trained health and wellness coaches as well as trained peer coaches. Strengths and challenges experienced in these efforts are summarized, as are recommendations to address those challenges. A working definition of "Group Health and Wellness Coaching" is proposed, and important next steps for research and for the training of group coaches are presented.

  10. CLASS B 1359 + 154: Modelling Lensing by a Group of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunita Nair

    2002-03-01

    The recently discovered gravitationally lensed system CLASS B1359+154 appears to have six detectable images of a single background source at a redshift of 3.235. A group of galaxies acts as the lens, at a redshift of ∼ 1. The present work identifies two distinct, physically plausible image configurations, a 7-image one and a 9-image one. Mass models are constructed corresponding to realizations of these two configurations. Both models call for, in addition to non-singular galaxy-type lenses, a larger scale mass component that resembles the extended dark matter distributions seen in relatively low-redshift galaxy groups. It is presently observationally impossible to study the extended X-ray emission from a group at such a high redshift, hence lensing studies are of some interest. A lensed system with a high image multiplicity does not necessarily admit of a unique lensing interpretation; discrimination is possible with additional observable details (e.g., the image parities, which are uncommon among even the simpler systems).

  11. The influences of Taiwan's generic grouping price policy on drug prices and expenditures: evidence from analysing the consumption of the three most-used classes of cardiovascular drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Liang; Chen, Likwang; Yang, Wei-Chih

    2008-04-12

    Controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditures is a major global challenge. Promotion of generic drug prescriptions or use is gaining increased support. There are substantial contextual differences in international experiences of implementing pharmaceutical policies related to generic drugs. Reporting these experiences from varied perspectives can inform future policy making. This study describes an experience of Taiwan, where patients with chronic (long-term) conditions are usually managed in hospitals and drugs are provided in this setting with costs reimbursed through the National Health Insurance (NHI). It investigates the effects of Taiwan's reimbursement rate adjustment based on chemical generic grouping in 2001. This research also demonstrates the use of micro-level longitudinal data to generate policy-relevant information. The research can be used to improve efficiency of health care resource use. We chose the three most-used classes of cardiovascular drugs for this investigation: beta blocking agents, calcium channel blockers mainly with vascular effects, and plain ACE inhibitors. For each drug class, we investigated changes in daily expense, consumption volume, and total expenditures from a pre-action period to a corresponding post-action period. We compared an exposure or "intervention" group of patients targeted by the action with a comparisonor "control" group of patients not targeted by the action. The data sources are a longitudinal database for 200,000 NHI enrolees, corresponding NHI registration data of health care facilities, and an archive recording all historical data on the reimbursement rates of drugs covered by the NHI. We adopted a fixed effects linear regression model to control for unobserved heterogeneity among patient-hospital groups. Additional descriptive statistics were applied to examine whether any inappropriate consumption of drugs in the three classes existed. The daily drug expense significantly decreased from the pre

  12. The influences of Taiwan's generic grouping price policy on drug prices and expenditures: Evidence from analysing the consumption of the three most-used classes of cardiovascular drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Likwang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Controlling the growth of pharmaceutical expenditures is a major global challenge. Promotion of generic drug prescriptions or use is gaining increased support. There are substantial contextual differences in international experiences of implementing pharmaceutical policies related to generic drugs. Reporting these experiences from varied perspectives can inform future policy making. This study describes an experience of Taiwan, where patients with chronic (long-term conditions are usually managed in hospitals and drugs are provided in this setting with costs reimbursed through the National Health Insurance (NHI. It investigates the effects of Taiwan's reimbursement rate adjustment based on chemical generic grouping in 2001. This research also demonstrates the use of micro-level longitudinal data to generate policy-relevant information. The research can be used to improve efficiency of health care resource use. Methods We chose the three most-used classes of cardiovascular drugs for this investigation: beta blocking agents, calcium channel blockers mainly with vascular effects, and plain ACE inhibitors. For each drug class, we investigated changes in daily expense, consumption volume, and total expenditures from a pre-action period to a corresponding post-action period. We compared an exposure or "intervention" group of patients targeted by the action with a comparisonor "control" group of patients not targeted by the action. The data sources are a longitudinal database for 200,000 NHI enrolees, corresponding NHI registration data of health care facilities, and an archive recording all historical data on the reimbursement rates of drugs covered by the NHI. We adopted a fixed effects linear regression model to control for unobserved heterogeneity among patient-hospital groups. Additional descriptive statistics were applied to examine whether any inappropriate consumption of drugs in the three classes existed. Results The daily

  13. [How to design workshops to promote health in community groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Díaz, Josefina; Paredes-Carbonell, Joan J; Marín Torrens, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    One of the strategies of health promotion is to develop life skills people considering themselves as the main health resource. A workshop has to get its participants become «asset» to make decisions and create health, focusing on the development and acquisition of skills in a motivating group and in order to achieve health objectives. The concepts behind the design of a workshop are: participatory planning, training, meaningful learning, group learning and participatory techniques. The steps to follow to design a workshop and facilitate their application are: Stage 0, founding; initial stage, host and initial evaluation; central or construction stage based learning in the acquisition of knowledge, attitudes and skills, and final stage or evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Group composition and network structure in school classes : a multilevel application of the p* model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, MJ

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of social networks of students within school classes and examines differences in network structure between classes. In order to examine the network structure within school classes, we focused in particular on the principle of homophily, i.e. the tendency that peopl

  15. Using Seminar Blogs to Enhance Student Participation and Learning in Public Health School Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Rose H.; Cohen, Amy P.; Sheahan, Fred

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated whether “seminar blogs” enhanced learning in a large graduate-level introductory public health school class. Methods. Sixty students were divided into 6 online blog groups. Students posted their assignments (case analyses, news commentaries), prompting comments from other students. Anonymous poll surveys of students were conducted at midpoint and at the end of the course. Results. Sixty percent reported that blog participation enriched their learning quite a bit, 34% a small amount, and 6% not at all; 54% said that the blogs provided opportunities to learn from classmates. When comparing writing on the blog to speaking in class, 60% found it easier, 30% about the same, and 10% harder. About 65% said that skills attained by participating in blogs were useful for current or future work. Major criticisms involved time issues. Conclusions. Small seminar blogs offer opportunities for increased student participation, interaction, and learning. To be most effective and appealing, assignments for postings need to allow sufficient time for commentary. This educational technology has potential to expand the classroom experience and is worthy of further development and testing. PMID:18633075

  16. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Lucas Pereira; de Campos, Edemilson Antunes

    2014-01-01

    to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups. ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique. four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study. the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  17. "The group facilitates everything": meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assigned to health education groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pereira de Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to interpret the meanings patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus assign to health education groups.METHOD: ethnographic study conducted with Hyperdia groups of a healthcare unit with 26 informants, with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and having participated in the groups for at least three years. Participant observation, social characterization, discussion groups and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. Data were analyzed through the thematic coding technique.RESULTS: four thematic categories emerged: ease of access to the service and healthcare workers; guidance on diabetes; participation in groups and the experience of diabetes; and sharing knowledge and experiences. The most relevant aspect of this study is the social use the informants in relation to the Hyperdia groups under study.CONCLUSION: the studied groups are agents producing senses and meanings concerning the process of becoming ill and the means of social navigation within the official health system. We expect this study to contribute to the actions of healthcare workers coordinating these groups given the observation of the cultural universe of these individuals seeking professional care in the various public health care services.

  18. General Health of Foreign-Origin Groups and Native Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardian, Nahid; Mahmoudabad, Seyed Saeid Mazloomy; Ardian, Mahdi; Karimi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the mental health of marginal settlers (non-native population) may affect other citizens’ health, the present study attempts to investigate the mental health status of marginal settlers of Yazd. Materials and Methods: this study was a descriptive, cross-sectional research, in which 400 of non-native and native population have participated. To study mental health status of people, a questionnaire was used. The first section of this questionnaire was the 28-item questionnaire of GHQ and the second section dealt with demographic characteristics such as age, sex, employment status, household income, and educational level of the father of the family. The collected data was analyzed using statistical operations of Pearson correlation coefficient, T Student, univariate Anova, and non-parametric Chi Square. Results: The results revealed that the average scores of general health were 20.09±9.84 and 17.04±9.54 for native and non-native population, respectively. Among subscales of general health, the highest and lowest average scores belonged to social dysfunctions, which showed a dangerous mental health status, and depression, respectively. There was significant difference between average score of general health and educational level of the father of the family (p<.001). The temporary employment and leased household differs significantly from the average score of general health among native population. It was indicated that sex was one of the most powerful predictors of mental health and people had more mental health when they grew older. Anxiety was the strongest predictor of general health for both groups. Conclusion: It seems that background factors such as educational level and employment status effect general health of people more than living in marginal settlement. PMID:25168986

  19. Violence against Congolese refugee women in Rwanda and mental health: a cross-sectional study using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipsma, Heather L; Falb, Kathryn L; Willie, Tiara; Bradley, Elizabeth H; Bienkowski, Lauren; Meerdink, Ned; Gupta, Jhumka

    2015-04-23

    To examine patterns of conflict-related violence and intimate partner violence (IPV) and their associations with emotional distress among Congolese refugee women living in Rwanda. Cross-sectional study. Two Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. 548 ever-married Congolese refugee women of reproductive age (15-49 years) residing in Rwanda. Our primary outcome was emotional distress as measured using the Self-Report Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). For analysis, we considered participants with scores greater than 10 to be experiencing emotional distress and participants with scores of 10 or less not to be experiencing emotional distress. Almost half of women (49%) reported experiencing physical, emotional or sexual violence during the conflict, and less than 10% of women reported experiencing of any type of violence after fleeing the conflict. Lifetime IPV was reported by approximately 22% of women. Latent class analysis derived four distinct classes of violence experiences, including the Low All Violence class, the High Violence During Conflict class, the High IPV class and the High Violence During and After Conflict class. In multivariate regression models, latent class was strongly associated with emotional distress. Compared with women in the Low All Violence class, women in the High Violence During and After Conflict class and women in the High Violence During Conflict had 2.7 times (95% CI 1.11 to 6.74) and 2.3 times (95% CI 1.30 to 4.07) the odds of experiencing emotional distress in the past 4 weeks, respectively. Furthermore, women in the High IPV class had a 4.7 times (95% CI 2.53 to 8.59) greater odds of experiencing emotional distress compared with women in the Low All Violence class. Experiences of IPV do not consistently correlate with experiences of conflict-related violence, and women who experience high levels of IPV may have the greatest likelihood for poor mental health in conflict-affected settings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  20. Acceptance and commitment group therapy for health anxiety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eilenberg, Trine

    2013-01-01

    Health anxiety (or hypochondriasis) is prevalent, may be persistent and disabling for the sufferers and associated with high societal costs. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a new third-wave behavioral cognitive therapy that has not yet been tested in health anxiety. 34 consecutive Danish...... patients with severe health anxiety were referred from general practitioners or hospital departments and received a ten session ACT group therapy. Patients were followed-up by questionnaires for 6 months. There were significant reductions in health anxiety, somatic symptoms and emotional distress at 6...... months compared to baseline: a 49% reduction in health anxiety (Whiteley-7 Index), a 47% decrease in emotional distress (SCL-8) and a 40% decrease in somatic symptoms (SCL-90-R). Furthermore, the patients’ perceptions of their illness (IPQ, a condensed Danish version) were significantly more optimistic...

  1. Perceived discrimination and health by gender, social class, and country of birth in a Southern European country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Carme; Muntaner, Carles; Gil-González, Diana; Artazcoz, Lucia; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Rohlfs, Izabella; Pérez, Katherine; García-Calvente, Mar; Villegas, Rodrigo; Alvarez-Dardet, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES.: This study aimed to examine the association between perceived discrimination and five health outcomes in Spain as well as to analyze whether these relationships are modified by sex, country of birth, or social class. METHODS.: We used a cross-sectional design. Data were collected as part of the 2006 Spanish Health Interview Survey. The present analysis was restricted to the population aged 16-64 years (n=23,760). Five dependent variables on health obtained through the questionnaire were examined. Perceived discrimination was the main independent variable. We obtained the prevalence of perceived discrimination. Logistic regression models were fitted. RESULTS.: Perceived discrimination was higher among populations originating from low income countries and among women and showed positive and consistent associations with all poor health outcomes among men and with 3 poor health outcomes among women. Poor mental health showed the largest difference between people who felt and those who did not feel discriminated (prevalence for these 2 groups among men was 42.0% and 13.3%, and among women, was 44.7% and 22.8%). The patterns found were modified by gender, country of birth, and social class. CONCLUSION.: This study has found a consistent relationship of discrimination with five health indicators in Spain, a high-income Southern European country. Public policies are needed that aim to reduce discrimination. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Social Factors of Health Vulnerability of Marginalized Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marginalized social groups are part of a certain apotheosis of otherness in present-day anthropological studies, being groups – such as refugees or immigrants – that come from other socio-cultural environments, and are marginalized in the anthropologists’ own environments, or environments socio-culturally similar to these. Groups that are to be considered as marginalized are those that have been put in this position contextually, through displacement from everything that represents life according to human standards, which becomes a continuous/permanent state, i.e. the way of life of the people in question, leading to the destabilization of both their physical and their mental health. The causes of this displacement are social in nature, thus constituting the primary social factors of health vulnerability of displaced populations, and they include wars and armed conflicts, persecution for various reasons, and poverty, i.e. the impossibility of subsisting on resources available in one’s own socio-economic environment. The secondary social factors of health vulnerability of marginalized social groups occur in the environments in which the groups find themselves after having been displaced from their previous socio-cultural environments; they result from the legal status of unwilling newcomers to these environments, and refer to the difficulty or impossibility of accessing the social and health care systems in their new environments.

  3. Social class, marginality and self-assessed health: a cross-sectional analysis of the health gradient in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Adolfo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Examining the association between social inequality and health is not new. However, there is little empirical evidence of this association in the Latin American literature, much less from the Mexican scholars. Its research, including the one conducted in Mexico, has mostly followed a theoretical approach and has not been able to provide strong empirical evidence of their important theoretical and conceptual contributions, mainly because reliable, complete and valid data are unavailable. Methods To empirically examine the gradient effect of social class on self-rated health in Mexico, a secondary cross-sectional mixed-level analysis was designed. Using individual level data from the Second National Health Survey (ENSA II, social class categories were specified following a stratification approach according to the occupation and education indicators available from ENSA II. Two types of categories were made, one for t urban and one for the rural labor force. Two indicators of perceived health status were used as health outcomes: self-assessed health and reported morbidity. Furthermore, the marginality index, an indicator of relative deprivation was used to examine its contextual effect at the state and regional level. The analysis was conducted using logistic multivariate models. Results The cross-sectional analysis showed a gradient effect of social class for good assessed-health. Relative to the low urban class, the odds ratio (OR for a good perception of health for individuals belonging to the high urban class was 2.9 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–3.9. The OR for the middle high class was 2.8 (95% confidence interval: 2.4–3.4, while the OR for the middle low class was 1.8 (95% confidence interval: 1.6–2.1. However, for the rural labour force an OR of 1.5 was only significant between the high class who considered their health as good relative to the low class (95% confidence interval: 1.02–2.2. At the aggregate level

  4. Comparing individual-based and household-based measures of social class to assess class inequalities in women's health: a methodological study of 684 US women

    OpenAIRE

    Krieger, N.; Chen, J. T.; Selby, J V

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe and compare magnitude of class inequalities in women's health detected with four occupation-based class measures: individual, conventional household (male dominant), gender neutral household, and combined household. DESIGN: Cross sectional study, using health data obtained by physical examination, laboratory analysis, and self report. SETTING: A large pre-paid health maintenance organisation in Oakland, CA (US). PARTICIPANTS: 686 women (90% white) enrolled i...

  5. Self-rated health of the educated and uneducated classes in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Andrew Bourne

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Education provides choices, opportunities, access to resources and it is associated with an increased likelihood of higher income. Does this holds true in developing nations like Jamaica, and does the educated class experience greater self-rated health status than the uneducated classes? Aims: The current study will identify the socio-demographic correlates of self-rated health status of Jamaicans, examine the effects of these variables, explore self-rated health status and self-reported diagnosed recurring illness among the educated and uneducated classes, compute mean income among the different educational types, and determine whether a significant statistical correlation exists between the different educational cohorts. Materials and Methods: The current study utilised the data set of Jamaica Survey Living Conditions which is a cross-sectional survey. It is a national probability survey, and data were collected across the 14 parishes of the island. Stratified random sampling techniques were used to draw the sample. Results: Self-rated health statuses of respondents are correlated with age, income, crowding, sex, marital status, area of residence, and self-reported illness (es - χ2 = 1,568.4, P < 0.001. Respondents with tertiary level educations were most likely to be classified in the wealthiest 20% (53.4% and there was no significant statistical difference between their health status and the lower educated classes. Conclusion: There is a need for a public health care campaign that is specifically geared towards the educated classes as their educational achievement is not translating itself into better health care-seeking behaviour and health status than the uneducated classes.

  6. Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, W.H.; Storer, J.B.

    1955-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.

  7. In-Class Reflective Group Discussion as a Strategy for the Development of Students as Evolving Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Annetta Kit Lam

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine perceptions of three cohorts of third year undergraduate students (n = 65) on in-class reflective group discussion as a critical reflective approach for evolving professionals. Reflective group discussions were embedded into a final year course within the University of Queensland Bachelor of Oral…

  8. Boys and girls smoking within the Danish elementary school classes: a group-level analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens T; Due, Pernille

    2002-01-01

    ,515 students) from a random sample of schools in Denmark took part. The proportion of male and female "at all" smokers and daily smokers in the school class was calculated. RESULTS: The mean "at all" smoking proportion in the school classes is 39% for girls and 32% for boys. The proportion of male and female...... smokers within school classes does not correlate. There is high variation in male and female smoking behaviour between school classes. CONCLUSIONS: The influence of social classroom environment on the processes causing smoking behaviour may be different for boys and girls. This paper illustrates...

  9. Social class variations in schoolchildren's self-reported outcome of the health dialogue with the school health nurse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Ina; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    2004-01-01

    .12-1.90). Pupils from the middle and lower social classes had more often made their own autonomous decisions (middle social classes: OR =1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.39, lower social classes: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.95-1.34). CONCLUSION: Most pupils reported an outcome of the health dialogue with the school health nurse...... of the health dialogue and to examine the effect of social class on this response controlled for the effect of other relevant social factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is a survey. The population were all pupils in the fifth, seventh and ninth grade (11, 13 and 15 years old) in a random sample of schools...... the nurse's advice, 77% had made their own autonomous decisions based on the health dialogue, and 11% had returned to the nurse for further advice. Pupils from the lower social classes had more often followed the nurse's advice (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.99-1.37) and returned to the nurse (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1...

  10. Superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S S I; Pardhan, A; Khan, A S; Ahmed, A; Choudry, F J; Pardhan, K; Nayeem, K; Khan, M

    2002-08-01

    To find out the superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups, their implications over the socio-economic development of that group and to what extent can those superstitions be related to their level of literacy. The study was a questionnaire-based survey, 20 subjects from each ethnic group were selected by cluster sampling of residential areas where that particular group has its highest concentration, making a total of 100 subjects. It was found that most people (73%) do have some superstitious beliefs. Fifty percent of people believe in them as a part of culture and tradition, another 25% got them from their elders. No significant difference was found between different racial groups (p value = 0.9). According to literacy rate, 73.5% of literate community and 94.1% illiterate community were found to have superstitions. The occupation of the breadwinner of family didn't have a significant impact over the belief in superstitions (p value = 0.6). Majority of our population believes in superstitions, which are more common in illiterates. These superstitions not only predict health seeking behaviour of a person but also play a major role in shaping the response of a community to any health intervention program. Without the knowledge of these superstitions, effective community participation cannot be achieved.

  11. 75 FR 70114 - Amendment to the Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under... and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Amendment to interim final... regulations implementing the rules for group health plans and health insurance coverage in the group and...

  12. 76 FR 44491 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ...-AQ66 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and... amendment to the interim final rules (76 FR 37208) entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance... rule with request for comments entitled, ``Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers: Rules...

  13. 75 FR 70159 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Rules Relating to Status as a Grandfathered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ50 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage... provide guidance to employers, group health plans, and health insurance issuers providing group health... Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar...

  14. Brokering health policy: coalitions, parties, and interest group influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Michael T

    2006-10-01

    Assuming a position as broker between disconnected interests is one way for an interest group to influence the making of federal health policy. This study demonstrates how groups use their connections with political parties and lobbying coalitions to augment their brokerage positions and enhance their influence over policy making. Evidence is drawn from statistical analysis of 263 interviews with health policy elites and a qualitative case study of the debate over the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003. The results explain, in part, how interest groups play their brokerage roles as dispersed actors in a decentralized system, rather than as central mediators that intervene in a wide range of policy disputes.

  15. Beyond the income inequality hypothesis: class, neo-liberalism, and health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and critiques the income inequality approach to health inequalities. It then presents an alternative class-based model through a focus on the causes and not only the consequences of income inequalities. In this model, the relationship between income inequality and health appears as a special case within a broader causal chain. It is argued that global and national socio-political-economic trends have increased the power of business classes and lowered that of working classes. The neo-liberal policies accompanying these trends led to increased income inequality but also poverty and unequal access to many other health-relevant resources. But international pressures towards neo-liberal doctrines and policies are differentially resisted by various nations because of historically embedded variation in class and institutional structures. Data presented indicates that neo-liberalism is associated with greater poverty and income inequalities, and greater health inequalities within nations. Furthermore, countries with Social Democratic forms of welfare regimes (i.e., those that are less neo-liberal) have better health than do those that are more neo-liberal. The paper concludes with discussion of what further steps are needed to "go beyond" the income inequality hypothesis towards consideration of a broader set of the social determinants of health.

  16. On the class of possible nonlocal anyon-like operators and quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Chaichian, Masud; Montonen, Claus

    1993-01-01

    We find a class of nonlocal operators constructed by attaching a disorder operator to fermionic degrees of freedom, which can be used to generate q-deformed algebras following the Schwinger approach. This class includes the recently proposed anyonic operators defined on a lattice.

  17. Three classes of plasmid (47-63 kb) carry the type B neurotoxin gene cluster of group II Clostridium botulinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Andrew T; Austin, John W; Weedmark, Kelly A; Corbett, Cindi; Peck, Michael W

    2014-08-01

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis of 26 strains of Group II (nonproteolytic) Clostridium botulinum type B4 showed that 23 strains carried their neurotoxin gene cluster on a 47-63 kb plasmid (three strains lacked any hybridization signal for the neurotoxin gene, presumably having lost their plasmid). Unexpectedly, no neurotoxin genes were found on the chromosome. This apparent constraint on neurotoxin gene transfer to the chromosome stands in marked contrast to Group I C. botulinum, in which neurotoxin gene clusters are routinely found in both locations. The three main classes of type B4 plasmid identified in this study shared different regions of homology, but were unrelated to any Group I or Group III plasmid. An important evolutionary aspect firmly links plasmid class to geographical origin, with one class apparently dominant in marine environments, whereas a second class is dominant in European terrestrial environments. A third class of plasmid is a hybrid between the other two other classes, providing evidence for contact between these seemingly geographically separated populations. Mobility via conjugation has been previously demonstrated for the type B4 plasmid of strain Eklund 17B, and similar genes associated with conjugation are present in all type B4 plasmids now described. A plasmid toxin-antitoxin system pemI gene located close to the neurotoxin gene cluster and conserved in each type B4 plasmid class may be important in understanding the mechanism which regulates this unique and unexpected bias toward plasmid-borne neurotoxin genes in Group II C. botulinum type B4.

  18. Noise and health in vulnerable groups: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene van Kamp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable or susceptible groups are mentioned in most reviews and documents regarding noise and health. But only a few studies address this issue in a concrete and focused way. Groups at risk most often mentioned in the literature are children, the elderly, the chronically ill and people with a hearing impairment. The other categories encountered are those of sensitive persons, shiftworkers, people with mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia or autism, people suffering from tinnitus, and fetuses and neonates. The mechanism for this vulnerability has not been clearly described and relevant research has seldom focused on the health effects of noise in these groups in an integrated manner. This paper summarizes the outcomes and major conclusions of a systematic, qualitative review of studies over the past 5 years. This review was prepared for the 10 th Conference on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN, 2011. Evidence is reviewed describing effects, groups assumed to be at risk, and mechanisms pertaining to noise sensitivity and learned helplessness.

  19. On Finite Groups whose Every Proper Normal Subgroup is a Union of a Given Number of Conjugacy Classes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Reza Ashrafi; Geetha Venkataraman

    2004-08-01

    Let be a finite group and be a normal subgroup of . We denote by $ncc(A)$ the number of -conjugacy classes of and is called -decomposable, if $ncc(A)=n$. Set $\\mathcal{K}_G=\\{ncc(A)|A\\vartriangleleft G\\}$. Let be a non-empty subset of positive integers. A group is called -decomposable, if $\\mathcal{K}_G=X$. Ashrafi and his co-authors [1–5] have characterized the -decomposable non-perfect finite groups for $X=\\{1,n\\}$ and ≤ 10. In this paper, we continue this problem and investigate the structure of -decomposable non-perfect finite groups, for $X=\\{1, 2, 3\\}$. We prove that such a group is isomorphic to $Z_6, D_8, Q_8, S_4$, Small Group (20,3), Small Group (24,3), where Small Group (, ) denotes the $m^{\\mathrm{th}}$ group of order in the small group library of GAP [11].

  20. Ethics reflection groups in community health services: an evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillemoen, Lillian; Pedersen, Reidar

    2015-04-17

    Systematic ethics support in community health services in Norway is in the initial phase. There are few evaluation studies about the significance of ethics reflection on care. The aim of this study was to evaluate systematic ethics reflection in groups in community health (including nursing homes and residency), - from the perspectives of employees participating in the groups, the group facilitators and the service managers. The reflection groups were implemented as part of a research and development project. A mixed-methods design with qualitative focus group interviews, observations and written reports were used to evaluate. The study was conducted at two nursing homes, two home care districts and a residence for people with learning disabilities. Participants were employees, facilitators and service managers. The study was guided by ethical standard principles and was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. We found support for ethics reflection as a valuable measure to strengthen clinical practice. New and improved solutions, more cooperation between employees, and improved collaboration with patients and their families are some of the results. No negative experiences were found. Instead, the ethics reflection based on experiences and challenges in the workplace, was described as a win-win situation. The evaluation also revealed what is needed to succeed and useful tips for further development of ethics support in community health services. Ethics reflection groups focusing on ethical challenges from the participants' daily work were found to be significant for improved practice, collegial support and cooperation, personal and professional development among staff, facilitators and managers. Resources needed to succeed were managerial support, and anchoring ethics sessions in the routine of daily work.

  1. New techniques for computing the ideal class group and a system of fundamental units in number fields

    CERN Document Server

    Biasse, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new algorithm for computing the ideal class group, the regulator and a system of fundamental units in number fields under the generalized Riemann hypothesis. We use sieving techniques adapted from the number field sieve algorithm to derive relations between elements of the ideal class group, and $p$-adic approximations to manage the loss of precision during the computation of units. This new algorithm is particularily efficient for number fields of small degree for which a speed-up of an order of magnitude is achieved with respect to the standard methods.

  2. Transforming a Large-Class Lecture Course to a Smaller-Group Interactive Course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adam M Persky; Gary M Pollack

    2010-01-01

    .... Students were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 weekly class sessions. The majority of lecture time was replaced with active-learning activities including discussion, problem solving, and case studies to encourage higher-order learning...

  3. Transforming a large-class lecture course to a smaller-group interactive course

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Persky, Adam M; Pollack, Gary M

    2010-01-01

    .... Students were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 weekly class sessions. The majority of lecture time was replaced with active-learning activities including discussion, problem solving, and case studies to encourage higher-order learning...

  4. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spatial-Temporal NDVI Variation of Different Alpine Grassland Classes and Groups in Northern Tibet from 2000 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoke Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI can usually be used as a good proxy for evaluating potential variability in regional ecosystems and under climate change. We used 16-day MODIS-NDVI composite satellite data with 250-m resolution for the period 2000 to 2013 to assess the temporal and spatial variation of the NDVI among different alpine grassland classes and groups in northern Tibet. The annual average NDVI of the whole alpine grassland area in northern Tibet generally increased slightly from 2000 to 2003, and the annual average NDVI values ranged from 0.112 to 0.492 across all alpine grassland groups and years. The NDVI clearly decreased from the southeastern to the northwestern areas, with 22.50% of total grasslands significantly having increased or decreased, while 77.50% presented little change during 2000–2013. Both temperature and precipitation were key factors that controlled the NDVI variations of the entire alpine grassland. However, for different alpine grassland classes and groups, the NDVI displayed different correlation patterns with temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate that the NDVI variations of alpine grassland generally increased slightly but differed among different classes and groups. Although temperature and precipitation were the driving forces influencing the NDVI of the entire alpine grassland, it was more difficult to define the driving forces for the individual classes and groups, and more detailed analyses covering prolonged observation periods are still needed.

  6. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  7. The Poverty of Theory: Class Configurations in the Discourse of Physical Education and Health (PEH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Background: At the heart of this polemic lies the view that contemporary research in PE and Health (PEH) has largely overlooked one of the key determinants of social behaviour, social class and its expression in and outside schools; an omission that has quite serious consequences for how we (researchers and teachers) think about and conceptualise…

  8. 75 FR 27141 - Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing Dependent Coverage of Children to Age...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ45 Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Providing... Labor and the Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight of the U.S. Department of Health... health plans and health insurance coverage offered in connection with a group health plan under the...

  9. 76 FR 16776 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice... Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service... for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public ] Health...

  10. Gender inequalities in health: exploring the contribution of living conditions in the intersection of social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme

    2014-12-01

    Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25-64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92-1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health.

  11. Population groups at high risk for poor oral self care: the basis for oral health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnik, Barbara; Premik, Marjan; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2008-01-01

    Identification of population groups at high risk for poor oral self-care in adults was needed in order to enable more focused planning of oral health promotion actions in Slovenia. The study was based on the national health behaviour database in adults aged 25-64. Data collected in 2001 were used. The sample size was 15,379. The overall response rate was 64%, and 8,392 questionnaires were eligible for oral self-care assessment. A complex indicator based on oral hygiene, frequency of visiting a dentist, and nutritional habits was derived. The outcome of interest was poor oral self-care. Logistic regression was used to test multivariate associations between several factors (gender, age, educational level, social class, etc.) and poor oral self-care. The overall prevalence of poor oral self-care was 6.9%. The odds for this outcome were higher for men (OR(males vs. females) = 7.49, p social classes (OR(lower vs. upper-middle) = 6.20, p social classes.

  12. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  13. Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

  14. Aligning Coordination Class Theory with a New Context: Applying a Theory of Individual Learning to Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…

  15. Differential School Effects among Low, Middle, and High Social Class Composition Schools: A Multiple Group, Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palardy, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    This study uses large-scale survey data and a multiple group, multilevel latent growth curve model to examine differential school effects between low, middle, and high social class composition public schools. The results show that the effects of school inputs and school practices on learning differ across the 3 subpopulations. Moreover, student…

  16. Aligning Coordination Class Theory with a New Context: Applying a Theory of Individual Learning to Group Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth-Cohen, Lauren A.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an empirical analysis of conceptual difficulties encountered and ways students made progress in learning at both individual and group levels in a classroom environment in which the students used an embodied modeling activity to make sense of a specific scientific scenario. The theoretical framework, coordination class theory,…

  17. Students' Self-Esteem and Their Perception of Teacher Behavior: A Study of Between-Class Ability Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kususanto, Prihadi; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Jamil, Hazri

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Between-class ability grouping practice in Malaysian Secondary Schools was studied in order to find the influence students' perception on their teachers' behavior on their self-esteem. Students' perception on teachers' behaviors were divided into two categories: controlling students' behavior to avoid disciplinary matters and…

  18. Understanding the experiences of a group of Yemeni students in an ESL science class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradi, Gihan

    American classrooms are experiencing an influx of diverse language speaking students while for science educators the study of EBL students' learning in science classrooms is a relatively new field (Lee & Buxton, 2010). At the same time there is a growing emphasis on the importance of science practices (NGSS). This poses significant challenges for science educators who are enacting science curriculum that supports all students' learning. Supporting EBL students' academic achievement is significant because literacy is important for students' access to economic and social benefits that come with science literacy (Atwater, 1996). The purpose of this study was to examine the socio-linguistic challenges that a specific group of EBL students (Yemeni) faced and the extent to which such challenges affected their academic performance in science. These challenges are related to linguistic and cultural interactions, which can lead to conflicts between student and school, thereby interfering with the effectiveness of their education. This study also examined these students' and their science teacher's perspectives on strategies that can be used to facilitate their language acquisition during science class and help them become active participants in the school and classroom communities. The study used a qualitative interpretive research methodology and involved four Arab-American EBL students (two males and two females) from Yemen, who had been in the US for different periods of time. The amount of time these students had been in the US was important to examine differences in their acculturation and challenges they faced. Similarly, the use of female and male student participants was important to understand the impact of gender in the lived experiences of these students. The results of the study indicated that all the participants struggled with linguistic, social, and cultural aspects of their life in an American high school. These in turn led to a sense of being different

  19. Using Cooperative Small Groups in Introductory Accounting Classes: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglietti, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Effective use of cooperative learning groups requires the following: attention to group formation, orientation that sets clear expectations and guidelines, activities to develop teamwork skills, peer evaluation, and other assessments that recognize and measure individual effort on group projects. (SK)

  20. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  1. Employment relations, social class and health: a review and analysis of conceptual and measurement alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Vanroelen, Christophe; Chung, Haejoo; Benach, Joan; Kim, Il Ho; Ng, Edwin

    2010-12-01

    Employment relations, as a theoretical framework for social class, represent a complementary approach to social stratification. Employment relations introduce social relations of ownership and control over productive assets to the analysis of inequalities in economic (e.g., income), power (occupational hierarchy), and cultural (e.g., education) resources. The objectives of this paper are to briefly clarify the theoretical background on socio-economic indicators used in social epidemiology and to conduct a review of empirical studies that adopt relational social class indicators in the socio-epidemiological literature. Measures of employment relations in social determinants of health research can be classified within two major conceptual frameworks: 1) "Neo-Weberian", like the National Statistics Socio-Economic Classification (NS-SEC) which is widely used in the United Kingdom; and 2) "Neo-Marxian", like Erik O. Wright's social class indicators, which are being used by social epidemiologists in the Americas and Europe. Our review of empirical findings (49 articles found) reveals that the relation between employment relations and health does not necessarily imply a graded relationship. For example, small employers can exhibit worse health than highly skilled workers, and supervisors can display worse health than frontline workers. The policy implications of employment relations research are therefore different, and complement those of income or education health gradient studies. While the latter studies tend to emphasize income redistribution policy options, employment relations implicate other factors such as workplace democracy and social protection. Our analysis confirms that the current transformation of employment relations calls for new social class concepts and measures to explain social inequalities in health and to generate policies to reduce them.

  2. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of US soils grouped according textural class and bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance of the saturated hydraulic conductivity as soil hydraulic property led to the development of multiple pedotransfer functions for estimating it. One approach to estimating Ksat was using textural classes rather than specific textural fraction contents as pedotransfer inputs. The objective...

  3. Saturated hydraulic conductivity of US soils grouped according to textural class and bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Importance of the saturated hydraulic conductivity as soil hydraulic property led to the development of multiple pedotransfer functions for estimating it. One approach to estimating Ksat was using textural classes rather than specific textural fraction contents as pedotransfer inputs. The objective...

  4. Encourage Learners in the Large Class to Speak English in Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanshao

    2009-01-01

    Large-class English teaching is an inexorable trend in many Chinese universities and colleges, which leads to a strange and serious phenomenon that most students' English is ironically but vividly described as "the dumb English". Therefore, cultivating students' communicative skills and developing their language competence has become a…

  5. Using Facebook Groups to Encourage Science Discussions in a Large-Enrollment Biology Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi; McGinnis, Gene; Bryant, Dana; Cole, Megan; Kovacs, Jennifer; Stovall, Kyndra; Lee, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This case study reports the instructional development, impact, and lessons learned regarding the use of Facebook as an educational tool within a large enrollment Biology class at Spelman College (Atlanta, GA). We describe the use of this social networking site to (a) engage students in active scientific discussions, (b) build community within the…

  6. 45 CFR 146.145 - Special rules relating to group health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules relating to group health plans. 146.145 Section 146.145 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO....145 Special rules relating to group health plans. (a) Group health plan—(1) Definition. A group...

  7. 76 FR 58007 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  8. 76 FR 67731 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the...

  9. 78 FR 48877 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  10. 78 FR 14798 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... ] Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  11. 78 FR 38345 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  12. 78 FR 69853 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  13. 77 FR 15372 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... Secretary for Health, Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service. ACTION... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  14. 75 FR 27121 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the... and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Dependent Coverage of Children to Age 26 Under the Patient... implementing the requirements for group health plans and health insurance issuers in the group and individual...

  15. 75 FR 43329 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Relating to Internal Claims and Appeals and External... CFR Part 147 RIN 0991-AB70 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers... Administration, Department of Labor; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health...

  16. Exposure To Violence And Occupational Satisfaction Of Health Personnal In A Health Group Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcin Balci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this study, it evaluted that exposure to violence and effect of this exposure to occupational satisfaction of health personel in Melikgazi Health Group Area. Materials And Methods: This cross sectional and descriptive study was performed in April-May 2006. Sampling not planned, it assumed to reach all of health personel. Data were analysed using computer and chi square test were used for statistical analyses. Lesser than 0,05 values were accepted as statistically significant. Results: Of the research group 66,7 % were female and 33,3 % were male. Mean age was 34,48 ± 5,73 years. Of the study participants were working in health center, 80,4 % day time and 19,6 % in night time and mean duration of working was 11,99 ± 5,3 years. Of the study group 57,1 % were chosen profession willingly and 65,5 % of them didn’t want to their children chose same profession. Of the study group 68,2 % were thought their fare were not enough. Of the study group, 50,3 % were experinced verbal and/or physical violence with different degrees. Of the violence victims 63,6 % were working in night shift of health centers and most of them doctors. Conclusion: Exposure to violence during work effects the satisfaction negativeley. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 13-18

  17. Effects of within-class ability grouping on social interaction, achievement and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, de Ton

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate

  18. Inclusion of vulnerable groups in health policies: Regional policies on health priorities in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie Schneider

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: If access to equitable health care is to be achieved for all, policy documents must mention and address in some detail different needs of groups vulnerable to not accessing such health care. If these needs are not addressed in the policy documents, there is little chance that they will be addressed at the stage of implementation.Objectives: This paper reports on an analysis of 11 African Union (AU policy documents to ascertain the frequency and the extent of mention of 13 core concepts in relation to 12 vulnerable groups, with a specific focus on people with disabilities.Method: The paper applied the EquiFrame analytical framework to the 11 AU policy documents. The 11 documents were analysed in terms of how many times a core concept was mentioned and the extent of information on how the core concept should be addressed at the implementation level. Each core concept mention was further analysed in terms of the vulnerable group in referred to.Results: The analysis of regional AU policies highlighted the broad nature of the reference made to vulnerable groups, with a lack of detailed specifications of different needs of different groups. This is confirmed in the highest vulnerable group mention being for ‘universal’. The reading of the documents suggests that vulnerable groups are homogeneous in their needs, which is not the case. There is a lack of recognition of different needs of different vulnerable groups in accessing health care.Conclusion: The need for more information and knowledge on the needs of all vulnerable groups is evident. The current lack of mention and of any detail on how to address needs of vulnerable groups will significantly impair the access to equitable health care for all.

  19. Group-effort applied research: expanding opportunities for undergraduate research through original, class-based research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean D; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's laboratory. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student-one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this article, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience.

  20. Social class related inequalities in household health expenditure and economic burden: evidence from Kerala, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayana Delampady

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Methods Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. Results The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Conclusion Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality

  1. Social class related inequalities in household health expenditure and economic burden: evidence from Kerala, south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Subrata; Haddad, Slim; Narayana, Delampady

    2011-01-07

    In the Indian context, a household's caste characteristics are most relevant for identifying its poverty and vulnerability status. Inadequate provision of public health care, the near-absence of health insurance and increasing dependence on the private health sector have impoverished the poor and the marginalised, especially the scheduled tribe population. This study examines caste-based inequalities in households' out-of-pocket health expenditure in the south Indian state of Kerala and provides evidence on the consequent financial burden inflicted upon households in different caste groups. Using data from a 2003-2004 panel survey in Kottathara Panchayat that collected detailed information on health care consumption from 543 households, we analysed inequality in per capita out-of-pocket health expenditure across castes by considering households' health care needs and types of care utilised. We used multivariate regression to measure the caste-based inequality in health expenditure. To assess health expenditure burden, we analysed households incurring high health expenses and their sources of finance for meeting health expenses. The per capita health expenditures reported by four caste groups accord with their status in the caste hierarchy. This was confirmed by multivariate analysis after controlling for health care needs and influential confounders. Households with high health care needs are more disadvantaged in terms of spending on health care. Households with high health care needs are generally at higher risk of spending heavily on health care. Hospitalisation expenditure was found to have the most impoverishing impacts, especially on backward caste households. Caste-based inequality in household health expenditure reflects unequal access to quality health care by different caste groups. Households with high health care needs and chronic health care needs are most affected by this inequality. Households in the most marginalised castes and with high health care

  2. Social class in childhood and general health in adulthood: questionnaire study of contribution of psychological attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Bosma, Hans; Mheen, Dike; Mackenbach, Johan

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of psychological attributes (personality characteristics and coping styles) to the association between social class in childhood and adult health among men and women. DESIGN: Partly retrospective, partly cross sectional study conducted in the framework of the Dutch GLOBE study. SUBJECTS: Sample of general population from south east Netherlands consisting of 2174 men and women aged 25-74 years. Baseline self reported data from 1991 provided ...

  3. [Primary health care reform and implications for the organizational culture of Health Center Groups in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Claudia; Dussault, Gilles; Lapão, Luís Velez

    2014-01-01

    The health sector's increasing complexity poses major challenges for administrators. There is considerable consensus on workforce quality as a key determinant of success for any health reform. This study aimed to explore the changes introduced by an action-training intervention in the organizational culture of the 73 executive directors of Health Center Groups (ACES) in Portugal during the primary health care reform. The study covers two periods, before and after the one-year ACES training, during which the data were collected and analyzed. The Competing Values Framework allowed observing that after the ACES action-training intervention, the perceptions of the executive directors regarding their organizational culture were more aligned with the practices and values defended by the primary health care reform. The study highlights the need to continue monitoring results over different time periods to elaborate further conclusions.

  4. Social influences, social context, and health behaviors among working-class, multi-ethnic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M

    2007-04-01

    Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention studies with working-class, multi-ethnic adults. Several social influence and social contextual variables were associated with fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity in both samples. Fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with social norms and social networks, although different contextual variables also were related to intake across the two samples. Physical activity was associated with social networks, social norms, and competing demands. By examining how key social influence and contextual mediating variables relate to health behaviors, we can learn more about the types of interventions that might be needed to promote sustained health behavior change in this population.

  5. Special features of health services and register based trials – experiences from a randomized trial of childbirth classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevón Tiina

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evaluating complex interventions in health services faces various difficulties, such as making practice changes and costs. Ways to increase research capacity and decrease costs include making research an integral part of health services and using routine data to judge outcomes. The purpose of this article is to report the feasibility of a pilot trial relying solely on routinely collected register data and being based on ordinary health services. Methods The example intervention was education to public health nurses (PHN (childbirth classes to reduce caesarean section rates via pre-delivery considerations of pregnant women. 20 maternity health centers (MHC were paired and of each 10 pairs, one MHC was randomly allocated to an intervention group and the other to a control; 8 pairs with successful intervention were used in the analyses (1601 mothers. The women visiting to the study maternity centers were identified from the Customer Register of Helsinki City. A list of the study women was made using the mother's personal identification number, visit date, the maternity center code, birth date and gestation length. The mode of delivery and health outcomes were retrieved from the Finnish Medical Birth Register (MBR. Process data of the intervention are based on observations, written feedback and questionnaires from PHNs, and project correspondence. Results It took almost two years to establish how to obtain permissions and to actually obtain it for the trial. Obtaining permissions for the customer and outcome data and register linkages was unproblematic and the cluster randomization provided comparable groups. The intervention did not succeed well. Had the main aim of the trial been to cause a change in PHNs behavior, we would have very likely intensified the intervention during the trial. Conclusion Our experiences encourage the use of trials that obtain their outcomes from registers. Changing the behavior of ordinary health

  6. On the number of classes of conjugate Hall subgroups in finite simple groups

    CERN Document Server

    Revin, D O

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we find the number of conjugate $\\pi$-Hall subgroups in all finite almost simple groups. We also complete the classification of $\\pi$-Hall subgroups in finite simple groups and correct some mistakes from our previous paper.

  7. Short term memory development : Differences in serial position curves between age groups and latent classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppenol, G.V.; Bouwmeester, S.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2014-01-01

    In studies on the development of cognitive processes, children are often grouped based on their ages before analyzing the data. After the analysis, the differences between age groups are interpreted as developmental differences. We argue that this approach is problematic because the variance in

  8. Student Perceptions about Group Based Problem Solving Process in Online and In-Class Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Birişçi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, through qualitative measures, was to systematically examine the perspectives and meanings formed by the teachers about teaching and learning. This study took place in the spring semester of the 2010-2011 academic year of Artvin Çoruh University. The sample size was 27. The participants were divided in two groupsGroup 1 with group work taking place in an online test (D1, N=12; Group 2 with group work taking place in a classroom experiment (D2, N=12. After six weeks implementation, semi-structured interviews were conducted in order to determine students’ thoughts on problem solving and group work with success on attitudes towards mathematics. Positive change in students’ attitudes towards mathematics occurred in both the D1 and D2 groups. According to the application, the students stated that they developed increased interest towards mathematics and it turned into enjoyable.Key Words:    Problem solving, group study, online learning, student views

  9. Characteristics of the Cochrane Oral Health Group systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teich, Sorin T; Lang, Lisa A; Demko, Catherine A

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group (COHG) was formed in 1994 with the aim of producing systematic reviews that primarily include oral health randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to characterize reviews published by the COHG. In September 2013, the COHG database was accessed, and all publications were downloaded. Reviews with no studies identified according to the inclusion criteria were labeled "empty reviews." The complete Cochrane database included a total of 5,697 reviews, of which the COHG database included 142 reviews. Of these 142, 69 (48.6%) did not reach a conclusion, including 20 (14.1%) that were identified as empty reviews. Of the 122 non-empty reviews, 116 (95.1%) were based exclusively on RCTs. The median number of RCTs and patients included in the non-empty reviews were seven and 489, respectively. The median number of included RCTs and patients for reviews that reached conclusions were 12 and 934, respectively, and there were five RCTs and 211 patients for reviews without conclusions. Overall, the characteristics of the Cochrane oral health reviews (OH-CSRs) were similar to Cochrane reviews published in other disciplines (All-CSRs). The authors observed a significant difference in the median number of RCTs and patients included when reviews that reached conclusions were separated from those that did not. A greater proportion of empty reviews were present in OH-CSRs compared with All-CSRs. Turning the Cochrane reviews into a tool that is more relevant in clinical practice will require implementation of a methodology allowing inclusion of non-RCTs while controlling for possible bias.

  10. Relationships between discrimination in health care and health care outcomes among four race/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven

    2014-06-01

    Discrimination has been found to be detrimental to health, but less is known about the influence of discrimination in health care. To address this, the current study (1) compared levels of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care among four race/ethnic groups; (2) determined associations between this type of discrimination and health care outcomes; and (3) assessed potential mediators and moderators as suggested by previous studies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used within a population-based sample of 1,699 White, African American, Mexican, and Puerto Rican respondents. Overall, 23% of the sample reported discrimination in health care, with levels varying substantially by race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, this type of discrimination was associated with an increased likelihood of having unmet health care needs (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.90) and lower odds of perceiving excellent quality of care (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.66), but not with the use of a physician when not sick or use of alternative medicine. The mediating role of mental health factors was inconsistently observed and the relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity. These findings expand the literature and provide preliminary evidence that can eventually inform the development of interventions and the training of health care providers.

  11. 75 FR 38099 - Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and... March 23, 2010. The Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health... Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health, as directed by Executive Order 13544....

  12. On one class of modules over group rings with finiteness restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Dashkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author studies the $bf R$$G$-module $A$ such that $bf R$ is an associative ring, a group $G$ has infinite section $p$-rank (or infinite 0-rank, $C_{G}(A=1$, and for every proper subgroup $H$ of infinite section $p$-rank (or infinite 0-rank respectively the quotient module $A/C_{A}(H$ is a finite $bf R$-module. It is proved that if the group $G$ under consideration is locally soluble then $G$ is a soluble group and $A/C_{A}(G$ is a finite $bf R$-module.

  13. Health and fertility in World Health Organization group 2 anovulatory women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, D. T.; Balen, A.; Escobar-Morreale, H. F.; Evers, J. L. H.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Franks, S.; Glasier, A.; Homburg, R.; La Vecchia, C.; Crosignani, P. G.; Devroey, P.; Diedrich, K.; Fraser, L.; Gianaroli, L.; Liebaers, I.; Sunde, A.; Tapanainen, J. S.; Tarlatzis, B.; Van Steirteghem, A.; Veiga, A.; Evers, J. L. H.

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of ovulation occurs in different types of clinical infertility. The World Health Organization (WHO) has provided a classification of ovulation disorders. This review focuses on WHO group 2 anovulation. Searches were performed in Medline/PubMed and EMBASE. Each subject summary was presente

  14. 77 FR 33220 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office... be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  15. 76 FR 26300 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Prevention and Health Promotion Strategy. Public participation during the Web meeting is limited. Members of... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public... the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the...

  16. "I think about Oprah": social class differences in sources of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Ann V

    2014-04-01

    Health information influences an individual's health outcomes. Indeed, researchers have found that communication inequalities contribute to health inequalities. We do not have a clear understanding of why and how the communication disparities exist, however, particularly the social forces behind such differences. The qualitative nature of this article reveals the nuances of health information seeking using the case of infertility. Through 58 in-depth interviews, I demonstrate how differences in social and cultural capital between women of low and high socioeconomic status (SES) result in different ways of learning about health. Women of high SES have access to support groups, physicians, and the Internet, whereas women of low SES do not discuss their health problems with their peers, and lack access to and distrust physicians. I explore how these differences in health information shape the illness experience. I conclude with policy implications.

  17. Social class inequalities in the utilization of health care and preventive services in Spain, a country with a national health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Cumbrera, Marco; Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Espelt, Albert; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pasarín, M Isabel; Kunst, Anton

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, despite the existence of a National Health System (NHS), the utilization of some curative health services is related to social class. This study assesses (1) whether these inequalities are also observed for preventive health services and (2) the role of additional private health insurance for people of advantaged social classes. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2006, the authors analyze the relationships between social class and use of health services by means of Poisson regression models with robust variance, controlling for self-assessed health. Similar analyses were performed for waiting times for visits to a general practitioner (GP) and specialist. After controlling for self-perceived health, men and women from social classes IV-V had a higher probability of visiting the GP than other social classes, but a lower probability of visiting a specialist or dentist. No large class differences were observed in frequency of hospitalization or emergency services use, or in breast cancer screening or influenza vaccination; cervical cancer screening frequency was lower among women from social classes IV-V. The inequalities in specialist visits, dentist visits, and cervical cancer screening were larger among people with only NHS insurance than those with double health insurance. Social class differences in waiting times were observed for specialist visits, but not for GP visits. Men and women from social classes IV-V had longer waits for a specialist; this was most marked among people with only NHS insurance. Clearly, within the NHS, social class inequalities are still evident for some curative and preventive services. Further research is needed to identify the factors driving these inequalities and to tackle these factors from within the NHS. Priority areas include specialist services, dental care, and cervical cancer screening.

  18. Age, class and race discrimination: their interactions and associations with mental health among Brazilian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Luiz Bastos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although research on discrimination and health has progressed significantly, it has tended to focus on racial discrimination and US populations. This study explored different types of discrimination, their interactions and associations with common mental disorders among Brazilian university students, in Rio de Janeiro in 2010. Associations between discrimination and common mental disorders were examined using multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for confounders. Interactions between discrimination and socio-demographics were tested. Discrimination attributed to age, class and skin color/race were the most frequently reported. In a fully adjusted model, discrimination attributed to skin color/race and class were both independently associated with increased odds of common mental disorders. The simultaneous reporting of skin color/race, class and age discrimination was associated with the highest odds ratio. No significant interactions were found. Skin color/race and class discrimination were important, but their simultaneous reporting, in conjunction with age discrimination, were associated with the highest occurrence of common mental disorders.

  19. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students' reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement.

  20. 75 FR 34537 - Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a Grandfathered Health Plan Under the Patient Protection...-AB68 Interim Final Rules for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Coverage Relating to Status as a... Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Interim...

  1. 75 FR 37242 - Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers Under the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ57 Requirements for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance..., Health care, Health insurance, Pensions, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Proposed Amendments to... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final...

  2. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  3. Learning through Discussions: Comparing the Benefits of Small-Group and Large-Class Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Philip H.; Hamann, Kerstin; Wilson, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on teaching and learning heralds the benefits of discussion for student learner outcomes, especially its ability to improve students' critical thinking skills. Yet, few studies compare the effects of different types of face-to-face discussions on learners. Using student surveys, we analyze the benefits of small-group and large-class…

  4. Using Professional Teaching Assistants to Support Large Group Business Communication Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Lloyd J.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author reports on the use of classroom instructors and full-time professional teaching assistants called "course tutors" for teaching business communication to large groups at an undergraduate university. The author explains how to recruit course tutors, what course tutors do in the classroom, and the advantages and…

  5. Conceptual foundations of classes with the disciples of special medical group in secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaskov Y.V.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study and scientific rationale for new approaches to the organization of educational work with students of special medical group in secondary schools. Material : analyzed 15 scientific sources regarding the approaches of different authors to develop educational programs for students of special medical group. Results : focuses on the outstanding issues in a substantive, logistical and human aspects. Found that the selection of the content of educational material for special medical groups is an empirical question. Selection is carried out by copying the existing curriculum of physical culture for healthy children with an indication of the load reduction and exemption of complex elements. Established a complete absence of evaluation of educational achievements of pupils. Based on modern approaches to teaching students based on biomedical and didactic aspects: Leading defined function of each stage of training, fleshed main goals and objectives of the educational process, substantiated various kinds of sports activity, taking into account the diagnosis of diseases and the needs of students of different ages and gender. Conclusions : the main controversy in the decision of the designated problem. Substantiated leading features of each stage of training in special medical groups. A system of assessment of students' achievements.

  6. Taking Ownership of Learning in a Large Class: Group Projects and a Mini-Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Emily J.; Kriz, George S.; Popejoy, Kate L.; Dickinson, Alison K.; Olson, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    Helping students take ownership of their learning is often a challenge in a large lecture course. In this article, the authors describe a nature of science-oriented group project in a chemistry course in which students gave presentations in concurrent conference sessions as well as its impact on student learning as evidenced through multiple data…

  7. Taking Ownership of Learning in a Large Class: Group Projects and a Mini-Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borda, Emily J.; Kriz, George S.; Popejoy, Kate L.; Dickinson, Alison K.; Olson, Amy L.

    2009-01-01

    Helping students take ownership of their learning is often a challenge in a large lecture course. In this article, the authors describe a nature of science-oriented group project in a chemistry course in which students gave presentations in concurrent conference sessions as well as its impact on student learning as evidenced through multiple data…

  8. Exploring the relationship between social class, mental illness stigma and mental health literacy using British national survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between social class and mental illness stigma has received little attention in recent years. At the same time, the concept of mental health literacy has become an increasingly popular way of framing knowledge and understanding of mental health issues. British Social Attitudes survey data present an opportunity to unpack the relationships between these concepts and social class, an important task given continuing mental health inequalities. Regression analyses were undertaken which centred on depression and schizophrenia vignettes, with an asthma vignette used for comparison. The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, education and income were used as indicators of class. A number of interesting findings emerged. Overall, class variables showed a stronger relationship with mental health literacy than stigma. The relationship was gendered such that women with higher levels of education, especially those with a degree, had the lowest levels of stigma and highest levels of mental health literacy. Interestingly, class showed more of an association with stigma for the asthma vignette than it did for both the depression and schizophrenia vignettes, suggesting that mental illness stigma needs to be contextualised alongside physical illness stigma. Education emerged as the key indicator of class, followed by the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, with income effects being marginal. These findings have implications for targeting health promotion campaigns and increasing service use in order to reduce mental health inequalities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Scientifically Correct Racism: Health Studies' Unintended Effects against Minority Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Parra Casado, Daniel; Perez, Miguel Angel Mateo

    2007-01-01

    The present paper analyses press releases, news reports and health plans to show how health communication functions in perpetuating dominant racist structures. The paper is mainly concerned with how normal science and health practices can become an instrument for justifying racism and reproducing it in our societies. The examples demonstrate that…

  10. Grouping and classifying electrophysiologically-defined classes of neocortical neurons by single cell, whole-genome expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Subkhankulova

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of neuronal cell types and how to classify them are perennial questions in neuroscience. The advent of global gene expression analysis raised the possibility that comprehensive transcription profiling will resolve neuronal cell types into groups that reflect some or all aspects of their phenotype. This approach has been successfully used to compare gene expression between groups of neurons defined by a common property. Here we extend this approach to ask whether single neuron gene expression profiling can prospectively resolve neuronal subtypes into groups, independent of any phenotypic information, and whether those groups reflect meaningful biological properties of those neurons. We applied methods we have developed to compare gene expression among single neural stem cells to study global gene expression in 18 randomly picked neurons from layer II/III of the early postnatal mouse neocortex. Cells were selected by morphology and by firing characteristics and electrical properties, enabling the definition of each cell as either fast- or regular-spiking, corresponding to a class of inhibitory interneurons or excitatory pyramidal cells. Unsupervised clustering of young neurons by global gene expression resolved the cells into two groups and those broadly corresponded with the two groups of fast- and regular-spiking neurons. Clustering of the entire, diverse group of 18 neurons of different developmental stages also successfully grouped neurons in accordance with the electrophysiological phenotypes, but with more cells misassigned among groups. Genes specifically enriched in regular spiking neurons were identified from the young neuron expression dataset. These results provide a proof of principle that single-cell gene expression profiling may be used to group and classify neurons in a manner reflecting their known biological properties and may be used to identify cell-specific transcripts.

  11. Tree health influences diameter growth along site quality, crown class and age gradients in Nothofagus forests of southern Patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We examined the influence of tree health on annual diameter increment of trees along gradients in stand site quality, crown classes and tree age in Nothofagus pumilio forests of Southern Patagonia. Healthy trees had higher annual diameter increment than unhealthy trees along all gradients (site quality, crown class, tree age). We argue that tree health could be employed as a qualitative variable in models of tree growth to estimate aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in this forest system. ...

  12. 'More health for the money': an analytical framework for access to health care through microfinance and savings groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Somen

    2014-10-01

    The main contributors to inequities in health relates to widespread poverty. Health cannot be achieved without addressing the social determinants of health, and the answer does not lie in the health sector alone. One of the potential pathways to address vulnerabilities linked to poverty, social exclusion, and empowerment of women is aligning health programmes with empowerment interventions linked to access to capital through microfinance and self-help groups. This paper presents a framework to analyse combined health and financial interventions through microfinance programmes in reducing barriers to access health care. If properly designed and ethically managed such integrated programmes can provide more health for the money spent on health care.

  13. The Effect of Menstrual Health Education Conducted with Peer Education Method to Adolescent Girls in 6-8 Classes on Information and Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Golbasi; Gulbahtiyar Doganer; Nuriye Erbas

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Research was conducted as a experimental study in order to determine the effect of menstrual health education conducted with peer education to adolescent girls in 6-8 classes on information and behaviors. Method: The study was made in Primary School of Regional Girl Boarding. Working group consisted of 202 students responded completely pre-test and post-test from 214 female students studying in this school in 2008-2009 academic year. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Mens...

  14. Setting the question for inquiry: The effects of whole class vs small group on student achievement in elementary science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnetto, Andy Roy

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of two different student-centered approaches to setting the question for inquiry. The first approach (whole class) consisted of students setting a single question for inquiry after which students worked in small groups during an investigation phase of the activity with all groups exploring the same question. The second approach (small group) consisted of each group of students setting a question resulting in numerous questions being explored per class. A mixed method quasi-experimental design was utilized. Two grade five teachers from a small rural school district in the Midwestern United States participated, each teaching two sections of science (approximately 25 students per section). Results indicate three major findings. Instructional approach (whole class vs. small group) did not effect student achievement in science or language arts. Observational data indicated the actions and skills teachers utilized to implement the approaches were similar. Specifically, the pedagogical skills of dialogical interaction (which was found to be influenced by teacher level of control of learning and teacher content knowledge) and effective rather than efficient use of time were identified as key factors in teachers' progression toward a student-centered, teacher-managed instructional approach. Unit exams along with qualitative and quantitative teacher observation data indicated that these factors do have an impact on student achievement. Specifically increased dialogical interaction in the forms of greater student voice, and increased cognitive demands placed on students by embedding and emphasizing science argument within the student inquiry corresponded to positive gains in student achievement. Additionally, teacher's perception of student abilities was also found to influence professional growth. Finally, allowing students to set the questions for inquiry and design the experiments impact the classroom environment as teacher

  15. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C;

    1995-01-01

    . To elucidate the structural relationship between BoLA-A16 and blood group antigen M', immunoprecipitation experiments on red and white cell lysates isolated from M'-A16 positive and negative cattle were carried out. These results showed that M(r) 44,000 and M(r) 12000 polypeptides can be precipitated from both......Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16...... red and white cells isolated from M'-A16 positive animals, whereas no bands were seen in M'-A16 negative animals in precipitations with the same antibody. Precipitation with a crossreacting human beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-m) specific antibody confirmed a class-I-like structure associated with beta...

  16. A model for small-group problem-based learning in a large class facilitated by one instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Tessa A; Lou, Kelvin

    2012-08-10

    To implement and evaluate a model for small-group problem-based learning (PBL) in a large class facilitated by 1 instructor. A PBL model that included weekly assignments, quizzes, peer feedback, and case wrap-up sessions was developed and implemented in the final year of the pharmacy program to allow 1 instructor to facilitate PBL for up to 16 student teams in a large classroom. Student and team scores on multiple-choice examinations confirmed achievement of learning objectives. Students reported on course evaluation surveys that they were able to engage in the learning process and were satisfied with the new PBL model. This model achieved a cost savings of $42,000 per term. A revised PBL model without individual group tutors allowed students to achieve the required learning outcomes in an interactive and engaging atmosphere, avoided classroom-scheduling conflicts, and produced a large cost savings for the university.

  17. 42 CFR 457.805 - State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State plan requirement: Procedures to address substitution under group health plans. 457.805 Section 457.805 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH INSURANCE PROGRAMS...

  18. Margins of freedom: a field-theoretic approach to class-based health dispositions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Patrick John; Veenstra, Gerry

    2017-03-23

    Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice situates social practices in the relational interplay between experiential mental phenomena (habitus), resources (capitals) and objective social structures (fields). When applied to class-based practices in particular, the overarching field of power within which social classes are potentially made manifest is the primary field of interest. Applying relational statistical techniques to original survey data from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we investigated whether smoking, engaging in physical activity and consuming fruit and vegetables are dispersed in a three-dimensional field of power shaped by economic and cultural capitals and cultural dispositions and practices. We find that aesthetic dispositions and flexibility of developing and established dispositions are associated with positioning in the Canadian field of power and embedded in the logics of the health practices dispersed in the field. From this field-theoretic perspective, behavioural change requires the disruption of existing relations of harmony between the habitus of agents, the fields within which the practices are enacted and the capitals that inform and enforce the mores and regularities of the fields. The three-dimensional model can be explored at: http://relational-health.ca/margins-freedom.

  19. 77 FR 42313 - Recharter of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Public Health. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Corinne Graffunder, Designated Federal Officer (DFO) of... the President establish the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and...

  20. 75 FR 41787 - Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health Insurance Issuers To Provide Coverage of Preventive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 54 RIN 1545-BJ58 Requirement for Group Health Plans and Health... Care Act (the Affordable Care Act) regarding preventive health services. The IRS is issuing the... Health and Human Services are issuing substantially similar interim final regulations with respect to...

  1. Exploring differential health effects of work stress: a latent class cluster approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Mayerl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background While evidence highlights the detrimental health consequences of adverse working conditions, effect sizes vary by the stressor examined. In this study, we aimed to explore the differential effects various constellations of job demands have on prevalent symptom clusters. Methods We analysed self-reported data from a nationwide Austrian survey (N = 16,466, based on a cross-sectional design. By means of latent class analysis, a set of items was used to assess the burden from several job demands as well as the frequency of occurrence of mental and physical symptoms in order to identify stress profiles and symptom clusters, respectively. Results Analysis revealed four subgroups that each demonstrated a typological response pattern regarding job demands and health symptoms, respectively. The revealed stress profiles were found to be strongly related to the symptom clusters, while the effects differed considerably depending on the types of demands experienced. Conclusion The current study presents an alternative method of examining the stress-health link by using a combined person- and variable-centred approach. The findings suggest a hierarchy in stress exposure with the most pronounced health consequences found for a synchronous burden from physical, psychosocial and organizational demands.

  2. Exploring differential health effects of work stress: a latent class cluster approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerl, Hannes; Stolz, Erwin; Waxenegger, Anja; Freidl, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    While evidence highlights the detrimental health consequences of adverse working conditions, effect sizes vary by the stressor examined. In this study, we aimed to explore the differential effects various constellations of job demands have on prevalent symptom clusters. We analysed self-reported data from a nationwide Austrian survey (N = 16,466), based on a cross-sectional design. By means of latent class analysis, a set of items was used to assess the burden from several job demands as well as the frequency of occurrence of mental and physical symptoms in order to identify stress profiles and symptom clusters, respectively. Analysis revealed four subgroups that each demonstrated a typological response pattern regarding job demands and health symptoms, respectively. The revealed stress profiles were found to be strongly related to the symptom clusters, while the effects differed considerably depending on the types of demands experienced. The current study presents an alternative method of examining the stress-health link by using a combined person- and variable-centred approach. The findings suggest a hierarchy in stress exposure with the most pronounced health consequences found for a synchronous burden from physical, psychosocial and organizational demands.

  3. Problematizing Social Justice in Health Pedagogy and Youth Sport: Intersectionality of Race, Ethnicity, and Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagkas, Symeon

    2016-01-01

    Social justice education recognizes the discrepancies in opportunities among disadvantaged groups in society. The purpose of the articles in this special topic on social justice is to (a) provide a critical reflection on issues of social justice within health pedagogy and youth sport of Black and ethnic-minority (BME) young people; (b) provide a…

  4. 75 FR 52355 - Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... Prevention Draft National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Work Group Reports... exposures. This notice announces the availability of draft National Conversation work group reports for... National Conversation Leadership Council and facilitating the work group process. DATES: Draft work...

  5. Effects of Group Training Based on the Health Belief Model on Knowledge and Behavior Regarding the Pap Smear Test in Iranian Women: a Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Javad, Masoumeh Taravati; Parsa, Parisa; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2016-01-01

    The Pap smear test is recommended for early diagnosis of cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge and behavior regarding the Pap smear test based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) in women referred to premarital counseling classes, Hamadan, Iran. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 330 women, who were allocated randomly to two case and control groups (n=165). Two educational session classes were performed in the case group. Two stages in before and after intervention groups were evaluated. Analysis of data was performed by SPSS/16.0, using t-test, x2, and McNemar's test. P-values screening.

  6. Conjugacy Classes of Torsion in 4 × 4 Integral Symplectic Group%四阶整数辛群中扭元的共轭类

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阳庆节

    2008-01-01

    A complete list of representatives of conjugacy classes of torsion in 4 × 4 integral symplectic group is given in this paper.There are 55 distinct such classes and each torsion element has order of 2,3,4,5,6,8,10 and 12.

  7. Research on Group Learning and Cognitive Science: A Study of Motivation, Knowledge, and Self-Regulation in a Large Lecture College Algebra Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Schraeder, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    At a research University near the east coast, researchers restructured a College Algebra course by formatting the course into two large lectures a week, an active recitation size laboratory class once a week, and an extra day devoted to active group work called Supplemental Practice (SP). SP was added as an extra day of class where the SP leader…

  8. A case study of Markdale High School's implementation of heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre-Louis, Fred

    The purpose of this study was to describe Markdale High School's change from separate college preparatory and general level classes to heterogeneously-grouped classes in English, mathematics, science, and social studies, with particular emphasis on the principal's leadership style, change process, and teacher concerns (Hall & Hord, 2006) experienced during this effort. The researcher used Hall and Hord's (2006) Concern-Based Adoption Model (CBAM) as a conceptual framework. Specifically, the researcher applied three elements of the CBAM model: (a) the Twelve Principles of Change, (b) the Change Facilitator Styles, and (c) the Stages of Concerns. Hall and Hord's framework served as a lens through which the researcher analyzed all data. The researcher used a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to answer the four research questions. The participants completed three instruments: (a) the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ), (b) the Principles of Change Survey, and (c) the Facilitator Style Survey. All three instruments were self-report, paper-pencil surveys. The sample included 72 faculty members who experienced the change over the past three years. Findings from the three data sources and the school principal's comments during debriefing are indicated for each research question and reported by unit of analysis. Respective to the research questions, the researcher concluded that: (1) Markdale High School accomplished the change by implementing both structural and instructional changes supporting to the change to heterogeneous grouping; (2) even though teachers had divergent opinions on the school principal's facilitation style, the principal thought of himself as an incrementalist and a practitioner of differentiated facilitation styles; (3) while half of the faculty felt that they received formal training on heterogeneous grouping, (4) half felt that they did not have a choice in the decision-making process as it occurred with college preparatory and

  9. Promoting and recovering health: meanings produced in community groups within the family health program context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celiane Camargo-Borges

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Public Healthcare in Brazil has tended to reflect major changes in the healthcare model. New tendencies point to the importance of actions being built up from their context and focused on specific communities. The objective of this study is to describe the meanings of health / illness as produced by community groups within the context of a Family Healthcare Program. Five groups had their single-session discussions taped and recorded, under the coordination of the first author. This material was transcribed and, coupled with field notes, formed the database for this study. The analysis described the meanings of the ideas on which new healthcare proposals are being based, providing visibility for the multiplicity of meanings and denaturalizing fixed lines of discourse on healthcare / illness. The final thoughts, developed from the point of view of social constructionism, indicate that healthcare practices based on the process of constant conversation and negotiation between all the social actors involved is a fertile ground.

  10. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first birth and hope to have a vaginal delivery this time, there is a class for that, too. Choose ... t covered in your birthing class, it’s a good idea to take an individual class on it, especially if you are a first-time mother. The health benefits of breastfeeding your baby ...

  11. Race, gender, class, and sexual orientation: intersecting axes of inequality and self-rated health in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intersectionality theory, a way of understanding social inequalities by race, gender, class, and sexuality that emphasizes their mutually constitutive natures, possesses potential to uncover and explicate previously unknown health inequalities. In this paper, the intersectionality principles of "directionality," "simultaneity," "multiplicativity," and "multiple jeopardy" are applied to inequalities in self-rated health by race, gender, class, and sexual orientation in a Canadian sample. Methods The Canadian Community Health Survey 2.1 (N = 90,310 provided nationally representative data that enabled binary logistic regression modeling on fair/poor self-rated health in two analytical stages. The additive stage involved regressing self-rated health on race, gender, class, and sexual orientation singly and then as a set. The intersectional stage involved consideration of two-way and three-way interaction terms between the inequality variables added to the full additive model created in the previous stage. Results From an additive perspective, poor self-rated health outcomes were reported by respondents claiming Aboriginal, Asian, or South Asian affiliations, lower class respondents, and bisexual respondents. However, each axis of inequality interacted significantly with at least one other: multiple jeopardy pertained to poor homosexuals and to South Asian women who were at unexpectedly high risks of fair/poor self-rated health and mitigating effects were experienced by poor women and by poor Asian Canadians who were less likely than expected to report fair/poor health. Conclusions Although a variety of intersections between race, gender, class, and sexual orientation were associated with especially high risks of fair/poor self-rated health, they were not all consistent with the predictions of intersectionality theory. I conclude that an intersectionality theory well suited for explicating health inequalities in Canada should be

  12. Adaptive actuator failure compensation control based on MMST grouping for a class of MIMO nonlinear systems with guaranteed transient performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Jie; Qiu, Xiang-Wei; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Chun-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive compensation control approach for a class of multi-input multi-output (MIMO) nonlinear systems with actuator failures. In order to enlarge the set of compensable actuator failures, an actuators grouping scheme based on multiple model switching and tuning (MMST) is proposed for the nonlinear MIMO minimum-phase systems with multiple actuator failures. Then, an adaptive compensation scheme based on prescribed performance bound (PPB) which characterises the convergence rate and maximum overshoot of the tracking error is designed for the systems to ensure closed-loop signal boundedness and asymptotic output tracking despite unknown actuator failures. Simulation results are given to show the effectiveness of the control design.

  13. On Application of Group Psychological Counselling in Class Construction%浅谈团体心理辅导在班级建设中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任红漫

    2012-01-01

    Group psychological counselling is to carry out psychological training through group activities.In classes which are special groups,group counseling can be applied in class construction,which can be of great significance in strengthening class unity,forming good class atmosphere and promoting healthy psychological growth of students.%团体心理辅导是在一定情景下,通过开展团体活动而进行的心理训练形式。班级作为一个特殊的团体,可以应用团体心理辅导开展班级建设,这对增强班级凝聚力,形成良好的班风以及学生个体的心理健康成长等都有着重要的意义。

  14. Somatic symptom profiles in the general population: a latent class analysis in a Danish population-based health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasen M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marie Eliasen,1 Torben Jørgensen,1–3 Andreas Schröder,4 Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Per Fink,4 Chalotte Heinsvig Poulsen,1,5 Nanna Borup Johansen,1 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Svend Kreiner2 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, Centre for Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, 4Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus C, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hellerup, Denmark Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe somatic symptom profiles in the general adult population in order to enable further epidemiological research within multiple somatic symptoms.Methods: Information on 19 self-reported common somatic symptoms was achieved from a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark (55.4% women. The participants stated whether they had been considerably bothered by each symptom within 14 days prior to answering the questionnaire. We used latent class analysis to identify the somatic symptom profiles. The profiles were further described by their association with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Results: We identified 10 different somatic symptom profiles defined by number, type, and site of the symptoms. The majority of the population (74.0% had a profile characterized by no considerable bothering symptoms, while a minor group of 3.9% had profiles defined by a high risk of multiple somatic symptoms. The remaining profiles were more likely to be characterized by a few specific symptoms. The profiles could further be described by their associations with age, sex, chronic disease, and self-perceived health.Conclusion: The identified somatic symptom profiles could be distinguished by number, type, and site of

  15. The first cohomology of the mapping class group with coefficients in algebraic functions on the SL2(C) moduli space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Villemoes, Rasmus

    2009-01-01

    Consider a compact surface of genus at least two. We prove that the first cohomology group of the mapping class group with coefficients in the space of algebraic functions on the SL2(C) moduli space vanishes. In the genus one case, this cohomology group is infinite dimensional....

  16. A Latent Class Analysis of Weight-Related Health Behaviors among 2-and 4-Year College Students and Associated Risk of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Charu; Stigler, Melissa; Lust, Katherine; Laska, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the complex patterning of weight-related health behaviors in 2-and 4-year college students. The objective of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of weight-related health behaviors among college students. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogenous, mutually exclusive classes of nine health…

  17. Desigualdades de classe e gênero e saúde mental nas cidades Class and gender inequalities and mental health in the cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O caráter social da doença mental se expressa objetivamente na sua distribuição desigual entre homens e mulheres e entre diferentes classes sociais. Essas desigualdades representam um persistente achado na literatura. Diversos autores têm encontrado alta prevalência dos Transtornos Mentais Comuns (TMC em mulheres, nos excluídos do mercado formal de trabalho, nos indivíduos de baixa renda e nos de baixa escolaridade. Alguns estudos fundamentais para a visão contemporânea sobre as desigualdades de classe e gênero dos TMC são tratados neste artigo. As reflexões a respeito dos determinantes sociais da doença mental apontam desafios para a formulação de políticas públicas de saúde.The social nature of mental disorders is objectively apparent from its unequal distribution between men and women and between social classes. These inequalities are recurrent in the literature. Several authors have found high prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD among women, among the unemployed and informal workers, the low income and the low educated individuals. Some studies, fundamental for the contemporary view on the inequalities between class and gender of the CMD, are here presented. Considerations about the social determinants of mental illness point to some challenges for mental health planners.

  18. Group unconscious common orientation: exploratory study at the Basque Foundation for the investigation of mental health group training for therapists

    CERN Document Server

    Trojaola Zapirain, Begona; Carminati, Federico; Gonzalez Torres, Miguel Angel; Gonzalez de Mendivil, Ernesto; Fouassier, Claire; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Martin, Francois; Labarere, Jose; Demongeot, Jacques; Lorincz, Erika Nora

    2014-01-01

    Group phenomena have been used since antiquity in therapeutic, social, economic and political domains. According to Bion, the interactions between group members generate a ``group unconscious'' and its behavior is governed and oriented by Bion's ``basic assumptions.'' The present work has been conducted during group analysis training at the Basque Foundation for the Investigation of Mental Health (OMIE) at Bilbao, consisting of eleven sessions. The participants are presented with an ``absurd questionnaire'' proposing 50 pairs of images, in each of which one image has to be chosen. The results are used to search for evidence in favor of the influence of group dynamics on individual choices of the images proposed in the questionnaire. Our analysis finds some evidence for an effect of group dynamics both on the initial choice of the pictures and on the evolution of the number of changes (swaps) of picture choices across the eleven sessions. We interpret these effects in the light of Bion's view of group dynamics...

  19. Prevalence of the β(S) gene among scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other backward class groups in Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrikhande, Anuradha V; Arjunan, Aishwarya; Agarwal, Amit; Dani, Aarti; Tijare, Jayashri; Gettig, Elizabeth; Krishnamurti, Lakshmanan

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder of the blood, and characterized by vasoocclusive crises (VOC), risks for pneumococcal infections and organ toxicities, is associated with morbidity and premature mortality. India, with a population of 1.2 billion individuals, is estimated to be home to over 50.0% of the world's patients with sickle cell disease. The β(S) gene [β6(A3)Glu→Val; HBB: c.20A>T] has the highest prevalence in three socio-economically disadvantaged ethnic categories: the Scheduled Castes (SC), the Scheduled Tribes (ST), and Other Backward Class (OBC) groups in India. The tradition of endogamy practiced by the ethnic groups in India provides the rationale for the screening of individual populations to better understand the distribution of the β(S) gene, guide counseling and awareness programs and aid development of public policy. We undertook a study to describe the prevalence of the β(S) gene in these ethnic groups in the district of Nagpur, Maharashtra in Central India. Through community screening and subsequent targeted screening of high risk individuals, 35,636 individuals were screened, of whom 5466 were found to have sickle cell trait and 1010 were identified with sickle cell disease. Community screening revealed a sickle cell trait prevalence of 13.0% in the SC, 12.0% in the ST and 3.4% in the OBC population. This study describes the prevalence of the β(S) gene within these groups in Central India determined by large scale community screening. This program has uncovered previously undiagnosed cases, provided detailed information to guide population-based disease counseling, prevention and comprehensive care programs.

  20. World Health Organization Group I Pulmonary Hypertension: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Kurt W; Thenappan, Thenappan

    2016-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a debilitating disease characterized by pathologic remodeling of the resistance pulmonary arteries, ultimately leading to right ventricular (RV) failure and death. In this article we discuss the definition of PAH, the initial epidemiology based on the National Institutes of Health Registry, and the updated epidemiology gleaned from contemporary registries, pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular dysfunction and proliferation, and RV failure in PAH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic and ethnic group differences in self reported health status and use of health services by children and young people in England: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Sonia; Eliahoo, Joseph; Majeed, Azeem

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether self reported health status and use of health services varies in children of different social class and ethnic group. Design Cross sectional study from the 1999 health survey for England. Subjects 6648 children and young adults aged 2-20 years. Setting Private households in England. Main outcome measures Proportion of children (or their parents) reporting episodes of acute illness in the preceding fortnight and prevalence of self reported longstanding illness. Proportion reporting specific illnesses. Proportion reporting that they had consulted a general practitioner in the preceding fortnight, attended hospital outpatient departments in the three preceding months, or been admitted to hospital in the preceding year. Results Large socioeconomic differences were observed between ethnic subgroups; a higher proportion of Afro-Caribbean, Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi children belonged to lower social classes than the general population. The proportion of children and young adults reporting acute illnesses in the preceding two weeks was lower in Bangladeshi and Chinese subgroups (odds ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.27 to 0.61 and 0.46, 0.28 to 0.77, respectively) than in the general population. Longstanding illnesses was less common in Bangladeshi and Pakistani children (0.52, 0.40 to 0.67 and 0.57, 0.46 to 0.70) than in the general population. Irish and Afro-Caribbean children reported the highest prevalence of asthma (19.5% and 17.7%) and Bangladeshi children the lowest (8.2%). A higher proportion of Afro-Caribbean children reported major injuiries than the general population (11.0% v 10.0%), and children from all Asian subgroups reported fewer major and minor injuries than the general population. Indian and Pakistani children were more likely to have consulted their general practitioner in the preceding fortnight than the general population (1.86, 1.35 to 2.57 and 1.51, 1.13 to 2.01, respectively). Indian, Pakistani

  2. Strategic groups in health care: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Martha M; Rivers, Patrick A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups.

  3. Group living in mental health: intersectorality and networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Ferro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available : Introduction: The last 20 years has been fruitful to the Psychiatric Reform legislative regulation, creating equipments focused on ally communitarian clinical followup to social inclusion proposals of their target population, therefore the prerogative of network becomes imperative. The Occupational Therapy Course of Federal University of Parana in partnership with an Association in Curitiba has developed Group living as a therapeutic tool for people with mental disorders. Objective: In order to analyze some of the barriers for network’s practice, having as an argumentative background 3 years of experience in conducting the group and the reports of its users. Methods: To achieve the proposed objectives, the results of two methodological approaches are here presented: the experience report in conducting the group and a qualitative-exploratory field research. Data collection was performed using unstructured focused interviews with 11 group participants and the data analysis was carried out through hermeneutic-dialectic analysis. Results and conclusion: We observed the need for a concise and continuous work with the users, in partnership with the involved services that route and assist them. The guarantee of basic social rights appears as essential for the effectiveness of social inclusion of these people.

  4. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) Spring 2005 Reference Group Data Report (Abridged).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the ACHA in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors, access to health information, impediments to academic performance, and perceived norms across a variety of content areas (eg, injury prevention; personal safety and violence; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use; sexual health; weight, nutrition, and exercise; mental health). Twice a year, the ACHA compiles aggregate data from participating institutions in a reference group report for data comparison. Results from the Spring 2005 Reference Group (N = 54,111) are presented in this article.

  5. American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) Spring 2004 Reference Group data report (abridged).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Assessing and understanding the health needs and capacities of college students is paramount to creating healthy campus communities. The American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) is a survey instrument developed by the ACHA in 1998 to assist institutions of higher education in achieving this goal. The ACHA-NCHA contains approximately 300 questions assessing student health status and health problems, risk and protective behaviors, access to health information, impediments to academic performance, and perceived norms across a variety of content areas, including injury prevention; personal safety and violence; alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use; sexual health; weight, nutrition, and exercise; and mental health. Twice a year, the ACHA compiles aggregate data from participating institutions in a reference group report for data comparison. Results from the Spring 2004 Reference Group (N = 47,202) are presented in this article.

  6. A health management system for marine cell group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingfu; Ruan, Mingzhi; Zi, Yiluo

    2017-06-01

    Storage battery plays an important role in the submarine. However, mechanism of its performance deterioration is so complex for the crew to master. A health management system for marine storage batteries is presented in the paper, so that scientific maintenance can be adopted to assure the working reliability of the battery. The system consists of an on-line monitoring subsystem and a performance prediction subsystem. In order to complete the key task of performance prediction, an intelligent forecasting model based on support vector machine is built, which can automatically find out the rule of performance deterioration from historical monitoring data. Validity of the performance prediction has been proved by testing results.

  7. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18–60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012–3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097–2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466–0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205–0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532–0.932) were protective (p mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers.

  8. Representações do corpo: com a palavra um grupo de adolescentes de classes populares Representations of the body: with the word one group of adolescents from popular classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Déa Braga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diante da grande preocupação com a estética corporal demonstrada por um grupo de adolescentes de classes populares, o presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer e analisar as suas representações sociais de corpo. Tratou-se de investigação de abordagem qualitativa realizada com adolescentes trabalhadores vinculados ao Centro Salesiano do Menor, em Vitória (ES. Uma amostra aleatória foi selecionada de um grupo de 334 sujeitos. Oito meninas e sete meninos foram abordados por meio de entrevista não-estruturada. A partir da análise de suas falas, foi realizada uma categorização e utilizada a teoria das representações sociais para sua discussão. Os resultados apontaram que a percepção de corpo, tanto para meninos quanto para as meninas, está voltada para as idéias de proporcionalidade, normalidade e perfeição. Quanto às consequências de não ter o corpo ideal, ambos apontaram situações como exclusão, doenças, infelicidade e até morte. Aprofundar o conhecimento sobre a percepção, os pensamentos e sentimentos dos adolescentes relativos ao corpo pode contribuir para subsidiar intervenções nesse grupo, ampliando significativamente o âmbito de atuação dos profissionais na área da saúde.In view of the great body aesthetic concern demonstrated by a group of adolescents from popular classes, this study had the purpose of getting to know and analyze the social representations of the body. It investigated the qualitative approach carried out with adolescent workers from the Centro Salesiano do Menor, in Vitória, Espírito Santo State. A random sample was selected from a group of 334 individuals. Eight girls and seven boys were approached by means of non-structured interview. From the analysis of their speeches, a categorization was performed and the theory of the Social Representations was used for discussion. The results pointed out that body perception, for boys as well as for girls, are focused on the ideas of

  9. Health discourse and within-group stigma in professional BDSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Danielle J

    2013-12-01

    This article directly deals with health and stigma within practices of erotic labor. Scant previous literature has focused on erotic laborers' perceptions of stigma and the ways in which regimes of stigmatization operate within their particular social worlds. I use the commercial BDSM (Bondage, Discipline, Sadism, Masochism) "dungeon" as a strategic research site to investigate these workers' conceptions and management of their own stigma, and I find that discourses about stigma are inextricably entwined with concerns about health and wellbeing. Data are derived from ethnographic fieldwork with professional dominatrices ("pro-dommes") who work in New York City and San Francisco as well as in-depth interviews conducted between September 2007 and April 2008. Counter to stereotypes of erotic laborers as violent or as vectors of disease, BDSM workers are in fact not only concerned about safety but professionally invested in it, reinforcing it through an identity politics of hierarchies of erotic labor. There are multiple implications of this work for public perception and policy-implications that could only be brought to light through the ethnographic method.

  10. How adolescents use technology for health information: implications for health professionals from focus group studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Skinner, Harvey; Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

    2003-01-01

    .... To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents...

  11. Mental Health Support Groups, Stigma, and Self-Esteem : Positive and Negative Implications of Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crabtree, Jason W.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Research into the relationship between stigmatization and well-being suggests that identification with a stigmatized group can buffer individuals from the adverse effects of stigma. In part, this is because social identification is hypothesized to provide a basis for social support which increases

  12. Mental Health Support Groups, Stigma, and Self-Esteem : Positive and Negative Implications of Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crabtree, Jason W.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Research into the relationship between stigmatization and well-being suggests that identification with a stigmatized group can buffer individuals from the adverse effects of stigma. In part, this is because social identification is hypothesized to provide a basis for social support which increases r

  13. [Health inequality among vulnerable groups in Mexico: older adults, indigenous people, and migrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Ramírez, Clara; Márquez-Serrano, Margarita; Salgado de Snyder, Nelly; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Ruelas-González, María Guadalupe; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia

    2014-04-01

    Health vulnerability refers to a lack of protection for specific population groups with specific health problems, as well as the disadvantages they face in solving them in comparison with other population groups. This major public health problem has multiple and diverse causes, including a shortage of trained health care personnel and the lack of family, social, economic, and institutional support in obtaining care and minimizing health risks. Health vulnerability is a dynamic condition arising from the confluence of multiple social determinants. This article attempts to describe the health situation of three vulnerable groups in Mexico-older adults, indigenous people, and migrants-and, after defining the needs of each, explore measures that could contribute to the design and implementation of public health policies better tailored to their respective needs.

  14. Prostate cancer support groups, health literacy and consumerism: are community-based volunteers re-defining older men's health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L; McKenzie, Michael M; Hislop, T Gregory; Gerbrandt, Julieta S; Oglov, Valerie

    2011-11-01

    In this article we describe the connections between prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) and men's health literacy and consumer orientation to health care services. The study findings are drawn from participant observations conducted at 16 PCSGs in British Columbia, Canada and 54 individual interviews that focused on men's experiences of attending group meetings. Men's communication and interactions at PCSGs provide important insights for how men talk about and conceptualize health and illness. For example, biomedical language often predominated at group meetings, and men used numbers and measures to engage with risk discourses in linking prostate cancer markers to various treatment options and morbidity and mortality rates. Many groups afforded opportunities for men to interact with health care providers as a means to better understand the language and logic of prostate cancer management. The health literacy skills fostered at PCSGs along with specific group-informed strategies could be mobilized in the men's subsequent clinical consultations. Consumer discourses and strategies to contest power relations with health care professionals underpinned many men's search for prostate cancer information and their commitment to assisting other men. Key were patients' rights, and perhaps responsibility, to compare diverse health products and services in making decisions across the entire trajectory of their prostate cancer. Overall, the study findings reveal PCSGs as having the capacity to contest as well as align with medical expertise and services facilitating men's transition from patient to informed health care consumers. The processes through which this occurs may direct the design of older men's health promotion programs.

  15. Correlation of Shape and Size of Sella Turcica With the Type of Facial Skeletal Class in an Iranian Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valizadeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In orthodontic science, diagnosis of facial skeletal type (class I, II, and III is essential to make the correct treatment plan that is usually expensive and complicated. Sometimes results from analysis of lateral cephalometry radiographies are not enough to discriminate facial skeletal types. In this situation, knowledge about the relationship between the shape and size of the sella turcica and the type of facial skeletal class can help to make a more definitive decision for treatment plan. Objectives The present study was designed to investigate this relationship in patients referred to a dental school in Iran. Patients and Methods In this descriptive-analytical study, cephalometric radiographies of 90 candidates for orthodontic treatment (44 females and 46 males with an age range of 14 - 26 years and equal distribution in terms of class I, class II, and class III facial skeletal classification were selected. The shape, length, diameter, and depth of the sella turcica were determined on the radiographs. Linear dimensions were assessed by one-way analysis of variance while the correlation between the dimensions and age was investigated using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results Sella turcica had normal morphology in 24.4% of the patients while irregularity (notching in the posterior part of the dorsum sella was observed in 15.6%, double contour of sellar floor in 5.6%, sella turcica bridge in 23.3%, oblique anterior wall in 20% and pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella in 11.1% of the subjects. In total, 46.7% of class I patients had a normal shape of sella turcica, 23.3% of class II patients had an oblique anterior wall and a pyramidal shape of the dorsum sella, and 43.3% of class III individuals had sella turcica bridge (the greatest values. Sella turcica length was significantly greater in class III patients compared to class II and class I (P < 0.0001. However, depth and diameter of sella turcica were similar in class I

  16. MHC class II antigen presentation by B cells in health and disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souwer, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    MHC class II antigen presentation by B cells is important to activate CD4+ T cells that stimulate the B cell to produce antibodies. Besides this, disruption of MHC class II antigen presentation could play a role in immune escape by tumor cells. This thesis describes MHC class II antigen presentation

  17. An Organizational Perspective on the Origins of Instructional Segregation: School Composition and Use of Within-Class Ability Grouping in American Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.; Catsambis, Sophia; Mulkey, Lynn M.; Steelman, Lala Carr

    2010-01-01

    Background: This investigation was sparked by research findings on secondary education showing school segregation to be closely associated with homogeneous grouping practices, such as tracking and between-class ability grouping. Research Design: We conduct secondary analyses of national data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten…

  18. Microbial Diversity in a Venezuelan Orthoquartzite Cave is Dominated by the Chloroflexi (Class Ktedonobacterales and Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel A Barton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of caves are formed within limestone rock and hence our understanding of cave microbiology comes from carbonate-buffered systems. In this paper, we describe the microbial diversity of Roraima Sur Cave, an orthoquartzite (SiO4 cave within Roraima Tepui, Venezuela. The cave contains a high level of microbial activity when compared with other cave systems, as determined by an ATP-based luminescence assay and cell counting. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of microbial diversity within the cave demonstrate the dominance of Actinomycetales and Alphaproteobacteria in endolithic bacterial communities close to the entrance, while communities from deeper in the cave are dominated (82-84% by a unique clade of Ktedonobacterales within the Chloroflexi. While members of this phylum are commonly found in caves, this is the first identification of members of the Class Ktedonobacterales. An assessment of archaeal species demonstrates the dominance of phylotypes from the Thaumarchaeota Group I.1c (100%, which have previously been associated with acidic environments. While the Thaumarchaeota have been seen in numerous cave systems, the dominance of Group I.1c in Roraima Sur Cave is unique and a departure from the traditional archaeal community structure. Geochemical analysis of the cave environment suggests that water entering the cave, rather than the nutrient-limited orthoquartzite rock, provides the carbon and energy necessary for microbial community growth and subsistence, while the poor buffering capacity of quartzite or the low pH of the environment may be selecting for this unusual community structure. Together these data suggest that pH, imparted by the geochemistry of the host rock, can play as important a role in niche-differentiation in caves as in other environmental systems.

  19. 5 CFR 352.309 - Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... life insurance. 352.309 Section 352.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... Organizations § 352.309 Retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance. (a) Agency action. An employee... entitled to retain coverage for retirement, health benefits, and group life insurance purposes if he or...

  20. 75 FR 69469 - Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration Organization, Including On...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 34174). At the request of the State agency, the Department reviewed the certification for... Employment and Training Administration Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration..., applicable to workers of Health Net, Inc., Claims Processing Group and Systems Configuration...

  1. The Social Group Influences of US Health Journalists and Their Impact on the Newsmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M. P.; Blake, K. D.; Meissner, H. I.; Viswanath, K.

    2013-01-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--"media agenda-setting" and…

  2. [Food and health risks: views on healthy food and food consumption practices among middle-class women and men in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidin, Betina

    2016-01-01

    In this article we analyze notions about healthy food and the perceptions of risks related to industrialized foodstuffs within a group of young and middle-aged females and males who belong to the middle class and live in the Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. Data come from eight focus groups that were carried out in 2013. The study shows that the participants of the focus group have incorporated scientific-nutritional knowledge into their conceptions of healthy food. However, few discuss the risks of industrialized food beyond the growing public attention regarding trans fats and salt content. Although organic foods are positively valued, participants object to their high cost and the location of their commercialization. We show how in their food practices, the participants of the focus groups weigh their concern about health against other priorities such as costs, convenience, aesthetics, pleasure and sociability.

  3. Promoting children's health through physically active math classes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E; Abel, Mark G; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W

    2011-03-01

    School-based interventions are encouraged to support youth physical activity (PA). Classroom-based PA has been incorporated as one component of school wellness policies. The purpose of this pilot study is to examine the effects of integrating PA with mathematics content on math class and school day PA levels of elementary students. Participants include four teachers and 75 students. Five math classes are taught without PA integration (i.e., baseline) followed by 13 math classes that integrate PA. Students wear pedometers and accelerometers to track PA during math class and throughout the school day. Students perform significantly more PA on school days and in math classes during the intervention. In addition, students perform higher intensity (step min(-1)) PA during PA integration math classes compared with baseline math classes. Integrating PA into the classroom is an effective alternative approach to improving PA levels among youth and is an important component of school-based wellness policies.

  4. Do structured arrangements for multidisciplinary peer group supervision make a difference for allied health professional outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuipers P

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pim Kuipers,1,2 Susan Pager,1 Karen Bell,3 Fiona Hall,4 Melissa Kendall2,5,6 1Centre for Functioning and Health Research, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 2Centre for Community Science, School of Human Services, Griffith University, Queensland, Australia; 3Darling Downs Hospital and Health Service, Queensland, Australia; 4Allied Health Professions Office of Queensland, Health Service and Innovation Division, Queensland, Australia; 5Acquired Brain Injury Outreach Service, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; 6Transitional Rehabilitation Programme, Metro South Health, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia Abstract: Peer group supervision, particularly in multidisciplinary formats, presents a potential means of providing professional support, and specifically clinical supervision, for allied health professionals. Debate exists regarding the extent to which the activities of these groups should be formalized. Results drawn from an evaluation of a large-scale peer group supervision initiative are described. Analysis of 192 responses from professionals involved in peer groups indicates that participants in groups that used formal documentation – which adopted the tools provided in training, and particularly those that used formal evaluation of their groups – rated their groups as having better processes and greater impact. Interestingly, multidisciplinary peer groups were rated as having similar impacts, processes, and purposes as the more homogenous single-discipline groups. It is concluded that the implementation of formal arrangements enhances the processes and outcomes of peer groups implemented for professional support and clinical supervision. Multidisciplinary membership of such groups is perceived as equally beneficial as single-discipline groups. Keywords: allied health, professional supervision, clinical supervision, professional support, multidisciplinary

  5. Middle-class mythology and the Houdini disappearing act: health care and jobs joined at the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrle, Lynn Howard; Cleveland, Robert W

    2010-01-01

    Myths have long legs. Once they become integrated into the cultural ethos they are almost impossible to dislodge. The Middle Class Myth is a case in point. Spoken of in reverential terms, the conventional wisdom holds that the U.S. economy is driven by a vast middle class, anchoring its consumer-driven system of goods and services. But contrary to frequent statements by pundits, politicians, and many economists, the middle class has actually disappeared. Another commonly held myth--that the United States has the best health care system in the world--is perpetuated by medical leaders and the mainstream media. Despite huge worker layoffs causing 50 million to be without health insurance, and millions more who are underinsured, the myth persists. A third myth, one currently in vogue among media pundits and politicians, is that health care and jobs are two separate issues and policymakers can deal with them as unrelated to each other, when in reality they are inextricably interwoven--the connective tissue of a physically and mentally robust workforce. The authors use Census Bureau after-tax income and Federal Reserve data to demonstrate that the middle class has disappeared, leaving millions of Americans with little disposable income, meager savings, and no health care safety net.

  6. Characteristics and Changes in Health Status and Life Function among Female Elderly Participants of Group Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of female elderly participants of a group exercise organized by the participants themselves and the changes in their physical, mental, and social health, and life function. Findings of this study will be used for promoting effective preventive care. The subjects whose characteristics were analyzed were 394 participants and 757 nonparticipants of the group exercise. Those whose changes in health were analyzed were 52 participants and 114 nonparticipants. Locomotion Check and self-rated health score were used as indices of physical health. World Health Organization-Five well-being (S-WHO-5-J) index and self-rated life satisfaction level were used as indices of mental health. Satisfaction level of social activities was one of indices of social health. The Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence was used as an index of life function. The health-examination data analyzed were Body Mass Index, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipid profiles, and HbA1c level. In the participant group, the proportions of those who lived alone, who were affluent, and who had no job were higher than those in the nonparticipant group. The indices of physical, mental and social health and life function were higher in the participant group. There was no significant difference in the 5-year trend of health-examination data between the two groups. There was no significant difference in the yearly change in the indices of physical health and life function. The S-WHO-5-J index, self-rated life satisfaction level, and satisfaction level of social activities were maintained or improved in the participant group. The results suggest the possible usefulness of the group exercise for maintaining the mental and social health of elderly women.

  7. Health risks, social relations and class: an analysis of occupational health discourse in Finnish newspaper and women's magazine articles 1961-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varje, Pekka; Väänänen, Ari

    2016-03-01

    In this article we examine the treatment of psychosocial risks in public occupational health discourse in Finnish newspaper and magazine articles between the 1960s and 2000s, using discourse analysis. Building on class theories, our aim is to investigate how class expectations have been linked with the redefinition of occupational health risks during this period. Our results suggest that as social relations at the workplace became problematised in the occupational health discussions after the 1970s, the image of the hierarchical and naturally conflictual organisation was replaced by idealised middle-class notions of smoothly functioning, harmonious organisations that offered rewarding work experiences. However, this same period since the late 1970s has also been characterised by increasing economic competition and neoliberal market ideology. We conclude that the concern about work-related psychosocial risks and health problems expressed in Finnish newspaper and magazine articles during the last three decades has been shaped in many respects by a collision between the dominant middle-class expectations of harmony and equality and the neoliberal production of competition and inequality. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  8. Global oral health inequalities: task group--implementation and delivery of oral health strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheiham, A; Alexander, D; Cohen, L

    2011-01-01

    their environment. There is a dearth of oral health research on social determinants that cause health-compromising behaviors and on risk factors common to some chronic diseases. The gap between what is known and implemented by other health disciplines and the dental fraternity needs addressing. To re-orient oral...... health research, practice, and policy toward a 'social determinants' model, a closer collaboration between and integration of dental and general health research is needed. Here, we suggest a research agenda that should lead to reductions in global inequalities in oral health....

  9. Analytic Support for Washington Citizens' Work Group on Health Care: Evaluation of Health Care Reform Proposals.

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Chollet; Jeffrey Ballou; Alison Wellington; Thomas Bell; Allison Barrett; Gregory Peterson; Stephanie Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Mathematica evaluated five health care reform proposals for the state of Washington in 2008. The proposals featured, respectively: reduced regulation in the current market; Massachusetts-style insurance reforms with a health insurance connector; a health partnership program similar to the current state employee health plan; a state-operated single payer plan; and a program that would guarantee catastrophic coverage for all residents. This report provides estimates of the changes in coverage a...

  10. Race-Ethnicity and Health Trajectories: Tests of Three Hypotheses across Multiple Groups and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tyson H.; O'Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from…

  11. Health Benefits Mandates and Their Potential Impacts on Racial/Ethnic Group Disparities in Insurance Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy

    2017-08-01

    Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.

  12. Socioeconomic Disparity in Later-Year Group Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Role of Health and Social Engagement Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjoo; Park, Sojung; Kwon, Eunsun; Cho, Joonyoung

    2017-06-01

    This study explored heterogeneous change patterns of South Korean older adults' depressive symptoms by poverty status, focusing on health status and social engagement changes. We used data from four waves (2006-2012) of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). Our sample contained 2461 poor and 1668 non-poor individuals. All were 65 years old or older at baseline. We used latent class growth analysis to identify trajectory groups' depressive symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine how a range of changes in health conditions and social engagement was associated with trajectories among poor and non-poor participants. Among the poor, five heterogeneous trajectories with clear patterns were identified: high-to-moderate, stable-high, slightly-increasing, steeply-increasing, and stable-low. Among non-poor, high-to-moderate, steeply-increasing, and stable-low groups were found. A decrease in health conditions was the most vulnerable subgroup's (steeply-increasing) primary risk factor. Poor older adults who reduced participation in, or decreased contact with, social networks were likely to belong to the steeply-increasing group. Our study provides impetus for organizational and/or environmental support systems to facilitate social engagement among poor older adults. Future research should examine whether the significance of social engagement among poor elders applies in less-developed and developed countries.

  13. [Communication in the coordination practices of socioeducational groups in family health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Líliam Barbosa; Soares, Sônia Maria

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the forms of communication used by coordinators in socioeducational groups in family health programmes. This qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study was conducted with 25 coordinators of groups in eight basic health units from Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data collection comprised non-participant observation and semistructured interviews with the coordinators. The theoretical basis for research was Bakhtin's formulations and references on communication and health. The gathered information showed that the body, health and disease triad was communicated in groups through different channels and at different levels of discourse. Our conclusion is that coordinators must adopt an approach that values the expression of participants, not just regarding the physical dimensions of health, but also the life of each participant, and should use various forms of communication to foster dialogical educational actions and means for interaction in groups.

  14. The group-lending model and social closure: microcredit, exclusion, and health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Anna T; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2009-08-01

    According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage.

  15. Integration of ethnic minorities during group-work for vocational teachers-in-training in health studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsli, Oddhild; Johanesen, Else Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine how to enhance integration of minority students in health education, and thereby improve intercultural communication skills and cultural sensitivity in a sample of health teacher students in Norway. Methods After a group-work intervention and for a period of six months afterwards we followed an “action research” approach and observed 47 health teachers-in-training in their first year at the Oslo and Akershus University College during classroom interactions. Data were qualitative and comprised student self-reports and survey results along with observations from three teachers, the authors of the study. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach with opinion categorization and an open coding procedure, with separate analyses performed on observations from minority students, majority students, and teachers. Results Both ethnic majority and minority students experienced an increase in intercultural knowledge and problem-solving ability after the experience of an early intervention in their first academic year of tertiary education. Students reacted favorably to the intervention and noted in class assessments both the challenges and rewards of overcoming cultural barriers. Teacher observation notes confirmed that early intervention led to an increase in interaction and cross-cultural engagement between minority and majority students compared to previous years’ classes without the intervention. Conclusions Early classroom intervention to promote intercultural engagement can prevent clique formation along majority/minority lines. The method used here, tailored group assignments in ethnically diverse working groups at the very beginning of students’ tertiary academic career, can be an effective approach to cultivating attitudes and skills fostering intercultural awareness and sensitivity. PMID:28132033

  16. Integration of ethnic minorities during group-work for vocational teachers-in-training in health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goth, Ursula Småland; Bergsli, Oddhild; Johanesen, Else Marie

    2017-01-28

    To determine how to enhance integration of minority students in health education, and thereby improve intercultural communication skills and cultural sensitivity in a sample of health teacher students in Norway. After a group-work intervention and for a period of six months afterwards we followed an "action research" approach and observed 47 health teachers-in-training in their first year at the Oslo and Akershus University College during classroom interactions. Data were qualitative and comprised student self-reports and survey results along with observations from three teachers, the authors of the study. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach with opinion categorization and an open coding procedure, with separate analyses performed on observations from minority students, majority students, and teachers. Both ethnic majority and minority students experienced an increase in intercultural knowledge and problem-solving ability after the experience of an early intervention in their first academic year of tertiary education. Students reacted favorably to the intervention and noted in class assessments both the challenges and rewards of overcoming cultural barriers. Teacher observation notes confirmed that early intervention led to an increase in interaction and cross-cultural engagement between minority and majority students compared to previous years' classes without the intervention. Early classroom intervention to promote intercultural engagement can prevent clique formation along majority/minority lines. The method used here, tailored group assignments in ethnically diverse working groups at the very beginning of students' tertiary academic career, can be an effective approach to cultivating attitudes and skills fostering intercultural awareness and sensitivity.

  17. Diversity in Collaborative Research Communities: A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Thesis Writing Group in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Xafis, Vicki; Doda, Diana V.; Gillam, Marianne H.; Larg, Allison J.; Luckner, Helene; Jahan, Nasreen; Widayati, Aris; Xu, Chuangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Writing groups for doctoral students are generally agreed to provide valuable learning spaces for Ph.D. candidates. Here an academic developer and the eight members of a writing group formed in a Discipline of Public Health provide an account of their experiences of collaborating in a multicultural, multidisciplinary thesis writing group. We…

  18. IMIA Working Group 15 : Technology assessment and quality development in health informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gennip, E.M.S.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The working group on technology assessment and quality development in health informatics was established as a follow-up to the recommendations made at the IMIA-ISTAHC working conference in 1990. The working group was approved by the IMIA General Assembly at Kyoto, September, 1993. The working group

  19. Diversity in Collaborative Research Communities: A Multicultural, Multidisciplinary Thesis Writing Group in Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Cally; Xafis, Vicki; Doda, Diana V.; Gillam, Marianne H.; Larg, Allison J.; Luckner, Helene; Jahan, Nasreen; Widayati, Aris; Xu, Chuangzhou

    2013-01-01

    Writing groups for doctoral students are generally agreed to provide valuable learning spaces for Ph.D. candidates. Here an academic developer and the eight members of a writing group formed in a Discipline of Public Health provide an account of their experiences of collaborating in a multicultural, multidisciplinary thesis writing group. We…

  20. Social Determinants of Health: Perspective of the ALAMES Social Determinants Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Escudero

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The recent discussion of the social determinants of health, which has been promoted by the WHO as a way to approach global health conditions is neither a new nor a foreign subject for Latin American social medicine or collective health. Indeed, this approach to health derives from the principles of 19th century European social medicine which accepted that the health of the population is a matter of social concern, that social and economic conditions have an important bearing on health and disease, and that these relationships should be subjected to scientific enquiry. (Rosen, 1985:81 The specific socio-historical conditions of Latin America in the 1970’s fostered the development of an innovative, critical, and socially-based based health analysis, which was seen in an evolving theoretical approach with deep social roots. (Cohn, 2003 This analysis calls for scientific work which is committed to changing living and working conditions and to improving the health of the popular classes. (Waitzkin y col. 2001; Iriart y col. 2002. From its beginning, this school of socio-medical thought recognized that collective health has two main areas of research: 1 the distribution and determinants of health and disease and 2 the interpretation, technical knowledge, and specialized practices concerning health, disease, and death. The goal is to understand health and disease as differentiated moments in the human lifecycle, subject to permanent change, and expressing the biological nature of the human body under specific forms of social organization, all this in such a way as to allow discussion of causality and determination. (Breilh y Granda,1982; Laurell, 1982. Latin American social medicine criticized biomedical and conventional epidemiological approaches for isolating health and disease from social context, misinterpreting social processes as biological, conceptualizing health phenomena in individualistic terms, and adopting the methodological

  1. A cluster randomized-controlled trial of a classroom-based drama workshop program to improve mental health outcomes among immigrant and refugee youth in special classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Cécile; Beauregard, Caroline; Daignault, Katherine; Petrakos, Harriet; Thombs, Brett D; Steele, Russell; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Hechtman, Lily

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this cluster randomized trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based theatre intervention program for immigrant and refugee youth in special classes for improving mental health and academic outcomes. The primary hypothesis was that students in the theatre intervention group would report a greater reduction in impairment from symptoms compared to students in the control and tutoring groups. Special classrooms in five multiethnic high schools were randomly assigned to theater intervention (n = 10), tutoring (n = 10) or control status (n = 9), for a total of 477 participants. Students and teachers were non-blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was impairment from emotional and behavioural symptoms assessed by the Impact Supplement of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the adolescents. The secondary outcomes were the SDQ global scores (teacher and youth reports), impairment assessed by teachers and school performance. The effect of the interventions was assessed through linear mixed effect models which incorporate the correlation between students in the same class, due to the nature of the randomization of the interventions by classroom. The theatre intervention was not associated with a greater reduction in self-reported impairment and symptoms in youth placed in special class because of learning, emotional and behavioural difficulties than a tutoring intervention or a non-active control group. The estimates of the different models show a non-significant decrease in both self-reported and impairment scores in the theatre intervention group for the overall group, but the impairment score decreased significantly for first generation adolescents while it increased for second generation adolescents. The difference between the population of immigrant and refugee youth newcomers studied previously and the sample of this trial may explain some of the differences in the observed impact of the theatre

  2. A cluster randomized-controlled trial of a classroom-based drama workshop program to improve mental health outcomes among immigrant and refugee youth in special classes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Rousseau

    Full Text Available The aim of this cluster randomized trial was to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based theatre intervention program for immigrant and refugee youth in special classes for improving mental health and academic outcomes. The primary hypothesis was that students in the theatre intervention group would report a greater reduction in impairment from symptoms compared to students in the control and tutoring groups.Special classrooms in five multiethnic high schools were randomly assigned to theater intervention (n = 10, tutoring (n = 10 or control status (n = 9, for a total of 477 participants. Students and teachers were non-blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was impairment from emotional and behavioural symptoms assessed by the Impact Supplement of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ completed by the adolescents. The secondary outcomes were the SDQ global scores (teacher and youth reports, impairment assessed by teachers and school performance. The effect of the interventions was assessed through linear mixed effect models which incorporate the correlation between students in the same class, due to the nature of the randomization of the interventions by classroom.The theatre intervention was not associated with a greater reduction in self-reported impairment and symptoms in youth placed in special class because of learning, emotional and behavioural difficulties than a tutoring intervention or a non-active control group. The estimates of the different models show a non-significant decrease in both self-reported and impairment scores in the theatre intervention group for the overall group, but the impairment score decreased significantly for first generation adolescents while it increased for second generation adolescents.The difference between the population of immigrant and refugee youth newcomers studied previously and the sample of this trial may explain some of the differences in the observed impact of

  3. Distribution of health literacy strengths and weaknesses across socio-demographic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauchamp, Alison; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Dodson, Sarity

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent advances in the measurement of health literacy allow description of a broad range of personal and social dimensions of the concept. Identifying differences in patterns of health literacy between population sub-groups will increase understanding of how health literacy contributes...... providers' (ES -1.00 [95 % CI -1.24, -0.75]), and 'Navigating the healthcare system' (ES -0.72 [95 % CI -0.97, -0.48]). Similar patterns and ES were seen for participants born overseas compared with those born in Australia. Smaller ES were seen for sex, age group, private health insurance status, number...

  4. Correlation of Shape and Size of Sella Turcica With the Type of Facial Skeletal Class in an Iranian Group

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh; Shahbeig; Mohseni,; MR Azimi; Bakhshandeh

    2015-01-01

    Background In orthodontic science, diagnosis of facial skeletal type (class I, II, and III) is essential to make the correct treatment plan that is usually expensive and complicated. Sometimes results from analysis of lateral cephalometry radiographies are not enough to discriminate facial skeletal types. In this situation, knowledge about the relationship between the shape and size of the sella turcica and the type of facial skeletal class can help to make a more definitive deci...

  5. The human health programme under AMAP. AMAP Human Health Group. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, J C

    1998-10-01

    The human health programme of the first phase of AMAP was planned at an international meeting held in Nuuk, Greenland, October 1992. As the most vulnerable period to adverse effects of contaminants is during fetal development, it was decided to concentrate on analyses of umbilical cord blood and maternal blood. The programme was designed as a core programme in which 150 sample pairs should be collected in each of the 8 arctic countries and analyzed for persistant organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals (mercury, lead and cadmium). As some essential elements such as copper, zinc and selenium interfere with heavy metal toxicity these elements should also be analyzed. Additional analyses such as nickel and arsenic in urine, mercury in hair, and POPs in breast milk could be incorporated regionally according to specific local conditions. Radionucleides were not a major focus in the human programme as this issue was be dealt with by AMAP's radiation group. Implementation of the programme was a problem in most of the countries due to lack of funding. However, an offer from Canada to analyze all contaminants in 50 samples from each country enabled the first comparative circumpolar study of human exposure to contaminants to be completed. The study confirmed that in general the most important source of exposure to both POPs and mercury is food of marine origin and that Greenlanders and Inuit from the Canadian Arctic, due to their traditional lifestyle, are among the most highly exposed populations in the Arctic. This is not a result of local pollution in Greenland and Canada, but is due to long range transport of persistent contaminants through the atmosphere and their biomagnification in the marine food chain. For these reasons the most important recommendation of the first AMAP assessment is that priority should be given to the expeditious completion of negotiations to establish protocols for the control of POPs and heavy metals under the Convention on Long Range

  6. Health effects of war stress on Norwegian World War II resistance groups: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Ellinor F

    2003-12-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which adverse long-term health effects of World War II stress exposure were present in 3 groups of resistance veterans. The groups had been exposed to different types of war stressors: concentration camp incarceration, resistance participation within the illegal press, and a secret military organization. With the differences in war stressors as a basis, we assumed that those incarcerated in a concentration camp would display more adverse health effect compared to the resistance veterans. The findings point to a relationship between the severity of war stressors and postwar health in all 3 groups.

  7. The multilevel analysis of surface acting and mental health: A moderation of positive group affective tone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meng-Shiu; Huang, Jui-Chan; Wu, Tzu-Jung

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among surface acting, mental health, and positive group affective tone. According to the prior theory, this study attempts to establish a comprehensive research framework among these variables, and furthermore tests the moderating effect of positive group affective tone. Data were collected from 435 employees in 52 service industrial companies by questionnaire, and this study conducted multilevel analysis. The results showed that surface acting will negatively affect the mental health. In addition, the positive group affective tone have significant moderating effect on the relationship among surface acting and mental health. Finally, this study discusses managerial implications and highlights future research suggestions.

  8. Using a "Classroom Response System" to Improve Active Student Participation in a Large Sexual Health Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vail-Smith, Karen; Blumell, Charla; Elmore, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Larger class sizes are often the solution to the greater enrollments and fewer resources that many colleges and universities face today. These large classes present special challenges to courses that were typically and most effectively taught in small, interactive and open settings. A "Classroom Response System" (CRS), an instructional tool that…

  9. Social class and body management. A qualitative exploration of differences in perceptions and practices related to health and personal body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise H; Holm, Lotte

    2010-10-01

    To deepen our understanding of the relationship between social class and obesity, the study compares the ways in which conceptions of health and personal body weight are enmeshed in the everyday lives of people with disparate socio-cultural backgrounds and weight status. We ask how perceptions and enactments of health and personal body weight are related to social structures and practices at work, in spare time, and in family life. Qualitative interviews focusing on life history and current everyday life were conducted with two groups of Danish adults. One group contained highly educated people of normal weight. The other contained people with less education and body weights above the obesity threshold. Recommended healthy lifestyle regimes complied more fully with the established practices and internalized ideas of those in the normal weight highly educated group than they did with the practices and ideas of those in the high-BMI less educated group. Work environments, and also conditions connected with work that were carried over into spare time and family life, further promoted the integration of healthy lifestyles into the everyday practices of the highly educated, normal weight group. In the less educated, high-BMI group this kind of integration occurred less.

  10. The equation class="cmmi-10">xclass="cmmi-7">pclass="cmmi-10">yclass="cmmi-7">q = class="cmmi-10">zclass="cmmi-7">r and groups that act freely on Λ-trees

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, N; Ciobanu, Laura; De Martino, A.; Rourke, S. O

    2009-01-01

    Let G be a group that acts freely on a Λ-tree, where Λ is an ordered abelian group, and let x,y,z be elements in G. We show that if xpyq = zr with integers p, q, r ≥ 4, then x, y and z commute. As a result, the one-relator groups with xpyq = zr as relator, are examples of hyperbolic and CAT( − 1) groups which do not act freely on any Λ-tree.

  11. The equation class="cmmi-10">xclass="cmmi-7">pclass="cmmi-10">yclass="cmmi-7">q = class="cmmi-10">zclass="cmmi-7">r and groups that act freely on Λ-trees

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, N; Ciobanu, Laura; A de Martino; Rourke, S. O

    2009-01-01

    Let G be a group that acts freely on a Λ-tree, where Λ is an ordered abelian group, and let x,y,z be elements in G. We show that if xpyq = zr with integers p, q, r ≥ 4, then x, y and z commute. As a result, the one-relator groups with xpyq = zr as relator, are examples of hyperbolic and CAT( − 1) groups which do not act freely on any Λ-tree.

  12. Social Media as Catalyzer for Connected Health: Hype or Hope? Perspectives from IMIA Working Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Vilmarlund, Vivian; Borycki, Elizabeth; Schulz, Stefan; Kuziemsky, Craig; Marschollek, Michael; Kulikowski, Casimir A

    2016-01-01

    The Internet and social media are becoming ubiquitous technologies that are transforming the health sector. Social media has become an avenue for accessing, creating and sharing health information among patients and healthcare professionals. Furthermore, social media has become a key feature in many eHealth solutions, including wearable technologies, Big Data solutions, eLearning systems, Serious Games, Medical imaging, etc. These hyper-connected technologies are facilitating a paradigm shift towards more connected health. In this panel, representatives of different IMIA Working Groups will explore how both hope and hype contribute to social media's catalyzing role in creating connected health solutions.

  13. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In

  14. The effectiveness of a health promotion with group intervention by clinical trial. Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Osaba Maria-Antonia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promotion of health and the interventions in community health continue to be one of the pending subjects of our health system. The most prevalent health problems (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes... are for the most part related to life habits. We propose a holistic and integral approach as the best option for tackling behavior and its determinants. The research team has elaborated the necessary educational material to realize group teaching, which we call "Health Workshops". The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these Health Workshops in the following terms: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL, incorporate and maintain a balanced diet, do physical activity regularly, maintain risk factors such as tension, weight, cholesterol within normal limits and diminish cardiovascular risk. Methods/Design Controlled and random clinical testing, comparing a group of persons who have participated in the Health Workshops with a control group of similar characteristics who have not participated in the Health Workshops. Field of study: the research is being done in Health Centers of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Population studied: The group is composed of 108 persons that are actually doing the Health Workshops, and 108 that are not and form the control group. They are assigned at random to one group or the other. Data Analysis: With Student's t-distribution test to compare the differences between numerical variables or their non parametric equivalent if the variable does not comply with the criteria of normality. (Kolmogorov-Smirnof test. Chi-square test to compare the differences between categorical variables and the Logistic Regression Model to analyze different meaningful variables by dichotomous analysis related to the intervention. Discussion The Health Workshop proposed in the present study constitutes an innovative approach in health promotion, placing the emphasis on the person's self

  15. Smokers With Behavioral Health Comorbidity Should Be Designated a Tobacco Use Disparity Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc L.; Griffiths, Kim Gesell; Cooperman, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Smokers with co-occurring mental illness or substance use disorders are not designated a disparity group or priority population by most national public health and tobacco control groups. These smokers fulfill the criteria commonly used to identify groups that merit special attention: targeted marketing by the tobacco industry, high smoking prevalence rates, heavy economic and health burdens from tobacco, limited access to treatment, and longer durations of smoking with less cessation. A national effort to increase surveillance, research, and treatment is needed. Designating smokers with behavioral health comorbidity a priority group will bring much-needed attention and resources. The disparity in smoking rates among persons with behavioral health issues relative to the general population will worsen over time if their needs remain unaddressed. PMID:23865661

  16. The Impact of Homogeneous vs. Heterogeneous Collaborative Learning Groups in Multicultural Classes on the Achievement and Attitudes of Nine Graders towards Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Ahmed O.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aims at investigating the impact of homogeneous versus heterogeneous collaborative learning grouping in multicultural classes on the students' achievements and attitudes towards learning science. In the present study, heterogeneity was unpacked through two dimensions: the cultural background, represented by the different…

  17. A Bayesian Approach to a Multiple-Group Latent Class-Profile Analysis: The Timing of Drinking Onset and Subsequent Drinking Behaviors among U.S. Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hwan; Anthony, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a multiple-group latent class-profile analysis (LCPA) by taking a Bayesian approach in which a Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation is employed to achieve more robust estimates for latent growth patterns. This article describes and addresses a label-switching problem that involves the LCPA likelihood function, which has…

  18. The Effects of Students' in- and out-of-Class Experiences on Their Analytical and Group Skills: A Study of Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Linda C.; Terenzini, Patrick T.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the unique and joint contributions of engineering students' classroom and out-of-class experiences on the development of two sets of skills central to students' successful performance as engineers: analytical and group skills. Although the study focuses on engineering, the conceptual underpinnings and criterion measures are…

  19. Implementation of Pair Work and Group Work for Creation of Interaction Opportunities for Learners in Large Classes: The Viability of the Two Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otienoh, Ruth O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on an action research carried out in two Kenyan Primary schools in Nairobi. The purpose was to implement group work and pair work to improve teaching and learning in large classes by creating interaction opportunities for learners. This was a mixed method study of dominant/less dominant design where interviews and structured…

  20. Does smoking within an individual's peer group affect intervention effectiveness? An evaluation of the Smoke-Free Class Competition among Swiss adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stucki, S.; Kuntsche, E.N.; Archimi, A.; Kuntsche, S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to test whether participation in the Smoke-Free Class Competition (SFC), a classroom-based smoking prevention program, reduced smoking and increased smoking-related knowledge among those with and without smoking peers compared to control groups. METHOD: Including

  1. Comparison of Two Small-Group Learning Methods in 12th-Grade Physics Classes Focusing on Intrinsic Motivation and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Roland; Hanze, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Twelfth-grade physics classes with 344 students participated in a quasi-experimental study comparing two small-group learning settings. In the jigsaw classroom, in contrast to the cyclical rotation method, teaching expectancy as well as resource interdependence is established. The study is based on the self-determination theory of motivation,…

  2. Permanent education and co-management: experience of a health managing group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Faria Corrêa da Costa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experience lived by a group of workers of the Regional Center for Action on Health of the 4th. Regional Health State Department of Health of Rio Grande do Sul in Santa Maria. The paper presents an experience of reorganization of the work process in order to tackle the historical fragmentation of activities in the field of health management, and trigger a learning process for institutional support to carry thirty-two municipalities in the area of administrative scope of this coordinating body . To do so, it relies upon the co-management strategies and continuing health education as tools to trigger processes of change and inventing other ways of designing and conducting health work. With this experience, we can dislodge established places, inventing new forms of teamwork and interdisciplinary manner in order to strengthen this group of workers and their practices.

  3. Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis With Applications in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Linda M

    2010-01-01

    One of the few books on latent class analysis (LCA) and latent transition analysis (LTA) with a comprehensive treatment of longitudinal latent class models, Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis reflects improvements in statistical computing as the most up-to-date reference for theoretical, technical, and practical issues in cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Plentiful examples enable the reader to acquire a thorough conceptual and technical understanding and to apply techniques to address empirical research questions. Researchers seeking an advanced introduction to LCA and LTA and g

  4. The Effect of Menstrual Health Education Conducted with Peer Education Method to Adolescent Girls in 6-8 Classes on Information and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Golbasi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Research was conducted as a experimental study in order to determine the effect of menstrual health education conducted with peer education to adolescent girls in 6-8 classes on information and behaviors. Method: The study was made in Primary School of Regional Girl Boarding. Working group consisted of 202 students responded completely pre-test and post-test from 214 female students studying in this school in 2008-2009 academic year. Data were collected by Personal Information Form, Menstruation and Menstrual Health Information Form. The forms were implemented to all students before the start of peer education program. Then, a total of 24 students including two students from each class were chosen as a peer educator with simple random sampling method. Peer educators were given information about menstruation and menstrual health for 2 hours per week and a total of 6 hours during 3 weeks in line with the educational booklet. Peer educator were asked to share acquired this information with classmates in various environments. Forms used at the beginning of students were applied to students again 4 weeks after completion of peer education program. Results: The average score of the students' knowledge of menstruation and menstrual health increased significantly (p <0.05 after the peer education program. Also, a statistically significant increase has occurred in the behaviors of students’ washing their hands before the toilet during menstruation, lustrating from front to back with toilet paper, bathing in the form of shower during menstruation, using cotton underwear, changing frequently pads used and taking away the pads used by wrapping (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be considered that the method of peer education is an effective method to increase knowledge of adolescent girls about menstruation and menstrual health and develop health behaviors. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(2.000: 191-198

  5. Impact of the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program on Diabetes Prevention in the Military Health System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    TITLE OF MATERIAL TO BE PUBLISHED OR PRESENTED Impact of the Group Lifestyle Balance (GLB) Program on Diabetes Prevention in the Military Health...of 3 Pages IMPACT OF THE GROUP LIFESTYLE BALANCE (GLB) PROGRAM ON DIABETES PREVENTION IN THE MILITARY HEALTH SYSTEM Maj Richard Davis, MD1; Col Mark...The Diabetes Prevention Program (OPP) demonstrated lifestyle intervention programs were effective. The GLB program translated the OPP curriculum

  6. The Perception of Overweight Pupils by the Group of Pupils during the Physical Education and Sports Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PETRACOVSCHI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Overweight produces discrimination and marginalisation during the physical education and sports (P.E. class. The purpose of this research is to identify the way in which pupils with normal weight perceive their overweight peers, with the aim of identifying the problems of collaboration and co-participation within the teams and pairs established during P.E. classes. The semi-directive interview method was used; it was applied on a class of pupils aged 11 and 12 from a school in Timisoara. The interviews were processed using the thematic analysis and show the fact that pupils with normal weight avoid interacting with the overweight peers for fear of being identified with the latter.

  7. Migration and mental health in Europe (the state of the mental health in Europe working group: appendix 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoy Maria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is a part of the work of the group that carried out the report "The state of the mental health in Europe" (European Commission, DG Health and Consumer Protection, 2004 and deals with the mental health issues related to the migration in Europe. Methods The paper tries to describe the social, demographical and political context of the emigration in Europe and tries to indicate the needs and (mental health problems of immigrants. A review of the literature concerning mental health risk in immigrant is also carried out. The work also faces the problem of the health policy toward immigrants and the access to health care services in Europe. Results Migration during the 1990s has been high and characterised by new migrations. Some countries in Europe, that have been traditionally exporters of migrants have shifted to become importers. Migration has been a key force in the demographic changes of the European population. The policy of closed borders do not stop migration, but rather seems to set up a new underclass of so-called "illegals" who are suppressed and highly exploited. In 2000 there were also 392.200 asylum applications. The reviewed literature among mental health risk in some immigrant groups in Europe concerns: 1 highest rate of schizophrenia; suicide; alcohol and drug abuse; access of psychiatric facilities; risk of anxiety and depression; mental health of EU immigrants once they returned to their country; early EU immigrants in today disadvantaged countries; refugees and mental health Due to the different condition of migration concerning variables as: motivation to migrations (e.g. settler, refugees, gastarbeiters; distance for the host culture; ability to develop mediating structures; legal residential status it is impossible to consider "migrants" as a homogeneous group concerning the risk for mental illness. In this sense, psychosocial studies should be undertaken to identify those factors which may under

  8. Neo-Marxian social class inequalities in self-rated health among the employed in South Korea: the role of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright's social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study subjects included the employed population of 4392 men and 3309 women aged 19-64 years. Subjects were classified into twelve social class positions based on the Wright's social class map. The health outcome was self-rated health. Material, psychosocial, behavioral, and workplace environmental factors were considered as potential mediators in explaining social class health inequality. We calculated prevalence ratios of poor self-rated health according to social class, adjusted for age and mediating factors using Poisson regression models. Nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie reported worse self-rated health than other social classes among men. The age-adjusted prevalence of petty bourgeoisie and nonskilled workers were about four-fold greater than that of managers. Expert supervisors in the contradictory class location had a greater prevalence of poor self-rated health than experts in men. In women, the prevalence of poor self-rated health was greater in most social classes than their male counterparts, while the differences among social classes within women were not statistically significant. Workplace environmental factors explained the social class inequality by from 24 to 31% in nonskilled and skilled workers and nonskilled supervisors, respectively, and material factors showed an explanatory ability of about 8% for both nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie in men. We showed the inequality in self-rated health according to the Wright's social class in an industrialized Asian country

  9. The Group-lending Model and Social Closure: Microcredit, Exclusion, and Health in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities throu...

  10. [Groups in basic health attention in Porto Alegre: uses and forms of therapeutic intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffacciolli, Rosana; Lopes, Marta Julia Marques

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with groups as an assistential modality used by the services of basic health attention. Workshops, health education groups, as well as, lectures are different activities done in relation to other traditional attendances. The study that is behind this discussion had as its main aim to know the profile of assistance, under groups' organization, offered in the Units which make part of the Basic Health Network in Porto Alegre. Within a total of 124 health services, 116 professionals were approached, among them, 96 developed groups. We could verify that the groups have therapeutic relevance because they favor the sharing of information and the learning about aspects which are related to the topic health-sickness. They constitute inclusive practices, which are able to create a link with the users and the service, as well as, to reformulate the existing assistential model. Therefore, it was verified that the understanding of these practices reflects on its dimension of the group assistance qualification and also the strategic dimension of compensation in the attendance of the increasing demand of health.

  11. 41 CFR 101-42.1101 - Federal supply classification (FSC) groups and classes which contain hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... device. 2520 Vehicular power transmission components Items containing asbestos. 2530 Vehicular brake... metallic sodium. Group 29 Engine accessories Engine valves containing metallic sodium. Group 30 Mechanical power transmission equipment Equipment containing hazardous hydraulic fluids including PCBs. Group...

  12. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities.

  13. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  14. Freebie Rhabdomyolysis: A Public Health Concern. Spin Class-Induced Rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Maureen; Ledesma, Rudrick; Coffino, Alan; Chander, Praveen

    2017-04-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a pathologic condition in which intracellular muscle constituents leak into the blood circulation. It is usually caused by muscle trauma. "Spinning" is an indoor form of cycling where participants use a special stationary exercise bicycle with a weighted flywheel and undergo high-intensity cycling classes focusing on endurance. There have been several case reports in the literature of exertional rhabdomyolysis following spin class. Our nephrology practices have diagnosed a number of cases of symptomatic patients presenting to our emergency departments following their first spin classes, with histories and creatinine phosphokinase levels diagnostic of exertional rhabdomyolysis. We present 3 unusual cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis, each occurring after a first spin class. In the first case, rhabdomyolysis developed following 15 minutes of spin class. In the second case, it occurred in a young individual who exercises regularly. In the third case, the patient developed biopsy-proved acute kidney injury secondary to exertional rhabdomyolysis and required hemodialysis. The high-intensity exercise associated with "spin class" comes with significant risks to newcomers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigation of class 1 integrons in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical and microbiota isolates belonging to different phylogenetic groups in Recife, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Maria Silva Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The high prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is related to the ability of K. pneumoniae to acquire and disseminate exogenous genes associated with mobile elements, such as R plasmids, transposons and integrons. This study investigated the presence of class 1 integrons in clinical and microbiota isolates of K. pneumoniae belonging to different phylogenetic groups and correlated these results with the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the studied isolates. Methods Of the 51 isolates of K. pneumoniae selected for this study, 29 were from multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, and 22 were from children's microbiota. The susceptibility profile was determined using the disk diffusion method, and class 1 integrons were detected through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results The results showed that none of the 22 microbiota isolates carried class 1 integrons. Among the 29 clinical isolates, 19 (65.5% contained class 1 integrons, and resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was identified in 18 of these isolates (94.7%. Among the K. pneumoniae isolates with class 1 integrons, 47% belonged to the KpI phylogenetic group, and one isolate (14.3% carrying these genetic elements belonged to the KpIII group. Conclusions The wide variety of detected class 1 integrons supports the presence of high rates of antimicrobial resistance, genetic variability, and rapid dissemination of beta-lactamase genes among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates in recent years in hospitals in Recife-PE, Brazil. The findings of this study indicate that the surveillance of K. pneumoniae integrons in clinical isolates could be useful for monitoring the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in the hospital environment.

  16. [Health Care Insurance in France: its impact on income distribution between age and social groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcade, N; Duval, J; Lardellier, R

    2013-08-01

    Our study, based on microsimulation models, evaluates the redistributive impact of health care insurance in France on income distribution between age and social groups. This work sheds light on the debate concerning the respective role of the public health care insurance (PHI) and the private supplemental health care insurance (SHI) in France. The analysis points out that the PHI enables the lowest-income households and the pensioners a better access to health care than they would have had under a complete private SHI. Due to the progressivity of taxes, low-income households contribute less to the PHI and get higher benefits because of a weaker health. Pensioners have low contributions to public health care finance but the highest health care expenditures.

  17. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  18. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  19. Technology Supported Facilitation and Assessment of Small Group Collaborative Inquiry Learning in Large First-Year Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Gwendolyn A.; Gahan, Lawrence R.; Matthews, Kelly E.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Bailey, Chantal; Adams, Peter; Kavanagh, Lydia J.; Long, Phillip D.; Taylor, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative learning activities offer the potential to support mutual knowledge construction and shared understanding amongst students. Introducing collaborative tasks into large first-year undergraduate science classes to create learning environments that foster student engagement and enhance communication skills is appealing. However,…

  20. Characteristics associated with self-rated health in the CARDIA study: Contextualising health determinants by income group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Nayak

    2016-12-01

    SRH is a multidimensional measure; CTA is useful for contextualizing risk factors in relation to health status. Findings suggest that for lower income groups, addressing contributors to chronic burden is important alongside lifestyle/medical factors. In a proportionate universalism context, in addition to differences in intensity of public health action across the socioeconomic gradient, differences in the type of interventions to improve SRH may also be important.

  1. Health information, credibility, homophily, and influence via the Internet: Web sites versus discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuoming; Walther, Joseph B; Pingree, Suzanne; Hawkins, Robert P

    2008-07-01

    Despite concerns about online health information and efforts to improve its credibility, how users evaluate and utilize such information presented in Web sites and online discussion groups may involve different evaluative mechanisms. This study examined credibility and homophily as two underlying mechanisms for social influence with regard to online health information. An original experiment detected that homophily grounded credibility perceptions and drove the persuasive process in both Web sites and online discussion groups. The more homophilous an online health information stimulus was perceived as being, the more likely people were to adopt the advice offered in that particular piece of information.

  2. 49 CFR 173.127 - Class 5, Division 5.1-Definition and assignment of packing groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Packing Group II, any material which exhibits a mean pressure rise time less than or equal to the pressure... Packing Group I are not met. (iii) Packing Group III, any material which exhibits a mean pressure rise... packing groups. 173.127 Section 173.127 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to...

  3. Effects of Racial Discrimination and Health Behaviors on Mental and Physical Health of Middle-Class African American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L.; Bonham, Vence; Neighbors, Harold W.; Amell, James W.

    2009-01-01

    This research is an examination of the effects of racial discrimination and health-promoting behaviors on the physical and mental health of a sample of 399 well-educated African American men. One would think that the attainment of higher education would increase health-promoting behaviors and might decrease discriminatory experiences that impact…

  4. Family group conferences in public mental health care : An exploration of opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gideon; Schout, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Family group conferences are usually organized in youth care settings, especially in cases of (sexual) abuse of children and domestic violence. Studies on the application of family group conferences in mental health practices are scarce, let alone in a setting even more specific, such as public ment

  5. Family group conferences in public mental health care : An exploration of opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gideon; Schout, Gert

    2011-01-01

    Family group conferences are usually organized in youth care settings, especially in cases of (sexual) abuse of children and domestic violence. Studies on the application of family group conferences in mental health practices are scarce, let alone in a setting even more specific, such as public ment

  6. The impact of group activities as a strategy for health promotion in the senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléria Bittar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the perception of two groups of elderly about the impact of the participation/ non participation in some activities, had in their health and quality of life. Twenty interviews were conducted with two groups of elderly. In the first group, called Participant Group (PG 10 elderly men and women participated in the third age group, a project called "Healthy Aging", which are held in various physical and socialization activities; and with other 10 subjects the Non-Participant Group (NPG, which did not join the project. We compared the two groups’ answers and concluded that the elderly from PG reported better quality of life, health and willingness to form social bonds. Also according to the elderly of NPG, we seek to know their justifications and reasons for non-adherence to the project. They also reported perceiving significant changes in those who participated, understanding that the group was able to improve self-esteem, health and quality of life. We conclude that the group actions, aiming the principles that guide the assumptions of health promotion can create a space for exchanges and experiences, restoring the necessary conditions so that the elderly may have a fuller life, with quality of life and welfare.

  7. Family group conferences in public mental health care : An exploration of opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Gideon; Schout, Gert

    Family group conferences are usually organized in youth care settings, especially in cases of (sexual) abuse of children and domestic violence. Studies on the application of family group conferences in mental health practices are scarce, let alone in a setting even more specific, such as public

  8. Emotional intelligence vs. health behaviour in selected groups in late adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with the relationship between the emotional intelligence of people in late adulthood and their health behaviour not described in the earlier literature on this subject. The objective of the research was to study the impact of emotional abilities on positive mental attitude, preventive behaviour, correct dietary habits and pro-health practice in selected older persons. The inventory of Pro-Health Behaviour (IZZ) by Juczyński Z was applied, together with the Polish adaptation of the INTE Questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence by Ciechanowicz A, Jaworowska A and Matczak A. A total of 199 people were examined. Two groups were taken into consideration: residents of care homes (DPS group) and attendees of the Third Age University (UTW group). Analyses of results showed statistically significant relationships between the variables: emotional intelligence and the individual categories of pro-health behaviour. This correlation had a positive nature: an increase in the intensity of emotional abilities, including the awareness of such abilities, led to the increase of health-care oriented behaviours. The division into DPS and UTW groups proved to be significant for the relationships between emotional intelligence, a positive mental attitude, and correct dietary habits. The result of the study show that pro-health activities are directly associated with the abilities to understand and to control the emotions of older people. The data obtained confirm the positive relationship between the high level of emotional intelligence and pro-health behaviour.

  9. Self-insurance and the potential effects of health reform on the small-group market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, Kathryn

    2010-12-21

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) as amended by the Health Care Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 makes landmark changes to health insurance markets. Individual and small-group insurance plans and markets will see the biggest changes, but PPACA also affects large employer and self-insured plans by imposing rules for benefit design and health plan practices. Over half of workers--most often those in very large firms--are covered by self-insured health plans in which employers (or employee groups) bear all or some of the risk of providing insurance coverage to a defined population of workers and their dependents. As PPACA provisions become effective, some have argued that smaller firms that offer insurance may opt to self-insure their health benefits because of new small-group market rules. Such a shift could affect risk pooling in the small-group market. This paper examines the definition and prevalence of self-insured health plans, the application of PPACA provisions to these plans, and the possible effects on the broader health insurance market, should many more employers decide to self-insure.

  10. Health inequalities in Ethiopia: modeling inequalities in length of life within and between population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranvåg, Eirik Joakim; Ali, Merima; Norheim, Ole Frithjof

    2013-07-11

    Most studies on health inequalities use average measures, but describing the distribution of health can also provide valuable knowledge. In this paper, we estimate and compare within-group and between-group inequalities in length of life for population groups in Ethiopia in 2000 and 2011. We used data from the 2011 and 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and the Global Burden of Disease study 2010, and the MODMATCH modified logit life table system developed by the World Health Organization to model mortality rates, life expectancy, and length of life for Ethiopian population groups stratified by wealth quintiles, gender and residence. We then estimated and compared within-group and between-group inequality in length of life using the Gini index and absolute length of life inequality. Length of life inequality has decreased and life expectancy has increased for all population groups between 2000 and 2011. Length of life inequality within wealth quintiles is about three times larger than the between-group inequality of 9 years. Total length of life inequality in Ethiopia was 27.6 years in 2011. Longevity has increased and the distribution of health in Ethiopia is more equal in 2011 than 2000, with length of life inequality reduced for all population groups. Still there is considerable potential for further improvement. In the Ethiopian context with a poor and highly rural population, inequality in length of life within wealth quintiles is considerably larger than between them. This suggests that other factors than wealth substantially contribute to total health inequality in Ethiopia and that identification and quantification of these factors will be important for identifying proper measures to further reduce length of life inequality.

  11. Managing parental groups during early childhood: New challenges faced by Swedish child health-care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefèvre, Åsa; Pia, Lundqvist; Eva, Drevenhorn; Inger, Hallström

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child health centre (CHC) nurses' views of managing parental groups during early childhood. All 311 CHC nurses working within the Swedish CHC system in one county were asked to complete a web-based questionnaire. Findings showed that although the CHC nurses were experienced, several found group leadership challenging and difficult. The need for specialized groups for young parents, single parents and parents whose first language was not Swedish was identified by 57% of the nurses. The CHC nurses found the participation of fathers in their parental groups to be low (an estimate of 10-20%), and 30% of the nurses made special efforts to make the fathers participate. Education in group dynamics and group leadership can strengthen CHC nurses in managing parental groups. It is recommended that specialized parental groups are organized by a few family centres so CHC nurses can develop their skill in managing such groups.

  12. Department of Health's requirement for mandatory collection of data on ethnic group of inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspinall, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    On 1 April the Department of Health introduced the mandatory collection of data on the ethnic group of patients admitted to hospital. Its coding was based on a national minimum standard for classifying ethnic groups, ostensibly using the categories in the 1991 census. In the census, however, one in four people from ethnic groups other than white, including many of mixed parentage, provided non-standard responses to the question on ethnic group. The Department of Health's standard does not include provision for respondents to write in a description of their ethnic group, and this has produced a flawed system out of step with current practice on collection of data on ethnic group. Different methods of analysis preclude comparison with census statistics, and the difficulties in aggregating more detailed local categories to the standard raise concerns about consistency of reporting and quality of the data. PMID:7580590

  13. Group work in the public health context: A proposal for training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasera, Emerson F; Pegoraro, Renata F; Pereira, Eliane R

    2016-03-01

    The entry of psychologists into the public health sector in Brazil is usually connected to a traditional clinical model, and, thus, marked by a lack of training for group work. A reflection on the training of psychologists for group work is essential. Aiming at contributing to this theme, the objective of this article is to discuss the training for group work in the public health sector. In particular, we aim to introduce a proposal for training in psychology in a Brazilian public university, covering a theoretical-practical module, as well as basic and professionalizing internship programmes.

  14. Self-care/health maintenance and contraceptive use, information needs, and knowledge of a selected group of university women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, J W; Fahey, M; Kurien, M; Roberto, D; Simon, R

    1981-01-01

    The self care/health maintenance/contraceptive information needs and knowledge of women utilizing the women's health clinic at a large New England university were investigated. The investigation was designed to elicit information about the level of knowledge, expressed learning needs, contraceptive use, satisfaction, and self health care needs of the clients. A questionnaire was devised to elicit data about self health care information needs and contraceptive use, information, and needs of the population of women who seek health care or attend educational sessions offered by women's health clinics. The information (knowledge) portion of the questionnaire was readministered after the educational sessions as a posttest at the time women came for their clinic appointments. Women utilizing the services of the women's clinic were, for the most part, resident students. More women making a 1st visit to the clinic were 20 years old or younger; women returning for care were more likely to be 20 or older. Use of a contraceptive method at the time of completing a questionnaire was indicated by 82.6% of respondents. Of the new clients using contraception, most were using oral contraceptives (OCs), condoms, or withdrawal. Of the returning clients, 93% were using OCs, diaphragm, condoms, or cream/jelly. The majority of new clients expressed dissatisfaction with their present method; the majority of returning clients were satisfied. The outstanding reasons for both groups were fear of pregnancy and inconvenience. Repeat clients also indicated worry about side effects. Nearly 62% of the respondents reported that they had used another method. Most common reasons for a change to present method included fear of pregnancy, fear of dangers, and side effects. Of the clients who indicated they had a problem with a method, side effects, pregnancy, and pain or discomfort were prevalent. Although women who had become pregnant in the past were, for the most part, using a contraceptive method

  15. Ethical issues in health care institutions. Lesson 2: Ethical considerations in group decision making and groupthink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alie, R E

    1991-01-01

    In this second lesson of a five-part WMU/AHRA magazine course on ethics, Dr. Alie tackles an interesting concept--group-think. According to the author, this tendency occurs when cohesive groups lose their ability to critically evaluate alternatives in problem solving. Since groups such as committees or task forces frequently resolve issues and make policy in health care organizations, warning signs of this phenomenon are detailed as well as suggestions to help avoid the problem.

  16. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. Objective We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members’ conversations. Methods Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. Results We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. Conclusions (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck

  17. Dental health economics and diagnosis related groups/casemix in Indonesian dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Rivany

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental Health Economics is a branch of transdiciplinary science that refers to the Economic and Public Health science. On the other hand, in other developed countries, Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG’s /Casemix has been used as a basic in creating the same perception between providers, patients and insurance companies in many aspects such as health planning, healthcare financing and quality assurance. Purpose: The objective of this review is to propose a new paradigm of economics to be applied in Indonesian Dentistry. Reviews: The Dental Health Economics should be considered as an important aspect in Indonesian Dentistry, which is used to determine the dental treatment fee based on unit cost, cost containment, and cost recovery rate analysis. Referring to Australian Refined Diagnosis Related Group, health care industry in Indonesia has starting to try a more structured way in grouping disease pattern in order to come up with more precise health care services to their patients. The on going development of Indonesian DRG’s is meant to confirm the disease pattern and partition. Conclusion: The development of Indonesian DRG’s concept, especially the Dental & Oral Disorders, needs a new paradigm, so the practitioners and academics could group and calculate the unit cost from each dental treatment according to the Indonesian DRG version (INA-DRG’s.

  18. Saúde, nutrição e classes sociais: o nexo empírico evidenciado em um grande centro urbano, Brasil Health, nutrition and social class: the empirical link demonstrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Embora freqüentemente assumida como verdadeira, a relação entre classe social e estado de saúde e nutrição raramente tem sido estudada no plano empírico. Adotando-se proposta classificatória que permite a identificação operacional do conceito de classe social em sociedades de organização complexa, procurou-se estabelecer e comparar o estado de saúde e nutrição de uma amostra das crianças da cidade de São Paulo pertencentes a distintas classes sociais. A partir da observação da distribuição do índice altura/idade, evidenciou-se crescimento normal - e portanto condições ótimas de saúde e nutrição - apenas entre as crianças pertencentes à burguesia e à pequena burguesia, as quais correspondem a cerca de 30% da população. Diferenças significantes (p The relationship between social class and nutritional status, although frequently presumed true, has scarcely ever been studied empirically. The health and nutritional status of a sample of children from different social classes in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil are studied by means of an on operational classification of social class. Through the analysis of the height for age distribution normal growth - and, therefore, favourable health status - eas found only among the burgeoisie and the small-burgeoisie, these two classes together constituting about 30% of the total population. Significant divergences from an expected anthropometric standard were found among all the segments of the working-class population. Differences in income and schooling among the classes corroborate the empirical link found between social class and health and nutritional status.

  19. Race, ethnicity, language, social class, and health communication inequalities: a nationally-representative cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasisomayajula Viswanath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While mass media communications can be an important source of health information, there are substantial social disparities in health knowledge that may be related to media use. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of cancer-related health communications is patterned by race, ethnicity, language, and social class. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a nationally-representative cross-sectional telephone survey, 5,187 U.S. adults provided information about demographic characteristics, cancer information seeking, and attention to and trust in health information from television, radio, newspaper, magazines, and the Internet. Cancer information seeking was lowest among Spanish-speaking Hispanics (odds ratio: 0.42; 95% confidence interval: 0.28-0.63 compared to non-Hispanic whites. Spanish-speaking Hispanics were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to pay attention to (odds ratio: 3.10; 95% confidence interval: 2.07-4.66 and trust (odds ratio: 2.61; 95% confidence interval: 1.53-4.47 health messages from the radio. Non-Hispanic blacks were more likely than non-Hispanic whites to pay attention to (odds ratio: 2.39; 95% confidence interval: 1.88-3.04 and trust (odds ratio: 2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.61-2.90 health messages on television. Those who were college graduates tended to pay more attention to health information from newspapers (odds ratio: 1.98; 95% confidence interval: 1.42-2.75, magazines (odds ratio: 1.86; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.60, and the Internet (odds ratio: 4.74; 95% confidence interval: 2.70-8.31 and had less trust in cancer-related health information from television (odds ratio: 0.44; 95% confidence interval: 0.32-0.62 and radio (odds ratio: 0.54; 95% confidence interval: 0.34-0.86 compared to those who were not high school graduates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Health media use is patterned by race, ethnicity, language and social class. Providing greater access to and enhancing the quality

  20. Group of experience with the elderly: psychosocial support in health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudicéia Noronha Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the perception of the elderly on the importance of a group of experience. Methods: iIt is an exploratory, descriptive research with qualitative approach, developed at a Basic Health Unit in a county of the Brazilian northeast, with 13 elderly people attending the Group. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysis by the thematic analysis technique. Results: three empirical categories were identified: motivation to seek the group of experience, perspective concerning this group and changes perceived through participation. Conclusion: the group of experience can represent a therapeutic moment for the elderly, serving as support and strengthening the elderly in the social context, making the improvement and development of abilities as well as the obtaining more knowledge for health promotion possible.

  1. Health science students' experiences of group supervision of the bachelor's thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utriainen, Kati; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Kangasniemi, Mari; Liikanen, Eeva

    2011-04-01

    This study aimed to describe health science university students' experiences of group supervision of the bachelor's thesis. Sixty-one students responded to questions on an open data collection form, and the data were analyzed by using qualitative inductive content analysis. According to the students, group supervision is supportive in terms of joint learning as well as commitment-enhancing and participative learning, but it also can be useless from the viewpoint of an individual student's own thesis. Teachers' role as experts and active directors of the group, students' commitment to learn together, and workable practical organization of the group were promoting factors, whereas students' timetable problems, mismatch between received and needed supervision, and difficulties in supervising other students were restraining factors. The results can be used for developing group supervision in higher health education.

  2. 78 FR 10618 - Re-Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Re-Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative... Services announces re- establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative... recommendations and advice to the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council...

  3. On group psychological counseling in college class construction%团体心理辅导在高校班级建设中的应用探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范乾坤

    2012-01-01

      目前,高校班级建设中存在着凝聚力、归属感缺乏等问题,文章对团体心理辅导引入班级建设的可行性进行了探索,并通过实际案例介绍了团体心理辅导在班级建设中的应用。%  At present, the existing problems such as lack of cohesion and sense of belonging, This article explores the class construction feasibility to take group psychological counseling into undertook ation , and through an actual case, introduces application of the group psychological tutorship in class construction.

  4. The Impact of a Health Methods Class on Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy and Intent to Teach Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila

    2013-01-01

    Background: Elementary schoolteachers are an important vehicle for teaching students health skills that will carry them through life and reduce their future risk of disease linked to health behaviors. Purpose: To determine whether university classroom instruction resulted in increased self-efficacy and intent to teach a skill-based health…

  5. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko

    2017-08-22

    While community-wide interventions to promote physical activity have been encouraged in older adults, evidence of their effectiveness remains limited. We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result of the physical activity. We conducted a qualitative study with purposeful sampling to explore the experiences of older adults who participated in regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention. Four focus group interviews were conducted between April and June of 2016 at community halls in Fujisawa City. The participants in the focus group interviews were 26 older adults with a mean age of 74.69 years (range: 66-86). The interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method in the grounded theory approach. We used qualitative research software NVivo10® to track the coding and manage the data. The finding 'regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults' emerged as an overarching theme with seven categories (regular group exercise, functional health, active mind, enjoyment, social connectedness, mutual support, and expanding communities). Although the participants perceived that they were aging physically and cognitively, the regular group exercise helped them to improve or maintain their functional health and enjoy their lives. They felt socially connected and experienced a sense of security in the community through caring for others and supporting each other. As the older adults began to seek value beyond individuals, they gradually expanded their communities beyond geographical and generational boundaries. The participants achieved balanced health in the physical, mental, and social domains through regular group exercise as part of a community-wide physical activity intervention and contributed to expanding communities through social connectedness and

  6. A risk-based regulatory framework for health IT: recommendations of the FDASIA working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slight, Sarah P; Bates, David W

    2014-10-01

    The Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) acting through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and in collaboration with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and Office of the National Coordinator for Health IT (ONC) was tasked with delivering a report on an appropriate, risk-based regulatory framework for health information technology (IT). An expert stakeholder group was established under the auspices of the Health IT Policy Committee to help provide input into the development of this framework, including how healthcare IT systems could be stratified in terms of risk and recommendations about how the regulatory requirements currently in place should be adapted. In this paper, we summarize the public deliberations and final public report of the expert stakeholder group, and conclude with key suggestions intended to address the charge to recommend the features of a risk-based regulatory framework that promote innovation, protect patient safety, and avoid regulatory duplication.

  7. "Macho men" and preventive health care: implications for older men in different social classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W; Mouzon, Dawne M

    2011-06-01

    The gender paradox in mortality--where men die earlier than women despite having more socioeconomic resources--may be partly explained by men's lower levels of preventive health care. Stereotypical notions of masculinity reduce preventive health care; however, the relationship between masculinity, socioeconomic status (SES), and preventive health care is unknown. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the authors conduct a population-based assessment of masculinity beliefs and preventive health care, including whether these relationships vary by SES. The results show that men with strong masculinity beliefs are half as likely as men with more moderate masculinity beliefs to receive preventive care. Furthermore, in contrast to the well-established SES gradient in health, men with strong masculinity beliefs do not benefit from higher education and their probability of obtaining preventive health care decreases as their occupational status, wealth, and/or income increases. Masculinity may be a partial explanation for the paradox of men's lower life expectancy, despite their higher SES.

  8. ON IDEAL CLASS GROUPS AND UNITS IN TERMS OF THE QUADRATIC FORM x2 + 32y2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JURGEN HURRELBRINK; YUE QIN

    2005-01-01

    For quadratic number fields F = Q(√2pl … pt-1 ) with primes pj ≡ 1 mod 8, the authors study the class number and the norm of the fundamental unit of F. The results generalize nicely what has been familiar for the fields Q(√2p) with a prime p ≡ 1 mod 8, including density statements. And the results are stated in terms of the quadratic form x2 + 32y2 and illustrated in terms of graphs.

  9. Psychosocial stress but not exercise increases cortisol and reduces state anxiety levels in school classes - results from a stressor applicable in large group settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Müller-Alcazar, Anett; Jäger, Anika; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Both, psychosocial stress and exercise in the past have been used as stressors to elevate saliva cortisol and change state anxiety levels. In the present study, high-school students at the age of 14 were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: (1) an exercise group (n = 18), that was running 15 minutes at a medium intensity level of 65-75% HRmax, (2) a psychosocial stress group (n = 19), and (3) a control group (n = 18). The psychosocial stress was induced to the students by completing a standardized intelligence test under the assumption that their IQ scores would be made public in class. Results display that only psychosocial stress but not exercise was able to significantly increase cortisol levels but decreased cognitive state anxiety in adolescents. The psychosocial stress protocol applied here is proposed for use in future stress studies with children or adolescents in group settings, e.g., in school.

  10. Physiotherapy management of joint hypermobility syndrome - a focus group study of patient and health professional perspectives.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, S.; Terry, R.; Rimes, K. A.; Clark, Carol J.; Simmonds, J; Horwood, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To develop an understanding of patient and health professional views and experiences of physiotherapy to manage joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS).Design: An explorative qualitative design. Seven focus groups were convened, audio recorded, fully transcribed and analysed using a constant comparative method to inductively derive a thematic account of the data.Setting: Four geographical areas of the UK.Participants: 25 people with JHS and 16 health professionals (14 physiotherapists a...

  11. The significance of healthy aging for older persons who participated in health education groups

    OpenAIRE

    Valer, Daiany Borghetti; Bierhals, Carla Cristiane Becker Kottwitz; Aires,Marinês; Paskulin, Lisiane Manganelli Girardi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Different terms have been used to describe the aging process while avoiding the negative consequences of advanced age. In this context healthy aging assumes a more extensive meaning than the absence of disease, and includes a process of adapting to the changes that occur throughout life, related to the maintenance of a healthy old age. Objective : To describe the meaning of healthy aging for older adults who participated in health education groups in the Basic Health Care Servi...

  12. Ethnic Group Differences in Health Outcomes Among Asian American Men in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mui, Paulani; Bowie, Janice V; Juon, Hee-Soon; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-09-01

    The numbers of Asian American men are continually increasing, yet limited research exists on this understudied population. Addressing this lack of research is necessary to better inform how best to improve quality of care. This study examined health outcome differences across ethnically diverse groups of Asian American men in California, compared with non-Hispanic White men. Using data from the 2007, 2009, and 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey, distributions of health status and health-related characteristics across ( n = 43,030) racial/ethnic groups of men (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, Vietnamese, Other Asian Americans, and non-Hispanic Whites) were calculated. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, odds of reporting fair or poor health were higher among Vietnamese, while odds of diabetes were higher among Korean, Filipino, and Other Asian Americans. Odds of high blood pressure were higher among Filipino and Vietnamese but lower among Other Asian Americans, while odds of disability were lower across all ethnic groups except Filipino and Vietnamese. This study's findings highlight the importance of understanding ethnic heterogeneity to develop culturally appropriate health interventions for Asian American men.

  13. Small-group learning in an upper-level university biology class enhances academic performance and student attitudes toward group work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Andrew D; Ramer, Leanne M; Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J; Ramer, Matt S

    2010-12-29

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students--even term high achievers--could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom.

  14. Small-Group Learning in an Upper-Level University Biology Class Enhances Academic Performance and Student Attitudes Toward Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakonechny, Joanne; Cragg, Jacquelyn J.; Ramer, Matt S.

    2010-01-01

    To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL) model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic) sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%), suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students – even term high achievers –could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom. PMID:21209910

  15. Small-group learning in an upper-level university biology class enhances academic performance and student attitudes toward group work.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Gaudet

    Full Text Available To improve science learning, science educators' teaching tools need to address two major criteria: teaching practice should mirror our current understanding of the learning process; and science teaching should reflect scientific practice. We designed a small-group learning (SGL model for a fourth year university neurobiology course using these criteria and studied student achievement and attitude in five course sections encompassing the transition from individual work-based to SGL course design. All students completed daily quizzes/assignments involving analysis of scientific data and the development of scientific models. Students in individual work-based (Individualistic sections usually worked independently on these assignments, whereas SGL students completed assignments in permanent groups of six. SGL students had significantly higher final exam grades than Individualistic students. The transition to the SGL model was marked by a notable increase in 10th percentile exam grade (Individualistic: 47.5%; Initial SGL: 60%; Refined SGL: 65%, suggesting SGL enhanced achievement among the least prepared students. We also studied student achievement on paired quizzes: quizzes were first completed individually and submitted, and then completed as a group and submitted. The group quiz grade was higher than the individual quiz grade of the highest achiever in each group over the term. All students--even term high achievers--could benefit from the SGL environment. Additionally, entrance and exit surveys demonstrated student attitudes toward SGL were more positive at the end of the Refined SGL course. We assert that SGL is uniquely-positioned to promote effective learning in the science classroom.

  16. Expert and Advocacy Group Consensus Findings on the Horizon of Public Health Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Modell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Description: Among the two leading causes of death in the United States, each responsible for one in every four deaths, heart disease costs Americans $300 billion, while cancer costs Americans $216 billion per year. They also rank among the top three causes of death in Europe and Asia. In 2012 the University of Michigan Center for Public Health and Community Genomics and Genetic Alliance, with the support of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Office of Public Health Genomics, hosted a conference in Atlanta, Georgia to consider related action strategies based on public health genomics. The aim of the conference was consensus building on recommendations to implement genetic screening for three major heritable contributors to these mortality and cost figures: hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, and Lynch syndrome (LS. Genetic applications for these three conditions are labeled with a “Tier 1” designation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because they have been fully validated and clinical practice guidelines based on systematic review support them. Methodology: The conference followed a deliberative sequence starting with nationally recognized clinical and public health presenters for each condition, followed by a Patient and Community Perspectives Panel, working group sessions for each of the conditions, and a final plenary session. The 74 conference participants represented disease research and advocacy, public health, medicine and nursing, genetics, governmental health agencies, and industry. Participants drew on a public health framework interconnecting policy, clinical intervention, surveillance, and educational functions for their deliberations. Results: Participants emphasized the importance of collaboration between clinical, public health, and advocacy groups in implementing Tier 1 genetic screening. Advocacy groups could help with individual and institutional

  17. Social Influences, Social Context, and Health Behaviors among Working-Class, Multi-Ethnic Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Karen M.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Gutheil, Caitlin; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    Little research has explored the relationship between social influences (e.g., social networks, social support, social norms) and health as related to modifying factors that may contribute to health disparities. This is a cross-sectional analysis of fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, using baseline data from two cancer prevention…

  18. Occupational Therapy in the practice of therapeutic groups and workshops with mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Bussola Montrezor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the effectiveness of occupational therapy to patients with mental disorders through therapy groups in an intensive inpatient unit. The following treatment groups were performed: focus groups, operative groups, drawing workshops, and arts workshops. The study included 280 patients (46.07% with ICD F20-29, 23.57% with ICD F30-39, and 14.28% with ICD F19. Of all the patients studied (n = 280, 54.00% participated in the operative groups, 52.85% in the focus groups, 46.80% in the drawing workshops, and 45.70% in the art workshops. In all groups, the participation of the ICD F20-29 group was higher (focus group with 49.25%, 54.00% in the operative group, 51.00% in the workshops of drawing, and 66.00% in art workshops, followed by the ICD F30-39 group with 24.25% in the focus group, 27.00% in the operative group, and 22.00% in the drawing workshops; the ICD F19 group stood out in the arts workshops. Patients with schizophrenia, psychoses, bipolar disorders, among others (ICD F20-20 and ICD F30-39 were the most active in the therapeutic groups, which discussed contents such as joy, anger, fear, thoughts of death, etc. The ICD F19 group presented the greatest participation in the art workshops, a fact that can be explained by the profile of these patients, because many have been in prison and/or admitted to long-stays in hospitals where they learned to perform manual tasks for subsequent survival in society. We concluded that therapeutic groups are effective in treating mental health patients because they contribute to hospital discharge and improve patients’ conditions.

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient–provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  20. Group-based microfinance for collective empowerment: a systematic review of health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Lois; Pennington, Andy; Nayak, Shilpa; Sowden, Amanda; White, Martin; Whitehead, Margaret

    2016-09-01

    To assess the impact on health-related outcomes, of group microfinance schemes based on collective empowerment. We searched the databases Social Sciences Citation Index, Embase, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO, Social Policy & Practice and Conference Proceedings Citation Index for articles published between 1 January 1980 and 29 February 2016. Articles reporting on health impacts associated with group-based microfinance were included in a narrative synthesis. We identified one cluster-randomized control trial and 22 quasi-experimental studies. All of the included interventions targeted poor women living in low- or middle-income countries. Some included a health-promotion component. The results of the higher quality studies indicated an association between membership of a microfinance scheme and improvements in the health of women and their children. The observed improvements included reduced maternal and infant mortality, better sexual health and, in some cases, lower levels of interpersonal violence. According to the results of the few studies in which changes in empowerment were measured, membership of the relatively large and well-established microfinance schemes generally led to increased empowerment but this did not necessarily translate into improved health outcomes. Qualitative evidence suggested that increased empowerment may have contributed to observed improvements in contraceptive use and mental well-being and reductions in the risk of violence from an intimate partner. Membership of the larger, well-established group-based microfinance schemes is associated with improvements in some health outcomes. Future studies need to be designed to cope better with bias and to assess negative as well as positive social and health impacts.

  1. Identifying barriers to healthcare to reduce health disparity in Zuni Indians using focus group conducted by community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vallabh O; Ghahate, Donica M; Bobelu, Jeanette; Sandy, Phillip; Newman, Sara; Helitzer, Deborah L; Faber, Thomas; Zager, Philip

    2014-02-01

    The Zuni Pueblo is home to an economically disadvantaged population, which faces a public health challenge from the interrelated epidemics of obesity, diabetes and kidney disease. Efforts to decrease the impact of these epidemics have been complicated by historical, economic and cultural barriers, which may limit healthcare utilization. The NIH supported Zuni Health Initiative (ZHI) conducted a study to identify barriers to healthcare in the Zuni Pueblo. Community health representatives (CHRs) led 14 one-hour focus group sessions at which a total of 112 people participated posed unique questions that took into account the Zuni culture to elicit information on perceived barriers to healthcare. Audiotapes were translated and transcribed by bilingual ZHI staff. We reduced the text to thematic categories, constructed a coding dictionary and inserted the text into NVivo 9 program. We identified nine themes emerged regarding the barriers experienced in receiving healthcare and adhering to medical advice. These included distance; transportation; embarrassment; relating to healthcare professionals; navigating the medical system; awareness of available resources; waiting times; adhering to medication; and incentives in health promotion. In conclusion the implementation of culturally appropriate community-based health promotion programs and preventive screening techniques will improve access to healthcare and diminish health disparities. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intelligence: is it the epidemiologists' elusive "fundamental cause" of social class inequalities in health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S

    2004-01-01

    Virtually all indicators of physical health and mental competence favor persons of higher socioeconomic status (SES). Conventional theories in the social sciences assume that the material disadvantages of lower SES are primarily responsible for these inequalities, either directly or by inducing psychosocial harm. These theories cannot explain, however, why the relation between SES and health outcomes (knowledge, behavior, morbidity, and mortality) is not only remarkably general across time, place, disease, and kind of health system but also so finely graded up the entire SES continuum. Epidemiologists have therefore posited, but not yet identified, a more general "fundamental cause" of health inequalities. This article concatenates various bodies of evidence to demonstrate that differences in general intelligence (g) may be that fundamental cause.

  3. [Positive psychology orientation: an intervention proposal for group work in mental health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Patrícia Mendes; Cavalcante Júnior, Francisco Silva

    2009-01-01

    This investigation aims at presenting a positive approach to psychology applied to the field of mental health in the treatment of patients with mental disorders. The intervention here presented was conducted in therapeutic groups with patients from a psychosocial care center (called CAPS). The analysis of the group work was based on three basic concepts: the humanistic approach and its vision of men and the world, the (con)text method of multiple literacies, and positive psychology. Quantitative and qualitative phenomenological research methodologies were used. The research results were divided into categories based on the group work with patients with depression-related disorders. Seeking for a new model of mental health care aimed at preserving the humanistic approach and the rights of the citizen, the Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS) emerges as a historical result of the construction of the health/disease concept in order to put into practice the principles guiding the psychiatric reform in Brazil. Within this process, a positive approach to psychology is opening horizons for a practice based on a new view of the subject, emphasizing and developing ' virtuous' aspects like the possibility of achieving health in its broader meaning, together health promotion and the employment of different psychological practices.

  4. Acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) for health anxiety: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilenberg, T; Fink, P; Jensen, J S; Rief, W; Frostholm, L

    2016-01-01

    Severe health anxiety is frequent and costly, yet rarely diagnosed or treated. Earlier treatment studies show problems with recruitment, dropout and recovery. In the current study, the authors aimed to test the effect of acceptance and commitment group therapy (ACT-G) compared to waitlist in patients with severe health anxiety. During March 2010 to April 2012, 126 consecutively referred patients meeting research criteria for severe health anxiety were block-randomized (1:1) to ACT-G or a 10 months' waitlist (Clinicaltrials.gov, no. NCT01158430). Patients allocated to ACT-G were treated in seven groups of nine patients between December 2010 and October 2012 and received nine weekly 3-h group sessions and a booster session consisting of ACT techniques. The primary outcome was decided a priori as the mean change in self-reported illness worry on the Whiteley-7 Index (WI) from baseline to 10 months' follow-up. Secondary outcomes were improvement in emotional distress and health-related quality of life at 10 months' follow-up. Intention-to-treat analysis showed a statistically significant mean difference of 20.5 points [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.7-29.4, p accepted by the patients. ACT-G seems feasible, acceptable and effective in treating severe health anxiety.

  5. Managing the conflict between individual needs and group interests--ethical leadership in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge.

  6. Perceptions and efficiency of short-term medical aid missions among key groups of health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ya-Wen; Weng, Yi-Hao; Chen, Chih-Fu; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lee, Ming-Liang

    2014-09-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of short-term assignments of medical services among participating health care professionals dispatched from Taiwan to underdeveloped areas. Structured questionnaires were mailed to four groups of professionals (physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and public health personnel) who had participated in any of 88 medical missions dispatched to 24 allied nations. A total of 278 returns were valid for analysis. Among them, 222 respondents reported that they had participated in just one overseas medical mission (79.9%). The majority of physicians, pharmacists, and nurses listed humanitarianism as their foremost incentive for participation. In contrast, public health personnel most frequently reported that they had been assigned to the mission abroad. Pharmacists, nurses, and public health personnel most commonly stated that their top goal was health care; but physicians said that aiding Taiwan's diplomatic relations was their main motive. While all groups generally recognized language proficiency and cultural awareness as important for conducting successful short-term medical aid missions (STMMs), many members of groups did not rate their own capabilities in those area as sufficient, especially pharmacists (p help inform efforts to integrate evidence into the deployment of STMMs.

  7. Retrenched Welfare Regimes Still Lessen Social Class Inequalities in Health: A Longitudinal Analysis of the 2003-2010 EU-SILC in 23 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Davis, O; McIsaack, K; Kokkinen, L; Shankardass, K; O'Campo, P

    2017-07-01

    This article builds on recent work that has explored how welfare regimes moderate social class inequalities in health. It extends research to date by using longitudinal data from the EU-SILC (2003-2010) and examines how the relationship between social class and self-reported health and chronic conditions varies across 23 countries, which are split into five welfare regimes (Nordic, Anglo-Saxon, Eastern, Southern, and Continental). Our analysis finds that health across all classes was only worse in Eastern Europe (compared with the Nordic countries). In contrast, we find evidence that the social class gradient in both measures of health was significantly wider in the Anglo-Saxon and Southern regimes. We suggest that this evidence supports the notion that welfare regimes continue to explain differences in health according to social class location. We therefore argue that although downward pressures from globalization and neoliberalism have blurred welfare regime typologies, the Nordic model may continue to have an important mediating effect on class-based inequalities in health.

  8. Income, social stratification, class, and private health insurance: a study of the Baltimore metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaner, C; Parsons, P E

    1996-01-01

    Most studies of inequalities and access to health care have used income as the sole indicator of social stratification. Despite the significance of social theory in health insurance research, there are no empirical studies comparing the ability of different models of social stratification to predict health insurance coverage. The aim of this study is to provide a comparative analysis using a variety of theory-driven indicators of social stratification and assess the relative strength of the association between these indicators and private health insurance. Data were collected in a 1993 telephone interview of a random digit dialing sample of the white population in the Baltimore Metropolitan Statistical Area. Indicators of social stratification included employment status, full-time work, education, occupation, industry, household income, firm size, and three types of assets: ownership, organizational, and skill/credential. The association between social stratification and private health insurance was strongest for those having higher household incomes, having attained at least a bachelor's degree, and working in a firm with more than 50 employees, followed by being an owner or manager, and by being employed. The addition of education and firm size improved the prediction of the household income model. The authors conclude that studies of inequalities in health insurance coverage can benefit from the inclusion of theory-driven indicators of social stratification such as human capital, labor market segmentation, and control over productive assets.

  9. Using In-class Group Exercises to Enhance Lectures and Provide Introductory Physics Students an Opportunity to Perfect Problem Solving Skills through Interactions with Fellow Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Joseph; Bland, Jared

    2013-03-01

    In this pilot project, one hour of lecture time was replaced with one hour of in-class assignments, which groups of students collaborated on. These in-class assignments consisted of problems or projects selected for the calculus-based introductory physics students The first problem was at a level of difficulty that the majority of the students could complete with a small to moderate amount of difficulty. Each successive problem was increasingly more difficult, the last problem being having a level of difficulty that was beyond the capabilities of the majority of the students and required some instructor intervention. The students were free to choose their own groups. Students were encouraged to interact and help each other understand. The success of the in-class exercises were measured using pre-tests and post-tests. The pre-test and post-test were completed by each student independently. Statistics were also compiled on each student's attendance record and the amount of time spent reading and studying, as reported by the student. Statistics were also completed on the student responses when asked if they had sufficient time to complete the pre-test and post-test and if they would have completed the test with the correct answers if they had more time. The pre-tests and post-tests were not used in the computation of the grades of the students.

  10. Using Focus Groups to Identify Factors Affecting Healthful Weight Maintenance in Latino Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Mary L.; Lees, Faith D.; Lynch, Breanna; Sebelia, Linda; Greene, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore (1) how migration influenced physical activity and dietary behaviors among Latino immigrants and (2) participants' perception of concepts related to a Health at Every Size (HAES) approach to weight maintenance (mindful eating, taking care of oneself). Methods: Four focus groups (n = 35), homogenous by sex, were conducted in…

  11. Health workforce remuneration: Comparing wage levels, ranking, and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Tijdens (Kea); D.H. de Vries (Daniel); S.M. Steinmetz

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finlan

  12. Health Workforce Remuneration: comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 occupational groups in 20 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; de Vries, D.H.; Steinmetz, S.

    2013-01-01

    Background This article represents the first attempt to explore remuneration in Human Resources for Health (HRH), comparing wage levels, ranking and dispersion of 16 HRH occupational groups in 20 countries (Argentina, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, I

  13. Child mental health differences amongst ethnic groups in Britain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon David A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.

  14. An Investigation of Singing, Health and Well-Being as a Group Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Liz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of singing as a group process deriving from two research studies: (i) Study 1: CETL (Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning): C4C (Collaboration for Creativity) Research Project called Singing, Health and Well-being and (ii) Study 2: iSING. The studies consider singing in relation to health…

  15. Oral health and dental behaviour in 11-year-old children of different ethnic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation was first, to assess the oral health of 11-year-old children in four ethnic groups in Amsterdam; second, to assess their dental behaviour and third, to identify potential determinants of frequency of toothbrushing. Representative samples of 97 Surinamese, 209 Moroccan, 128 Turkish

  16. Perceptions of Factors Influencing Healthful Food Consumption Behavior in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Focus Group Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…

  17. Oral Health Condition and Treatment Needs of a Group of Nigerian Individuals with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oredugba, Folakemi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study was carried out to determine the oral health condition and treatment needs of a group of individuals with Down syndrome in Nigeria. Method: Participants were examined for oral hygiene status, dental caries, malocclusion, hypoplasia, missing teeth, crowding and treatment needs. Findings were compared with controls across age…

  18. Perceptions of Factors Influencing Healthful Food Consumption Behavior in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Focus Group Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…

  19. 75 FR 13805 - Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Aspen Group Resources Corp., Commercial Concepts, Inc., Desert Health Products, Inc., Equalnet Communications Corp., Geneva Steel Holdings Corp., Orderpro Logistics, Inc. (n/k/a Securus Renewable Energy, Inc... accurate information concerning the securities of Commercial Concepts, Inc. because it has not filed...

  20. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in a VA Mental Health Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Lawrence M.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Earnheart, Kristie L.; Gorman, Ashley A.; Shirley, Katherine G.

    2008-01-01

    Effective cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia have been developed over the past 2 decades, but they have not been systematically evaluated in some clinical settings. While insomnia is common among veterans with mental health problems, the availability of effective treatments is limited. We report on the group application of a…

  1. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  2. Emergency Department Groups Classification System: An Evaluation for Military Health Care Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    groups confirms that the military health care system serves a diverse population similar to civilian community hospital populations. Young adults (21...were by females. The proportion of young adult (21 to 29 years old) patients in Sample 1 is 27.24%. This is larger than in the ED sample and possibly...Insect Bites (Non-Poisoom ) 905 0.2 95.4 35 Item EDG Em gacy Deparmueat Group (EDG) Tide or Number of Percent of Cu.u- Number Group Decription Vists Visits

  3. Major differences in oral health knowledge and behavior in a group of Iranian pre-university students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamatollahi, Hossain; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh; Talebi, Maryam; Ardabili, Mana H; Kondori, Keiwan

    2011-06-01

    To establish efficient methods for self-prevention of oral diseases, assessment of dental health behavior and knowledge in various social classes is necessary. The main purpose of this study was to determine the major differences in oral health knowledge and behavior in a group of Iranian pre-university students. In this cross-sectional study, 591 pre-university students from different regions of Mashhad, Iran were randomly selected to complete a questionnaire consisting of two parts including dental health behavior and knowledge. Scores were recorded and statistical analyses performed to determine the correlation between dental health behavior and knowledge. Data was analyzed with Student's t-test, one-way analysis of variance and Pearson correlation. The mean score of dental health knowledge was significantly lower than the dental health behavior (2.95 ± 0.02 vs. 3.31 ± 0.05, P difference was observed with gender, birth location and major subject of study. The dental health behavior of Iranian pre-university students was inadequate and their dental health knowledge was at a lower level compared to their behavior. Experimental science students had better oral health behavior compared to other students.

  4. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological

  5. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  6. Politics, class actors, and health sector reform in Brazil and Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Qamar; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-01

    Universal access to healthcare has assumed renewed importance in global health discourse, along with a focus on strengthening health systems. These developments are taking place in the backdrop of concerted efforts to advocate moving away from vertical, disease-based approaches to tackling health problems. While this approach to addressing public health problems is a step in the right direction, there is still insufficient emphasis on understanding the socio-political context of health systems. Reforms to strengthen health systems and achieve universal access to healthcare should be cognizant of the importance of the socio-political context, especially state-society relations. That context determines the nature and trajectory of reforms promoting universality or any pro-equity change. Brazil and Venezuela in recent years have made progress in developing healthcare systems that aim to achieve universal access. These achievements are noteworthy given that, historically, both countries had a long tradition of healthcare systems which were highly privatized and geared towards access to healthcare for a small segment of the population while the majority was excluded. These achievements are also remarkable since they took place in an era of neoliberalism when many states, even those with universally-based healthcare systems, were moving in the opposite direction. We analyze the socio-political context in each of these countries and look specifically at how the changing state-society relations resulted in health being constitutionally recognized as a social right. We describe the challenges that each faced in developing and implementing healthcare systems embracing universality. Our contention is that achieving the principle of universality in healthcare systems is less of a technical matter and more a political project. It involves opposition from the socially conservative elements in the society. Navigation to achieve this goal requires a political strategy that

  7. Biochemical identification of the bovine blood group M' antigen as a major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønberg, L S; Larsen, B; Koch, C

    1995-01-01

    Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16. To elucid......Absorption and elution experiments showed that it was impossible to separate antibodies against blood group factor M' from antibodies against bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA) A16 in an antiserum showing haemolytic activity against M' as well as lymphocytotoxic activity against BoLA-A16...

  8. Improving Population Health Through an Innovative Collaborative: The Be There San Diego Data for Quality Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fremont, Allen; Kranz, Ashley M; Phillips, Jessica; Garber, Chandra

    2017-06-01

    In 2012, leaders from disparate health care organizations established a data group aligned around a regional goal of preventing heart attacks and strokes in San Diego. The group---now named the Be There San Diego Data for Quality (DFQ) Group---is a safe venue for medical directors and other quality-improvement leaders to share performance data on quality-of-care measures for diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease, as well as insights, lessons learned, and challenges faced by each organization in treating these conditions. The DFQ Group has focused its efforts on improving the quality of services provided by each participating health care organization, and has placed a strong emphasis on analyzing trends in combined quality data to better understand the health of the entire San Diego population. By fostering collaboration among organizations that collectively serve a large portion of the local population and other key community stakeholders, the DFQ Group has helped form the foundation of a unique, multifaceted, multi-stakeholder, regional effort that is gaining national attention and funding for its community-driven approach.

  9. p-Quaterphenyls laterally substituted with a dimesitylboryl group: a promising class of solid-state blue emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guang-Liang; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Yan, Yi-Qiao; Zhao, Cui-Hua

    2012-02-17

    A new family of p-quaterphenyls 1-6 laterally substituted with a bulky electron-accepting dimesitylboryl group has been designed and synthesized. These compounds were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy, and DFT calculations as well as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). X-ray single-crystal analysis revealed that the p-quaterphenyl main chain framework exhibits a twisted structure due to the steric effect of the lateral boryl group, and the intermolecular interactions are effectively suppressed in the solid state. Despite the significantly twisted main-chain structure, these molecules still display efficient intramolecular charge-transfer emissions with large Stokes shifts. An intriguing finding is that all these molecules show bright fluorescence with good to excellent quantum yields in the blue region in the solid state. In addition, the two representative p-quaterphenyls 3 and 4 containing both the electron-accepting boryl group and the electron-donating carbazolyl (3) or diphenylamino group (4) possess high thermal stability and good oxidation-reduction reversibility, which together with their excellent solid-state fluorescence efficiency make them promising bipolar transporting blue emitters.

  10. Using the IGCRA (individual, group, classroom reflective action technique to enhance teaching and learning in large accountancy classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Poyatos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available First year accounting has generally been perceived as one of the more challenging first year business courses for university students. Various Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs have been proposed to attempt to enrich and enhance student learning, with these studies generally positioning students as learners alone. This paper uses an educational case study approach and examines the implementation of the IGCRA (individual, group, classroom reflective action technique, a Classroom Assessment Technique, on first year accounting students’ learning performance. Building on theoretical frameworks in the areas of cognitive learning, social development, and dialogical learning, the technique uses reports to promote reflection on both learning and teaching. IGCRA was found to promote feedback on the effectiveness of student, as well as teacher satisfaction. Moreover, the results indicated formative feedback can assist to improve the learning and learning environment for a large group of first year accounting students. Clear guidelines for its implementation are provided in the paper.

  11. Type synthesis of a class of spatial lower-mobility parallel mechanisms with orthogonal arrangement based on Lie group enumeration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Jian; S.

    2010-01-01

    Type synthesis of lower-mobility parallel mechanisms (PMs) has drawn extensive interests, particularly two main approaches were established by using the reciprocal screw system theory and Lie group theory, respectively. Although every above approach provides a universal framework for structural design of general lower-mobility PMs, type synthesis is still a comparably difficult task for the PMs with particular geometry or required to fulfill some specified tasks. This paper aims at exploring a simple and effective synthesis method for lower-mobility parallel mechanisms with orthogonal arrangement (OPMs), and the applied mathematical tool is established in the displacement group theory. For this purpose, the concept of the Cartesian DOF-characteristic matrix, originated from canonical displacement subgroup and displacement submanifold, is proposed. A new approach based on combination of the atlas of Cartesian DOF-characteristic matrix and displacement group-theoretic method is addressed for both exhaustive classification and type synthesis of OPMs. Type synthesis for some representatives of 3-DOF OPMs verifies effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  12. A Learner-Centered Molecular Modeling Exercise for Allied Health Majors in a Biochemistry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Terace M.; Ershler, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Learner-centered molecular modeling exercises in college science courses can be especially challenging for nonchemistry majors as students typically have a higher degree of anxiety and may not appreciate the relevance of the work. This article describes a learner-centered project given to allied health majors in a Biochemistry course. The project…

  13. Simultaneous Health Risk Behaviors in Adolescents Associated with Higher Economic Class in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arley Santos Leão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Design. The social, cultural, and economic context can be an important variable in the perception and adoption of risk behaviors in adolescents. Objective. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of simultaneous health risk behaviors and associated socioeconomic factors in adolescents living in the metropolitan region of Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. Methods. The sample consisted of 2,207 high school students aged 13–18 years. The risk behaviors measured were “low levels of physical activity,” “excessive daily TV time,” “high consumption of alcoholic beverages on a single occasion,” “involvement in fights,” “smoking cigarettes,” “carrying firearms,” and “marijuana consumption.” Information was obtained through self-administered questionnaire. Results. Considering the results, it was observed that female adolescents and those aged up to 16 years were less likely to have two or more health risk behaviors compared to males and those aged 17 years or more, respectively. It was also found that both high- and middle-income level adolescents had higher prevalence of having two or more health risk behaviors. Conclusions. It was concluded that male adolescents older than 16 years with better socioeconomic level were more exposed to the simultaneous presence of several health risk behaviors.

  14. 42 CFR 433.56 - Classes of health care services and providers defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Psychological services; (15) Therapist services, defined to include physical therapy, speech therapy... defined. 433.56 Section 433.56 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF... organizations, preferred provider organizations); (9) Ambulatory surgical center services, as described for...

  15. Experiences with Recruitment of Marginalized Groups in a Danish Health Promotion Program: A Document Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg; Bak, Carsten Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have found that marginalized groups living in deprived neighborhoods are less likely to participate in health programs compared to the majority of society. This study evaluates recruitment approaches conducted during a national government-funded project in 12 deprived neighborhoods across Denmark between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this study was to understand how recruitment approaches could promote participation in health programs within deprived neighborhoods to reach marginalized groups. Method Documents from all 12 of the included municipalities were collected to conduct a document evaluation. The collected documents consisted of 1,500 pages of written material with 12 project descriptions, three midterm and 10 final evaluations. The collected data were analyzed through a qualitative content analysis. Results The results are based on the fact that only 10 municipalities have developed evaluations related to recruitment, and only three evaluations provided a description of which marginalized groups were recruited. Challenges related to recruitment consist of difficulties involving the target group, including general distrust, language barriers and a lack of ability to cope with new situations and strangers. Additional geographical challenges emerged, especially in rural areas. Positive experiences with recruitment approaches were mainly related to relationship building and trust building, especially through face-to-face contact and the project employees’ presence in the neighborhood. Additionally, adjusting some of the interventions and the recruitment strategy increased participation. Conclusion This study found that relation and trust between the residents and the project employees is an important factor in the recruitment of marginalized groups in deprived neighborhoods as well as adjusting the health interventions or recruitment strategy to the target groups. In future research, it is necessary to examine which recruitment approaches are

  16. Vaccination for Group B Streptococcus during pregnancy: attitudes and concerns of women and health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, San; Vollman, Ardene Robinson; Manning, Shannon D; Mucenski, Melissa; Vidakovich, Jeanne; Davies, H Dele

    2006-07-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading infectious cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) strategies are effective in preventing GBS transmission from mothers to newborns, there are growing concerns about adverse effects, and the development of antibiotic resistance. GBS vaccines targeting the most virulent neonatal disease serotypes are currently under development and may be used during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to explore the key issues and concerns that would be associated with GBS vaccination during pregnancy from the perspectives of pregnant women and health care providers. Twenty-two women and 25 health care professionals in Alberta, Canada participated in 10 focus groups, each group ranging from 2 to 20 participants. Valuable information emerged from the focus groups about the factors that would affect acceptance of a maternal GBS vaccine. This information will be essential for health systems to consider in the introduction, promotion and delivery of such a vaccine. The data may help optimize education about GBS and a putative vaccine to pregnant women.

  17. Health adaptation policy for climate vulnerable groups: a 'critical computational linguistics' analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bastian M; Bell, Erica

    2014-11-28

    Many countries are developing or reviewing national adaptation policy for climate change but the extent to which these meet the health needs of vulnerable groups has not been assessed. This study examines the adequacy of such policies for nine known climate-vulnerable groups: people with mental health conditions, Aboriginal people, culturally and linguistically diverse groups, aged people, people with disabilities, rural communities, children, women, and socioeconomically disadvantaged people. The study analyses an exhaustive sample of national adaptation policy documents from Annex 1 ('developed') countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: 20 documents from 12 countries. A 'critical computational linguistics' method was used involving novel software-driven quantitative mapping and traditional critical discourse analysis. The study finds that references to vulnerable groups are relatively little present or non-existent, as well as poorly connected to language about practical strategies and socio-economic contexts, both also little present. The conclusions offer strategies for developing policy that is better informed by a 'social determinants of health' definition of climate vulnerability, consistent with best practice in the literature and global policy prescriptions.

  18. Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) no-health period extension. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is issuing this final rule that amends the regulations governing eligibility for Veterans' Group Life Insurance (VGLI) to extend to 240 days the current 120-day "no-health" period during which veterans can apply for VGLI without proving that they are in good health for insurance purposes. The purpose of this rule is to increase the opportunities for disabled veterans to enroll in VGLI, some of whom would not qualify for VGLI coverage under existing provisions. This document adopts as a final rule, without change, the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on June 25, 2012.

  19. [Health education and group work during in-patient rehabilitation following myocardial infarction (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, M; König, K; Maas, A; Neufert, R

    1982-02-01

    Starting from the usual in-patient rehabilitation measures for myocardial infarction patients and based on the authors' clinical experiences, a working model is presented concerning the health educational care of patients undergoing rehabilitation procedures immediately following infarction or bypass operation. The new concept is based on a psychosomatic view of the cardiovascular diseases, and uses group-dynamic elements in its methodological approach. The rehabilitational tasks of health education are understood as therapeutic strategies and are aimed at achieving changes on the attitudinal and behavioural level.

  20. Weil Representation of a Generalized Linear Group over a Ring of Truncated Polynomials over a Finite Field Endowed with a Second Class Involution

    OpenAIRE

    Frez, Luis Gutiérrez; Pantoja, José

    2015-01-01

    We construct a complex linear Weil representation $\\rho$ of the generalized special linear group $G={\\rm SL}_*^{1}(2,A_n)$ ($A_n=K[x]/\\langle x^n\\rangle$, $K$ the quadratic extension of the finite field $k$ of $q$ elements, $q$ odd), where $A_n$ is endowed with a second class involution. After the construction of a specific data, the representation is defined on the generators of a Bruhat presentation of $G$, via linear operators satisfying the relations of the presentation. The structure of ...

  1. Catalyzing healthcare transformation with digital health: Performance indicators and lessons learned from a Digital Health Innovation Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jocelyn; Samagh, Sonia; Fraser, Donna; Landman, Adam B

    2017-09-25

    Despite considerable investment in digital health (DH) companies and a growing DH ecosystem, there are multiple challenges to testing and implementing innovative solutions. Health systems have recognized the potential of DH and have formed DH innovation centers. However, limited information is available on DH innovation center processes, best practices, or outcomes. This case report describes a DH innovation center process that can be replicated across health systems and defines and benchmarks process indicators to assess DH innovation center performance. The Brigham and Women's Hospital's Digital Health Innovation Group (DHIG) accelerates DH innovations from idea to pilot safely and efficiently using a structured process. Fifty-four DH innovations were accelerated by the DHIG process between July 2014 and December 2016. In order to measure effectiveness of the DHIG process, key process indicators were defined as 1) number of solutions that completed each DHIG phase and 2) length of time to complete each phase. Twenty-three DH innovations progressed to pilot stage and 13 innovations were terminated after barriers to pilot implementation were identified by the DHIG process. For 4 DH solutions that executed a pilot, the average time for innovations to proceed from DHIG intake to pilot initiation was 9 months. Overall, the DHIG is a reproducible process that addresses key roadblocks in DH innovation within health systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report to describe DH innovation process indicators and results within an academic health system. Therefore, there is no published data to compare our results with the results of other DH innovation centers. Standardized data collection and indicator reporting could allow benchmark comparisons across institutions. Additional opportunities exist for the validation of DH solution effectiveness and for translational support from pilot to implementation. These are critical steps to advance DH technologies and

  2. What young people want from health-related online resources: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2013-08-01

    The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.

  3. Latent Class Analysis of Lifestyle Characteristics and Health Risk Behaviors among College Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Laska, Melissa Nelson; Pasch, Keryn E.; Lust, Katherine; Story, Mary; Ehlinger, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have examined the context of a wide range of risk behaviors among emerging adults (ages 18–25 years), approximately half of whom in the USA enroll in post-secondary educational institutions. The objective of this research was to examine behavioral patterning in weight behaviors (diet and physical activity), substance use, sexual behavior, stress, and sleep among undergraduate students. Health survey data were collected among undergraduates attending a large, public US university (...

  4. Simulation Suggests that medical group mergers won't undermine the potential utility of health information exchanges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudin, R.S.; Schneider, E.C.; Volk, L.A.; Szolovits, P.; Salzberg, C.A.; Simon, S.R.; Bates, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Federal and state agencies are investing substantial resources in the creation of community health information exchanges, which are consortia that enable independent health care organizations to exchange clinical data. However, under pressure to form accountable care organizations, medical groups ma

  5. 阿贝尔群与极大类p-群的半直积的Coleman自同构%Coleman Automorphisms of Semidirect Products of Abelian Groups by p-groups of Maximal Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正兴; 海进科

    2012-01-01

    设G=A×P是阿贝尔群A与极大类p-群P的半直积,其中P中的元以幂自同构的方式作用于A.该文证明了G的每个Coleman自同构都是内自同构.作为该结果的一个直接推论,作者得到了这样的群G有正规化子性质.%Let G = A × P be the semidirect product of an abelian group A and a p-group P of maximal class, where P acts on A by leaving every cyclic subgroup of A invariant. It is shown that every Coleman automorphism of G is an inner automorphism. As an immediate consequence, we obtain that the normalizer property holds for such group G.

  6. Health problems and disability of elderly individuals in two population groups from same geographical location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhi, G K; Hazarika, N C; Borah, P K; Mahanta, J

    2006-07-01

    To compare morbidity, disability (ADL-IADL disability) along with behavioral and biological correlates of diseases and disability of two elderly population groups (tea garden workers and urban dwellers) living in same geographical location. Two hundred and ninety three and 230 elderly from urban setting and tea garden respectively aged > 60 years were included in the study. Subjects were physical examined and activity of daily living instrumental activity of daily living (ADL-IADL) was assessed. Diagnosis of diseases was made on the basis of clinical evaluation, diagnosis and/or treatment of diseases done earlier elsewhere, available investigation reports, and electrocardiography. Hypertension was defined according to JNC-VI classification. BMI (weight/height2) was calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to see the impact of important background characteristics on non-communicable diseases (NCD) and disability. Hypertension (urban--68% and tea garden--81.4%), musculoskeletal diseases (urban--62.5% and tea garden--67.5%), COPD and other respiratory problems (urban--30.4% and tea garden--32.2%), cataract (urban 40.3% and tea garden--33%), gastro-intestinal problems (urban--13% and tea garden--6.5%) were more commonly observed health problems among community dwellings elderly across both the groups. However in contrast to urban group, serious NCDs like Ischaemic Heart Disease (IHD), diabetes were yet to emerge as health problems among tea garden dwellers. Infectious morbidities, undernutrition and disability (ADL-IADL disability) were more pronounced among tea garden dwellers. Utilization of health service by tea garden elderly was very low in comparison to the urban elderly. Both tea garden men and women had very high rates of risk factors like use of non-smoked tobacco and consumption of alcohol. On the other hand, smoking and obesity was more common in urban group. Most morbidities and disabilities were associated with identifiable risk factors, such

  7. Group singing and health-related quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Romane V; Baird, Amee D; Chalmers, Kerry A

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has a negative impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Previous studies have shown that participating in group singing activities can improve quality of life in some patient populations (e.g., people with chronic mental health or neurological conditions). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of group singing on HRQoL for people diagnosed with PD. Eleven participants (mean age 70.6 years) with a formal diagnosis of PD between Hoehn and Yahr Stages I-III were recruited from a community singing group for people with PD, their family and their carers. Participants' perceptions of the effect of group singing on their quality of life were captured in a semistructured interview. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), a qualitative methodology, informed data collection and analysis. The IPA analysis revealed 6 categories that characterized the effects of group singing: physical, mood, cognitive functioning, social connectedness, "flow-on" effects, and sense-of-self. All participants reported positive effects across at least 4 of these categories. Three participants reported a negative effect in 1 category (physical, mood, or sense-of-self). The results suggest that group singing improved HRQoL with all participants reporting positive effects regardless of PD stage or symptom severity. Weekly engagement in group singing resulted in multiple benefits for the participants and counteracted some of the negative effects of PD. These findings suggest that group singing "gives back" some of what PD "takes away." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The (Ir)relevance of Group Size in Health Care Priority Setting: A Reply to Juth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Gustavsson, Erik

    2017-03-01

    How to handle orphan drugs for rare diseases is a pressing problem in current health-care. Due to the group size of patients affecting the cost of treatment, they risk being disadvantaged in relation to existing cost-effectiveness thresholds. In an article by Niklas Juth it has been argued that it is irrelevant to take indirectly operative factors like group size into account since such a compensation would risk discounting the use of cost, a relevant factor, altogether. In this article we analyze Juth's argument and observe that we already do compensate for indirectly operative factors, both outside and within cost-effectiveness evaluations, for formal equality reasons. Based on this we argue that we have reason to set cost-effectiveness thresholds to integrate equity concerns also including formal equality considerations. We find no reason not to compensate for group size to the extent we already compensate for other factors. Moreover, groups size implying a systematic disadvantage also on a global scale, i.e. taking different aspects of the health condition of patients suffering from rare diseases into account, will provide strong reason for why group size is indeed relevant to compensate for (if anything).

  9. [The function of the group tutorial in training human resources in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Pizarro, L; Rodríguez-Roa, G

    1994-01-01

    Within the educational system, the method of group tutor was developed as a teaching strategy: the tutor goes along with a group of students to field training and works with them on the systematization and analysis of the study to obtain the final report. The purpose of this paper is to recuperate the work experience of the Department of Didactics of the School of Public Health of Mexico during 1991. A relevant conclusion is that this form of work needs to be studied and developed, since it demands a greater amount of independence from the students and requires a different participation from the teacher, both as coordinator and advisor.

  10. Exporting the Buyers Health Care Action Group purchasing model: lessons from other communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Feldman, Roger

    2005-01-01

    When first implemented in Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, the Buyers Health Care Action Group's (BHCAG) purchasing approach received considerable attention as an employer-managed, consumer-driven health care model embodying many of the principles of managed competition. First BHCAG and, later, a for-profit management company attempted to export this model to other communities. Their efforts were met with resistance from local hospitals and, in many cases, apathy by employers who were expected to be supportive. This experience underscores several difficulties that appear to be inherent in implementing purchasing models based on competing care systems. It also, once again, suggests caution in drawing lessons from community-level experiments in purchasing health care.

  11. Women's groups and professional organizations in advocacy for sexual and reproductive health and rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Adrienne; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2009-08-01

    After the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in 1994 and the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995, sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) have improved in many countries, and been supported by awareness raised by women's health advocates, increasingly by youth groups, and also by organizations of health professionals. In the HIV/AIDS area, involvement of organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS is crucial to improve prevention and care. However, after victories during the 1990s, combating opposition by social and political conservatives has taken up much energy in recent years. Continuous advocacy to broaden acceptance of the fundamental importance of SRHR, their role in meeting the Millennium Development Goals, and the imperative to increase funding, is essential.

  12. Research of the Teaching in Large Class, Guiding in Small Class Teaching Mode for Circuit Course Group%电路课群大班上课和小班辅导模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锦安; 蔡小玲; 徐行健

    2012-01-01

    本文针对学科基础课存在的学时数少,信息含量多,青年教师教学经验不足的现状,在电路、电工课群中探索提高教学效果,保证教学质量的教学模式一大班上课,小班辅导。研究结果表明该教学模式所花时间不多,实效明显;青年教师的教学能力也快速提升。%The basic courses contain much information, but the teaching time is less in general, and many young teachers lack teaching experience. Based on the situation, the teaching mode of teaching in large class, guiding in small class is explored in the circuit, electrotechnics course group. The result shows that this teaching mode had excellent effects for a short time and the teaching abilities of young teachers have been promoted quickly.

  13. The ability of health promoters to deliver group diabetes education in South African primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S. Botes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes makes a significant contribution to the burden of disease in South Africa.This study assesses a group diabetes education programme using motivational interviewingin public sector health centres serving low socio-economic communities in Cape Town.The programme was delivered by mid-level health promotion officers (HPOs.Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the experience of the HPOs and to observetheir fidelity to the educational programme.Methods: Three focus group interviews were held with the 14 HPOs who delivered theeducational programme in 17 health centres. Thirty-three sessions were observed directly andthe audio tapes were analysed using the motivational interviewing (MI integrity code.Results: The HPOs felt confident in their ability to deliver group education after receiving thetraining. They reported a significant shift in their communication style and skills. They feltthe new approach was feasible and better than before. The resource material was found to berelevant, understandable and useful. The HPOs struggled with poor patient attendance and alack of suitable space at the facilities. They delivered the majority of the content and achievedbeginning-level proficiency in the MI guiding style of communication and the use of openquestions. The HPOs did not demonstrate proficiency in active listening and continued to offersome unsolicited advice.Conclusion: The HPOs demonstrated their potential to deliver group diabetes education despiteissues that should be addressed in future training and the district health services. Thefindings will help with the interpretation of results from a randomised controlled trial evaluatingthe effectiveness of the education.

  14. What constitutes an excellent allied health care professional? A multidisciplinary focus group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paans W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolter Paans, Inge Wijkamp, Egbert Wiltens, Marca V Wolfensberger Research and Innovation Group Talent Development in Higher Education and Society, Hanze University of Applied Sciences, Groningen, The Netherlands. Background: Determining what constitutes an excellent allied health care professional (AHCP is important, since this is what will guide the development of curricula for training future physical therapists, oral hygienists, speech therapists, diagnostic radiographers, and dietitians. This also determines the quality of care. Aim: To describe perspectives of AHCPs on which characteristics are commonly associated with an excellent AHCP. Methods: AHCPs' perspectives were derived from three focus group discussions. Twenty-one health care professionals participated. The final analysis of the focus group discussions produced eight domains, in which content validity was obtained through a Delphi panel survey of 27 contributing experts. Results: According to the survey, a combination of the following characteristics defines an excellent AHCP: (1 cognizance, to obtain and to apply knowledge in a broad multidisciplinary health care field; (2 cooperativity, to effectively work with others in a multidisciplinary context; (3 communicative, to communicate effectively at different levels in complex situations; (4 initiative, to initiate new ideas, to act proactively, and to follow them through; (5 innovative, to devise new ideas and to implement alternatives beyond current practices; (6 introspective, to self-examine and to reflect; (7 broad perspective, to capture the big picture; and (8 evidence-driven, to find and to use scientific evidence to guide one's decisions. Conclusion: The AHCPs perspectives can be used as a reference for personal improvement for supervisors and professionals in clinical practice and for educational purposes. These perspectives may serve as a guide against which talented students can evaluate themselves. Keywords: clinical

  15. Cigarette smoking by socioeconomic group, sex, and age: effects of price, income, and health publicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, J.; Roderick, P; Cooper, J.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess effects of price, income, and health publicity on cigarette smoking by age, sex, and socioeconomic group. DESIGN--Econometric multiple regression analysis of data on cigarette smoking from the British general household survey. SUBJECTS--Random sample of adult population in Britain interviewed for biennial general household surveys 1972-90. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Changes in cigarette consumption and prevalence of smoking. RESULTS--Price elasticities of demand for cigarette...

  16. Expanding health insurance coverage in vulnerable groups: a systematic review of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingyue; Yuan, Beibei; Jia, Liying; Wang, Jian; Yu, Baorong; Gao, Jun; Garner, Paul

    2011-03-01

    Vulnerable groups are often not covered by health insurance schemes. Strategies to extend coverage in these groups will help to address inequity. We used the existing literature to summarize the options for expanding health insurance coverage, describe which countries have tried these strategies, and identify and describe evaluation studies. We included any report of a policy or strategy to expand health insurance coverage and any evaluation and economic modelling studies. Vulnerable populations were defined as children, the elderly, women, low-income individuals, rural population, racial or ethnic minorities, immigrants, and those with disability or chronic diseases. Forty-five databases were searched for relevant documents. The authors applied inclusion criteria, and extracted data using pre-coded forms, on contents of health insurance schemes or programmes, and used the framework approach to establish categories. Of the 21,528 articles screened, 86 documents were finally included. Descriptions about the USA dominated (72), with only five from Africa, six from Asia and two from South America. We identified six main categories: (1) changing eligibility criteria of health insurance; (2) increasing public awareness; (3) making the premium more affordable; (4) innovative enrollment strategies; (5) improving health care delivery; and (6) improving management and organization of the insurance schemes. All six categories were found in the literature about schemes in the USA, and schemes often included components from each category. Strategies in developing countries were much more limited in their scope. Evaluation studies numbered 25, of which the majority were of time series design. All studies found that the expansion strategies were effective, as assessed by the author(s). In countries expanding coverage, the categories identified from the literature can help policy makers consider their options, implement strategies where it is common sense to do so and establish

  17. Hospital admissions due to ambulatory care sensitive conditions among children by age group and health region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Holanda Prezotto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE to describe hospital admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in children under five years of age in the State of Paraná, Brazil by condition type, age group and health region. METHOD a temporal ecological study was conducted using data from the Unified Health System Hospital Information System for the period 2000 to 2011. Conditions were grouped in accordance with the list of ambulatory care sensitive conditions in Brazil. RESULTS there was an increase in the rate of admissions for ambulatory care sensitive conditions in all age groups in 50% of the health regions, with a marked increase in children under the age of one. Pneumonia, gastroenteritis and asthma were the main causes of admissions. There was an increase in the proportion of overall admissions accounted for by pneumonia and gastroenteritis. CONCLUSION the increase in admissions reveals the need for actions to improve access to primary healthcare and provide effective treatment of the main ambulatory care sensitive conditions in order to prevent hospital admissions among children.

  18. Digital divide: Use of electronic personal health record by different population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eung-Hun; Kim, Yongmin

    2010-01-01

    Personal Health Record (PHR) has been increasingly recognized and actively promoted by the federal government, experts and industry as an important tool for improving healthcare in the U.S. However, the PHR use by patients and its utility have not been studied well. We have evaluated a web-based PHR in multiple locations covering diverse population groups. The study sites included a surgical specialty clinic, a medical specialty clinic, and a mental health clinic at the University of Washington, and a low-income elderly housing facility near Seattle in the state of Washington. The PHR use by the low-income elderly was limited due to poor technical skills and low physical/cognitive abilities. On the other hand, the younger and affluent populations used the web-based PHR much easily and efficiently compared to the older and low-income group. They regarded managing personal health information easy while the older group struggled. As more computer literate individuals age, the next-generation elderly are certain to be more technically skilled than the current generation. Although the reduced physical/cognitive abilities due to aging would still be a challenge, more elderly people will be able to not only use a PHR system but also use it to the full extent to get the maximum benefit.

  19. Estrogens of multiple classes and their role in mental health disease mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl S Watson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl S Watson1, Rebecca A Alyea1, Kathryn A Cunningham2, Yow-Jiun Jeng11Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Univ of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USAAbstract: Gender and sex hormones can influence a variety of mental health states, including mood, cognitive development and function, and vulnerability to neurodegenerative diseases and brain damage. Functions of neuronal cells may be altered by estrogens depending upon the availability of different physiological estrogenic ligands; these ligands and their effects vary with life stages, the genetic or postgenetic regulation of receptor levels in specific tissues, or the intercession of competing nonphysiological ligands (either intentional or unintentional, beneficial to health or not. Here we review evidence for how different estrogens (physiological and environmental/dietary, acting via different estrogen receptor subtypes residing in alternative subcellular locations, influence brain functions and behavior. We also discuss the families of receptors and transporters for monoamine neurotransmitters and how they may interact with the estrogenic signaling pathways.Keywords: estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, GPR30, GPER, xenoestrogens, phytoestrogens, transporters, brain function, neurotransmitter receptors

  20. The Potential of Class II Bacteriocins to Modify Gut Microbiota to Improve Host Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umu, Özgün C. O.; Bäuerl, Christine; Oostindjer, Marije; Pope, Phillip B.; Hernández, Pablo E.; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Diep, Dzung B.

    2016-01-01

    Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties. The strains were supplemented to mice through drinking water and changes on the gut microbiota composition were interpreted using 16S rRNA gene analysis. In general, we observed that overall structure of the gut microbiota remained largely unaffected by the treatments. However, at lower taxonomic levels, some transient but advantageous changes were observed. Some potentially problematic bacteria were inhibited (e.g., Staphylococcus by enterocins, Enterococcaceae by GarML, and Clostridium by plantaricins) and the proportion of LAB was increased in the presence of SakA-, plantaricins- and GarML-producing bacteria. Moreover, the treatment with GarML-producing bacteria co-occurred with decreased triglyceride levels in the host mice. Taken together, our results indicate that several of these bacteriocin producers have potential probiotic properties at diverse levels as they promote favorable changes in the host without major disturbance in gut microbiota, which is important for normal gut functioning. PMID:27695121