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Sample records for group head region

  1. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Clark, R.L.; Reece, W.D.

    1984-08-01

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described

  2. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  3. Regional Myocutaneous Flaps for Head and Neck Reconstruction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional myocutaneous pedicle flaps (RMF) are known to be relevant in the reconstruction of major head and neck oncologic defects with pectoralis major myocutaneous pedicle flap (PMMC) being the best-known RMF. For over three decades, since first described by Ariyan in 1979, PMMC has continually been used in the ...

  4. Patients who reattend after head injury: a high risk group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, M.; Knottenbelt, J. D.; Peden, M. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess risk factors for important neurosurgical effects in patients who reattend after head injury. DESIGN--Retrospective study. SUBJECTS--606 patients who reattended a trauma unit after minor head injury. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intracranial abnormality detected on computed tomography or the need for neurosurgical intervention. RESULTS--Five patients died: two from unrelated causes and three from raised intracranial pressure. On multiple regression analysis the only significant predictor for both abnormality on computed tomography (14.4% of reattenders) and the need for operation (5% of reattenders) was vault fracture seen on the skull radiograph (P personality change, and seizures were significantly associated only with abnormality on computed tomography. Headache, dizziness, nausea, and vomiting were common in reattenders but were found to have no independent significance. CONCLUSIONS--All patients who reattend after head injury should undergo computed tomography as at least 14% of scans can be expected to yield positive results. Where this facility is not available patients with predictors for operation should be urgently referred for neurosurgical opinion. Other patients can be readmitted and need referral only if symptoms persist despite symptomatic treatment or there is neurological deterioration while under observation. These patients are a high risk group and should be treated seriously. PMID:8520273

  5. Single histidine residue in head-group region is sufficient to impart remarkable gene transfection properties to cationic lipids: evidence for histidine-mediated membrane fusion at acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V V; Pichon, C; Refregiers, M; Guerin, B; Midoux, P; Chaudhuri, A

    2003-08-01

    Presence of endosome-disrupting multiple histidine functionalities in the molecular architecture of cationic polymers, such as polylysine, has previously been demonstrated to significantly enhance their in vitro gene delivery efficiencies. Towards harnessing improved transfection property through covalent grafting of endosome-disrupting single histidine functionality in the molecular structure of cationic lipids, herein, we report on the design, the synthesis and the transfection efficiency of two novel nonglycerol-based histidylated cationic amphiphiles. We found that L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine)ethylamide (lipid 1) and L-histidine-(N,N-di-n-hexadecylamine,-N-methyl)ethylamide (lipid 2) in combination with cholesterol gave efficient transfections into various cell lines. The transfection efficiency of Chol/lipid 1 lipoplexes into HepG2 cells was two order of magnitude higher than that of FuGENE(TM)6 and DC-Chol lipoplexes, whereas it was similar into A549, 293T7 and HeLa cells. A better efficiency was obtained with Chol/lipid 2 lipoplexes when using the cytosolic luciferase expression vector (pT7Luc) under the control of the bacterial T7 promoter. Membrane fusion activity measurements using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique showed that the histidine head-groups of Chol/lipid 1 liposomes mediated membrane fusion in the pH range 5-7. In addition, the transgene expression results using the T7Luc expression vector convincingly support the endosome-disrupting role of the presently described mono-histidylated cationic transfection lipids and the release of DNA into the cytosol. We conclude that covalent grafting of a single histidine amino acid residue to suitable twin-chain hydrophobic compounds is able to impart remarkable transfection properties on the resulting mono-histidylated cationic amphiphile, presumably via the endosome-disrupting characteristics of the histidine functionalities.

  6. Head Start’s Impact is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data (n = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this paper examined the impact of Head Start on children’s cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes through first grade contingent on the child care arrangements used by children who were randomly assigned to the control group (i.e., parental care, relative/non-relative care, another Head Start program, or other center-based care). A principal score matching approach was adopted to identify children assigned to Head Start who were similar to children in the control group with a specific care arrangement. Overall, the results showed that the effects of Head Start varied substantially contingent on the alternative child care arrangements. Compared to children in parental care and relative/non-relative care, Head Start participants generally had better cognitive and parent-reported behavioral development, with some benefits of Head Start persisting through first grade; in contrast, few differences were found between Head Start and other center-based care. The results have implications regarding the children for whom Head Start is most beneficial as well as how well Head Start compares to other center-based programs. PMID:25329552

  7. Malignant tumors of head and neck region - a retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, F.; Ahmed, S.; Malik, A.; Afsar, A.; Yousaf, N.W.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the spectrum of malignant tumors of head and neck region. The data of total 375 neoplastic lesions of both the sexes between 8-70 years of age was collected and compared with the findings reported from centers in other parts of the country. Among the total 375 cases of neoplastic lesions, 148 were benign whereas 227 proved to be malignant histologically in 155 male and 72 female patients. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was the most frequently encountered histological category (45.8%) followed by lymphoma (14.5%), basal cell carcinoma (10.5%), carcinoma thyroid (10.5%) and salivary gland tumors (8.80%). These were followed by infrequently encountered tumors including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n=5), small blue round cell tumors (n=3), undifferentiated carcinoma (n=3), retinoblastoma (n=2) and transitional carcinoma nose (n=1). The anatomical regions involved with this tumor were larynx (53.5% of all SCC) followed by pharynx (18.7%) tongue (10.71%) oral cavity (4.4%) metastasis (5.3%) and skin (2.60%). (author)

  8. Fatal gunshots to the head and neck regions in Benin City, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the magnitude of fatal gunshot injuries to the head and neck in Benin City. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of fatal gun shots to the head and neck region with respect to age, sex, intent for the gunshots, type of gun, area of the head and neck affected and who did the ...

  9. Relationship between ABO blood groups and head and neck cancer among Greek patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakava, Kassiani; Karelas, Ioannis; Koutrafouris, Ioannis; Damianidis, Savvas; Stampouloglou, Paulos; Papadakis, Georgios; Xenos, Antonios; Krania, Foteini; Sarof, Paulos; Tasopoulos, Georgios; Petridis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers. 195 diagnosed cases and 801 controls were selected from a Greek tertiary cancer center. Information regarding type of head and neck cancer and ABO blood group was collected and registered. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by A, B and AB among the controls, whereas blood group A followed by O, B and AB was most prevalent among cancer patients. The difference among the distribution between the cases and controls was statistically significant in blood group A (pblood group A had 1.52-fold higher risk of developing head and neck cancer compared to people of other blood groups. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of head and neck cancers.

  10. Geographic region: Does it matter in cutaneous melanoma of the head and neck?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Suat; Unsal, Aykut A; Chung, Sei Y; Samarrai, Ruwaa; Kılıç, Sarah S; Baredes, Soly; Eloy, Jean Anderson

    2017-12-01

    The head and neck are two of the most common locations for cutaneous melanoma. We present the first population-based analysis of geographic differences in anatomic subsite, clinicopathologic and demographical traits, histopathologic subtype, treatment modality, and disease-specific survival (DSS) of cutaneous head and neck melanoma (CHNM). Retrospective database analysis. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for cases of CHNM reported between 2000 and 2013. Patients were grouped into East, Midwest, South, and West regions of the United States. Overall incidence, demographic traits, primary tumor site, clinicopathologic traits, histopathologic subtype, treatment modality, and DSS were compared among regions. There were 49,365 patients with CHNM identified. The West (4.60) and the South (4.42) had significantly higher incidence (per 100,000) than the East (3.84) and Midwest (3.65) (P regions (P region may play a significant role in CHNM. Incidence is higher in the South and the West. Incidence, histologic subtype, treatment modality, and DSS vary among regions. DSS is lower in the South than the West, even after accounting for other major prognostic factors. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2763-2769, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of results for computed tomography in head region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeji, Toshiharu

    1983-01-01

    In 2 years and 5 months from April 1980 to May 1982, I had maked examination for computed tomography (CT) in head region by TCT-60A (TOSHIBA), and so reported the evaluation of following those results; 1) The number of CT scan was 1228 patients and total 1513 scannings. The contents of its scan were plain CT (86.1%), CE (contrast enhancement) CT (7.3%) and both application methods (6.6%), and included from 1 CT time (85.3%), 2 CT times (9.6%), 3 CT times (3.3%),... til 7 CT times. Our CT scan cases were 720 males (58.6%) and 508 females (41.4%);its scan age level was mostly 40 y.o. -- over 70 y.o., but low age patients (under 10 y.o.) indicated number of 15.3%. In consideration of this fact the advantage of CT scan was very easily and safely procedure free from body lesion. 2) In number of CT scan: the most many patients were visiting department of internal medicine clinic, and following pediatric clinic, surgery and orthopedic department. Above all CT scan cases were included of other all clinical departments in our hospital. (CT scan was very useful for neurological examination). 3) In CT diagnosis our cases were it of cerebral infarction 128 (10.4%), cerebral hemorrage 19 (1.5%) and brain tumor 24 (2.3%), in small cases other craniocerebral diseases. 4) The visiting cases in internal medicine often complain of cerebrovascular symptomes, and in pediatric clinic chief complain was often suspected mental retardation and neurological sign. In surgery department it was suspected metastatic brain tumor from other malignant cancers, and in orthopedic surgery often skull injury or traffic accident. (J.P.N.)

  12. Multiple squamous cell carcinomas within the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Katsuro; Hanazawa, Hideyuki; Sato, Yuichiro; Takahashi, Sugata

    2004-01-01

    Clinical features of multiple squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases within the head and neck that were treated in our department during the recent 10 years are discussed. Multiple SCCs arose in 6.6% of the cases with primary SCC; 67% of the cases had two carcinomas, and 33% had more than three carcinomas. The most common site of the multiple SCCs was the oral cavity (54%). The most frequent interval between treatment of previous carcinoma and diagnosis of subsequent carcinoma was simultaneous, but more than 5 years' interval was observed in 36% of the patients. The most common initial treatment of the carcinoma was irradiation, but the ratio of surgery increased for subsequent carcinomas. Prognosis of the patients with more than three carcinomas was not worse than that of patients with two carcinomas. Therefore, early diagnosis of the subsequent carcinomas based on careful long-term observation in the head and neck is necessary for follow-up of the patients with SCC of the head and neck. Treatment strategies considering the treatment of subsequent carcinomas are needed for the patients with primary head and neck SCC. (author)

  13. When Two Heads Aren't Better than One: Conformity in a Group Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fender, C. Melissa; Stickney, Lisa T.

    2017-01-01

    Group and team class decision-making activities often focus on demonstrating that "two heads are better than one." Typically, students solve a problem or complete an assessment individually, then in a group. Generally, the group does better and that is what the students learn. However, if that is all such an activity conveys, then a…

  14. Paraganglioma of the head and neck region: treatment outcome and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, Naren; Bhaddy, Nasir; Holliday, Michael; Lee, D.-J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long term results of treating paraganglioma (glomus tumor) of the head and neck region, in terms of local control and toxicities. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 38 patients with a diagnosis of a paraganglioma of the head and neck region who had received their therapy at our hospital from 1972 to 1994. Nine patients received definitive radiotherapy (XRT), 7 had surgical resection plus postoperative XRT and 22 patients had surgical resection only. There were 11 males and 27 females. The median age was 50 years with a range of 15 to 78. XRT, either definitive or postoperative, consisted of 1.8 Gy per fraction to a total of 45 to 50.4 cGy. In terms of surgery for the postoperative XRT group, resection of the glomus tumor in the neck or temporal bone was carried out in 6, and in one patient additional suboccipital craniotomy (2-staged) for removal of the intracranial portion of the tumor was performed. For the surgery alone group, 18 patients had resection of the glomus tumor in the neck or temporal bone, and 4 patients required additional two-staged suboccipital craniotomy. Results: In the XRT group, 14 patients had glomus jugulare and 2 patients had glomus typanicum tumor. With a median follow-up of 5 years (range: 2 to 21), one of the 16 patients developed local recurrence. In the surgery only group (15 glomus jugulare, 4 glomus typanicum and 3 glomus vegalis), 5 of the 22 patients developed local recurrence, with a median follow-up of 6 years (range: 2 to 15). The difference in the local control rates was not statistically significant (Fisher's test, p= 0.18). XRT was well tolerated. One patient developed facial nerve paralysis 5 years following XRT. Whereas in the surgery only group, the long term sequela was mainly cranial nerve dysfunction which affected the facial nerve in 2, the facial nerve plus the lingual nerve in one and facial plus cranial nerves VI, IX and XII in another (p=0.28). Conclusion

  15. On the nature of hydrogen bonding between the phosphatidylcholine head group and water and dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowska, Aleksandra P.; Lawrence, M. Jayne; McLain, Sylvia E.; Lorenz, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to provide a detailed investigation of the hydrogen bond networks around the phosphatidylcholine (PC) head group in 1,2-dipropionyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine in pure water, 10 mol.% and 30 mol.% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-water solutions. Specifically, it is observed that DMSO replaces those water molecules that are within the first solvation shell of the choline, phosphate and ester groups of the PC head group, but are not hydrogen-bonded to the group. The effect of the presence of DMSO on the hydrogen bond network around the PC head groups of the lipid changes with the concentration of DMSO. In comparison to the hydrogen bond network observed in the pure water system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules increases slightly for the 10 mol.% DMSO system, while, in the 30 mol.% DMSO system, the number of hydrogen-bonded chains of solvent molecules decreases.

  16. Magnetic resonance angiography for the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, R.; Esser, D.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography is a noninvasive method in vascular imaging using noncontrast- enhanced and contrast-enhanced techniques. The contrast media used in contrast- enhanced magnetic resonance angiography are different from the X-ray contrast media and do not affect the thyroid gland or renal function. In detecting hypervascularized lesions in the head and neck, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography is the method of choice, which provides an acceptable quality in comparison to digital subtraction angiography. Future developments in magnetic resonance imaging techniques will cause a wider use of magnetic resonance angiography, especially in head and neck imaging. Digital subtraction angiography should therefore only be used in problem cases and for preoperative embolization [de

  17. Paragangliomas of the head and neck region: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumudachalam Pindicura

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Paragangliomas of the head and neck are uncommon lesions. The most common site in the head and neck region was the jugulotympanic region. Most cases of jugulotympanic paraganglioma presented in the fifth decade and later. Laryngeal paraganglioma presented clinically earlier in the second decade. Jugulotympanic and laryngeal paraganglioma showed dominance of tumor vasculature histologically. There was a rare case of laryngeal paraganglioma with lateral neck extension in this study.

  18. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  19. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Tomoyuki; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo): head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  20. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Matoba

    Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  1. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  2. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  3. Improved local and regional control with radiotherapy for Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Tobin; Naghavi, Arash O; Messina, Jane L; Kim, Sungjune; Torres-Roca, Javier F; Russell, Jeffery; Sondak, Vernon K; Padhya, Tapan A; Trotti, Andy M; Caudell, Jimmy J; Harrison, Louis B

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that radiotherapy (RT) would improve both local and regional control with Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A single-institution institutional review board-approved study was performed including 113 patients with nonmetastatic Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Postoperative RT was delivered to the primary tumor bed (71.7% cases) ± draining lymphatics (33.3% RT cases). Postoperative local RT was associated with improved local control (3-year actuarial local control 89.4% vs 68.1%; p = .005; Cox hazard ratio [HR] 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06-0.55; p = .002). Similarly, regional RT was associated with improved regional control (3-year actuarial regional control 95.0% vs 66.7%; p = .008; Cox HR = 0.09; 95% CI = 0.01-0.69; p = .02). Regional RT played an important role for both clinical node-negative patients (3-year regional control 100% vs 44.7%; p = .03) and clinical/pathological node-positive patients (3-year regional control 90.9% vs 55.6%; p = .047). Local RT was beneficial for all patients with Merkel cell carcinoma of the head and neck, whereas regional RT was beneficial for clinical node-negative and clinical/pathological node-positive patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 48-55, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multiple group radiator and hybrid test heads, possibilities of combining the array technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenberg, H.

    1993-01-01

    This article is intended to show the important considerations, which led to the development of the multichannel group radiator technique. Trends in development and the advantages and disadvantages of the different possibilities are introduced, against the background of experience now available for these configurative variants of ultrasonic test heads. For this reason, a series of experiences and arguments is reported, from the point of view of the developer of the multi-channel group radiator technique. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Comparison of micelle structure of glycolipids with different head groups by small angle neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Lizhong; Middelberg, Anton; Hartmann, Thorsten; Niemeyer, Bernd; Garamus, V.M.; Willumeit, Regine

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Glycolipids such as n-alkyl- beta-D-glucopyranoside and n-alkyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside can self-assemble into different structures depending on solution conditions. Their amphiphilic properties enable them to serve as biosurfactants in biology and biotechnology, especially for solubilizing membrane proteins. The physicochemical properties of glycolipids have attracted attentions from several research groups, aiming to better understand their application in biological and environmental processes. For example, small angle neutron and X-ray scattering have been used to study micelle structures formed by glycolipids. Our previous work has shown that n-octyl-beta- D-glucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-maltopyranoside form micelles with different structure, suggesting an important role of the sugar head group in micelle formation. In the present work, we further compare micelle structures of n-octyl- beta-Dglucopyranoside and n-octyl- beta-D-galactopyranoside. These two glycolipids have the same hydrophobic tail and their head sugar groups differ only in the conformation with one hydroxyl group pointing to different direction. Our SANS data together with phase behaviours reported by other group have suggested that a slight alteration of head group conformation can significantly affect self-assembly of glycolipids. (authors)

  6. Quality of life of head and neck cancer patients in urban and regional areas: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey A; Cockburn, Nicole L; Batstone, Martin D; Ford, Pauline J

    2018-06-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment affects quality of life. There are differences in quality of life outcomes and perceived supportive care needs between cancer patients living in metropolitan and regional-remote areas. This study investigated quality of life over the first 6 months following head and neck cancer diagnosis and observed differences in quality of life by geographical location. Prospective observational study. Tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Newly diagnosed patients who were referred for the diagnosis, and/or treatment of head and neck cancer. Quality of life was measured by the University of Washington Quality of Life Survey, version 4 (UW-QoL). Participants completed the UW-QoL questionnaire prior to starting treatment, 1 month and 6 months post treatment. Metropolitan and regional or remote status was classified according to the Australian Standard Geographic Classification-Remoteness Area system. Ninety-five participants were included at baseline; 49 and 41 participants completed the 1-month and 6-month follow-ups, respectively. Scores in most UW-QoL domains decreased between baseline and 1 month post treatment and increased towards pre-treatment scores at the 6-month follow-up (except for anxiety and saliva). Pain at baseline was significantly worse in the regional-remote participants compared with metropolitan participants. No other statistically significant differences in UW-QoL score by geographical location were observed. The findings generally did not support significant differences in quality of life outcome between metropolitan and regional-remote head and neck cancer patients. The difference in pain experience between metropolitan and regional-remote groups requires further investigation. © 2018 National Rural Health Alliance Ltd.

  7. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Boyle, Glen M; McIntyre, Lachlan; Nolan, Matthew J; Parsons, Peter G; Smith, Jennifer J; Tribolet, Leon; Loukas, Alex; Liddell, Michael J; Rash, Lachlan D; Daly, Norelle L

    2017-10-27

    Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA 366 , containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA 366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  8. The Aromatic Head Group of Spider Toxin Polyamines Influences Toxicity to Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wilson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spider venoms constitute incredibly diverse libraries of compounds, many of which are involved in prey capture and defence. Polyamines are often prevalent in the venom and target ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here we show that a novel spider polyamine, PA366, containing a hydroxyphenyl-based structure is present in the venom of several species of tarantula, and has selective toxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. By contrast, a polyamine from an Australian funnel-web spider venom, which contains an identical polyamine tail to PA366 but an indole-based head-group, is only cytotoxic at high concentrations. Our results suggest that the ring structure plays a role in the cytotoxicity and that modification to the polyamine head group might lead to more potent and selective compounds with potential as novel cancer treatments.

  9. DIRECT ELECTION OF THE HEAD OF REGIONAL URGENCY (DESCRIPTION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE THREE AUTONOMOUS REGIONS ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of problem and the political turmoil in some regions election last time appears in the event of a State feedback control Centre to the area. In the new order era regional chief election controversy cannot be released from the intervention Center. Usually the battle's political elite in Jakarta imposes to the area. When the issue blew up in the area, Settlement is the effort, he brought the case to Jakarta. In accordance with the implementation, the Hall of the Central Government has a dominant power in the determination of the head region. Legislative involvement only in the process of being formalistic. It is seen clearly in Article 15 and 16 regarding the appointment of the head region, where only the legislative vote and the results presented at least two names for approval and/or designation from President to Governor, and Minister of the Interior for Regent and Mayor. The aegis of the Centre to all and sundry, who has strong access to the Centre, he will be the winner, either for political affairs, economy, law even though. The most votes is not a legislative guarantee of choice became the head of the area. The Center has the absolute power to determine the opposite although sound support. Conflicts often occur, regional Centre but ended with the defeat of the area

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Region: A Retrospective Analysis of Completely Excised 331 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duriye Deniz Demirseren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to analyze all completely excised BCCs in the head and neck region with regard to age, sex, personal and familial history, skin type, tumor localization and size, histopathological subtype of tumor, reconstruction method, and recurrence rates. Incompletely excised BCCs were not included in this study since incomplete excision is the most important preventable risk factor for recurrence. In 320 patients, 331 lesions were retrospectively evaluated by dividing into the following 8 subunits: scalp, frontotemporal, orbital, nose, cheek, auricula, perioral, and chin-neck area. Most of the patients were in 60–70 age group (34.7%. The nose (32.3% was the most common site of presentation. Clinically, all lesions and, histopathologically, most of the lesions (42.2% presented were of the nodular type. All cases of recurrence after complete excision (n=9, 2.7% were located in the median parts of the head and neck region and were mainly diagnosed histopathologically as sclerotic and micronodular. Even though completely excised, head and neck region BCCs, especially which are more prone to recurrence due to anatomical and histopathological properties, should be more closely monitored in order to decrease morbidity and health care costs.

  11. Regional Floras: the target groups, usage and feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng, F.S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The target groups for regional floras may be generalized for the purpose of this discussion, into four main groups. Firstly, in the Flora Malesiana region – a major producer of tropical hardwoods and other commercial forest products – one large target is the forest industry, consisting of foresters,

  12. Optimization of Ion Source Head Position in the Central Region of DECY-13 Cyclotron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Silakhuddin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the ion source head position of the DECY-13 Cyclotron in the central region has been carried out based on simulation process using a particle tracking program written in Scilab 5.2.1. The simulated particle was the H- ion that was accelerated in DECY-13 Cyclotron. The input for the program were the magnetic field and the electric field in the central region that were calculated by Opera-3D software package and TOSCA module. The optimized position of ion source head position is in a radius of 2 cm relative to the zero point of the magnet and at a distance of 4 mm relative to the puller. This result can be useful for determining the configuration of the parts in the central region when it is tested for generating the first ion beam in the future.

  13. Multiple regions-of-interest analysis of setup uncertainties for head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lifei; Garden, Adam S.; Lo, Justin; Ang, K. Kian; Ahamad, Anesa; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Chambers, Mark S.; Zhu, X. Ronald; Mohan, Radhe; Dong Lei

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze three-dimensional setup uncertainties for multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in head-and-neck region. Methods and Materials: In-room computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired using a CT-on-rails system for 14 patients. Three separate bony ROIs were defined: C2 and C6 vertebral bodies and the palatine process of the maxilla. Translational shifts of 3 ROIs were calculated relative to the marked isocenter on the immobilization mask. Results: The shifts for all 3 ROIs were highly correlated. However, noticeable differences on the order of 2-6 mm existed between any 2 ROIs, indicating the flexibility and/or rotational effect in the head-and-neck region. The palatine process of the maxilla had the smallest right-left shifts because of the tight lateral fit in the face mask, but the largest superior-inferior movement because of in-plane rotation and variations in jaw positions. The neck region (C6) had the largest right-left shifts. The positioning mouthpiece was found effective in reducing variations in the superior-inferior direction. There was no statistically significant improvement for using the S-board (8 out of 14 patients) vs. the short face mask. Conclusions: We found variability in setup corrections for different regions of head-and-neck anatomy. These relative positional variations should be considered when making setup corrections or designing treatment margins

  14. Early embryonic development of the head region of Gryllus assimilis Fabricius, 1775 (Orthoptera, Insecta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Maas, Andreas; Waloszek, Dieter

    2010-09-01

    We report our investigations on the embryonic development of Gryllus assimilis, with particular attention to the head. Significant findings revealed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images include: (1) the pre-antennal lobes represent the anterior-most segment that does not bear any appendages; (2) each of the lobes consists of central and marginal regions; (3) the central region thereof develops into the protocerebrum and the optic lobes, whereas the marginal region thereof becomes the anterior portion of the head capsule; (4) the initial position of the antennal segment is posterior to the mouth region; (5) appendage anlagen are transitorily present in the intercalary segment, and they later vanish together with the segment itself; (6) a bulged sternum appears to develop from the ventral surface of the mandibular, maxillary and labial segments. Embryonic features are then compared across the Insecta and further extended to the embryos of a spider (Araneae, Chelicerata). Striking similarities shared by the anterior-most region of the insect and spider embryos lead the authors to conclude that such comparison should be further undertaken to cover the entire Euarthropoda. This will help us to understand the embryology and evolution of the arthropod head. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in glycolipid/n-octane/water ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainggolan, Irwana; Radiman, Shahidan; Hamzah, Ahmad Sazali; Hashim, Rauzah

    2009-10-01

    Two novel glycolipids have been synthesized and their phase behaviour studied. They have been characterized using FT-IR, FAB and 13C NMR and 1H NMR to ensure the purity of novel glycolipids. The two glycolipids are distinguished based on the head group of glycolipids (monosaccharide/glucose and disaccharide/maltose). These two novel glycolipids have been used as surfactant to perform two phase diagrams. Phase behaviours that have been investigated are 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2-HDG)/n-octane/water ternary system and 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside (2-HDM)/n-octane/water ternary system. SAXS and polarizing optical microscope have been used to study the phase behaviours of these two surfactants in ternary phase diagram. Study of effect of the head group on branched-alkyl chain surfactants in ternary system is a strategy to derive the structure-property relationship. For comparison, 2-HDM and 2-HDG have been used as surfactant in the same ternary system. The phase diagram of 2-hexyldecyl-beta-D-maltoside/n-octane/water ternary system exhibited a Lalpha phase at a higher concentration regime, followed with two phases and a micellar solution region in a lower concentration regime. The phase diagram of 2-HDG/water/n-octane ternary system shows hexagonal phase, cubic phase, rectangular ribbon phase, lamellar phase, cubic phase as the surfactant concentration increase.

  16. Reckoning Informal Politics: Expands the Logic of Survival and Failure of Regional Heads

    OpenAIRE

    Wawan Sobari

    2018-01-01

    The qualitative research addresses the political logic of why and how the incumbents succeed and fail in direct election for regional heads (pilkada) in emerging democratic Indonesia. De Mesquita et al. (2003) believe that, to survive in office, a leader needs to offer a benefit at least equal to the greatest possible benefit offered by a potential challenger. Particular to the pilkada cases in Indonesia, Erb and Sulistiyanto (2009) elaborate several factors connected to “reward and punishmen...

  17. Design of an interaction region with head-on collisions for the ILC

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, R; Jackson, F; Alabau-Pons, M; Bambade, P; Brossard, J; Dadoun, O; Rimbault, C; Keller, L; Nosochkov, Y; Seryi, Andrei; Payet, J; Napoly, O; Rippon, C; Uriot, D

    2006-01-01

    An interaction region (IR) with head-on collisions is considered as an alternative to the baseline configuration of the International Linear Collider (ILC) which includes two IRs with finite crossing-angles (2 and 20 mrad). Although more challenging for the beam extraction, the head-on scheme is favoured by the experiments because it allows a more convenient detector configuration, particularly in the forward region. The optics of the head-on extraction is revisited by separating the e+ and e- beams horizontally, first by electrostatic separators operated at their LEP nominal field and then using a defocusing quadrupole of the final focus beam line. In this way the septum magnet is protected from the beamstrahlung power. Newly optimized final focus and extraction optics are presented, including a first look at post-collision diagnostics. The influence of parasitic collisions is shown to lead to a region of stable collision parameters. Disrupted beam and beamstrahlung photon losses are calculated along the ext...

  18. Anchor-dependent lipofection with non-glycerol based cytofectins containing single 2-hydroxyethyl head groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Srilakshmi, Gollapudi; Sen, Joyeeta; Chaudhuri, Arabinda; Ramadas, Yerramsetti; Madhusudhana Rao, Nalam

    2002-02-15

    Detailed structure-activity investigations aimed at probing the anchor chain length dependency for glycerol-based lipofectins have been reported previously. Herein, we report on the first detailed investigation on the anchor-dependent transfection biology of non-glycerol based simple monocationic cytofectins containing single 2-hydroxyethyl head group functionality using 11 new structural analogs of our previously published first generation of non-glycerol based transfection lipids (lipids 1-11). The C-14 and C-16 analogs of DOMHAC (lipids 4 and 5, respectively) were found to be remarkably efficient in transfecting COS-1 cells. In addition, the present anchor-dependency investigation also revealed that the C-14 analog of DOHEMAB (lipid 10) is significantly efficient in transfecting both COS-1 and NIH3T3 cells. Our results also indicate that too strong lipid-DNA interactions might result in weaker transfection for non-glycerol based cationic lipids. In summary, the anchor-dependence investigations presented here convincingly demonstrate that non-glycerol based cationic lipids containing a single hydroxyethyl head group and hydrophobic C-14 or C-16 anchors are promising non-toxic cationic transfection lipids for future use in liposomal gene delivery.

  19. Effects of concentration, head group, and structure of surfactants on the degradation of phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Danyue; Jiang Xia; Jing Xin; Ou Ziqing

    2007-01-01

    The effects of concentration, polar/ionic head group, and structure of surfactants on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aqueous phase, as well as their effects on the bacterial activity were investigated. The toxicity ranking of studied surfactants is: non-ionic surfactants (Tween 80, Brij30, 10LE and Brij35) -1 ) served the sole carbon and energy resource. However, the degradation of 14 C-phenanthrene showed either a decrease or no obvious change with the surfactants present at all tested concentrations (5-40 mg L -1 ). Thus, the surfactant addition is not beneficial to the removal of phenanthrene or other PAH contaminants due presumably to the preferential utilization of surfactants at low levels as the non-toxic nutrient resource and to the high toxicity of the surfactants at high levels to the microorganism activity. Biodegradation of phenanthrene was also influenced by the surfactant concentration, head group type, and structure. Much more research has yet to be completed on the use of surfactants for soil remediation due to the surfactant toxicity or biodegradation effect

  20. NMR imaging of the head-neck region. Topography of function - clinical findings - imaging and spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The book on nmr imaging in the head-neck region offers, on a total of 221 pages, 344 detailed representations with 141 figures and 44 tables. It provides information as to the relevant topography of function, presents clinical findings, explains imaging characteristics and also takes account of spectroscopic procedures. The multifarious methods of investigation are described and discussed in connection with the differential diagnoses. A score of suitable diagnostic measures is assigned to each region of examination. The method's value is assessed against that of other imaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  1. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Region: An Analysis of 171 Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janjua, O. S.; Qureshi, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To analyze the pattern of presentation of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and margin status for excised specimens in the head and neck region. Study Design. Retrospective cross-sectional. Duration of Study. January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology. The database of the pathology department was searched to identify records of all malignant skin tumors that underwent standard excision with margins. Out of these records, tumors with a diagnosis of BCC in the head and neck region were retrieved and separated. Age, gender, anatomic location, pattern of tumor, and margin status were noted. Results. A total of 171 cases of BCC from various sites of head and neck were retrieved. Male to female ratio was 1.4?:?1. The age ranged from 22 to 90 years. Seventy-six cases presented on right side, 79 on left, and 16 were in the midline. Most common anatomical site was the nose followed by the cheek. Nodular lesions were the most common (46.2%) followed by pigmented variety (18.7%). Margins were clear in 77 (45.1%) cases, involved in 86 (50.2%) cases, and close in 8 (4.7%) cases. Conclusion. Nose was the most common site followed by the cheek. Nodular and pigmented varieties were the most frequent and margins were involved in more than fifty percent of the cases

  2. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Region: An Analysis of 171 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Sefvan Janjua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the pattern of presentation of basal cell carcinoma (BCC and margin status for excised specimens in the head and neck region. Study Design. Retrospective cross-sectional. Duration of Study. January 2009 to December 2011. Methodology. The database of the pathology department was searched to identify records of all malignant skin tumors that underwent standard excision with margins. Out of these records, tumors with a diagnosis of BCC in the head and neck region were retrieved and separated. Age, gender, anatomic location, pattern of tumor, and margin status were noted. Results. A total of 171 cases of BCC from various sites of head and neck were retrieved. Male to female ratio was 1.4 : 1. The age ranged from 22 to 90 years. Seventy-six cases presented on right side, 79 on left, and 16 were in the midline. Most common anatomical site was the nose followed by the cheek. Nodular lesions were the most common (46.2% followed by pigmented variety (18.7%. Margins were clear in 77 (45.1% cases, involved in 86 (50.2% cases, and close in 8 (4.7% cases. Conclusion. Nose was the most common site followed by the cheek. Nodular and pigmented varieties were the most frequent and margins were involved in more than fifty percent of the cases.

  3. Curriculum Framework (CF) Implementation Conference. Report of the Regional Educational Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia (Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, January 26-27, 1995).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jackie; Powell, Mary Jo

    The Laboratory Network Program and the National Network of Eisenhower Mathematics and Science Regional Consortia, operating as the Curriculum Frameworks Task Force, jointly convened a group of educators involved in implementing state-level mathematics or science curriculum frameworks (CF). The Hilton Head (South Carolina) conference had a dual…

  4. Radiotherapy complications and their possible management in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral complications from radiation to the head and neck or chemotherapy for any malignancy can compromise patients′ health and quality of life and affect their ability to complete planned cancer treatment. For some patients the complications can be so debilitating that they may tolerate only lower doses of therapy, postpone scheduled treatments, or discontinue treatment entirely. Oral complications can also lead to serious systemic infections. Medically necessary oral care before, during, and after cancer treatment can prevent or reduce the incidence and severity of oral complications, enhancing both patient survival and quality of life. In the present article we present an overview of oral complications, and their possible management, after radiation therapy in the head-and-neck region.

  5. Head Start's Impact Is Contingent on Alternative Type of Care in Comparison Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data ("n" = 3,790 with 2,119 in the 3-year-old cohort and 1,671 in the 4-year-old cohort) from 353 Head Start centers in the Head Start Impact Study, the only large-scale randomized experiment in Head Start history, this article examined the impact of Head Start on children's cognitive and parent-reported social-behavioral outcomes…

  6. A limited cone-beam CT for dental, head and neck regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirimura, Susumu

    2004-01-01

    Recently, limited cone-beam CTs for dental or head-and-neck regions, which utilize two-dimensional X-ray detectors, have been gaining popularity. With one single rotation, they provide high-resolution volumetric data of a small region, which is suitable for specialized medical applications in the dental and otorhinolaryngology fields. It is particularly useful in visualizing small structures such as temporal, maxilla or mandibula bones. Since the imaging area is limited to a small but sufficient region, it can reduce unnecessary X-ray exposure to the patient. As the entire system is designed to be space-efficient compared to existing CT systems in the field, it is possible fit the unit into a small clinic. This type of device can be a far more practical and useful tool than an existing CT for special applications requiring detailed imaging of the fine bone structures of teeth, the middle ear, etc. (author)

  7. Preliminary study of ergonomic behavior during simulated ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia using a head-mounted display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udani, Ankeet D; Harrison, T Kyle; Howard, Steven K; Kim, T Edward; Brock-Utne, John G; Gaba, David M; Mariano, Edward R

    2012-08-01

    A head-mounted display provides continuous real-time imaging within the practitioner's visual field. We evaluated the feasibility of using head-mounted display technology to improve ergonomics in ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia in a simulated environment. Two anesthesiologists performed an equal number of ultrasound-guided popliteal-sciatic nerve blocks using the head-mounted display on a porcine hindquarter, and an independent observer assessed each practitioner's ergonomics (eg, head turning, arching, eye movements, and needle manipulation) and the overall block quality based on the injectate spread around the target nerve for each procedure. Both practitioners performed their procedures without directly viewing the ultrasound monitor, and neither practitioner showed poor ergonomic behavior. Head-mounted display technology may offer potential advantages during ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia.

  8. Salivary flow rate and pH after radiotherapy of the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares de; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de; Krapf, Stella Maria Rigo; Souza, Fabiany Rodrigues de

    2004-01-01

    The most common sequelae in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy (60Cobalt) is postirradiation hypo salivation. This leads to a change in oral physiology, and, as a consequence, the irradiated individual is susceptible to infections and caries lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of stimulated whole saliva flow rate (SWSFR) during and after radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer by lateral opposed fields. Six samples of mechanically stimulated whole saliva were collected of each individual and evaluated by gravimetric method.The first sample was collected before radiotherapy; the second one after 1500 cGy dose; the third one after the last dose of treatment and the remainder samples in intervals of subsequent two months up to six months after the end of treatment. The SWSFR decreased in 50% after a dose of 1500 cGy (1/4 of received treatment). After radiation therapy, the SWSFR was 0,33 ml/min and after six months was 0,20 ml/min. These values represented, respectively, a decreasing in 64% and 78% of initial values (ANOVA, Tukey's Test p<0.05).Based in these results, the authors concluded radiotherapy when applied in malign neoplasms of the head and neck region by lateral opposed fields was able to decrease significantly salivary flow rate. Intensive preventive dental care during and after radiotherapy seems to be an useful tool to avoid radiation caries and their complications. (author)

  9. Position displacement effect on the doses in the peripheral head regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortesniemi, M.; Seppaelae, T.; Bjugg, H.; Seren, T.; Kotiluoto, P.; Auterinen, I.; Parkkinen, R.; Savolainen, S.

    2000-01-01

    Patient positioning is a challenging task in BNCT-treatments due to the use of multiple fields and a static horizontal beam construction. Positioning accuracy of 5 mm is required for acceptable dose delivery within appropriate limits of dose uncertainty (up to 10% of point dose in target volume). The aim of this study was to determine if a patient head position creating a clear gap between the beam port and the head would have a significant effect on the doses to the peripheral regions of the head, e.g. to the eyes. The gamma dose rates were measured in a water filled ellipsoidal phantom with an ionisation chamber (IC). Mn activation wires were used to determine the Mn-55(n, γ) reaction rates. Twelve measurement points were chosen in the phantom and two phantom positions were applied. According to this study the 35 mm position change and the resulting gap has an obvious effect on the peripheral doses in BNCT. The Mn activation reaction rates were on the average 80% higher in the deviation position than in the reference position. Increasing depth from the surface inside the phantom diminished the gamma dose difference between the two positions. Scattering environment changes with position displacement and resulting gap causes differences in neutron fluences and gamma doses. (author)

  10. Lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelink, H.

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective and a prospective study are described concerning the results of treatment for neck node metastases. The metastases came from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. The possibility of cure by radiotherapy is considered in detail. It appeared that the results of radiotherapy depend on the site of the primary tumour and on its occasional recurrence. From a dose-effect curve and a dose-complication curve it could be estimated that the optimal dose of irradiation was 2000 rets (72 Gray in 7 weeks). (Auth.)

  11. Late effects of radiation therapy in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Jay S.; Fu, Karen; Marks, James; Silverman, Sol

    1995-01-01

    The head and neck region is composed of numerous structures, each with an inherent response to radiation that is largely governed by the presence or absence of mucosa, salivary glands, or specialized organs within that site. Irradiated mucocutaneous tissues demonstrate increased vascular permeability that leads to fibrin deposition, subsequent collagen formation, and eventual fibrosis. Irradiated salivary tissue degenerates after relatively small doses, leading to markedly diminished salivary output. This, in turn, effects the teeth by promoting dental decay which, in turn, effects the integrity of the mandible. Details of these changes are presented, including their pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, and potential treatment

  12. Periodontal aspects of patients subjected to the radiotherapy in region of head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira Moreira, Allyson; Bueno, Audrey C.

    2007-01-01

    Mouth cancer is the sixth most frequent type in the world's population, affecting mostly developing countries. The treatment of choice for this neoplasm is the surgery associated with radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy, which often cause mouth adverse effects. The periodontal reaction to the suffering irradiation morphological and histological alterations decreased the ability of repairing and increased vulnerability to infections. The mouth conditions of the patients who will undergo cancer therapy should be assessed prior to initiation of treatment, mainly to prevent complications. This study aimed to do a literature review on the development of periodontal disease in patients undergoing radiotherapy in head and neck region [es

  13. Long-Term Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9903: A Randomized Phase 3 Trial to Assess the Effect of Erythropoietin on Local-Regional Control in Anemic Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenouda, George, E-mail: George.shenouda@muhc.mcgill.ca [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Zhang, Qiang [NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center (United States); Ang, K. Kian [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Machtay, Mitchell [University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Parliament, Matthew B. [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Hershock, Diane [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Suntharalingam, Mohan [University of Maryland Medical System, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Lin, Alexander [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Rotman, Marvin [Brooklyn Minority-based Community Clinical Oncology Program, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Nabid, Abdenour [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke (Québec), Québec (Canada); Hong, Susan [Akron City Hospital, Akron, Ohio (United States); Shehata, Sarwat [Northeastern Ontario Regional Cancer Centre, Sudbury, Ontario (Canada); Cmelak, Anthony J. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Sultanem, Khalil [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Le, Quynh-Thu [Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This paper reports long-term results of RTOG 9903, to determine whether the addition of erythropoietin (EPO) would improve the outcomes of radiation therapy (RT) in mildly to moderately anemic patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCCa). Methods and Materials: The trial included HNSCCa patients treated with definitive RT. Patients with stage III or IV disease received concomitant chemoradiation therapy or accelerated fractionation. Pretreatment hemoglobin levels were required to be between 9.0 and 13.5 g/dL (12.5 g/dL for females). EPO, 40,000 U, was administered weekly starting 7 to 10 days before RT was initiated in the RT + EPO arm. Results: A total of 141 of 148 enrolled patients were evaluable. The baseline median hemoglobin level was 12.1 g/dL. In the RT + EPO arm, the mean hemoglobin level at 4 weeks increased by 1.66 g/dL, whereas it decreased by 0.24 g/dL in the RT arm. With a median follow-up of 7.95 years (range: 1.66-10.08 years) for surviving patients and 3.33 years for all patients (range: 0.03-10.08 years), the 5-year estimate of local-regional failure was 46.2% versus 39.4% (P=.42), local-regional progression-free survival was 31.5% versus 37.6% (P=.20), and overall survival was 36.9% versus 38.2% (P=.54) for the RT + EPO and RT arms, respectively. Late toxicity was not different between the 2 arms. Conclusions: This long-term analysis confirmed that despite the ability of EPO to raise hemoglobin levels in anemic patients with HNSCCa, it did not improve outcomes when added to RT. The possibility of a detrimental effect of EPO could not be ruled out.

  14. Survival benefit of pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion for a limited group of patients with pancreatic head cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Sonshin; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Maemura, Kosei; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Natsugoe, Shoji; Aikou, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical benefit of pancreaticoduodenectomy in a Japanese fashion for patients with pancreatic head cancer. One hundred and one patients underwent pancreatectomy for pancreatic head cancer between 1980 and 2001. Of these, 40 patients in the extended resection (ER) group had an extended lymphadenectomy and neural plexus dissection as a Japanese fashion, while 61 patients in the conventional resection (CR) group. Tumor status, morbidity, mortality, survival and pattern of recurrence were retrospectively studied. The incidence of R0 operations in the ER group was higher than that in the CR group (pJapanese fashion with an adequate extended resection might bring a survival benefit for patients with pStage IIA or IIB pancreatic head cancer.

  15. Automatic segmentation of MRI head images by 3-D region growing method which utilizes edge information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hao; Suzuki, Hidetomo; Toriwaki, Jun-ichiro

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a 3-D segmentation method that automatically extracts soft tissue from multi-sliced MRI head images. MRI produces a sequence of two-dimensional (2-D) images which contains three-dimensional (3-D) information of organs. To utilize such information we need effective algorithms to treat 3-D digital images and to extract organs and tissues of interest. We developed a method to extract the brain from MRI images which uses a region growing procedure and integrates information of uniformity of gray levels and information of the presence of edge segments in the local area around the pixel of interest. First we generate a kernel region which is a part of brain tissue by simple thresholding. Then we grow the region by means of a region growing algorithm under the control of 3-D edge existence to obtain the region of the brain. Our method is rather simple because it uses basic 3-D image processing techniques like spatial difference. It is robust for variation of gray levels inside a tissue since it also refers to the edge information in the process of region growing. Therefore, the method is flexible enough to be applicable to the segmentation of other images including soft tissues which have complicated shapes and fluctuation in gray levels. (author)

  16. The Effectiveness of Group Social Work Intervention With Developmental Approach on Psychosocial Empowerment of Female-Headed Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Torabi Momen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion According to the study results, group social work intervention sessions with psychosocial developmental approach to empowering female-headed households is effective. The wider use of this type of intervention by professionals can empower and improve the lives of this group of people.

  17. Radiographic manifestations of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Barghan, Sevin; Kashtwari, Beeba; Nair, Madhu K.

    2016-01-01

    Mönckeberg sclerosis is a disease of unknown etiology, characterized by dystrophic calcification within the arterial tunica media of the lower extremities leading to reduced arterial compliance. Medial calcinosis does not obstruct the lumina of the arteries, and therefore does not lead to symptoms or signs of limb or organ ischemia. Mönckeberg sclerosis most commonly occurs in aged and diabetic individuals and in patients on dialysis. Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis is frequently observed in the visceral arteries, and it can occur in the head and neck region as well. This report describes a remarkable case of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region as detected on dental imaging studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case that has been reported in which this condition presented in the facial vasculature. The aim of this report was to define the radiographic characteristics of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in an effort to assist health care providers in diagnosing and managing this condition

  18. Radiographic manifestations of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahmasbi-Arashlow, Mehrnaz; Barghan, Sevin; Kashtwari, Beeba; Nair, Madhu K. [Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Colleges of Dentistry and Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Mönckeberg sclerosis is a disease of unknown etiology, characterized by dystrophic calcification within the arterial tunica media of the lower extremities leading to reduced arterial compliance. Medial calcinosis does not obstruct the lumina of the arteries, and therefore does not lead to symptoms or signs of limb or organ ischemia. Mönckeberg sclerosis most commonly occurs in aged and diabetic individuals and in patients on dialysis. Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis is frequently observed in the visceral arteries, and it can occur in the head and neck region as well. This report describes a remarkable case of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in the head and neck region as detected on dental imaging studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case that has been reported in which this condition presented in the facial vasculature. The aim of this report was to define the radiographic characteristics of Mönckeberg arteriosclerosis in an effort to assist health care providers in diagnosing and managing this condition.

  19. Head Start, Pre-Kindergarten, and Academic School Readiness: A Comparison Among Regions in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Child care programs (including Head Start, pre-Kindergarten [pre-K], and other center-based care) can differ, with patterns of use based on their location. Yet little research has examined how Head Start and pre-K programs affect children’s academic school readiness, including vocabulary and reading skills at school entry, in the South as compared to other regions. To examine this further, secondary data (n = 2,803) collected in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study were examined. Overall findings suggest, regardless of region, that Head Start and pre-K participants had higher academic skills at school entry than their counterparts. In addition, when Head Start was compared to other center-based care and pre-K was compared to other care arrangements, both had larger effects on improving academic skills in the South than in other regions. These findings imply that Head Start and pre-K programs should target children who otherwise would receive non-parental non-center-based care. Future research should focus on why the effects of Head Start and pre-K vary between the South and other regions. PMID:23729917

  20. Group velocity tomography and regionalization in Italy and bordering areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontevivo, A.; Panza, G.F.

    2001-10-01

    More than one hundred group velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves have been processed to obtain tomographic maps, in the period range from 10 s to 35 s, for the Italian peninsula and bordering areas. We compute average dispersion relations over a 1 deg. x 1 deg. grid, and, since the lateral resolving power of our data set is about 200 km, we group the cells of the grid accordingly to their dispersion curves. In this way and without a priori geological constraints, we define seven different regions, each characterised by a distinctive mean group velocity dispersion curve. The resulting regionalization can be easily correlated with the main tectonic features of the study area and mimics a recently proposed structural sketch. Average models of the shear wave velocity in the crust and in the upper mantle for a few selected regions are presented. The very low S-wave velocity values found in the uppermost upper mantle of the Southern Tyrrhenian basin are consistent with a large percentage of partial melting, well in agreement with the presence of the Vavilov-Magnaghi and Marsili huge volcanic bodies. (author)

  1. Resting position of the head and malocclusion in a group of patients with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Mihi, Victoria; Orellana, Lorena M.; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy are found as a result of these disorders, along with associated neuromuscular functional alterations that affect the resting position of the head. In this context, the resting position of the head could be responsible for several skeletal and dental occlusal disorders among patients with cerebral palsy. Objective: To assess the presence of malocclusions in patients with cerebral palsy, define the most frequent types of malocclusions, and evaluate how the resting position of the head may be implicated in the development of such malocclusions. Study design: Forty-four patients aged between 12-55 years (18 males and 26 females) were studied. Occlusal conditions, the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), changes in the resting position of the head, and breathing and swallowing functions were assessed. Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 70.8% of the patients, the most frequent malocclusions being molar class II, open bite and high overjet. These individuals showed altered breathing and swallowing functions, as well as habit and postural disorders. The resting position of the head, especially the hyperextended presentation, was significantly correlated to high DAI scores. Conclusions: The results obtained suggest that patients with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to present malocclusions, particularly molar class II malocclusion, increased open bite, and high overjet. Such alterations in turn are more common in patients with a hyperextended position of the head. Key words:Cerebral palsy, malocclusion, head position, disabled patients. PMID:24596627

  2. Ambiguous hydraulic heads and 14C activities in transient regional flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Franklin W; Sudicky, Edward A; McLaren, Robert G; Park, Young-Jin; Huber, Matthew; Apted, Mick

    2010-01-01

    A regional flow and transport model is used to explore the implications of significant variability in Pleistocene and Holocene climates on hydraulic heads and (14)C activity. Simulations involve a 39 km slice of the Death Valley Flow System through Yucca Mountain toward the Amargosa Desert. The long-time scale over which infiltration has changed (tens-of-thousands of years) is matched by the large physical extent of the flow system (many tens-of-kilometers). Estimated paleo-infiltration rates were estimated using a juniper pollen percentage that extends from the last interglacial (LIG) period (approximately 120 kyrbp) to present. Flow and (14)C transport simulations show that groundwater flow changes markedly as a function of paleoclimate. At the last glacial maximum (LGM, 21 kyrbp), the recharge to the flow system was about an order-of-magnitude higher than present, and water table was more than 100 m higher. With large basin time constants, flow is complicated because hydraulic heads at a given location reflect conditions of the past, but at another location the flow may reflect present conditions. This complexity is also manifested by processes that depend on flow, for example (14)C transport. Without a model that accounts for the historical transients in recharge for at least the last 20,000 years, there is no simple way to deconvolve the (14)C dates to explain patterns of flow.

  3. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in recurrent tumors of the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Kamada, Tadashi; Takamura, Akio; Shirato, Hiroki; Matsuoka, Yoshisuke; Irie, Goro

    1987-01-01

    Over the past four years, 27 patients with recurrent tumors of the head and neck region have been treated with chemotherapy. The regimens used were BCMF (bleomycin 15 mg i.v. for 3 days, cyclophosphamide 500 mg i.v., methotrexate 50 mg i.v. and 5-fluorouracil 500 mg i.v.) and CMU (cyclophosphamide 350 mg/m 2 i.v., methotrexate 30 mg/m 2 i.v. and UFT 600 mg p.o. for 14 days). Of the 27 patients, eight were treated with combined radiation and chemotherapy, and either CR or PR was obtained. Nineteen patients were treated with chemotherapy alone, for which the response (CR + PR) rates were 8 % (1/12) for BCMF and 43 % (3/7) for CMU, respectively. No serious toxicities were observed as a result of these regimens. It was thus demonstrated that the CMU regimen was of great value in terms of improved response and minor toxicity in the treatment of head and neck tumors. (author)

  4. Development of a Head and Neck Regional Anesthesia Task Trainer for Emergency Medicine Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Gorgas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This innovation is designed for medical students through senior residents. Introduction: Regional anesthesia increases the EM physician’s ability to provide effective pain relief and to complete procedures within the Emergency Department (ED. Studies consistently demonstrate that emergency physicians undertreat pain when performing basic procedures such as suturing lacerations.1,2 Regional anesthesia allows for effective pain relief, while avoiding the risks associated with systemic analgesia/anesthesia or the tissue distortion of local anesthesia.3 Knowledge of the anatomy involved in various nerve blocks is crucial to the development of proper technique and successful performance of this skill. Three dimensional (3-D model simulation-based mastery of procedural skills has been demonstrated to decrease resident anxiety, improve success rates, and decrease complications during the resident’s transition into the clinical setting.5,6 Similarly, use of a 3-D head and neck model to practice application of facial regional anesthesia is hypothesized to improve provider confidence and competence which will in turn provide an improved patient experience. Objectives: In participating in the educational session associated with this task trainer, the learner will: 1 Identify landmarks for the following nerve blocks: Infraorbital, Supraorbital (V1, Mental, Periauricular 2 Demonstrate the appropriate technique for anesthetic injection for each of these nerve blocks 3 Map the distribution of regional anesthesia expected from each nerve block 4 Apply the indications and contraindications for each regional nerve block Method: This low-fidelity task trainer allows residents and medical students to practice various nerve blocks on the face in order to improve learner confidence and proficiency in performing facial regional anesthesia.

  5. Sonography, CT and MR in soft part growths in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, G.; Brix, F.; Beigel, A.

    1990-01-01

    14 patients with a space-occupying growth in the head and neck region were examined via sonography, CT and MR to explore and demonstrate by means of a prospective comparative study the possibilities offered by these three imaging methods. Stages are best diagnosed by means of sonography; the leading role of this method is undisputed. To clarify sonographically unclear findings and especially in pre-surgery planning, MR offers advantages over CT on account of the high soft-part contrast and multiplanar visualisation. However, it is impossible or very difficult to differentiate abscesses and lymphadenitides from malignant growths with these three methods solely on the basis of image-morphological criteria. (orig.) [de

  6. Electrochemotherapy as a new therapeutic strategy in advanced Merkel cell carcinoma of head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scelsi, Daniele; Mevio, Niccolò; Bertino, Giulia; Occhini, Antonio; Brazzelli, Valeria; Morbini, Patrizia; Benazzo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Merkel Cell Carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive tumour, arising from a cutaneous mechanoceptor cell located in the basal layer of epidermis, with poor prognosis. The treatment of choice for the initial stage of the disease is surgery and/or radiotherapy. The treatment of recurrent or advanced disease is still controversial. We report a case of 84 years old woman with a recurrent MCC of the chin treated with electrochemotherapy (ECT). During the period of 20 months, four sessions of ECT were employed, which resulted in an objective response of the tumour and good quality of residual life. Our case shows the effectiveness of ECT in the treatment of locally advanced MCC of the head and neck region in a patient not suitable for standard therapeutic options

  7. Ethnic Group Differences in Early Head Start Parents Parenting Beliefs and Practices and Links to Children's Early Cognitive Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Micere

    2009-01-01

    Data from the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation study were used to examine the extent to which several factors mediate between- and within-ethnic-group differences in parenting beliefs and behaviors, and children's early cognitive development (analysis sample of 1198 families). The findings indicate that Hispanic-, European-, and…

  8. Pretreatment quality of life predicts for locoregional control in head and neck cancer patients : A radiation therapy oncology group analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional

  9. Effect of radiotherapy on stem cells in head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Anu; Krishnan, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers form a major group of dreaded diseases in India. Radiation therapy is one important treatment modality for this type of cancer. However, inadvertent radiation to normal tissue leads to depletion of its critical stem cells due to genotoxic damage. Cells mostly affected by radiation are rapidly dividing bone marrow and epidermal skin stem cells. The erythroid and myeloid progenitor cells of bone marrow bear the brunt of it causing leucopenia/thrombocytopenia/anemia. Alopecia and pigmentation mark the changes on skin. In brain, two stem cell populations; subgranular and subventricular zones, where neurogenesis occurs throughout life are affected. However, terminally differentiating neurons with low proliferative capacity are spared. In oral tissues, xerostomia is a prominent feature, while dental pulp stem cells undergo senescence. Enamel calcification and tooth root formation are also impaired. Eye shows changes in the limbal stem cells that replace corneal epithelium. All these imply a varied response of stem cells to radiation therapy based on their proliferation capacity; quiescent stem cells being more resistant whereas actively dividing cells, less resistant to radiotherapy. This paper evaluates the differential response of stem cells to radiation therapy in the head and neck area and thereby aims to predict their therapeutic potential. (author)

  10. Regional neural tube closure defined by the Grainy head-like transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifat, Yeliz; Parekh, Vishwas; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Hislop, Nikki R; Auden, Alana; Ting, Stephen B; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2010-09-15

    Primary neurulation in mammals has been defined by distinct anatomical closure sites, at the hindbrain/cervical spine (closure 1), forebrain/midbrain boundary (closure 2), and rostral end of the forebrain (closure 3). Zones of neurulation have also been characterized by morphologic differences in neural fold elevation, with non-neural ectoderm-induced formation of paired dorso-lateral hinge points (DLHP) essential for neural tube closure in the cranial and lower spinal cord regions, and notochord-induced bending at the median hinge point (MHP) sufficient for closure in the upper spinal region. Here we identify a unifying molecular basis for these observations based on the function of the non-neural ectoderm-specific Grainy head-like genes in mice. Using a gene-targeting approach we show that deletion of Grhl2 results in failed closure 3, with mutants exhibiting a split-face malformation and exencephaly, associated with failure of neuro-epithelial folding at the DLHP. Loss of Grhl3 alone defines a distinct lower spinal closure defect, also with defective DLHP formation. The two genes contribute equally to closure 2, where only Grhl gene dosage is limiting. Combined deletion of Grhl2 and Grhl3 induces severe rostral and caudal neural tube defects, but DLHP-independent closure 1 proceeds normally in the upper spinal region. These findings provide a molecular basis for non-neural ectoderm mediated formation of the DLHP that is critical for complete neuraxis closure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Paracantor: A two group, two region reactor code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Stuart

    1956-07-01

    Paracantor I a two energy group, two region, time independent reactor code, which obtains a closed solution for a critical reactor assembly. The code deals with cylindrical reactors of finite length and with a radial reflector of finite thickness. It is programmed for the 1.B.M: Magnetic Drum Data-Processing Machine, Type 650. The limited memory space available does not permit a flux solution to be included in the basic Paracantor code. A supplementary code, Paracantor 11, has been programmed which computes fluxes, .including adjoint fluxes, from the .output of Paracamtor I.

  12. Dependence of micelle size and shape on detergent alkyl chain length and head group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan C Oliver

    Full Text Available Micelle-forming detergents provide an amphipathic environment that can mimic lipid bilayers and are important tools for solubilizing membrane proteins for functional and structural investigations in vitro. However, the formation of a soluble protein-detergent complex (PDC currently relies on empirical screening of detergents, and a stable and functional PDC is often not obtained. To provide a foundation for systematic comparisons between the properties of the detergent micelle and the resulting PDC, a comprehensive set of detergents commonly used for membrane protein studies are systematically investigated. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS, micelle shapes and sizes are determined for phosphocholines with 10, 12, and 14 alkyl carbons, glucosides with 8, 9, and 10 alkyl carbons, maltosides with 8, 10, and 12 alkyl carbons, and lysophosphatidyl glycerols with 14 and 16 alkyl carbons. The SAXS profiles are well described by two-component ellipsoid models, with an electron rich outer shell corresponding to the detergent head groups and a less electron dense hydrophobic core composed of the alkyl chains. The minor axis of the elliptical micelle core from these models is constrained by the length of the alkyl chain, and increases by 1.2-1.5 Å per carbon addition to the alkyl chain. The major elliptical axis also increases with chain length; however, the ellipticity remains approximately constant for each detergent series. In addition, the aggregation number of these detergents increases by ∼16 monomers per micelle for each alkyl carbon added. The data provide a comprehensive view of the determinants of micelle shape and size and provide a baseline for correlating micelle properties with protein-detergent interactions.

  13. Snake cytotoxins bind to membranes via interactions with phosphatidylserine head groups of lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia G Konshina

    Full Text Available The major representatives of Elapidae snake venom, cytotoxins (CTs, share similar three-fingered fold and exert diverse range of biological activities against various cell types. CT-induced cell death starts from the membrane recognition process, whose molecular details remain unclear. It is known, however, that the presence of anionic lipids in cell membranes is one of the important factors determining CT-membrane binding. In this work, we therefore investigated specific interactions between one of the most abundant of such lipids, phosphatidylserine (PS, and CT 4 of Naja kaouthia using a combined, experimental and modeling, approach. It was shown that incorporation of PS into zwitterionic liposomes greatly increased the membrane-damaging activity of CT 4 measured by the release of the liposome-entrapped calcein fluorescent dye. The CT-induced leakage rate depends on the PS concentration with a maximum at approximately 20% PS. Interestingly, the effects observed for PS were much more pronounced than those measured for another anionic lipid, sulfatide. To delineate the potential PS binding sites on CT 4 and estimate their relative affinities, a series of computer simulations was performed for the systems containing the head group of PS and different spatial models of CT 4 in aqueous solution and in an implicit membrane. This was done using an original hybrid computational protocol implementing docking, Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. As a result, at least three putative PS-binding sites with different affinities to PS molecule were delineated. Being located in different parts of the CT molecule, these anion-binding sites can potentially facilitate and modulate the multi-step process of the toxin insertion into lipid bilayers. This feature together with the diverse binding affinities of the sites to a wide variety of anionic targets on the membrane surface appears to be functionally meaningful and may adjust CT action against

  14. The influence of gravity on regional lung blood flow in humans: SPECT in the upright and head-down posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ax, M; Sanchez-Crespo, A; Lindahl, S G E; Mure, M; Petersson, J

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that gravity has little influence on the distribution of lung blood flow while changing posture from supine to prone. This study aimed to evaluate the maximal influence of posture by comparison of regional lung blood flow in the upright and head-down posture in 8 healthy volunteers, using a tilt table. Regional lung blood flow was marked by intravenous injection of macroaggregates of human albumin labeled with 99m Tc or 113m In, in the upright and head-down posture, respectively, during tidal breathing. Both radiotracers remain fixed in the lung after administration. The distribution of radioactivity was mapped using quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) corrected for attenuation and scatter. All images were obtained supine during tidal breathing. A shift from upright to the head-down posture caused a clear redistribution of blood flow from basal to apical regions. We conclude that posture plays a role for the distribution of lung blood flow in upright humans, and that the influence of posture, and thereby gravity, is much greater in the upright and head-down posture than in horizontal postures. However, the results of the study demonstrate that lung structure is the main determinant of regional blood flow and gravity is a secondary contributor to the distribution of lung blood flow in the upright and head-down positions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a dual-isotope quantitative SPECT method, we demonstrated that although a shift in posture redistributes blood flow in the direction of gravity, the results are also consistent with lung structure being a greater determinant of regional blood flow than gravity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use modern imaging methods to quantify the shift in regional lung blood flow in humans at a change between the upright and head-down postures. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Effects of sucralflate on mucositis during and following radiotherapy of malignancies in the head and neck region. A double-blind placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, L.; Henriksson, R.; Littbrand, B.; Zackrisson, B.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy of head and neck malignancies is accompanied by oral discomforts, such as epithelitis, pain and functional impairment. This can lead to chronic sequalae with subjective distress such as loss of taste and xerostomia and pronounced decrease in quality of life. Thus, the need to reduce the mucosal damage following radiotherapy is obvious. Therefore, we investigated the possible ability of sucralfate, an aluminium hydroxide complex of sulphated sucrose used in the treatment of gastric ulcer, in preventing oral discomfort in patients treated with curative intent for malignancies in the head and neck region. The study was double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized and included 50 consecutive patients. The study demonstrated that the proportion of patients with severe mucosal reactions was significantly lower in the sucralfate group than in the placebo group. (orig.)

  16. Reckoning Informal Politics: Expands the Logic of Survival and Failure of Regional Heads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Sobari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative research addresses the political logic of why and how the incumbents succeed and fail in direct election for regional heads (pilkada in emerging democratic Indonesia. De Mesquita et al. (2003 believe that, to survive in office, a leader needs to offer a benefit at least equal to the greatest possible benefit offered by a potential challenger. Particular to the pilkada cases in Indonesia, Erb and Sulistiyanto (2009 elaborate several factors connected to “reward and punishment” logic that may lead to the incumbents’ survival and failure in re-election bids. This study expands the logic by revealing that populism, rivalry, and tangibility are the core strategies for the successful incumbents in retaining their offices in four rural and urban regions in East Java. Particularly, the survival of an incumbent hinges on his capacity to manage rivalry risks, namely the capability to manage support and opposition both from formal and informal actors through fair or unfair means. These strategies, then, foster the success of patronage-based winning tactics to retain public office in the pilkada. To better assessment, it calls for the importance of democratic accountability as a complementary perspective (to consolidology in measuring the progress of democracy in the country. 

  17. Thermodynamics on the micellization of various pure and mixed surfactants: Effects of head- and tail-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Nam-Min; Lee, Byung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The values of critical micelle concentration of various pure and mixed surfactants are measured. • Thermodynamic parameters’ values are calculated to analyze the effects of head- and tail-groups on the micellization. • All the thermodynamic parameters’ values are decreasing with the increase of temperature. • The thermodynamic parameters’ values are depending severely on the chain length of alkyl group. - Abstract: The values of critical micelle concentration (CMC) for the micellization of various pure and mixed surfactants are determined by the UV–Vis spectrophotometric method. And the effects of temperature on the CMC values have been measured and thermodynamic parameters’ values are calculated to analyse the effects of head- and tail-groups on the micellization of surfactant molecules. The results show that the values of ΔG"o are negative and those of ΔS"o are positive for the micellization of all the surfactants within the measured temperature range. But the values of ΔH"o are positive or negative, depending on the kinds of surfactants. All these thermodynamic parameters’ values are decreasing together with the increase of temperature for all the surfactants. And these thermodynamic parameters’ values are depending severely on the chain length of alkyl group also as much as on the head-groups of surfactant molecules.

  18. Temperature simulations in hyperthermia treatment planning of the head and neck region. Rigorous optimization of tissue properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaart, Rene F.; Rijnen, Zef; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Paulides, Margarethus M.; Fortunati, Valerio; Walsum, Theo van; Veenland, Jifke F.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is used in the head and neck region (H and N) for pretreatment optimization, decision making, and real-time HTP-guided adaptive application of hyperthermia. In current clinical practice, HTP is based on power-absorption predictions, but thermal dose-effect relationships advocate its extension to temperature predictions. Exploitation of temperature simulations requires region- and temperature-specific thermal tissue properties due to the strong thermoregulatory response of H and N tissues. The purpose of our work was to develop a technique for patient group-specific optimization of thermal tissue properties based on invasively measured temperatures, and to evaluate the accuracy achievable. Data from 17 treated patients were used to optimize the perfusion and thermal conductivity values for the Pennes bioheat equation-based thermal model. A leave-one-out approach was applied to accurately assess the difference between measured and simulated temperature (∇T). The improvement in ∇T for optimized thermal property values was assessed by comparison with the ∇T for values from the literature, i.e., baseline and under thermal stress. The optimized perfusion and conductivity values of tumor, muscle, and fat led to an improvement in simulation accuracy (∇T: 2.1 ± 1.2 C) compared with the accuracy for baseline (∇T: 12.7 ± 11.1 C) or thermal stress (∇T: 4.4 ± 3.5 C) property values. The presented technique leads to patient group-specific temperature property values that effectively improve simulation accuracy for the challenging H and N region, thereby making simulations an elegant addition to invasive measurements. The rigorous leave-one-out assessment indicates that improvements in accuracy are required to rely only on temperature-based HTP in the clinic. (orig.) [de

  19. A population-based study of sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in a Canadian health region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew W; Jones, C Allyson; Rowe, Brian H; Voaklander, Donald C

    2012-07-01

    To report the rates of SR-related HIs presenting to EDs in a Canadian population-based sample. Descriptive epidemiology study. Using administrative data, sport and recreation-related emergency department presentations for persons 0-35 years of age, from April 1997 through March 2008, were obtained from the Edmonton Zone (formerly the Capital Health Region), Alberta Health Services through the Ambulatory Care Classification System. Of the 3,230,890 visits to the emergency departments of the five hospitals in Edmonton, 63,219 sport and recreation-related injury records and 4935 sport and recreation-head injury records were identified. Head injuries were most frequently treated for the activities of hockey (20.7%), cycling (12.0%), and skiing/snowboarding/sledding. Males accounted for 71.9% (n=3546) and patients less than 18 years of age sustained 3446 (69.8%) sport and recreation-head injuries. Sport and recreation-related head injuries most frequently treated in emergency departments involve common activities such as hockey, cycling, skiing/snowboarding/sledding, and soccer. Males and those less than 18 years of age sustain the majority of sport and recreation-related head injuries treated in emergency departments. These findings underscore the importance of sport-specific policies and safety promotion for the prevention of head injuries, in sports and recreational activities. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  20. Whipple's operation for carcinoma of the pancreatic head and the ampullary region. Short-and long-term results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Banner, Jytte; Rokkjaer, M

    1998-01-01

    In this retrospective review short- and long-term perspectives have been evaluated for 108 patients who, during 1982 through 1992, had Whipple's operation performed for carcinoma of the pancreatic head (PC, n=63) or the ampullary region (AC, n=45). In 24 patients the operation was not radical (21...

  1. Structure-transfection activity relationships in a series of novel cationic lipids with heterocyclic head-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A; Maslov, Mikhail A; Kabilova, Tatyana O; Puchkov, Pavel A; Alekseeva, Anna S; Boldyrev, Ivan A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Serebrennikova, Galina A; Morozova, Nina G; Zenkova, Marina A

    2013-11-07

    Cationic liposomes are promising candidates for the delivery of various therapeutic nucleic acids. Here, we report a convenient synthesis of carbamate-type cationic lipids with various hydrophobic domains (tetradecanol, dialkylglycerol, cholesterol) and positively charged head-groups (pyridinium, N-methylimidazolium, N-methylmorpholinium) and data on the structure-transfection activity relationships. It was found that single-chain lipids possess high surface activity, which correlates with high cytotoxicity due to their ability to disrupt the cellular membrane by combined hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Liposomes containing these lipids also display high cytotoxicity with respect to all cell lines. Irrespective of chemical structures, all cationic lipids form liposomes with similar sizes and surface potentials. The characteristics of complexes composed of cationic liposomes and nucleic acids depend mostly on the type of nucleic acid and P/N ratios. In the case of oligodeoxyribonucleotide delivery, the transfection activity depends on the type of cationic head-group regardless of the type of hydrophobic domain: all types of cationic liposomes mediate efficient oligonucleotide transfer into 80-90% of the eukaryotic cells, and liposomes based on lipids with N-methylmorpholinium cationic head-group display the highest transfection activity. In the case of plasmid DNA and siRNA, the type of hydrophobic domain determines the transfection activity: liposomes composed of cholesterol-based lipids were the most efficient in DNA transfer, while liposomes containing glycerol-based lipids exhibited reasonable activity in siRNA delivery under serum-free conditions.

  2. Crust and upper mantle structure in the Caribbean region by group velocity tomography and regionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Leary, Gonzalez; Alvarez, L.; Chimera, G.; Panza, G.F.

    2004-04-01

    An overview of the crust and upper mantle structure of the Central America and Caribbean region is presented as a result of the processing of more than 200 seismograms recorded by digital broadband stations from SSSN and GSN seismic networks. By FTAN analysis of the fundamental mode of the Rayleigh waves, group velocity dispersion curves are obtained in the period range from 10 s to 40 s; the error of these measurements varies from 0.06 and 0.10 km/s. From the dispersion curves, seven tomographic maps at different periods and with average spatial resolution of 500 km are obtained. Using the logical combinatorial classification techniques, eight main groups of dispersion curves are determined from the tomographic maps and eleven main regions, each one characterized by one kind of dispersion curves, are identified. The average dispersion curves obtained for each region are extended to 150 s by adding data from the tomographic study of and inverted using a non-linear procedure. As a result of the inversion process, a set of models of the S-wave velocity vs. depth in the crust and upper mantle are found. In six regions, we identify a typically oceanic crust and upper mantle structure, while in the other two the models are consistent with the presence of a continental structure. Two regions, located over the major geological zones of the accretionary crust of the Caribbean region, are characterized by a peculiar crust and upper mantle structure, indicating the presence of lithospheric roots reaching, at least, about 200 km of depth. (author)

  3. Predicting superdeformed rotational band-head spin in A ∼ 190 mass region using variable moment of inertia model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma, V.S.; Goel, Alpana; Yadav, Archana; Jain, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    The band-head spin (I 0 ) of superdeformed (SD) rotational bands in A ∼ 190 mass region is predicted using the variable moment of inertia (VMI) model for 66 SD rotational bands. The superdeformed rotational bands exhibited considerably good rotational property and rigid behaviour. The transition energies were dependent on the prescribed band-head spins. The ratio of transition energies over spin Eγ/ 2 I (RTEOS) vs. angular momentum (I) have confirmed the rigid behaviour, provided the band-head spin value is assigned correctly. There is a good agreement between the calculated and the observed transition energies. This method gives a very comprehensive interpretation for spin assignment of SD rotational bands which could help in designing future experiments for SD bands. (author)

  4. Basal cell adenocarcinoma of minor salivary and seromucous glands of the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, I; Soares, J

    1996-05-01

    Basal cell adenocarcinoma of salivary glands is an uncommon and recently described entity occurring almost exclusively at the major salivary glands. This report provides an overview of the clinicopathologic profile of this neoplasm by including the personal experience on the clinical features, microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics, proliferation activity, and DNA tumor patterns of 12 lesions occurring at the minor salivary glands of the head and neck region, where basal cell adenocarcinoma is probably an underecognized entity, previously reported under different designations. Basal cell adenocarcinoma predominates at the seventh decade without sex preference. The tumors affecting the minor salivary glands occur most frequently at the oral cavity (jugal mucosa, palate) and the upper respiratory tract. The prevalent histologic tumor pattern is represented by solid neoplastic aggregates with a peripheral cell palisading arrangement frequently delineated by basement membrane-like material. The neoplastic clusters are formed by two cell populations: the small dark cell type (that predominates) and a large cell type. Necrosis, either of the comedo or the apoptotic type, is a frequent finding. Perineural growth occurs in 50% of the cases and vascular permeation in 25%. Immunohistochemistry identifies a dual differentiation with a reactivity pattern indicative of ductal epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation, which can be confirmed by electron microscopy. The differential diagnosis of the neoplasm includes its benign counterpart, the basal cell adenoma, solid variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma, undifferentiated carcinoma, and basaloid squamous carcinoma. The tumors recur more frequently than lesions originating in major salivary glands. Mortality is associated with the anatomic site of the lesion, advanced stage, residual neoplasia at surgery, and tumor recurrence. The importance of recognizing basal cell adenocarcinoma outside major salivary glands is

  5. Polymorphism of regulatory region of GHRL gene (-2531C>T) as a promising predictive factor for radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis in patients with head neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Anna; Homa-Mlak, Iwona; Mlak, Radosław; Gołębiowski, Paweł; Mazurek, Marcin; Ciesielka, Marzanna; Małecka-Massalska, Teresa

    2018-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP; rs1629816) in the regulatory region (c.-2531C>T) of the ghrelin (GHRL) gene and the occurrence and severity of oral mucositis caused by radiotherapy (RT) in patients with head and neck cancer. Oral mucositis in 65 patients with head and neck cancer who underwent irradiation were assessed according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) scale. The DNA from patients with head and neck cancer was isolated from whole blood. The genotypes were determined using the minisequencing method (SNaPshot PCR). The frequency of occurrence of the GHRL gene (c.-2531C>T, rs1629816) genotypes were as follows: AA = 21.5%; GA = 40%; and GG = 38.5%. In case of AA genotype, there was a 7-fold decrease of the risk of occurrence of oral mucositis (of grades 2 and 3) in the sixth week of RT (AA vs GA or GG, respectively: 17.9% vs 82.1% patients; odds ratio [OR] 0.14; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.02-0.98; P = .0481). No statistically significant differences were observed between the volume of oral cavity contours (V30, V40, and V50) depending on the GHRL genotype in patients with head and neck cancer. The study results have demonstrated an association between the AA genotype of the GHRL gene and the risk of more severe oral mucositis attributed to RT in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MR-guided laser-induced thermotherapy of tumours of the head and neck region: First clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Mueller, P.; Philipp, C.; Juergens, M.; Knoebber, D.; Roggan, A.; Wust, P.; Jahnke, V.; Felix, R.

    1995-01-01

    8 patients with recurrent tumours of the head and neck region (squamous cell carcinomas n=6, pleomorphic adenomas n=2) underwent MR-controlled LITT. A 7 French laser applicator was inserted under local anaesthesia into the centre of the recurrent tumour. A Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm was used. Therapy was monitored on-line using special MR thermosequences. Preinterventional contrast-enhanced MRI revealed a recurrent tumour of the head and neck region for all eight patients. All patients tolerated the procedures well under local anaesthesia, with no clinically relevant side effects. The MR thermosequences depicted up to 15 mm diameter areas of less signal near the laser tip. Postinterventional contrast-enhanced MRI revealed hypovascularised areas due to the resulting coagulative necrosis. Coagulative necrosis of 4 cc to 28 cc occurred in all patients, and a reduction of clinical symptoms was achieved in five. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Social Determinants of Tooth Loss among a Group of Iranian Female Heads of Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Tooth loss may lead to mastication disability, which in turn has important impact on individual’s quality of life. Social and psychological factors have been shown to be associated with tooth loss. This study aimed to in-vestigate the social determinants and prevalence of tooth loss, and presence of functional dentition among female heads of household under support of Welfare Organization in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and methods. In current study 556 participants aged 16-76 years were recruited. Sociodemographic character-istics (age, level of education, family size, and monthly income were collected using interviewer-led questionnaire. Data about number of teeth and functional dentition were obtained by oral examination. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, T-test and binary logistic regression analysis. Results. Four percent of participants were edentulous. Tooth loss was significantly associated with level of education, age and family size (P < 0.001. There was no significant association between level of income and tooth loss (P = 0.88. Only 37.5% of dentate subjects had functional dentition (anterior and premolar teeth. Women older than 40 years were 0.63 times less likely to have functional dentition than those younger than 40 years. Females with at least a high-school diploma were six times more likely to have functional dentition than their illiterate counterparts. Conclusion. Social determinants of functional dentition should be taken into account when planning oral health promoting programs for female heads of household. For reducing oral health inequalities access to dental services should be facilitated.

  8. Epidemiology and management of head injury in paediatric age group in North-Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Y Chinda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Paediatric head injury (HI is the single most common cause of death and permanent disability in children world over, and this is increasingly becoming worrisome in our society because of increased risks and proneness to road traffic accidents on our highways and streets. The study set to determine causes and management of HI among children in our society. Patients and Methods: A retrospective review of all children aged 0-15 years with traumatic head injury (THIs who were managed at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between July, 2006 and August, 2008. Results: A total of 45 children with THIs presented to the casualty unit of the hospital; 30 (66.7% were boys and 15 (33.3% were girls. Three (6.7% children were less than 1 year of age, 21 (46.7% were between 1 years and 6 years while 16 (35.6% and 5 (11.0% were aged 7-11 years and 12-15 years respectively. Thirty six (80.0% of the children were pedestrians, 6 (13.4% fell from a height, while 2 (4.4% and 1 (2.2% were as a result of home accident and assault, respectively. Twenty one patients (46.7% had mild HI, while 53.3% had moderate to severe category. Forty one (91.1% of children were managed as in-patients, mostly (95.1% by conservative non-operative management, while 4 (8.9% were treated on the out-patient basis. The mortality rate was 17.8%. Conclusion: H1 among children is of a great concern, because of its incremental magnitude, due to increasing child labour and interstate religious discipleship among children, with attendant high mortality and permanent disabilities. Necessary laws and legislations should be formulated and implemented with organized campaigns and public enlightenment to prevent and mitigate this menace.

  9. Effects of heterocyclic-based head group modifications on the structure-activity relationship of tocopherol-based lipids for non-viral gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosangi, Mallikarjun; Mujahid, Thasneem Yoosuf; Gopal, Vijaya; Patri, Srilakshmi V

    2016-07-12

    Gene therapy, a promising strategy for the delivery of therapeutic nucleic acids, is greatly dependent on the development of efficient vectors. In this study, we designed and synthesized several tocopherol-based lipids varying in the head group region. Here, we present the structure-activity relationship of stable aqueous suspensions of lipids that were synthetically prepared and formulated with 1,2-dioleoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DOPE) as the co-lipid. The physicochemical properties such as the hydrodynamic size, zeta potential, stability and morphology of these formulations were investigated. Interaction with plasmid DNA was clearly demonstrated through gel binding and EtBr displacement assays. Further, the transfection potential was examined in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a, hepatocarcinoma HepG2, human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovarian cell lines, all of different origins. Cell-uptake assays with N-methylpiperidinium, N-methylmorpholinium, N-methylimidazolium and N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium head group containing formulations evidently depicted efficient cell uptake as observed by particulate cytoplasmic fluorescence. Trafficking of lipoplexes using an endocytic marker and rhodamine-labeled phospholipid DHPE indicated that the lipoplexes were not sequestered in the lysosomes. Importantly, lipoplexes were non-toxic and mediated good transfection efficiency as analyzed by β-Gal and GFP reporter gene expression assays which established the superior activity of lipids whose structures correlate strongly with the transfection efficiency.

  10. Pretreatment Quality of Life Predicts for Locoregional Control in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control (LRC) and/or overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: HRQOL questionnaires, using a validated instrument, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H and N), version 2, were completed by patients before the start of treatment. OS and LRC were the outcome measures analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Baseline FACT-H and N data were available for 1,093 patients and missing for 417 patients. No significant difference in outcome was found between the patients with and without baseline FACT-H and N data (p = 0.58). The median follow-up time was 27.2 months for all patients and 49 months for surviving patients. Multivariate analyses were performed for both OS and LRC. Beyond tumor and nodal stage, Karnofsky performance status, primary site, cigarette use, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and altered fractionation schedules, the FACT-H and N score was independently predictive of LRC (but not OS), with p = 0.0038. The functional well-being component of the FACT-H and N predicted most significantly for LRC (p = 0.0004). Conclusions: This study represents, to our knowledge, the largest analysis of HRQOL as a prognostic factor in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. The results of this study have demonstrated the importance of baseline HRQOL as a significant and independent predictor of LRC in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

  11. Regional disarmament and security issues. Report of working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravenhill, J.

    1994-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in building cooperation in the Asia-pacific region in remarkably short period of time. Problems of regional disarmament are analysed by linking the economic and security issues. International cooperation regimes, whether in the military sphere, such as the Non-proliferation treaty, or in the trade sphere such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, inevitably impose restrictions on the autonomy of member States. The integrity of the regime depends on countries' acceptance of the obligations it imposes. The task ahead is to convince all countries in the region that cooperation in the security sphere will be of even greater long-term benefit

  12. Regional differences in islet distribution in the human pancreas--preferential beta-cell loss in the head region in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Wang

    Full Text Available While regional heterogeneity in islet distribution has been well studied in rodents, less is known about human pancreatic histology. To fill gaps in our understanding, regional differences in the adult human pancreas were quantitatively analyzed including the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Cadaveric pancreas specimens were collected from the head, body and tail regions of each donor, including subjects with no history of diabetes or pancreatic diseases (n = 23 as well as patients with T2D (n = 12. The study further included individuals from whom islets were isolated (n = 7 to study islet yield and function in a clinical setting of islet transplantation. The whole pancreatic sections were examined using an innovative large-scale image capture and unbiased detailed quantitative analyses of the characteristics of islets from each individual (architecture, size, shape and distribution. Islet distribution/density is similar between the head and body regions, but is >2-fold higher in the tail region. In contrast to rodents, islet cellular composition and architecture were similar throughout the pancreas and there was no difference in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in islets isolated from different regions of the pancreas. Further studies revealed preferential loss of large islets in the head region in patients with T2D. The present study has demonstrated distinct characteristics of the human pancreas, which should provide a baseline for the future studies integrating existing research in the field and helping to advance bi-directional research between humans and preclinical models.

  13. Automatic detection system for multiple region of interest registration to account for posture changes in head and neck radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, A.; van Beek, S.; Zijp, L. J.; Rasch, C.; van Herk, M.; Sonke, J.-J.

    2014-04-01

    Despite immobilization of head and neck (H and N) cancer patients, considerable posture changes occur over the course of radiotherapy (RT). To account for the posture changes, we previously implemented a multiple regions of interest (mROIs) registration system tailored to the H and N region for image-guided RT correction strategies. This paper is focused on the automatic segmentation of the ROIs in the H and N region. We developed a fast and robust automatic detection system suitable for an online image-guided application and quantified its performance. The system was developed to segment nine high contrast structures from the planning CT including cervical vertebrae, mandible, hyoid, manubrium of sternum, larynx and occipital bone. It generates nine 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs and informs the user in case of ambiguities. Two observers evaluated the robustness of the segmentation on 188 H and N cancer patients. Bland-Altman analysis was applied to a sub-group of 50 patients to compare the registration results using only the automatically generated ROIs and those manually set by two independent experts. Finally the time performance and workload were evaluated. Automatic detection of individual anatomical ROIs had a success rate of 97%/53% with/without user notifications respectively. Following the notifications, for 38% of the patients one or more structures were manually adjusted. The processing time was on average 5 s. The limits of agreement between the local registrations of manually and automatically set ROIs was comprised between ±1.4 mm, except for the manubrium of sternum (-1.71 mm and 1.67 mm), and were similar to the limits agreement between the two experts. The workload to place the nine ROIs was reduced from 141 s (±20 s) by the manual procedure to 59 s (±17 s) using the automatic method. An efficient detection system to segment multiple ROIs was developed for Cone-Beam CT image-guided applications in the H and N region and is clinically implemented in

  14. 10 CFR 500.3 - Electric regions-electric region groupings for reliability measurements under the Powerplant and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... System (APS)—7, except Duquesne Light Company. 2. American Electric Power System (AEP)—entire AEP System... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electric regions-electric region groupings for reliability... of electric regions for use with regard to the Act. The regions are identified by FERC Power Supply...

  15. Clinical values for abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hwan Seo [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Roh, Jong-Lyel, E-mail: rohjl@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptakes in the head and neck (HN) region can be carefully interpreted as being index primary, second primary cancer (SP) or benign. • {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT identified 91.9% primary HN squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). • The specificity and negative predictive value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for identification of SP were as high as 98.7% and 99.3%, respectively. • Proper detection of primary tumors and SP in the HN region may promote appropriate therapeutic planning of HNSCC patients. - Abstract: Purpose: Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used to identify index or second primary cancer (SP) of the head and neck (HN) through changes in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. However, both physiologic and abnormal lesions increase {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Therefore, we evaluated {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in the HN region to determine clinical values of abnormal tracer uptake. Methods: A prospective study approved by the institutional review board was conducted in 314 patients with newly diagnosed HN squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and informed consent was obtained from all enrolled patients. The patients received initial staging workups including {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT and biopsies. All lesions with abnormal HN {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were recorded and most of those were confirmed by biopsies. Diagnostic values for abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were calculated. Results: Abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was identified in primary tumors from 285 (91.9%) patients. False-negative results were obtained for 22.3% (23/103) T1 tumors and 2.2% (2/93) T2 tumors (P < 0.001). Thirty-eight regions of abnormal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake were identified in 36 (11.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 13), maxillary sinus (n = 7), palatine tonsil (n = 6), nasopharynx (n = 5), parotid gland (n = 2) and others (n = 5). Synchronous SP of the HN was identified in eight (2.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 5), palatine

  16. Clinical values for abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the head and neck region of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwan Seo; Kim, Jae Seung; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Abnormal 18 F-FDG uptakes in the head and neck (HN) region can be carefully interpreted as being index primary, second primary cancer (SP) or benign. • 18 F-FDG PET/CT identified 91.9% primary HN squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). • The specificity and negative predictive value of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for identification of SP were as high as 98.7% and 99.3%, respectively. • Proper detection of primary tumors and SP in the HN region may promote appropriate therapeutic planning of HNSCC patients. - Abstract: Purpose: Fluorine 18-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is used to identify index or second primary cancer (SP) of the head and neck (HN) through changes in 18 F-FDG uptake. However, both physiologic and abnormal lesions increase 18 F-FDG uptake. Therefore, we evaluated 18 F-FDG uptake in the HN region to determine clinical values of abnormal tracer uptake. Methods: A prospective study approved by the institutional review board was conducted in 314 patients with newly diagnosed HN squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and informed consent was obtained from all enrolled patients. The patients received initial staging workups including 18 F-FDG PET/CT and biopsies. All lesions with abnormal HN 18 F-FDG uptake were recorded and most of those were confirmed by biopsies. Diagnostic values for abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake were calculated. Results: Abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake was identified in primary tumors from 285 (91.9%) patients. False-negative results were obtained for 22.3% (23/103) T1 tumors and 2.2% (2/93) T2 tumors (P < 0.001). Thirty-eight regions of abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake were identified in 36 (11.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 13), maxillary sinus (n = 7), palatine tonsil (n = 6), nasopharynx (n = 5), parotid gland (n = 2) and others (n = 5). Synchronous SP of the HN was identified in eight (2.5%) patients: the thyroid (n = 5), palatine tonsil (n = 2), and epiglottis (n = 1). The sensitivity and

  17. More heads choose better than one: Group decision making can eliminate probability matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christin; Newell, Ben R

    2016-06-01

    Probability matching is a robust and common failure to adhere to normative predictions in sequential decision making. We show that this choice anomaly is nearly eradicated by gathering individual decision makers into small groups and asking the groups to decide. The group choice advantage emerged both when participants generated responses for an entire sequence of choices without outcome feedback (Exp. 1a) and when participants made trial-by-trial predictions with outcome feedback after each decision (Exp. 1b). We show that the dramatic improvement observed in group settings stands in stark contrast to a complete lack of effective solitary deliberation. These findings suggest a crucial role of group discussion in alleviating the impact of hasty intuitive responses in tasks better suited to careful deliberation.

  18. Incidence of hospital referred head injuries in Norway: a population based survey from the Stavanger region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heskestad, Ben; Baardsen, Roald; Helseth, Eirik

    2009-01-01

    it with previous Norwegian studies. METHODS: All head injured patients referred to Stavanger University Hospital during a one-year period (2003) were registered in a partly prospective and partly retrospective study. The catchment area for the hospital is strictly defined to a local population of 283...

  19. Genetic interactions between diverged alleles of Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) and Heading date 3a (Hd3a)/ RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1) control differential heading and contribute to regional adaptation in rice (Oryza sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Hongyi; Ren, Ding; Tang, Huiwu; Qiu, Rong; Feng, Jinglei; Long, Yunming; Niu, Baixiao; Chen, Danping; Zhong, Tianyu; Liu, Yao-Guang; Guo, Jingxin

    2015-11-01

    Initiation of flowering, also called heading, in rice (Oryza sativa) is determined by the florigens encoded by Heading date 3a (Hd3a) and RICE FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (RFT1). Early heading date 1 (Ehd1) regulates Hd3a and RFT1. However, different rice varieties have diverged alleles of Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 and their genetic interactions remain largely unclear. Here we generated three segregating populations for different combinations of diverged Ehd1 and Hd3a/RFT1 alleles, and analyzed their genetic interactions between these alleles. We demonstrated that, in an ehd1 mutant background, Hd3a was silenced, but RFT1 was expressed (although at lower levels than in plants with a functional Ehd1) under short-day (SD) and long-day (LD) conditions. We identified a nonfunctional RFT1 allele (rft1); the lines carrying homozygous ehd1 and Hd3a/rft1 failed to induce the floral transition under SD and LD conditions. Like Hd3a, RFT1 also interacted with 14-3-3 proteins, the florigen receptors, but a nonfunctional RFT1 with a crucial E105K mutation failed to interact with 14-3-3 proteins. Furthermore, analyses of sequence variation and geographic distribution suggested that functional RFT1 alleles were selected during rice adaptation to high-latitude regions. Our results demonstrate the important roles of RFT1 in rice flowering and regional adaptation. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. Edge-Region Grouping in Figure-Ground Organization and Depth Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Brooks, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    Edge-region grouping (ERG) is proposed as a unifying and previously unrecognized class of relational information that influences figure-ground organization and perceived depth across an edge. ERG occurs when the edge between two regions is differentially grouped with one region based on classic principles of similarity grouping. The ERG hypothesis…

  1. Rich: Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head Selection and Node Deployment Strategy in Concentric-based WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN, C.-S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In a random deployment, sensor nodes are scattered randomly in the sensing field. Hence, the coverage can not be guaranteed. In contrast, the coverage of uniformly deployment is in general larger than the random deployment. However, uniformly deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this situation, larger load may be imposed to CHs (cluster heads around the sink. Therefore, CHs close to the sink use up their energy earlier than those farther away from the sink. To overcome this problem, we propose a novel node deployment strategy in the concentric model, namely, Region-based Intelligent Cluster-Head selection and node deployment strategy (called Rich. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed Rich scheme. The simulation results show that the proposed Rich alleviates the unbalanced traffic pattern significantly, prolongs network lifetime and achieves satisfactory coverage ratio.

  2. Degeneration of articular cartilage in osteonecrosis of the femoral head begins at the necrotic region after collapse: a preliminary study using T1 rho MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Kazuhiko; Motomura, Goro; Nakashima, Yasuharu [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Kawanami, Satoshi; Takayama, Yukihisa; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamamoto, Takuaki [Fukuoka University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Jonan-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of collapse on the degeneration of articular cartilage in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Sixteen hips in 12 patients (four men, eight women; mean age, 34.8 years) with a history of systemic corticosteroid treatment were studied using T1 rho magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Six hips had collapsed ONFH, five had non-collapsed ONFH, and five had no osteonecrosis (controls). Using oblique coronal images, we divided the articular surface of necrotic femoral heads into a region just above the necrotic bone (necrotic zone) and another above the living bone (living zone). T1 rho value was evaluated for each zone. The mean T1 rho value in the necrotic zone was significantly higher in the collapsed ONFH group (48.4 ± 2.7 ms) than in the non-collapsed ONFH group (41.0 ± 0.9 ms). In the collapsed ONFH group, the mean T1 rho value was significantly higher in the necrotic zone (48.4 ± 2.7 ms) than in the living zone (43.5 ± 2.5 ms). In the non-collapsed ONFH group, there was no significant difference between the mean T1 rho values of the necrotic and living zones. In the collapsed ONFH group, the mean T1 rho value of the necrotic zone and the interval from pain onset to the MRI examination were positively correlated. The current T1 rho MRI study suggested that the degeneration of articular cartilage in ONFH begins at the necrotic region after collapse. (orig.)

  3. Validation of the deformable image registration system elastix in the head and neck region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukauskaite, R.; Brink, C.; Hansen, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    evaluates the accuracy of the open source deformable registration tool elastix when used for registration of different organ structures on planning CT and relapse CT scans of head and neck patients. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients treated with definitive IMRT for oral cavity, oropharynx...... cord, mandible, right/left parotid and submandibular glands, thyroid gland and vertebrae C3-5) on planning CT (pCT), relapse CT (rCT) and re-delineated again on the planning CT (reCT). The contouring on the relapse CT was mapped to the planning CT using elastix (http://elastix.isi.uu.nl/). Spatial...... delineation. Significant correlations within single organs were not found. Conclusions: Deformable registration of head and neck CT images using elastix resulted in a combined delineation and deformation uncertainty of approximately twice the uncertainty related to the manual delineation performed on one CT...

  4. Late effects of ionizing radiations on head and neck region tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeron, J.J.; Griamrd, L.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous structures are includes in the irradiated volume of patients presenting with head and neck cancer: skin, mucosa, bone, teeth, cartilage, muscles, salivary glands, etc. Curative intent treatment of such tumours requires aggressive approach which can lead to severe sequelae. These sequelae are in most cases dose-dependent and volume-dependent. However, an appropriate technique might decrease the severity of such sequelae. Details of these late changes are presented, including their pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, potential treatment, and prevention. (authors)

  5. Temperature simulations in hyperthermia treatment planning of the head and neck region. Rigorous optimization of tissue properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaart, Rene F.; Rijnen, Zef; Verduijn, Gerda M.; Paulides, Margarethus M. [Erasmus MC - Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hyperthermia Unit, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Fortunati, Valerio; Walsum, Theo van; Veenland, Jifke F. [Erasmus MC, Departments of Medical Informatics and Radiology, Biomedical Imaging Group Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is used in the head and neck region (H and N) for pretreatment optimization, decision making, and real-time HTP-guided adaptive application of hyperthermia. In current clinical practice, HTP is based on power-absorption predictions, but thermal dose-effect relationships advocate its extension to temperature predictions. Exploitation of temperature simulations requires region- and temperature-specific thermal tissue properties due to the strong thermoregulatory response of H and N tissues. The purpose of our work was to develop a technique for patient group-specific optimization of thermal tissue properties based on invasively measured temperatures, and to evaluate the accuracy achievable. Data from 17 treated patients were used to optimize the perfusion and thermal conductivity values for the Pennes bioheat equation-based thermal model. A leave-one-out approach was applied to accurately assess the difference between measured and simulated temperature (∇T). The improvement in ∇T for optimized thermal property values was assessed by comparison with the ∇T for values from the literature, i.e., baseline and under thermal stress. The optimized perfusion and conductivity values of tumor, muscle, and fat led to an improvement in simulation accuracy (∇T: 2.1 ± 1.2 C) compared with the accuracy for baseline (∇T: 12.7 ± 11.1 C) or thermal stress (∇T: 4.4 ± 3.5 C) property values. The presented technique leads to patient group-specific temperature property values that effectively improve simulation accuracy for the challenging H and N region, thereby making simulations an elegant addition to invasive measurements. The rigorous leave-one-out assessment indicates that improvements in accuracy are required to rely only on temperature-based HTP in the clinic. (orig.) [German] Die Hyperthermiebehandlungsplanung (HTP, ''hyperthermia treatment planning'') wird in der Kopf- und Halsregion zur Optimierung der

  6. Re-expression of pro-fibrotic, embryonic preserved mediators in irradiated arterial vessels of the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbius, Patrick; Preidl, Raimund H M; Weber, Manuel; Amann, Kerstin; Neukam, Friedrich W; Wehrhan, Falk

    2017-11-01

    Surgical treatment of head and neck malignancies frequently includes microvascular free tissue transfer. Preoperative radiotherapy increases postoperative fibrosis-related complications up to transplant loss. Fibrogenesis is associated with re-expression of embryonic preserved tissue developmental mediators: osteopontin (OPN), regulated by sex-determining region Y‑box 9 (Sox9), and homeobox A9 (HoxA9) play important roles in pathologic tissue remodeling and are upregulated in atherosclerotic vascular lesions; dickkopf-1 (DKK1) inhibits pro-fibrotic and atherogenic Wnt signaling. We evaluated the influence of irradiation on expression of these mediators in arteries of the head and neck region. DKK1, HoxA9, OPN, and Sox9 expression was examined immunohistochemically in 24 irradiated and 24 nonirradiated arteries of the lower head and neck region. The ratio of positive cells to total cell number (labeling index) in the investigated vessel walls was assessed semiquantitatively. DKK1 expression was significantly decreased, whereas HoxA9, OPN, and Sox9 expression were significantly increased in irradiated compared to nonirradiated arterial vessels. Preoperative radiotherapy induces re-expression of embryonic preserved mediators in arterial vessels and may thus contribute to enhanced activation of pro-fibrotic downstream signaling leading to media hypertrophy and intima degeneration comparable to fibrotic development steps in atherosclerosis. These histopathological changes may be promoted by HoxA9-, OPN-, and Sox9-related inflammation and vascular remodeling, supported by downregulation of anti-fibrotic DKK1. Future pharmaceutical strategies targeting these vessel alterations, e. g., bisphosphonates, might reduce postoperative complications in free tissue transfer.

  7. Food as a social determinant of mental health among household heads in the Upper West Region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuoye, Kilian Nasung; Luginaah, Isaac

    2017-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization, mental distress and related illnesses are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Despite the influence of food insecurity on mental health, empirical understanding of this relationship in sub-Saharan Africa, where incidence of food insecurity is relatively high, is almost non-existent. This study contributes to the literature by examining the association between food insecurity and mental health in the Upper West Region of Ghana. We used Ordinary Least Square (OLS) to analyze cross-sectional data collected on household heads (n = 1438) in 2014 using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale and the DUKE Health Profile. The results show that heads of severely food insecure (β = 0.934, p ≤ 0.001) and moderately food secure households (β = 0.759, p ≤ 0.001) were more likely to report elevated mental distress compared to those from food secure households. We also found that female household heads were more likely to report elevated mental distress (β = 0.164, p ≤ 0.05) compared to their male counterparts. Our findings suggest the need to improve food security as a strategy targeted at improving overall mental health in the Ghanaian context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Radiotherapy Interruptions on Survival in Medicare Enrollees With Local and Regional Head-and-Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesinmeyer, Megan Dann; Mehta, Vivek; Blough, David; Tock, Lauri; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether interruptions in radiotherapy are associated with decreased survival in a population-based sample of head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database we identified Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years and older diagnosed with local-regional head-and-neck cancer during the period 1997-2003. We examined claims records of 3864 patients completing radiotherapy for the presence of one or more 5-30-day interruption(s) in therapy. We then performed Cox regression analyses to estimate the association between therapy interruptions and survival. Results: Patients with laryngeal tumors who experienced an interruption in radiotherapy had a 68% (95% confidence interval, 41-200%) increased risk of death, compared with patients with no interruptions. Patients with nasal cavity, nasopharynx, oral, salivary gland, and sinus tumors had similar associations between interruptions and increased risk of death, but these did not reach statistical significance because of small sample sizes. Conclusions: Treatment interruptions seem to influence survival time among patients with laryngeal tumors completing a full course of radiotherapy. At all head-and-neck sites, the association between interruptions and survival is sensitive to confounding by stage and other treatments. Further research is needed to develop methods to identify patients most susceptible to interruption-induced mortality.

  9. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient maps for the differentiation between lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes of squamous cell carcinoma in head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Quan; Hu, Hao; Su, Guo-Yi; Shen, Jie; Shi, Hai-Bin; Wu, Fei-Yun

    2018-06-01

    Background To clarify the nature of cervical malignant lymphadenopathy is highly important for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of head and neck tumors. Purpose To investigate the role of first-order apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis for differentiating lymphoma from metastatic lymph nodes of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck region. Material and Methods Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) data of 67 patients (lymphoma, n = 20; SCC, n = 47) with malignant lymphadenopathy were retrospectively analyzed. The SCC group was divided into nasopharyngeal SCC and non-nasopharyngeal SCC groups. The ADC histogram features (ADC 10 , ADC 25 , ADC mean , ADC median , ADC 75 , ADC 90 , skewness, and kurtosis) were derived and then compared by independent-samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance test, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were employed to investigate diagnostic performance of the significant parameters. Results Lymphoma showed significantly lower ADC mean , ADC median , ADC 75 , and ADC 90 than SCC (all P  0.05). Lymphoma showed significantly lower ADC 25 , ADC mean , ADC median , ADC 75 , and ADC 90 than non-nasopharyngeal SCC (all P histogram analysis is capable of differentiating lymphoma from metastatic lymph nodes of SCC, especially those of non-nasopharyngeal SCC.

  10. Common region wins the competition between extrinsic grouping cues: Evidence from a task without explicit attention to grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, Pedro R; Villalba-García, Cristina; Luna, Dolores; Hinojosa, José A

    2017-12-01

    The competition between perceptual grouping factors is a relatively ignored topic, especially in the case of extrinsic grouping cues (e.g., common region or connectedness). Recent studies have examined the integration of extrinsic cues using tasks that induce selective attention to groups based on different grouping cues. However, this procedure could generate alternative strategies for task performance, which are non-related to the perceptual grouping operations. In the current work, we used an indirect task, i.e. repetition discrimination task, without explicit attention to grouping cues to further examine the rules that govern dominance between competing extrinsic grouping factors. This procedure allowed us to obtain an unbiased measure of the competition between common region and connectedness cues acting within the same display. The results corroborate previous data showing that grouping by common region dominated the perceived organization of the display, even though the phenomenological strength of the grouping cues was equated for each participant by means of a preliminary scaling task. Our results highlight the relevance of using indirect tasks as an essential tool for the systematic study of the integration of extrinsic grouping cues.

  11. HNK-1 immunoreactivity during early morphogenesis of the head region in a nonmodel vertebrate, crocodile embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2008-11-01

    The present study examines HNK-1 immunoidentification of a population of the neural crest (NC) during early head morphogenesis in the nonmodel vertebrate, the crocodile ( Crocodylus niloticus) embryos. Although HNK-1 is not an exclusive NC marker among vertebrates, temporospatial immunoreactive patterns found in the crocodile are almost consistent with NC patterns derived from gene expression studies known in birds (the closest living relatives of crocodiles) and mammals. In contrast to birds, the HNK-1 epitope is immunoreactive in NC cells at the neural fold level in crocodile embryos and therefore provides sufficient base to assess early migratory events of the cephalic NC. I found that crocodile NC forms three classic migratory pathways in the head: mandibular, hyoid, and branchial. Further, I demonstrate that, besides this classic phenotype, there is also a forebrain-derived migratory population, which consolidates into a premandibular stream in the crocodile. In contrast to the closely related chick model, crocodilian premandibular and mandibular NC cells arise from the open neural tube suggesting that species-specific heterochronic behavior of NC may be involved in the formation of different vertebrate facial phenotypes.

  12. Parallel Solver for Diffuse Optical Tomography on Realistic Head Models With Scattering and Clear Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placati, Silvio; Guermandi, Marco; Samore, Andrea; Scarselli, Eleonora Franchi; Guerrieri, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Diffuse optical tomography is an imaging technique, based on evaluation of how light propagates within the human head to obtain the functional information about the brain. Precision in reconstructing such an optical properties map is highly affected by the accuracy of the light propagation model implemented, which needs to take into account the presence of clear and scattering tissues. We present a numerical solver based on the radiosity-diffusion model, integrating the anatomical information provided by a structural MRI. The solver is designed to run on parallel heterogeneous platforms based on multiple GPUs and CPUs. We demonstrate how the solver provides a 7 times speed-up over an isotropic-scattered parallel Monte Carlo engine based on a radiative transport equation for a domain composed of 2 million voxels, along with a significant improvement in accuracy. The speed-up greatly increases for larger domains, allowing us to compute the light distribution of a full human head ( ≈ 3 million voxels) in 116 s for the platform used.

  13. Dosimetric assessment of the field abutment region in head and neck treatments using a multileaf collimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hakim, K.; Nishimura, T.; Sakahara, H. [Dept. of Radiology, Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Takaih, M.; Suzuki, S. [Dept. of Informatics, Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2003-05-01

    Background and Purpose: The use of conventional asymmetric collimators for junctioning of abutted fields can lead to significant dose inhomogeneity, due to jaw misalignment. However, recent technologic advances enable us to fabricate much finer leaf-positioning accuracy. Consequently, it is anticipated that the use of multileaf collimator (MLC) will potentially improve dose homogeneity at the junction of abutted fields. In this work, we evaluated the dose inhomogeneities at the match-plane in monoisocentric three-field head and neck setups, using MLC for field abutment. Material and Methods: To define either the anterior or the lateral fields, the MLC was used with either the longitudinal (0 angle) or the transverse (90 angle) settings. For 0 setting, each leaf moves in a direction perpendicular to the gantry rotation axis, hence the ''tongue and groove'' (T and G) design can effect matching-area dose at the side of the leaf (Figure 1a). For 90 setting, the rounded shape of the leaf produces its effect at the leaf end. Four combinations of abutted anterior field and abutted lateral field defined by MLC, i.e., abutted using MLC side-by-side, side-by-end, end-by-side and end-by-end, were compared. Dose inhomogeneity was measured at the junction of the two abutted fields with films in a solid water phantom. The effect of jaw settings as a backup diaphragm on the dose distribution was also studied. Reproducibility of the results was confirmed by repeated measurements over a 1-year period. Results: Abutted fields using MLC side-by-side caused underdose of approximately 15%. Abutted fields using MLC side-by-end produced > 10% overdose that could be improved to {+-} 1% for 0.5 mm overlap of the leaf end from the lateral portals. When using end-by-side, an overdose of approximately 15% was observed. However, the dose improved to a homogeneous dose for 0.8 mm overlap of leaf end from the anterior portal. End-by-end showed an overdose of > 20%. This

  14. Dosimetric assessment of the field abutment region in head and neck treatments using a multileaf collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Hakim, K.; Nishimura, T.; Sakahara, H.; Takaih, M.; Suzuki, S.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The use of conventional asymmetric collimators for junctioning of abutted fields can lead to significant dose inhomogeneity, due to jaw misalignment. However, recent technologic advances enable us to fabricate much finer leaf-positioning accuracy. Consequently, it is anticipated that the use of multileaf collimator (MLC) will potentially improve dose homogeneity at the junction of abutted fields. In this work, we evaluated the dose inhomogeneities at the match-plane in monoisocentric three-field head and neck setups, using MLC for field abutment. Material and Methods: To define either the anterior or the lateral fields, the MLC was used with either the longitudinal (0 angle) or the transverse (90 angle) settings. For 0 setting, each leaf moves in a direction perpendicular to the gantry rotation axis, hence the ''tongue and groove'' (T and G) design can effect matching-area dose at the side of the leaf (Figure 1a). For 90 setting, the rounded shape of the leaf produces its effect at the leaf end. Four combinations of abutted anterior field and abutted lateral field defined by MLC, i.e., abutted using MLC side-by-side, side-by-end, end-by-side and end-by-end, were compared. Dose inhomogeneity was measured at the junction of the two abutted fields with films in a solid water phantom. The effect of jaw settings as a backup diaphragm on the dose distribution was also studied. Reproducibility of the results was confirmed by repeated measurements over a 1-year period. Results: Abutted fields using MLC side-by-side caused underdose of approximately 15%. Abutted fields using MLC side-by-end produced > 10% overdose that could be improved to ± 1% for 0.5 mm overlap of the leaf end from the lateral portals. When using end-by-side, an overdose of approximately 15% was observed. However, the dose improved to a homogeneous dose for 0.8 mm overlap of leaf end from the anterior portal. End-by-end showed an overdose of > 20%. This overdose could be smoothed

  15. Clinical study of the image fusion between CT and FDG-PET in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shozushima, Masanori; Moriguchi, Hitoshi; Shoji, Satoru; Sakamaki, Kimio; Ishikawa, Yoshihito; Kudo, Keigo; Satoh, Masanobu

    1999-01-01

    Image fusion using PET and CT from the head and neck region was performed with the use of external markers on 7 patients with squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to examine a resultant error and the clinical usefulness of image fusion. Patients had primary lesions of the tongue, the maxillary gingiva or the maxillary sinus. All patients underwent PET with FDG and CT to detect tumor sites. Of these 7 patients, diagnostic images and the clinical observation found 6 cases of regional lymph node metastasis of the neck. To ensure the anatomical detail of the PET images, small radioactive markers were placed on the philtrum and below both earlobes. The PET image and CT image were then overlapped on a computer. The image fusion of PET and CT was successfully performed on all patients. The superposition error of this method was examined between the PET and CT images. The accuracy of fit measured as the mean distance between the PET and CT image was in the range of 2-5 mm. PET-CT superimposed images produced an increase in the localization of tumor FDG uptake and localized FDG uptake on the palatine tonsils. The marker system described here for the alignment of PET and CT images can be used on a routine basis without the invasive fixation of external markers, and also improve the management and follow up on patients with head and neck carcinoma. (author)

  16. Theoretical investigation into the feasibility to deposit RF energy centrally in the head-and-neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulides, Margarethus M.; Vossen, Stefan H.J.A.; Zwamborn, Adrianus P.M.; Rhoon, Gerard C. van

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the ability to deposit radiofrequency energy centrally in the neck as a function of antenna positions, number of antennas, and operating frequency. Methods and Materials: Power absorption (PA) distributions in a realistic model of the head-and-neck anatomy are calculated in which the head model is irradiated by an array of dipole antennas. The relative PA distributions corresponding to different setups are visualized and analyzed using the ratio of the average PA (aPA) in the target and neck region. Results: Both the PA distributions and aPA ratios indicate an optimal focusing ability of the setups (i.e., the ability to direct energy efficiently into the target region), between 400 and 600 MHz. In this frequency band, the focusing ability depends only moderately on the size of the neck. Finally, it is found that the focusing ability at 433 MHz is increased significantly by increasing the number of antenna elements. Conclusions: The optimal frequency is found to be highly dependent on the size of the target volume; thus, a single optimum is hard to define. However, future clinical research will focus on 433 MHz based on the optimal range of frequencies, as found in this study

  17. Evaluation of surface and build-up region dose for intensity-modulated radiation therapy in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Heeteak; Jin, Hosang; Dempsey, James F.; Liu, Chihray; Palta, Jatinder; Suh, Tae-Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2005-01-01

    Despite much development, there remains dosimetric uncertainty in the surface and build-up regions in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment plans for head and neck cancers. Experiments were performed to determine the dosimetric discrepancies in the surface and build-up region between the treatment planning system (TPS) prediction and experimental measurement using radiochromic film. A head and neck compression film phantom was constructed from two semicylindrical solid water slabs. Treatment plans were generated using two commercial TPSs (PINNACLE3 and CORVUS) for two cases, one with a shallow (∼0.5 cm depth) target and another with a deep (∼6 cm depth) target. The plans were evaluated for a 54 Gy prescribed dose. For each case, two pieces of radiochromic film were used for dose measurement. A small piece of film strip was placed on the surface and another was inserted within the phantom. Overall, both TPSs showed good agreement with the measurement. For the shallow target case, the dose differences were within ±300 cGy (5.6% with respect to the prescribed dose) for PINNACLE3 and ±240 cGy (4.4%) for CORVUS in 90% of the region of interest. For the deep target case, the dose differences were ±350 (6.5%) for PINNACLE3 and ±260 cGy (4.8%) for CORVUS in 90% of the region of interest. However, it was found that there were significant discrepancies from the surface to about 0.2 cm in depth for both the shallow and deep target cases. It was concluded that both TPSs overestimated the surface dose for both shallow and deep target cases. The amount of overestimation ranges from 400 to 1000 cGy (∼7.4% to 18.5% with respect to the prescribed dose, 5400 cGy)

  18. The experts from the Review of LHC Superconducting Cables and Magnet Production, accompanied by the committee's secretary and the Head of the Magnets and Superconductors Group.

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    From left to right: Ron Scanlan (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, US), Taka Shintomi (KEK Laboratory, Japan), Claudine Bosteels (Secretary of the Review, AT-MAS Group, CERN), Lucio Rossi (Head of AT-MAS Group, CERN), Ettore Salpietro (EDFA-Iter project), Bruce Strauss (US Department of Energy, Chairman of the committee), and Pierre Vedrine (CEA-DAPNIA-SACM, France).

  19. Knowledge of human papillomavirus and its association with head and neck benign and malignant lesions in a group of dental patients in pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gichki, Abdul Samad; Buajeeb, Waranun; Doungudomdacha, Sombhun; Khovidhunkit, Siribang-On Pibooniyom

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) remain a serious world health problem due to their association with cervical and head and neck cancers. While over 100 HPV types have been identified, only a few subtypes are associated with malignancies. HPV 16 and 18 are the most prevalent oncogenic types in head and neck cancers. Although it has been proven that some subsets of benign and malignant head and neck lesions are associated with HPV, the general population have very little awareness and knowledge of their association with HPV. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of HPV and its links with head and neck benign and malignant lesions in a group of Pakistani dental patients who attended the Dental Department of the Sandeman provincial hospital in Quetta, Pakistan. One hundred and ninety-two patients were recruited and requested to answer a questionnaire. It was revealed that there was a low level of knowledge about HPV and its association with head and neck benign and malignant lesions among the participants. This result suggested that more education regarding the relationship of HPV in inducing head and neck benign and malignant lesions is required in this group of patients.

  20. Distributional pattern of benthic foraminiferal morpho-groups in the shelf region off Mangalore: Environmental implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Sinha, R.; Rai, A.K.; Nigam, R.

    , the population was further placed into two broad morpho-groups namely, angular-asymmetrical and rounded-symmetrical. The surficial distribution of these groups revealed that angular-asymmetrical forms are abundant in relatively deeper region whereas rounded...

  1. Effect of glass-forming biopreservatives on head group rotational dynamics in freeze-dried phospholipid bilayers: A 31P NMR study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P.; Sen, S.; Risbud, S. H.

    2009-07-01

    P31 NMR spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the role of glass-forming sugars in the preservation of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers. P31 wideline NMR spectra of freeze-dried pure DPPC, DPPC/trehalose, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/hydroxyethyl starch (HES) mixtures collected in the temperature range of 25-80 °C have been simulated to obtain quantitative information about rotational dynamics and orientation of the lipid head groups in these media. In the case of pure DPPC, DPPC/glucose, and DPPC/HES, the gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition of DPPC bilayer is characterized by a sudden increase in the rate of rotational diffusion of the PO4 head groups near 40 °C. The corresponding rotational jump frequency increases from a few kilohertz in the gel phase to at least several megahertz in the liquid crystalline phase. On the other hand, in the case of DPPC/trehalose mixture the temperature of this onset of rapid head group dynamics is increased by ˜10 °C. Trehalose reduces the lipid head group motions most effectively in the temperature range of T ≤50 °C relevant for biopreservation. Additionally, and possibly more importantly, trehalose is found to strongly restrict any change in the orientation of the diffusion axis of the PO4 head groups during the phase transformation. This unique ability of trehalose to maintain the dynamical and orientational rigidity of lipid head groups is likely to be responsible for its superior ability in biopreservation.

  2. Equivalent dose, effective dose and risk assessment from panoramic radiography to the critical organs of head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo; Lee, Ae Ryeon

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the equivalent and effective dose, and estimate radiation risk to the critical organs of head and neck region from the use of adult and child mode in panoramic radiography. The results were as follows. 1. The salivary glands showed the highest equivalent and effective dose in adult and child mode. The equivalent and effective dose in adult mode were 837 μSv and 20.93 μSv, those in child mode were 462 μSv and 11.54 μSv, respectively. 2. Total effective doses to the critical head and neck organs were estimated 34.2l μSv in adult mode, 20.14 μSv in child mode. From these data, the probabilities of stochastic effect from adult and child mode were 2.50xl0 -6 and 1.47x10 -6 3. The other remainder showed the greatest risk of fatal cancer. The risk estimate were 4.5 and 2.7 fatal malignancies in adult and child mode from million examinations. The bone marrow and thyroid gland showed about 0.1 fatal cancer in adult. and child mode from these examinations.

  3. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy as a boost treatment for tumors in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Takashi; Isobe, Kouichi; Ueno, Naoyuki; Ito, Hisao; Fukuda, Ataru; Sudo, Satoshi; Shirotori, Hiroaki; Kitahara, Isao; Fukushima, Takanori

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to report initial results of CyberKnife stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) boost for tumors in the head and neck area. Between March 2008 and August 2009, 10 patients were treated with SRT boost using CyberKnife system due mainly to unfavorable condition such as tumors in close proximity to serial organs or former radiotherapy fields. Treatment sites were the external auditory canal in two, the nasopharynx in one, the oropharynx in three, the nasal cavity in one, the maxillary sinus in two, and the oligometastatic cervical lymph node in one. All patients underwent preceding conventional radiotherapy of 40 to 60 Gy. Dose and fractionation scheme of the Cyberknife SRT boost was individualized, and prescribed dose ranged from 9 Gy to 16 Gy in 3 to 4 fractions. Among four patients for whom dose to the optic pathway was concerned, the maximum dose was only about 3 Gy for three patients whereas 9.6 Gy in the remaining one patient. The maximum dose for the mandible in one of three patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 19.7 Gy, whereas majority of the bone can be spared by using non-isocentric conformal beams. For a patient with nasopharyngeal cancer, the highest dose in the brain stem was 15 Gy. However, majority of the brain stem received less than 40% of the maximum dose. Although a small volume high dose area within the normal structure could be observed in several patients, results of the present study showed potential benefits of the CyberKnife SRT boost. (author)

  4. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  5. Effect of Cationic Surfactant Head Groups on Synthesis, Growth and Agglomeration Behavior of ZnS Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta SK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Colloidal nanodispersions of ZnS have been prepared using aqueous micellar solution of two cationic surfactants of trimethylammonium/pyridinium series with different head groups i.e., cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC and cetyltrimethylpyridinium chloride (CPyC. The role of these surfactants in controlling size, agglomeration behavior and photophysical properties of ZnS nanoparticles has been discussed. UV–visible spectroscopy has been carried out for determination of optical band gap and size of ZnS nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to measure sizes and size distribution of ZnS nanoparticles. Powder X-ray analysis (Powder XRD reveals the cubic structure of nanocrystallite in powdered sample. The photoluminescence emission band exhibits red shift for ZnS nanoparticles in CTAC compared to those in CPyC. The aggregation behavior in two surfactants has been compared using turbidity measurements after redispersing the nanoparticles in water. In situ evolution and growth of ZnS nanoparticles in two different surfactants have been compared through time-dependent absorption behavior and UV irradiation studies. Electrical conductivity measurements reveal that CPyC micelles better stabilize the nanoparticles than that of CTAC.

  6. Large scale study on the variation of RF energy absorption in the head and brain regions of adults and children and evaluation of the SAM phantom conservativeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshvari, J; Kivento, M; Christ, A; Bit-Babik, G

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two computational large scale studies using highly realistic exposure scenarios, MRI based human head and hand models, and two mobile phone models. The objectives are (i) to study the relevance of age when people are exposed to RF by comparing adult and child heads and (ii) to analyze and discuss the conservativeness of the SAM phantom for all age groups. Representative use conditions were simulated using detailed CAD models of two mobile phones operating between 900 MHz and 1950 MHz including configurations with the hand holding the phone, which were not considered in most previous studies. The peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (psSAR) in the head and the pinna tissues is assessed using anatomically accurate head and hand models. The first of the two mentioned studies involved nine head-, four hand- and two phone-models, the second study included six head-, four hand- and three simplified phone-models (over 400 configurations in total). In addition, both studies also evaluated the exposure using the SAM phantom. Results show no systematic differences between psSAR induced in the adult and child heads. The exposure level and its variation for different age groups may be different for particular phones, but no correlation between psSAR and model age was found. The psSAR from all exposure conditions was compared to the corresponding configurations using SAM, which was found to be conservative in the large majority of cases. (paper)

  7. Large scale study on the variation of RF energy absorption in the head & brain regions of adults and children and evaluation of the SAM phantom conservativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvari, J.; Kivento, M.; Christ, A.; Bit-Babik, G.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of two computational large scale studies using highly realistic exposure scenarios, MRI based human head and hand models, and two mobile phone models. The objectives are (i) to study the relevance of age when people are exposed to RF by comparing adult and child heads and (ii) to analyze and discuss the conservativeness of the SAM phantom for all age groups. Representative use conditions were simulated using detailed CAD models of two mobile phones operating between 900 MHz and 1950 MHz including configurations with the hand holding the phone, which were not considered in most previous studies. The peak spatial-average specific absorption rate (psSAR) in the head and the pinna tissues is assessed using anatomically accurate head and hand models. The first of the two mentioned studies involved nine head-, four hand- and two phone-models, the second study included six head-, four hand- and three simplified phone-models (over 400 configurations in total). In addition, both studies also evaluated the exposure using the SAM phantom. Results show no systematic differences between psSAR induced in the adult and child heads. The exposure level and its variation for different age groups may be different for particular phones, but no correlation between psSAR and model age was found. The psSAR from all exposure conditions was compared to the corresponding configurations using SAM, which was found to be conservative in the large majority of cases.

  8. [A German network for regional anaesthesia of the scientific working group regional anaesthesia within DGAI and BDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Thomas; Engelhardt, Lars; Spies, Claudia; Steinfeldt, Thorsten; Kutter, Bernd; Heller, Axel; Werner, Christian; Heid, Florian; Bürkle, Hartmut; Koch, Thea; Vicent, Oliver; Geiger, Peter; Kessler, Paul; Wulf, Hinnerk

    2009-11-01

    Regional anaesthesia generally is considered to be safe. However, reports of complications with different severities are also well known. The scientific working group of regional anaesthesia of the DGAI has founded a network in conjunction with the BDA. With the aid of a registry, we are now able to describe risk profiles and associations in case of a complication. Moreover, a benchmark has been implemented in order to continuously improve complication rates. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.

  9. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Drew B; DeLucca, Michael V; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. The AMORE Protocol for Advanced-Stage and Recurrent Nonorbital Rhabdomyosarcoma in the Head-and-Neck Region of Children: A Radiation Oncology View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, Leo E.C.M.; Koedooder, Kees; Pieters, Bradley R.; Grient, Hans N.B. van der; Kar, Marlou van de; Buwalda, Joeri; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Strackee, Simon D.; Freling, Nicole J.; Koning, Caro C.E.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A multidisciplinary approach, consisting of consecutive Ablative Surgery, MOld technique with afterloading brachytherapy and immediate surgical REconstruction (AMORE) applied after chemotherapy, was designed for children with rhabdomyosarcoma in the head-and-neck region. Analysis of the first 42 patients was performed. Methods and Materials: After macroscopically radical tumor resection, molds were constructed for each individual to fit into the surgical defect. The molds, made of 5-mm-thick layers of thermoplastic rubber, consisted of different parts. Flexible catheters were positioned between layers. After brachytherapy, the molds were removed. Surgical reconstruction was performed during the same procedure. Results: Dose to the clinical target volume varied from 40 to 50 Gy for the primary treatment (31 patients) and salvage treatment groups (11 patients). There were 18 females and 24 males treated from 1993 until 2007. Twenty-nine tumors were located in the parameningeal region, and 13 were located in the nonparameningeal region. Patient age at the time of AMORE was 1.2-16.9 years (average, 6.5 years). Follow-up was 0.2-14.5 years (average, >5.5 years). Eleven patients died, 3 with local recurrence only, 6 with local and distant disease, 1 died of distant metastases only, and 1 patient died of a second primary tumor. Overall 5-year survival rates were 70% for the primary treatment group and 82% for the salvage group. Treatment was well tolerated, and acute and late toxicity were mild. Conclusions: The AMORE protocol yields good local control and overall survival rates, and side effects are acceptable.

  11. Risk-group definition by recursive partitioning analysis of patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, JA; Slotman, BJ; van der Waal, [No Value; Doornaert, P; Berkof, J; Leemans, CR

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The objective of this study was to define different prognostic groups with regard to locoregional control (LRC) derived from recursive partitioning analysis (RPA). METHODS. Eight hundred one patients with squamous cell head and neck carcinoma underwent with primary surgery and received

  12. Implications of Boy Scout group use of public lands for natural resource managers: a regional comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail A. Vander Stoep

    1992-01-01

    Resource managers can apply group-specific rather than generic communications and management strategies to different public land user groups. This study compares use patterns of one user group, Boy Scout troops, from two regions of the United States. It identifies their public land use patterns, activities, needs, and motivations. Results can be used by resource...

  13. Dental artifacts in the head and neck region: implications for Dixon-based attenuation correction in PET/MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladefoged, Claes N; Hansen, Adam E; Keller, Sune H; Fischer, Barbara M [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark); Rasmussen, Jacob H [Department of Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark); Law, Ian; Kjær, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark); Lauze, Francois [Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark); Beyer, Thomas [Centre for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20/4L, Vienna, A-1090 (Austria); Andersen, Flemming L [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100 Copenhagen East (Denmark)

    2015-03-11

    In the absence of CT or traditional transmission sources in combined clinical positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) systems, MR images are used for MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). The susceptibility effects due to metal implants challenge MR-AC in the neck region of patients with dental implants. The purpose of this study was to assess the frequency and magnitude of subsequent PET image distortions following MR-AC. A total of 148 PET/MR patients with clear visual signal voids on the attenuation map in the dental region were included in this study. Patients were injected with [{sup 18}F]-FDG, [{sup 11}C]-PiB, [{sup 18}F]-FET, or [{sup 64}Cu]-DOTATATE. The PET/MR data were acquired over a single-bed position of 25.8 cm covering the head and neck. MR-AC was based on either standard MR-AC{sub DIXON} or MR-AC{sub INPAINTED} where the susceptibility-induced signal voids were substituted with soft tissue information. Our inpainting algorithm delineates the outer contour of signal voids breaching the anatomical volume using the non-attenuation-corrected PET image and classifies the inner air regions based on an aligned template of likely dental artifact areas. The reconstructed PET images were evaluated visually and quantitatively using regions of interests in reference regions. The volume of the artifacts and the computed relative differences in mean and max standardized uptake value (SUV) between the two PET images are reported. The MR-based volume of the susceptibility-induced signal voids on the MR-AC attenuation maps was between 1.6 and 520.8 mL. The corresponding/resulting bias of the reconstructed tracer distribution was localized mainly in the area of the signal void. The mean and maximum SUVs averaged across all patients increased after inpainting by 52% (± 11%) and 28% (± 11%), respectively, in the corrected region. SUV underestimation decreased with the distance to the signal void and correlated with the volume of the susceptibility

  14. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, Austin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  15. Regional differences in the composition of Fusarium Head Blight pathogens and mycotoxins associated with wheat in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Bustamante, Minely; Ward, Todd J; Kelly, Amy; Vaughan, Martha M; McCormick, Susan P; Cowger, Christina; Leyva-Mir, Santos G; Villaseñor-Mir, Héctor E; Ayala-Escobar, Victoria; Nava-Díaz, Cristian

    2018-05-20

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of small grain cereals and a major food safety concern. Epidemics result in substantial yield losses, reduction in crop quality, and contamination of grains with trichothecenes and other mycotoxins. A number of different fusaria can cause FHB, and there are significant regional differences in the occurrence and prevalence of FHB pathogen species and their associated mycotoxins. Information on FHB pathogen and mycotoxin diversity in Mexico has been extremely limited, but is needed to improve disease and mycotoxin control efforts. To address this, we used a combination of DNA sequence-based methods and in-vitro toxin analyses to characterize FHB isolates collected from symptomatic wheat in Mexico during the 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Among 116 Fusarium isolates, we identified five species complexes including nine named Fusarium species and 30 isolates representing unnamed or potentially novel species. Significant regional differences (P 90% of isolates from the Mixteca region in southern Mexico, whereas F. avenaceum and related members of the F. tricinctum species complex (FTSC) accounted for nearly 75% of isolates from the Highlands region in Central Mexico. F. graminearum, which is the dominant FHB pathogen in other parts of North America, was not present among the isolates from Mexico. F. boothii isolates had the 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol toxin type, and some of the minor FHB species produced trichothecenes, such as nivalenol, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. None of the FTSC isolates tested was able to produce trichothecenes, but many produced chlamydosporol and enniatin B. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Energy-Efficient Region Shift Scheme to Support Mobile Sink Group in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Yongbin; Kim, Kyong Hoon; Aldwairi, Monther; Kim, Ki-Il

    2017-12-30

    Mobile sink groups play crucial roles to perform their own missions in many wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. In order to support mobility of such sink groups, it is important to design a mechanism for effective discovery of the group in motion. However, earlier studies obtain group region information by periodic query. For that reason, the mechanism leads to significant signaling overhead due to frequent flooding for the query regardless of the group movement. Furthermore, the mechanism worsens the problem by the flooding in the whole expected area. To deal with this problem, we propose a novel mobile sink group support scheme with low communication cost, called Region-Shift-based Mobile Geocasting Protocol (RSMGP). In this study, we utilize the group mobility feature for which members of a group have joint motion patterns. Thus, we could trace group movement by shifting the region as much as partial members move out of the previous region. Furthermore, the region acquisition is only performed at the moment by just deviated members without collaboration of all members. Experimental results validate the improved signaling overhead of our study compared to the previous studies.

  17. Re-expression of pro-fibrotic, embryonic preserved mediators in irradiated arterial vessels of the head and neck region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moebius, Patrick; Preidl, Raimund H.M.; Weber, Manuel; Neukam, Friedrich W.; Wehrhan, Falk [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany); Amann, Kerstin [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (FAU), Department of Nephropathology, Institute of Pathology, University Hospital of Erlangen, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    Surgical treatment of head and neck malignancies frequently includes microvascular free tissue transfer. Preoperative radiotherapy increases postoperative fibrosis-related complications up to transplant loss. Fibrogenesis is associated with re-expression of embryonic preserved tissue developmental mediators: osteopontin (OPN), regulated by sex-determining region Y-box 9 (Sox9), and homeobox A9 (HoxA9) play important roles in pathologic tissue remodeling and are upregulated in atherosclerotic vascular lesions; dickkopf-1 (DKK1) inhibits pro-fibrotic and atherogenic Wnt signaling. We evaluated the influence of irradiation on expression of these mediators in arteries of the head and neck region. DKK1, HoxA9, OPN, and Sox9 expression was examined immunohistochemically in 24 irradiated and 24 nonirradiated arteries of the lower head and neck region. The ratio of positive cells to total cell number (labeling index) in the investigated vessel walls was assessed semiquantitatively. DKK1 expression was significantly decreased, whereas HoxA9, OPN, and Sox9 expression were significantly increased in irradiated compared to nonirradiated arterial vessels. Preoperative radiotherapy induces re-expression of embryonic preserved mediators in arterial vessels and may thus contribute to enhanced activation of pro-fibrotic downstream signaling leading to media hypertrophy and intima degeneration comparable to fibrotic development steps in atherosclerosis. These histopathological changes may be promoted by HoxA9-, OPN-, and Sox9-related inflammation and vascular remodeling, supported by downregulation of anti-fibrotic DKK1. Future pharmaceutical strategies targeting these vessel alterations, e. g., bisphosphonates, might reduce postoperative complications in free tissue transfer. (orig.) [German] Die operative Behandlung von Tumoren im Kopf- und Halsbereich umfasst den Transfer mikrovaskulaerer Gewebetransplantate. Praeoperative Bestrahlung verursacht eine erhoehte Inzidenz

  18. Functional changes of the gustatory organ caused by local radiation exposure during radiotherapy of the head-and-neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G.; Ranft, D.; Weber, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate how often and at which dose levels gustatory disturbances appear during radiotherapy of the tongue and to which extent permanent gustatory deficiencies occur. Patients and Methods: The study included 44 patients treated by definitive irradiation for malignant head-and-neck tumors. In 22 patients the posterior two thirds of the tongue (group 1), and in the other 22 patients the entire tongue (group 2) were exposed to radiation. The control group comprised 30 patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving definitive radiation therapy (group 3). The dose distribution in the tongue area was calculated using CT-based three-dimensional planning. Before, during and after irradiation the gustatory function was determined by means of gustometry and correlated with the corresponding results of enoral inspection and the patients' subjective statements on gustatory function. Results: The gustatory ability of the control group was not affected, whereas patients in the locally irradiated groups in parallel with enoral mucositis suffered from loss of gustatory function after a total dose of 20 Gy with a maximum between 40 and 60 Gy. Supportive measures had little influence on acute side effects. The gustatory disturbances regressed within 8 weeks after radiotherapy in patients with partial-tongue irradiation and almost completely after 6 months in patients with entire-tongue irradiation. Conclusion: The severity of gustatory disturbances and the longer recovery time in patients with entire-tongue irradiation suggest an influence of the volume exposed. Therefore, reduction of the highly exposed tongue volume by intensity-modulated radiotherapy opens up possibilities for a reduction of this undesirable side effect. (orig.)

  19. Functional changes of the gustatory organ caused by local radiation exposure during radiotherapy of the head-and-neck region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamprad, F.; Hildebrandt, G. [University Hospital Leipzig AoeR (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology; Ranft, D. [Universitaetsklinikum Greifswald GmbH (Germany). MVZ-Medizinisches Versorgungszentrum; Weber, A. [Sana Klinikum Remscheid (Germany). ENT Dept.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate how often and at which dose levels gustatory disturbances appear during radiotherapy of the tongue and to which extent permanent gustatory deficiencies occur. Patients and Methods: The study included 44 patients treated by definitive irradiation for malignant head-and-neck tumors. In 22 patients the posterior two thirds of the tongue (group 1), and in the other 22 patients the entire tongue (group 2) were exposed to radiation. The control group comprised 30 patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving definitive radiation therapy (group 3). The dose distribution in the tongue area was calculated using CT-based three-dimensional planning. Before, during and after irradiation the gustatory function was determined by means of gustometry and correlated with the corresponding results of enoral inspection and the patients' subjective statements on gustatory function. Results: The gustatory ability of the control group was not affected, whereas patients in the locally irradiated groups in parallel with enoral mucositis suffered from loss of gustatory function after a total dose of 20 Gy with a maximum between 40 and 60 Gy. Supportive measures had little influence on acute side effects. The gustatory disturbances regressed within 8 weeks after radiotherapy in patients with partial-tongue irradiation and almost completely after 6 months in patients with entire-tongue irradiation. Conclusion: The severity of gustatory disturbances and the longer recovery time in patients with entire-tongue irradiation suggest an influence of the volume exposed. Therefore, reduction of the highly exposed tongue volume by intensity-modulated radiotherapy opens up possibilities for a reduction of this undesirable side effect. (orig.)

  20. Fast neutron therapy for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region: results of a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, W.; Orr, J.A.; Arnott, S.J.; Jack, W.J.; Kerr, G.R.; Williams, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    A randomized trial of fast neuron therapy compared with 4MV photons for patients with head and neck cancer is reported. One hundred and sixty-eight patients were recruited between 1977 and 1984. The minimum follow-up is 2 years. Three patients were withdrawn before treatment began. Eighty-five were allocated to neutron therapy and 80 to receive photon therapy. All patients had squamous cell cancers in one of four primary sites: oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. Local tumor control was similar in both groups: 44.7% after neutrons and 45.0% after photons. Salvage surgery was performed on 18 patients in each treatment group for residual or recurrent cancer. Acute radiation reactions of the mucous membranes were significantly more severe after photons. The number of patients with serious late reactions was greater after neutron therapy but the difference was not statistically significant. There were six deaths related to late morbidity after neutron therapy but none after photon therapy. Survival was better after photon therapy but the difference compared with the neutron group failed to reach statistical significance. When intercurrent deaths are excluded, the difference is less marked. Photon therapy was clearly better in terms of disease-free survival giving a 2-year local disease-free rate of 41.3% (s.e. 5.5%) compared with 29.4% (s.e. 4.9%) after neutrons

  1. Results of radiotherapy for cancer of head and neck region, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Noriharu; Shinzato, Jintetsu; Watanabe, Keikichi; Habu, Kenjiro; Hirayama, Haruyuki

    1988-01-01

    From 1967 through 1985, 86 patients with cancer of the paranasal sinuses and 6 patients with cancer of the nasal cavity (excluding sarcoma) were treated by irradiation at the Department of Radiology, Kumamoto National Hospital. The mean age was 60.7. The rate of men to women was 1.2 : 1. The results were as follows ; 1) Fifty-nine patients (51 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 4 of ethmoid sinus carcinoma, and 4 of cancer of the nasal cavity) were treated with antrostomy followed by radiotherapy and regional arterial infusion of 5-fluorouracil alone or a combination of 5-fluorouracil and bleomycin. In 11 cases of these, salvage with total maxillectomy was performed and 10 % of which were controlled for more than five years. In 9 cases of these, no case was salvaged with radiotherapy. An overall five-year survival rate was 32 %. 2) The survival rate of the postoperative irradiation (11 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 1 of cancer of the nasal cavity) was 42 % at 2 and 4 years after the operations. 3) Twelve patients with cancer of the paranasal sinuses (11 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 1 of ethmoid sinus carcinoma) survived more than five years. All of them were irradiated curatively with doses more than 40 Gy. In our series, there was no difference in long-term survival between 5-fluorouracil alone and a combination of 5-fluorouracil and bleomycin. (author)

  2. Two cases of postradiation damage to bone and cartilage in head and neck regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Yoshio; Togashi, Toshihiko

    1977-01-01

    Damage to bone and cartilage after irradiation is well known. Two cases are reported of serious osteolythiasis of the skull and perichondritis of the larynx damaged by radiation therapy. Case 1: A 39 year old male was given radiotherapy for a pseudotumor of the paranasal sinus from January 1966 through June 1969 (telecobalt, total dose of 20400 rads). A roentogenograph taken in January 1974, showed radiation osteolythiasis of the maxilla and temporal bone. Sequestrectomy and continuous drainage were carried out. Case 2: A 65 year old male who had been given radium therapy for laryngeal cancer 10 years previously developed hoarseness a painless mass in his throat. Laryngoscopic examination revealed that the right vocal cord was fixed, and that the arythenoid region was markedly swollen. The histological diagnosis was that of benign inflammatory granuloma. Roentogenographic appearance of the larynx represented a dissolution of the thyroid cartilage. This condition continued to grow worse and a laryngectomy was performed. It is recommended that greater care and supervision be given patients undergoing irradiation. (Evans, J.)

  3. Periodontal aspects of patients subjected to the radiotherapy in region of head and neck; Aspectos periodontales de pacientes sometidos a la radioterapia en region de cabeza y cuello

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira Moreira, Allyson; Bueno, Audrey C [Buenos Aires Univ. (Argentina). Facultad de Odontologia; Silami de Magalhaes, Claudia; Silva Freire, Addah R. da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2007-03-15

    Mouth cancer is the sixth most frequent type in the world's population, affecting mostly developing countries. The treatment of choice for this neoplasm is the surgery associated with radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy, which often cause mouth adverse effects. The periodontal reaction to the suffering irradiation morphological and histological alterations decreased the ability of repairing and increased vulnerability to infections. The mouth conditions of the patients who will undergo cancer therapy should be assessed prior to initiation of treatment, mainly to prevent complications. This study aimed to do a literature review on the development of periodontal disease in patients undergoing radiotherapy in head and neck region. [Spanish] El cancer de boca es el sexto tipo mas frecuente en la poblacion mundial, afectando principalmente paises en desarrollo. El tratamiento de eleccion para esta neoplasia es la cirugia asociada a la radioterapia, y/o quimioterapia que muchas veces causan efectos bucales adversos. El periodoncio reacciona a la irradiacion sufriendo alteraciones morfologicas e histologicas, disminucion de la capacidad de reparo y mayor vulnerabilidad a infecciones. Las condiciones bucales de los pacientes que seran sometidas a la terapia oncologica deben ser evaluadas antes del inicio del tratamiento, principalmente para prevenir las complicaciones del mismo. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo hacer una revision de literatura sobre el desarrollo de la enfermedad periodontal en individuos sometidos a la radioterapia en region de cabeza y cuello. (autor)

  4. Microsurgical free flap reconstructions of head and neck region in 406 cases: a 13-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerressen, Marcus; Pastaschek, Claudia Inge; Riediger, Dieter; Hilgers, Ralf-Dieter; Hölzle, Frank; Noroozi, Nelson; Ghassemi, Alireza

    2013-03-01

    The reconstruction of extended soft tissue and bony defects in the maxillofacial region with microsurgical flaps is considered to be the therapy of first choice. The aim of this retrospective study was to detect different influencing factors concerning flap survival. We examined the data of 406 patient cases (121 female and 285 male cases; mean age, 57 years) undergoing reconstruction with a microsurgical flap in our facility between 1998 and 2010. In these cases 326 soft tissue flaps (radial forearm flap, scapula flap, latissimus dorsi flap, anterolateral thigh flap, lateral arm flap, and jejunum flap) and 80 bony flaps (fibula flap and deep circumflex iliac artery flap) were examined. Evaluated parameters were, among others, the timing of reconstruction, defect localization, and recipient vessels used (external vs internal jugular system), as well as anticoagulative management. We statistically analyzed data by means of a χ(2) test, taking account of the odds ratio with P < .05, which was deemed significant. The overall flap survival rate was approximately 92%, without any gender- or age-specific differences. Primary reconstructions proceeded distinctly more successfully than secondary reconstructions (P < .01). Likewise, the defect localization exerted a significant effect on the survival rate (P = .01), with a more caudal localization affecting flap survival positively. Finally, neither the anticoagulation regimen nor the choice of recipient vein system exercised an influence on the survival rate. Microsurgical tissue transfer is a convenient and reliable method in maxillofacial surgery, provided that one is aware of the determining factors for success. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Technical realization of a systematized radiation therapy, founded on the TNM system, of tumors in the regions of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, J.; Loeffler, R.; Stockberg, H.; Zeumer, H.

    1978-01-01

    Modern radiation therapy of tumors within the regions of the head and neck regards not only the concept of the target volume but also the probability of affection to the lymphatic chains. Frequency of spread to lymph nodes depends on the size of the primary tumor, and thus the extent of radiotherapeutic practical measures can be conformed to the TNM system. A radiation therapy planned in view of the TNM classification may be termed, therefore, as a systematized radiation therapy. From the standpoint of these considerations irradiation techniques using a telecobalt therapy unit and a betatron have been examined considering the application to individual tumor sites and tumor volumes in the regions of the head and neck. The techniques being most appropriate for tumors of the head and neck, with regard to the various sites or volumes, and taking into account the target volume as well as the lymphatic chains concerned are here presented. (orig.) [de

  6. Metabolic Tumor Volume as a Prognostic Imaging-Based Biomarker for Head-and-Neck Cancer: Pilot Results From Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 0522

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David L., E-mail: david.schwartz@utsw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern School of Medicine, Dallas, Texas (United States); Harris, Jonathan [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Yao, Min [Department of Radiation Oncology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Rosenthal, David I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Opanowski, Adam; Levering, Anthony [American College of Radiology Imaging Network, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ang, K. Kian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Trotti, Andy M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida (United States); Garden, Adam S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Christopher U. [Sutter Medical Group, Sacramento, California (United States); Harari, Paul [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Foote, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Holland, John [Department of Radiation Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Qiang [Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Statistical Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes. Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited. Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials.

  7. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  8. Ricinus communis agglutinin-mediated agglutination and fusion of glycolipid-containing phospholipid vesicles: effect of carbohydrate head group size, calcium ions, and spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, D; Düzgüneş, N

    1986-03-25

    The glycolipids galactosylcerebroside (GalCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), and trihexosylceramide (Gb3) were inserted into phospholipid vesicles, consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid. The extent to which their carbohydrate head groups protruded beyond the vesicle surface and their interference with membrane approach were examined by determining vesicle susceptibility toward type I Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) induced agglutination and Ca2+- and spermine-induced aggregation and fusion either in the presence or in the absence of the lectin. The initial agglutination rates increased in the order GalCer much less than LacCer less than Gb3, while a reversed order was obtained for Ca2+- and spermine-induced aggregation and fusion, indicating an enhanced steric interference on close approach of bilayers with increasing head group size. The lectin-mediated agglutination rates for LacCer- and Gb3-containing vesicles increased by an order of magnitude when Ca2+ was also included in the medium, at a concentration that did not induce aggregation per se. Charge neutralization could not account for this observation as the polyvalent cation spermine did not display this synergistic effect with RCA1. Addition of Ca2+ to preagglutinated vesicles substantially reduced the threshold cation concentration for fusion (micromolar vs. millimolar). Quantitatively, this concentration decreased with decreasing carbohydrate head group size, indicating that the head group protrusion determined the interbilayer distance within the vesicle aggregate. The distinct behavior of Ca2+ vs. spermine on RCA1-induced agglutination on the one hand and fusion on the other indicated that Ca2+ regulates the steric orientation of the carbohydrate head group, which appears to be related to its ability to dehydrate the bilayer. As a result, lectin agglutinability becomes enhanced while fusion will be interrupted as the interbilayer distance increases, the threshold head group size

  9. Film dosimetric investigations on the exposure of the eyes in radiation therapy of the head and the cervical region with fast electrons up to 17 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecher, M.; Eichler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Dose distributions in irradiating tumors of the head and the cervical region with 17 MeV electrons were determined in a phantom with films. From the isodoses obtained it can be derived how radiation reaches the eyes and how the dose to the eyes is influenced. Guidance is provided for the reduction of the dose to the eye. (author)

  10. Recurrence in Region of Spared Parotid Gland After Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Donald M.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the implications of three examples of periparotid recurrence after definitive intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: We present 3 patients with HNC who underwent definitive IMRT with concurrent chemotherapy and later had treatment failure in or near a spared parotid gland. Two patients had bilateral multilevel nodal disease, and all had Level II nodal disease ipsilateral to the site of recurrence. The patients were treated using dose-painting IMRT with a dose of 70 Gy to the gross tumor volume and 59.4 Gy or 54 Gy to the high-risk or low-risk clinical tumor volume, respectively. The parotid glands were spared bilaterally. The patients had not undergone any surgical treatment for HNC before radiotherapy. Results: All patients had treatment failure in the region of a spared parotid gland. Failure in the 2 patients with bilateral multilevel nodal involvement occurred in the periparotid lymph nodes. The third patient developed a dermal metastasis near the tail of a spared parotid gland. On pretreatment imaging, the 2 patients with nodal failure had small nonspecific periparotid nodules that showed no hypermetabolic activity on positron emission tomography. Conclusion: For HNC patients receiving definitive IMRT, nonspecific positron emission tomography-negative periparotid nodules on pretreatment imaging should raise the index of suspicion for subclinical disease in the presence of multilevel or Level II nodal metastases. Additional evaluation of such nodules might be indicated before sparing the ipsilateral parotid gland

  11. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air-water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastiani, Federica; Campbell, Richard A.; Rastogi, Kunal; Pfrang, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air-water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA), palmitoleic acid (POA), methyl oleate (MO) and stearic acid (SA) to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR) to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air-water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7) × 10-8, (2.4±0.5) × 10-8and (3.3±0.6) × 10-8 cm2 molecule-1 s-1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5) × 10-3, (1.7±0.3) × 10-3 and (2.1±0.4) × 10-3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1) × 10-12 cm2 molecule-1 s-1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1) × 10-7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air-water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of O3. Furthermore, the relative contributions of NO3 and O3 to the oxidative

  12. Nighttime oxidation of surfactants at the air–water interface: effects of chain length, head group and saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sebastiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactions of the key atmospheric nighttime oxidant NO3 with organic monolayers at the air–water interface are used as proxies for the ageing of organic-coated aqueous aerosols. The surfactant molecules chosen for this study are oleic acid (OA, palmitoleic acid (POA, methyl oleate (MO and stearic acid (SA to investigate the effects of chain length, head group and degree of unsaturation on the reaction kinetics and products formed. Fully and partially deuterated surfactants were studied using neutron reflectometry (NR to determine the reaction kinetics of organic monolayers with NO3 at the air–water interface for the first time. Kinetic modelling allowed us to determine the rate coefficients for the oxidation of OA, POA and MO monolayers to be (2.8±0.7 × 10−8, (2.4±0.5 × 10−8and (3.3±0.6 × 10−8 cm2 molecule−1 s−1 for fitted initial desorption lifetimes of NO3 at the closely packed organic monolayers, τd, NO3, 1, of 8.1±4.0, 16±4.0 and 8.1±3.0 ns, respectively. The approximately doubled desorption lifetime found in the best fit for POA compared to OA and MO is consistent with a more accessible double bond associated with the shorter alkyl chain of POA facilitating initial NO3 attack at the double bond in a closely packed monolayer. The corresponding uptake coefficients for OA, POA and MO were found to be (2.1±0.5 × 10−3, (1.7±0.3 × 10−3 and (2.1±0.4 × 10−3, respectively. For the much slower NO3-initiated oxidation of the saturated surfactant SA we estimated a loss rate of approximately (5±1 × 10−12 cm2 molecule−1 s−1, which we consider to be an upper limit for the reactive loss, and estimated an uptake coefficient of ca. (5±1 × 10−7. Our investigations demonstrate that NO3 will contribute substantially to the processing of unsaturated surfactants at the air–water interface during nighttime given its reactivity is ca. 2 orders of magnitude higher

  13. Quantifying metabolic heterogeneity in head and neck tumors in real time: 2-DG uptake is highest in hypoxic tumor regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C Nakajima

    Full Text Available Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity may increase the likelihood of treatment failure due to the presence of a subset of resistant tumor cells. Using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC xenograft model and a real-time fluorescence imaging approach, we tested the hypothesis that tumors are metabolically heterogeneous, and that tumor hypoxia alters patterns of glucose uptake within the tumor.Cal33 cells were grown as xenograft tumors (n = 16 in nude mice after identification of this cell line's metabolic response to hypoxia. Tumor uptake of fluorescent markers identifying hypoxia, glucose import, or vascularity was imaged simultaneously using fluorescent molecular tomography. The variability of intratumoral 2-deoxyglucose (IR800-2-DG concentration was used to assess tumor metabolic heterogeneity, which was further investigated using immunohistochemistry for expression of key metabolic enzymes. HNSCC tumors in patients were assessed for intratumoral variability of (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18F-FDG uptake in clinical PET scans.IR800-2-DG uptake in hypoxic regions of Cal33 tumors was 2.04 times higher compared to the whole tumor (p = 0.0001. IR800-2-DG uptake in tumors containing hypoxic regions was more heterogeneous as compared to tumors lacking a hypoxic signal. Immunohistochemistry staining for HIF-1α, carbonic anhydrase 9, and ATP synthase subunit 5β confirmed xenograft metabolic heterogeneity. We detected heterogeneous (18F-FDG uptake within patient HNSCC tumors, and the degree of heterogeneity varied amongst tumors.Hypoxia is associated with increased intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity. (18F-FDG PET scans may be used to stratify patients according to the metabolic heterogeneity within their tumors, which could be an indicator of prognosis.

  14. CT synthesis in the head & neck region for PET/MR attenuation correction: an iterative multi-atlas approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgos, Ninon [Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Cardoso, M Jorge; Modat, Marc [Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Dementia Research Centre, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Punwani, Shonit [Division of Imaging, University College London Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Atkinson, David [Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Arridge, Simon R [Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Hutton, Brian F [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London Hospitals, London (United Kingdom); Ourselin, Sébastien [Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Dementia Research Centre, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    In this work, we propose to tackle the problem of attenuation correction in the head and neck by synthesising CT from MR images using an iterative multi-atlas approach. The proposed method relies on pre-acquired T2-weighted MRI and CT images of the neck. For each subject, the MRI is non-rigidly mapped to the CT. To synthesise a pseudo CT, all the MRIs in the database are first registered to the target MRI. This registration consists of a robust affine followed by a non-rigid registration. The pseudo CT is obtained by fusing the mapped atlases according to their morphological similarity to the target. In contrast to CTs, T2 images do not provide a good estimate of the bone location. Combining multiple modalities at both the registration and image similarity stages is expected to provide more realistic mappings and to reduce the bias. An initial pseudo CT (pCT) is combined with the target MRI to form a MRI-pCT pair. The MRI-pCT pair is registered to all the MRI-CT pairs from the database. An improved pseudo CT is obtained by fusing the mapped MRI-CT pairs according to their morphological similarity to the target MRI-pCT pair. Results showed that the proposed CT synthesis algorithm based on a multi-atlas information propagation scheme and iterative process is able to synthesise pseudo CT images in a region challenging for registration algorithms. The results also demonstrate that the robust affine decreases the absolute error compared to the classic approach and that the bone refinement process reduces the bias in the bone region. The proposed method could be used to correct for attenuation PET/MR data, but also for dosimetry calculations in the context of MR-based radiotherapy treatment planning.

  15. Association mapping and haplotype analysis of a 3.1-Mb genomic region involved in Fusarium head blight resistance on wheat chromosome 3BS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Hao

    Full Text Available A previous study provided an in-depth understanding of molecular population genetics of European and Asian wheat gene pools using a sequenced 3.1-Mb contig (ctg954 on chromosome 3BS. This region is believed to carry the Fhb1 gene for response to Fusarium head blight. In this study, 266 wheat accessions were evaluated in three environments for Type II FHB response based on the single floret inoculation method. Hierarchical clustering (UPGMA based on a Manhattan dissimilarity matrix divided the accessions into eight groups according to five FHB-related traits which have a high correlation between them; Group VIII comprised six accessions with FHB response levels similar to variety Sumai 3. Based on the compressed mixed linear model (MLM, association analysis between five FHB-related traits and 42 molecular markers along the 3.1-Mb region revealed 12 significant association signals at a threshold of P0.1 and P0.05 within each HapB at r(2>0.1 and P<0.001 showed significant differences between the Hap carried by FHB resistant resources, such as Sumai 3 and Wangshuibai, and susceptible genotypes in HapB3 and HapB6. These results suggest that Fhb1 is located within HapB6, with the possibility that another gene is located at or near HapB3. SSR markers and Haps detected in this study will be helpful in further understanding the genetic basis of FHB resistance, and provide useful information for marker-assisted selection of Fhb1 in wheat breeding.

  16. The development of remote controlled linear guide and mast vertical guide of repair robot for RV head CRDM nozzle region in NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min

    2006-11-01

    Reactor vessel which is core instrument in NPP must maintains integrity in the high temperature, high pressure and high radiation environment. Therefore RV must be inspected periodically. If there is defect, the RV must be repaired. A remote controlled linear guide and a vertical guide were developed for a welding repair robot of the RV head CRDM nozzle region. During inspection/maintenance, the RV head is placed RV head storage which is a double circled concrete structure. A linear guide was developed to provide a linear motion to the repair robot, which locates the robot under the RV head. The linear guide also provides a strong support to the robot not to overturn when the robot repairs the RV head. The robot needs lifting about 2m to reach the CRDM nozzle, therefore a vertical guide was developed. For easy traveling, the linear guide is designed 4 parts and the vertical guide is designed 3 parts. A control system was developed to remotely control the guide system which is composed of a connecter box, cables, control box, a computer and a control program. A monitoring system was developed to monitor operation of the guide system

  17. The development of remote controlled linear guide and mast vertical guide of repair robot for RV head CRDM nozzle region in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Seo, Yong Chil; Shin, Ho Cheol; Lee, Sung Uk; Jung, Kyung Min

    2006-11-15

    Reactor vessel which is core instrument in NPP must maintains integrity in the high temperature, high pressure and high radiation environment. Therefore RV must be inspected periodically. If there is defect, the RV must be repaired. A remote controlled linear guide and a vertical guide were developed for a welding repair robot of the RV head CRDM nozzle region. During inspection/maintenance, the RV head is placed RV head storage which is a double circled concrete structure. A linear guide was developed to provide a linear motion to the repair robot, which locates the robot under the RV head. The linear guide also provides a strong support to the robot not to overturn when the robot repairs the RV head. The robot needs lifting about 2m to reach the CRDM nozzle, therefore a vertical guide was developed. For easy traveling, the linear guide is designed 4 parts and the vertical guide is designed 3 parts. A control system was developed to remotely control the guide system which is composed of a connecter box, cables, control box, a computer and a control program. A monitoring system was developed to monitor operation of the guide system.

  18. Patterns of local-regional recurrence following parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, Laura A.; Anzai, Yoshimi; Marsh, Lon; Martel, Mary K.; Paulino, Augusto; Ship, Jonathan A.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the patterns of local-regional recurrence in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Fifty-eight patients with head and neck cancer were treated with bilateral neck radiation (RT) using conformal or segmental IMRT techniques, while sparing a substantial portion of one parotid gland. The targets for CT-based RT planning included the gross tumor volume (GTV) (primary tumor and lymph node metastases) and the clinical target volume (CTV) (postoperative tumor bed, expansions of the GTVs and lymph node groups at risk of subclinical disease). Lymph node targets at risk of subclinical disease included the bilateral jugulodigastric and lower jugular lymph nodes, bilateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes at risk, and high jugular nodes at the base of skull in the side of the neck at highest risk (containing clinical neck metastases and/or ipsilateral to the primary tumor). The CTVs were expanded by 5 mm to yield planning target volumes (PTVs). Planning goals included coverage of all PTVs (with a minimum of 95% of the prescribed dose) and sparing of a substantial portion of the parotid gland in the side of the neck at less risk. The median RT doses to the gross tumor, the operative bed, and the subclinical disease PTVs were 70.4 Gy, 61.2 Gy, and 50.4 Gy respectively. All recurrences were defined on CT scans obtained at the time of recurrence, transferred to the pretreatment CT dataset used for RT planning, and analyzed using dose-volume histograms. The recurrences were classified as 1) 'in-field', in which 95% or more of the recurrence volume (V recur ) was within the 95% isodose; 2) 'marginal', in which 20% to 95% of V recur was within the 95% isodose; or 3) 'outside', in which less than 20% of V recur was within the 95% isodose. Results: With a median follow-up of 27 months (range 6 to 60 months), 10 regional recurrences, 5 local recurrences

  19. Patterns of local-regional recurrence following parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, L A; Anzai, Y; Marsh, L; Martel, M K; Paulino, A; Ship, J A; Eisbruch, A

    2000-03-15

    To analyze the patterns of local-regional recurrence in patients with head and neck cancer treated with parotid-sparing conformal and segmental intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Fifty-eight patients with head and neck cancer were treated with bilateral neck radiation (RT) using conformal or segmental IMRT techniques, while sparing a substantial portion of one parotid gland. The targets for CT-based RT planning included the gross tumor volume (GTV) (primary tumor and lymph node metastases) and the clinical target volume (CTV) (postoperative tumor bed, expansions of the GTVs and lymph node groups at risk of subclinical disease). Lymph node targets at risk of subclinical disease included the bilateral jugulodigastric and lower jugular lymph nodes, bilateral retropharyngeal lymph nodes at risk, and high jugular nodes at the base of skull in the side of the neck at highest risk (containing clinical neck metastases and/or ipsilateral to the primary tumor). The CTVs were expanded by 5 mm to yield planning target volumes (PTVs). Planning goals included coverage of all PTVs (with a minimum of 95% of the prescribed dose) and sparing of a substantial portion of the parotid gland in the side of the neck at less risk. The median RT doses to the gross tumor, the operative bed, and the subclinical disease PTVs were 70.4 Gy, 61.2 Gy, and 50.4 Gy respectively. All recurrences were defined on CT scans obtained at the time of recurrence, transferred to the pretreatment CT dataset used for RT planning, and analyzed using dose-volume histograms. The recurrences were classified as 1) "in-field," in which 95% or more of the recurrence volume (V(recur)) was within the 95% isodose; 2) "marginal," in which 20% to 95% of V(recur) was within the 95% isodose; or 3) "outside," in which less than 20% of V(recur) was within the 95% isodose. With a median follow-up of 27 months (range 6 to 60 months), 10 regional recurrences, 5 local recurrences (including one noninvasive recurrence) and 1

  20. Social skills training and play group intervention for children with oppositional-defiant disorders/conduct disorder: Mediating mechanisms in a head-to-head comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzmann, Josepha; Goertz-Dorten, Anja; Hautmann, Christopher; Doepfner, Manfred

    2018-01-19

    Social-cognitive information processing, social skills, and social interactions are problem-maintaining variables for aggressive behavior in children. We hypothesized that these factors may be possible mediators of the mechanism of change in the child-centered treatment of conduct disorders (CDs). The aim of the present study (Clinical trials.gov Identifier: NCT01406067) was to examine putative mechanisms of change for the decrease in oppositional-defiant behavior resulting from child-centered treatment of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) or CD. 91 children (age 6-12 years) with ODD/CD were randomized to receive either social skills training or to a resource activating play group. Mediator analyses were conducted using path analyses. The assumed mediating effects were not significant. However, alternative models with the putative mediators and outcome in reversed positions showed significant indirect effects of the oppositional-defiant symptoms as mediator for the decrease of disturbance of social-information processing, social skills, and social interactions. The proposed model for mechanisms of change could not be confirmed, with the results pointing to a reversed causality. Variables other than those hypothesized must be responsible for mediating the effects of the intervention on child oppositional-defiant behavior. Possible mechanisms of change were discussed.

  1. Recombination and evolution of duplicate control regions in the mitochondrial genome of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenfei Zheng

    Full Text Available Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences with duplicate control regions (CRs have been detected in various animal species. In Testudines, duplicate mtCRs have been reported in the mtDNA of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, which has three living subspecies. However, the evolutionary pattern of these CRs remains unclear. In this study, we report the completed sequences of duplicate CRs from 20 individuals belonging to three subspecies of this turtle and discuss the micro-evolutionary analysis of the evolution of duplicate CRs. Genetic distances calculated with MEGA 4.1 using the complete duplicate CR sequences revealed that within turtle subspecies, genetic distances between orthologous copies from different individuals were 0.63% for CR1 and 1.2% for CR2app:addword:respectively, and the average distance between paralogous copies of CR1 and CR2 was 4.8%. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from the CR sequences, excluding the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs at the 3' end using three methods: neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood algorithm, and Bayesian inference. These data show that any two CRs within individuals were more genetically distant from orthologous genes in different individuals within the same subspecies. This suggests independent evolution of the two mtCRs within each P. megacephalum subspecies. Reconstruction of separate phylogenetic trees using different CR components (TAS, CD, CSB, and VNTRs suggested the role of recombination in the evolution of duplicate CRs. Consequently, recombination events were detected using RDP software with break points at ≈290 bp and ≈1,080 bp. Based on these results, we hypothesize that duplicate CRs in P. megacephalum originated from heterological ancestral recombination of mtDNA. Subsequent recombination could have resulted in homogenization during independent evolutionary events, thus maintaining the functions of duplicate CRs in the mtDNA of P

  2. Open source deformable image registration system for treatment planning and recurrence CT scans. Validation in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Brink, Carsten; Hansen, Christian Roenn; Bertelsen, Anders; Johansen, Joergen; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Grau, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Clinical application of deformable registration (DIR) of medical images remains limited due to sparse validation of DIR methods in specific situations, e. g. in case of cancer recurrences. In this study the accuracy of DIR for registration of planning CT (pCT) and recurrence CT (rCT) images of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was evaluated. Twenty patients treated with definitive IMRT for HNSCC in 2010-2012 were included. For each patient, a pCT and an rCT scan were used. Median interval between the scans was 8.5 months. One observer manually contoured eight anatomical regions-of-interest (ROI) twice on pCT and once on rCT. pCT and rCT images were deformably registered using the open source software elastix. Mean surface distance (MSD) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between contours were used for validation of DIR. A measure for delineation uncertainty was estimated by assessing MSD from the re-delineations of the same ROI on pCT. DIR and manual contouring uncertainties were correlated with tissue volume and rigidity. MSD varied 1-3 mm for different ROIs for DIR and 1-1.5 mm for re-delineated ROIs performed on pCT. DSC for DIR varied between 0.58 and 0.79 for soft tissues and was 0.79 or higher for bony structures, and correlated with the volumes of ROIs (r = 0.5, p < 0.001) and tissue rigidity (r = 0.54, p < 0.001). DIR using elastix in HNSCC on planning and recurrence CT scans is feasible; an uncertainty of the method is close to the voxel size length of the planning CT images. (orig.) [de

  3. Open source deformable image registration system for treatment planning and recurrence CT scans : Validation in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Brink, Carsten; Hansen, Christian Rønn; Bertelsen, Anders; Johansen, Jørgen; Grau, Cai; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-08-01

    Clinical application of deformable registration (DIR) of medical images remains limited due to sparse validation of DIR methods in specific situations, e. g. in case of cancer recurrences. In this study the accuracy of DIR for registration of planning CT (pCT) and recurrence CT (rCT) images of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was evaluated. Twenty patients treated with definitive IMRT for HNSCC in 2010-2012 were included. For each patient, a pCT and an rCT scan were used. Median interval between the scans was 8.5 months. One observer manually contoured eight anatomical regions-of-interest (ROI) twice on pCT and once on rCT. pCT and rCT images were deformably registered using the open source software elastix. Mean surface distance (MSD) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) between contours were used for validation of DIR. A measure for delineation uncertainty was estimated by assessing MSD from the re-delineations of the same ROI on pCT. DIR and manual contouring uncertainties were correlated with tissue volume and rigidity. MSD varied 1-3 mm for different ROIs for DIR and 1-1.5 mm for re-delineated ROIs performed on pCT. DSC for DIR varied between 0.58 and 0.79 for soft tissues and was 0.79 or higher for bony structures, and correlated with the volumes of ROIs (r = 0.5, p elastix in HNSCC on planning and recurrence CT scans is feasible; an uncertainty of the method is close to the voxel size length of the planning CT images.

  4. Analysis of changes of demographic parameters in different groups of Chernigiv region population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridzhuk, M.Yu.

    1998-01-01

    To perform comparison of the changes in different social and age groups of the population of Chernigiv region, Kozeletsky district in particular, which was exposed to considerable radioactive contamination, during the recent 20 years (beginning from 1977). The Chernobyl accident together with social and other unfavorable factors caused negative demographic changes in the contaminated districts. Reduction in the number of different social groups of the population is expected

  5. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine H.; Wong, Stuart; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Dicker, Adam P.; Harari, Paul M.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  6. Human papillomavirus and p53 expression in cancer of unknown primary in the head and neck region in relation to clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivars, Lars; Näsman, Anders; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Vlastos, Andrea; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Dalianis, Tina; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Nordemar, Sushma

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP) in the head neck region are generally treated with neck dissection followed by radiotherapy at times combined with chemotherapy, a treatment associated with considerable side effects. Some of these tumors may originate as human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), with better clinical outcome than head neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in general, and could potentially do well with less treatment. Here, we therefore investigated whether HPV status and p53-expression correlated to clinical outcome in patients with CUP in the head neck region. Fifty metastases were analyzed for presence of HPV DNA, and expression of p16 INK4A and p53 and the data were correlated to clinical outcome. Patients with HPV DNA-positive (HPV DNA+ ) metastases had significantly better 5-year overall survival (OS) compared to those with HPV DNA− metastases (80.0% vs. 36.7%, respectively; P = 0.004), with a similar tendency for disease-free survival (DFS). These survival rates showed excellent concordance with those of HPV DNA+ and HPV DNA− OSCC in Sweden during the same time period, strengthening the hypothesis that HPV DNA+ head and neck CUP may originate from HPV DNA+ OSCC. In addition, having absent/intermediary-low as compared to high expression of p53 correlated to a better prognosis with a 69% as compared to 14% 5-year OS, respectively (P < 0.001), and for DFS the tendency was analogous. In conclusion, both HPV status and p53 expression are valuable prognostic factors in patients with CUP in the head and neck region and should be further explored for clinical use

  7. Outcomes of patients with loco-regionally recurrent or new primary squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck treated with curative intent reirradiation at Mayo Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Kelly K.; Ross, Helen J.; Garrett, Ashley L.; Jizba, Theresa A.; Patel, Ajay B.; Patel, Samir H.; Wong, William W.; Halyard, Michele Y.; Ko, Stephen J.; Kosiorek, Heidi E.; Foote, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed outcomes of patients with loco-regionally recurrent (LRR) or new primary (NP) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) treated at our institution with reirradiation (RRT). Patients received definitive RRT (DRRT) or post-operative RRT following salvage surgery (PRRT) from 2003 to 2011. Measured survival outcomes included loco-regional relapse free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS). Among 81 patients (PRRT, 42; DRRT, 39), median PRRT and DRRT doses were 60 Gy (12–70 Gy) and 69.6 Gy (48–76.8 Gy). The majority of patients received IMRT-based RRT (n = 77, 95 %). With median follow-up of 78.1 months (95 % CI, 56–96.8 months), 2-year OS was 53 % with PRRT and 48 % with DRRT (p = 0.12); 23 % of patients were alive at last follow-up. LRFS at 2 years was 60 %, and did not differ significantly between PRRT and DRRT groups. A trend toward inferior LRFS was noted among patients receiving chemotherapy with RRT versus RRT alone (p = 0.06). Late serious toxicities were uncommon, including osteoradionecrosis (2 patients) and carotid artery bleeding (1 patient, non-fatal). OS of PRRT- and DRRT-treated patients in this series appears superior to the published literature. We used IMRT for the majority of patients, in contrast to several series and trials previously reported, which may account in part for this difference. Future studies should seek to improve outcomes among patients with LRR/NP SCCHN via alternative therapeutic modalities such as proton radiotherapy and by incorporating novel systemic agents

  8. ORGANIC RESEARCH AND STAKEHOLDERS INVOLVEMENT: THE IFOAM EU REGIONAL GROUP CONTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalvez, Mr V; Schlueter, Mr M; Slabe, Ms A; Schmid, Mr O

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the concepts, criteria, procedures and some methodologies to increase stakeholders involvement and participatioin in organic research Projects in the European Union, based on the experiencie and practise of the IFOAM EU Regional Group (IFOAM-EURG), in transnational Organic research Projects, enfatising in achivements, dificulties and trends for the future

  9. Soft Skills : An Important Asset Acquired from Organizing Regional Student Group Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Ridder, J.; Meysman, P.; Oluwagbemi, O.; Abeel, T.

    2014-01-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of

  10. ABO blood group and risk of pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Huseyin; Bilir, Cemil; Üstün, Hasan; Gökmen, Ayla

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between blood groups and pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region. This is a retrospective study. Zonguldak Karaelmas University outpatient oncology clinic records were screened for the period between 2004 and 2011. The median age of patients were 56 (± 16) and 132 of 633 study population had pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher rates of blood group A compared to controls (OR 1.8, 95%CI, p 0.005). Rates of blood group AB was significantly lower than the control group (OR 0.37, 95% CI, p 0.04). The median survival (IR) time in subjects having the blood groups A, B, AB and O were 7.0 (1-28), 7.0 (2-38), 10 (2-36) and 9.0 (2-48) months respectively; the blood group 0 had significantly higher overall survival (OS) compared to the non-0 groups (p 0.04). Pancreatic cancer patients had more common blood group A in our population. Moreover, blood group AB appeared to be a protective factor against pancreatic cancer in our population. Blood group 0 had a significantly longer survival compared to non-0, regardless of prognostic factors.

  11. Tumor Hypoxia is Independent of Hemoglobin and Prognostic for Loco-regional Tumor Control after Primary Radiotherapy in Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordsmark, Marianne; Overgaard, Jens

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that tumor hypoxia adversely affects loco-regional tumor control and survival in head and neck cancer. The aim of the current study was to compare pretreatment tumor oxygenation measured by Eppendorf pO2 electrodes with known prognostic factors in advanced head and neck tumors after definitive radiotherapy, and to evaluate the prognostic significance of these parameters on loco-regional tumor control. Sixty-seven patients, median age 56 years (22-82), all with primary stage III-IV squamous cell carcinoma were available for survival analysis. Tumor oxygenation was described as the fraction of pO2 values=2.5 mmHg (HP2.5) and the median tumor pO2. By regression analysis HP2.5 was independent of known prognostic factors including stage, pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) and the largest tumor diameter at the site of pO2 measurement. By Kaplan-Meier analysis loco-regional tumor control at 5 years was in favor of less hypoxic tumors using either HP2.5 or median tumor pO2 as descriptors and stratifying by the median values. Also, Hb was prognostic of loco-regional tumor control at 5 years using the median value as cut off. HP2.5 as continuous parameter was highly significant for loco-regional tumor control in a multivariate analysis. In conclusion both HP2.5 and total Hb were prognostic for loco-regional tumor control, but HP2.5 as continuous variable was independently the strongest prognostic indicator for loco-regional tumor control after definitive primary radiotherapy in advanced head and neck tumors

  12. Molecular bases of the ABO blood groups of Indians from the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, R F; Simões, B P; Guerreiro, J F; Santos, S E; Zago, M A

    1994-01-01

    Phenotype studies of ABO blood groups in most Amerindian populations revealed the exclusive presence of group O. Since group O is the result of the absence of glycosyltransferase activity, its molecular bases may be heterogeneous. We carried out ABO blood group genotyping by analysis of DNA of 30 Indians from 2 Amazonian tribes (Yanomami and Arara), and compared the findings with other populations (Caucasians and Blacks). Two segments of the glycosyltransferase gene were amplified by PCR and digested with KpnI or AluI to detect deletion or base change at positions 258 and 700, respectively. For all subjects, the gene basis of blood group O is the deletion of a single nucleotide at position 258 of the glycosyltransferase A gene, similar to that observed in Caucasoids and Negroids. DNA sequencing of limited regions of the gene supports this conclusion. This finding does not exclude, however, that a heterogeneity of the O allele may be revealed by a more extensive analysis.

  13. Heads Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Connect with Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... HEADS UP on your web site! Create a culture of safety for young athletes Officials, learn how you can ... UP to Providers HEADS UP to Youth Sports HEADS UP to School Sports HEADS UP to ...

  14. Temporal Nodal Regression and Regional Control After Primary Radiation Therapy for N2-N3 Head-and-Neck Cancer Stratified by HPV Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shao Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Xu, Wei; Zhao, Helen; Chen, Duo-duo; Ringash, Jolie; Hope, Andrew; Razak, Albiruni; Gilbert, Ralph; Irish, Jonathan; Kim, John; Dawson, Laura A.; Bayley, Andrew; Cho, B.C. John; Goldstein, David; Gullane, Patrick; Yu, Eugene; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan; Waldron, John

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the temporal lymph node (LN) regression and regional control (RC) after primary chemoradiation therapy/radiation therapy in human papillomavirus-related [HPV(+)] versus human papillomavirus-unrelated [HPV(−)] head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: All cases of N2-N3 HNC treated with radiation therapy/chemoradiation therapy between 2003 and 2009 were reviewed. Human papillomavirus status was ascertained by p16 staining on all available oropharyngeal cancers. Larynx/hypopharynx cancers were considered HPV(−). Initial radiologic complete nodal response (CR) (≤1.0 cm 8-12 weeks after treatment), ultimate LN resolution, and RC were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(−) HNC. Multivariate analysis identified outcome predictors. Results: A total of 257 HPV(+) and 236 HPV(−) HNCs were identified. The initial LN size was larger (mean, 2.9 cm vs 2.5 cm; P<.01) with a higher proportion of cystic LNs (38% vs 6%, P<.01) in HPV(+) versus HPV(−) HNC. CR was achieved is 125 HPV(+) HNCs (49%) and 129 HPV(−) HNCs (55%) (P=.18). The mean post treatment largest LN was 36% of the original size in the HPV(+) group and 41% in the HPV(−) group (P<.01). The actuarial LN resolution was similar in the HPV(+) and HPV(−) groups at 12 weeks (42% and 43%, respectively), but it was higher in the HPV(+) group than in the HPV(−) group at 36 weeks (90% vs 77%, P<.01). The median follow-up period was 3.6 years. The 3-year RC rate was higher in the HPV(−) CR cases versus non-CR cases (92% vs 63%, P<.01) but was not different in the HPV(+) CR cases versus non-CR cases (98% vs 92%, P=.14). On multivariate analysis, HPV(+) status predicted ultimate LN resolution (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.7]; P<.01) and RC (hazard ratio, 0.3 [95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6]; P<.01). Conclusions: HPV(+) LNs involute more quickly than HPV(−) LNs but undergo a more prolonged process to eventual CR beyond the time of initial assessment at 8 to 12

  15. Temporal Nodal Regression and Regional Control After Primary Radiation Therapy for N2-N3 Head-and-Neck Cancer Stratified by HPV Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shao Hui; O' Sullivan, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Xu, Wei; Zhao, Helen [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Duo-duo [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ringash, Jolie; Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Razak, Albiruni [Division of Medical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Gilbert, Ralph; Irish, Jonathan [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery/Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kim, John; Dawson, Laura A.; Bayley, Andrew; Cho, B.C. John [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Goldstein, David; Gullane, Patrick [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery/Surgical Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Yu, Eugene [Department of Radiology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Weinreb, Ilan [Department of Pathology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Waldron, John, E-mail: John.Waldron@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre/University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To compare the temporal lymph node (LN) regression and regional control (RC) after primary chemoradiation therapy/radiation therapy in human papillomavirus-related [HPV(+)] versus human papillomavirus-unrelated [HPV(−)] head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: All cases of N2-N3 HNC treated with radiation therapy/chemoradiation therapy between 2003 and 2009 were reviewed. Human papillomavirus status was ascertained by p16 staining on all available oropharyngeal cancers. Larynx/hypopharynx cancers were considered HPV(−). Initial radiologic complete nodal response (CR) (≤1.0 cm 8-12 weeks after treatment), ultimate LN resolution, and RC were compared between HPV(+) and HPV(−) HNC. Multivariate analysis identified outcome predictors. Results: A total of 257 HPV(+) and 236 HPV(−) HNCs were identified. The initial LN size was larger (mean, 2.9 cm vs 2.5 cm; P<.01) with a higher proportion of cystic LNs (38% vs 6%, P<.01) in HPV(+) versus HPV(−) HNC. CR was achieved is 125 HPV(+) HNCs (49%) and 129 HPV(−) HNCs (55%) (P=.18). The mean post treatment largest LN was 36% of the original size in the HPV(+) group and 41% in the HPV(−) group (P<.01). The actuarial LN resolution was similar in the HPV(+) and HPV(−) groups at 12 weeks (42% and 43%, respectively), but it was higher in the HPV(+) group than in the HPV(−) group at 36 weeks (90% vs 77%, P<.01). The median follow-up period was 3.6 years. The 3-year RC rate was higher in the HPV(−) CR cases versus non-CR cases (92% vs 63%, P<.01) but was not different in the HPV(+) CR cases versus non-CR cases (98% vs 92%, P=.14). On multivariate analysis, HPV(+) status predicted ultimate LN resolution (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.7]; P<.01) and RC (hazard ratio, 0.3 [95% confidence interval 0.2-0.6]; P<.01). Conclusions: HPV(+) LNs involute more quickly than HPV(−) LNs but undergo a more prolonged process to eventual CR beyond the time of initial assessment at 8 to 12

  16. If two heads are better than one, why do I have bruises on my forehead? Managing the group process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, F C

    1991-01-01

    Managers are using groups more frequently for solving complex organizational problems because of numerous organizational and environmental factors. Yet, many managers see group decision-making meetings as more of a problem than a solution. This article discusses situations where groups should and should not be used and recommends specific skills a leader can use to improve the effectiveness of group decision making. Emphasis is placed on managing the group process to achieve a satisfactory outcome. An exercise to test the validity of the suggestions is provided.

  17. [Variation of CAG repeats in coding region of ATXN2 gene in different ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Chen; Sun, Hao; Mi, Dong-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Lin, Ke-Qin; Yi, Wen; Yu, Liang; Shi, Lei; Shi, Li; Yang, Zhao-Qing; Chu, Jia-You

    2011-04-01

    Toinvestigate CAG repeats variation of ATXN2 gene coding region in six ethnic groups that live in comparatively different environments, to evaluate whether these variations are under positive selection, and to find factors driving selection effects, 291 unrelated healthy individuals were collected from six ethnic groups and their STR geneotyping was performed. The frequencies of alleles and genotypes were counted and thereby Slatkin's linearized Fst values were calculated. The UPGMA tree against this gene was constructed. The MDS analysis among these groups was carried out as well. The results from the linearized Fst values indicated that there were significant evolutionary differences of the STR in ATXN2 gene between Hui and Yi groups, but not among the other 4 groups. Further analysis was performed by combining our data with published data obtained from other groups. These results indicated that there were significant differences between Japanese and other groups including Hui, Hani, Yunnan Mongolian, and Inner Mongolian. Both Hui and Mongolian from Inner Mongolia were significantly different from Han. In conclusion, the six ethnic groups had their own distribution characterizations of allelic frequencies of ATXN2 STR, and the potential cause of frequency changes in rare alleles could be the consequence of positive selection.

  18. Influence of length and conformation of saccharide head groups on the mechanics of glycolipid membranes: Unraveled by off-specular neutron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Akihisa, E-mail: ayamamoto@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tanaka@uni-heidelberg.de; Tanaka, Motomu, E-mail: ayamamoto@icems.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tanaka@uni-heidelberg.de [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Abuillan, Wasim; Körner, Alexander [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Burk, Alexandra S. [Physical Chemistry of Biosystems, Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Heidelberg, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Institute of Toxicology and Genetics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ries, Annika [Institute of Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Werz, Daniel B. [Institute of Organic Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Demé, Bruno [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9, Grenoble (France)

    2015-04-21

    The mechanical properties of multilayer stacks of Gb3 glycolipid that play key roles in metabolic disorders (Fabry disease) were determined quantitatively by using specular and off-specular neutron scattering. Because of the geometry of membrane stacks deposited on planar substrates, the scattered intensity profile was analyzed in a 2D reciprocal space map as a function of in-plane and out-of-plane scattering vector components. The two principal mechanical parameters of the membranes, namely, bending rigidity and compression modulus, can be quantified by full calculation of scattering functions with the aid of an effective cut-off radius that takes the finite sample size into consideration. The bulkier “bent” Gb3 trisaccharide group makes the membrane mechanics distinctly different from cylindrical disaccharide (lactose) head groups and shorter “bent” disaccharide (gentiobiose) head groups. The mechanical characterization of membranes enriched with complex glycolipids has high importance in understanding the mechanisms of diseases such as sphingolipidoses caused by the accumulation of non-degenerated glycosphingolipids in lysosomes or inhibition of protein synthesis triggered by the specific binding of Shiga toxin to Gb3.

  19. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  20. Surficial geology and soils of the Elmira-Williamsport region, New York and Pennsylvania, with a section on forest regions and great soil groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Charles Storrow; Lyford, Walter Henry; Goodlett, J.C.

    1963-01-01

    The Elmira-Williamsport region, lying south of the Finger Lakes in central New York and northern Pennsylvania, is part of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province. A small segment of the Valley and Ridge province is included near the south border. In 1953 and 1954, the authors, a geologist and a soil scientist, made a reconnaissance of about 5,000 square miles extending southward from the Finger Lakes, N.Y., to Williamsport, Pa., and eastward from Wellsboro, Pa., to Towanda, Pa. Glacial drift of Wisconsin age, covering the central and most of the northern parts of the region, belongs to the Olean substage of MacClintock and Apfel. This drift is thin and patchy, is composed of the relatively soft sandstones, siltstone, shales, and conglomerates of the plateaus, commonly has a low calcium carbonate content, and is deeply leached. Mantling its surface are extensive rubbly colluvial deposits. No conspicuous terminal moraine marks the relatively straight border of Olean drift. The Valley Heads moraine of Fairchild near the south ends of the Finger Lakes is composed of relatively thick drift containing a considerable amount of somewhat resistant sedimentary and crystalline rocks. Commonly this drift has a relatively high carbonate content and is leached to only shallow depths. The Valley Heads drift is younger than Olean, but its precise age is undetermined. The age of the Olean is perhaps between Sangamon and Farmdale, on the basis of, in part, a carbon-14 date from peat at Otto, N.Y. All differences in soil development on these two Wisconsin drifts are clearly related to the lithology of the parent material or the drainage, rather than to weathering differing in kind or in duration. The authors believe that the soils are relatively young, are in equilibrium with the present environment, and contain few, if any, features acquired during past weathering intervals. The effect of tree throw on soil profiles and the presence of soils on slopes clearly indicate that

  1. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  2. Sparing the region of the salivary gland containing stem cells preserves saliva production after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, Peter; Pringle, Sarah; Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali V.; Faber, Hette; Hovan, Allan; Baanstra, Mirjam; van der Laan, Hans P.; Kierkels, Roel G. J.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Witjes, Max J.; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wu, Jonn; Coppes, Robert P.

    2015-01-01

    Each year, 500,000 patients are treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, resulting in relatively high survival rates. However, in 40% of patients, quality of life is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequent xerostomia (dry

  3. Hierarchical clustering into groups of human brain regions according to elemental composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedman, J.D.; Spyrou, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen brain regions were dissected from both hemispheres of fifteen 'normal' ageing subjects (8 females, 7 males) of mean age 79±7 years. Elemental compositions were determined by simultaneous application of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering (RBS) analyses using a 2 MeV, 4 nA proton beam scanned over 4 mm 2 of the sample surface. Elemental concentrations were found to be dependent upon the brain region and hemisphere studied. Hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to group the brain regions according to the sample concentrations of eight elements. The resulting dendrogram is presented and its clusters related to the sample compositions of grey and white matter. (author)

  4. Geochemical studies of the sediments of Barreiras group, Itaborai region-RJ, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, M.C.G.P.

    1983-01-01

    It is purpused to study the lead, copper, chromium, manganese, vanadium and zinc geochemical bahavior of the clays obtained from outcrop samples of Barreiras group and weathered Pre-Cambriam situated at Itaborai region, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Field and laboratory description, grain size analyses, X-ray diffraction, emission spectrography, X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption, transmission electronic microscopy and pH tests were applied to twenty-two samples selected. (Author) [pt

  5. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE INTERACTION REGION WORKING GROUP (T1) AT SNOWMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiewicz, Thomas W

    2002-09-23

    The Interaction Region Working Group (T1) at Snowmass 2001 reviewed the issues, designs, and plans of existing and proposed colliders, including hadron colliders, e{sup -} hadron colliders, e{sup +}e{sup -} and {gamma}{gamma} linear colliders, e{sup +}e{sup -} circular colliders, and muon colliders. This document summarizes the IR issues, status, and R&D plans for each project.

  6. Differences within the groups of physicians and managers in Dutch hospitals providing leads for intergroup cooperation : Running head: group differences in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harten, Willem H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Effective cooperation between physicians and managers is difficult to achieve but is an important factor in successfully implementing improvement initiatives in hospitals. Intergroup literature suggests that large differences between groups hinder effective cooperation. - Purposes:

  7. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival.

  8. Regional Information Group (RIG). Energy, environmental, and socioeconomic data bases and associated software at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A.S.; Malthouse, N.S.; Shonka, D.B.; Ogle, M.C.; Johnson, M.L.

    1976-10-01

    A machine readable data base has been created by the Regional Information Group, Regional and Urban Studies Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide documentation for the energy, environmental, and socioeconomic data bases and associated software maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document is produced yearly by the Regional Information Group to describe the contents and organization of this data base.

  9. Regional Information Group (RIG). Energy, environmental, and socioeconomic data bases and associated software at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebl, A.S.; Malthouse, N.S.; Shonka, D.B.; Ogle, M.C.; Johnson, M.L.

    1976-10-01

    A machine readable data base has been created by the Regional Information Group, Regional and Urban Studies Section, Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, to provide documentation for the energy, environmental, and socioeconomic data bases and associated software maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document is produced yearly by the Regional Information Group to describe the contents and organization of this data base

  10. The impact of concurrent granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor on radiation-induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients: A double-blind placebo-controlled prospective Phase III study by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9901

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Janice K.; Swann, Suzanne; LeVeque, Francis; Scarantino, Charles W.; Johnson, Darlene J.; Chen, Allan; Fortin, Andre; Pollock, JonDavid; Kim, Harold; Ang, Kian K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Based on early clinical evidence of potential mucosal protection by granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study to test the efficacy and safety of GM-CSF in reducing the severity and duration of mucosal injury and pain (mucositis) associated with curative radiotherapy (RT) in head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients included those with head-and-neck cancer with radiation ports encompassing >50% of oral cavity and/or oropharynx. Standard RT ports were used to cover the primary tumor and regional lymphatics at risk in standard fractionation to 60-70 Gy. Concurrent cisplatin chemotherapy was allowed. Patients were randomized to receive subcutaneous injection of GM-CSF 250 μg/m 2 or placebo 3 times a week. Mucosal reaction was assessed during the course of RT using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria and the protocol-specific scoring system. Results: Between October 2000 and September 2002, 130 patients from 36 institutions were accrued. Nine patients (7%) were excluded from the analysis, 3 as a result of drug unavailability. More than 80% of the patients participated in the quality-of-life endpoint of this study. The GM-CSF did not cause any increase in toxicity compared with placebo. There was no statistically significant difference in the average mean mucositis score in the GM-CSF and placebo arms by a t test (p = 0.4006). Conclusion: This placebo-controlled, randomized study demonstrated no significant effect of GM-CSF given concurrently compared with placebo in reducing the severity or duration of RT-induced mucositis in patients undergoing definitive RT for head-and-neck cancer

  11. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  12. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a low incidence European area. A prospective observational analysis from the Head and Neck Study Group of the Italian Society of Radiation Oncology (AIRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonoli, S.; Bruschieri, L. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Alterio, D. [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Caspiani, O. [Isola Tiberina Hospital, Rome (Italy); Bacigalupo, A. [IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino IST Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bunkheila, F. [S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna (Italy); Cianciulli, M. [S. Camillo Hospital, Rome (Italy); Merlotti, A. [Busto Arsizio Hospital, Busto Arsizio (Italy); Podhradska, A. [Milan University - Monza S. Gerardo Hospital, Milan (Italy); Rampino, M. [Turin University, Turin (Italy); Cante, D. [Treviglio Hospital, Treviglio (Italy); Gatta, R. [Brescia University, Istituto del Radio, Brescia (Italy); Prato Hospital, Prato (Italy); Magrini, S.M.

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate the outcomes with respect to long-term survival and toxicity in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated in a European country with low incidence. A prospective observational study carried out by the AIRO Head and Neck group in 12 Italian institutions included 136 consecutive patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) ± chemotherapy (CHT) for NPC (without distant metastasis) between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. The disease-specific survival (DSS), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years were 92 (±2), 91 (±3), and 69 % (±5 %), respectively. Distant failure was the most frequent modality of relapse. The local, regional, and locoregional control at 5 years were 89 (±3), 93 (±3), and 84 % (±4 %), respectively. The incidence of acute and late toxicity and the correlations with different clinical/technical variables were analyzed. Neoadjuvant CHT prolongs radiotherapy overall treatment time (OTT) and decreases treatment adherence during concomitant chemoradiotherapy. An adequate minimum dose coverage to PTV(T) is a predictive variable well related to outcome. Our data do not substantially differ in terms of survival and toxicity outcomes from those reported in larger series of patients treated in countries with higher incidences of NPC. The T stage (TNM 2002 UICC classification) is predictive of DSS and OS. The GTV volume (T ± N) and an adequate minimum PTV(T) coverage dose (D95 %) were also identified as potential predictive variables. Sophisticated technologies of dose delivery (IMRT) with image-guided radiotherapy could help to obtain better minimum PTV(T) coverage dose with increased DFS; distant metastasis after treatment still remains an unresolved issue. (orig.) [German] Bewertung von langfristigem Ueberleben und Toxizitaet bei Patienten mit Nasopharynxkarzinom (NPC), die in einem europaeischen Land mit geringer Inzidenz behandelt wurden. Die prospektive Beobachtungsanalyse, durchgefuehrt von der

  13. The origin of two X-class flares in active region NOAA 12673. Shear flows and head-on collision of new and preexisting flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Meetu

    2018-05-01

    Flare-prolific active region NOAA 12673 produced consecutive X2.2 and X9.3 flares on the 6 September 2017. To scrutinize the morphological, magnetic, and horizontal flow properties associated with these flares, a seven-hour time series was used consisting of continuum images, line-of-sight and vector magnetograms, and 1600 Å UV images. These data were acquired with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). The white-light flare emission differed for both flares, while the X2.2 flare displayed localized, confined flare kernels, the X9.3 flare exhibited a two-ribbon structure. In contrast, the excess UV emission exhibited a similar structure for both flares, but with larger areal extent for the X9.3 flare. These two flares represented a scenario in which the first confined flare acted as precursor, setting up the stage for the more extended flare. Difference maps for continuum and magnetograms revealed locations of significant changes, that is, penumbral decay and umbral strengthening. The curved magnetic polarity inversion line in the δ-spot was the fulcrum of most changes. Horizontal proper motions were computed using the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms (DAVE4VM). Persistent flow features included (1) strong shear flows along the polarity inversion line, where the negative, parasitic polarity tried to bypass the majority, positive-polarity part of the δ-spot in the north, (2) a group of positive-polarity spots, which moved around the δ-spot in the south, moving away from the δ-spot with significant horizontal flow speeds, and (3) intense moat flows partially surrounding the penumbra of several sunspots, which became weaker in regions with penumbral decay. The enhanced flare activity has its origin in the head-on collision of newly emerging flux with an already existing regular, α-spot. Umbral cores of emerging bipoles were incorporated in its penumbra, creating a δ-configuration with

  14. PRESERVATION PROBLEMS OF THE INDIGENOUS ETHNIC GROUPS INTELLECTUALS OF KHABAROVSK REGION IN THE 1990s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Evgeny M. Klimenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of intellectuals as social class, features of the national intellectuals, and the problems that national intellectuals of indigenous ethnic groups of Khabarovsk region came across with in the 1990s. These are the problems of preservation of national culture, national language, and difficulties, which have arisen in the sphere of getting national education by representatives of the autochthonic population. The article investigates the transformation process of national culture happening after the Soviet culture had changed into the global culture. When writing this paper the author used unpublished archival documentation. The research is made with assistance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the contract No. 14.Z56.16.5304-MK, a project subject: "Regional model of transformation of indigenous small ethnos culture in the conditions of socialist modernization of the Russian Far East in the second half of 1930-1970s".

  15. Head injuries in snowboarders compared with head injuries in skiers. A prospective analysis of 1076 patients from 1994 to 1999 in Niigata, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, O; Takaba, M; Saito, T; Endo, S

    2001-01-01

    We investigated snowboarding-related head injury cases and skiing-related head injury cases during five ski seasons at one resort area. There were 634 snowboarding-related head injuries and 442 skiing-related head injuries. The number of snowboarding head injuries increased rapidly over the study period. More male snowboarders than female snowboarders suffered head injuries. For both snowboarders and skiers, head injuries frequently occurred on the easy and middle slopes. Falls were the most frequent causes of injury in both groups. Jumping was a more frequent cause of injury in the snowboarders (30%) than in the skiers (2.5%). Injury to the occipital region predominated in the snowboarders as compared with the skiers. There were 49 organic lesions in 37 snowboarders and 46 organic lesions in 33 skiers. Subdural hematoma was frequent in the snowboarding head injury group, and fracture was frequent in the skiing head injury group compared with the snowboarding group (not significant). Subdural hematoma was likely to be caused by a fall rather than by a collision, and bone fracture was likely to be caused by a collision rather than by a fall. Four snowboarders and one skier died as a result of their head injuries. Our data suggest that snowboarding head injuries may be prevented by protection of the occipital region and refraining from jumping by beginners.

  16. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary: Outcomes of a pre-defined institutional treatment policy in a region with a high prevalence of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Michael; Panizza, Benedict; Bernard, Anne; Porceddu, Sandro V

    2018-02-01

    To determine the rate of subsequent primary site failure in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary (UKP HNSCC) in a region with a high prevalence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, according to a pre-determined institutional policy. Secondary aims included regional and distant control, and overall survival. Patients presenting between April 2005 and June 2016 to the Princess Alexandra Hospital Head and Neck Multidisciplinary Meeting with UKP HNSCC from either presumed mucosal or cutaneous sites treated with curative intent were eligible. Patients with presumed mucosal origin were treated with radiation therapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy, while patients with presumed cutaneous SCC were treated with surgery and post-operative RT with or without chemotherapy. A total of 63 patients met the inclusion criteria. Median follow up duration was 3.9 years (IQR 2.07-5.14). There were no subsequent primary site failures. The rate of nodal failure among presumed mucosal patients was 11.5%, and 8.1% among presumed cutaneous patients. The rate of distant metastatic failure was 11.1% among all patients. The estimated 5 year overall survival was 71.2% (95% CI 59.2-85.7%). Treatment according to our pre-defined institutional policy for UKP HNSCC in a region with a high prevalence of cutaneous SCC appears to be safe and effective with low rates of mucosal primary emergence and nodal failure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Roles of head group architecture and side chain length on colorimetric response of polydiacetylene vesicles to temperature, ethanol and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthai, Nipaphat; Pattanatornchai, Thanutpon; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2011-08-15

    In this contribution, we report the relationship between molecular structures of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles, fabricated by using three monomers, 10,12-tricosadiynoic acid (TCDA), 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) and N-(2-aminoethyl)pentacosa-10,12-diynamide (AEPCDA), and their color-transition behaviors. The modification of side chain length and head group of the PDA vesicles strongly affects the colorimetric response to temperature, ethanol and pH. A shorter side chain of poly(TCDA) yields weaker inter- and intra-chain dispersion interactions in the bilayers compared to the system of poly(PCDA), which in turn results in a faster color transition upon exposure to all stimuli. A change of head group in poly(AEPCDA) slightly reduces the transition temperature. Interestingly, the colorimetric response of poly(AEPCDA) vesicles to the addition of ethanol is found to occur in a two-step fashion while the response of poly(PCDA) vesicles takes place in a one-step process. The amount of ethanol required for inducing complete color-transition of poly(AEPCDA) vesicles is also much higher, about 87% v/v. The increase of pH to ~9 and ~10 causes a color-transition of poly(TCDA) and poly(PCDA) vesicles, respectively. The poly(AEPCDA) vesicles, on the other hand, change color upon decreasing pH to ~0. The colorimetric response also occurs in a multi-step fashion. These discrepancies are attributed to the architecture of surface layers of poly(AEPCDA), constituting amine and amide groups separated by ethyl linkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of a new mathematical model representing the head region of the adult human for use in internal dose calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facioli, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is presented a new mathematical model to determine the spatial distribution of the scattered radiation, or specific absorbed fractions, in the head of the adult man. The ALGAM computer code which calculates the internal dose from gamma-ray sources in a man phanton, was modified to include the model proposed. The new program was processed for two source organs: thyroid and brain for 12 incident photon energies ranging from 0.010 to 4.0 MeV. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Single season changes in resting state network power and the connectivity between regions distinguish head impact exposure level in high school and youth football players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugesan, Gowtham; Saghafi, Behrouz; Davenport, Elizabeth; Wagner, Ben; Urban, Jillian; Kelley, Mireille; Jones, Derek; Powers, Alex; Whitlow, Christopher; Stitzel, Joel; Maldjian, Joseph; Montillo, Albert

    2018-02-01

    The effect of repetitive sub-concussive head impact exposure in contact sports like American football on brain health is poorly understood, especially in the understudied populations of youth and high school players. These players, aged 9-18 years old may be particularly susceptible to impact exposure as their brains are undergoing rapid maturation. This study helps fill the void by quantifying the association between head impact exposure and functional connectivity, an important aspect of brain health measurable via resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI). The contributions of this paper are three fold. First, the data from two separate studies (youth and high school) are combined to form a high-powered analysis with 60 players. These players experience head acceleration within overlapping impact exposure making their combination particularly appropriate. Second, multiple features are extracted from rs-fMRI and tested for their association with impact exposure. One type of feature is the power spectral density decomposition of intrinsic, spatially distributed networks extracted via independent components analysis (ICA). Another feature type is the functional connectivity between brain regions known often associated with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Third, multiple supervised machine learning algorithms are evaluated for their stability and predictive accuracy in a low bias, nested cross-validation modeling framework. Each classifier predicts whether a player sustained low or high levels of head impact exposure. The nested cross validation reveals similarly high classification performance across the feature types, and the Support Vector, Extremely randomized trees, and Gradboost classifiers achieve F1-score up to 75%.

  20. 11C-methionine PET, a novel method for measuring regional salivary gland function after radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buus, Simon; Grau, Cai; Munk, Ole Lajord; Bender, Dirk; Jensen, Kenneth; Keiding, Susanne

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Loss of salivary gland function is a distressing side-effect of radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a positron emission tomography (PET) method for measuring regional salivary gland function in the major salivary glands irradiated during RT. Patients and methods: Eight head and neck cancer patients were included; two were examined before RT and six after parotid sparing RT. Patients were examined by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET of the major salivary glands and parotid gland salivary flow measurements. PET data were analysed using a kinetic model of salivary gland 11 C-methionine metabolism, in which salivary gland function was quantified by the net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine, K. Functional voxel-wise images of K were calculated and matched with the CT-dose-plan for comparing regional salivary gland function with the regional radiation dose. Results: Parotid gland K correlated positively with parotid gland salivary flow, indicating that K can be used as an index of salivary gland function. K of parotid and submandibular glands was reduced dependent on the median radiation dose. In one patient, receiving a heterogeneous radiation dose to the parotid glands, regional salivary gland function was inversely correlated to the regional radiation dose. Conclusions: Salivary gland function can be measured by dynamic 11 C-methionine PET. The net metabolic clearance of 11 C-methionine of salivary glands was reduced dependent on the radiation dose. Dynamic 11 C-methionine PET offers a method for studying the individual response of the major salivary glands to irradiation

  1. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of femoral head osteonecrosis in two groups of patients: Legg-Perthes-Calve and Avascular necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozel, Betul Duran; Ozel, Deniz; Ozkan, Fuat; Halefoglu, Ahmet M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in patients with osteonecrosis. Patients were divided into two subgroups as avascular necrosis (AVN) of femoral head for adult group and Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) patients for children. Seventeen patients with femoral head AVN (mean age 42.3 years) and 17 patients with LCP (mean age 8.2 years) were included in this study. Diagnosis confirmed with clinical and other imaging procedures among the patients complaining hip pain. DW images were obtained using the single-shot echo planar sequence and had b values of 0, 500, 1000 s/mm(2). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured from ADC maps in epiphysis of patients with AVN, both from metaphysis and epiphysis in patients with LCP, respectively. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare ADC values. The mean ADC value of femoral heads (1.285 ± 0.204 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) was increased in patients with AVN when compared to normal bone tissue (0.209 ± 0.214 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) (p < 0.01). The mean ADC values (×10(-3) mm(2)/s) of both metaphysis (0.852 ± 0.293) and epiphysis (0.843 ± 0.332) were also increased in patients with LCP and differences were statistically significant (p < 0.01). As a result, osteonecrosis shows increased ADC values. But it is a controversial concept that DWI offers a valuable data to conventional MRI or not. However, as there are report states, there is a correlation between the stage of the disease with ADC values in the LCP disease. DWI is a fast, without-contrast administration technique and provides quantitative values additional to conventional MR techniques; we believe DWI may play an additional assistance to the diagnosis and treatment for LCP patients. Multicentric larger group studies may provide additional data to this issue.

  2. A prospective comparison of times to presentation and treatment of regional and remote head and neck patients in North Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J Y-A; Otty, Z A; Vangaveti, V N; Buttner, P; Varma, S C; Joshi, A J; Kelly, J; Collins, M; Sabesan, S S

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to examine differences between outer regional (OR) and remote/very remote (RVR) patients in northern Queensland, Australia in the times taken to receive various aspects of head and neck cancer management. Our study prospectively recruited head and neck cancer patients presenting to three North Queensland regional hospitals from January 2009 to January 2011. Data on demographic and cancer-specific details, comorbidities and timing of presentation to various services, were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that included two questions in relation to possible reason for delays to health services. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the effects of various demographic characteristics on time delays. Survival and disease recurrence data were analysed in 2014. One hundred and fifty-eight patients participated. RVR patients had significantly longer median times between diagnosis and first treatment compared with OR patients (P = 0.015). Indigenous patients had significant delays from diagnosis to first treatment (P = 0.013) and visit to first specialist and treatment (P = 0.031) compared to non-Indigenous patients. Longer median times between symptoms and first treatment was associated with low income (P = 0.03) and lower education level (P = 0.04). Disease recurrence was higher for RVR patients compared with OR patients (P = 0.04), without significant differences in overall survival. Possible reasons for delays included patient and professional factors. Significant delays in various aspects of head and neck cancer management were associated with remoteness, Indigenous and socioeconomic status. While patient and professional factors could be addressed at local levels, sustainable improvement in outcomes requires a state and national level approach. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  3. MR diagnostics using Gd-DTPA in HIV-associated diseases in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, T.; Dresel, S.; Balzer, J.; Steger, W.; Lissner, J.; Riederer, A.

    1991-01-01

    In a prospective study 21 patients suffering from HIV-1 infection underwent MR imaging. The following tumours were found: eight Kaposi's sarcomas, four lymphomas, two squamous-cell carcinomas, and three cases of lymphatoid hyperplasia. Furthermore, three cases with lymphoepithelial cysts and one case of inflammatory changes of the parotid glands were studied. Optimal diagnostic results were obtained by using T 1 - and T 2 -weighted sequences plain and Gd-DTPA enhanced. Different signal intensities enabled the differentiation of lesions such as inflammation, lymphomas and lymphoid hyperplasia. Besides clinical examination modalities, MR imaging proves to be an important tool in investigating solid, cystic or imflamed processes in HIV-positive patients in the head and neck area. (orig.) [de

  4. Introducing navigation during melanoma-related sentinel lymph node procedures in the head-and-neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KleinJan, Gijs H; Karakullukçu, Baris; Klop, W Martin C; Engelen, Thijs; van den Berg, Nynke S; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B

    2017-08-17

    Intraoperative sentinel node (SN) identification in patients with head-and-neck malignancies can be challenging due to unexpected drainage patterns and anatomical complexity. Here, intraoperative navigation-based guidance technologies may provide outcome. In this study, gamma camera-based freehandSPECT was evaluated in combination with the hybrid tracer ICG- 99m Tc-nanocolloid. Eight patients with melanoma located in the head-and-neck area were included. Indocyanine green (ICG)- 99m Tc-nanocolloid was injected preoperatively, whereafter lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging were performed in order to define the location of the SN(s). FreehandSPECT scans were generated in the operation room using a portable gamma camera. For lesion localization during surgery, freehandSPECT scans were projected in an augmented reality video-view that was used to spatially position a gamma-ray detection probe. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging was used to confirm the accuracy of the navigation-based approach and identify the exact location of the SNs. Preoperatively, 15 SNs were identified, of which 14 were identified using freehandSPECT. Navigation towards these nodes using the freehandSPECT approach was successful in 13 nodes. Fluorescence imaging provided optical confirmation of the navigation accuracy in all patients. In addition, fluorescence imaging allowed for the identification of (clustered) SNs that could not be identified based on navigation alone. The use of gamma camera-based freehandSPECT aids intraoperative lesion identification and, with that, supports the transition from pre- to intraoperative imaging via augmented reality display and directional guidance.

  5. Global, regional and national consumption of major food groups in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micha, Renata; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Shi, Peilin

    2015-01-01

    combined these data with food balance sheets available in all nations and years. A hierarchical Bayesian model estimated mean food intake and associated uncertainty for each age-sex-country-year stratum, accounting for differences in intakes versus availability, survey methods and representativeness......OBJECTIVE: To quantify global intakes of key foods related to non-communicable diseases in adults by region (n=21), country (n=187), age and sex, in 1990 and 2010. DESIGN: We searched and obtained individual-level intake data in 16 age/sex groups worldwide from 266 surveys across 113 countries. We......, and sampling and modelling uncertainty. SETTING/POPULATION: Global adult population, by age, sex, country and time. RESULTS: In 2010, global fruit intake was 81.3 g/day (95% uncertainty interval 78.9-83.7), with country-specific intakes ranging from 19.2-325.1 g/day; in only 2 countries (representing 0...

  6. Soft skills: an important asset acquired from organizing regional student group activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills.

  7. Prevalence of hepatobiliary dysfunction in a regional group of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, V; Gluud, C; Schlichting, P

    1991-01-01

    A regional group of outpatients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, n = 396, and Crohn's disease, n = 125) was biochemically screened to estimate the prevalence of hepatobiliary dysfunction. Among the 396 patients with ulcerative colitis, 69 (17%; 95% confidence limits, 14...... primary sclerosing cholangitis, of whom two were primarily diagnosed; one patient had cholangiocarcinoma also primarily diagnosed; and two patients were found to have alcoholic hepatic damage. Among the 125 patients with Crohn's disease, 38 (30%; 95% confidence limits, 23-38%) had at least 1 abnormal...... the criteria for further evaluation as described above. One patient appeared to have epithelioid granuloma in the liver and one patient had alcoholic liver disease, whereas one patient refused further examination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  8. Report of the radiation group on radiation backgrounds and damage in the ISABELLE intersection regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludlam, T.; Kistiakowsky, V.; Toohig, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Radiation Group was charged to examine radiation aspects of the current ISABELLE design and the projected experimental arrangements. Some samples of questions to be addressed were: (1) how does the overall shielding design impact the experimental design, (2) what backgrounds might be expected from the proposed beam scraping, shaving, etc. schemes, (3) what are the radiation damage considerations for experimental electronics near the beam, and (4) what backgrounds might be expected in an experiment from operation of another experiment in the same or the adjacent intersection region. A review is given based on the ISABELLE Proposal, The Proceedings of the 1975 ISABELLE Summer Study, and the estimate of ISABELLE shielding requirements by Stevens and Thorndike

  9. Geology and associated mineral occurrences of the Araxa Group, Mossamedes Region, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, L.S.A.

    1984-01-01

    In the region of Mossamedes, State of Goias, Brazil, the Precambrian metamorphic rocks of the Araxa group were mapped at the scale of 1:25,000, with emphasis on stratigraphic, structural, petrographic and economic aspects. These metamorphites represent a continous stratigraphic sequence which, from bottom to top can be subdivided into five informal lithostratigraphic units: 1) psamitic unit (quartzite, metaconglomerate); 2) psamitic-pelitic unit (quartzite, quartz schist, muscovite schist); 3) lower pelitic - volcanic unit (chlorite - biotite schist, fine grained blastoporphyritic gneiss, amphibolite and calc-schist); 4) upper pelitic - volcanic unit (garnet muscovite schist, biotite schist and gneiss, amphibolite, magnetite muscovite schist); 5) gneissic unit (epidote biotite gneiss, amphibolite). Three types of meta-intrusive rocks were found, besides basic dykes related to Mesozoic magmatism. Four phases of deformation affected the volcano-sedimentary sequence;D 1 , D 2 , D 3 and D 4 , each of them developing distinct deformational features. Barrowian type metamorphism increases progressively from North to South from the biotite zone to the garnet zone (greenschist facies), reaching the staurolite-kyanite zone (amphibolite facies). The magmatism throughout the Group's evolution consists of mafic to felsic volcanic activity, mustly intermediary, as well as three intrusive events. Gold, copper and zinc minerals of economic interest occur within the studied area. The gold mineralizations are related to the pelitic-volcanic sequences. Copper occurs in several rocks from the pelitic-volcanic and gneissic sequences. (Author) [pt

  10. Radiation-induced caries as the late effect of radiation therapy in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Dobroś

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Overall improvement in the nationwide system of medical services has consequently boosted the number of successfully treated patients who suffer from head and neck cancer. It is essential to effectively prevent development of radiation-induced caries as the late effect of radiation therapy. Incidence and severity of radiation-induced changes within the teeth individually vary depending on the patient’s age, actual radiation dose, size of radiation exposure field, patient’s general condition and additional risk factors. Inadequately managed treatment of caries may lead to loss of teeth, as well as prove instrumental in tangibly diminishing individual quality of life in patients. Furthermore, the need to have the teeth deemed unyielding or unsuitable for the application of conservative methods of treatment duly extracted is fraught for a patient with an extra hazard of developing osteoradionecrosis (ORN, while also increasing all attendant therapeutic expenditures. The present paper aims to offer some practical insights into currently available methods of preventing likely development of radiation-induced caries.

  11. Dominant lymph drainage patterns in the occipital and parietal regions: evaluation of lymph nodes in patients with skin cancer of the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taku; Yamamoto, Yuhei; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Oyama, Akihiko; Funayama, Emi; Murao, Naoki; Hayashi, Toshihiko

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the superficial lymph drainage patterns of primary skin cancers of the head arising from the occipital or parietal region. The dominant patterns of lymph drainage were retrospectively reviewed in eight patients aged 36-85 years with skin cancers in the occipital or parietal region in whom sentinel lymph node biopsy or lymph node dissection had been performed at Hokkaido University Hospital between January 1981 and December 2015. Lymph drainage was mainly to the occipital (6/8, 75%), level II (5/8, 63%), and level V lymph nodes (5/8, 63%). Of the six patients with drainage to the occipital lymph nodes, four (67%) also had drainage to level V nodes. The dominant lymph drainage pattern in patients with skin cancer arising from the occipital or parietal region was to the occipital, level II, and level V lymph nodes. Further, lymph tended to drain directly from the occipital region to the level V lymph nodes.

  12. Faunal diversity of Fagus sylvatica forests: A regional and European perspective based on three indicator groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the postglacial history of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and the plant species composition of beech forests in  Central Europe are fairly well understood, the faunal biodiversity has been less well investigated. We studied three groups of  mostly sedentary organisms in beech forest at regional and European scales by combining field studies with a compilation of existing literature and expert knowledge. Specifically, we examined the relationship between host tree genera and saproxylic  beetles, and the diversity and composition of forest ground-dwelling molluscs and ground beetles in relation to the abundance  of beech. At a west central European scale (Germany, where beech has a “young” ecological and biogeographical history,  we found 48 primeval forest relict species of saproxylic beetles associated with beech, 124 ground beetles and 91 molluscs  inhabiting beech forest, yet none exclusive of west central European beech forests. High levels of faunal similarity between beech and other woodland trees suggested that many of the beech forest dwelling species are euryoecious and likely to  originate from mid-Holocene mixed broadleaf forests. Beech forests of the mountain ranges in southern and east central  Europe, which are ecologically and biogeographically “old”, were found to harbour distinct species assemblages, including  beech forest specialists (such as 10 carabid species in the Carpathians and narrow-range endemics of broadleaf forest. The  observed biodiversity patterns suggest differentiated conservation priorities in “young” and “old” European beech forest  regions.

  13. The UW 21/123 monoclonal antibody in the radioimmunological detection of tumour tissue in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, N.

    1987-01-01

    When incorporated in a radioimmunoassay the UW 21/123 the monoclonal antibody permits the diagnosis of certain squamous cell carcinoma of the cephalocervical region and is particularly reliable in the detection laryngeal carcinomas. It even permits the assessment of tumour cells that are not yet fully developed and thus still escape histological detection. (MBC) [de

  14. Distinct regions of loss of heterozygosity on 22q in different sites of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    dos Reis, Patricia Pintor; Poli-Frederico, Regina Célia; dos Santos, Rodrigo Mattos

    2002-01-01

    laryngeal, and 31 pharyngeal carcinomas. RESULTS: Two separate regions of LOH were identified in the laryngeal (22q11.2-12.1) and oral cavity (22q13.1-13.31) tumors. When the different anatomical sites were compared, a statistically significant difference was found between the presence of LOH at D22S421 (p......pharyngeal tumors and genes...

  15. Phospholipids chiral at phosphorus. Dramatic effects of phosphorus chirality on the deuterium NMR properties of the choline head group of phospholipids in the liquid crystalline phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffredo, W.M.; Jiang, Rutai; Tsai, Mingdaw

    1990-01-01

    To probe the motional and conformational propertis of the choline head group of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-thiophosphocholine (DPPsC), the R p , S p , and R p + S p isomers of [α-D 2 ]DPPsC, [β-D 2 ]DPPsC, and [δ-D 9 ]DPPsC in the subgel, gel, and liquid crystalline phases were investigated with deuterium NMR, and the results were compared with those of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) labeled at the same positions. In the subgel phase (5 degree C) all isomers of [α-D 2 ]DPPsC and [β-D 2 ]DPPsC displayed amorphous line shapes characteristic of a restricted and disordered motional environment, whereas [δ-D 9 ]DPPsC showed narrower and symmetric line shapes indicating substantial motions. For all three labeled positions the apparent line width of the R p isomer is larger than those of S p and R p + S p isomers, and the amorphous line shape of the R p isomer also persists at 25 and 35 degree C. These results indicate that the motional and conformational properties of the C α -C β segment of DPPsC is very sensitive to the configuration at phosphorus. Structurally, this provides strong support for noncovalent interactions between the quaternary ammonium group of choline and the phosphate group of a neighboring molecule in the bilayers of phosphatidylcholine and suggests that such interactions are important to the motion of the choline chain

  16. The upside of failure: how regional student groups learn from their mistakes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Success is the result of planning, hard work, determination, foresight, and a little bit of luck. Unfortunately, nobody has thought to pave the road to success. Although failure can be discouraging and time-consuming, it presents incredible learning opportunities-the biggest difference between those who succeed and those who abandon their projects lies in their response to adversity. This article reviews events undertaken by the Regional Student Groups (RSGs in India and Argentina, the problems they encountered, and what can be learned from them. RSG-India attempted to organize an online scientific meeting (also known as a virtual conference with geographically dispersed stakeholders, a totally new concept for them. RSG-Argentina tackled the challenge of organizing a two-day symposium, their first event ever. Some of the complications they faced were easy to fix, others led to the cancellation of activities, and all of them resulted in valuable lessons. The main goal of this article is to highlight, through their experiences, the universal importance of a healthy panel of contingency plans.

  17. Combining registration and active shape models for the automatic segmentation of the lymph node regions in head and neck CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Antong; Deeley, Matthew A.; Niermann, Kenneth J.; Moretti, Luigi; Dawant, Benoit M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the state of the art technique for head and neck cancer treatment. It requires precise delineation of the target to be treated and structures to be spared, which is currently done manually. The process is a time-consuming task of which the delineation of lymph node regions is often the longest step. Atlas-based delineation has been proposed as an alternative, but, in the authors' experience, this approach is not accurate enough for routine clinical use. Here, the authors improve atlas-based segmentation results obtained for level II-IV lymph node regions using an active shape model (ASM) approach. Methods: An average image volume was first created from a set of head and neck patient images with minimally enlarged nodes. The average image volume was then registered using affine, global, and local nonrigid transformations to the other volumes to establish a correspondence between surface points in the atlas and surface points in each of the other volumes. Once the correspondence was established, the ASMs were created for each node level. The models were then used to first constrain the results obtained with an atlas-based approach and then to iteratively refine the solution. Results: The method was evaluated through a leave-one-out experiment. The ASM- and atlas-based segmentations were compared to manual delineations via the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for volume overlap and the Euclidean distance between manual and automatic 3D surfaces. The mean DSC value obtained with the ASM-based approach is 10.7% higher than with the atlas-based approach; the mean and median surface errors were decreased by 13.6% and 12.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The ASM approach is effective in reducing segmentation errors in areas of low CT contrast where purely atlas-based methods are challenged. Statistical analysis shows that the improvements brought by this approach are significant.

  18. Novel Emergency Medicine Curriculum Utilizing Self-Directed Learning and the Flipped Classroom Method: Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat Emergencies Small Group Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This curriculum created and implemented at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center was designed to educate our emergency medicine (EM residents, PGY-1 to PGY-3, as well as medical students and attending physicians. Introduction: Head, Eyes, Ears, Nose and Throat (HEENT complaints are very commonly seen in the Emergency Department. Numbers vary as to exact prevalence, but sources show that there are about 2 million annual emergency department (ED visits in the United States for non-traumatic dental problems, representing 1.5% of all ED visits.1 Other sources show that symptoms referable to the throat encompass 2,496,000 visits or 1.9% of total visits.2 Notably, about 8% of the written exam in emergency medicine covers the topic of head and neck complaints, making it the second most tested topic behind cardiovascular.3 Residents must be proficient in the differential diagnosis and management of the wide variety of HEENT emergencies. The flipped classroom curricular model emphasizes self-directed learning activities completed by learners, followed by small group discussions pertaining to the topic reviewed. The active learning fostered by this curriculum increases faculty and learner engagement and interaction time typically absent in traditional lecture-based formats.4-6 Studies have revealed that the application of knowledge through case studies, personal interaction with content experts, and integrated questions are effective learning strategies for emergency medicine residents.6-8 The Ohio State University EM Residency didactic curriculum recently transitioned to a “flipped classroom” approach.9-13 We created this innovative curriculum aimed to improve our residency education program and to share educational resources with other EM residency programs. Our curriculum utilizes an 18-month curricular cycle to cover the defined emergency medicine content. The flipped classroom curriculum maximizes didactic time and resident

  19. Recovering function and surviving treatments are primary motivators for health behavior change in patients with head and neck cancer: Qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Melissa; Bdira, Ala; Cherba, Maria; Lambert, Sylvie; Carnevale, Franco A; MacDonald, Christina; Hier, Michael; Zeitouni, Anthony; Kost, Karen; Mlynarek, Alex; Black, Martin; Rosberger, Zeev; Frenkiel, Saul

    2016-08-01

    Against medical advice, head and neck cancer (HNC) patients have been shown to continue to smoke and misuse alcohol post-diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to better understand the barriers to and facilitators of health behavior change (HBC) in HNC patients. We conducted nine focus groups following a standard protocol. Eligible patients were diagnosed less than three years previously with a primary HNC and selected using maximum variability sampling (gender, age, cancer stage, smoking, and alcohol misuse). Thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10 software. Participants were mostly men (79%), 65 years of age (SD = 10.1), and married/common-law (52%, n = 15). Mean time from diagnosis was 19 months (SD = 12.3, range = 5.0-44.5), and most had advanced cancer (65.5%, n = 19). Participants provided a larger than anticipated definition of health behaviors, encompassing both traditional (smoking, drinking, diet, exercise, UV protection) and HNC-related (e.g., dental hygiene, skin care, speech exercises, using a PEG, gaining weight). The main emerging theme was patient engagement, that is, being proactive in rehabilitation, informed by the medical team, optimistic, flexible, and seeking support when needed. Patients were primarily motivated to stay proactive and engage in positive health behaviors in order to return to normal life and reclaim function, rather than to prevent a cancer recurrence. Barriers to patient engagement included emotional aspects (e.g., anxiety, depression, trauma, demoralization), symptoms (e.g., fatigue, pain), lack of information about HBC, and healthcare providers' authoritarian approach in counseling on HBC. We found some commonalities in barriers and facilitators according to behavior type (i.e., smoking/drinking/UV protection vs. diet/exercise). This study underlines the key challenges in addressing health behaviors in head and neck oncology, including treatment-related functional impairments, symptom burden, and the disease

  20. "The Kurds and the Role of Kurdistan Region in Developing Iraq" Where are Iraq and the Iraqi Kurds heading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anonymous, Student Author

    Iraq remains one of the hot topics in world politics today and probably more so in the coming decades, with its Kurds as an ever-evolving puzzle of the country's domestic stability and regional conflict. In modern history, the Kurds' resistance to "occupiers" of their region became more evident with the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, following which they were promised their independence. Due to reasons explained in Chapter One--with energy and oil being some of these reasons--this independence, however, led to nothing but fading ink on dusty paper. Since the Kurds were only partially assimilated into their host states, they were treated as though they had a status apart from the host state, yet the host state denied Kurdish efforts to achieve self-determination. In some cases, the host state denied the very existence of the Kurdish culture. This created an ambiguous situation in which Kurds variously saw themselves as nationals of their host states or as Kurds or as both. For the purpose of this thesis, attention will be given mainly to Iraqi Kurds and their struggle for the right to self-determination which they were finally able to achieve following the Gulf War in early 1990s, leading to the establishment of a regional Kurdish government in Northern Iraq (explained in Chapter Two). Chapter Three will focus on what some of the ways to mediate such disputes may be, including the introduction of renewable energy such as wind and solar energy. It will demonstrate how Iraq can take advantage of wind and solar energy as alternative means to oil, by which the country's economy can diversify, and the security situation and ecological conditions can improve. This thesis will further focus on some of the potential challenges in Iraq that may surface in the future, and whether the Kurds can play a role in stabilising the country by remaining part of it, and if so, what may be some of the responsibilities of the Arabs of Iraq in order to provide the required incentives to

  1. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. IX. THE LEO REGION H I CATALOG, GROUP MEMBERSHIP, AND THE H I MASS FUNCTION FOR THE LEO I GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Kent, Brian R.; Saintonge, Amelie; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the catalog of H I sources extracted from the ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic H I line survey, found within the sky region bounded by 9 h 36 m h 36 m and +08 0 0 . The H I catalog presented here for this 118 deg 2 region is combined with the ones derived from surrounding regions also covered by the ALFALFA survey to examine the large-scale structure in the complex Leo region. Because of the combination of wide sky coverage and superior sensitivity, spatial and spectral resolution, the ALFALFA H I catalog of the Leo region improves significantly on the numbers of low H I mass sources as compared with those found in previous H I surveys. The H I mass function of the Leo I group presented here is dominated by low-mass objects: 45 of the 65 Leo I members have M H I 8 M-odot, yielding tight constraints on the low-mass slope of the Leo I H I mass function. The best-fit slope is α ≅ -1.41 + 0.2 - 0.1. A direct comparison between the ALFALFA H I line detections and an optical search of the Leo I region proves the advantage of the ALFALFA strategy in finding low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs. These results suggest the existence of a significant population of low surface brightness, gas-rich, yet still very low H I mass galaxies, and may reflect the same type of morphological segregation as is seen in the Local Group. While the low-mass end slope of the Leo I H I mass function is steeper than that determined for luminosity functions of the group, the slope still falls short of the values predicted by simulations of structure formation in the lambda cold dark matter paradigm.

  2. Frequency Distribution of Blood Groups ABO, MN and Rh Factor in Philippine Cosmopolitan, Regional and the National Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Marian S. Guzman; Ricardo Noel R. Gervasio; Ian Kendrich C. Fontanilla; Ernelea P. Cao

    2009-01-01

    Frequency distribution of blood groups is important as it is used in modern medicine, genetic research, anthropology, and tracing ancestral relations of humans. Blood groups include the ABO, Rh and the MN red cell antigens. The frequency distribution of these three blood groups were obtained and assessed for differences from three populations: (1) a regional population from the town of Cabagan located in Isabela province; (2) a cosmopolitan population from the University of the Philippines’ r...

  3. Patterns of Recurrence in Electively Irradiated Lymph Node Regions After Definitive Accelerated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosch, Sven van den, E-mail: sven.vandenbosch@radboudumc.nl; Dijkema, Tim; Verhoef, Lia C.G.; Zwijnenburg, Ellen M.; Janssens, Geert O.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.

    2016-03-15

    Purpose: To provide a comprehensive risk assessment on the patterns of recurrence in electively irradiated lymph node regions after definitive radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Two hundred sixty-four patients with stage cT2-4N0-2M0 squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, larynx, or hypopharynx treated with accelerated intensity modulated radiation therapy between 2008 and 2012 were included. On the radiation therapy planning computed tomography (CT) scans from all patients, 1166 lymph nodes (short-axis diameter ≥5 mm) localized in the elective volume were identified and delineated. The exact sites of regional recurrences were reconstructed and projected on the initial radiation therapy planning CT scan by performing coregistration with diagnostic imaging of the recurrence. Results: The actuarial rate of recurrence in electively irradiated lymph node regions at 2 years was 5.1% (95% confidence interval 2.4%-7.8%). Volumetric analysis showed an increased risk of recurrence with increasing nodal volume. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated that the summed long- and short-axis diameter is a good alternative for laborious volume calculations, using ≥17 mm as cut-off (hazard ratio 17.8; 95% confidence interval 5.7-55.1; P<.001). Conclusions: An important risk factor was identified that can help clinicians in the pretreatment risk assessment of borderline-sized lymph nodes. Not overtly pathologic nodes with a summed diameter ≥17 mm may require a higher than elective radiation therapy dose. For low-risk elective regions (all nodes <17 mm), the safety of dose de-escalation below the traditional 45 to 50 Gy should be investigated.

  4. Computed Tomography of the Head and Neck Region for Tumor Staging-Comparison of Dual-Source, Dual-Energy and Low-Kilovolt, Single-Energy Acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Matthias Stefan; Bruegel, Joscha; Brand, Michael; Wiesmueller, Marco; Krauss, Bernhard; Allmendinger, Thomas; Uder, Michael; Wuest, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to intra-individually compare the image quality obtained by dual-source, dual-energy (DSDE) computed tomography (CT) examinations and different virtual monoenergetic reconstructions to a low single-energy (SE) scan. Third-generation DSDE-CT was performed in 49 patients with histologically proven malignant disease of the head and neck region. Weighted average images (WAIs) and virtual monoenergetic images (VMIs) for low (40 and 60 keV) and high (120 and 190 keV) energies were reconstructed. A second scan aligned to the jaw, covering the oral cavity, was performed for every patient to reduce artifacts caused by dental hardware using a SE-CT protocol with 70-kV tube voltages and matching radiation dose settings. Objective image quality was evaluated by calculating contrast-to-noise ratios. Subjective image quality was evaluated by experienced radiologists. Highest contrast-to-noise ratios for vessel and tumor attenuation were obtained in 40-keV VMI (all P image quality was also highest for 40-keV, but differences to 60-keV VMI, WAI, and 70-kV SE were nonsignificant (all P > 0.05). High kiloelectron volt VMIs reduce metal artifacts with only limited diagnostic impact because of insufficiency in case of severe dental hardware. CTDIvol did not differ significantly between both examination protocols (DSDE: 18.6 mGy; 70-kV SE: 19.4 mGy; P = 0.10). High overall image quality for tumor delineation in head and neck imaging were obtained with 40-keV VMI. However, 70-kV SE examinations are an alternative and modified projections aligned to the jaw are recommended in case of severe artifacts caused by dental hardware.

  5. Preliminary evaluation of the importance of existing hydraulic-head observation locations to advective-transport predictions, Death Valley regional flow system, California and Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.C.; Ely, D.M.; Tiedeman, C.R.; O'Brien, G.M.; D'Agnese, F.A.; Faunt, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    When a model is calibrated by nonlinear regression, calculated diagnostic statistics and measures of uncertainty provide a wealth of information about many aspects of the system. This report presents a method of ranking the likely importance of existing observation locations using measures of prediction uncertainty. It is suggested that continued monitoring is warranted at more important locations, and unwarranted or less warranted at less important locations. The report develops the methodology and then demonstrates it using the hydraulic-head observation locations of a three-layer model of the Death Valley regional flow system (DVRFS). The predictions of interest are subsurface transport from beneath Yucca Mountain and 14 underground Test Area (UGTA) sites. The advective component of transport is considered because it is the component most affected by the system dynamics represented by the regional-scale model being used. The problem is addressed using the capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey computer program MODFLOW-2000, with its ADVective-Travel Observation (ADV) Package, and an additional computer program developed for this work

  6. Effects of mining activities on the release of heavy metals(HMs) in the head water regions of the Heihe River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W., Sr.; Ma, R.; Sun, Z.; Bu, J.; Chang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    The head water regions of Heihe River were located in the Qilian orogenic belt, where belongs to the Qilian Mountains National Ecological Nature Protection and has fragile ecosystem. Previous surveys show that the regions were rich in various metal ores, and the mining activities have been intense.The environmental effect of mining activities will be going on several years, while Our field investigation show that there were 23 mines, of which 18 have been historical. This study collected water samples in main Heihe river and its tributaries, groundwaters and soil water, and the sediment samples near the ores. The concentration of HMs in both waters and sediments was measured for characterizing the spatial distribution of HMs, and determining the origin of the HMs in the river waters. Results of water quality assessment show that 67% of water samples failed to reach the Grade II environmental quality standard for surface water in China (GB3838-2002).The spatial distribution of HMs (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) is highly correlated with the geographical distribution of local mines, suggesting that various heavy metals(HMs) were released into the Heihe River via mining activities. The Be, Co, Sn, Bi, Th, U were mainly derived from aluminosilicate weathering crusts. And the acid mine wastewater was the main source for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd. The Serpentine wreathing was the main source for Cr and Ni. Mn and Cs were enriched by agricultural activities.

  7. Normalization in PET group comparison studies - The importance of a valid reference region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, Per; Jonsdottir, Kristjana Yr; Cumming, Paul

    2008-01-01

    : In healthy aging, CBF was shown to be unchanged in WM and central regions. In contrast, with normalization to the GM mean, CBF displayed positive correlation with age in the central regions. Very similar artifactual increases were seen in the HE comparison and also in the simulation experiment. CONCLUSION...

  8. ETHNOPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURAL PECULIARITIES IN SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING(a case study of ethnic groups of the Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E E Bocharova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data of the empirical study of the structural organization of ethnic groups subjective well-being on the territory of the Saratov Volga region conducted on proportionally selected samples ( N = 280, whose representatives identify themselves as Russians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Armenians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Kazakhs ( n = 70; village Alexandrov Ghay in the Saratov Region that borders on the West Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan with the ethnical composition represented primarily by Kazakhs, Tatars ( n = 70; village Yakovlevka in Bazarno-Karabulakskiy district of the Saratov Region with the Tatar dominant ethnical group, whose average age is 25.6 years old; SD = 9.7; sex ratio is female (52% and male (48%; respondents’ employment - 87%. It has been found that in contrast to the Russians, the sphere of social and socio-economic relations is the least “happy” area in the representatives of the Armenian, Kazakh, Tatar ethnic groups. The “happiest” is the sphere of family relations in the samples of Armenian, Kazakh and Tatar youth. The significant differences have been revealed in the structure of the subjective well-being both on the emotional and cognitive levels. A downward trend of the index of the subjective well-being of the ethnic groups from the remote areas of the region has been registered. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of ethno-national policy programmes of the Saratov region.

  9. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vordermark Dirk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT by sparing one single parotid gland. Methods Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (Dmean were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Results Patients were grouped according to the Dmean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - Dmean mean 26-40 Gy (n = 45, and group III - Dmean > 40 Gy (n = 36. 15/117 (13% patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the Dmean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (Dmean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p Conclusions If a Dmean mean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of parotid gland.

  10. Results of radiotherapy for cancer of head and neck region, 2. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Noriharu; Shinzato, Jintetsu; Watanabe, Keikichi; Habu, Kenjiro; Hirayama, Haruyuki

    1988-04-01

    From 1967 through 1985, 86 patients with cancer of the paranasal sinuses and 6 patients with cancer of the nasal cavity (excluding sarcoma) were treated by irradiation at the Department of Radiology, Kumamoto National Hospital. The mean age was 60.7. The rate of men to women was 1.2 : 1. The results were as follows ; 1) Fifty-nine patients (51 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 4 of ethmoid sinus carcinoma, and 4 of cancer of the nasal cavity) were treated with antrostomy followed by radiotherapy and regional arterial infusion of 5-fluorouracil alone or a combination of 5-fluorouracil and bleomycin. In 11 cases of these, salvage with total maxillectomy was performed and 10 % of which were controlled for more than five years. In 9 cases of these, no case was salvaged with radiotherapy. An overall five-year survival rate was 32 %. 2) The survival rate of the postoperative irradiation (11 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 1 of cancer of the nasal cavity) was 42 % at 2 and 4 years after the operations. 3) Twelve patients with cancer of the paranasal sinuses (11 cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma, 1 of ethmoid sinus carcinoma) survived more than five years. All of them were irradiated curatively with doses more than 40 Gy. In our series, there was no difference in long-term survival between 5-fluorouracil alone and a combination of 5-fluorouracil and bleomycin.

  11. Relationship between Ecological Species Groups and Environmental Factors (Case Study: Vezg Region in Southeast of Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aghaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In applied studies, identification and study of vegetation, for management and protection of natural ecosystems, are very important. This study was carried out in Vezg forest with an area of 308 hectares located in southeast of Yasouj city. The purpose of this study was to classify ecological species groups and survey their relation to soil physic-chemical properties and physiographic attributes. For this purpose, the field data were obtained using 52 sample plots (15m×30m in a systematic random grid. In each sample plot, the cover percentage of tree, shrub and grass species type were recorded, by using Braun-Blanquet method. The TWINSPAN method and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA were used for the definition of ecological species groups and determintion of the relationship between ecological species groups and environmental properties. Results showed that, there were four ecological species groups in the study area. The First group included: Anchusa italic-Quercus brantii, the second group: Heteranthelium piliferum-Avena clauda, the third group: Teucrium polium and the fourth group: Salvia reautreana. The first group was in an area, where there was a higher percentage of Persian oak litter. The second group was located in site a with higher grass cover than the site of other groups in the area. The third and fourth groups, were located in the higher elevation and steep points. Results of CCA showed that soil properties were not in significant relation with ecological species groups. But, the relationships of ecological species groups with other environmental factors such as litter, altitude, grass cover and slope were significant. So, we can conclude that these properties are effective in the separation and distribution of ecological groups.

  12. Latin America Regional Seminar 'Civil-Military Responses to Terrorism' Group Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Shemella, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Given the high degree of cultural continuity in the region, we recommend proposing a common definition of terrorism to guide national policy formulation for responding to terrorist activities. We further recommend...

  13. Security in the Asia-Pacific region. Report on working group 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Security in the Asia-Pacific region is highly dependent on nuclear weapons-proliferation which can be achieved in two steps: non-introduction of nuclear weapons by nuclear powers, and creation of nuclear-weapon-free zone. The causes and steps towards arms build-up in the region are discussed. On of the indispensable factors in improving the relations between the countries in the zone is creation of confidence building measures and a security forum

  14. Management of basic education for ethnic groups in highland and border regions of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phathombut Keawsomnuk

    2017-05-01

    The research findings revealed that the actors for advocacy policy in basic education for ethnic groups consist of: 1 the primary education service area, 2 community, 3 NGOs, 4 scholars, and 5 schools. This study indicated that the provision of basic education policy for ethnic groups must consist of knowledge from communities such as ethnic life styles integrated in the curriculum, and a special education mechanism and process for Thai ethnic groups, including facilitation of ethnic group participation in the abovementioned actors by various means.

  15. Hippocampal volumes in patients exposed to low-dose radiation to the basal brain. A case–control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Erik; Löfdahl, Elisabet; Malmgren, Helge; Eckerström, Carl; Berg, Gertrud; Borga, Magnus; Ekholm, Sven; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Ribbelin, Susanne; Starck, Göran; Wysocka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    An earlier study from our group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who had received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, with no signs of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, had their quality of life (QoL) compromised as compared with matched healthy controls. Hippocampal changes have been shown to accompany several psychiatric conditions and the aim of the present study was to test whether the patients’ lowered QoL was coupled to a reduction in hippocampal volume. Patients (11 men and 4 women, age 31–65) treated for head and neck cancer 4–10 years earlier and with no sign of recurrence or pituitary dysfunction, and 15 matched controls were included. The estimated radiation doses to the basal brain including the hippocampus (1.5 – 9.3 Gy) had been calculated in the earlier study. The hippocampal volumetry was done on coronal sections from a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Measurements were done by two independent raters, blinded to patients and controls, using a custom method for computer assisted manual segmentation. The volumes were normalized for intracranial volume which was also measured manually. The paired t test and Wilcoxon’s signed rank test were used for the main statistical analysis. There was no significant difference with respect to left, right or total hippocampal volume between patients and controls. All mean differences were close to zero, and the two-tailed 95% confidence interval for the difference in total, normalized volume does not include a larger than 8% deficit in the patients. The study gives solid evidence against the hypothesis that the patients’ lowered quality of life was due to a major reduction of hippocampal volume

  16. Testing the Neoclassical Migration Model: Overall and Age-Group Specific Results for German Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Reinkowski, Janina

    as for age-group specific estimates. Thereby, the impact of labor market signals is tested to be of greatest magnitude for workforce relevant age-groups and especially young cohorts between 18 to 25 and 25 to 30 years. This latter result underlines the prominent role played by labor market conditions...

  17. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, Jeremias; Setz, Juergen; Gerlach, Reinhard; Janich, Martin; Hildebrandt, Guido; Vordermark, Dirk; Gernhardt, Christian R; Kuhnt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by sparing one single parotid gland. Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (D mean ) were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Patients were grouped according to the D mean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - D mean < 26 Gy (n = 36), group II - D mean 26-40 Gy (n = 45), and group III - D mean > 40 Gy (n = 36). 15/117 (13%) patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the D mean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (D mean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p < 0.001). The relative salivary flow rates (RFSR) as a function of the mean parotid dose after 24 and 36 months was in group I 66% and 74%, in group II 56% and 49%, and in group III 31% and 24%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the parotid gland dose and the tumor site were the independent determinants 12 and 36 months after the end of RT. Patients of group I and II parotid gland function did recover at 12, 24, and 36 months after the end of RT. If a D mean < 26 Gy for at least one parotid gland can be achieved then this is sufficient to reach complete recovery of pre-RT salivary flow rates. The radiation volume which depends on tumor site did significantly impact on the D mean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of

  18. Head Lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nits. You should also use hot water to wash any bed linens, towels, and clothing recently worn by the person who had head lice. Vacuum anything that can’t be washed, such as the couch, carpets, your child’s car seat, and any stuffed animals. Because head lice ...

  19. Regional and Seasonal Differences in Species Composition and Trophic Groups for Tidepool Fishes of a Western Pacific Island – Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin K. C. Wen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations in the species composition of assemblages are common in many marine organisms, including fishes. Variations in the fish species composition of subtidal coral reefs have been well documented, however much less is known about such differences for intertidal fish assemblages. This is surprising, given that intertidal fishes are more vulnerable to terrestrial human disturbances. It is critical to evaluate the ecology and biology of intertidal fishes before they are severely impacted by coastal development, especially in developing countries such as those in the tropical western Pacific region where coastal development is rapidly increasing. In this study, we investigated the species composition, abundance, biomass and species number (richness for intertidal fish assemblages in subtropical (northern and tropical (southern Taiwan across four seasons by collecting fishes from tidepools using clove oil. We also examined the gut contents of collected fishes to identify their trophic functional groups in order to investigate regional and seasonal variations for different trophic groups. We found significant differences in the species composition of tidepool fish assemblages between subtropical and tropical Taiwan. Bathygobius fuscus, Abudefduf vaigiensis and Istiblennius dussumieri were dominant species in subtropical Taiwan, whereas Bathygobius coalitus, Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Istiblennius lineatus were dominant in tropical Taiwan. Other species such as Bathygobius cocosensis, Abudefduf sordidus and Istiblennius edentulus were common in both regions. For trophic groups, omnivores and detritivores had or showed trends towards higher species numbers and abundances in the subtropical region, whereas herbivores, planktivores and general carnivores had or showed trends towards higher species numbers and biomass in the tropical region. Overall, many intertidal fish species and trophic groups showed differences in

  20. Regional cooperation-activities of the working group on waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    A Working Group on Waste Management was formally established by the Pacific Basin Nuclear Cooperation Committee at its meeting on November 19, 1986. Co-chairmen are Dr. Kunihiko Uematsu of Japan and the author, Gordon L. Brooks of Canada. Since the Working Group is newly formed, a consensus program has not yet been developed. In lieu of this, the author suggests a series of basic issues and possible areas of future collaboration which could serve as a starting point for the Working Group in developing an appropriate cooperative program. (author)

  1. First clinical experience with a multiple region of interest registration and correction method in radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Suzanne van; Kranen, Simon van; Mencarelli, Angelo; Remeijer, Peter; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To discuss the first clinical experience with a multiple region of interest (mROI) registration and correction method for high-precision radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer patients. Materials and methods: 12-13 3D rectangular-shaped ROIs were automatically placed around bony structures on the planning CT scans (n = 50 patients) which were individually registered to subsequent CBCT scans. mROI registration was used to quantify global and local setup errors. The time required to perform the mROI registration was compared with that of a previously used single-ROI method. The number of scans with residual local setup error exceeding 5 mm/5 deg. (warnings) was scored together with the frequency ROIs exceeding these limits for three or more consecutive imaging fractions (systematic errors). Results: In 40% of the CBCT scans, one or more ROI-registrations exceeded the 5 mm/5 deg.. Most warnings were seen in ROI 'hyoid', 31% of the rotation warnings and 14% of the translation warnings. Systematic errors lead to 52 consults of the treating physician. The preparation and registration time was similar for both registration methods. Conclusions: The mROI registration method is easy to use with little extra workload, provides additional information on local setup errors, and helps to select patients for re-planning.

  2. Quantitative dose-volume response analysis of changes in parotid gland function after radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesink, Judith M.; Moerland, Marinus A.; Battermann, Jan J.; Hordijk, Gerrit Jan; Terhaard, Chris H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To study the radiation tolerance of the parotid glands as a function of dose and volume irradiated. Methods and Materials: One hundred eight patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various malignancies in the head-and-neck region were prospectively evaluated. Stimulated parotid flow rate was measured before radiotherapy and 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after radiotherapy. Parotid gland dose-volume histograms were derived from CT-based treatment planning. The normal tissue complication probability model proposed by Lyman was fit to the data. A complication was defined as stimulated parotid flow rate 50 (the dose to the whole organ leading to a complication probability of 50%) was found to be 31, 35, and 39 Gy at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year postradiotherapy, respectively. The volume dependency parameter n was around 1, which means that the mean parotid dose correlates best with the observed complications. There was no steep dose-response curve (m=0.45 at 1 year postradiotherapy). Conclusions: This study on dose/volume/parotid gland function relationships revealed a linear correlation between postradiotherapy flow ratio and parotid gland dose and a strong volume dependency. No threshold dose was found. Recovery of parotid gland function was shown at 6 months and 1 year after radiotherapy. In radiation planning, attempts should be made to achieve a mean parotid gland dose at least below 39 Gy (leading to a complication probability of 50%)

  3. Intraindividual comparison of two different skin care conceptions in patients undergoing radiotherapy of the head-and-neck region. Creme or powder?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, U.; Paulsen, F.; Bamberg, M.; Budach, W.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: This study evaluated for the first time in intraindividual comparison the conception of care with creme or powder. Acute skin reactions on the left and right side of the neck during symmetrically performed radiotherapy and subjective impairment were assessed. Patients and Methods: Twelve patients receiving radiotherapy of the head-and-neck region up to 50, 60, 66 and 72 Gy, respectively, were asked to treat one side of the neck with creme, the contralateral side with powder after random assignment. Objective and subjective assessment and photodocumentation were performed at therapy onset and weekly during therapy. The photodocumentation provides an impressive course of acute skin reactions under these care concepts. Results: Altogether we saw no relevant difference in favor of care with creme or powder according to objective as well as subjective assessment criteria (Figures 2 and 3). In this intraindividual comparison the results are independent from interindividual different sensitivity to radiotherapy, total dose or fractionation. Therefore the small patient number is a minor limitation for evidence. Our results are in accordance to trials comparing other care concepts. Conclusions: A relevant effect concerning onset and degree of acute skin reactions or differences in symptom relief could not be demonstrated. Both conceptions are to be regarded equal in terms of subjective symptom relief and in extent of acute skin reactions. The lack of differences may be explained by the fact that the underlying pathophysiological processes cannot be influenced by topical agents. (orig.)

  4. Predictive factors of local-regional recurrences following parotid sparing intensity modulated or 3D conformal radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Mary; Jabbari, Siavash; Lin, Alexander; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Worden, Francis P.; Tsien, Christina; Schipper, Matthew J.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Dawson, Laura A.; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Predictive factors for local-regional (LR) failures after parotid-sparing, Intensity modulated (IMRT) or 3D conformal radiotherapy for head and neck (HN) cancers were assessed. Patients and methods: One hundred and fifty-eight patients with mostly stages III-IV HN squamous cell carcinoma underwent curative bilateral neck irradiation aimed at sparing the parotid glands. Patient, tumor, and treatment factors were analyzed as predictive factors for LR failure. Results: Twenty-three patients had LR recurrence (19 in-field and four marginal). No differences were found in the doses delivered to the PTVs of patients with or without in-field recurrences. In univariate analysis, tumor site was highly predictive for LR failure in both postoperative and definitive RT patients. In postoperative RT patients, pathologic tumor size, margin status, extracapsular extension (ECE) and number of lymph node metastases, were also significantly predictive. Multivariate analysis showed tumor site (oropharynx vs. other sites) to be a significant predictor in all patients, and involved margins and number of involved lymph nodes in postoperative patients. Conclusions: Clinical rather than dosimetric factors predicted for LR failures in this series, and were similar to those reported following standard RT. These factors may aid in the selection of patients for studies of treatment intensification using IMRT

  5. Vitronectin Binds to a Specific Stretch within the Head Region of Yersinia Adhesin A and Thereby Modulates Yersinia enterocolitica Host Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlenkamp, Melanie C; Hallström, Teresia; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Bohn, Erwin; Linke, Dirk; Rinker, Janina; Riesbeck, Kristian; Singh, Birendra; Leo, Jack C; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Zipfel, Peter F; Schütz, Monika S

    2017-01-01

    Complement resistance is an important virulence trait of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye). The predominant virulence factor expressed by Ye is Yersinia adhesin A (YadA), which enables bacterial attachment to host cells and extracellular matrix and additionally allows the acquisition of soluble serum factors. The serum glycoprotein vitronectin (Vn) acts as an inhibitory regulator of the terminal complement complex by inhibiting the lytic pore formation. Here, we show YadA-mediated direct interaction of Ye with Vn and investigated the role of this Vn binding during mouse infection in vivo. Using different Yersinia strains, we identified a short stretch in the YadA head domain of Ye O:9 E40, similar to the 'uptake region' of Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII YadA, as crucial for efficient Vn binding. Using recombinant fragments of Vn, we found the C-terminal part of Vn, including heparin-binding domain 3, to be responsible for binding to YadA. Moreover, we found that Vn bound to the bacterial surface is still functionally active and thus inhibits C5b-9 formation. In a mouse infection model, we demonstrate that Vn reduces complement-mediated killing of Ye O:9 E40 and, thus, improved bacterial survival. Taken together, these findings show that YadA-mediated Vn binding influences Ye pathogenesis. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Measurements and modeling of absorption by CO2 + H2O mixtures in the spectral region beyond the CO2 ν3-band head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H.; Turbet, M.; Chelin, P.; Landsheere, X.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we measured the absorption by CO2 + H2O mixtures from 2400 to 2600 cm-1 which corresponds to the spectral region beyond the ν3 band head of CO2. Transmission spectra of CO2 mixed with water vapor were recorded with a high-resolution Fourier-transform spectrometer for various pressure, temperature and concentration conditions. The continuum absorption by CO2 due to the presence of water vapor was determined by subtracting from measured spectra the contribution of local lines of both species, that of the continuum of pure CO2 as well as of the self- and CO2-continua of water vapor induced by the H2O-H2O and H2O-CO2 interactions. The obtained results are in very good agreement with the unique previous measurement (in a narrower spectral range). They confirm that the H2O-continuum of CO2 is significantly larger than that observed for pure CO2. This continuum thus must be taken into account in radiative transfer calculations for media involving CO2+ H2O mixture. An empirical model, using sub-Lorentzian line shapes based on some temperature-dependent correction factors χ is proposed which enables an accurate description of the experimental results.

  7. Dominant region: a basic feature for group motion analysis and its application to teamwork evaluation in soccer games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-12-01

    This paper proposes a basic feature for quantitative measurement and evaluation of group behavior of persons. This feature called 'dominant region' is a kind of sphere of influence for each person in the group. The dominant region is defined as a region in where the person can arrive earlier than any other persons and can be formulated as Voronoi region modified by replacing the distance function with a time function. This time function is calculated based on a computational model of moving ability of the person. As an application of the dominant region, we present a motion analysis system of soccer games. The purpose of this system is to evaluate the teamwork quantitatively based on movement of all the players in the game. From experiments using motion pictures of actual games, it is suggested that the proposed feature is useful for measurement and evaluation of group behavior in team sports. This basic feature may be applied to other team ball games, such as American football, basketball, handball and water polo.

  8. SU-E-T-570: Management of Radiation Oncology Patients with Cochlear Implant and Other Bionic Devices in the Brain and Head and Neck Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, F.Q; Chen, Z; Nath, R [Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Yale UniversitySchool of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate the current status of clinical usage of cochlear implant (CI) and other bionic devices (BD) in the brain and head and neck regions (BH and N) and their management in patients during radiotherapy to ensure patient health and safety as well as optimum radiation delivery. Methods: Literature review was performed with both CIs and radiotherapy and their variants as keywords in PubMed, INSPEC and other sources. The focus was on CIs during radiotherapy, but it also included other BDs in BHȦN, such as auditory brainstem implant, bionic retinal implant, and hearing aids, among others. Results: Interactions between CIs and radiation may cause CIs malfunction. The presence of CIs may also cause suboptimum dose distribution if a treatment plan was not well designed. A few studies were performed for the hearing functions of CIs under irradiations of 4 MV and 6 MV x-rays. However, x-rays with higher energies (10 to 18 MV) broadly used in radiotherapy have not been explored. These higher energetic beams are more damaging to electronics due to strong penetrating power and also due to neutrons generated in the treatment process. Modern CIs are designed with more and more complicated integrated circuits, which may be more susceptible to radiation damage and malfunction. Therefore, careful management is important for safety and treatment outcomes. Conclusion: Although AAPM TG-34, TG-63, and TG-203 (update of TG-34, not published yet) reports may be referenced for management of CIs and other BDs in the brain and H and N regions, a site- and device-specified guideline should be developed for CIs and other BDs. Additional evaluation of CI functions under clinically relevant set-ups should also be performed to provide clinicians with better knowledge in clinical decision making.

  9. A randomised trial of accelerated and conventional radiotherapy for stage III and IV squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: a Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Michael G.; Denham, James W.; Peters, Lester J.; Lamb, David S.; Spry, Nigel A.; Hindley, Andrew; Krawitz, Hedley; Hamilton, Chris; Keller, Jacqui; Tripcony, Lee; Walker, Quenten

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this randomized controlled trial were to determine whether there were differences in the disease-free survival (DFS) and toxicity between conventional radiotherapy (CRT) and a continuous 3 week accelerated radiotherapy regimen (ART) in stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx. Patients and methods: Patients from 14 centres throughout Australia and New Zealand were randomly assigned to either CRT, using a single 2 Gy/day to a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions in 49 days or to ART, using 1.8 Gy twice a day to a dose of 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions in 24 days. Treatment allocation was stratified for site and stage. The accrual began in 1991 and the trial was closed in 1998 when the target of 350 patients was reached. Results: The median potential follow-up time was 53 months (range, 14-101). The DFS at 5 years was 41% (95% CI, 33-50%) for ART and 35% (95% CI, 27-43%) for CRT (P=0.323) and the hazard ratio was 0.87 in favour of ART (95% CI, 0.66-1.15). The 5-year disease-specific survival rates were 40% for CRT and 46% for ART (P=0.398) and the loco-regional control was 47% for CRT vs. 52% for ART (P=0.300). The respective hazard ratios were 0.88 (95% CI, 0.65-1.2) and 0.85 (0.62-1.16), favouring the accelerated arm. In the ART arm, confluent mucositis was more severe (94 vs. 71%; P<0.001) and peaked about 3 weeks earlier than in the CRT arm, but healing appeared complete in all cases. There were statistically significant reductions in the probability of grade 2 or greater late soft tissue effects over time in the ART arm (P<0.05), except for the mucous membrane where late effects were similar in both arms. Conclusions: Differences in DFS, disease-specific survival and loco-regional control have not been demonstrated. ART resulted in more acute mucosal toxicity, but this did not result in greater prolongation of the treatment time compared with the CRT arm. There were less late effects in the ART arm

  10. Anomalous carrier life-time relaxation mediated by head group interaction in surface anchored MnSe quantum dots conjugated with albumin proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarma, Runjun; Mohanta, Dambarudhar, E-mail: best@tezu.ernet.in

    2017-02-01

    We report on the radiative emission decay dynamics of a less known, γ-phase manganese selenide quantum dot system (MnSe QDs) subjected to bio-functionalization. A short-ligand thioglycolic acid (TGA), and a long-chain sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) surfactants were used as surface anchors prior bioconjugation with albumin proteins (BSA). Time resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectra of the QDs have revealed bi-exponential decay trends with the fast (τ{sub 1}) and slow (τ{sub 2}) decay parameters assigned to the core state recombination and surface trapped excitons; respectively. The average lifetime (τ{sub avg}) was found to get shortened from a value of ∼0.87 ns–0.72 ns in unconjugated and BSA conjugated MnSe-TGA QDs; respectively. Conversely, MnSe-SDS QDs with BSA conjugation exhibited nearly four-fold enhancement of τ{sub avg} with respect to its unconjugated counterpart. Moreover, a considerable amount of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) was found to occur from the TGA coated MnSe QDs to BSA and with an ensuing efficiency of ∼61%. The origin of anomalous carrier life-time relaxation features has also been encountered through a simplified model as regards head group interaction experienced by the MnSe QDs with different surfactant types. Exploiting luminescence decay characteristics of a magneto-fluorescent candidate could find immense scope in diverse biological applications including assays, labeling and imaging. - Highlights: • Surface anchored manganese selenide quantum dots (MnSe QDs) have been synthesized via a physico-chemical reduction route. • Time resolved luminescence spectra of the QDs have displayed bi-exponential decay trend. • Thioglycolic acid (TGA) coated QDs exhibited shorter lifetime as compared to sodium dodecyl sulfo-succinate (SDS) coated ones. • Upon BSA conjugation, the average life time is four-fold enhanced in MnSe-SDS QDs. • An efficient FRET process has been revealed in BSA conjugated TGA coated MnSe QDs.

  11. Some reciprocity-like relations in multi-group neutron diffusion and transport theory over bare homogeneous regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Some simple reciprocity-like relations that exist in multi-group neutron diffusion and transport theory over bare homogeneous regions are presented. These relations do not involve the adjoint solutions and are directly related to numerical schemes based on an explicit evaluation of the fission matrix. (author)

  12. Overexpression of cyclin D1 correlates with recurrence in a group of forty-seven operable squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michalides, R.; van Veelen, N.; Hart, A.; Loftus, B.; Wientjens, E.; Balm, A.

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the prognostic significance of overexpression of cyclin D1 in 47 patients with surgically resected squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was detected immunohistochemically using an affinity-purified polyclonal antibody directed against the

  13. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…

  14. Automatic Feature Selection and Weighting for the Formation of Homogeneous Groups for Regional Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) Curve Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z.; Burn, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events can have devastating impacts on society. To quantify the associated risk, the IDF curve has been used to provide the essential rainfall-related information for urban planning. However, the recent changes in the rainfall climatology caused by climate change and urbanization have made the estimates provided by the traditional regional IDF approach increasingly inaccurate. This inaccuracy is mainly caused by two problems: 1) The ineffective choice of similarity indicators for the formation of a homogeneous group at different regions; and 2) An inadequate number of stations in the pooling group that does not adequately reflect the optimal balance between group size and group homogeneity or achieve the lowest uncertainty in the rainfall quantiles estimates. For the first issue, to consider the temporal difference among different meteorological and topographic indicators, a three-layer design is proposed based on three stages in the extreme rainfall formation: cloud formation, rainfall generation and change of rainfall intensity above urban surface. During the process, the impacts from climate change and urbanization are considered through the inclusion of potential relevant features at each layer. Then to consider spatial difference of similarity indicators for the homogeneous group formation at various regions, an automatic feature selection and weighting algorithm, specifically the hybrid searching algorithm of Tabu search, Lagrange Multiplier and Fuzzy C-means Clustering, is used to select the optimal combination of features for the potential optimal homogenous groups formation at a specific region. For the second issue, to compare the uncertainty of rainfall quantile estimates among potential groups, the two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test-based sample ranking process is used. During the process, linear programming is used to rank these groups based on the confidence intervals of the quantile estimates. The proposed methodology fills the gap

  15. Parotid gland-recovery after radiotherapy in the head and neck region - 36 months follow-up of a prospective clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the recovery potential of the parotid glands after using either 3D-conformal-radiotherapy (3D-CRT) or intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) by sparing one single parotid gland. Methods Between 06/2002 and 10/2008, 117 patients with head and neck cancer were included in this prospective, non-randomised clinical study. All patients were treated with curative intent. Salivary gland function was assessed by measuring stimulated salivary flow at the beginning, during and at the end of radiotherapy as well as 1, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after treatment. Measurements were converted to flow rates and normalized relative to rates before treatment. Mean doses (Dmean) were calculated from dose-volume histograms based on computed tomographies of the parotid glands. Results Patients were grouped according to the Dmean of the spared parotid gland having the lowest radiation exposure: Group I - Dmean 40 Gy (n = 36). 15/117 (13%) patients received IMRT. By using IMRT as compared to 3D-CRT the Dmean of the spared parotid gland could be significantly reduced (Dmean IMRT vs. 3D-CRT: 21.7 vs. 34.4 Gy, p < 0.001). The relative salivary flow rates (RFSR) as a function of the mean parotid dose after 24 and 36 months was in group I 66% and 74%, in group II 56% and 49%, and in group III 31% and 24%, respectively. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the parotid gland dose and the tumor site were the independent determinants 12 and 36 months after the end of RT. Patients of group I and II parotid gland function did recover at 12, 24, and 36 months after the end of RT. Conclusions If a Dmean < 26 Gy for at least one parotid gland can be achieved then this is sufficient to reach complete recovery of pre-RT salivary flow rates. The radiation volume which depends on tumor site did significantly impact on the Dmean of the parotids, and thus on the saliva flow and recovery of parotid gland. PMID:21951317

  16. Clinical impact of genetic variants of drug transporters in different ethnic groups within and across regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Chiho; Kikkawa, Hironori; Suzuki, Akiyuki; Suzuki, Misaki; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Ichikawa, Katsuomi; Fukae, Masato; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2013-11-01

    Drug transporters, together with drug metabolic enzymes, are major determinants of drug disposition and are known to alter the response to many commonly used drugs. Substantial frequency differences for known variants exist across geographic regions for certain drug transporters. To deliver efficacious medicine with the right dose for each patient, it is important to understand the contribution of genetic variants for drug transporters. Recently, mutual pharmacokinetic data usage among Asian regions, which are thought to be relatively similar in their own genetic background, is expected to accelerate new drug applications and reduce developmental costs. Polymorphisms of drug transporters could be key factors to be considered in implementing multiethnic global clinical trials. This review addresses the current knowledge on genetic variations of major drug transporters affecting drug disposition, efficacy and toxicity, focusing on the east Asian populations, and provides insights into future directions for precision medicine and drug development in east Asia.

  17. Confidence-building in the Asia-Pacific region. Report of working group II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, J.

    1992-01-01

    Detailed presentations of South and North Korea offers positive evaluation concerning bilateral agreements, which aim both reconciliation between the two states and denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. Consideration was given to confidence building measures in the Asia-Pacific region as a whole as well as to the progress made in introducing such measures in various Subregions of Asia-Pacific. The concept of confidence building actually implies a two-part agenda, particular procedures and general process

  18. MICROX-2: an improved two-region flux spectrum code for the efficient calculation of group cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, D.; Koch, P.

    1979-12-01

    The MICROX-2 code is an improved version of the MICROX code. The improvements allow MICROX-2 to be used for the efficient and rigorous preparation of broad group neutron cross sections for poorly moderated systems such as fast breeder reactors in addition to the well moderated thermal reactors for which MICROX was designed. MICROX-2 is an integral transport theory code which solves the neutron slowing down and thermalization equations on a detailed energy grid for two-region lattice cells. The fluxes in the two regions are coupled by transport corrected collision probabilities. The inner region may include two different types of grains (particles). Neutron leakage effects are treated by performing B 1 slowing down and P 0 plus DB 2 thermalization calculations in each region. Cell averaged diffusion coefficients are prepared with the Benoist cell homogenization prescription

  19. Dynamics of industrial districts and business groups. The case of the Marche region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randelli, F.; Boschma, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Italian industrial districts are undergoing fundamental changes due to globalization. Taking a firm perspective, we argue that the analysis of firm strategies, in particular the rise of business groups, is key to understand the organizational adjustments industrial districts have recently gone

  20. A Regional Collaboration for Educational and Career Mobility: The Nursing Education Mobility Action Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolince, Patricia; Giesser, Nancy; Greig, Judith; Knittel, Kathleen; Mahowald, Jane F.; McAloney-Madden, Lisa; Schloss, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    A collaborative group of 25 Northeast Ohio nursing deans/directors has developed an access model to provide new education and career mobility pathways into nursing. Model components describe the routes of licensed practical nurse to registered nurse and registered nurse to bachelor of science in nursing. Cost effectiveness and equity are…

  1. Head and neck region consolidation radiotherapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation with hippocampal avoidance delivered with helical tomotherapy after induction chemotherapy for non-sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma of the upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, Pierfrancesco; La Porta, Maria Rosa; Girelli, Giuseppe; Borca, Valeria Casanova; Pasquino, Massimo; Tofani, Santi; Ozzello, Franca; Ricardi, Umberto; Numico, Gianmauro; Migliaccio, Fernanda; Catuzzo, Paola; Cante, Domenico; Ceroni, Paola; Sciacero, Piera; Carassai, Pierpaolo; Canzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Non-sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas (NSNECs) of the head and neck are considered an unfrequent clinico-pathological entity. Combined modality treatment represents an established therapeutic option for undifferentiated forms where distant metastasis is a common pattern of failure. We report on a case of NSNEC treated with sequential chemo-radiation consisting of 6 cycles of cisplatin and etoposide followed by loco-regional radiation to the head and neck and simultaneous prophylactic cranial irradiation to prevent from intracranial spread, delivered with helical tomotherapy with the 'hippocampal avoidance' technique in order to reduce neuro-cognitive late effects. One year after the end of the whole combined modality approach, the patient achieved complete remission, with no treatment-related sub-acute and late effects. The present report highlights the importance of multidisciplinary management for NSNECs of the head and neck, as the possibility to achieve substantial cure rates with mild side effects with modern radiotherapy techniques

  2. Vowel change across three age groups of speakers in three regional varieties of American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A.; Salmons, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    This acoustic study examines sound (vowel) change in apparent time across three successive generations of 123 adult female speakers ranging in age from 20 to 65 years old, representing three regional varieties of American English, typical of western North Carolina, central Ohio and southeastern Wisconsin. A set of acoustic measures characterized the dynamic nature of formant trajectories, the amount of spectral change over the course of vowel duration and the position of the spectral centroid. The study found a set of systematic changes to /I, ε, æ/ including positional changes in the acoustic space (mostly lowering of the vowels) and significant variation in formant dynamics (increased monophthongization). This common sound change is evident in both emphatic (articulated clearly) and nonemphatic (casual) productions and occurs regardless of dialect-specific vowel dispersions in the vowel space. The cross-generational and cross-dialectal patterns of variation found here support an earlier report by Jacewicz, Fox, and Salmons (2011) which found this recent development in these three dialect regions in isolated citation-form words. While confirming the new North American Shift in different styles of production, the study underscores the importance of addressing the stress-related variation in vowel production in a careful and valid assessment of sound change. PMID:22125350

  3. A proposal for Rio Blanco region. Case scenarios for training and group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This supplement to "The Family Planning Manager" presents a case example and four related discussion questions to advance administrative staff's ability to prepare a pilot project proposal and budget. In the hypothetical scenario, the Ministry of Health has requested proposals for projects from each region that would increase contraceptive prevalence and reduce discontinuation by a national average of 15%. Outlined, in this document, is a two-year project that would use outreach workers to visit the homes of recent discontinuers and attempt to understand their concerns. The goal was to improve the health of mothers and children in the region by reducing the discontinuation rate among first-time users of contraceptives, while the objective was to reduce the discontinuation rate among first-time users from 27% to 15% by the end of the project. Also developed is a budget for the first year of the project that itemizes expenditures for salaries and wages, benefits, fees, general administration, travel and associated expenses, supplies and equipment, purchased services, and education and training. Finally, the supplement presents a sample summary sheet for the proposed project.

  4. Vowel change across three age groups of speakers in three regional varieties of American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A; Salmons, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    This acoustic study examines sound (vowel) change in apparent time across three successive generations of 123 adult female speakers ranging in age from 20 to 65 years old, representing three regional varieties of American English, typical of western North Carolina, central Ohio and southeastern Wisconsin. A set of acoustic measures characterized the dynamic nature of formant trajectories, the amount of spectral change over the course of vowel duration and the position of the spectral centroid. The study found a set of systematic changes to /I, ε, æ/ including positional changes in the acoustic space (mostly lowering of the vowels) and significant variation in formant dynamics (increased monophthongization). This common sound change is evident in both emphatic (articulated clearly) and nonemphatic (casual) productions and occurs regardless of dialect-specific vowel dispersions in the vowel space. The cross-generational and cross-dialectal patterns of variation found here support an earlier report by Jacewicz, Fox, and Salmons (2011) which found this recent development in these three dialect regions in isolated citation-form words. While confirming the new North American Shift in different styles of production, the study underscores the importance of addressing the stress-related variation in vowel production in a careful and valid assessment of sound change.

  5. DAHANCA 10 – Effect of darbepoetin alfa and radiotherapy in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. A multicenter, open-label, randomized, phase 3 trial by the Danish head and neck cancer group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jens; Hoff, Camilla Molich; Hansen, Hanne Sand

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if correction of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels by means of darbepoetin alfa improves the outcomes of radiotherapy in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). Patients and methods: Patients eligible for primary radiotherapy and who had Hb values below 14.......0 g/dl were randomized to receive accelerated fractionated radiotherapy with or without darbepoetin alfa. Patients also received the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole. Darbepoetin alfa was given weekly during radiotherapy or until the Hb value exceeded 15.5 g/dl. Results: Following a planned interim...... distributed according to the stratification parameters (gender, T and N staging, tumor site). Treatment with darbepoetin alfa increased the Hb level to the planned value in 81% of the patients. The compliance was good without excess serious adverse events. The results showed a poorer outcome with a 5-year...

  6. Head Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a severe blow to the head can still knock the brain into the side of the skull ... following certain precautions and taking a break from sports and other activities that make symptoms worse. Playing ...

  7. A new analysis of Mars "Special Regions": findings of the second MEPAG Special Regions Science Analysis Group (SR-SAG2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, John D; Beaty, David W; Jones, Melissa A; Bakermans, Corien; Barlow, Nadine G; Boston, Penelope J; Chevrier, Vincent F; Clark, Benton C; de Vera, Jean-Pierre P; Gough, Raina V; Hallsworth, John E; Head, James W; Hipkin, Victoria J; Kieft, Thomas L; McEwen, Alfred S; Mellon, Michael T; Mikucki, Jill A; Nicholson, Wayne L; Omelon, Christopher R; Peterson, Ronald; Roden, Eric E; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Viola, Donna; Wray, James J

    2014-11-01

    A committee of the Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) has reviewed and updated the description of Special Regions on Mars as places where terrestrial organisms might replicate (per the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy). This review and update was conducted by an international team (SR-SAG2) drawn from both the biological science and Mars exploration communities, focused on understanding when and where Special Regions could occur. The study applied recently available data about martian environments and about terrestrial organisms, building on a previous analysis of Mars Special Regions (2006) undertaken by a similar team. Since then, a new body of highly relevant information has been generated from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (launched in 2005) and Phoenix (2007) and data from Mars Express and the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (all 2003). Results have also been gleaned from the Mars Science Laboratory (launched in 2011). In addition to Mars data, there is a considerable body of new data regarding the known environmental limits to life on Earth-including the potential for terrestrial microbial life to survive and replicate under martian environmental conditions. The SR-SAG2 analysis has included an examination of new Mars models relevant to natural environmental variation in water activity and temperature; a review and reconsideration of the current parameters used to define Special Regions; and updated maps and descriptions of the martian environments recommended for treatment as "Uncertain" or "Special" as natural features or those potentially formed by the influence of future landed spacecraft. Significant changes in our knowledge of the capabilities of terrestrial organisms and the existence of possibly habitable martian environments have led to a new appreciation of where Mars Special Regions may be identified and protected. The SR-SAG also considered the impact of Special Regions on potential future human missions to Mars, both as locations of

  8. GPK heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krmasek, J.; Novosad, K.

    1981-01-01

    This article evaluates performance tests of the Soviet made GPK heading machine carried out in 4 coal mines in Czechoslovakia (Ostrava-Karvina region and Kladno mines). GPK works in coal seams and rocks with compression strength of 40 to 50 MPa. Dimensions of the tunnel are height 1.8 to 3.8 m and width 2.6 to 4.7 m, tunnel gradient plus to minus 10 degrees. GPK weighs 16 t, its conical shaped cutting head equipped with RKS-1 cutting tools is driven by an electric motor with 55 kW capacity. Undercarriage of the GPK, gathering-arm loader, hydraulic system, electric system and dust supression system (water spraying or pneumatic section) are characterized. Specifications of GPK heading machines are compared with PK-3r and F8 heading machines. Reliability, number of failures, dust level, noise, productivity depending on compression strength of rocks, heading rate in coal and in rocks, energy consumption, performance in inclined tunnels, and cutting tool wear are evaluated. Tests show that GPK can be used to drive tunnels in coal with rock constituting up to 50% of the tunnel crosscut, as long as rock compression strength does not exceed 50 MPa. In rocks characterized by higher compression strength cutting tool wear sharply increases. GPK is characterized by higher productivity than that of the PK-3r heading machine. Among the weak points of the GPK are: unsatisfactory reliability and excessive wear of its elements. (4 refs.) (In Czech)

  9. Acute toxicity and cost analysis of a phase III randomized trial of accelerated and conventional radiotherapy for squamous carcinoma of the head and neck: a trans- tasman radiation oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, M.; Williamson, S.; Tripcony, L.; Spry, N.; Peters, L.; Penniment, M.; Lamb, D.; Krawitz, H.

    1999-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present analysis was to assess the feasibility and acute toxicity of a pure accelerated fractionation regimen in a cooperative group setting. This analysis included the first 320 patients entered on to the Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) randomized controlled trial which compared accelerated radiotherapy (ART) with conventional radiotherapy (CRT) in stage lIl and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck. Patients were randomized to either 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions over 24 days (ART) or to 70 Gy 35 fractions over 49 days (CRT) after being stratified for site and stage. Accrual began in 1991 and the trial was closed on 3 April 1998 with the targeted 350 patients. The 3-year survival for the whole group was 54%, and the 3-year disease-free survival was 41%. Toxicity data were available on 303 patients (148 ART; 155 CRT). Mucosal toxicity was worse in the accelerated grup, and it peaked ∼ 3 weeks earlier than the conventional grup. Skin toxicity was equivalent but occurred ∼ 7 days earlier in the accelerated grup. Acute effects in both grups healed completely. Hospitalization was more common in the ART grup (71 vs 52 patients; P=0.01) but the total bed days in hospital was not greatly different (1707 bed days for ART and 1607 bed days for CRT). Patients were more likely to require nasogastric (NG) feeding in the ART grup (49 vs 33 patients; P = 0.02). There were 1157 NG feeding days for ART and 1154 NG feeding days for CRT. The average cost of radiation treatment per patient including hospitalisation, NG feeding and accommodation was $11 750 in the ART grup and $11 587 in the CRT grup. The accelerated grup has been shown to be a tolerable, practical and cost-equivalent regimen. The assessment of the therapeutic ratio of this accelerated protocol (ART) will be determined when the analysis of late effects and loco-regional control is made when the data are more mature. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Population-specific left ventricular hypertrophy in three groups from the northeastern region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borah, P K; Hazarika, N C; Biswas, D; Kalita, H C; Mahanta, J

    2010-01-01

    People living in the hills are continuously exposed to strenuous physical activity for their day-to-day work. Besides hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy in different populations may be related to continuous physical activity. Electrocardiogram, blood pressure and sociodemographic information of 12 252 subjects > or = 30 years of age from three different population groups living in Mizoram (hilly) and Assam (plain) were recorded. Of them, 8058 were from Mizoram and 3180 and 1014 were Indigenous Assamese and tea garden workers of Assam. Among the subjects from Mizoram the percentage of smokers (41.9%), mean (SD) BMI (21.9 [3.8]) and waist-hip ratio (0.87 [0.02]) were significantly higher than in those from other groups. Tea garden workers had a higher mean systolic blood pressure (145.2 [25.7]) and diastolic blood pressure (87.6 [13.6]). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was highest among tea garden workers (16.5%) followed by people from Mizoram (3.7%) and the indigenous Assamese (2%) people. In spite of a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension among the indigenous Assamese community than among those from Mizoram, left ventricular hypertrophy was found to be lower in the former. High prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among tea garden workers was possibly related to a higher prevalence of hypertension but the higher prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among people from Mizoram might be related to more physical activity.

  11. Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program offers a regional model for incremental 'fee for value' payment reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, David A; Mason, Margaret H

    2012-09-01

    Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan partnered with providers across the state to create an innovative, "fee for value" physician incentive program that would deliver high-quality, efficient care. The Physician Group Incentive Program rewards physician organizations-formal groups of physicians and practices that can accept incentive payments on behalf of their members-based on the number of quality and utilization measures they adopt, such as generic drug dispensing rates, and on their performance on these measures across their patient populations. Physicians also receive payments for implementing a range of patient-centered medical home capabilities, such as patient registries, and they receive higher fees for office visits for incorporating these capabilities into routine practice while also improving performance. Taken together, the incentive dollars, fee increases, and care management payments amount to a potential increase in reimbursement of 40 percent or more from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan for practices designated as high-performing patient-centered medical homes. At the same time, we estimate that implementing the patient-centered medical home capabilities was associated with $155 million in lower medical costs in program year 2011 for Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan members. We intend to devote a higher percentage of reimbursement over time to communities of caregivers that offer high-value, system-based care, and a lower percentage of reimbursement to individual physicians on a service-specific basis.

  12. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-12-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  13. Finding Combination of Features from Promoter Regions for Ovarian Cancer-related Gene Group Classification

    KAUST Repository

    Olayan, Rawan S.

    2012-01-01

    In classification problems, it is always important to use the suitable combination of features that will be employed by classifiers. Generating the right combination of features usually results in good classifiers. In the situation when the problem is not well understood, data items are usually described by many features in the hope that some of these may be the relevant or most relevant ones. In this study, we focus on one such problem related to genes implicated in ovarian cancer (OC). We try to recognize two important OC-related gene groups: oncogenes, which support the development and progression of OC, and oncosuppressors, which oppose such tendencies. For this, we use the properties of promoters of these genes. We identified potential “regulatory features” that characterize OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors promoters. In our study, we used 211 oncogenes and 39 oncosuppressors. For these, we identified 538 characteristic sequence motifs from their promoters. Promoters are annotated by these motifs and derived feature vectors used to develop classification models. We made a comparison of a number of classification models in their ability to distinguish oncogenes from oncosuppressors. Based on 10-fold cross-validation, the resultant model was able to separate the two classes with sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 100% with the complete set of features. Moreover, we developed another recognition model where we attempted to distinguish oncogenes and oncosuppressors as one group from other OC-related genes. That model achieved accuracy of 82%. We believe that the results of this study will help in discovering other OC-related oncogenes and oncosuppressors not identified as yet.

  14. Fasting Glucose GWAS Candidate Region Analysis across Ethnic Groups in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen-Torvik, L. J.; Guo, X.; Bowden, D. W.; Bertoni, A. G.; Sale, M. M.; Yao, J.; Bluemke, D. A.; Goodarzi, M. O.; Chen, Y. I.; Vaidya, D.; Raffel, L. J.; Papanicolaou, G.J.; Meigs, J. B.; Pankow, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variants associated with fasting glucose in European ancestry populations are increasingly well understood. However, the nature of the associations between these SNPs and fasting glucose in other racial and ethnic groups is unclear. We sought to examine regions previously identified to be associated with fasting glucose in Caucasian GWAS across multiple ethnicities in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Non-diabetic MESA participants with fasting glucose measured at the ...

  15. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löfdahl Elisabet

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL. Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism, their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Methods Consecutive patients (n=101 treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP, and Psychological Well Being (PGWB questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. Results The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2. The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. Conclusion In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  16. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, Elisabet; Berg, Gertrud; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Zachrisson, Maria Leonsson; Malmgren, Helge; Mercke, Claes; Olsson, Erik; Wiren, Lena; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-10-29

    Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL). Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism), their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL) in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Consecutive patients (n=101) treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years) with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL)-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and Psychological Well Being (PGWB) questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5-2.2 Gy) to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8-3.3 Gy) to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0-9.3 Gy and 33.5-46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2). The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls.

  17. Compromised quality of life in adult patients who have received a radiation dose towards the basal part of the brain. A case-control study in long-term survivors from cancer in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Löfdahl, Elisabet; Berg, Gertrud; Johansson, Karl-Axel; Zachrisson, Maria Leonsson; Malmgren, Helge; Mercke, Claes; Olsson, Erik; Wiren, Lena; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2012-01-01

    Adult patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disorders have compromised quality of life (QoL). Whether this is due to their endocrine consequences (hypopituitarism), their underlying hypothalamic-pituitary disorder or both is still under debate. The aim of this trial was to measure quality of life (QoL) in long-term cancer survivors who have received a radiation dose to the basal part of the brain and the pituitary. Consecutive patients (n=101) treated for oropharyngeal or epipharyngeal cancer with radiotherapy followed free of cancer for a period of 4 to10 years were identified. Fifteen patients (median age 56 years) with no concomitant illness and no hypopituitarism after careful endocrine evaluation were included in a case-control study with matched healthy controls. Doses to the hypothalamic-pituitary region were calculated. QoL was assessed using the Symptom check list (SCL)-90, Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and Psychological Well Being (PGWB) questionnaires. Level of physical activity was assessed using the Baecke questionnaire. The median accumulated dose was 1.9 Gy (1.5–2.2 Gy) to the hypothalamus and 2.4 Gy (1.8–3.3 Gy) to the pituitary gland in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 6.0–9.3 Gy and 33.5–46.1 Gy, respectively in patients with epipharyngeal cancer (n=2). The patients showed significantly more anxiety and depressiveness, and lower vitality, than their matched controls. In a group of long time survivors of head and neck cancer who hade received a low radiation dose to the hypothalamic-pituitary region and who had no endocrine consequences of disease or its treatment QoL was compromised as compared with well matched healthy controls

  18. Examining Difference in Immigration Stress, Acculturation Stress and Mental Health Outcomes in Six Hispanic/Latino Nativity and Regional Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Richard C; Gattamorta, Karina A; Berger-Cardoso, Jodi

    2018-02-27

    Little is known about the specific behavioral health impact of acculturation stressors that affect Hispanic/Latino immigrant sub-groups. These immigration-related stressors and traumatic events may have differential impact on depression depending on country/region of origin. Using a measure of immigration and acculturation stress, the current study sought to determine differences in the impact of stress on six sub-groups of Hispanic immigrants. Data on stress and depression were examined using a large, representative adult immigrant sample (N = 641). Controlling for age, gender and years in the US, factorial analysis of covariance revealed significant differences on total Hispanic Stress Inventory 2 (HSI2) stress appraisal scores based on country/region of origin. Pair wise comparisons between country/region of origin groups revealed that Mexicans had higher levels of stress compared to Cuban or Dominican immigrants. Several patterns of differential stress were also found within sub-domains of the HSI2. Using regression models, HSI2 stress appraisals and their interaction with country of origin proved to not be significant predictors of depression (PHQ9), while gender and age were significant. Differences in HSI2 stress that are based on nativity may be moderated by cultural resilience that ultimately serves a protective role to prevent the onset of depression.

  19. Paleobiology of a microfossil of Bambui group (Proterozoico Superior) from Unai region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonetti, C.; Fairchild, T.R.

    1989-01-01

    A moderately well-preserved and abundant assemblage of coccoidal, bacilliform, and filamentous organic-walled microfossils is here described from black chert colleted near the top of a 30 m-thick expossure of predominantly microbially laminated dolostone from the lower part of the Upper Proterozoic Bambui Group, 12,5 Km NW of Unai, Minas Gerais, south-central Brazil. Of the 11 morphotypes described in this study, small colonies of coccoidal cells (3 species of Myxococcoides; Glenobotrydion aenigmatis Schopf; Form A) are most abundant, followed by tubular filaments (Siphonophycus sp.; 2 species of Eomycetopsis), and, finally, rare, solitary, large (20-40 μ) coccoidal forms (Form C) and a single colony of bacilliform cells (Eosynechococcus moorei Hofmann). The assemblage is dominated by apparently planktonic, small-celled (rarely exceeding 13 μ), colonial coccoidal forms, although filamentous forms may have played a significant role in the local benthos, as suggested by faintly preserved, palimpsestic (or 'ghost') filamentous fabrics and by the presence of poorly preserved tubes of Siphonophycus up to 32 μ in diameter. A single, large pair of thick-walled coccoidal cells (Form B) is here interpreted as a possible acritarch of as yet undetermined biostratigraphic value. The generally small, simple microfossils of this assemblage are similar to elements of the five other Known Bambui assemblages and apparently rather typical of many other late Proterozoic microfloras. (author) [pt

  20. Cardiovascular health among two ethnic groups living in the same region: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benderly, Michal; Chetrit, Angela; Murad, Havi; Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Gillon-Keren, Michal; Rogowski, Ori; Sela, Ben-Ami; Kanety, Hannah; Harats, Dror; Atamna, Ahmed; Alpert, Gershon; Goldbourt, Uri; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2017-02-01

    Poor cardiovascular health (CVH) among ethnic/racial minorities, studied primarily in the USA, may reflect lower access to healthcare. We examined factors associated with minority CVH in a setting of universal access to healthcare. CVH behaviors and factors were evaluated in a random population sample (551 Arabs, 553 Jews) stratified by sex, ethnicity and age. More Jews (10%) than Arabs (3%) had 3 ideal health behaviors. Only one participant had all four. Although ideal diet was rare (≤1.5%) across groups, Arabs were more likely to meet intake recommendations for whole grains, but less likely to meet intake recommendations for fruits/vegetables and fish. Arabs had lower odds of attaining ideal levels for body mass index and physical activity. Smoking prevalence was 57% among Arab men and 6% among Arab women. Having four ideal health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, glucose, smoking) was observed in 2% and 8% of Arab and Jewish men, respectively, and 13% of Arab and Jewish women. Higher prevalence of ideal total-cholesterol corresponded to lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among Arabs. No participant met ideal levels for all 7 metrics and only 1.8% presented with 6. Accounting for age and lower socioeconomic status, Arabs were less likely to meet a greater number of metric goals (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.62 (0.42-0.92) for men, and 0.73 (0.48-1.12) for women). Ideal CVH, rare altogether, was less prevalent among the Arab minority albeit universal access to healthcare. Health behaviors were the main contributors to the CVH disparity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Dolichopus plumipes species group (Diptera, Dolichopodidae in the Palaearctic Region with the description of a new species from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Khaghaninia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dolichopus plumipes species group in the Palaearctic Region is redefined. It comprises eleven species including one new species, Dolichopus malekii sp. nov., from the East Azerbaijan province in north-western Iran. The species group is differentiated from other Dolichopus by the modified male mid tibia and/or mid basitarsus (except D. simplex. The mid tibia is often thin, having a longitudinal narrow dark streak (D. plumipes or clear whitish yellow dorsal area in distal third, rarely simple or inconspicuously modified (D. discifer. Mid basitarsus is pennate or bearing elongate setae or simple. Other tarsomeres are usually simple (except D. discifer. A revised key to the species group is provided, as well as remarks on its geographical distribution.

  2. Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Is Not Caused by Arthroscopic Posterolateral Femoroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Robert E; Rupp, Sasha N

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head after arthroscopic femoroplasty extending to the posterolateral femoral neck, the source of the primary blood supply to the femoral head. Cam lesions of femoroacetabular impingement are typically anterior along the junction of the femoral head and neck. However, anatomic variations can involve the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head and neck. Femoroplasty involving this vascular region can lead to injury to the blood supply to the femoral head, with subsequent avascular necrosis. If the posterolateral portion of the cam lesion is preserved, persistent femoroacetabular impingement may occur. A retrospective review identified 112 patients who underwent arthroscopic femoroplasty for femoroacetabular impingement over a 2-year period. Of these patients, 14 had femoroplasty that extended to the posterolateral femoral head. Of this group, 5 had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after femoroplasty and the other 9 were contacted to undergo MRI of the hip to evaluate for avascular necrosis. A radiologist and the senior author evaluated all MRI scans specifically for avascular necrosis of the femoral head. All procedures were performed by the senior author. Mean age of the 14 patients (8 women and 6 men) with femoroplasty that extended into the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head was 44 years (range, 23-69 years). All 14 patients underwent MRI evaluation of the affected hip a mean of 25 months (range, 7-44 months) after femoroplasty. No MRI scans showed evidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Femoroplasty of the posterolateral vascular region of the femoral head is not associated with avascular necrosis. Patients with femoroacetabular impingement and a cam lesion extending to the posterolateral femoral head can undergo femoroplasty of this region without the development of avascular necrosis. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(3):177-180.]. Copyright

  3. Analysis Group outbreak of trichinosis in adolescents in the Samara region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Gasilina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the peculiarities of trichinosis on the material of the group flashes.Materials and methods. Described and analyzed outbreak of trichinosis in 14 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years, were hospitalized in pediatric infectious ward of the city of Samara.Results. The source of infection – infected meat badger. The severity of illness depend on the amount of meat eaten, that is, the infectious dose of the pathogen. In severe cases, the incubation period of trichinosis was minimal (7 days, and if less severe – the maximum (from 19,5 to 21 days. Mild course also contributed to the early administration of antiparasitic therapy. Most of the children the disease begins with fever and dyspepsia, half recorded rash.At the height of the disease is predominant myalgias, half of cases – swelling. The peculiarity of the current severe trichinosis were pronounced toxic-allergic syndrome, generalized edema, myalgia and myasthenia gravis, up to a full adinamii, organ destruction: infectious-toxic kidney, cardiomyopathy, fulminant hepatitis, polyserositis with ascites, hydrothorax 3 weekdisease. The temperature in most of the patients wore a doublewavelength character with rises in the disease onset and disease for 2–3 weeks. It noted the duration of the clinical symptoms. The longest was myalgic, half of the patients remained at the time of discharge from the hospital. The features of laboratory parameters (leukocytosis, eosinophilia, ALT, AST, CRP in various forms of the disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by serology (IgM, Ig G to Trichinella spiralis in different phases of the disease. All patients received a specific antiparasitic therapy albendazolom secondary therapeutic dosage for 10 days, as well as detoxication, allergen and symptomatic therapy is indicated.Conclusion. Thus, health education among the population and will be a true prevention of trichinosis.

  4. [Structure of the gene pool of ethnic groups from the Altai-Sayan region from data on mitochondrial polymorphism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derenko, M V; Denisova, G A; Maliarchuk, B A; Dambueva, I K; Luzina, F A; Lotosh, E A; Dorzhu, Ch M; Karamchakova, O N; Solovenchuk, L L; Zakharov, I A

    2001-10-01

    Using the data on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphism, genetic structures of the four Turkic-speaking ethnic groups of Altai-Sayan highlands, Southern Altaians (Altai-Kizhi), Khakassians, Shorians, and Sojots, were described. Mitochondrial gene pools of the populations examined were characterized by different ratios between Mongoloid (M*, C, D, E, G, A, B, and F) and Caucasoid (H, U, T, J, and K) mtDNA lineages. All the populations studied had a strongly pronounced Mongoloid component, the frequency of which was 88.2% in Sojots, 75.9% in Khakassians, 67.4% in Altaians, and 64.3% in Shorians. Maximum frequency of the Caucasoid component (35.7%) was observed in Shorians. Phylogenetic and statistical analyses of the mtDNA group frequency distribution patterns in the gene pools of the ethnic populations of Altai-Sayan highlands and the adjacent territories showed that the populations of the region fell into three groups. The first group included Khakassians, Tuvinians and Altaians, the second group consisted of Sojots, Buryats, and Mongols, while the third group was composed of Uigurs, Kazakhs, and Kyrgyzes. The isolated position of Shorians among the populations examined can be explained by their different anthropological composition and their presumptive relatedness to Finno-Ugric populations of Siberia.

  5. Prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment among different ethnical minority groups in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanping; Huang, Wenyong; Qiqige, Aoyun; Zhang, Hongwei; Jin, Ling; Ti, Pula; Yip, Jennifer; Xiao, Baixiang

    2018-02-13

    The aim of this cross-sectional study is to ascertain the prevalence and causes of blindness, visual impairment, uptake of cataract surgery among different ethnic groups in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Four thousand one hundred fifty people at 50 years and above from different minority ethnic groups were randomly selected for an eye examination. The four trained eye teams collected data using tumbling E visual chart, torch, portable slit lamp and direct ophthalmoscope in 2015. The World Health Organization's definition of blindness and visual impairment (VI) was used to classify patients in each ethnic group. Data were analyzed by different minority groups and were compared with Han Chinese. 3977 (95.8%) out of 4150 people were examined. The prevalence of blindness from the study population was 1.7% (95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.2%).There was no significant difference in prevalence of blindness between Han Chinese and people of Khazak and other minority ethnic groups, nor, between male and female. Cataract was the leading course (65.5%) of blindness and uncorrected refractive error was the most common cause of VI (36.3%) followed by myopic retinopathy. The most common barrier to cataract surgery was lack of awareness of service availability. This study documented a low blindness prevalence among people aged 50 years and over comparing to prevalence identified through studies of other regions in China. It still indicates blindness and un-operated cataract as the significant public health issue, with no evidence of eye health inequalities, but some inequities in accessing to cataract surgery amongst ethnic minority groups in Xinjiang.

  6. Identification of putative regulatory motifs in the upstream regions of co-expressed functional groups of genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi NV

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regulation of gene expression in Plasmodium falciparum (Pf remains poorly understood. While over half the genes are estimated to be regulated at the transcriptional level, few regulatory motifs and transcription regulators have been found. Results The study seeks to identify putative regulatory motifs in the upstream regions of 13 functional groups of genes expressed in the intraerythrocytic developmental cycle of Pf. Three motif-discovery programs were used for the purpose, and motifs were searched for only on the gene coding strand. Four motifs – the 'G-rich', the 'C-rich', the 'TGTG' and the 'CACA' motifs – were identified, and zero to all four of these occur in the 13 sets of upstream regions. The 'CACA motif' was absent in functional groups expressed during the ring to early trophozoite transition. For functional groups expressed in each transition, the motifs tended to be similar. Upstream motifs in some functional groups showed 'positional conservation' by occurring at similar positions relative to the translational start site (TLS; this increases their significance as regulatory motifs. In the ribonucleotide synthesis, mitochondrial, proteasome and organellar translation machinery genes, G-rich, C-rich, CACA and TGTG motifs, respectively, occur with striking positional conservation. In the organellar translation machinery group, G-rich motifs occur close to the TLS. The same motifs were sometimes identified for multiple functional groups; differences in location and abundance of the motifs appear to ensure different modes of action. Conclusion The identification of positionally conserved over-represented upstream motifs throws light on putative regulatory elements for transcription in Pf.

  7. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  8. Radiation therapy and concurrent cisplatin administration in locally advanced head and neck cancer. A Hellenic co-operative oncology group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountzilas, G.; Skarlos, D.; Kosmidis, P.; Samantas, E.; Kalogera-Fountzila, A.; Papaspyrou, S.; Tzitzikas, J.; Sridhar, K.S.; Makrantonakis, P.; Pantelakos, P.; Nikolaou, A.; Bacoyiannis, H.; Sinodinou, M.; Banis, C.; Daniilidis, J.

    1994-01-01

    In an attempt to improve local control of locally advanced head and neck cancer, radiation therapy was combined with cisplatin. Forty-eight patients entered into this study. All patients were irradiated with a 60 Co unit and according to the protocol they should receive 70 Gy in the tumor area and 45 Gy in the rest of neck. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/m 2 on days 2, 22 and 42. Thirty-seven (80%) patients received the total radiation dose as initially planned. Thirty-four (72%) patients achieved complete and 5 (10%) partial response. Grade 3-4 toxicities included vomiting (14%) stomatitis (4%), diarrhea (2%), myelotoxicity (14%), hoarseness (4%), dysphagia (30%), weight loss (32%), nephrotoxicity (4%) and dermatitis (2%). After a median follow-up of 26 (range, 18-33) months, 16 patients have died. Among the 35 complete responders 6 later on relapsed. Median relapse-free survival has not yet been reached. Combined radiation therapy and cisplatin appears to be a highly active treatment in patients with advanced head and neck cancer as far as primary locoregional response is concerned. (orig.)

  9. 6th July 2010 - United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council W. Whitehorn signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss, visiting the Computing Centre with Information Technology Department Head Deputy D. Foster, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department P. Strubin,the Centre Control Centre with Operation Group Leader M. Lamont and the CLIC/CTF3 facility with Project Leader J.-P. Delahaye.

    CERN Multimedia

    Teams : M. Brice, JC Gadmer

    2010-01-01

    6th July 2010 - United Kingdom Science and Technology Facilities Council W. Whitehorn signing the guest book with Head of International relations F. Pauss, visiting the Computing Centre with Information Technology Department Head Deputy D. Foster, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with Technology Department P. Strubin,the Centre Control Centre with Operation Group Leader M. Lamont and the CLIC/CTF3 facility with Project Leader J.-P. Delahaye.

  10. Head Start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Discusses an art project in which students created drawings of mop heads. Explains that the approach of drawing was more important than the subject. States that the students used the chiaroscuro technique, used by Rembrandt and Caravaggio, in which light appears out of the darkness. (CMK)

  11. Severe and uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children from three regions and three ethnic groups in Cameroon: prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achidi Eric A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify the factors that account for differences in clinical outcomes of malaria as well as its relationship with ethnicity, transmission intensity and parasite density. Methods A prospective study was conducted in nine health facilities in the Centre, Littoral and South West regions of Cameroon, and in three ethnic groups; the Bantu, Semi-Bantu and Foulbe. Children aged one month to 13 years, with diagnosis suggestive of malaria, were recruited and characterized using the WHO definition for severe and uncomplicated malaria. Malaria parasitaemia was determined by light microscopy, haematological analysis using an automated haematology analyser and glucose level by colorimetric technique. Results Of the febrile children screened, 971 of the febrile children screened fulfilled the inclusion criteria for specific malaria clinical phenotypes. Forty-nine (9.2% children had cerebral malaria, a feature that was similar across age groups, ethnicity and gender but lower (P P P = 0.009 and Foulbe (P = 0.026 counterparts in the Centre region. The overall study case fatality was 4.8 (47/755, with cerebral malaria being the only significant risk factor associated with death. Severe anaemia, though a common and major clinical presentation, was not significantly associated with risk of death. Conclusion About half of the acutely febrile children presented with severe malaria, the majority being cases of severe malaria anaemia, followed by respiratory distress and cerebral malaria. The latter two were less prevalent in the Centre region compared to the other regions. Cerebral malaria and hyperpyrexia were the only significant risk factors associated with death.

  12. The associations between regional gray matter structural changes and changes of cognitive performance in control groups of intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intervention studies of cognitive training, the challenging cognitive tests, which were used as outcome measures, are generally completed in more than a few hours. Here, utilizing the control groups’ data from three 1-week intervention studies in which young healthy adult subjects underwent a wide range of cognitive tests and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after the intervention period, we investigated how regional gray matter (GM density (rGMD of the subjects changed through voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Statistically significant increases in rGMD were observed in the anatomical cluster that mainly spread around the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG. Moreover, mean rGMD within this cluster changes were significantly and positively correlated with performance changes in the Stroop task, and tended to positively correlate with performance changes in a divergent thinking task. Affected regions are considered to be associated with performance monitoring (dACC and manipulation of the maintained information including generating associations (rSFG, and both are relevant to the cognitive functions measured in the cognitive tests. Thus, the results suggest that even in the groups of the typical control group in intervention studies including those of the passive one, experimental or non-experimental factors can result in an increase in the regional GM structure and form the association between such neural changes and improvements related to these cognitive tests. These results suggest caution toward the experimental study designs without control groups.

  13. Virulence profile of different phylogenetic groups of locally isolated community acquired uropathogenic E. coli from Faisalabad region of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Saira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC are among major pathogens causing urinary tract infections. Virulence factors are mainly responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. This study was planned to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and cytotoxic effects of UPEC isolates with reference to phylogenetic groups (B2, B1, D and A to understand the presence and impact of virulence factors in the severity of infection in Faisalabad region of Pakistan. Methods In this study phylogenetic analysis, virulence gene identification and cytotoxicity of 59 uropathogenic E.coli isolates obtained from non-hospitalized patients was studied. Results Among 59 isolates, phylogenetic group B2 (50% was most dominant followed by groups A, B1 (19% each and D (12%. Isolates present in group D showed highest presence of virulence genes. The prevalence hlyA (37% was highest followed by sfaDE (27%, papC (24%, cnf1 (20%, eaeA (19% and afaBC3 (14%. Highly hemolytic and highly verotoxic isolates mainly belonged to group D and B2. We also found two isolates with simultaneous presence of three fimbrial adhesin genes present on pap, afa, and sfa operons. This has not been reported before and underlines the dynamic nature of these UPEC isolates. Conclusions It was concluded that in local UPEC isolates from non-hospitalized patients, group B2 was more prevalent. However, group D isolates were most versatile as all were equipped with virulence genes and showed highest level of cytotoxicity.

  14. A practical study for Treatment and Conservation a group of Silver Coins from Dhamar Regional Museum, Dhamar, Yemen.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed M. Megahed

    2014-01-01

    A big group of silver coins{35 coins} was discovered in Banawa excavation , Dhamar , season 2002, and now it is situated in Dhamar Regional Museum ,Yemen. They were covered with a thin grey and black corrosion layers that disfigured them and hid their figures and inscriptions , also Some coins miss parts and others lost their circular.The aims of this work are identified the metallic composition of the coins , investigate the nature of corrosion grown during the long-term burial and identify ...

  15. Ghost Head Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Looking like a colorful holiday card, a new image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope reveals a vibrant green and red nebula far from Earth. The image of NGC 2080, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is available online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . Images like this help astronomers investigate star formation in nebulas. NGC 2080, nicknamed 'The Ghost Head Nebula,' is one of a chain of star-forming regions lying south of the 30 Doradus nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud. 30 Doradus is the largest star-forming complex in the local group of galaxies. This 'enhanced color' picture is composed of three narrow-band-filter images obtained by Hubble on March 28, 2000. The red and blue light come from regions of hydrogen gas heated by nearby stars. The green light on the left comes from glowing oxygen. The energy to illuminate the green light is supplied by a powerful stellar wind, a stream of high-speed particles coming from a massive star just outside the image. The central white region is a combination of all three emissions and indicates a core of hot, massive stars in this star-formation region. Intense emission from these stars has carved a bowl-shaped cavity in surrounding gas. In the white region, the two bright areas (the 'eyes of the ghost') - named A1 (left) and A2 (right) -- are very hot, glowing 'blobs' of hydrogen and oxygen. The bubble in A1 is produced by the hot, intense radiation and powerful stellar wind from one massive star. A2 contains more dust and several hidden, massive stars. The massive stars in A1 and A2 must have formed within the last 10,000 years, since their natal gas shrouds are not yet disrupted by the powerful radiation of the newborn stars. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract with the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The

  16. An 8/15-channel Tx/Rx head neck RF coil combination with region-specific B1 + shimming for whole-brain MRI focused on the cerebellum at 7T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaffenrot, Viktor; Brunheim, Sascha; Rietsch, Stefan H G; Koopmans, Peter J; Ernst, Thomas M; Kraff, Oliver; Orzada, Stephan; Quick, Harald H

    2018-02-09

    To design and evaluate an 8/15-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) head-neck RF coil combination with region-specific B1+ shimming for whole-brain MRI with focus on improved functional MRI of the cerebellum at 7 T. An 8-channel transceiver RF head coil was combined with a 7-channel receive-only array. The noise parameters and acceleration capabilities of this 8Tx/15Rx coil setup were compared with a commercially available 1Tx/32Rx RF head coil. Region-specific 8-channel B1+ shimming was applied when using the 8Tx/15Rx RF coil. To evaluate the capability for functional MRI of the cerebellum, temporal SNR and statistical nonparametric maps for finger-tapping experiments with 14 healthy subjects were derived by applying a variable slice thickness gradient-echo echo-planar functional MRI sequence. The 8Tx/15Rx setup had a lower maximum noise correlation between channels, but higher average correlations compared with the 1Tx/32Rx coil. Both RF coils exhibited identical g-factors in the cerebellum with R = 3 acceleration. The enlarged FOV of the 8Tx/15Rx coil in combination with region-specific B1+ shimming increased homogeneity of the transmission field and temporal SNR in caudal cerebellar regions. Temporal SNR losses in cranial parts were reduced, resulting in more highly significant voxels in the caudally activated areas and identical patterns in the cranial cerebellar parts during a finger-tapping task. Compared with the 1Tx/32Rx RF coil, the presented 8Tx/15Rx RF coil combination successfully improves functional MRI of the human cerebellum at 7 T while maintaining whole-brain coverage. A clear temporal SNR gain in caudal cerebellar regions is shown. © 2018 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. HYPODONTIA OF PERMANENT TEETH IN A GROUP OF YOUNG PATIENTS FROM THE NORTH‐EASTERN REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta ZEGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the statistical evaluation of the number of congenitally missing teeth, of the affected dental groups, of the clinical forms and of hypodontia topography, performed on a group of patients from the North‐Eastern region of Romania, examined in the Ambu‐ latory of the “Sf. Spiridon” Universitary Emergency Hos‐ pital of Iaşi, between 1990‐2012. 111 patients (51 boys and 60 girls, with ages between 5 and 28 years, have been dia‐ gnosed with hypodontia of the permanent teeth (third molars excepted, by interview and by clinical and orto‐ pantomographic examinations. Statistical analysis made use of a SPSS 20.0 software. Four categories of hypodontia were discovered on the congenitally missing teeth, a high prevalence of the premolar (mandibular and maxillary and maxillary incisor groups, as well as the predominant presence of the mono‐ and unidental clinical forms of hypodontia. Hypodontia was localized both unilaterally and bilaterally, on the four dental quadrants. Statistically significant correlations have been established among the number of teeth, the dental groups with agenesis and the clinical forms of hypodontia (p=0.000.

  18. External quality assessment in gynaecological cytology: The Trent Region experience. The Trent Regional Gynaecological Pathology Quality Assurance Group for the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, D N; Hewer, E M; Melling, S E; Rice, S

    2002-08-01

    A Department of Health Executive Letter stated in 1998 that the principal function of external quality assessment (EQA) is educational. Subsequently, in England, it has no longer been acceptable to assess performance in gynaecological cytology by proficiency testing. This paper describes the EQA scheme in gynaecological cytology that has been run by the Trent Regional Gynaecological Pathology Quality Assurance Group for the NHS Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP) since 1998. It conforms as closely as possible to the recommendations published by the Department of Health Working Group on Histopathology EQA Accreditation, and replaced the national proficiency testing protocol. The educational value of the scheme is derived predominantly from a numerical score which provides confidential and quantitative feedback to all participants. Personal performance monitoring occurs as a secondary function. For primary screeners and checkers, this is based purely on the distinction between negative, inadequate and abnormal smears. For pathologists, personal performance monitoring also includes grading of abnormalities. The EQA has been designed so that all professional groups participate in a manner that closely mimics normal practice. Only slides that have achieved an 80% consensus amongst participants are used in the EQA. Substandard performance has been defined as those participants with scores falling below the 2.5%ile. The paper describes the EQA in detail and illustrates its use by means of the second round results. The EQA protocol developed within Trent and described in this paper has contributed to proposals contained in the current national EQA in gynaecological cytology for the NHSCSP. In particular this paper highlights the effectiveness of the scoring system contained within the Trent and National EQA protocols.

  19. Cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner - Distribution functions and bulk parameter estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, K.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Richardson, I. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    The bulk parameters (number density and thermal energy density) of cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner have been derived using data from the EPAS instrument on the ICE spacecraft. The derivation is based on the assumption that the pick-up ion distribution function is isotropic in the frame of the bulk flow, an approximation which has previously been shown to be reasonable within about 400,000 km of the comet nucleus along the spacecraft trajectory. The transition between the pick-up and mass-loaded regions occurs at the cometary shock, which was traversed at a cometocentric distance of about 100,000 km along the spacecraft track. Examination of the ion distribution functions in this region, transformed to the bulk flow frame, indicates the occurrence of a flattened distribution in the vicinity of the local pick-up speed, and a steeply falling tail at speeds above, which may be approximated as an exponential in ion speed.

  20. The role of prophylactic cranial irradiation in regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A Southwest Oncology Group Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusch, V.W.; Griffin, B.R.; Livingston, R.B. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common malignant disease in the United States. Only the few tumors detected very early are curable, but there has been some progress in the management of more advanced non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in regionally inoperable disease. Prevention of central nervous system relapse is an important issue in this group of patients because brain metastases ultimately develop in 20% to 25% of them. Seventy-three patients with regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer were entered into a Phase II trial of neutron chest radiotherapy sandwiched between four cycles of chemotherapy including cisplatin, vinblastine, and mitomycin C. Prophylactic cranial irradiation was administered concurrently with chest radiotherapy (3000 cGy in 10 fractions in 15 patients; 3600 cGy in 18 fractions in the remaining 50 patients). Patients underwent computed tomographic scan of the brain before treatment and every 3 months after treatment. The initial overall response rate was 79%, but 65 of the 73 patients have subsequently died of recurrent disease. Median follow-up is 9 months for all 73 patients and 26 months for eight long-term survivors. No patient who completed the prophylactic cranial irradiation program had clinical or radiologic brain metastases. Toxic reactions to prophylactic cranial irradiation included reversible alopecia in all patients, progressive dementia in one patient, and possible optic neuritis in one patient. Both of these patients received 300 cGy per fraction of irradiation. The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation has been controversial, but its safety and efficacy in this trial supports its application in a group of patients at high risk for central nervous system relapse. Further evaluation of prophylactic cranial irradiation in clinical trials for regionally advanced non-small cell lung cancer is warranted.

  1. A comparison of swallowing dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A systematic review by the Italian Head and Neck Radiotherapy Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ursino, Stefano; Morganti, Riccardo; Cristaudo, Agostino; Paiar, Fabiola; D'Angelo, Elisa; Lohr, Frank; Mazzola, Rosario; Merlotti, Anna; Russi, Elvio Grazioso; Musio, Daniela; Alterio, Daniela; Bacigalupo, Almalina

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is one of the most important treatment-related side effects in head and neck cancer (HNC), as it can lead to severe life-threating complications such as aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could reduce swallowing dysfunction by producing a concave dose distribution and reducing doses to the swallowing-related organs at risk (SWOARs). The aim of this study was to review the current literature in order to compare swallowing outcomes between IMRT and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). A search was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases to identify studies on swallowing outcomes, both clinically and/or instrumentally assessed, after 3DCRT and IMRT. Dysphagia-specific quality of life and objective instrumental data are summarized and discussed. A total of 262 papers were retrieved from the searched databases. An additional 23 papers were retrieved by hand-searching the reference lists. Ultimately, 22 papers were identified which discussed swallowing outcomes after 3DCRT and IMRT for HNC. No outcomes from randomized trials were identified. Despite several methodological limitations, reports from the current literature seem to suggest better swallowing outcomes with IMRT compared to 3DCRT. Further improvements are likely to result from the increased use of IMRT plans optimized for SWOAR sparing. (orig.) [de

  2. Management of common head and neck masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Thomas F; Muratore, Christopher S

    2007-02-01

    Head and neck masses are a common clinical concern in infants, children, and adolescents. The differential diagnosis for a head or neck mass includes congenital, inflammatory, and neoplastic lesions. An orderly and thorough examination of the head and neck with an appropriate directed workup will facilitate the diagnosis. The most common entities occur repeatedly within the various age groups and can be differentiated with a clear understanding of embryology and anatomy of the region, and an understanding of the natural history of a specific lesion. Congenital lesions most commonly found in the pediatric population include the thyroglossal duct cyst and the branchial cleft and arch anomalies. The inflammatory masses are secondary to local or systemic infections. The most common etiology for cervical adenopathy in children is reactive lymphadenopathy following a viral or bacterial illness. Persistent adenopathy raises more concerns, especially enlarged lymph nodes within the posterior triangle or supraclavicular space, nodes that are painless, firm, and not mobile, or a single dominant node that persists for more than 6 weeks should all heighten concern for malignancy. In this review, we discuss the current principles of surgical management of the most common head and neck masses that present to pediatricians and pediatric surgeons.

  3. The effects of postoperative irradiation on loco-regional tumor control and survival in patients with head and neck carcinomas by tumor subsites and relative risk factors for recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, Rupert K.; Johnson, Christopher R.; Payne, Cheryl; Lu Jiandong; Han, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This study reports on a unique experience in the management of patients with advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in which, between 1982 and 1990, patients with varied risk for recurrence were either referred for immediate postoperative irradiation by one surgical group or offered radiotherapy after surgical failure by the other. We have previously demonstrated in patients with high risk for recurrence that combined surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (S/RT) resulted in improved loco-regional tumor control (LRC) and overall patient survival (OS) for the entire patient cohort. This updated and expanded analysis describes the benefit of postoperative irradiation for patients with HNSCC depending upon relative risk factors for recurrence and different subsites of primary tumors. Materials and Methods: Of 219 patients, 190 were evaluable because of tumor locations in the major subsites analyzed, i.e. oral cavity (OC), oropharynx (OP), hypopharynx (HP), and larynx (L). Depending upon the philosophy of the two surgical groups, 79 patients were treated with combined S/RT and 111 with S alone with a >90% compliance. Minimum 2-year follow-up applies to all data reported. The two patient groups were well balanced with respect to tumor stages (AJCC 1983) and other patient characteristics. Histopathological review revealed 88 cases with one risk factor for recurrence, 49 patients with positive resection margin (PRM) and 39 with extracapsular extension (ECE); an additional 22 patients presented with both risk factors and 80 patients were found to have no risk factors. S, consisting of wide local excisions or radical resections including neck dissections, and postoperative RT with doses between 50 and 70 Gy were similar for both groups. Statistical evaluations consisted of Kaplan-Meier analyses to calculate LRC and OS rates and of multivariate Cox's proportional hazard models to estimate significance of treatment effects including S vs. S

  4. A practical study for Treatment and Conservation a group of Silver Coins from Dhamar Regional Museum, Dhamar, Yemen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Megahed

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A big group of silver coins{35 coins} was discovered in Banawa excavation , Dhamar , season 2002, and now it is situated in Dhamar Regional Museum ,Yemen. They were covered with a thin grey and black corrosion layers that disfigured them and hid their figures and inscriptions , also Some coins miss parts and others lost their circular.The aims of this work are identified the metallic composition of the coins , investigate the nature of corrosion grown during the long-term burial and identify its products that will help us to understand the corrosive factors and the degradation mechanisms , cleaning the group of coins from the superficial dirt and the corrosion products in order to discover as much as possible the surface topography, and to reveal the surfaces details , finally to establish them against further deterioration .To achieve that samples from the coins were examined by Metallographic Microscope {ME} , Scanning Electron Microscope {SEM}, the corrosion products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction{XRD} , and X-ray fluorescence { XRF} was used to determine the coins metallic constituents. Chemical cleaning was chosen for treating the coins and they were isolated to preserve them against further attack. After treatment and conservation, the coins figures and inscriptions that could be identified showed that this group of coins dates back to Umayyad period , exactly the reign of caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan{ 65- 86 A.H}{685-705A.D} and his descendants till 106 A.H. 

  5. Analysis of morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children from different age groups and regions in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antypkin Yu.G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to present retrospective study of the morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children from different age groups and regions according to Ukrainian Ministry of Health official government statistics from 2005 to 2014. Patients and methods. Retrospective study of the morbidity and prevalence of bronchial asthma among children in Ukraine from 2005 to 2014. Results. It was established that from 2012 to 2014 there was a tendency towards a decrease of bronchial asthma indicators — rate of sickness 11.9% and 11.4%, maximum reduction of the indicators was observed in the age group of 0–6 years 19.6% and 17% accordingly. The highest rate of bronchial asthma was registered in the age group 7–14 years (0.7–0.64 per 1000 children population, 15–17 years (9.22–8.66 per 1000 children population. Conclusions. Statistical analysis indicates a problem of hypo;diagnostics of bronchial asthma among children from Ukraine.

  6. An Analysis of a System of Rural Regional Environmental Management Led by ‘a Group of University Students’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Masahiro; Nakamura, Masato; Hiroshige, Yutaka

    This paper aims to analyze the formative processes and the current state of a collaboration between ‘outsiders’ and local residents in a System of Rural Regional Environmental management from the view point of human networks. The system seeks to solve the problem of abandoned farmlands led by a group of university students (outsiders). We chronologically classified a total of eighty-nine activities addressing the issue of abandoned farmlands by utilizing three concepts: ‘calculated devices’ (e.g. the making of relations between a group of university students and local residents and strengthening these relations), ‘assistance/participation’, and ‘voluntary interaction/desire’. Based on this analysis, we: 1) developed an understanding of the formative processes as well as the current state of the collaboration between a group of university students and twenty seven local residents from an individual perspective; 2) identified ten key individuals who played a significant role in the activities examined and revealed their characteristics and motivations; 3) suggest that an existing NPO and informal relations between the local residents played a major role in the formation of collaborative networks; 4) argue that the perceived characteristics of the students (e.g. ‘youthful’, ‘inexperienced’) and the Mori-Mori club (e.g. unstable) contributed to the maintenance and expansion of the collaboration between ‘outsiders’ and local residents.

  7. Bactericidal activity of M protein conserved region antibodies against group A streptococcal isolates from the Northern Thai population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruksachatkunakorn Chulabhorn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most group A streptococcal (GAS vaccine strategies have focused on the surface M protein, a major virulence factor of GAS. The amino-terminus of the M protein elicits antibodies, that are both opsonic and protective, but which are type specific. J14, a chimeric peptide that contains 14 amino acids from the M protein conserved C-region at the carboxy-terminus, offers the possibility of a vaccine which will elicit protective opsonic antibodies against multiple different GAS strains. In this study, we searched for J14 and J14-like sequences and the number of their repeats in the C-region of the M protein from GAS strains isolated from the Northern Thai population. Then, we examined the bactericidal activity of J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2 antisera against multiple Thai GAS strains. Results The emm genes of GAS isolates were sequenced and grouped as 14 different J14-types. The most diversity of J14-types was found in the C1-repeat. The J14.1 type was the major sequence in the C2 and C3-repeats. We have shown that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region peptides, J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2, commonly found in GAS isolates from the Northern Thai population, are able to kill GAS of multiple different emm types derived from an endemic area. The mean percent of bactericidal activities for all J14 and J14-like peptide antisera against GAS isolates were more than 70%. The mean percent of bactericidal activity was highest for J14 antisera followed by J14-R2, J14.1 and J14-R1 antisera. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region are able to kill multiple different strains of GAS isolated from the Northern Thai population. Therefore, the four conserved "J14" peptides have the potential to be used as GAS vaccine candidates to prevent streptococcal infections in an endemic area.

  8. HPV16 DNA status is a strong prognosticator of loco-regional control after postoperative radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma: Results from a multicentre explorative study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohaus, Fabian; Linge, Annett; Tinhofer, Inge; Budach, Volker; Gkika, Eleni; Stuschke, Martin; Balermpas, Panagiotis; Rödel, Claus; Avlar, Melanie; Grosu, Anca-Ligia

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the impact of HPV status in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received surgery and cisplatin-based postoperative radiochemotherapy. Materials and methods: For 221 patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx, oropharynx or oral cavity treated at the 8 partner sites of the German Cancer Consortium, the impact of HPV DNA, p16 overexpression and p53 expression on outcome were retrospectively analysed. The primary endpoint was loco-regional tumour control; secondary endpoints were distant metastases and overall survival. Results: In the total patient population, univariate analyses revealed a significant impact of HPV16 DNA positivity, p16 overexpression, p53 positivity and tumour site on loco-regional tumour control. Multivariate analysis stratified for tumour site showed that positive HPV 16 DNA status correlated with loco-regional tumour control in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (p = 0.02) but not in the oral cavity carcinoma group. Multivariate evaluation of the secondary endpoints in the total population revealed a significant association of HPV16 DNA positivity with overall survival (p < 0.01) but not with distant metastases. Conclusions: HPV16 DNA status appears to be a strong prognosticator of loco-regional tumour control after postoperative cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma and is now being explored in a prospective validation trial

  9. Genomic amplification of Fanconi anemia complementation group A (FancA) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC): Cellular mechanisms of radioresistance and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julia; Unger, Kristian; Orth, Michael; Schötz, Ulrike; Schüttrumpf, Lars; Zangen, Verena; Gimenez-Aznar, Igor; Michna, Agata; Schneider, Ludmila; Stamp, Ramona; Selmansberger, Martin; Braselmann, Herbert; Hieber, Ludwig; Drexler, Guido A; Kuger, Sebastian; Klein, Diana; Jendrossek, Verena; Friedl, Anna A; Belka, Claus; Zitzelsberger, Horst; Lauber, Kirsten

    2017-02-01

    Radio (chemo) therapy is a crucial treatment modality for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), but relapse is frequent, and the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Therefore, novel biomarkers are urgently needed. Previously, we identified gains on 16q23-24 to be associated with amplification of the Fanconi anemia A (FancA) gene and to correlate with reduced progression-free survival after radiotherapy. Here, we analyzed the effects of FancA on radiation sensitivity in vitro, characterized the underlying mechanisms, and evaluated their clinical relevance. Silencing of FancA expression in HNSCC cell lines with genomic gains on 16q23-24 resulted in significantly impaired clonogenic survival upon irradiation. Conversely, overexpression of FancA in immortalized keratinocytes conferred increased survival accompanied by improved DNA repair, reduced accumulation of chromosomal translocations, but no hyperactivation of the FA/BRCA-pathway. Downregulation of interferon signaling as identified by microarray analyses, enforced irradiation-induced senescence, and elevated production of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) appeared to be candidate mechanisms contributing to FancA-mediated radioresistance. Data of the TCGA HNSCC cohort confirmed the association of gains on 16q24.3 with FancA overexpression and impaired overall survival. Importantly, transcriptomic alterations similar to those observed upon FancA overexpression in vitro strengthened the clinical relevance. Overall, FancA amplification and overexpression appear to be crucial for radiotherapeutic failure in HNSCC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flued head replacement alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetters, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses flued head replacement options. Section 2 discusses complete flued head replacement with a design that eliminates the inaccessible welds. Section 3 discusses alternate flued head support designs that can drastically reduce flued head installation costs. Section 4 describes partial flued head replacement designs. Finally, Section 5 discusses flued head analysis methods. (orig./GL)

  11. Allelic variance among ABO blood group genotypes in a population from the western region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdularahman B O; Hindawi, Salwa Ibrahim; Al-Harthi, Sameer; Alam, Qamre; Alam, Mohammad Zubair; Haque, Absarul; Ahmad, Waseem; Damanhouri, Ghazi A

    2016-12-01

    Characterization of the ABO blood group at the phenotype and genotype levels is clinically essential for transfusion, forensics, and population studies. This study elucidated ABO phenotypes and genotypes, and performed an evaluation of their distribution in individuals from the western region of Saudi Arabia. One-hundred and seven samples underwent standard serological techniques for ABO blood group phenotype analysis. ABO alleles and genotypes were identified using multiplex polymerase chain reaction, and electrophoretic analysis was performed to evaluate the highly polymorphic ABO locus. A phenotype distribution of 37.4%, 30.8%, 24.3%, and 7.5% was found for blood groups O, A, B, and AB respectively in our study cohort. Genotype analysis identified 10 genotype combinations with the O01/O02 and A102/O02 genotypes being the most frequent with frequencies of 33.6% and 14.95%, respectively. Common genotypes such as A101/A101 , A101/A102 , A101/B101 , B101/B101 , and O01/O01 were not detected. Similarly, the rare genotypes, cis-AB01/O02 , cis-AB01/O01 , and cis-AB01/A102 were not found in our cohort. The most frequently observed allele was O02 (35.98%) followed by the A102 allele (17.76%). Furthermore, our findings are discussed in reference to ABO allele and genotype frequencies found in other ethnic groups. The study has a significant implication on the management of blood bank and transfusion services in Saudi Arabian patients.

  12. Analysis of the quality of diagnosis and treatment of primary headache in different social groups of the Ural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Lebedeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the quality of diagnosis and treatment of primary headache (HA in different social groups of the Ural Region. Patients and methods. The study enrolled 3124 persons who were divided into three groups: 1 1042 students; of them there were 719 women; mean age 20.6 years; range 17–40 years; 2 1075 workers; of them there were 146 women; mean age 40.4 years; range 21–67 years; 3 1007 blood donors; of them there were 484 women; mean age, 34.1 years; range 18–64 years. Semi-structured interviews involving the characteristics of HA and its prior diagnosis and treatment were conducted face-to-face in all those included in the study. HA was diagnosed using the International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition, beta version. Results and discussion. The following factors decreasing the quality of diagnosis and treatment of HA were identified in all the study groups: 1 low physician visit rates. Despite the high prevalence of all types of primary HA in 3 groups (67%, only 496 (23% out of 2110 participants with HA visited their physician with this problem. Among the patients with HA, physicians were visited most often by 342 (35% out of 968 students, least often by 60 (13% out of 457 workers and by 94 (14% out of 685 donors; 2 inadequate diagnosis of HA. Only 12 and 11.7% of the patients were correctly diagnosed with migraine and tension HA (THA, respectively; 3 the practically complete absence of preventive treatment for HA. The majority of patients used drugs to arrest HA attacks; preventive treatment for migraine was performed in 2 (0.4% and not performed in any of the patients with THA. It is necessary to improve the diagnosis and treatment of primary HA and to elaborate new Russian clinical guidelines for patient management on the basis of international standards. 

  13. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Fiscal Year 2013 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.

    2013-10-30

    This project covers facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) for federal research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG) for estuary habitat restoration. The EOS is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort that the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps], U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) developed in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as applied to operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The EOS is tasked by National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and the Action Agencies (AAs) to design and coordinate implementation of the federal RME plan for the lower Columbia River and estuary, including the river’s plume in the ocean. Initiated in 2002, the EOS is composed of members from BPA, the Corps, NMFS, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL’s) Marine Sciences Laboratory, and other agencies as necessary.

  14. Goniometer head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, V.; Berger, V.D.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Zarifov, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The goniometer head is an electromechanical instrument that performs the independent transfer of a testing sample on three coordinate axes (X, Y, Z) within limits of ±8 mm and independent rotation relative of these directions. The instrument comprises a sample holder, bellows component and three electrometer drives. The sample holder rotates around the axes X and Y, and is installed on the central arm which rotates around axis Z. One characteristic of this instrument is its independence which allows its use in any camera for researches in the field of radiation physics. 2 figs

  15. Spatio-temporal evolution of Leucophyllum pringlei and allies (Scrophulariaceae): a group endemic to North American xeric regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gándara, Etelvina; Sosa, Victoria

    2014-07-01

    The taxa of the Leucophyllum pringlei clade were used to understand the influence of the Neogene orogenesis and the Quaternary climate cycles on the diversification of the flora of the xeric regions of North America. This clade includes the five southernmost species of the genus: L. ambiguum, L. flyrii, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola, which are distributed throughout the Chihuahuan Desert north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, and L. pringlei in the region of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán south of this mountain range. Here we test whether these species diverged during the pluvial periods of the Pleistocene, and whether L. pringlei diverged earlier from the other species during the uplift of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Using three plastid regions (psbA-trnH, psbK-psbI, trnL-F) and a nuclear (ITS) marker, phylogenetic analyses were carried out, along with a reconstruction of their ancestral area. Trees retrieved the five species in a monophyletic group with the most recent common ancestor distributed in the Sinaloan dry forest during the Late Miocene (8.08Ma), from where it dispersed to the Chihuahuan Desert during the Late Miocene (6.35Ma). The secondary uplift of the Sierra Madre Occidental during the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene influenced a vicariance event. Divergence between L. pringlei and the species from north of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt occurred during the second volcanic episode in the Late Miocene (7.5-3Ma). The most recent common ancestor of L. ambiguum, L. pruinosum and L. ultramonticola was widely distributed in the southern part of the Chihuahuan Desert during the Early to Late Pliocene (3.50Ma). The diversification of these three species occurred in the Middle Pleistocene (0.9Ma) during the pluvial and inter-pluvial cycles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Nordic Region - leading in green growth. Report by the Nordic prime ministers' working group for green growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-15

    If green growth is to be a key priority for Nordic co-operation in the next few years, then it is essential to have a joint vision for the work - a vision underpinned by tangible activities, one that enjoys strong political support and sends important signals about political goals and intentions. ''The Nordic Region - leading in green growth'' is a vision based on the joint utilisation of Nordic strengths in energy efficiency, the development of sustainable energy, environmental awareness, investment in innovation and research, and ambitious international targets for the environment and climate. Working together, the Region will carry more weight, earn a bigger market share and make more of a political impact at international level. The working group recommends eight priorities: 1. developing Nordic test centres for green solutions. 2. working together on education, training and research for green growth. 3. promoting flexible consumption of electricity. 4. working together on green-technology norms and standards. 5. working together on green procurement in the public sector. 6. developing techniques and methods for waste treatment. 7. promoting the integration of environmental and climate considerations into development aid. 8. co-ordinating and improving funding for green investment and companies. (LN)

  17. Salivary flow rate and pH after radiotherapy of the head and neck region; Velocidade do fluxo e pH salivar apos radioterapia da regiao de cabeca e pescoco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Antonio Adilson Soares de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Curso de Odontologia; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Curso de Odontologia; Krapf, Stella Maria Rigo; Souza, Fabiany Rodrigues de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas]. E-mail: adillima@terra.com.br

    2004-07-01

    The most common sequelae in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy (60Cobalt) is postirradiation hypo salivation. This leads to a change in oral physiology, and, as a consequence, the irradiated individual is susceptible to infections and caries lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour of stimulated whole saliva flow rate (SWSFR) during and after radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer by lateral opposed fields. Six samples of mechanically stimulated whole saliva were collected of each individual and evaluated by gravimetric method.The first sample was collected before radiotherapy; the second one after 1500 cGy dose; the third one after the last dose of treatment and the remainder samples in intervals of subsequent two months up to six months after the end of treatment. The SWSFR decreased in 50% after a dose of 1500 cGy (1/4 of received treatment). After radiation therapy, the SWSFR was 0,33 ml/min and after six months was 0,20 ml/min. These values represented, respectively, a decreasing in 64% and 78% of initial values (ANOVA, Tukey's Test p<0.05).Based in these results, the authors concluded radiotherapy when applied in malign neoplasms of the head and neck region by lateral opposed fields was able to decrease significantly salivary flow rate. Intensive preventive dental care during and after radiotherapy seems to be an useful tool to avoid radiation caries and their complications. (author)

  18. A comparison of swallowing dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. A systematic review by the Italian Head and Neck Radiotherapy Study Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ursino, Stefano; Morganti, Riccardo; Cristaudo, Agostino; Paiar, Fabiola [University Hospital S. Chiara, Radiation Oncology, Pisa (Italy); D' Angelo, Elisa; Lohr, Frank [University Hospital, Radiation Oncology, Modena (Italy); Mazzola, Rosario [Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria Cancer Care Center, Radiation Oncology, Negrar-Verona (Italy); Merlotti, Anna; Russi, Elvio Grazioso [S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Radiation Oncology, Cuneo (Italy); Musio, Daniela [University Hospital La Sapienza, Radiation Oncology, Roma (Italy); Alterio, Daniela [European Institute of Oncology, Radiation Oncology, Advanced Radiotherapy Center, Milan (Italy); Bacigalupo, Almalina [AOU IRCCS San Martino - IST National Cancer Research Institute and University, Radiation Oncology, Genoa (Italy)

    2017-11-15

    Dysphagia is one of the most important treatment-related side effects in head and neck cancer (HNC), as it can lead to severe life-threating complications such as aspiration pneumonia and malnutrition. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) could reduce swallowing dysfunction by producing a concave dose distribution and reducing doses to the swallowing-related organs at risk (SWOARs). The aim of this study was to review the current literature in order to compare swallowing outcomes between IMRT and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). A search was conducted in the PubMed and Embase databases to identify studies on swallowing outcomes, both clinically and/or instrumentally assessed, after 3DCRT and IMRT. Dysphagia-specific quality of life and objective instrumental data are summarized and discussed. A total of 262 papers were retrieved from the searched databases. An additional 23 papers were retrieved by hand-searching the reference lists. Ultimately, 22 papers were identified which discussed swallowing outcomes after 3DCRT and IMRT for HNC. No outcomes from randomized trials were identified. Despite several methodological limitations, reports from the current literature seem to suggest better swallowing outcomes with IMRT compared to 3DCRT. Further improvements are likely to result from the increased use of IMRT plans optimized for SWOAR sparing. (orig.) [German] Dysphagie ist eine der wichtigsten Nebenwirkungen bei der Behandlung von Kopf-Hals-Tumoren (HNC), da sie zu lebensbedrohlichen Komplikationen wie Aspirationspneumonien und Mangelernaehrung fuehren kann. Durch Erzeugung konkaver Dosisverteilungen und durch die Reduzierung der Dosis an schluckrelevanten Strukturen (SWOAR) kann die IMRT Schluckstoerungen moeglicherweise vermindern. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die gegenwaertige Literaturlage hinsichtlich der Schluckfunktion nach IMRT und konformaler dreidimensionaler Strahlentherapie (3DCRT) systematisch zu ueberpruefen. Studien, die die

  19. Rayleigh wave group velocity and shear wave velocity structure in the San Francisco Bay region from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Thurber, Clifford

    2018-06-01

    We derive new Rayleigh wave group velocity models and a 3-D shear wave velocity model of the upper crust in the San Francisco Bay region using an adaptive grid ambient noise tomography algorithm and 6 months of continuous seismic data from 174 seismic stations from multiple networks. The resolution of the group velocity models is 0.1°-0.2° for short periods (˜3 s) and 0.3°-0.4° for long periods (˜10 s). The new shear wave velocity model of the upper crust reveals a number of important structures. We find distinct velocity contrasts at the Golden Gate segment of the San Andreas Fault, the West Napa Fault, central part of the Hayward Fault and southern part of the Calaveras Fault. Low shear wave velocities are mainly located in Tertiary and Quaternary basins, for instance, La Honda Basin, Livermore Valley and the western and eastern edges of Santa Clara Valley. Low shear wave velocities are also observed at the Sonoma volcanic field. Areas of high shear wave velocity include the Santa Lucia Range, the Gabilan Range and Ben Lomond Plutons, and the Diablo Range, where Franciscan Complex or Silinian rocks are exposed.

  20. Cytogenetical study of different groups of children living in Bryansk region areas contaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandogina, E.K.; Agejkin, V.A.; Zvereva, S.V.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of chromosome aberrations (CA) was studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes from healthy children and children with thyreopathology living in the city of Klincy, Bryansk region (contamination level up to 5 Ci/km 2 ), and two Moscow groups, respectively. We have observed the elevated number of dicentrics and acentric fragments in cell from children with thyreopathology with respect from healthy children living in Klincy. This fact cannot be explained by influence of disease because there was no difference in cytogenetical markers between the groups of healthy children and children with thyreopathology from Moscow. The number of dicentrics was increased in cells from children with high level of internal contamination (more than 400 nCi) living in Krasnaya Gora (15-40 Ci/km 2 ). It is proposed that the internal irradiation is more important for the CA induction. The symmetrical translocation analysis using the method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has shown the absence of this type of aberrations in cells from children with high level of internal irradiation whereas the translocations frequency in cells from control children was (1.1±0.4) per 1000 cells. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Lithospheric structure of the Arabian Shield and Platform from complete regional waveform modelling and surface wave group velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Arthur J.; Walter, William R.; Mellors, Robert J.; Al-Amri, Abdullah M. S.; Zhang, Yu-Shen

    1999-09-01

    Regional seismic waveforms reveal significant differences in the structure of the Arabian Shield and the Arabian Platform. We estimate lithospheric velocity structure by modelling regional waveforms recorded by the 1995-1997 Saudi Arabian Temporary Broadband Deployment using a grid search scheme. We employ a new method whereby we narrow the waveform modelling grid search by first fitting the fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh wave group velocities. The group velocities constrain the average crustal thickness and velocities as well as the crustal velocity gradients. Because the group velocity fitting is computationally much faster than the synthetic seismogram calculation this method allows us to determine good average starting models quickly. Waveform fits of the Pn and Sn body wave arrivals constrain the mantle velocities. The resulting lithospheric structures indicate that the Arabian Platform has an average crustal thickness of 40 km, with relatively low crustal velocities (average crustal P- and S-wave velocities of 6.07 and 3.50 km s^-1 , respectively) without a strong velocity gradient. The Moho is shallower (36 km) and crustal velocities are 6 per cent higher (with a velocity increase with depth) for the Arabian Shield. Fast crustal velocities of the Arabian Shield result from a predominantly mafic composition in the lower crust. Lower velocities in the Arabian Platform crust indicate a bulk felsic composition, consistent with orogenesis of this former active margin. P- and S-wave velocities immediately below the Moho are slower in the Arabian Shield than in the Arabian Platform (7.9 and 4.30 km s^-1 , and 8.10 and 4.55 km s^-1 , respectively). This indicates that the Poisson's ratios for the uppermost mantle of the Arabian Shield and Platform are 0.29 and 0.27, respectively. The lower mantle velocities and higher Poisson's ratio beneath the Arabian Shield probably arise from a partially molten mantle associated with Red Sea spreading and continental

  2. Is the carbohydrate sialosyl-Tn a marker for altered, non-malignant activity in squamous epithelium in the head and neck region?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryne, M.; Gravdahl, C.; Koppang, H.S.

    1995-01-01

    on basal cells in some lesions with epithelial hyperplasia and dysplasia. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic investigation of STn expression on epithelial basal cells in hyperplastic, 'borderline' malignant, and malignant head and neck lesions, to see if the expression of STn is associated...... with basal cells in other locations. The most highly differentiated lesions, such as focal epithelial hyperplasia and verrucous hyperplasia, revealed a high percentage (86 per cent in both cases) of STn reactivity. The least-differentiated verrucous carcinomas (VCs) and keratoacanthomas (KAs) did not express...

  3. Prognostic index for patients with parotid carcinoma - External validation using the nationwide 1985-1994 Dutch Head and Neck Oncology Cooperative Group database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vander Poorten, Vincent L. M.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; van der Laan, Bernardus F. A. M.; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J.; Manni, Johannes J.; Marres, Henri A. M.; Meeuwis, Cees A.; Lubsen, Herman; Terhaard, Chris H. J.; Balm, Alfonsus J. M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Validation of the prognostic indices for the recurrence-free interval of patients with parotid carcinoma, the development of which was described in a previous report, is needed to be confident of their generalizability and justified prospective use. METHODS. The Dutch Cooperative Group

  4. A clinico-etiological study of dermatoses in pediatric age group in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugat A Jawade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatologic conditions have different presentation and management in pediatric age group from that in adult; this to be studied separately for statistical and population based analysis. Objective: To study the pattern of various dermatoses in infants and children in tertiary health care center in South Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study; various dermatoses were studied in pediatric patients up to 14 years of age attending the Dermatology OPD of New Civil Hospital, Surat, Gujarat over a period of 12 months from June 2009 to June 2010. All patients were divided into four different study groups: 1 to 6 years and 7 to 14 years. Results: There were 596 boys and 425 girls in total 1021 study populations. Majority of the skin conditions in neonates were erythema toxicum neonatorum (12.97%, scabies (9.92%, mongolian spot (9.16%, and seborrheic dermatitis (7.63%. In > 1 month to 14 years age group of children among infectious disorder, children were found to be affected most by scabies (24.49%, impetigo (5.96%, pyoderma (5.62%, molluscum contagiosum (5.39%, tinea capitis (4.49%, leprosy (2.02%, and viral warts (1.35% while among non-infectious disorders, they were affected by atopic dermatitis (4.27%, pityriasis alba (4.16%, seborrheic dermatitis (3.60%, pityriasis rosea (3.15%, others (3.01%, phrynoderma (2.70%, lichen planus (2.58%, contact dermatitis (1.57% and ichthyosis (1.45%. Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize on training the management of common pediatric dermatoses to dermatologists, general practitioners and pediatricians for early treatment.

  5. The behavior of rats irradiated with a sublethal single dose of γ-rays on the region of head in open field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smajda, B.; Kiskova, J.; Kereskenyiova, E.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this work was to establish the effects of the irradiation of head in laboratory rats on some forms of naturalistic behavior in the open field test. During a 5-day control period behavioral parameters reflecting motory and explorative activity, as well as anxiousness of animals (6 parameters in total) were followed daily in 20 male Sprague-Dowley rats in an open field test lasting 5 minutes. Fourteen animals were repeatedly tested after irradiation of head with a single dose of 10 Gy of gamma rays. The results showed statistically significant depression of motory and explorative activities during the first 3 days after irradiation in comparison with the control period. The anxiousness of animals was decreased, too. Novelty habituation was observed only in non-irradiated animals. Based on these results it is possible to presume, that the applied dose of ionizing radiation was able to influence the brain centers involved in control of naturalistic behavioral functions connected with response to new environment in rats. (authors)

  6. The clinical utility of reduced-distortion readout-segmented echo-planar imaging in the head and neck region: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyasu, Sho; Iima, Mami; Umeoka, Shigeaki; Morisawa, Nobuko; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto (Japan); Porter, David A. [Siemens AG, MED MR PLM AW Neurology, Allee am Roethelheimpark 2, Erlangen (Germany); Ito, Juichi [Kyoto University, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto (Japan); Le Bihan, Denis [Kyoto University, Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Sakyo-Ku, Kyoto (Japan); Neurospin, CEA-Saclay Center, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    To evaluate whether readout-segmented echo-planar imaging (RS-EPI) diffusion weighted image (DWI) can diminish image distortion in the head and neck area, compared with single-shot (SS)-EPI DWI. We conducted phantom and patient studies using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 16-channel coil. For the phantom study, we evaluated distortion and signal homogeneity in gel phantoms. For the patient study, 29 consecutive patients with clinically suspicious parotid lesions were prospectively enrolled. RS-EPI and SS-EPI DWI were evaluated by two independent readers for identification of organ/lesion and distortion, using semiquantitative scales and quantitative scores. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and contrast-noise ratios of parotid tumours (if present; n = 15) were also compared. The phantom experiments showed that RS-EPI provided less distorted and more homogeneous ADC maps than SS-EPI. In the patient study, RS-EPI was found to provide significantly less distortion in almost all organs/lesions (p < 0.05), according to both semiquantitative scales and quantitative scores. There was no significant difference in ADC values and contrast-noise ratios between the two DWI techniques. The distortion in DWI was significantly reduced with RS-EPI in both phantom and patient studies. The RS-EPI technique provided more homogenous images than SS-EPI, and can potentially offer higher image quality in the head and neck area. (orig.)

  7. Complete mtDNA genomes of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups: a melting pot of recent and ancient lineages in the Asia-Pacific region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfin, Frederick; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Li, Mingkun; Gunnarsdóttir, Ellen D; Tabbada, Kristina A; Salvador, Jazelyn M; Calacal, Gayvelline C; Sagum, Minerva S; Datar, Francisco A; Padilla, Sabino G; De Ungria, Maria Corazon A; Stoneking, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The Philippines is a strategic point in the Asia-Pacific region for the study of human diversity, history and origins, as it is a cross-road for human migrations and consequently exhibits enormous ethnolinguistic diversity. Following on a previous in-depth study of Y-chromosome variation, here we provide new insights into the maternal genetic history of Filipino ethnolinguistic groups by surveying complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genomes from a total of 14 groups (11 groups in this study and 3 groups previously published) including previously published mtDNA hypervariable segment (HVS) data from Filipino regional center groups. Comparison of HVS data indicate genetic differences between ethnolinguistic and regional center groups. The complete mtDNA genomes of 14 ethnolinguistic groups reveal genetic aspects consistent with the Y-chromosome, namely: diversity and heterogeneity of groups, no support for a simple dichotomy between Negrito and non-Negrito groups, and different genetic affinities with Asia-Pacific groups that are both ancient and recent. Although some mtDNA haplogroups can be associated with the Austronesian expansion, there are others that associate with South Asia, Near Oceania and Australia that are consistent with a southern migration route for ethnolinguistic group ancestors into the Asia-Pacific, with a timeline that overlaps with the initial colonization of the Asia-Pacific region, the initial colonization of the Philippines and a possible separate post-colonization migration into the Philippine archipelago. PMID:23756438

  8. Taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler (Formicidae, Myrmicinae in the Afrotropical region, with a review of current species groups and description of a new species of the N. angulatus group from Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Hita Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the taxonomy of the ant genus Nesomyrmex Wheeler, 1910 in the Afrotropical region. Previous revisionary studies are discussed and four species groups are proposed on the basis of external morphology. The N. angulatus group contains seven species that are widely distributed throughout the whole Afrotropical region, with one species also occurring in the Palaearctic and Malagasy regions. The N. cataulacoides group is monotypic, with one morphologically bizarre species found in Equatorial rain forests. The N. humerosus group is also monotypic and occurs in East Africa. The last and by far most species-rich group is the N. simoni group that contains 17 species, all of which are endemic to South Africa. The four groups are defined for the first time for the region, and an illustrated identification key is provided. Furthermore, the N. angulatus group is more thoroughly reviewed. One new species from Mozambique is described, N. inhaca sp. nov., and species accounts for the other six are provided. Also, an illustrated identification key to the species of the N. angulatus group is presented.

  9. Relationships between depth and δ15N of Arctic benthos vary among regions and trophic functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasko, Ashley D.; Bluhm, Bodil A.; Reist, James D.; Swanson, Heidi; Power, Michael

    2018-05-01

    Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen (δ15N) of benthic primary consumers are often significantly related to water depth. This relationship is commonly attributed to preferential uptake of 14N from sinking particulate organic matter (POM) by microbes, and suggests that relationships between δ15N and water depth may be affected by local POM sources and flux dynamics. We examined the relationships between δ15N and water depth (20-500 m) for six trophic functional groups using a mixed effects modelling approach, and compared relationships between two contiguous Arctic marine ecosystems with different POM sources and sinking export dynamics: the Canadian Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf. We demonstrate for the first time in the Arctic that δ15N values of mobile epifaunal carnivores increased as a function of depth when considered separately from benthopelagic and infaunal carnivores, which contrarily did not exhibit increasing δ15N with depth. The δ15N of suspension/filter feeders, infaunal deposit feeders and bulk sediment also increased with water depth, and the slopes of the relationships were steeper in the Amundsen Gulf than in the Beaufort Sea. We propose that regional differences in slopes reflect differences in POM sources exported to the benthos. In the Beaufort Sea, terrestrial POM discharged from the Mackenzie River quantitatively dominates the sedimentary organic matter across the continental shelf and slope, dampening change in δ15N of benthic POM with depth. In the Amundsen Gulf, we attribute a faster rate of change in δ15N of POM with increasing depth to larger contributions of marine-derived POM to the benthic sedimentary pool, which had likely undergone extensive biological transformation in the productive offshore pelagic zone. Differences in POM input regimes among regions should be considered when comparing food webs using stable isotopes, as such differences may impact the rate at which consumer δ15N changes with depth.

  10. Restitution report of the working group called 'access to the information' implemented in the framework of the public debate EPR ''head of series'' at Flamanville

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    The works realized by this working group show some strong conclusions. The citizen confidence in the information access availability must be reinforced. The existence of secrets protecting the industrialists and the Nation interests seems all the more legitimate since they are well limited.The respect of the industrial and commercial secret is not an opposition to a better access to the nuclear safety documents. The defense secret is an indispensable element of the nuclear safety but its role and limits must be debated. (A.L.B.)

  11. Soft-tissue anatomy of the primates: phylogenetic analyses based on the muscles of the head, neck, pectoral region and upper limb, with notes on the evolution of these muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Wood, B

    2011-01-01

    Apart from molecular data, nearly all the evidence used to study primate relationships comes from hard tissues. Here, we provide details of the first parsimony and Bayesian cladistic analyses of the order Primates based exclusively on muscle data. The most parsimonious tree obtained from the cladistic analysis of 166 characters taken from the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature is fully congruent with the most recent evolutionary molecular tree of Primates. That is, this tree recovers not only the relationships among the major groups of primates, i.e. Strepsirrhini {Tarsiiformes [Platyrrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hominoidea)]}, but it also recovers the relationships within each of these inclusive groups. Of the 301 character state changes occurring in this tree, ca. 30% are non-homoplasic evolutionary transitions; within the 220 changes that are unambiguously optimized in the tree, ca. 15% are reversions. The trees obtained by using characters derived from the muscles of the head and neck are more similar to the most recent evolutionary molecular tree than are the trees obtained by using characters derived from the pectoral and upper limb muscles. It was recently argued that since the Pan/Homo split, chimpanzees accumulated more phenotypic adaptations than humans, but our results indicate that modern humans accumulated more muscle character state changes than chimpanzees, and that both these taxa accumulated more changes than gorillas. This overview of the evolution of the primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature suggests that the only muscle groups for which modern humans have more muscles than most other extant primates are the muscles of the face, larynx and forearm. PMID:21689100

  12. Soft-tissue anatomy of the primates: phylogenetic analyses based on the muscles of the head, neck, pectoral region and upper limb, with notes on the evolution of these muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Wood, B

    2011-09-01

    Apart from molecular data, nearly all the evidence used to study primate relationships comes from hard tissues. Here, we provide details of the first parsimony and Bayesian cladistic analyses of the order Primates based exclusively on muscle data. The most parsimonious tree obtained from the cladistic analysis of 166 characters taken from the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature is fully congruent with the most recent evolutionary molecular tree of Primates. That is, this tree recovers not only the relationships among the major groups of primates, i.e. Strepsirrhini {Tarsiiformes [Platyrrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hominoidea)]}, but it also recovers the relationships within each of these inclusive groups. Of the 301 character state changes occurring in this tree, ca. 30% are non-homoplasic evolutionary transitions; within the 220 changes that are unambiguously optimized in the tree, ca. 15% are reversions. The trees obtained by using characters derived from the muscles of the head and neck are more similar to the most recent evolutionary molecular tree than are the trees obtained by using characters derived from the pectoral and upper limb muscles. It was recently argued that since the Pan/Homo split, chimpanzees accumulated more phenotypic adaptations than humans, but our results indicate that modern humans accumulated more muscle character state changes than chimpanzees, and that both these taxa accumulated more changes than gorillas. This overview of the evolution of the primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature suggests that the only muscle groups for which modern humans have more muscles than most other extant primates are the muscles of the face, larynx and forearm. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Trend of head circumference as a predictor of microcephaly among term infants born at a regional center in Malaysia between 2011-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutan R

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosnah Sutan,1 May Luu Yeong,1 Zaleha Abdullah Mahdy,2 Ahmad Shuhaila,2 Jaafar Rohana,3 Shareena Ishak,3 Khadijah Shamsuddin,1 Aniza Ismail,1 Idayu Badillah Idris,1 Saperi Sulong4 1Department of Community Health, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Pediatrics, 4Department of Medical Records, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the trend of head circumference as predictor of microcephaly among term infants born in a teaching hospital in Malaysia from 2011 to 2015. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the electronic birth census. The independent variables were mothers’ age and height, parity, birth weight and birth length. All term newborns, both alive and stillbirth, with 37–41 completed gestational weeks, and a birth weight of at least 500 g was extracted from the census. Results: A total of 26,503 newborns fulfilled the inclusion criteria (13,655 males, 12,840 females. The mean head circumferences for male and female newborns were 32.93 cm (± SD 1.32 and 32.56 cm (± SD 1.31. The average head circumference for Malaysian newborns was found to be smaller than the World Health Organization Standard Growth Chart for Term Infant. A total of 17.6% (n=4,669 of the total samples were observed to have microcephaly. Among them, 73.2% (n=3,419 were non-proportionate microcephaly with normal birth weight of 2.5kg and above. Bivariate analyses showed that all independent variables were significant predictors of microcephaly. Both simple and multiple logistic regressions demonstrated that low birth weight was the most significant predictors for microcephaly (adjusted OR 12.14, 95% CI 10.80, 13.65. Conclusion: There is an increasing trend of microcephaly across the years and the low birth weight was noted as the main predictor of microcephaly. Future studies are needed to determine the possible cause of increasing

  14. [The general practitioners in front of reforms: the reactions of the sample group of liberal physicians of the region PACA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videau, Yann; Ventelou, Bruno; Combes, Jean-Baptiste; Verger, Pierre; Paraponaris, Alain

    2007-05-01

    The general practitioners in front of reforms: the reactions of the sample group of liberal physicians of the region PACA This article intends to analyse the opinion of general practioners (GPs) about the two laws of July 2004, relating to the health insurance reform and to public health planning. We used a panel data sample of 528 GPs practising in Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur in order to analyse the determinants of physicians' adherence to the reform, using multinomial logistic regression models. The results show that GPs do not seem to be fully convinced by this reform (45% agree with it, whereas 48% don't): this mistrustful opinion is more marked for young physicians and appears little correlated with their practices. 75% of the GPs are favourable to the Personal Medical File (Dossier Médical Personnel in french) and 76% estimate that they should draw a better attention to the public health dimension of their practice. Two barriers concerning GPs' adherence to the doctor > reform (réforme du ) seem relevant: the burden of administrative tasks and the disadvantage of young physicians who have not already fixed their own clientele.

  15. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP3-02: A Novel Setup Approach to Improve C-Spine Curvature Reproducibility for Head and Neck Radiotherapy Using Optical Surface Imaging with Two Regions of Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, K; Gil, M; Li, G [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Della Biancia, C [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a novel approach to improve cervical spine (c-spine) curvature reproducibility for head and neck (HN) patients using optical surface imaging (OSI) with two regions of interests (ROIs). Methods: The OSI-guided, two-step setup procedure requires two ROIs: ROI-1 of the shoulders and ROI-2 of the face. The neck can be stretched or squeezed in superior-inferior (SI) direction using a specially-designed sliding head support. We hypothesize that when these two ROIs are aligned, the c-spine should fall into a naturally reproducible position under same setup conditions. An anthropomorphous phantom test was performed to examine neck pitch angles comparing with the calculated angles. Three volunteers participated in the experiments, which start with conventional HN setup using skin markers and room lasers. An OSI image and lateral photo-picture were acquired as the references. In each of the three replicate tests, conventional setup was first applied after volunteers got on the couch. ROI-1 was aligned by moving the body, followed by ROI-2 alignment via adjusting head position and orientation under real-time OSI guidance. A final static OSI image and lateral picture were taken to evaluate both anterior and posterior surface alignments. Three degrees of freedom can be adjusted if an open-face mask was applied, including head SI shift using the sliding head support and pitch-and-roll rotations using a commercial couch extension. Surface alignment was analyzed comparing with conventional setup. Results: The neck pitch angle measured by OSI is consistent with the calculated (0.2±0.6°). Volunteer study illustrated improved c-spine setup reproducibility using OSI comparing with conventional setup. ROI alignments with 2mm/1° tolerance are achieved within 3 minutes. Identical knee support is important to achieve ROI-1 pitch alignment. Conclusion: The feasibility of this novel approach has been demonstrated for c-spine curvature setup reproducibility. Further

  16. FORMING PROFESSIONAL SKILLS OF THE PROSPECTIVE HEADS OF CHILDREN'S DANCE GROUPS DURING THE CHOREOGRAPHIC ACTIVITIES IN THE COURSE "FOLK DANCE THEORY AND METHODOLOGY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kotov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the urgent problem of contemporary art pedagogy – involvement to training future professional choreographic traditions of different nations. Addressing to this problem is caused by a number of socio-political events in Ukraine, mainstreaming of national and international education, integration of Ukrainian education with the European educational space, intensive development of domestic students’ intercultural communication with young people from different countries, which is the basis for updating national art education. Prospective choreographers, who are being training at pedagogical universities to manage children's dance groups, should actively be involved into creating their own productions of folk dance various genres. It promotes the formation of choreographers’ professional competence and pedagogical skills. The development of Georgian "Lezginka" is proposed – a joint creative work of the teacher and students who get higher education degree in SHEE “Donbass State Pedagogical University” (Bachelor's Degree. Development of the dance contains schematic drawings of dance figures, it is recommended for use in forming choreographers’ professional skills while studying the course "Folk Dance Theory and Methodology". The author admits that folklore material requires a cautious, respectful attitude. Therefore, modern folk stage dances are integrally to combine traditional choreographic manner with its new interpretations. The author believes the actual capture of different nations’ choreographic culture improves intercultural youth communication; involves future professionals into the traditions of different nations; form professional skills of managers of children’s dance groups. The author concluded that a dance always reflects consciousness of different nations; future choreographers should be aware of characteristic features of dances of different world nations so that on the basis of traditional

  17. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I) - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinkel, Christian; Scherens, A; Köller, M; Roellecke, G; Muhr, G; Maier, C

    2009-03-17

    The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I) is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP), White Blood Cell Count (WBC), Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70), Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-a) and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E,L,P), Substance-P (SP), and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC) and chronic (CC) CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR), with neuralgia (NE), and from healthy volunteers (C). No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007), FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048) and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049). High interindividual variations were observed. No intra- or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification) or outcome was detectable. Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this pilot study. Determination of systemic inflammatory

  18. Systemic inflammatory mediators in post-traumatic Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS I - longitudinal investigations and differences to control groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schinkel Ch

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives The Complex Regional Pain Syndrome I (CRPS I is a disease that might affect an extremity after trauma or operation. The pathogenesis remains yet unclear. It has clinical signs of severe local inflammation as a result of an exaggerated inflammatory response but neurogenic dysregulation also contributes to it. Some studies investigated the role inflammatory mediators and cytokines; however, few longitudinal studies exist and control groups except healthy controls were not investigated yet. Methods To get further insights into the role of systemic inflammatory mediators in CRPS I, we investigated a variety of pro-, anti-, or neuro-inflammatory mediators such as C-Reactive Protein (CRP, White Blood Cell Count (WBC, Interleukins 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12 (p70, Interferon gamma, Tumor-Necrosis-Factor alpha (TNF-α and its soluble Receptors I/II, soluble Selectins (E, L, P, Substance-P (SP, and Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP at different time points in venous blood from patients with acute (AC and chronic (CC CRPS I, patients with forearm fractures (FR, with neuralgia (NE, and from healthy volunteers (C. Results No significant changes for serum parameters investigated in CRPS compared to control groups were found except for CC/C (CGRP p = 0.007, FR/C (CGRP p = 0.048 and AC/CC (IL-12 p = 0.02; TNFRI/II p = 0.01; SP p = 0.049. High interindividual variations were observed. No intra-or interindividual correlation of parameters with clinical course (e.g. chronification or outcome was detectable. Conclusion Although clinically appearing as inflammation in acute stages, local rather than systemic inflammatory responses seem to be relevant in CRPS. Variable results from different studies might be explained by unpredictable intermittent release of mediators from local inflammatory processes into the blood combined with high interindividual variabilities. A clinically relevant difference to various control groups was not notable in this

  19. Developing Inventory Projection Models Using Empirical Net Forest Growth and Growing-Stock Density Relationships Across U.S. Regions and Species Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; Peter J. Ince; Kenneth E. Skog; Sun J. Chang

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a set of empirical net forest growth models based on forest growing-stock density relationships for three U.S. regions (North, South, and West) and two species groups (softwoods and hardwoods) at the regional aggregate level. The growth models accurately predict historical U.S. timber inventory trends when we incorporate historical timber harvests...

  20. Is HEADS in our heads?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Kirsten A; Hertz, Pernille Grarup; Blix, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    contraception], Safety, Self-harm) interview is a feasible way of exploring health risk behaviors and resilience. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate how often HEADS topics were addressed according to young patients and staff in pediatric and adult outpatient clinics. METHODS: We conducted...... care professionals participated. We found only small reported differences between staff and young patients regarding whether home, education, and activity were addressed. However, staff reported twice the rate of addressing smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception compared to young...... patients. Young patients reported that smoking, alcohol, illegal drugs, sexuality, and contraception were addressed significantly more at adult clinics in comparison to pediatric clinics. After controlling for age, gender and duration of illness, according to young patients, adjusted odds ratios...

  1. Tuberculosis in children and adolescents of various age groups in Saratov Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Аleksandrova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the stabilization of tuberculosis epidemiological situation in Saratov Region, there is reduction of tuberculosis incidence both in children and adolescents, which is due to the performed tuberculosis control activities aimed at early detection and prevention of tuberculosis. Cases of 150 children and 125 adolescents treated at the Saratov RTBD from 2009 to 2013 were analyzed. It was found out that preventive detection of tuberculosis was equally efficient in children and adolescents (p = 0.3024. Wide introduction of computer tomography and Diaskintest into practice increased the number of persons followed up as Group 0 twice in 2013 compared to 2009 (p = 0.0038 and it caused the increase in the frequency of tuberculous intoxication (p = 0.0422 and focal tuberculosis in the structure of clinical forms of tuberculosis in children. Exposure to tuberculosis was found in 48.7% of followed-up cases among children and in 25.6% among adolescents. The father was the most common source of infection. The lack of quality immune prevention in children during first 2 years of life promoted the development of local tuberculosis.

  2. Diversity of group A rotavirus genes detected in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Bernardes Dulgheroff

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Group A rotaviruses are the main causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis. The segmented nature of the viral genome allows reassortment of genome segments, which can generate genetic variants. In this study, we characterized the diversity of the VP7, VP4 (VP8*, VP6, NSP4, and NSP5 genes of the rotaviruses that circulated from 2005 to 2011 in the Triângulo Mineiro (TM region of Brazil. Samples with genotypes G2 (sublineages IVa-1 and IVa-3, G1 (sublineage I-A, G9 (lineage III, G12 (lineages II and III, G8 (lineage II, G3 (lineage III, P[4] (sublineages IVa and IVb, P[8] (sublineages P[8]-3.6, P[8]-3.3, and P[8]-3.1, I2 (lineage VII, E2 (lineages VI, XII, and X, and H2 (lineage III were identified. The associations found in the samples were G1, G9, or G12 with P[8]-I1-E1-H1; G2 or G8 with P[4]-I2-E2-H2; G12 with I3-E3-H6; and G3 with P[4]-I2-E3-H3 (previously unreported combination. Reassortment events in G2P[4] strains and an apparent pattern of temporal segregation within the lineages were observed. Five TM samples contained genes that exhibited high nucleotide and amino acid identities with strains of animal origin. The present study includes a period of pre- and post-introduction of rotavirus vaccination in all Brazilian territories, thereby serving as a basis for monitoring changes in the genetic constitution of rotaviruses. The results also contribute to the understanding of the diversity and evolution of rotaviruses in a global context.

  3. Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup and the Expert Regional Technical Group, Annual Report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This document is the annual report for the period September 1, 2014 through August 31, 2015 for the project—Facilitation of the Estuary/Ocean Subgroup (EOS) and the Expert Regional Technical Group (ERTG). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the project for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The EOS and ERTG are part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) and habitat restoration efforts, respectively, developed by the Action Agencies (BPA, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [Corps or USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) and implemented under the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP). BPA/Corps (2015) explain the CEERP and the role of RME and the ERTG. For the purposes of this report, the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE) includes the floodplain from Bonneville Dam down through the lower river and estuary into the river’s plume in the ocean. The main purpose of this project is to facilitate EOS and ERTG meetings and work products. Other purposes are to provide technical support for CEERP adaptive management, CEERP restoration design challenges, and tributary RME. From 2002 through 2008, the EOS worked to design the federal RME program for the estuary/ocean (Johnson et al. 2008). From 2009 to the present day, EOS activities have involved RME implementation; however, EOS activities were minimal during the current reporting period. PNNL provided technical support to CEERP’s adaptive management process by convening 1.2 meetings of the Action Agencies (AAs) and drafting material for the “CEERP 2015 Restoration and Monitoring Plan” (BPA/Corps 2015).

  4. Head Impact Laboratory (HIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The HIL uses testing devices to evaluate vehicle interior energy attenuating (EA) technologies for mitigating head injuries resulting from head impacts during mine/...

  5. Monte Carlo based investigations of electron contamination from telecobalt unit head in build up region and its impact on surface dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, A S; Palani Selvam, T; Patil, B J; Chavan, S T; Pethe, S N; Kulkarni, Gauri; Dahiwale, S S; Bhoraskar, V N; Dhole, S D

    2016-12-01

    A Telecobalt unit has wide range of applications in cancer treatments and is used widely in many countries all around the world. Estimation of surface dose in Cobalt-60 teletherapy machine becomes important since clinically useful photon beam consist of contaminated electrons during the patient treatment. EGSnrc along with the BEAMnrc user code was used to model the Theratron 780E telecobalt unit. Central axis depth dose profiles including surface doses have been estimated for the field sizes of 0×0, 6×6, 10×10, 15×15, 20×20, 25×25, 30×30cm 2 and at Source-to-surface distance (SSD) of 60 and 80cm. Surface dose was measured experimentally by the Gafchromic RTQA2 films and are in good agreement with the simulation results. The central axis depth dose data are compared with the data available from the British Journal of Radiology report no. 25. Contribution of contaminated electrons has also been calculated using Monte Carlo simulation by the different parts of the Cobalt-60 head for different field size and SSD's. Moreover, depth dose curve in zero area field size is calculated by extrapolation method and compared with the already published data. They are found in good agreement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot study of intraoperative digital imaging with the use of a mammograph for assessment of bone surgical margins in the head and neck region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntomouchtsis, A.; Xinou, K.; Patrikidou, A.; Paraskevopoulos, K.; Kechagias, N.; Tsekos, A.; Balis, G.C.; Gerasimidou, D.; Thuau, H.; Mangoudi, D.; Vahtsevanos, K.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate alternative possibilities for the intraoperative evaluation of surgical margins after bone resection utilizing more conventional hospital infrastructure technologies. Materials and methods: A small pilot study was performed using digital mammograph imaging intraoperatively on 16 surgical specimens of bone tumours or malignancies with bone infiltration of the head and neck area, with the aim of evaluating the resection margins. Results: In thirteen cases the intraoperative specimen images indicated clinically complete excision. In two cases incomplete resection or close proximity of margins was detected, which required additional resection. Conclusions: The results indicated that intraoperative specimen radiography can prove useful in evaluating completeness of excision. The significance of intraoperative assessment of surgical margin is of paramount importance when immediate reconstruction is performed. This proposed method is cheap, easy to perform and fast. Its cost–benefit ratio is superior than that of any other available technique. Intraoperative analysis of specimens with digital mammography imaging can potentially become a useful tool for immediate evaluation of osseous margins after resection

  7. GROUPING OF MUNICIPAL DISTRICTS OF THE ASTRAKHAN REGION OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS WITH APPLICATION OF FACTOR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Kolomeiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article analyzed and identifi ed the main factors affecting the level of poverty of the population in Astrakhan region made a multi-dimensional classifi cation of municipal districts of the Astrakhan region on socio-economic indicators characterizing the poverty of the population on thebasis of the cluster analysis.

  8. Undergraduate Regional Migration in the UK: Perspectives on Local Markets and Trends for Gender and International Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Robert J.; Gandy, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of degree course acceptances for UK undergraduate students in 2002 and 2008. It examines student mobility between the UK regions, and the trends in their movement within local markets. Data shows a growing trend for students to study within local regions, especially women. Increases in acceptances of over 10% are…

  9. 17 years of grassland management leads to parallel local and regional biodiversity shifts among a wide range of taxonomic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordwijk, van C.G.E.; Baeten, Lander; Turin, Hans; Heijerman, Theodoor; Alders, Kees; Boer, Peter; Mabelis, A.A.; Siepel, Henk; Berg, Matty P.; Bonte, Dries

    2017-01-01

    Conservation management is expected to increase local biodiversity, but uniform management may lead to biotic homogenization and diversity losses at the regional scale. We evaluated the effects of renewed grazing and cutting management carried out across a whole region, on the diversity of plants

  10. Multiple drug resistance patterns in various phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic E.coli isolated from Faisalabad region of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saira Bashir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the phylogenetic characterization of local clinical isolates of uropathogenic E. coli with respect to drug resistance. A total of 59 uropathogenic E. coli responsible for community acquired urinary tract infections were included in this study. A triplex PCR was employed to segregate each isolate into four different phylogenetic groups (A, B1, B2 and D. Drug resistance was evaluated by disc diffusion method. The drugs used were ampicillin, aztreonam, cefixime, cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cephradine among β-lactam group; amikacin, gentamicin, and streptomycin among aminoglycosides; nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin from quinolones; trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole, and tetracycline. Among 59 uropathogenic E. coli isolates majority belonged to phylogenetic group B2 (50% where as 19% each belonged to groups A and B1, and 12% to group D. All the isolates were multiple drug resistant (MDR. Most effective drugs against Group A, B1, and B2 were gentamicin, amikacin and cefixime; ceftriaxone and quinolones; and ceftriaxone and amikacin, respectively. Group D isolates were found to be highly resistant to all drugs. Our results have shown emergence of MDR isolates among uropathogenic E. coli with dominance of phylogenetic group B2. However, it was found that group D isolates were though less frequent, more drug resistant as compared with group B2. Groups A and B1 were relatively uncommon. Amikacin, ceftriaxone and gentamicin were the most effective drugs in general.

  11. Recurrence and survival after neck dissections in cutaneous head and neck melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Stemann; Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Thamsborg, Andreas Key Milan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An important prognostic factor in head and neck melanoma is the status of the regional lymph nodes since the presence of metastatic disease in the nodes greatly aggravates the prognosis. There is no consensus on the surgical treatment algorithm for this group. Our aim was to study i...

  12. Head Trauma: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Head trauma: First aid Head trauma: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most head trauma involves injuries that are minor and don't require ... 21, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-head-trauma/basics/ART-20056626 . Mayo ...

  13. Head capsule, chephalic central nervous system and head circulatory system of an aberrant orthopteran, Prosarthria teretrirostris (Caelifera, Hexapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Eileen; Hertel, Wieland; Beutel, Rolf Georg

    2007-01-01

    The head capsule, the circulatory system and the central nervous system of the head of Prosarthria teretrirostris (Proscopiidae) is described in detail, with special consideration of modifications resulting from the aberrant head shape. The transformations of the head are completely different from those found in phasmatodeans, which are also characterised by twig mimesis. The circulatory system is distinctly modified. A hitherto undescribed additional structure in the posterior head region very likely functions as a pulsatile organ. The cephalic central nervous system is strongly elongated, with changes in the position of the suboesophageal ganglion, the corpora cardiaca and the course of the nervus mandibularis. Three-dimensional reconstructions of these two organ systems in combination with the pharynx were made using Alias Maya 6.0 software. Comparisons with other representatives of Caelifera suggest a clade comprising Proscopiidae and Morabinae. The presence of a transverse muscle connecting the antennal ampullae in Prosarthria shows that this structure likely belongs to the groundplan of Orthoptera, even though it is missing in different representatives of this group. The transverse ampullary muscle is a potential synapomorphy of Orthoptera, Phasmatodea and Dictyoptera.

  14. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Wang, Cantian; Chen, Tingting; Hu, Shuang; Yi, Kaihong; Tan, Xuerui

    2017-04-01

     Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%), 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%), 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%), and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%). Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91), 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09) and  4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76). Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  15. ABO blood groups and risk of deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population from Chaoshan region in South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To demonstrate the prevalence of ABO blood groups with deep venous thromboembolism in Chinese Han population. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted between January 2010 and March 2015 in The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College in Chaoshan District of Guangdong Province in South China. Eighty nine patients with confirmed diagnosis of deep venous thromboembolism were included. Frequency of blood groups was determined. Results: Of 89 patients with deep venous thromboembolism, 28 patients had blood group A (31.5%, 28 patients had blood group B (31.5%, 13 patients had blood group AB (14.6%, and 20 patients had blood group O (22.5%. Compared with O blood type, the odds ratios of deep venous thromboembolism for A, B and AB were 2.23 (95% CI, 1.27-3.91, 2.34 (95% CI, 1.34-4.09 and 4.43 (95% CI, 2.24-8.76. Conclusion: There is a higher risk of venous thromboembolism in non-O blood groups than O group.

  16. Second cancers following radiotherapy for early stage head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Ryo-ichi; Oota, Sayako; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Miura, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    Different site specificity of second primary cancer following treatment for early stage squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck was found in the analysis of post-treatment long-term follow up cases. The highest risk of second primary cancer was observed in the oro-hypo-pharynx cancer groups, and the lowest risks were observed in the epi-pharynx cancer and maxillary sinus cancer groups. Squamous cell carcinoma in the irradiated head and neck region with long latency periods could be included in the radiation induced cancer from comparison with post-irradiation cases for malignant lymphoma, benign diseases as well as breast cancers. (author)

  17. Report of the advisory group meeting on the establishment of regional ion accelerator centers and user networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    In this report it is shown that ion accelerators have had a tremendous economic and technological impact on most developed countries, and are beginning to have a significant impact on developing countries. Through the formation of Accelerator Centers and User Networks (which may be national, regional or inter-regional) a mechanism will be outlined by which scientists and other users from developing countries can receive the necessary training and have available the necessary accelerator facilities to use these machines for economic improvement and technological development in their countries

  18. Determination of trace element concentration in infant head hair of Rawalpindi/Islamabad area using INAA technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Gill, K.P.

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of 18 minor and trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in infant head hair was determined. The data provide the base-line values of these elements in head hair of infants of low- and medium-income group subjects. The statistical results show that there are significant correlations between some elements such as: Ca-Zn, Ca-Fe, Mg-Ca, Mg-Mn and Mg-Fe. The results obtained have been compared with the data reported in the literature. Our data show compatibility of elemental contents of infant head hair with those from some of the other geological regions but also deviate in some cases. (orig.)

  19. Loss of lager specific genes and subtelomeric regions define two different Saccharomyces cerevisiae lineages for Saccharomyces pastorianus Group I and II strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monerawela, Chandre; James, Tharappel C; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Bond, Ursula

    2015-03-01

    Lager yeasts, Saccharomyces pastorianus, are interspecies hybrids between S. cerevisiae and S. eubayanus and are classified into Group I and Group II clades. The genome of the Group II strain, Weihenstephan 34/70, contains eight so-called 'lager-specific' genes that are located in subtelomeric regions. We evaluated the origins of these genes through bioinformatic and PCR analyses of Saccharomyces genomes. We determined that four are of cerevisiae origin while four originate from S. eubayanus. The Group I yeasts contain all four S. eubayanus genes but individual strains contain only a subset of the cerevisiae genes. We identified S. cerevisiae strains that contain all four cerevisiae 'lager-specific' genes, and distinct patterns of loss of these genes in other strains. Analysis of the subtelomeric regions uncovered patterns of loss in different S. cerevisiae strains. We identify two classes of S. cerevisiae strains: ale yeasts (Foster O) and stout yeasts with patterns of 'lager-specific' genes and subtelomeric regions identical to Group I and II S. pastorianus yeasts, respectively. These findings lead us to propose that Group I and II S. pastorianus strains originate from separate hybridization events involving different S. cerevisiae lineages. Using the combined bioinformatic and PCR data, we describe a potential classification map for industrial yeasts. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permission@oup.com.

  20. Future systems for regional defence: The case in an enlarged European Union. Report on working group 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Report deals with the future systems for regional defense in case of an enlarged European Union. In the frame of security issues the future of nuclear arms control and disarmament if of concern. The implications of NATO expansion to the east and desirability of establishing a nuclear-weapon-free-zone from the Baltic to the Black Sea are discussed at length

  1. Description of two new species of the Neoperla montivaga group (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Zhang, Sujiong; Li, Weihai

    2017-03-05

    The following two new species from Shiwandashan of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China are described, Neoperla bicolor Yang, Zhang & Li, sp. nov. and N. muranyii Yang, Zhang & Li, sp. nov. The new species are compared with related congeners of their respective species subgroups.

  2. Climate change impacts in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) region and their implications for vulnerable population groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waha, Katharina; Krummenauer, Linda; Adams, Sophie; Aich, Valentin; Baarsch, Florent; Coumou, Dim; Fader, Marianela; Hoff, Holger; Jobbins, Guy; Marcus, Rachel; Mengel, Matthias; Otto, Ilona M.; Perrette, Mahé; Rocha, Marcia; Robinson, Alexander; Schleussner, Carl Friedrich

    2017-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region emerges as one of the hot spots for worsening extreme heat, drought and aridity conditions under climate change. A synthesis of peer-reviewed literature from 2010 to date and own modeling work on biophysical impacts of climate change on selected sectors

  3. Working group 4a: Regional aspects. Nuclear power plants siting in the dutch speaking part of the country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willems, M.; Medart, R.; Vanneste, O.

    1976-01-01

    The problems due to nuclear plant siting in the northern region of Belgium are reviewed with an emphasis on economical, environmental and esthetical aspects. Three types of sitings were analysed: inland, coastal and off-shore. For the in-land siting, Doel, where already two units are in operation (780 MWe) and a third in construction (900 MWe), is supposed to be able to receive a fourth unit of 1000 MWe. The coastal siting is practically impossible for two reasons: the lack of cooling water when a coastal inland region of 5 km is considered and the strong density of tourists on the 66 km coast. For artificial island siting the different aspects are considered: type of soil, marine environment, construction factors, security, construction time, costs, etc. A comparative study for 9 off-shore sites is presented. (A.F.)

  4. Working Hours of Surgical Residence: Perspective of a Group of Surgeons in a Regional Hospital in Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Siu-Fai; Spurgeon, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and European working time directive have restricted residents' workweek to 80 and 48 hours, respectively. Impacts on resident's training and health services are under evaluation in western countries. However, relevant studies are deficient in Hong Kong. Methods: Surgeons in a regional hospital of Hong Kong were recruited. Opinions were collected by semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Response rate was 82%. Most respondents agr...

  5. Collaborative survey of perinatal loss in planned and unplanned home births. Northern Region Perinatal Mortality Survey Coordinating Group.

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the outcome of planned and unplanned births outside hospital. DESIGN: Confidential review of every pregnancy ending in stillbirth or neonatal death in which plans had been made for home delivery, irrespective of where delivery eventually occurred. The review was part of a sustained collaborative survey of all perinatal deaths. SETTING: Northern Regional Health Authority area. SUBJECTS: All 558,691 registered births to women normally resident in the former Northern Regio...

  6. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lozano, Rafael; Naghavi, Mohsen; Foreman, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Reliable and timely information on the leading causes of death in populations, and how these are changing, is a crucial input into health policy debates. In the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2010 (GBD 2010), we aimed to estimate annual deaths for the world and 21 reg...... regions between 1980 and 2010 for 235 causes, with uncertainty intervals (UIs), separately by age and sex....

  7. An evaluation of the gingival biotype and the width of keratinized gingiva in the mandibular anterior region of individuals with different dental malocclusion groups and levels of crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Yeşim; Alkan, Özer; Keskin, Sıddık

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship of gingival thickness (GT) and the width of keratinized gingiva (WKG) with different malocclusion groups and the level of crowding. A total of 187 periodontally healthy subjects (121 females and 66 males) who presented at the Faculty of Dentistry in Yüzüncü Yıl University for orthodontic treatment were enrolled in the study. The individuals involved in the study were divided into three groups; Angle Class I malocclusion, Angle Class II malocclusion, and Angle Class III malocclusion. Each group was classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to the level of crowding. WKG was determined as the distance between the mucogingival junction and the free gingival margin. GT was determined by the transgingival probing technique. Factorial variance analysis and the Duncan multiple comparison test were employed to identify the extent to which a difference was apparent between the groups according to these parameters. It was determined that teeth in the mandibular anterior region display the thin gingival biotype. WKG and GT were observed as being higher at the mandibular incisor teeth in the severe crowding group and at the mandibular canine teeth in the mild crowding group. The GT of the mandibular right central and lateral incisors was found to be thinner in the Angle Class III group. Within the limits of this study, the results demonstrate that, there is no significant relationship of WKG and the mean GT in the mandibular anterior region according to the Angle classification.

  8. Collaborative survey of perinatal loss in planned and unplanned home births. Northern Region Perinatal Mortality Survey Coordinating Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-23

    To document the outcome of planned and unplanned births outside hospital. Confidential review of every pregnancy ending in stillbirth or neonatal death in which plans had been made for home delivery, irrespective of where delivery eventually occurred. The review was part of a sustained collaborative survey of all perinatal deaths. Northern Regional Health Authority area. All 558,691 registered births to women normally resident in the former Northern Regional Health Authority area during 1981-94. Perinatal death. The estimated perinatal mortality during 1981-94 among women booked for a home birth was 14 deaths in 2888 births. This was less than half that among all women in the region. Only three of the 14 women delivered outside hospital. Independent review suggested that two of the 14 deaths might have been averted by different management. Both births occurred in hospital, and in only one was management before admission of the mother judged inappropriate. Perinatal loss to the 64 women who booked for hospital delivery but delivered outside and to the 67 women who delivered outside hospital without ever making arrangements to receive professional care during labour accounted for the high perinatal mortality (134 deaths in 3466 deliveries) among all births outside hospital. The perinatal hazard associated with planned home birth in the few women who exercised this option (unplanned delivery outside hospital.

  9. 12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Anna Pantelia

    2013-01-01

    12 December 2013 - Sir Konstantin Novoselov, Nobel Prize in Physics 2010, signing the guest book with International Relations Adviser E. Tsesmelis; visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with Spokesperson D. Charlton; in the LHC tunnel with Technology Department Head F. Bordry. I. Antoniadis, CERN Theory Group Leader, accompanies throughout.

  10. 9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    9 April 2013 - Minister for Universities and Science United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland D. Willetts in the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton and in the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Beams Department Head P. Collier. Director for Accelerators and Technology S. Myers, Editor at the Communication Group K. Kahle and Beams Department Engineer R. Veness present.

  11. Key environmental challenges for food groups and regions representing the variation within the EU, Ch.3 Salmon Aquaculture Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G., Ólafsdóttir; Andrade, Grace Patricia Viera; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2013-01-01

    The report is aimed to give a thorough review of different environmental impacts that the food and drink sector are producing along the whole chain, from fork to farm and to assess which of them are the key environmental challenges for Europe. A representative range of product groups have been ch...... chosen: • Orange juice • Beef and dairy • Aquaculture (salmon)...

  12. Regional Growth and income convergence in the western black belt counties of Alabama: evidence from census block group data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhi Gyawali; Rory Fraser; James Bukenya; John Schelhas

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of growth in African Ameriocan population, employment, and human capital on growth in per capita income at the census block group (CBG) level using ordinary least square and spatial reqression models. The results indicate the presence of conditional incaom conbergence between 1980 and 2000 with poorer CBGs growing faster than the...

  13. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  14. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  15. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, dizziness, and other ... aneurysm, bleeding, stroke and brain tumors. It also helps your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and ...

  16. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer Others American Stroke Association National Stroke Association ... Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ...

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When the image slices are reassembled by computer software, the result is a very detailed multidimensional view ... Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Videos related to Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by ...

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of CT Scanning of the Head? What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, ... than regular radiographs (x-rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT ...

  19. A new regional group of the lower paleolithic in Brittany (France), recently dated by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, J.L.; Hinguant, S.; Gebhardt, A.; Marguerie, D.; Molines, N.; Morzadec, H.; Hallegouet, B.; Laurent, M.; Auguste, P.; Bahain, J.J.; Falgueres, C.; Yokoyama, Y.

    1994-01-01

    ESR dates obtained at Menez-Dregan 1 (Brittany, France) focus interest on this Lower Paleolithic site and demonstrate that the preserved anthropic combustion structures are among the oldest known in the world. It allows the dating not only of the little known 'Colombanian Group' (it is an 'archaic' original group characterized by many choppers and very few handaxes, different from the Acheulian), but also, for the first time, of the old beaches on the southern coast of Brittany. Preserved bone remains are also very infrequent in Palaeolithic sites of Western France. The dating of the paleolithic layer at the top of the third fossil beach can be connected with isotopic stage 11 or the beginning of isotopic stage 10; it shows that the age of the geological and archaeological layers of Menez-Dregan 1 is probably between 350.000 and 500.000 years

  20. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halyard, Michele Y.; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A.; Bearden, James D.; Vora, Sujay A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Perez, Edith A.; Soori, Gammi; Zalduendo, Anthony C.; Zhu, Angela; Stella, Philip J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive ≥2,000 cGy of external beam RT to ≥30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. ≥6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx

  1. Multicenter Study of Carbon-Ion Radiation Therapy for Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck: Subanalysis of the Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group (J-CROS) Study (1402 HN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koto, Masashi, E-mail: koto.masashi@qst.go.jp [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Demizu, Yusuke [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno (Japan); Saitoh, Jun-ichi [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Suefuji, Hiroaki [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA-HIMAT Foundation, Tosu (Japan); Tsuji, Hiroshi [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Okimoto, Tomoaki [Department of Radiology, Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center, Tatsuno (Japan); Ohno, Tatsuya [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki [Ion Beam Therapy Center, SAGA-HIMAT Foundation, Tosu (Japan); Takagi, Ryo [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan); Nemoto, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata (Japan); Nakano, Takashi [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Maebashi (Japan); Kamada, Tadashi [Hospital of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Sciences and Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of carbon-ion radiation therapy (RT) for mucosal melanoma of the head and neck (MMHN) in the Japan Carbon-Ion Radiation Oncology Study Group study. Methods and Materials: Patients with MMHN with N0-1M0 status who were treated with carbon-ion RT at 4 institutions in Japan between November 2003 and December 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Two hundred sixty patients (male, 111; female, 149; median age, 68 years) with histologically proven MMHN were enrolled. Results: Primary sites included the nasal cavity in 178 patients, paranasal sinuses in 43, oral cavity in 27, and pharynx in 12. Eighty-six patients had T3 tumors, 147 had T4a tumors, and 27 had T4b tumors. Two hundred fifty-one patients were diagnosed with N0 disease, and 9 with N1 disease. The median total dose and number of fractions were 57.6 Gy RBE (relative biological effectiveness) and 16, respectively. Chemotherapy including dimethyl traizeno imidazole carboxamide was used concurrently in 129 patients. The median follow-up duration was 22 months (range, 1-132 months). The 2-year overall survival and local control rates were 69.4% and 83.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that gross tumor volume and concurrent chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Grade 3 and grade 4 late morbidities were observed in 27 and 7 patients (5 developed ipsilateral blindness, 1 mucosal ulcer, and 1 second malignant disease in the irradiated volume), respectively. No patients developed grade 5 late morbidities. Conclusion: Carbon-ion RT is a promising treatment option for MMHN.

  2. [FEATURES OF CONSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF YOUNG MALES AGED OF 17-20 YEARS, NATIVES OF THE BAIKAL REGION WITH REGARD TO THEIR FUNCTIONAL GROUPS OF HEALTH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolokoltsev, M M

    2016-01-01

    The study of somatotypes of the constitution is an important point in planning of the improvements of measures among the population in various regions of Russia. The purpose of the work was to reveal features of age dynamics of somatotypes of the constitution in students of youthful age of the Baikal Region by means of somatotyping according to scheme by Nikityuk B. A. and Kozlova A.I (1990) with taking into account their functional group of health. There were examined 1286 Slavic young males, natives of the Irkutsk region, aged of 17-20 years, from them, according to data of the medical examination 996 were referred to the 1st (main) and 290--to the 2nd (preparatory) functional group of health for physical exercises. There were established significant differences in somatotypes of the constitution in young men of the 1st and 2nd functional groups of health. In both functional groups there is noted a significant amount of young males with transitional somatotypes that testifies to incompleteness of growth processes of their organism. The obtained results of a somatotyping are used in the educational process for a training individualization on physical culture of students of IRGTU, and also in construction of independent physical--improving programs.

  3. Isolation and characterization of kikA, a region on IncN group plasmids that determines killing of Klebsiella oxytoca.

    OpenAIRE

    Hengen, P N; Denicourt, D; Iyer, V N

    1992-01-01

    Transfer of the IncN group plasmid pCU1 from Escherichia coli to Klebsiella oxytoca by conjugation kills a large proportion (90 to 95%) of the recipients of plasmid DNA, whereas transfer to E. coli or even to the closely related Enterobacter aerogenes does not. Two regions, kikA and kikB, have been identified on pCU1 that contribute to the Kik (killing in klebsiellas) phenotype. We have localized the kikA region to 500 bp by deletion analysis and show by DNA-DNA hybridization that kikA is hig...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray ... What is CT Scanning of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT ...

  5. Isotopic measurements of carbon and oxygen in carbonates from Bambui Group in the center-north region of Bahia State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torquato, J.R.; Misi, A.

    1978-01-01

    Analyses of 85 carbonate samples of the Bambui Group from the Chapada de Irece, Bahia, exhibit four distinct 13 C and 18 O isotopic ratio groupings. Based on these results the following sedimentation model for the Bambui Group is proposed: 1. A continental environment originating the basal dolomitic limestones and argillacceous dolomites. Isotopic ratios from these rocks fall within ranges considered typical of continental sedimentation: delta 18 C between -2.9 and -6.4%o, and delta 18 O from -5.3 to -10.7%o (PDB). 2. An alternating continental and restricted marine environment resulting in the deposition of laminated dolomitic limestones with thin interbeds of muddy sediments. Delta 13 C ratios of +0.1 to -4.9%o and a mean value of -8.2+-0.3%o delta 18 O are compatible with such an environment. 3. A restricted marine environment dominated by sedimentation of the black, fetid limestones of the upper portion of the sequence. Isotopic ratios for 13 C are all over -1.8%o, up to about +7.5%o, and 18 O ratios vary from-4.9 to -10.0%o. A number of light-grey sileceous dolomites is interbered with the lowermost black limestones of this sequence. Isotopic data for these rocks show a narrow range for delta 18 C values (-0.5 to 1.0%o) and a broader variation for delta 18 O ratios (0.0 to -8.3%o). This latter may be interpreted as indicative of intense evaporation during deposition of the dolomitic facies [pt

  6. REGIONAL OUTCROPS WITH DIDACTIC INTEREST AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION OF THE ITARARÉ GROUP AT SÃO PAULO (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bergamaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to locate and identify the outcrops considered iconic and valuable as references, not only from the point of view of Cultural or Didactic Tourism, but also in paleoenvironmental reconstruction studies, based on the lithologies that comprise the Itararé Group, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This work also intends to relate these sites to outcrops of sedimentary facies, in an area located at south of Itu and Porto Feliz, and north of Sorocaba. The Itararé Group lies within the Paraná Basin (Paleozoic, and is composed by sedimentary sequences associated with the record of the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation event that occurred in the Gondwana supercontinent. This work is based on observations of outcrops in a macro- and mesoscopic scale, considering the characterization of external and internal aspects of the layer, the stratigraphic sequence in the outcrop, and the continuity of the layers within the mapped area. The study area has outcrops where the evidences of glaciomarine deposits predominate. Sedimentary sequences deposited in a subaquatic low-energy environment, as well as episodic deposits, in which relatively more energetic phases alternated with low hydrodynamic conditions are well-developed in the study area. There are also fluvio-deltaic environmental occurrences related to sea level oscillations linked with glacier advances and receding.

  7. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-03-14

    Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Working hours of surgical residence: perspective of a group of surgeons in a regional hospital in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Siu-Fai; Spurgeon, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and European working time directive have restricted residents' workweek to 80 and 48 hours, respectively. Impacts on resident's training and health services are under evaluation in western countries. However, relevant studies are deficient in Hong Kong. Surgeons in a regional hospital of Hong Kong were recruited. Opinions were collected by semi-structured questionnaire. Response rate was 82%. Most respondents agreed that residents' work hours should be limited. Seventy-two percent thought that the addition of physician assistants, nurse practitioners and ancillary staff could help decrease the workload of residents. More than 60% thought that residents should have post-call afternoon off. Seventy-two percent worried that the number of operations residents performed would decrease. Only half agreed that long work hours was part of resident training and 56.3% agreed that the training period should be lengthened because of limiting work hours. Ninety-four percent agreed that sleep-deprived residents would create more medical errors; 72% thought that long work hours would impair quality of care. Surprisingly, only 28% thought that limiting work hours would compromise continued patient care. Most respondents opine that resident work hours should be regulated and welcome minor rescheduling of residents' workflow. The impacts on residents' training and patient care require further evaluation.

  9. Numerical study of criticality of the slab reactors with three regions in one-group transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A. dos.

    1979-01-01

    The criticality of slab reactors consisting of core, blanket, and reflector is studied numerically based on the singular-eigenfunction-expansion method in one-group transport theory. The purpose of this work is three-fold: (1) it is shown that the three-media problem can be converted, using a recently developed method, to a set of regular integral equations for the expansion coefficients, such that numerical solutions can be obtained for the first time based on an exact theory; (2) highly accurate numerical results that can serve as standards of comparison for various approximate methods are reported for representative sets of parameters; and (3) the accuracy of the P sub(N) approximation, one of the more often used methods, is analyzed compared to the exact results [pt

  10. Selective pathologies of the head and neck in children: a developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolek, John A

    2009-09-01

    The range of pathology seen in the head and neck region is truly amazing and to a large extent probably mirrors the complex signaling pathways and careful orchestration of events that occurs between the primordial germ layers during the development of this region. As is true in general for the entire discipline of pediatric pathology, the head and neck pathology within this age group is as diverse and different as its adult counterpart. Cases that come across the pediatric head and neck surgical pathology bench are more heavily weighted toward developmental and congenital lesions such as branchial cleft anomalies, thyroglossal duct cysts, ectopias, heterotopias, choristomas, and primitive tumors. Many congenital "benign" lesions can cause significant morbidity and even mortality if they compress the airway or other vital structures. Exciting investigations into the molecular embryology of craniofacial development have begun to shed light on the pathogenesis of craniofacial developmental lesions and syndromes. Much more investigation is needed, however, to intertwine aberrations in the molecular ontogeny and development of the head and neck regions to the represented pathology. This review will integrate traditional morphologic embryology with some of the recent advances in the molecular pathways of head and neck development followed by a discussion of a variety of developmental lesions finishing with tumors presumed to be derived from pluripotent/progenitor cells and tumors that show anomalous or aborted development.

  11. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  12. Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

  13. A WIDE DISTRIBUTION OF A NEW VRN-B1c ALLELE OF WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN RUSSIA, UKRAINE AND ADJACENT REGIONS: A LINK WITH THE HEADING TIME AND ADAPTIVE POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of common wheat (T. aestivum L. to diverse environmental conditions is greatly under the control of genes involved in determination of vernalization response (Vrn-1 genes. It was found that the variation in common wheat heading time is affected not only by combination of Vrn-1 homoeoalleles but also by multiple alleles at a separate Vrn-1 locus. Previously, we described the Vrn-B1c allele from T.aestivum cv. 'Saratovskaya 29' and found significant differences in the structure of the first (1st intron of this allele when compared to another highly abundant Vrn-B1a allele, specifically, the deletion of 0.8 kb coupled with the duplication of 0.4 kb. We suggested that the changes in the intron 1 of Vrn-B1c allele caused earlier ear emergence in the near-isogenic line and cultivars, carrying this allele. In this study we investigate the distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele in a wide set of spring wheat cultivars from Russia, Ukraine and adjacent regions. The analysis revealed that 40% of Russian and 53% of Ukranian spring wheat cultivars contain the Vrn-B1c allele. The high distribution of the Vrn-B1c allele can be explained by a frequent using of 'Saratovskaya 29' in the breeding process inside the studied area. From the other hand, the predominance of the Vrn-B1c allele among cultivars cultivated in West Siberia and Kazakhstan may be due to the selective advantage of this allele for the region where there is a high risk of early fall frosts.

  14. Distribución de las lesiones de la piel en la región de cabeza y cuello Distribution of skin lesions on the head and neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TS Simão

    Full Text Available El cáncer de piel (incluyendo el melanoma y los tipos de cáncer de piel de células basales y de células escamosas es por mucho, el tipo de cáncer más común de todos los cánceres. La mayoría de éstos son cánceres de células basales. Los cánceres de células escamosas ocurren con menos frecuencia. Noventa y seis por ciento de las resecciones de lesiones cutáneas, en la clínica de cirugía plástica del Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de Sao Paulo, están representadas por lesiones en las regiones de la cara, cabeza y cuello. El conocimiento del perfil epidemiológico del servicio, nos ayuda a establecer medidas de prevención y tratamiento de neoplasias cutáneas.Skin cancer (including melanoma and basal cell and squamous cell cancers is by far the most common type of cancer of all cancers. Most of these are basal cell cancers. Squamous cell cancers occur less frequently. Ninety-six percent of resections of skin lesions in the plastic surgery clinic of the Hospital Servidor Público Estadual de Sao Paulo, are represented by lesions in the regions of the face, head and neck. The knowledge of the epidemiological profile of service, helps us to establish prevention and treatment of skin malignancies.

  15. The Reproduction Trajectories of Institutions of Social Isolation of Individual Population Groups in the Regions of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yuryevich Berzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the spatial socio-demographic isolation as a factor of the current system of settlement in Russia’s regions. In theory, the phenomena of loneliness and social isolation have their demographic, socio-economic and psychological roots. Conceptually, they are expressed in the theories of nuclearization of family structure of society and the family’s loss of its core functions, deprivation of a person (of friends and relatives, in the paradigm of the second demographic transition. In fact, the trend towards the abandonment of birth, growth of cohabitations and divorces, premature mortality as the cause of widowhood are complemented by the institutional factors strengthening the foundations of a singular way of life, including various forms of isolation of an individual from the social environment in a post-industrial society. The main reasons of the socio-demographic isolation are following: the tendency of increasing a number of private households represented by lonely people, both elderly and young; as well as the prevalence of the institute of widowhood (mortality risks influencing the marriage and the family; the impact of flows of labour, academic, self-preservation, consumer migration (both returned and irretrievable types on the reproduction of the population. Psychologically, the demographic isolation of certain local communities contributes to the feelings of loneliness as a regulator of the communication intensity and interaction between individuals. In the socioeconomic aspects, the isolation of local communities is associated with the factor of remote location of families from the centers of communication and real markets, with the development of new Russian and global logistics systems, with are deprivation of traditional sources of household income as a specific form of survival in the vast expanses of life of the Russian society.

  16. Prevalance of ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups in Blood Donors: A Study from a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Kumaon Region of Uttarakhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Parul; Upadhyay, Saloni; Chufal, Sanjay Singh; Hasan, Yuman; Tayal, Ishwer

    2014-12-01

    Backround: ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly for the immunologic safety of blood during transfusion. This study is aimed to determine the distribution pattern of the ABO and Rh blood groups among blood donors in Kumaon region of Uttarakhand and compare it with other data from similar studies within the India and all over the world. It is a retrospective study carried out at blood bank of Shushila Tewari Hospital of Government Medical College, Haldwani from January 2012 to December 2013. The study was conducted on 12,701 blood donors. ABO and Rh typing was done using slide agglutination method with antisera ABO and Rh (Tulip diagnostics ltd). Doubtful cases were confirmed by tube agglutination method and reverse grouping using known pooled A and B cells. The age group and sex of donors, frequency of ABO and Rh blood groups were reported in simple percentages. The predominant donors belonged to age group between 18-35years (84.28%). Male donors were more than female donors, ratio being 352:1. Replacement donors (99.71%) were much more than voluntary donors (0.91%). The most common blood group was B (32.07%) and least common being AB (10.53%). Blood group 'O' and 'A' had same frequency. The prevalence of Rhesus positive and negative distribution in the studied population was 94.49% and 5.51% respectively. Blood group frequency with respect to ABO and Rhesus positive was found to be shown by formula B> O>A >AB. The frequency for ABO and Rhesus negative was given by the formula B>A>O>AB. Knowledge of frequencies of the different blood groups is very important for blood banks and transfusion service policies that could contribute significantly to the National Health System.

  17. PALEOENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION OF THE ITARARÉ GROUP (PARANÁ BASIN IN THE REGIONS OF SALTO AND ITU, EAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bergamaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Itararé Group represents the glacial record of Gondwana Continent in the intracratonic Paraná Basin, encompassing regions of Southern Brazil, Eastern Paraguay, Northeast Argentina and Northern Paraguay. Itararé Group is the thickest sedimentary package of Paraná Basin, and was deposited over 36 million years during the end of the Carboniferous and the beginning of the Permian. However, in relation to its paleoenvironmental evolution, it is generally understood that more research is necessary, in order to better understand the genesis of the Itararé Group in different places. The present work entailed mapping facies associations for the Itararé Group in the city of Salto, in São Paulo State, by identifying and classifying sedimentary facies that, in turn, were utilized to develop a paleoenvironmental evolution model. This model was based on geological mapping carried out over 125 km². Petrological and petrographic descriptions of 32 outcrops of Itararé Group also were studied. These results were compared with subsurface data obtained by Sistema de Informações de Águas Subterrâneas, Serviços Geológicos do Brasil (SIAGAS-CPRM; System Water Information Groundwater, Geological Survey of Brazil. Through lithofacies and petrographic analyses and making a comparison between five column sections, surface and subsurface data, a stratigraphic correlation model was established for the region. Through this model was possible to identify four facies associations, which, together, indicate how the paleoenvironmental evolution of the region occurred. The first three associations (A, B, C were interpreted as being formed in subaqueous environment, being related to sandy lobe systems, followed by the last association (D, pertaining to a fluvial system.

  18. Soil transmitted helminthiasis in indigenous groups. A community cross sectional study in the Amazonian southern border region of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Sandoval, Natalia; Ortiz-Rico, Claudia; Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor Javier; Valdivieso, Daniel; Sandoval, Carlos; Pástor, Jacob; Martín, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Background Rural communities in the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador have benefited from governmental social programmes over the past 9 years, which have addressed, among other things, diseases associated with poverty, such as soil transmitted helminth infections. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of geohelminth infection and several factors associated with it in these communities. Methods This was a cross sectional study in two indigenous communities of the Amazonian southern border of Ecuador. The data were analysed at both the household and individual levels. Results At the individual level, the prevalence of geohelminth infection reached 46.9% (95% CI 39.5% to 54.2%), with no differences in terms of gender, age, temporary migration movements or previous chemoprophylaxis. In 72.9% of households, one or more members were infected. Receiving subsidies and overcrowding were associated with the presence of helminths. Conclusions The prevalence of geohelminth infection was high. Our study suggests that it is necessary to conduct studies focusing on communities, and not simply on captive groups, such as schoolchildren, with the object of proposing more suitable and effective strategies to control this problem. PMID:28292765

  19. Ethnomedical survey of Berta ethnic group Assosa Zone, Benishangul-Gumuz regional state, mid-west Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Kaleab

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional medicine (TM has been a major source of health care in Ethiopia as in most developing countries around the world. This survey examined the extent and factors determining the use of TM and medicinal plants by Berta community. One thousand and two hundred households (HHs and fourteen traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and six focused group discussions (FGDs were conducted. The prevalence of the use of TM in the two weeks recall period was 4.6%. The HH economic status was found to have a significant effect while the educational level and age of the patients have no effect either on the care seeking behavior or choice of care. Taking no action about a given health problem and using TM are common in females with low-income HHs. Forty plant species belonging to 23 families were reported, each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used. This study indicates that although the proportion of the population that uses TM may be small it is still an important component of the public health care in the study community as complementary and alternative medicine.

  20. CO/sub 2/ emission and agricultural productivity in southeast asian region: a pooled mean group estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.; Kazi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Frequent natural calamities, extreme climatic events and unexpected seasonal changes are the obvious examples of global warming. Carbon emissions by industrial units all over the world are believed to be the major contributor of the global warming that can lead to reduced agricultural productivity. This paper examines the impact of CO emission on agricultural productivity in Southeast Asian countries. It investigates the dynamic relationship between CO emission (along with other control-variables) and agricultural output using panel data set comprising data from Southeast Asian countries. Following the dynamic heterogeneous panel techniques developed by Pesaran and Shin (1999) for estimating the short- run and long-run effects using autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model in the error correction form, the study then estimated the empirical model based on pooled mean group (PMG) estimator. The study found that increased CO emission resulted in higher agricultural productivity because of the fact that farmers around the globe quickly adapt to climate change. In addition, use of submersible pump and other capital machineries significantly increased agricultural yield and led to reduced dependency on human capital, while use of chemical fertilizers increased productivity in short-run but had a harmful impact in the long-run. (author)

  1. Mapping of PARK2 and PACRG overlapping regulatory region reveals LD structure and functional variants in association with leprosy in unrelated indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Rupali; Ali, Shafat; Srivastava, Amit K; Aggarwal, Shweta; Kumar, Bhupender; Manvati, Siddharth; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Jena, Mamta; Garg, Vijay K; Bhattacharya, Sambit N; Bamezai, Rameshwar N K

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Leprae, where the host genetic background plays an important role toward the disease pathogenesis. Various studies have identified a number of human genes in association with leprosy or its clinical forms. However, non-replication of results has hinted at the heterogeneity among associations between different population groups, which could be due to differently evolved LD structures and differential frequencies of SNPs within the studied regions of the genome. A need for systematic and saturated mapping of the associated regions with the disease is warranted to unravel the observed heterogeneity in different populations. Mapping of the PARK2 and PACRG gene regulatory region with 96 SNPs, with a resolution of 1 SNP per 1 Kb for PARK2 gene regulatory region in a North Indian population, showed an involvement of 11 SNPs in determining the susceptibility towards leprosy. The association was replicated in a geographically distinct and unrelated population from Orissa in eastern India. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the two significantly associated SNPs, located 63.8 kb upstream of PARK2 gene and represented in a single BIN of 8 SNPs, influenced the gene expression. A comparison of BINs between Indian and Vietnamese populations revealed differences in the BIN structures, explaining the heterogeneity and also the reason for non-replication of the associated genomic region in different populations.

  2. Glycophorin C (Gerbich Antigen Blood Group) and Band 3 Polymorphisms in Two Malaria Holoendemic Regions of Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sheral S.; King, Christopher L.; Mgone, Charles S.; Kazura, James W.; Zimmerman, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The geographic overlap between the prevalence of erythrocyte polymorphisms and malaria endemicity is thought to be an example of natural selection on human populations. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Gerbich-negative phenotype is caused by an exon 3 deletion in the glycophorin C gene (GYPCΔex3) while heterozygosity for a 27-base pair deletion in the SLC4A1 gene (anion exchanger 1 or erythrocyte membrane protein, band 3), SLC4A1Δ27, results in Southeast Asian ovalocytosis. Two geographically and ethnically distinct malaria endemic regions of PNG (the Wosera [East Sepik Province] and Liksul [Madang Province]) were studied to illustrate the distribution of two prominent deletion polymorphisms (GYPCΔex3 and SLC4A1Δ27) and to determine if the genetic load associated with SLC4A1Δ27 would constrain independent assortment of GYPCΔex3 heterozygous and homozygous genotypes. The frequency of the GYPCΔex3 allele was higher in the Wosera (0.463) than Liksul (0.176) (χ2; P < 0.0001). Conversely, the frequency of the SLC4A1Δ27 allele was higher in Liksul (0.0740) than the Wosera (0.0005) (χ2; P < 0.0001). No individuals were homozygous for SLC4A1Δ27. In 355 Liksul residents, independent assortment of these two deletion polymorphisms resulted in 14 SLC4A1Δ27 carriers heterozygous for GYPCΔex3 and one SLC4A1Δ27 carrier homozygous for GYPCΔex3 (Fisher’s exact test; P = 0.8040). While homozygosity for SLC4A1Δ27 appears to be nonviable, the GYPCΔex3 allele is not lethal when combined with SLC4A1Δ27. Neither mutation was associated with altered susceptibility to asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax infection. While these erythrocyte polymorphisms apparently have no effect on blood-stage malaria infection, their contribution to susceptibility to clinical malaria morbidity requires further study. PMID:14695625

  3. Corticosteroid Reduces Blood Flow to Femoral Heads in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, S.M.; Liu, T.K.; Kao, M.C.

    1994-12-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is one of the common problems in orthopedic practice in Taiwan. The subchondral bone loses its blood supply which weakens its biomechanical support. Steroid overuse is one of many possible etiologies in reducing blood flow to the femoral head. Laser Doppler velocimeter is a precise monitor of regional blood flow of bone which is expressed in perfusion units (PU). In the control group the rabbits were injected with normal saline and there were no statistical differences between blood flow to the right hip (39.26 +/- 5.64 PU) and left hip (38.58 +/- 4.35 PU). In group B a weekly injection of methylprednisolone into rabbits for 6 weeks demonstrated the reduction of blood flow of femoral head (24.74 +/- 3.13 PU) by the laser Doppler velocimeter. The flow decreased further (15.93 +/- 2.33 PU) by 12 weeks of steroid treatment. In group C after a weekly injection of steroid for 6 weeks the flow became 31.63 +/- 4.79 PU. The steroid was then discontinued for 3 weeks and the flow was 34.6 +/- 1.34 PU. In group D the blood flow was 25.89 +/- 4.01 PU after 6 weeks of steroid treatment and we stopped the steroid for 6 weeks, the blood flow became 29.86 +/- 2.59 PU. The merit of our experiment established a model of study in avascular necrosis of the femoral head in rabbits. Copyright 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Human mtDNA hypervariable regions, HVR I and II, hint at deep common maternal founder and subsequent maternal gene flow in Indian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Swarkar; Saha, Anjana; Rai, Ekta; Bhat, Audesh; Bamezai, Ramesh

    2005-01-01

    We have analysed the hypervariable regions (HVR I and II) of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in individuals from Uttar Pradesh (UP), Bihar (BI) and Punjab (PUNJ), belonging to the Indo-European linguistic group, and from South India (SI), that have their linguistic roots in Dravidian language. Our analysis revealed the presence of known and novel mutations in both hypervariable regions in the studied population groups. Median joining network analyses based on mtDNA showed extensive overlap in mtDNA lineages despite the extensive cultural and linguistic diversity. MDS plot analysis based on Fst distances suggested increased maternal genetic proximity for the studied population groups compared with other world populations. Mismatch distribution curves, respective neighbour joining trees and other statistical analyses showed that there were significant expansions. The study revealed an ancient common ancestry for the studied population groups, most probably through common founder female lineage(s), and also indicated that human migrations occurred (maybe across and within the Indian subcontinent) even after the initial phase of female migration to India.

  5. Thyroiditis: a Clinico-cytomorphological Study with a Reference to the Ethnic Groups of Northeast Regions of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Abhijit; Baruah, Ronica

    2015-12-01

    Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Patients underwent FNAC and smears were studied for cytomorphology. A correlation with clinical features and thyroid function, including antithyroid antibody estimation, was done, wherever possible. 792 thyroid lesions were encountered during the study, of which 213 (26.89 %) were cases of thyroiditis (70.43 % CLT/HT, 24.9 % SAT and 3.76 % having overlapping features of CLT/HT and SAT); 2 cases (0.9 %) of CLT showed suspicion of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), which was confirmed on histopathology. 24 cases (11.26 %) belonged to different ethnic tribal groups of Northeast India. CLT/HT presented predominantly with diffuse thyroid enlargement, but 12 cases (8 % of CLT/HT cases) had nodular enlargement. Patients presented with predominantly hypothyroidism; however occasional hyperthyroid cases were also seen. SAT showed signs of inflammation and presented with hyperthyroidism. Overlap cases of CLT/HT and SAT showed combined clinico-cytomorphological features of both lesions. 37.5 % cases with overlapping features belonged to tribal communities. A rise in incidence of thyroiditis, particularly CLT/HT, was seen. Overlap features of CLT/HT and SAT was noticed in significant percentage. No bias was noticed amongst any specific tribal community. FNAC, coupled with clinico-serological study, helps to diagnose thyroiditis at early stage.

  6. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  7. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  8. Suicidal behaviour in Indigenous compared to non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia: Prevalence data suggest disparities increase across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Pirkis, Jane; Arabena, Kerry; Currier, Dianne; Spittal, Matthew J; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-12-01

    We compare the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in urban and regional Australia, and examine the extent to which any disparity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males varies across age groups. We used data from the baseline wave of The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men), a large-scale cohort study of Australian males aged 10-55 years residing in urban and regional areas. Indigenous identification was determined through participants self-reporting as Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander or both. The survey collected data on suicidal thoughts in the preceding 2 weeks and lifetime suicide attempts. A total of 432 participants (2.7%) identified as Indigenous and 15,425 as non-Indigenous (97.3%). Indigenous males were twice as likely as non-Indigenous males to report recent suicidal thoughts (17.6% vs 9.4%; odds ratio = 2.1, p age groups, but a significant gap emerged among men aged 30-39 years and was largest among men aged 40-55 years. Similarly, the prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts did not differ between Indigenous and non-Indigenous males in the 14- to 17-years age group, but a disparity emerged in the 18- to 24-years age group and was even larger among males aged 25 years and older. Our paper presents unique data on suicidal thoughts and attempts among a broad age range of Indigenous and non-Indigenous males. The disparity in the prevalence of suicidal thoughts increased across age groups, which is in contrast to the large disparity between the Indigenous and non-Indigenous suicide rates in younger age groups.

  9. Randomized Phase III Trial to Test Accelerated Versus Standard Fractionation in Combination With Concurrent Cisplatin for Head and Neck Carcinomas in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0129 Trial: Long-Term Report of Efficacy and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Zhang, Qiang; Ang, K. Kian; Weber, Randal S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Soulieres, Denis; Kim, Harold; Silverman, Craig; Raben, Adam; Galloway, Thomas J.; Fortin, André; Gore, Elizabeth; Westra, William H.; Chung, Christine H.; Jordan, Richard C.; Gillison, Maura L.; List, Marcie; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We tested the efficacy and toxicity of cisplatin plus accelerated fractionation with a concomitant boost (AFX-C) versus standard fractionation (SFX) in locally advanced head and neck carcinoma (LA-HNC). Patients and Methods Patients had stage III to IV carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx. Radiation therapy schedules were 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks (SFX) or 72 Gy in 42 fractions over 6 weeks (AFX-C). Cisplatin doses were 100 mg/m2 once every 3 weeks for two (AFX-C) or three (SFX) cycles. Toxicities were scored by using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria 2.0 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) rates were estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared by using the one-sided log-rank test. Locoregional failure (LRF) and distant metastasis (DM) rates were estimated by using the cumulative incidence method and Gray's test. Results In all, 721 of 743 patients were analyzable (361, SFX; 360, AFX-C). At a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range, 0.3 to 10.1 years) for 355 surviving patients, no differences were observed in OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.18; P = .37; 8-year survival, 48% v 48%), PFS (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.24; P = .52; 8-year estimate, 42% v 41%), LRF (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.38; P = .78; 8-year estimate, 37% v 39%), or DM (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.56 to 1.24; P = .16; 8-year estimate, 15% v 13%). For oropharyngeal cancer, p16-positive patients had better OS than p16-negative patients (HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.42; P < .001; 8-year survival, 70.9% v 30.2%). There were no statistically significant differences in the grade 3 to 5 acute or late toxicities between the two arms and p-16 status. Conclusion When combined with cisplatin, AFX-C neither improved outcome nor increased late toxicity in patients with LA-HNC. Long-term high survival

  10. Therapeutic applications of botulinum neurotoxins in head and neck disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Alshadwi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Botulinum neurotoxin therapy provides viable alternatives to traditional treatment modalities for some conditions affecting the head and neck region that have neurological components. This therapy can overcome some of the morbidities associated with conventional therapy. More research is needed to determine the ideal doses of botulinum neurotoxin to treat different diseases affecting the head and neck regions.

  11. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klinkenbijl, J. H.; Jeekel, J.; Sahmoud, T.; van Pel, R.; Couvreur, M. L.; Veenhof, C. H.; Arnaud, J. P.; Gonzalez, D. G.; de Wit, L. T.; Hennipman, A.; Wils, J.

    1999-01-01

    The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil versus observation alone after surgery was investigated in patients with pancreatic head and periampullary cancers. A previous study of adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy in these cancers by the Gastrointestinal Tract Cancer

  12. Adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil after curative resection of cancer of the pancreas and periampullary region: phase III trial of the EORTC gastrointestinal tract cancer cooperative group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.G. Klinkenbijl (Jean); J. Wils; J. Jeekel (Hans); T. Sahmoud; R. van Pel; M.L. Couvreur; C.H. Veenhof; J.P. Arnaud; D. González González (Dionisio); L.Th. de Wit (Laurens); A. Hennipman

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: The survival benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil versus observation alone after surgery was investigated in patients with pancreatic head and periampullary cancers. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: A previous study of adjuvant

  13. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  14. Bottom head assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs

  15. A revised dosimetric model of the adult head and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchet, L.G.; Bolch, W.E.; Weber, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade, new radiopharmaceutical have been introduced for brain imaging. The marked differences of these tracers in tissue specificity within the brain and their increasing use for diagnostic studies support the need for a more anthropomorphic model of the human brain and head. Brain and head models developed in the past have been only simplistic representations of this anatomic region. For example, the brain within the phantom of MIRD Pamphlet No. 5 Revised is modeled simply as a single ellipsoid of tissue With no differentiation of its internal structures. To address this need, the MIRD Committee established a Task Group in 1992 to construct a more detailed brain model to include the cerebral cortex, the white matter, the cerebellum, the thalamus, the caudate nucleus, the lentiform nucleus, the cerebral spinal fluid, the lateral ventricles, and the third ventricle. This brain model has been included within a slightly modified version of the head model developed by Poston et al. in 1984. This model has been incorporated into the radiation transport code EGS4 so as to calculate photon and electron absorbed fractions in the energy range 10 keV to 4 MeV for each of thirteen sources in the brain. Furthermore, explicit positron transport have been considered, separating the contribution by the positron itself and its associated annihilations photons. No differences are found between the electron and positron absorbed fractions; however, for initial energies of positrons greater than ∼0.5 MeV, significant differences are found between absorbed fractions from explicit transport of annihilation photons and those from an assumed uniform distribution of 0.511-MeV photons. Subsequently, S values were calculated for a variety of beta-particle and positron emitters brain imaging agents. Moreover, pediatric head and brain dosimetric models are currently being developed based on this adult head model

  16. Reducing radiation exposure in newborns with birth head trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kriukova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Birth head trauma causing intracranial injury is one of the most common causes of neonatal mortality and morbidity. In case of suspected cranial fractures and intracranial hematomas, diagnostic methods involving radiation, such as x-ray radiography and computed tomography, are recommended. Recently, an increasing number of studies have highlighted the risk of cancer complications associated with computed tomography in infants. Therefore, diagnostic methods that reduce radiation exposure in neonates are important. One such method is ultrasonography (US. Aim. We evaluated US as a non-ionizing radiation method for diagnosis of cranial bone fractures and epidural hematomas in newborns with cephalohematomas or other birth head traumas. Material and methods. The study group included 449 newborns with the most common variant of birth head trauma: cephalohematomas. All newborns underwent transcranial-transfontanelle US for detection of intracranial changes and cranial US for visualization of bone structure in the cephalohematoma region. Children with ultrasonic signs of cranial fractures and epidural hematomas were further examined at a children’s hospital by x-ray radiography and/or computed tomography. Results and discussion. We found that cranial US for diagnosis of cranial fractures and transcranial-transfontanelle US for diagnosis of epidural hematomas in newborns were highly effective. In newborns with parietal cephalohematomas (444 children, 17 (3.8% had US signs of linear fracture of the parietal bone, and 5 (1.1% had signs of ipsilateral epidural hematoma. Epidural hematomas were visualized only when US was performed through the temporal bone and not by using the transfontanelle approach. Sixteen cases of linear fractures and all epidural hematomas were confirmed by computed tomography. Conclusion. The use of US diagnostic methods reduced radiation exposure in newborns with birth head trauma. US methods (transcranial

  17. Evaluation of head MRI neonates with subependymal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kou; Kawase, Shoji; Kadono, Naoko; Kihara, Minako; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Sawada, Tadashi

    1998-01-01

    Head MRI was obtained in 15 of neonates with subependymal hemorrhage (SEH), and the neurological prognosis was evaluated. SEH was checked with the spin echo at 9.7±9.2 days (1-25) of age. Head MRI was carried out at 16-119 days (average 68.7±36.6) after birth. Twelve cases were diagnosed finally as the normal development, 1 case as cerebral pulsy and mental retardation, 1 case as deafness, and 1 case as mental retardation. It was classed to next three groups by MRI. A group (3 cases) was normal. In B group (6 cases), cysts were recognized at the location of SEH in the cerebral ventricle with proton density image or T1 weighted image, but there were not clear with T2 weighted image. In C group (6 cases), the region of low signal level was found with T2 weighted image at the location of SEH. Images of C group showed that bleeding extends to brain substance, and the cautious neurological follow-up is necessary. (K.H.)

  18. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Head Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment ... story here Images × Image Gallery Patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scan. View full size with caption Pediatric Content ...

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Computed tomography (CT) of the head uses special x-ray equipment to help assess head injuries, severe headaches, ... is a diagnostic medical test that, like traditional x-rays, produces multiple images or pictures of the inside ...

  20. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.; Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [Department of Radiology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom); Darby, A.J. [Department of Pathology, Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic and District Hospital, Oswestry, SY10 7AG, Shropshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to increase awareness of, and to show the variable clinical and radiological features of, subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head. The clinical and radiological findings in 7 patients with subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral head were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically in 4 patients. Radiographs were performed in all patients, MRI in 5 and scintigraphy in 4 patients. Radiographs showed varying degrees of femoral head collapse in 4 patients. In the remaining 3 patients radiographs showed a normal femoral head, regional osteoporosis and focal sclerosis, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a low-signal band on T1- and T2-weighted images in the subchondral bone adjacent or parallel to the articular surface associated with bone marrow oedema. Scintigraphy showed increased uptake in the femoral head. Insufficiency fractures of the femoral head are easily overlooked or confused with avascular necrosis and, when there is significant joint destruction, osteoarthritis. Unsuspected insufficiency fracture of the femoral head can lead to significant and rapid loss of bone stock in osteoporotic patients waiting for arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. Increased awareness of this condition will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and a successful outcome of conservative treatment. (orig.)

  1. Micellar solubilization of ibuprofen: influence of surfactant head groups on the extent of solubilization Solubilização micelar do ibuprofeno: influência do grupo polar dos tensoativos no grau de solubilização

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota O. Rangel-Yagui

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An important property of micelles with particular significance in pharmacy is their ability to increase the solubility of poorly soluble drugs in water, thus increasing their bioavailability. In this work, the solubilization of ibuprofen (IBU was studied in micellar solutions of three surfactants possessing the same hydrocarbon tail but different hydrophilic head groups, namely sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS, dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, and n-dodecyl octa(ethylene oxide (C12EO8. The results showed that, irrespective of the surfactant type, the solubility of IBU increased linearly with increasing surfactant concentration, as a consequence of the association between the drug and the micelles. The 80 mM DTAB and the 80 mM C12EO8 micellar solutions resulted in a 16-fold increase in solubility of IBU when compared to the buffer solution, whereas the 80 mM SDS micellar solution resulted in a 5.5-fold increase in IBU solubility. The highest value of molar solubilization capacity (chi was obtained with DTAB, chi = 0.97, followed by C12EO8 ,chi = 0.72, and finally SDS, chi = 0.23. However, due to the stronger tendency of the nonionic surfactant in forming micelles in solution, at the same surfactant concentration, we obtained the same solubility of IBU in both DTAB and C12EO8.Uma propriedade importante das micelas, do ponto de vista farmacêutico, refere-se ao potencial destas em solubilizar fármacos pouco solúveis em água, aumentando sua biodisponibilidade. No presente trabalho, estudou-se a solubilização de ibuprofeno (IBU em soluções micelares constituídas de três tensoativos apresentando a mesma cauda apolar, porém diferentes grupos hidrofílicos. Os tensoativos estudados foram dodecil sulfato de sódio (SDS, brometo de dodeciltrimetilamônio (DTAB e óxido de n-dodecil octaetileno (C12EO8. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, a solubilidade do IBU aumentou linearmente com o aumento da concentração de todos os tensoativos

  2. Reactor head shielding apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schukei, G.E.; Roebelen, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor head shielding apparatus for mounting on spaced reactor head lifting members radially inwardly of the head bolts. It comprises a frame of sections for mounting on the lifting members and extending around the top central area of the head, mounting means for so mounting the frame sections, including downwardly projecting members on the frame sections and complementary upwardly open recessed members for fastening to the lifting members for receiving the downwardly projecting members when the frame sections are lowered thereto with lead shielding supported thereby on means for hanging lead shielding on the frame to minimize radiation exposure or personnel working with the head bolts or in the vicinity thereof

  3. Local geological sections and regional stratigraphy based on physical geology and chemical stratigraphy of the Serra Geral Group from Araraquara to Avaré, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia João Fernandes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: From Araraquara to Avaré, in the Serra Geral Group outcropping area, 22 detailed geological sections were elaborated. The stratigraphic relationships and the chemical analysis allowed the identification of seven [P2O5] basalt classes, all of them pertaining to the Pitanga type, showing a consistent stacking order across the studied region. Thus, each class is considered to correspond to a specific lava flow, allowing a general stratigraphic column to be proposed. Besides the stacking order, the validation of P2O5 as a tool for lava correlation at great distances was also based on the values obtained from samples collected at different positions in a single flow, and on the remarkable [P2O5] contrast between adjacent flows. Minimum lateral extensions range from 75 to 185 km, and thickness from 20 to 80 m. Vertical tectonic displacements, which took place in different periods, were inferred from the altitude of specific flows, and also from the Botucatu and Piramboia formations. They are noticeable in a region bounded by EW drainage lineaments, which contains a large area where Piramboia and Botucatu formations crop out, probably due to the tectonic activity causing this region to be a generalized structural high.

  4. The science of shrinking human heads: tribal warfare and revenge among the South American Jivaro-Shuar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandial, Rahul; Hughes, Samuel A; Aryan, Henry E; Marshall, Lawrence F; Levy, Michael L

    2004-11-01

    THE PRACTICE OF "head-shrinking" has been the proper domain not of Africa but rather of the denizens of South America. Specifically, in the post-Columbian period, it has been most famously the practice of a tribe of indigenous people commonly called the Jivaro or Jivaro-Shuar. The evidence suggests that the Jivaro-Shuar are merely the last group to retain a custom widespread in northwestern South America. In both ceramic and textile art of the pre-Columbian residents of Peru, the motif of trophy heads smaller than normal life-size heads commonly recurs; the motif is seen even in surviving carvings in stone and shell. Moreover, although not true shrunken heads, trophy heads found in late pre-Columbian and even post-Columbian graves of the region demonstrate techniques of display very similar to those used by the Jivaro-Shuar, at least some of which are best understood in the context of head-shrinking. Regardless, the Jivaro-Shuar and their practices provide an illustrative counterexample to popular myth regarding the culture and science of the shrinking of human heads.

  5. Geologic assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the Lower Paleogene Midway and Wilcox Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group, of the Northern Gulf coast region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently conducted an assessment of the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas potential of Tertiary strata underlying the onshore areas and State waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastal region. The assessment was based on a number of geologic elements including an evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks, suitable reservoir rocks, and hydrocarbon traps in an Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System defined for the region by the USGS. Five conventional assessment units (AUs) were defined for the Midway (Paleocene) and Wilcox (Paleocene-Eocene) Groups, and the Carrizo Sand of the Claiborne Group (Eocene) interval including: (1) the Wilcox Stable Shelf Oil and Gas AU; (2) the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone Gas and Oil AU; (3) the Wilcox-Lobo Slide Block Gas AU; (4) the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU; and (5) the Wilcox Mississippi Embayment AU (not quantitatively assessed).The USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Midway-Wilcox-Carrizo interval resulted in estimated mean values of 110 million barrels of oil (MMBO), 36.9 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG), and 639 million barrels of natural gas liquids (MMBNGL) in the four assessed units. The undiscovered oil resources are almost evenly divided between fluvial-deltaic sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Stable Shelf (54 MMBO) AU and deltaic sandstone reservoirs of the Wilcox Expanded Fault Zone (52 MMBO) AU. Greater than 70 percent of the undiscovered gas and 66 percent of the natural gas liquids (NGL) are estimated to be in deep (13,000 to 30,000 feet), untested distal deltaic and slope sandstone reservoirs within the Wilcox Slope and Basin Floor Gas AU.

  6. Different patterns of evolution in the centromeric and telomeric regions of group A and B haplotypes of the human killer cell Ig-like receptor locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul-Woo Pyo

    Full Text Available The fast evolving human KIR gene family encodes variable lymphocyte receptors specific for polymorphic HLA class I determinants. Nucleotide sequences for 24 representative human KIR haplotypes were determined. With three previously defined haplotypes, this gave a set of 12 group A and 15 group B haplotypes for assessment of KIR variation. The seven gene-content haplotypes are all combinations of four centromeric and two telomeric motifs. 2DL5, 2DS5 and 2DS3 can be present in centromeric and telomeric locations. With one exception, haplotypes having identical gene content differed in their combinations of KIR alleles. Sequence diversity varied between haplotype groups and between centromeric and telomeric halves of the KIR locus. The most variable A haplotype genes are in the telomeric half, whereas the most variable genes characterizing B haplotypes are in the centromeric half. Of the highly polymorphic genes, only the 3DL3 framework gene exhibits a similar diversity when carried by A and B haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and divergence time estimates, point to the centromeric gene-content motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes having emerged ~6 million years ago, contemporaneously with the separation of human and chimpanzee ancestors. In contrast, the telomeric motifs that distinguish A and B haplotypes emerged more recently, ~1.7 million years ago, before the emergence of Homo sapiens. Thus the centromeric and telomeric motifs that typify A and B haplotypes have likely been present throughout human evolution. The results suggest the common ancestor of A and B haplotypes combined a B-like centromeric region with an A-like telomeric region.

  7. HBA1C AND LIPID PROFILE LEVELS IN THE KNOWN TYPE 2 DIABETIC GROUP IN THE RURAL REGION OF VIDARBHA, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmistha Sarkar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes Mellitus (DM is a group of metabolic diseases in which there is high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period of time, and if early interventions are not taken, then it can cause many life-threatening complications like heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, damage to eyes, etc. Our aim is to determine HbA1c and Lipid profile level in the known type 2 diabetic group in the rural region of Vidarbha, Maharashtra, India, to see that as our study is a rural-based study and there is less pollution and stress factor compared to the cities whether it effects out study result or not. MATERIALS AND METHODS FBS, HbA1c, TC, HDL, LDL, VLDL, TG levels were evaluated. Total sample size 60 in between 30-40 years including males and females divided into two groups. 30 patients study group with known history of type 2 DM who attended the Medicine OPD and 30 age, sex matched healthy controls. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 17.0 version. RESULTS Results of serum lipid profile showed that mean values for TC, TG, HDL, LDL and VLDL in study group were 227.76±30.72, 152.23 ± 40.94, 40.5 ± 6.43, 153.30 ± 27.70 and 33.00 ± 9.94 mg/dL. FBS showed significant positive correlation with HbA1c (p<0.002. HDL has significant negative correlation with HbA1c (p<0.008. CONCLUSION Early detection in the abnormalities of serum lipid profile and HbA1c can minimise the risk for micro and macroangiopathies in the known type 2 diabetic patients.

  8. Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups in the Benin area of Niger-Delta: Implication for regional blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enosolease Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood group antigens are hereditary characters and are useful in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and more importantly in compatibility test in blood transfusion practice. Data on frequency distribution of ABO and Rh-D in Niger-Delta region of Nigeria are not available; hence we made an attempt to retrospectively analyze the records on the blood donors, transfusion recipients and patients attending antenatal care or some other medical interventions. Over a twenty-year period between 1986 and 2005, a total of 160,431 blood samples were grouped for ABO and Rh-D at the blood bank of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Blood group distribution among these samples showed phenotypes A, B, AB and O as 23.72%, 20.09%, 2.97% and 53.22%, respectively. The Rh-D negative phenotype was found among 6.01% of the samples tested.

  9. Ionised gas structure of 100 kpc in an over-dense region of the galaxy group COSMOS-Gr30 at z 0.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinat, B.; Contini, T.; Finley, H.; Boogaard, L. A.; Guérou, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Carton, D.; Michel-Dansac, L.; Bacon, R.; Cantalupo, S.; Carollo, M.; Hamer, S.; Kollatschny, W.; Krajnović, D.; Marino, R. A.; Richard, J.; Soucail, G.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wisotzki, L.

    2018-01-01

    We report the discovery of a 104 kpc2 gaseous structure detected in [O II]λλ3727, 3729 in an over-dense region of the COSMOS-Gr30 galaxy group at z 0.725 with deep MUSE Guaranteed Time Observations. We estimate the total amount of diffuse ionised gas to be of the order of ( 5 ± 3) × 1010 M⊙ and explore its physical properties to understand its origin and the source(s) of the ionisation. The MUSE data allow the identification of a dozen group members that are embedded in this structure through emission and absorption lines. We extracted spectra from small apertures defined for both the diffuse ionised gas and the galaxies. We investigated the kinematics and ionisation properties of the various galaxies and extended gas regions through line diagnostics (R23, O32, and [O III]/Hβ) that are available within the MUSE wavelength range. We compared these diagnostics to photo-ionisation models and shock models. The structure is divided into two kinematically distinct sub-structures. The most extended sub-structure of ionised gas is likely rotating around a massive galaxy and displays filamentary patterns that link some galaxies. The second sub-structure links another massive galaxy that hosts an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to a low-mass galaxy, but it also extends orthogonally to the AGN host disc over 35 kpc. This extent is likely ionised by the AGN itself. The location of small diffuse regions in the R23 vs. O32 diagram is compatible with photo-ionisation. However, the location of three of these regions in this diagram (low O32, high R23) can also be explained by shocks, which is supported by their high velocity dispersions. One edge-on galaxy shares the same properties and may be a source of shocks. Regardless of the hypothesis, the extended gas seems to be non-primordial. We favour a scenario where the gas has been extracted from galaxies by tidal forces and AGN triggered by interactions between at least the two sub-structures. Based on observations made with

  10. Femoral head avascular necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrysikopoulos, H.; Sartoris, D.J.; Resnick, D.L.; Ashburn, W.; Pretorius, T.

    1988-01-01

    MR imaging has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than planar scintigraphy for avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. However, experience with single photon emission CT (SPECT) is limited. The authors retrospectively compared 1.5-T MR imaging with SPECT in 14 patients with suspected femoral head AVN. Agreement between MR imaging and SPECT was present in 24 femurs, 14 normal and ten with AVN. MR imaging showed changes of AVN in the remaining four femoral heads. Of these, one was normal and the other three inconclusive for AVN by SPECT. The authors conclude that MR imaging is superior to SPECT for the evaluation of AVN of the hip

  11. Protective head of sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liska, K.; Anton, P.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery concerns the protective heads of diagnostic assemblies of nuclear power plants for conductors of the sensors from the fuel and control parts of the said assemblies. A detailed description is presented of the design of the protective head which, as compared with the previous design, allows quick and simple assembly with reduced risk of damaging the sensors. The protective head may be used for diagnostic assemblies both in power and in research reactors and it will be used for WWER reactor assemblies. (A.K.). 3 figs

  12. Clinicopathological correlates of pediatric head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Subhabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The spectrum of head and neck tumors in children continues to be the cause of diverse, diagnostically challenging issues. Aims : To demonstrate and compare the unique clinicopathological features in our study population and their correlations with the final histopathological diagnosis. Methods : Fifty-three children with head and neck cancer were examined thoroughly at the Otorhinolaryngology department in a tertiary care teaching hospital followed by histopathological studies. Results : Lymphomas were the most common malignant lesions seen followed by rhabdomyosarcomas, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and others like thyroid carcinomas and eosinophilic granulomas. In the neck, the commonest cause of primary malignant disease was lymphoma; however, the most frequent lesion was reactive lymphadenitis. In the sinonasal region, the commonest malignancy was rhabdomyosarcoma, which often had extension to the orbit and the face. Recurrent epistaxis was found universally in the malignant cases of this region. In the facial region, disfiguring swelling with proptosis was mainly caused by rhabdomyosarcoma. The only case of tonsillar malignancy was due to non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The duration of disease was less than 1 year. Conclusion : The most common manifestation of the malignant lesions in the pediatric age group was with a history of an enlarging, painless neck swelling. Still, an insignificant lump in the neck or recurrent bleeding from nose may be the manifestation of an underlying cancer.

  13. Feeding ecology and nutrition of an eastern gorilla group in the Mt. Kahuzi Region (République du Zaïre).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casimir, M J

    1975-01-01

    An eastern gorilla group of the Mt. Kahuzi region (République du Zaïre) was studied over 15 months. Its migration route was determined, and the various biotopes it visited are described. A record was made of its main food plants, and of the plant parts eaten. For nine important food plants the protein content, the concentration of the individual amino acids and the water content were measured for the plant parts eaten and for those not eaten. For some of these plant parts the Na, K, Ca and Mg content were also determined. No general correlation between food selection and one or several of these factors could be found. The development and value of a traditionally determined mixed diet is discussed.

  14. Transfer Pricing; Charging of head office costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    The key issues discussed in this presentation are (1) What are head office costs?, (2) Why is the charging an area of concern for international companies?, (3) Which part of head office costs should be charged?, (4) OECD guidelines on charging. Head office costs are classified as Shareholder costs, Stewardship costs, Costs related to a specific subsidiary or group of subsidiaries (on call), and Costs related to operational activities in the parent company. The OECD reports of 1984 and 1996 are discussed. In Norsk Hydro's experience, the practising of the OECD guidelines by national authorities are confusing and not consistent over time or across borders. To get a better understanding of how charging of corporate head office costs are dealt with on an international level, Norsk Hydro asked Deloitte and Touche in London to carry out a study on international companies' behaviour. Their conclusions are included.

  15. The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) in a group of children in a highly polluted urban region and a windfarm-green energy island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuscu, Ozgur Onder; Caglar, Esber; Aslan, Seda; Durmusoglu, Ertan; Karademir, Aykan; Sandalli, Nuket

    2009-05-01

    Children's developing teeth may be sensitive to environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. The term molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) was introduced to describe the clinical appearance of enamel hypomineralization of systemic origin affecting one or more permanent first molars (PFMs) that are associated frequently with affected incisors. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalance of MIH in children from the most industrialized and polluted region and the most green-energy island of Turkey. In September 2007, a retrospective study was initiated in two elementary schools: one, a group of children (N = 153) who fitted the criteria from Tavsancil, Kocaeli (N = 109) and the other from Bozcaada island, Canakkale (N = 44). The soil samples were collected from selected regions in order to determine the contamination levels in a heavily industrialized area and a non-industrialized area. Prevalance of MIH in children in Bozcaada island was 9.1%, while prevalance of MIH was 9.2% in Tavsancil. The PCDD/F levels in soil samples collected from Bozcaada and Tavsancil were determined as 1,12 and 8,4 I-TEQ ng/kg dry soil, respectively (P MIH did not seem to be associated with the levels of PCDD/Fs in the environment.

  16. SMALL-SCALE AND GLOBAL DYNAMOS AND THE AREA AND FLUX DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGIONS, SUNSPOT GROUPS, AND SUNSPOTS: A MULTI-DATABASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz-Jaramillo, Andrés; Windmueller, John C.; Amouzou, Ernest C.; Longcope, Dana W. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Senkpeil, Ryan R. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Tlatov, Andrey G. [Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station of the Pulkovo Observatory, Kislovodsk 357700 (Russian Federation); Nagovitsyn, Yury A. [Pulkovo Astronomical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Pevtsov, Alexei A. [National Solar Observatory, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Chapman, Gary A.; Cookson, Angela M. [San Fernando Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Yeates, Anthony R. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Watson, Fraser T. [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Balmaceda, Laura A. [Institute for Astronomical, Terrestrial and Space Sciences (ICATE-CONICET), San Juan (Argentina); DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Martens, Petrus C. H., E-mail: munoz@solar.physics.montana.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-02-10

    In this work, we take advantage of 11 different sunspot group, sunspot, and active region databases to characterize the area and flux distributions of photospheric magnetic structures. We find that, when taken separately, different databases are better fitted by different distributions (as has been reported previously in the literature). However, we find that all our databases can be reconciled by the simple application of a proportionality constant, and that, in reality, different databases are sampling different parts of a composite distribution. This composite distribution is made up by linear combination of Weibull and log-normal distributions—where a pure Weibull (log-normal) characterizes the distribution of structures with fluxes below (above) 10{sup 21}Mx (10{sup 22}Mx). Additionally, we demonstrate that the Weibull distribution shows the expected linear behavior of a power-law distribution (when extended to smaller fluxes), making our results compatible with the results of Parnell et al. We propose that this is evidence of two separate mechanisms giving rise to visible structures on the photosphere: one directly connected to the global component of the dynamo (and the generation of bipolar active regions), and the other with the small-scale component of the dynamo (and the fragmentation of magnetic structures due to their interaction with turbulent convection)

  17. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story here Images × Image Gallery ... Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to ...

  18. Exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2014-12-01

    Exploding head syndrome is characterized by the perception of abrupt, loud noises when going to sleep or waking up. They are usually painless, but associated with fear and distress. In spite of the fact that its characteristic symptomatology was first described approximately 150 y ago, exploding head syndrome has received relatively little empirical and clinical attention. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the scientific literature using Medline, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and PubMed was undertaken. After first discussing the history, prevalence, and associated features, the available polysomnography data and five main etiological theories for exploding head syndrome are summarized. None of these theories has yet reached dominance in the field. Next, the various methods used to assess and treat exploding head syndrome are discussed, as well as the limited outcome data. Finally, recommendations for future measure construction, treatment options, and differential diagnosis are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medically necessary because of potential risk to the baby. This risk is, however, minimal with head CT ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ...

  20. Early Head Start Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Early Head Start or community services as usual;direct assessments and...

  1. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Brain Tumors Radiation Therapy for ... Tomography (CT) - Head Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  2. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Head? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT or CAT scan, is a diagnostic ... white on the x-ray; soft tissue, such as organs like the heart or liver, shows up ...

  3. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... head CT scanning. Manufacturers of intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 ...

  4. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rays). top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? CT scanning of the head ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  6. Head Start Impact Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Nationally representative, longitudinal information from an evaluation where children were randomly assigned to Head Start or community services as usual;direct...

  7. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stroke Brain Tumors Computer Tomography (CT) Safety During Pregnancy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to Computed Tomography (CT) - ...

  8. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  9. Computed Tomography (CT) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor to evaluate your face, sinuses, and skull or to plan radiation therapy for brain cancer. ... typically used to detect: bleeding, brain injury and skull fractures in patients with head injuries. bleeding caused ...

  10. The exploding head syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M W

    2001-06-01

    This article reviews the features of an uncommon malady termed "the exploding head syndrome." Sufferers describe terrorizing attacks of a painless explosion within their head. Attacks tend to occur at the onset of sleep. The etiology of attacks is unknown, although they are considered to be benign. Treatment with clomipramine has been suggested, although most sufferers require only reassurance that the spells are benign in nature.

  11. [Implementation of cytology images classification--the Bethesda 2001 System--in a group of screened women from Podlaskie region--effect evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbroch, Tomasz; Knapp, Paweł Grzegorz; Knapp, Piotr Andrzej

    2007-09-01

    Increasing knowledge concerning carcinogenesis within cervical epithelium has forced us to make continues modifications of cytology classification of the cervical smears. Eventually, new descriptions of the submicroscopic cytomorphological abnormalities have enabled the implementation of Bethesda System which was meant to take place of the former Papanicolaou classification although temporarily both are sometimes used simultaneously. The aim of this study was to compare results of these two classification systems in the aspect of diagnostic accuracy verified by further tests of the diagnostic algorithm for the cervical lesion evaluation. The study was conducted in the group of women selected from general population, the criteria being the place of living and cervical cancer age risk group, in the consecutive periods of mass screening in Podlaski region. The performed diagnostic tests have been based on the commonly used algorithm, as well as identical laboratory and methodological conditions. Performed assessment revealed comparable diagnostic accuracy of both analyzing classifications, verified by histological examination, although with marked higher specificity for dysplastic lesions with decreased number of HSIL results and increased diagnosis of LSILs. Higher number of performed colposcopies and biopsies were an additional consequence of TBS classification. Results based on Bethesda System made it possible to find the sources and reasons of abnormalities with much greater precision, which enabled causing agent treatment. Two evaluated cytology classification systems, although not much different, depicted higher potential of TBS and better, more effective communication between cytology laboratory and gynecologist, making reasonable implementation of The Bethesda System in the daily cytology screening work.

  12. Age and marital status linked to quality of life of long term survivors of head and neck or prostate cancer: report from a survey of radiation therapy oncology group patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.; Stern, J.; Asbell, S.; Osborne, D.; Peer, J.; Wasserman, T.; Hinrich, S.; Paulus, R.; Scarantino, C.; Bruner, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: This research project was designed to evaluate the QOL of prostate cancer survivors (PCS) or head and neck cancer survivors (HNCS) enrolled on RTOG clinical trials. Materials and Methods: Patients alive >4 years from registration on RTOG clinical trials were eligible to participate. Potential PCS or HNCS were identified in the RTOG database and institutions (INST) that agreed to participate were sent surveys and a list of eligible survivors. All eligible PCS or HNCS at that INST were given an informed consent and a survey. The survey consists of questionnaires on QOL, insurance issues, mood, sexual function, alcohol and tobacco use, and mental status. Results: To date, 460 survivors were approached from 40 INST and 276 (60%) have signed the informed consent. Twenty-one percent are HNCS. Sixteen percent of PCS are African American, as are 12% in HNCS. The current average age of PCS is 75 (range of 55-91 years); 65 (41-84) for HNCS. PCS were less likely to be current smokers (8%) compared to HNCS (15%, p=0.057). In HNCS age was associated with speech impairment: 61% under 65 had normal speech vs. 88%>65, p=0.023. Elderly HNCS reported less disfigurement (p=0.037) and greater spiritual well-being than younger survivors (p=0.0005). HNCS reported greater distress from illness (p=0.002) and anger (p=0.03) than PCS. HNCS reported more sexual dysfunction than PCS (p=0.017). In PCS married survivors had greater sexual dysfunction than non-married survivors (p=0.04). Conclusion: Survivors over age 65 that had head and neck cancer had less chronic effects of disease and treatment than their younger counterparts. They also had greater spiritual well-being. Survivors of head and neck cancer had greater sexual dysfunction than prostate cancer survivors, likely linked to their younger age. In addition, sexual function was of greater interest to married patients; therefore, of greater consequence with dysfunction. Younger patients report more long term effects of disease

  13. Head And Neck Rhabdomyosacroma In Childhood: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rhabdomyosarcoma may be histologically indistinguishable from other undifferentiated childhood tumours occurring in the head and neck region on routine heamatoxylin and eosin staining. Aim: aimed at assessing the usefulness of employing immunohistochemistry, as an adjunct to routine H&E staining, ...

  14. Oral sequelae of head and neck radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A; Jansma, J; Spijkervet, FKL; Burlage, FR; Coppes, RP

    In addition to anti-tumor effects, ionizing radiation causes damage in normal tissues located in the radiation portals. Oral complications of radiotherapy in the head and neck region are the result of the deleterious effects of radiation on, e. g., salivary glands, oral mucosa, bone, dentition,

  15. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  16. Cilia in the head of hornets : Form and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishay, JS; Plotkin, M; Ermakov, N; Jongebloed, WL; Kalicharan, D; Bergman, DJ

    2005-01-01

    In the head of the Oriental hornet, beneath the cuticle, there are plaques of hair cells. These are distributed throughout the upper front part of the head; to wit: in the region of the vertex (i.e., around and behind the ocelli), in the genae around and behind the compound eyes (the ommatidia), and

  17. Surgery for pathological proximal femoral fractures, excluding femoral head and neck fractures: resection vs. stabilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacherl, Max; Gruber, Gerald; Glehr, Mathias; Ofner-Kopeinig, Petra; Radl, Roman; Greitbauer, Manfred; Vecsei, Vilmos; Windhager, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Pathological femoral head and neck fractures are commonly treated by arthroplasty. Treatment options for the trochanteric region or below are not clearly defined. The purpose of this retrospective, comparative, double-centre study was to analyse survival and influences on outcome according to the surgical technique used to treat pathological proximal femoral fractures, excluding fractures of the femoral head and neck. Fifty-nine patients with 64 fractures were operated up on between 1998 and 2004 in two tertiary referral centres and divided into two groups. One group (S, n = 33) consisted of patients who underwent intramedullary nailing alone, and the other group (R, n = 31) consisted of patients treated by metastatic tissue resection and reconstruction by means of different implants. Median survival was 12.6 months with no difference between groups. Surgical complications were higher in the R group (n = 7) vs. the S group (n = 3), with no statistically significant difference. Patients with surgery-related complications had a higher survival rate (p = 0.049), as did patients with mechanical implant failure (p = 0.01). Survival scoring systems did not correlate with actual survival. Resection of metastases in patients with pathological fractures of the proximal femur, excluding femoral head and neck fractures, has no influence on survival. Patients with long postoperative survival prognosis are at risk of implant-related complications.

  18. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G.; Porceddu, Sandro V.; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I.; Morton, Randall P.; Hay, K. David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T.; Fraser-Browne, Carol L.; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility

  19. Phase 3 Trial of Domiciliary Humidification to Mitigate Acute Mucosal Toxicity During Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: First Report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macann, Andrew, E-mail: amacann@adhb.govt.nz [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Fua, Tsien [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Milross, Chris G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, New South Wales (Australia); Porceddu, Sandro V. [Oncology Services, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, Queensland (Australia); Penniment, Michael [Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Wratten, Chris [Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia); Krawitz, Hedley [Department of Radiation Oncology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Poulsen, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Oncology Mater Centre, South Brisbane, Queensland (Australia); Tang, Colin I. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Nedlands, Western Australia (Australia); Morton, Randall P. [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Middlemore Hospital, Otahuhu, Auckland (New Zealand); Hay, K. David [Department of Oral Health, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Thomson, Vicki [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Bell, Melanie L.; King, Madeleine T. [Psycho-oncology Cooperative Research Group, Univerity of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Fraser-Browne, Carol L. [Adult Oncology Research Centre, Auckland City Hospital, Auckland (New Zealand); Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P. [Biometrics Matters Ltd, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H and N) cancer. Methods and Materials: From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H and N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher and Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. Results: There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. Conclusions: TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility.

  20. Phase 3 trial of domiciliary humidification to mitigate acute mucosal toxicity during radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer: first report of Trans Tasman Radiation Oncology Group (TROG) 07.03 RadioHUM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macann, Andrew; Fua, Tsien; Milross, Chris G; Porceddu, Sandro V; Penniment, Michael; Wratten, Chris; Krawitz, Hedley; Poulsen, Michael; Tang, Colin I; Morton, Randall P; Hay, K David; Thomson, Vicki; Bell, Melanie L; King, Madeleine T; Fraser-Browne, Carol L; Hockey, Hans-Ulrich P

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of domicile-based humidification on symptom burden during radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. From June 2007 through June 2011, 210 patients with H&N cancer receiving RT were randomized to either a control arm or to receive humidification using the Fisher & Paykel Healthcare MR880 humidifier. Humidification commenced on day 1 of RT and continued until Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3.0, clinical mucositis (CMuc) grade ≤1 occurred. Forty-three patients (42%) met a defined benchmark for humidification compliance and contributed to per protocol (PP) analysis. Acute toxicities, hospitalizations, and feeding tube events were recorded prospectively. The McMaster University Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ) was used for patient-reported outcomes. The primary endpoint was area under the curve (AUC) for CMuc grade ≥2. There were no significant differences in AUC for CMuc ≥2 between the 2 arms. Humidification patients had significantly fewer days in hospital (P=.017). In compliant PP patients, the AUC for CTCAE functional mucositis score (FMuc) ≥2 was significantly reduced (P=.009), and the proportion who never required a feeding tube was significantly greater (P=.04). HNRQ PP analysis estimates also in the direction favoring humidification with less symptom severity, although differences at most time points did not reach significance. TROG 07.03 has provided efficacy signals consistent with a role for humidification in reducing symptom burden from mucositis, but the influence of humidification compliance on the results moderates recommendations regarding its practical utility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) - Head Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head uses a powerful ... the Head? What is MRI of the Head? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a noninvasive medical test that ...

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  4. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... find out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  5. Double-blind, randomized phase 3 trial of low-dose 13-cis retinoic acid in the prevention of second primaries in head and neck cancer: Long-term follow-up of a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (C0590).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aarti K; Lee, Ju-Whei; Pinto, Harlan A; Jacobs, Charlotte D; Limburg, Paul J; Rubin, Philip; Arusell, Robert M; Dunphy, Eamonn P; Khandekar, Janardan D; Reiner, Seth A; Baez-Diaz, Luis; Celano, Paul; Li, Shuli; Li, Yi; Burtness, Barbara A; Adams, George L; Pandya, Kishan J

    2017-12-01

    13-Cis retinoic acid (13-CRA) is a synthetic vitamin A derivative. High-dose 13-CRA in patients with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck (SCCHNs) reduces the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). The authors report long-term results from a phase 3 randomized trial that compared treatment with low-dose 13-CRA versus placebo for patients who had early stage SCCHN, with a focus on the development of SPTs and overall survival (OS). In total, 176 patients who received treatment for stage I/II SCCHN were randomized to receive either low-dose 13-CRA (weight-based dose of 7.5 mg or 10 mg) or placebo for 2 years. A competing-risk approach and the log-rank test were used to compare the time to SPT and OS, respectively, between groups. 13-CRA neither significantly reduced the cumulative incidence of SPT (P = .61) nor improved the time to SPT (hazard ratio [HR] for 13-CRA/placebo; 0.86; P = .61). Despite limited power, there was a trend toward improved OS for the 13-CRA arm (HR, 0.75; P = .14), particularly among patients whose index tumor was surgically excised (N = 26; HR, 0.50; P = .057) and among women (N = 39; HR, 0.44; P = .065) and never/former smokers (N = 129; HR, 0.61; P = .055), with a median follow-up of 16 years. The main 13-CRA related toxicities were dry skin and cheilitis. Treatment with low-dose 13-CRA for 2 years did not decrease the incidence of SPT; subset analysis indicates a potential survival advantage among patients who are women and never/former smokers. More targeted interventions based on clinical risk factors and molecular characterization of tumors may yield greater success in future prevention trials. Cancer 2017;123:4653-4662. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. PEDIATRIC HEAD INJURIES, MECHANISM TO MANAGEMENT: EXPERIENCE OF A SINGLE CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Head injury is very common in modern life. Patients of any age group may have head injury however mechanism of head injury, pathophysiology and outcome of head injury is quite different in adults as compared to children. Road traffic accident is a common mode of head injury in adults while fall from height and household abuse is common mode in children. In Western countries, there is a separate registry system for pediatric head injury but there is no such system exist in india. Our present study is focused on pediatric head injury and evaluation of factors that affect the final outcome in pediatric patients.

  7. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  8. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Protection Programs, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  9. Group cross sections in the resolved resonance region calculated for a CANDU-PHW reactor operating on closed thorium-uranium and thorium-plutonium-uranium fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, D.; Wilkin, G.B.

    1979-09-01

    Group cross sections in the resolved resonance region are commonly computed for each nuclide independently of other resonance nuclides present in the fuel mixture. While this technique is usually entirely adequate for uranium fuel cycles, it is necessary to establish its legitimacy for closed thorium fuel cycles topped with fissile uranium or plutonium by analysis of a number of representative cases. At the same time cross sections originating from WIMS (Winfrith Improved Multigroup Scheme) calculations are compared with values computed in this study. In this context, particular attention is paid to the adequacy of the lower boundary for the WIMS resonance treatment. All calculations are based on heavy nuclide cross sections from the ENDF/B-IV data compilaton (Evaluated Nuclear Data File). Appreciable interaction effects have been determined for all nuclides except for 232 Th. In most cases, these are due to the strong 232 Th resonance doublet at 21.8 eV and 23.5 eV but some effects also result from resonances of 234 U (5.19 eV, 48.75 eV), 236 U (5.45 eV), 242 Pu (2.67 eV) and others. The influence of mutual interaction on the infinite lattice multiplicaton factor is very small in comparison to the effects of self-shielding. WIMS cross sections do not always compare well with the values computed in the study, but discrepancies are in most cases related to the different sources of data. Interaction effects are not explicitly taken into account in WIMS. Several nuclides ( 233 Pa, 233 U, 240 Pu, 242 Pu) show appreciable self-shielding below the WIMS resonance region and are therefore not treated adequately. The impact of these discrepancies on the multiplication factor is relatively small, however, because of error cancellation. (author)

  10. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Diane K; Daugherty, Ana M; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Kramer, Arthur F; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness. Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old) enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance ( n = 69), Strength/Stretching/Stability ( n = 70), Walk ( n = 54), and Walk Plus ( n = 54). All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus) before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework. Results: Perceived social support increased ( p = 0.003), while stress ( p loneliness ( p = 0.001) decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (-0.63, p loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44). However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0.02). Further, individuals with larger baseline PFC volumes experienced greater reductions in stress due

  11. Regional Brain Volumes Moderate, but Do Not Mediate, the Effects of Group-Based Exercise Training on Reductions in Loneliness in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane K. Ehlers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the prevalence of and negative health consequences associated with perceived loneliness in older adults, few studies have examined interactions among behavioral, psychosocial, and neural mechanisms. Research suggests that physical activity and improvements in perceived social support and stress are related to reductions in loneliness. Yet, the influence of brain structure on these changes is unknown. The present study examined whether change in regional brain volume mediated the effects of changes in social support and stress on change in perceived loneliness after an exercise intervention. We also examined the extent to which baseline brain volumes moderated the relationship between changes in social support, stress, and loneliness.Methods: Participants were 247 older adults (65.4 ± 4.6 years-old enrolled in a 6-month randomized controlled trial comprised of four exercise conditions: Dance (n = 69, Strength/Stretching/Stability (n = 70, Walk (n = 54, and Walk Plus (n = 54. All groups met for 1 h, three times weekly. Participants completed questionnaires assessing perceived social support, stress, and loneliness at baseline and post-intervention. Regional brain volumes (amygdala, prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampus before and after intervention were measured with automatic segmentation of each participant's T1-weighted structural MRI. Data were analyzed in a latent modeling framework.Results: Perceived social support increased (p = 0.003, while stress (p < 0.001, and loneliness (p = 0.001 decreased over the intervention. Increased social support directly (−0.63, p < 0.01 and indirectly, through decreased stress (−0.10, p = 0.02, predicted decreased loneliness. Changes in amygdala, PFC, and hippocampus volumes were unrelated to change in psychosocial variables (all p ≥ 0.44. However, individuals with larger baseline amygdalae experienced greater decreases in loneliness due to greater reductions in stress (0.35, p = 0

  12. Treatment, patient and tumor characteristics impact quality of life (QOL) in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer: Report of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG) trial 90-03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, J.; Scott, C.; Fu, K.; Trotti, A.; Spencer, S.; Garden, A.; Phillips, T.; Movsas, B.; Byhardt, R.; Ang, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine factors that effect QOL in patients with locally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck randomized to standard fractionation radiotherapy (SFX), hyperfractionation (HFX), Accelerated Fractionation with Split (AFX-S) and Accelerated Fractionation with Concomitant Boost (AFX-C). Materials and Methods: RTOG 90-03 used the Head and Neck Performance Status Scale (HNPSS) and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-H and N), version 2 to assess QOL. The HNPSS has three components Normalcy of Diet, Eating in Public, and Understandability of Speech. The FACT-H and N has two components: a global QOL questionnaire (FACT-G) consisting of 4 domains; Physical Well Being (PWB), Social Well Being (SWB), Emotional Well Being (EWB), Functional Well Being (FWB), and an additional H and N specific questionnaire (AC). Between 3/92 and 8/97, 1113 pts. were randomized; 718 completed a pretreatment FACT-H and N. Pts. completed the HNPSS and FACT-H and N; pretreatment, 4 weeks post-RT, every 3 months for 1 year. Results: Prior to the start of radiotherapy (RT) 48% of pts had normal diets, 64% had normal public eating, and 77% had normal speech. Age ( 60), KPS, tumor site (oral cavity vs. other), T-stage (T3+T4 vs. T1+T2+TX), N-stage (N0 vs. other), Race (Non-White vs. White), and marital status (single vs. married), FACT-G, PWB, EWB, FWB, AC, use of oral nutrient supplements, feeding tube, and parenteral nutrition predicted for pretreatment diet, public eating, and speech. During the acute toxicity phase diet, eating, and speech were related to the intensity of RT (HFX or AFX-C), marital status (single), tumor site (oral cavity), use of oral nutrient supplements, and feeding tube. At one-year oral cavity tumors, AFX-C, oral nutrient supplements, feeding tube, and single patients had worse diet, eating, and speech. Conclusion: Pretreatment patient and tumor characteristics impact on QOL prior to the initiation of therapy. Intensification of

  13. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Document Server

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  14. Massachusetts State Police Special Tactical Operations Team User Focus Group Report - Law Enforcement Advanced Protection (LEAP) Duty Uniforms, Integrated Head Protection, Chemical/Biological Protection and Human Systems Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Creighton, II, Thomas E; Hibbard, Bradley; Doherty, Stephen; McManus, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    ...) from representatives within the law enforcement community. This focus group consisted exclusively of personnel assigned to the Massachusetts State Police Special Tactical Operations (STOP) Team...

  15. Leadership styles in ethical dilemmas when head nurses make decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydziunaite, V; Lepaite, D; Suominen, T

    2013-06-01

    The overlooked aspect in Lithuania is the dearth of leaders among head nurses, who bear the responsibility for decisions in ethical dilemmas. Understanding the application of leadership styles is fundamental to ensuring head nurses' abilities to influence outcomes for healthcare providers and patients. To identify the leadership styles applied by head nurses in decision making in ethical dilemmas on hospital wards. The data were collected by questionnaires completed by head nurses (n = 278) working in five major state-funded hospitals in each of the five regions of Lithuania. The data were analysed using SPSS 16.0, calculating descriptive statistics and analysis of variance. Head nurses apply democratic, affiliative, transformational and sustainable leadership styles when resolving ethical dilemmas. The application of leadership styles is associated not only with specific situations, but also with certain background factors, such as years of experience in a head nurse's position, ward specialization and the incidence of ethical dilemmas. Nurses having been in a head nurse's position over 10 years use primitive leadership styles, notably bureaucratic leadership, more often than do those head nurses with only a few years of experience in such a position. The results highlight the need for head nurses to reflect on their practices and to find new ways of learning from practice, colleagues and patients. Head nurses' managerial decisions due to their 'executive power' can turn into a new state-of-the-art leadership in nursing. © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  16. Rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever group in dogs, horses and ticks: an epidemiological study in an endemic region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Costa da Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Cunha N.C., Lemos E.R.S., Rozental T., Teixeira R.C., Cordeiro M.D., Lisbôa R.S., Favacho A.R., Barreira J.D., Rezende J. & Fonseca A.H. Rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever group in dogs, horses and ticks: an epidemiological study in an endemic region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães, equinos e carrapatos: um estudo epidemiológico em região endêmica do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:294-300, 2014. Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: adivaldo@ufrrj.br Spotted fever is a disease of which Rickettsia rickettsii is the most pathogenic agent. Its transmission is by tick bites and the infected ticks can act as vectors, reservoirs or amplifiers. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential of dogs and horses as sentinels for brazilian spotted fever (BSF emergence and become acquainted with the tick species in a municipal region of Resende, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where five BSF cases in man were registered. Dog and horse blood samples were collected from rural and periurban properties to assess IgG anti-Rickettsia rickettsii, using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. First, an analysis was conducted to detect association between IFA results and answers obtained from a questionnaire. Afterwards, a multivariate investigation was undertaken that presented significant statistical differences. Ticks were collected directly from dogs and horses for taxonomic identification. Out of the 107 canine serum samples, 30 (28.0% were reactive, with titers varying from 1:64 to 1:4096, and 77 (72.0% were not reactive. Of 96 animals in the serum analysis of horses, 9 (9.4% were reactive, all with titers of 1:64, and 87 (90.6% were non-reactive. The tick species collected from dogs were

  17. Head first Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Riordan, Rebecca M

    2008-01-01

    Ajax is no longer an experimental approach to website development, but the key to building browser-based applications that form the cornerstone of Web 2.0. Head First Ajax gives you an up-to-date perspective that lets you see exactly what you can do -- and has been done -- with Ajax. With it, you get a highly practical, in-depth, and mature view of what is now a mature development approach. Using the unique and highly effective visual format that has turned Head First titles into runaway bestsellers, this book offers a big picture overview to introduce Ajax, and then explores the use of ind

  18. Head First Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, Dawn

    2009-01-01

    Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis,