WorldWideScience

Sample records for group greater social

  1. Exposure to Flood Hazards in Miami and Houston: Are Hispanic Immigrants at Greater Risk than Other Social Groups?

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Alejandra; Collins, Timothy W.; Sara E. Grineski; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been conducted on the vulnerability of marginalized groups in the environmental justice (EJ) and hazards fields, analysts have tended to lump people together in broad racial/ethnic categories without regard for substantial within-group heterogeneity. This paper addresses that limitation by examining whether Hispanic immigrants are disproportionately exposed to risks from flood hazards relative to other racial/ethnic groups (including US-born Hispanics), adjustin...

  2. Asymmetry within social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2016-01-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...

  3. Social group utility maximization

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xiaowen; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief explains how to leverage mobile users' social relationships to improve the interactions of mobile devices in mobile networks. It develops a social group utility maximization (SGUM) framework that captures diverse social ties of mobile users and diverse physical coupling of mobile devices. Key topics include random access control, power control, spectrum access, and location privacy.This brief also investigates SGUM-based power control game and random access control game, for which it establishes the socially-aware Nash equilibrium (SNE). It then examines the critical SGUM-b

  4. Estado nutricional de grupamentos sociais da área metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Nutritional status of social groups in greater metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Salas Martins

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo caracterizar a prevalência de baixo peso e obesidade em grupamentos (estratos sociais da Área Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil. O estado nutricional foi definido pelo Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. As prevalências de desnutrição energético-protéica foi de 3,9% nos homens e 6,2% nas mulheres. O sobrepeso variou de 27,5% a 34,0 %, nos homens e de 25,8% a 43,6%, nas mulheres. A obesidade, nos homens, variou de 2,5% a 11,1%.; nas mulheres de 7,1% a 28,5%. Nestas o excesso de peso apresentou aumento brusco após os 40 anos de idade, com diferenciais estatisticamente significantes (pThis paper focuses on prevalence of nutritional status (Body Mass Index, BMI in social groups in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, in Southeastern Brazil. The population was stratified in four socioeconomic groups. Prevalence of malnutrition (BMI 25.0 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI > or = 30.0kg/m2 were calculated. Prevalence of malnutrition was 3.9% in men and 6.2% in women. Prevalence of overweight ranged from 27.5% to 34.1% in men and from 25.8% to 43.6% in women. Obesity ranged from 2.5% to 11.1% in men and from 7.1% to 20.5 in women. Prevalence of overweight and obesity was greater among women than men (p 25.0 kgm/2, the study showed that prevalence in men was 43, 51, 35, and 30% for strata I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Among women, prevalence was 12, 61, 55 and 46% for strata I, II, III, and IV, respectively. In women there were an abrupt increase in excess weight just before 40 years of age. A high percentage of overweight and obesity was observed in all population groups.

  5. Social group and mobbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltezarević Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our reality, having been subject to the numerous social crises during the last decades of the 20th century, is characterized by frequent incidences of powerlessness and alienation. The man is more frequently a subject to loneliness and overcomes the feeling of worthlessness, no matter whether he considers himself an individual or a part of a whole larger social. Such an environment leads to development of aggression in all fields of ones life. This paper has as an objective the pointing out of the mental harassment that is manifested in the working environment. There is a prevalence of mobbing cases, as a mode of pathological communication. The result of this is that a person, subjected to this kind of abuse, is soon faced with social isolation. This research also aspires to initiate the need for social groups self-organization of which victims are part of. The reaction modality of a social group directly conditions the outcome of the deliberate social drama, one is subjected to it as a result of mobbing.

  6. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members: the group attractiveness effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, Yvette; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H J; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-04-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of physical attractiveness are more positive than the average ratings of the group members. A meta-analysis on 33 comparisons reveals that the effect is medium to large (Cohen's d = 0.60) and moderated by group size. We explored two explanations for the GA-effect: (a) selective attention to attractive group members, and (b) the Gestalt principle of similarity. The results of our studies are in favor of the selective attention account: People selectively attend to the most attractive members of a group and their attractiveness has a greater influence on the evaluation of the group. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  7. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed.

  8. The Politics of Affirmation Theory: When Group-Affirmation Leads to Greater Ingroup Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Gaven A; Gramzow, Richard H

    2015-08-01

    It has been well established in the literature that affirming the individual self reduces the tendency to exhibit group-favoring biases. The limited research examining group-affirmation and bias, however, is inconclusive. We argue that group-affirmation can exacerbate group-serving biases in certain contexts, and in the current set of studies, we document this phenomenon directly. Unlike self-affirmation, group-affirmation led to greater ingroup-favoring evaluative judgments among political partisans (Experiment 1). This increase in evaluative bias following group-affirmation was moderated by political party identification and was not found among those who affirmed a non-political ingroup (Experiment 2). In addition, the mechanism underlying these findings is explored and interpreted within the theoretical frameworks of self-categorization theory and the multiple self-aspects model (Experiments 2 and 3). The broader implications of our findings for the understanding of social identity and affirmation theory are discussed.

  9. Stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Hege H; Herrebrøden, Henrik; Hjetland, Gunnhild J; Røyset, Guro Ø; Westby, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    We present a pilot study and two main studies that address the nature of stereotypes of social groups in Norway within the framework of the Stereotype Content Model (SCM). The first study focused on stereotypes of a wide range of groups across categories such as gender, age, religious conviction, socioeconomic and health status. The second study focused on stereotypes of immigrant groups. Participants (n = 244 and n = 63, respectively) rated the groups on perceived warmth, competence, status, and competition. Results from both studies support the applicability of the SCM in Norway and provides a unique insight into stereotypes of Norwegian social groups.

  10. Educational offer of family compensation cash, towards greater social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Cristancho García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This document is an overview of the educational offer generated by the family compensation funds and their contribution to the commitment of social tissue formation according to the territorial challenges, considering some characteristics of the institutions of family subsidy system. The process is stated from the review of the "White Paper of the family subsidy system" (ILO, 2014; the undergraduate thesis from the Faculty of Political Science of Del Rosario University "Analysis of the evolution of the figure of the family compensation funds in Colombia as managers of social security for the period between 1954 and 2009, Case Study Cafam "(Cortés, 2011; the document developed by Externado University entitled "The institutions of the family subsidy system as operators of social policy" (Carrasco and Farné, 2010; the document developed by Asocajas in conjuction with Corporación para el desarrollo de la seguridad social “Perspectives of family subsidy system” (Asocajas y Codess, 2014; and finally, considering the development of an analysis of the information provided by Asocajas, and the information taken from the different web pages of the 43 institutions of the family subsidy system that were analyzed.

  11. Is social support associated with greater weight loss after bariatric surgery?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livhits, M; Mercado, C; Yermilov, I; Parikh, J A; Dutson, E; Mehran, A; Ko, C Y; Shekelle, P G; Gibbons, M M

    2011-02-01

    Social support may be associated with increased weight loss after bariatric surgery. The objective of this article is to determine impact of post-operative support groups and other forms of social support on weight loss after bariatric surgery. MEDLINE search (1988-2009) was completed using MeSH terms including bariatric procedures and a spectrum of patient factors with potential relationship to weight loss outcomes. Of the 934 screened studies, 10 reported on social support and weight loss outcomes. Five studies reported on support groups and five studies reported on other forms of social support (such as perceived family support or number of confidants) and degree of post-operative weight loss (total n = 735 patients). All studies found a positive association between post-operative support groups and weight loss. One study found a positive association between marital status (being single) and weight loss, while three studies found a non-significant positive trend and one study was inconclusive. Support group attendance after bariatric surgery is associated with greater post-operative weight loss. Further research is necessary to determine the impact of other forms of social support. These factors should be addressed in prospective studies of weight loss following bariatric surgery, as they may represent ways to improve post-operative outcomes. © 2010 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2010 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members : The group attractiveness effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H. J.; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of

  13. A group's physical attractiveness is greater than the average attractiveness of its members : The group attractiveness effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Y.M.J.; Blanken, Irene; Meijs, Maartje H. J.; van Wolferen, Job

    2015-01-01

    We tested whether the perceived physical attractiveness of a group is greater than the average attractiveness of its members. In nine studies, we find evidence for the so-called group attractiveness effect (GA-effect), using female, male, and mixed-gender groups, indicating that group impressions of

  14. The functions of ritual in social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    Ritual cognition builds upon social learning biases that may have become specialized for affiliation within social groups. The adaptive problems of group living required a means of identifying group members, ensuring commitment to the group, facilitating cooperation, and maintaining group cohesion. We discuss how ritual serves these social functions.

  15. Six Considerations for Social Justice Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "courageous conversations" in social justice group work and a continuum of action for social justice interventions. It analyzes themes from 20 contributions to 2 consecutive special issues of "The Journal for Specialists in Group Work" on social justice group work. Implications for future development in group leadership and…

  16. Post-Disaster Social Justice Group Work and Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemak, Fred; Chung, Rita Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses post-disaster group counseling and group supervision using a social justice orientation for working with post-disaster survivors from underserved populations. The Disaster Cross-Cultural Counseling model is a culturally responsive group counseling model that infuses social justice into post-disaster group counseling and…

  17. Predicting Group Evolution in the Social Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław; Kołoszczyk, Bartosz

    2012-01-01

    Groups - social communities are important components of entire societies, analysed by means of the social network concept. Their immanent feature is continuous evolution over time. If we know how groups in the social network has evolved we can use this information and try to predict the next step in the given group evolution. In the paper, a new aproach for group evolution prediction is presented and examined. Experimental studies on four evolving social networks revealed that (i) the predict...

  18. Social Carrying Capacity as Status Group Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Patrick C.

    A sociological study investigating the relationship between perception of crowding and social status was conducted in a rural camping setting. Results indicate that higher social status groups and groups aspiring to higher social status are more likely to perceive crowding than are lower status groups, but more research is suggested prior to the…

  19. Social Carrying Capacity as Status Group Convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Patrick C.

    A sociological study investigating the relationship between perception of crowding and social status was conducted in a rural camping setting. Results indicate that higher social status groups and groups aspiring to higher social status are more likely to perceive crowding than are lower status groups, but more research is suggested prior to the…

  20. Effects of Perceived Social Loafing, Social Interdependence, and Group Affective Tone on Students’ Group Learning Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teng, Chih-Ching; Luo, Yu-Ping

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how students perceived social loafing and social interdependence influence group learning performance through group affective tone in undergraduate hospitality and tourism curricula...

  1. Paranoid individuals with schizophrenia show greater social cognitive bias and worse social functioning than non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkham, Amy E.; Harvey, Philip D.; Penn, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid indiv...

  2. Paranoid individuals with schizophrenia show greater social cognitive bias and worse social functioning than non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkham, Amy E.; Harvey, Philip D.; Penn, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid indiv...

  3. Group Evolution Discovery in Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bródka, Piotr; Saganowski, Stanisław; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Group extraction and their evolution are among the topics which arouse the greatest interest in the domain of social network analysis. However, while the grouping methods in social networks are developed very dynamically, the methods of group evolution discovery and analysis are still uncharted territory on the social network analysis map. Therefore the new method for the group evolution discovery called GED is proposed in this paper. Additionally, the results of the first experiments on the ...

  4. Group Recommendation in Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the Facebook social graph are connected to each other via relationships. Bret Taylor is a fan of the Coca - Cola page, and Bret Taylor and Arjun...even used for business promotions like organizing events and taking surveys etc. Consider for example, if you would like to conduct a survey it...takes a lot of effort in terms of the promotion to reach out to the intended audience. Using social networks targeting the audience and reaching out

  5. Using social ties in group recommendation

    OpenAIRE

    Bourke, Steven; McCarthy, Kevin; Smyth, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The social web is a mass of activity, petabytes of data are generated yearly. The social web has proven to be a great resource for new recommender system techniques and ideas. However it would appear that typically these techniques are not so social, as they only generate recommendations for a user acting alone. In this paper we take the social graph data and preference content (via Facebook) of 94 user study participants and generate social group recommendations for them and their friends. W...

  6. PARANOID INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA SHOW GREATER SOCIAL COGNITIVE BIAS AND WORSE SOCIAL FUNCTIONING THAN NON-PARANOID INDIVIDUALS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkham, Amy E; Harvey, Philip D; Penn, David L

    2016-03-01

    Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.

  7. Paranoid individuals with schizophrenia show greater social cognitive bias and worse social functioning than non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Pinkham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.

  8. Geographic constraints on social network groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka-Pekka Onnela

    Full Text Available Social groups are fundamental building blocks of human societies. While our social interactions have always been constrained by geography, it has been impossible, due to practical difficulties, to evaluate the nature of this restriction on social group structure. We construct a social network of individuals whose most frequent geographical locations are also known. We also classify the individuals into groups according to a community detection algorithm. We study the variation of geographical span for social groups of varying sizes, and explore the relationship between topological positions and geographic positions of their members. We find that small social groups are geographically very tight, but become much more clumped when the group size exceeds about 30 members. Also, we find no correlation between the topological positions and geographic positions of individuals within network communities. These results suggest that spreading processes face distinct structural and spatial constraints.

  9. Modelling animal group fission using social network dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueur, Cédric; Maire, Anaïs

    2014-01-01

    Group life involves both advantages and disadvantages, meaning that individuals have to compromise between their nutritional needs and their social links. When a compromise is impossible, the group splits in order to reduce conflict of interests and favour positive social interactions between its members. In this study we built a dynamic model of social networks to represent a succession of temporary fissions involving a change in social relations that could potentially lead to irreversible group fission (i.e. no more group fusion). This is the first study that assesses how a social network changes according to group fission-fusion dynamics. We built a model that was based on different parameters: the group size, the influence of nutritional needs compared to social needs, and the changes in the social network after a temporary fission. The results obtained from this theoretical data indicate how the percentage of social relation transfer, the number of individuals and the relative importance of nutritional requirements and social links influence the average number of days before irreversible fission occurs. The greater the nutritional needs and the higher the transfer of social relations during temporary fission, the fewer days will be observed before an irreversible fission. It is crucial to bridge the gap between the individual and the population level if we hope to understand how simple, local interactions may drive ecological systems.

  10. Group Modeling in Social Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Slavomir; Glavinic, Vlado; Krpan, Divna

    2012-01-01

    Students' collaboration while learning could provide better learning environments. Collaboration assumes social interactions which occur in student groups. Social theories emphasize positive influence of such interactions on learning. In order to create an appropriate learning environment that enables social interactions, it is important to…

  11. Social Disaffection Among Deprived Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Examines groups of individuals of differing income, education, occupation, age and sex and investigates the extent of differences between these groups on three levels: nationalism, support for the political system and satisfaction with aspects of every day living. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction…

  12. Appreciative Socialization Group: Rules of Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Simona USURELU; Antonio SANDU

    2012-01-01

    Appreciative socialization group is the result of a strong collaboration between a NGO from Iasi, Romania, active volunteers and service users involved (disabled persons). In this paper we aim to offer the rules of implementation of this model. It is important to respect some rules in order to obtain the desired result – social integration of disabled persons in our case. Apprecitive socialization group is based on a number of elements taken from the literature that treats this subject, and a...

  13. GROUP LAZINESS: THE EFFECT OF SOCIAL LOAFING ON GROUP PERFORMANCE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiangyu Ying; Huanhuan Li; Shan Jiang; Fei Peng; Zhongxin Lin

    2014-01-01

      Social loafing has been defined as a phenomenon in which people exhibit a sizable decrease in individual effort when performing in groups as compared to when they perform alone, and has been regarded...

  14. Social protection sustainability, prolongation of working life and greater participation of women in the labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, M; Cesana, G

    2006-01-01

    One of the greatest problems of European societies is the financial sustainability of social protection systems in Europe. Together with Japan, Europe has the highest levels of ageing population in the world. This concern explains the reiterated insistence of the European Commission and the OECD regarding the reforms that governments should undertake. In this paper, reference is made to two of these reforms: prolonging of working life and a greater participation of women in the labour market.

  15. Appreciative Socialization Group: Rules of Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona USURELU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Appreciative socialization group is the result of a strong collaboration between a NGO from Iasi, Romania, active volunteers and service users involved (disabled persons. In this paper we aim to offer the rules of implementation of this model. It is important to respect some rules in order to obtain the desired result – social integration of disabled persons in our case. Apprecitive socialization group is based on a number of elements taken from the literature that treats this subject, and a number of elements of appreciative inquiry, the process of socialization, the process of empowerment and also the partnership process.

  16. Diffusion processes through social groups' dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Apolloni, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Axelrod's model describes the dissemination of a set of cultural traits in a society constituted by individual agents. In a social context, nevertheless, individual choices toward a specific attitude are also at the basis of the formation of communities, groups and parties. The membership in a group changes completely the behavior of single agents who start acting according to a social identity. Groups act and interact among them as single entities, but still conserve an internal dynamics. We show that, under certain conditions of social dynamics, the introduction of group dynamics in a cultural dissemination process avoids the flattening of the culture into a single entity and preserves the multiplicity of cultural attitudes. We also considered diffusion processes on this dynamical background, showing the conditions under which information as well as innovation can spread through the population in a scenario where the groups' choices determine the social structure.

  17. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  18. Mutual Group Hypnosis: A Social Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Shirley

    Mutual Group Hypnosis is discussed in terms of its similarity to group dynamics in general and in terms of its similarity to a social interaction program (Role Modeling) designed to foster the expression of warmth and acceptance among group members. Hypnosis also fosters a regression to prelogical thought processes in the service of the ego. Group…

  19. Sparing a Thought for Socially Disadvantaged Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Socially disadvantaged groups are currently a hot media topic.Many Chinese people have become wealthy as a result of rapid development that has thrown others into so-called socially disadvantage dgroups. Since last year the new CPC leadership, headed by Hu Jintao,has sought to redress this imbalance.

  20. Conflicting social motives in negotiating groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingart, Laurie R; Brett, Jeanne M; Olekalns, Mara; Smith, Philip L

    2007-12-01

    Negotiators' social motives (cooperative vs. individualistic) influence their strategic behaviors. In this study, the authors used multilevel modeling and analyses of strategy sequences to test hypotheses regarding how negotiators' social motives and the composition of the group influence group members' negotiation strategies. Four-person groups negotiating a 5-issue mixed-motive decision-making task were videotaped, and the tapes were transcribed and coded. Group composition included 2 homogeneous conditions (all cooperators and all individualists) and 3 heterogeneous conditions (3 cooperators and 1 individualist, 2 cooperators and 2 individualists, 1 cooperator and 3 individualists). Results showed that cooperative negotiators adjusted their use of integrative and distributive strategies in response to the social-motive composition of the group, but individualistic negotiators did not. Results from analyses of strategy sequences showed that cooperators responded more systematically to others' behaviors than did individualists. They also redirected the negotiation depending on group composition.

  1. Group in social work with the aged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowy, L.

    1962-01-01

    Aspects of human behavior, including drives, needs, developmental tasks, aspirations, and wants, which are relevant for social work practice and for which the group is an indispensable instrumentality are discussed. Specific areas treated include common human needs, role and ego functioning, the roles of the social worker, and the differential impact of setting. Several ways in which groups can be used with the aged are outlined, including alleviation of isolation and aloneness and help in coping with the problem of loss of social identity, physical and mental loss, and the problem of lack of future. Groups can also be used to develop new social roles within the limits of present-day social instrumentalities, to develop a linkage of past, present, and future in relation to associational groups (e.g., family, peers) and to help create a new self-image of older adults which can be transmitted to society. It is pointed out that since most older persons who could benefit from group associations do not venture out on their own to join groups, social agencies have a responsibility to move out from their intramural confinement to the places where the elderly live.

  2. Grouping Optimization Based on Social Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Chang Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping based on social relationships is a complex problem since the social relationships within a group usually form a complicated network. To solve the problem, a novel approach which uses a combined sociometry and genetic algorithm (CSGA is presented. A new nonlinear relation model derived from the sociometry is established to measure the social relationships, which are then used as the basis in genetic algorithm (GA program to optimize the grouping. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, three real datasets collected from a famous college in Taiwan were utilized. Experimental results show that CSGA optimizes the grouping effectively and efficiently and students are very satisfied with the grouping results, feel the proposed approach interesting, and show a high repeat intention of using it. In addition, a paired sample t-test shows that the overall satisfaction on the proposed CSGA approach is significantly higher than the random method.

  3. Social Factors of Health Vulnerability of Marginalized Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marginalized social groups are part of a certain apotheosis of otherness in present-day anthropological studies, being groups – such as refugees or immigrants – that come from other socio-cultural environments, and are marginalized in the anthropologists’ own environments, or environments socio-culturally similar to these. Groups that are to be considered as marginalized are those that have been put in this position contextually, through displacement from everything that represents life according to human standards, which becomes a continuous/permanent state, i.e. the way of life of the people in question, leading to the destabilization of both their physical and their mental health. The causes of this displacement are social in nature, thus constituting the primary social factors of health vulnerability of displaced populations, and they include wars and armed conflicts, persecution for various reasons, and poverty, i.e. the impossibility of subsisting on resources available in one’s own socio-economic environment. The secondary social factors of health vulnerability of marginalized social groups occur in the environments in which the groups find themselves after having been displaced from their previous socio-cultural environments; they result from the legal status of unwilling newcomers to these environments, and refer to the difficulty or impossibility of accessing the social and health care systems in their new environments.

  4. Social Groups and Subjectivity in Modern Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Gundelach, Peter

    1996-01-01

    are not passive objects of social forces but develops coping and learning techniques, and that individual behaviour an attitudes cannot be seperated from the general socio-cultural changes in society. In order to illustrate the value of applying social scientific theory on environmental policy the authors......Technical and economic approaches has been dominating the scientific research in energy consumption and energy savings. This contribution argues, from a social scientific point of view, that energy behaviour cannot be seperated from other types of behaviour and attitudes, that the individuals...... outlines two examples. The first shows that energy research about the relation between lifestyles and energy consumption has to be aware of the change in social groups from stable communities towards partial imagined communities. Rituals and social signals are important means to constitute and maintain...

  5. [Real groups in the minimal group paradigm; does the group context work as corrective or catalysing agent for social discrimination?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, L E; Blank, H

    2001-01-01

    Studies applying the minimal group paradigm to analyze social discrimination processes have been analyzing for the most part the behavior of individuals. The present experiment extends the minimal group paradigm to the group level. The aim of the present study was to compare the decisions made by real groups (N = 3 persons) with those made by single persons. The analysis of the total points given to the in- or the outgroup as well as the strategy MIP + MDI on F revealed that groups are significantly more biased towards the ingroup than individuals. On the other hand, individuals use the strategy F on MIP + MDI significantly more than groups and thus show a greater amount of fairness. These conclusions are qualified by a new method of identifying dominant strategies which shows that the dominant strategy used by individuals and groups is fairness. A theoretical explanation of the results is offered based on social identity theory, the groupthink model and self-awareness theory.

  6. Discovering Family Groups in Passenger Social Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万怀宇; 王志伟; 林友芳; 贾旭光; 周元炜

    2015-01-01

    People usually travel together with others in groups for different purposes, such as family members for visiting relatives, colleagues for business, friends for sightseeing and so on. Especially, the family groups, as a kind of the most com-mon consumer units, have a considerable scale in the field of passenger transportation market. Accurately identifying family groups can help the carriers to provide passengers with personalized travel services and precise product recommendation. This paper studies the problem of finding family groups in the field of civil aviation and proposes a family group detection method based on passenger social networks. First of all, we construct passenger social networks based on their co-travel behaviors extracted from the historical travel records; secondly, we use a collective classification algorithm to classify the social relationships between passengers into family or non-family relationship groups; finally, we employ a weighted com-munity detection algorithm to find family groups, which takes the relationship classification results as the weights of edges. Experimental results on a real dataset of passenger travel records in the field of civil aviation demonstrate that our method can effectively find family groups from historical travel records.

  7. Effect of social group dynamics on contagion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenyuan; Calderón, J. P.; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Guannan; Fenn, Dan; Sornette, Didier; Crane, Riley; Hui, Pak Ming; Johnson, Neil F.

    2010-05-01

    Despite the many works on contagion phenomena in both well-mixed systems and heterogeneous networks, there is still a lack of understanding of the intermediate regime where social group structures evolve on a similar time scale to individual-level transmission. We address this question by considering the process of transmission through a model population comprising social groups which follow simple dynamical rules for growth and breakup. Despite the simplicity of our model, the profiles produced bear a striking resemblance to a wide variety of real-world examples—in particular, empirical data that we have obtained for social (i.e., YouTube), financial (i.e., currency markets), and biological (i.e., colds in schools) systems. The observation of multiple resurgent peaks and abnormal decay times is qualitatively reproduced within the model simply by varying the time scales for group coalescence and fragmentation. We provide an approximate analytic treatment of the system and highlight a novel transition which arises as a result of the social group dynamics.

  8. Homogeneity in Social Groups of Iraqis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.

    With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds

  9. Homogeneity in Social Groups of Iraqis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresham, J.; Saleh, F.; Majid, S.

    2006-01-01

    With appreciation to the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies for initiating the Second World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, this paper summarizes findings on homogeneity in community-level social groups derived from inter-ethnic research conducted during 2005 among Iraqi Arabs and Kurds li

  10. Computational social dynamic modeling of group recruitment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Nina M.; Lee, Marinna; Pickett, Marc; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Smrcka, Julianne D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Ko, Teresa H.; Moy, Timothy David (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Wu, Benjamin C.

    2004-01-01

    The Seldon software toolkit combines concepts from agent-based modeling and social science to create a computationally social dynamic model for group recruitment. The underlying recruitment model is based on a unique three-level hybrid agent-based architecture that contains simple agents (level one), abstract agents (level two), and cognitive agents (level three). This uniqueness of this architecture begins with abstract agents that permit the model to include social concepts (gang) or institutional concepts (school) into a typical software simulation environment. The future addition of cognitive agents to the recruitment model will provide a unique entity that does not exist in any agent-based modeling toolkits to date. We use social networks to provide an integrated mesh within and between the different levels. This Java based toolkit is used to analyze different social concepts based on initialization input from the user. The input alters a set of parameters used to influence the values associated with the simple agents, abstract agents, and the interactions (simple agent-simple agent or simple agent-abstract agent) between these entities. The results of phase-1 Seldon toolkit provide insight into how certain social concepts apply to different scenario development for inner city gang recruitment.

  11. Social norm perception in groups with outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannals, Jennifer E; Miller, Dale T

    2017-09-01

    Social outliers draw a lot of attention from those inside and outside their group and yet little is known about their impact on perceptions of their group as a whole. The present studies examine how outliers influence observers' summary perceptions of a group's behavior and inferences about the group's descriptive and prescriptive norms. Across 4 studies (N = 1,718) we examine how observers perceive descriptive and prescriptive social norms in groups containing outliers of varying degrees. We find consistent evidence that observers overweight outlying behavior when judging the descriptive and prescriptive norms, but overweight outliers less as they become more extreme, especially in perceptions of the prescriptive norm. We find this pattern across norms pertaining to punctuality (Studies 1-2 and 4) and clothing formality (Study 3) and for outliers who are both prescriptively and descriptively deviant (e.g., late arrivers), as well as for outliers who are only descriptive deviants (e.g., early arrivers). We further demonstrate that observers' perceptions of the group shift in the direction of moderate outliers. This occurs because observers anchor on the outlier's behavior and adjust their recollections of nonoutlying individuals, making their inferences about the group's average behavior more extreme. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Process of care and assistance quality to women in labor with greater access to social goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina D’Ornelas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at analyzing the process of care and the quality of vaginal delivery assistance in women with greater access to social goods, in a large private hospital in São Paulo, comparing the delivery room with delivery suites. Methods: Cross-sectional and retrospective study, using random sampling of 395 medical charts. Rresults: In the delivery room, labor lasted two hours with the use of oxytocin (56.3%, double-block anesthesia (76.3% and right mediolateral episiotomy (67.7%. At the delivery suites, duration of labor was over ten hours (27.1%, the use of prostaglandin (8.6%, anesthesia by double block technique (61.4%, no anesthesia in 10%, midline episiotomy in 48.6%. Gestational age over 37 weeks (92.3%, birth weight of 3 kg or more (71.4% and 93.5% were referred to the normal nursery. Cconclusion: The results indicated good quality of care during hospitalization and development of delivery, both in the delivery room and in the delivery suites.

  13. Extended parental care in communal social groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H. Forbes

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.

  14. A giant spider from the Jurassic of China reveals greater diversity of the orbicularian stem group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A.; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2013-12-01

    A large female spider, Nephila jurassica, was described from Middle Jurassic strata of north-east China and placed in the modern genus Nephila (family Nephilidae) on the basis of many morphological similarities, but, as with many ancient fossils, the single specimen lacked synapomorphies of the family (Selden et al. 2011). In order to test the placement within the nephilid phylogenetic tree, Kuntner et al. (2013) calibrated the molecular phylogeny using N. jurassica in three different scenarios based on inferred mitochondrial substitution rates. They concluded that N. jurassica fitted better as a stem orbicularian than a nephilid. Now, a giant male spider has been discovered at the same locality that yielded N. jurassica. The two sexes are considered conspecific based on their similar morphological features, size, and provenance. The male cannot be accommodated in Nephilidae because of its pedipalp morphology, so the new genus Mongolarachne and family Mongolarachnidae are erected for the species. Comparison with possibly related families show that Mongolarachnidae is most likely on the orbicularian stem, close to other cribellate orbicularians (e.g., Deinopoidea), which suggests a greater diversity of cribellate orbicularians during the Middle Jurassic.

  15. Groups of Groups: The Role of Group Learning in Building Social Capital. CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue; Bell, Rowena; Falk, Ian

    The Centre for Research and Learning in Regional Australia is investigating the elements of social capital and developing a set of indicators that show when social capital is building. The indicators can be used where groups or organizations with a shared purpose engage in productive interactions that benefit not only the individual member groups…

  16. Group size and social conflict in complex societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sheng-Feng; Akçay, Erol; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2014-02-01

    Conflicts of interest over resources or reproduction among individuals in a social group have long been considered to result in automatic and universal costs to group living. However, exploring how social conflict varies with group size has produced mixed empirical results. Here we develop a model that generates alternative predictions for how social conflict should vary with group size depending on the type of benefits gained from being in a social group. We show that a positive relationship between social conflict and group size is favored when groups form primarily for the benefits of sociality but not when groups form mainly for accessing group-defended resources. Thus, increased social conflict in animal societies should not be viewed as an automatic cost of larger social groups. Instead, studying the relationship between social conflict and the types of grouping benefits will be crucial for understanding the evolution of complex societies.

  17. Social Groups and Children's Intergroup Attitudes: Can School Norms Moderate the Effects of Social Group Norms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Lawson, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of social group norms (inclusion vs. exclusion vs. exclusion-plus-relational aggression) and school norms (inclusion vs. no norm) on 7- and 10-year-old children's intergroup attitudes were examined. Children (n = 383) were randomly assigned to a group with an inclusion or exclusion norm, and to 1 of the school norm conditions. Findings…

  18. How report cards on physicians, physician groups, and hospitals can have greater impact on consumer choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaiko, Anna D; Eastman, Diana; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2012-03-01

    Public report cards with quality and cost information on physicians, physician groups, and hospital providers have proliferated in recent years. However, many of these report cards are difficult for consumers to interpret and have had little impact on the provider choices consumers are making. To gain a more focused understanding of why these reports cards have not been more successful and what improvements could be made, we interviewed experts and surveyed registrants at the March 2011 AHRQ National Summit on Public Reporting for Consumers in Health Care. We found broad agreement that public reporting has been disconnected from consumer decisions about providers because of weaknesses in report card content, design, and accessibility. Policy makers have an opportunity to change the landscape of public reporting by taking advantage of advances in measurement, data collection, and information technology to deliver a more consumer-centered report card. Overcoming the constraint of limited public funding, and achieving the acceptance of providers, is critical to realizing future success.

  19. Asymmetry within social groups: division of labour and intergroup competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J L; Loope, K J; Reeve, H K

    2016-03-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account for observations that group members invest differentially in cooperation and that there are often within-group competitive or power asymmetries. We present a game theoretic model of intergroup competition that investigates how such asymmetries affect within-group cooperation. In this model, group members adopt one of two roles, with relative competitive efficiency and the number of individuals varying between roles. Players in each role make simultaneous, coevolving decisions. The model predicts that although intergroup competition increases cooperative contributions to group resources by both roles, contributions are predominantly from individuals in the less competitively efficient role, whereas individuals in the more competitively efficient role generally gain the larger share of these resources. When asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency is greater, a group's per capita cooperation (averaged across both roles) is higher, due to increased cooperation from the competitively inferior individuals. For extreme asymmetry in relative competitive efficiency, per capita cooperation is highest in groups with a single competitively superior individual and many competitively inferior individuals, because the latter acquiesce and invest in cooperation rather than within-group competition. These predictions are consistent with observed features of many societies, such as monogynous Hymenoptera with many workers and caste dimorphism.

  20. Social learning strategies in networked groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Thomas N; Song, Xianfeng; Goldstone, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    When making decisions, humans can observe many kinds of information about others' activities, but their effects on performance are not well understood. We investigated social learning strategies using a simple problem-solving task in which participants search a complex space, and each can view and imitate others' solutions. Results showed that participants combined multiple sources of information to guide learning, including payoffs of peers' solutions, popularity of solution elements among peers, similarity of peers' solutions to their own, and relative payoffs from individual exploration. Furthermore, performance was positively associated with imitation rates at both the individual and group levels. When peers' payoffs were hidden, popularity and similarity biases reversed, participants searched more broadly and randomly, and both quality and equity of exploration suffered. We conclude that when peers' solutions can be effectively compared, imitation does not simply permit scrounging, but it can also facilitate propagation of good solutions for further cumulative exploration.

  1. Supervision of Group Work: Infusing the Spirit of Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Delini M.; Herlihy, Barbara R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors explore how supervisors may support the development of social justice consciousness for group leader supervisees, the role of the supervisor in generating social justice awareness and discussing social justice topics, and supervision that supports group leaders in addressing the challenges and opportunities related to social justice…

  2. Online Groups and Social Loafing: Understanding Student-Group Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piezon, Sherry L.; Donaldson, Robin L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the psycho-social aspects of social loafing and free riding in a traditional and distance learning environment. A brief literature review and summaries of frequently cited antecedents and their mitigating factors are reviewed for application by instructors, designers, and administrators in distance education.…

  3. Peer Group Socialization of Homophobic Attitudes and Behavior during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul

    2007-01-01

    A social developmental framework was applied to test for the socialization of homophobic attitudes and behavior within adolescent peer groups (Grades 7-11; aged 12-17 years). Substantial similarity within and differences across groups were documented. Multilevel models identified a group socializing contextual effect, predicting homophobic…

  4. Evaluation of a Group Counseling Program Designed to Enhance Social Adjustment of Mentally Retarded Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Yul

    1977-01-01

    Moderately retarded institutionalized residents received 10 weeks of structured group counseling focused on five areas of social and personal adjustment. Results showed that in each of the above variables, the experimental group showed a greater mean score than that of the control group. (Author)

  5. Does Social Connectedness Promote a Greater Sense of Well-Being in Adolescence over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Paul E.; Ryan, Nicholas; Pryor, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether or not social connectedness predicts psychological well-being over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the temporal relations between these constructs assessed yearly for 3 years for a sample of 1,774 10- to 15-year-olds (at Time 1). Results indicated that global…

  6. Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Walter W.

    2009-01-01

    A college education has long been acknowledged as essential for both personal success and economic growth. But the measurable value of its nonmonetary benefits has until now been poorly understood. Walter W. McMahon, a leading education economist, carefully describes these benefits and suggests that higher education accrues significant social and…

  7. Critical Change for the Greater Good: Multicultural Perceptions in Educational Leadership toward Social Justice and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Lorri J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational leadership for social justice and equity is the primary leadership response to inclusive and equitable education. This inquiry builds on multicultural education and educational leadership to explore an alternative approach to mainstream leadership practice. Purpose: To examine ways in which educational leaders of color in…

  8. Social Marketing for Women's Health Campaigns: An Analysis in the Abc Region, Greater São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Coutinho da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify and evaluate the Social Marketing principles (and practices in women’s health programme in the ABC Region, located in the Greater São Paulo, Brazil. The Social Marketing orientation seeks to potentialise public health campaigns using five principles: customer focus; focus on the benefits to customers; endeavour to create value; involving the whole organisation in the process; being aware that customers are different. In methodological terms, this research is exploratory and descriptive through a single case study, the ABC region; nine interviews have been carried out with health managers of women's health programmes in the three cities of the region. The qualitative methods were used to report the results. The authors of this study verified that Social Marketing strategies are present in women's health campaigns, but, not all processes and in the expected way, by the proposed the Social Marketing plan. 

  9. In-group and out-group membership mediates anterior cingulate activation to social exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austen Krill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was employed to examine sensitivity to social exclusion in three conditions: same-race, other-race, and self-resembling faces. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, specifically the dorsal ACC, has been targeted as a key substrate in the physical and social pain matrix and was hypothesized to regulate activation response to various facial conditions. We show that participants demonstrated greatest ACC activation when being excluded by self-resembling and same-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Additionally, participants expressed greater distress and showed increased ACC activation as a result of exclusion in the same-race condition relative to the other-race condition. A positive correlation between implicit racial bias and activation in the amygdala was also evident. Implicit attitude about other-race faces partly explains levels of concern about exclusion by out-group individuals. These findings suggest that individuals are more distressed and their brain (i.e. neural alarm system responds with greater activation when being excluded by individuals whom they are more likely to share group membership with.

  10. Residential Group Size, Social Interaction, and Crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valins, Stuart; Baum, Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Social and psychological effects of residing in overloaded social environments are discussed. Data are presented suggesting that the interior architecture of the corridor-design dormitories requires residents to interact with too many others, leading residents to experience stress and develop potentially stress-reducing behavior. (JR)

  11. Social conflict within and between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Intergroup competition and conflict create pervasive problems in human society, giving rise to such phenomena as prejudice, terrorism, ethnic cleansing, and interstate war. Citizens, policy makers, social workers, schoolteachers, and politicians wrestle with these problems, and with difficult

  12. Social Groups and Subjectivity in Modern Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Jeppe; Gundelach, Peter

    1996-01-01

    are not passive objects of social forces but develops coping and learning techniques, and that individual behaviour an attitudes cannot be seperated from the general socio-cultural changes in society. In order to illustrate the value of applying social scientific theory on environmental policy the authors......Technical and economic approaches has been dominating the scientific research in energy consumption and energy savings. This contribution argues, from a social scientific point of view, that energy behaviour cannot be seperated from other types of behaviour and attitudes, that the individuals...... such communities. The acceptance or rejection of green consumption is influenced by this social dynamic. The second example attacks the widespread assumption among energy-behaviour researchers and administrators that the only way to change peoples behaviour goes from information to action. Based on psychological...

  13. Social conflict within and between groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Intergroup competition and conflict create pervasive problems in human society, giving rise to such phenomena as prejudice, terrorism, ethnic cleansing, and interstate war. Citizens, policy makers, social workers, schoolteachers, and politicians wrestle with these problems, and with difficult questi

  14. Peer Pressure Shapes Consensus, Leadership, and Innovations in Social Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences-peer pressure (PP)-on a social groups collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.

  15. Assessing Group Interaction with Social Language Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholand, Andrew J.; Tausczik, Yla R.; Pennebaker, James W.

    In this paper we discuss a new methodology, social language network analysis (SLNA), that combines tools from social language processing and network analysis to assess socially situated working relationships within a group. Specifically, SLNA aims to identify and characterize the nature of working relationships by processing artifacts generated with computer-mediated communication systems, such as instant message texts or emails. Because social language processing is able to identify psychological, social, and emotional processes that individuals are not able to fully mask, social language network analysis can clarify and highlight complex interdependencies between group members, even when these relationships are latent or unrecognized.

  16. Peer Pressure Shapes Consensus, Leadership, and Innovations in Social Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio

    2013-01-01

    What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences-peer pressure (PP)-on a social groups collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of the...

  17. Increasing Social Presence in Online Learning through Small Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcaoglu, Mete; Lee, Eunbae

    2016-01-01

    Social presence is difficult to achieve, but an imperative component of online learning. In this study, we investigated the effect of group size on students' perceptions of social presence in two graduate-level online courses, comparing small group versus whole class discussions. Our results indicated that when in small group discussions, students…

  18. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile) Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K; Irwin, Michael R; Moieni, Mona; Jevtic, Ivana; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own.

  19. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristen K Inagaki

    Full Text Available An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own.

  20. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile) Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Tristen K.; Irwin, Michael R.; Moieni, Mona; Jevtic, Ivana; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth—the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during early experiences with a caregiver or via innate, co-evolved mechanisms, remain unclear. The current study examined the relationship between oral temperature and feelings of social connection as well as whether early caregiver experiences moderated this relationship. Extending the existing literature, higher oral temperature readings were associated with greater feelings of social connection. Moreover, early caregiver experiences did not moderate this association, suggesting that the physical-social warmth overlap may not be altered by early social experience. Results provide additional support for the link between experiences of physical warmth and social warmth and add to existing theories that highlight social connection as a basic need on its own. PMID:27257914

  1. The Development of In-Group Favoritism : Between Social Reality and Group Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Wolf, Angela de

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how social reality restricts children’s tendency for in-group favoritism in group evaluations. Children were faced with social reality considerations and with group identity concerns. Using short stories, in this experimental study, conducted among 3 age groups (6-, 8-, and 10-ye

  2. The Effects of Social Skills Groups for Young Children with Social Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Takanori

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted as a program evaluation of an existing social skills program. A review of literature identified a limited number of empirical studies on group-based social skills training for young children with social delays. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of social skills groups as well as the effects of homework…

  3. Interpersonal perception and metaperception in nonoverlapping social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, T E; Albright, L; Kenny, D A; Agatstein, F; Winquist, L

    1997-02-01

    Consensus, self-other agreement, and meta-accuracy were studied within and across nonoverlapping social groups. Thirty-one target persons were judged on the Big Five factors by 9 informants: 3 family members, 3 friends, and 3 coworkers. Although well acquainted within groups, informants were unacquainted between groups. A social relations analysis conducted within each social group showed reliable consensus on the Big Five personality factors. A model specified to estimate the consistency of a target person's effect on perceptions by others across social groups showed weaker agreement across groups. That is, targets were perceived consensually within groups, but these consensual perceptions differed between groups. The data suggest that personality and identity are context specific; however, there was some evidence of agreement in perceptions across groups.

  4. Social and institutional evaluation report for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.

  5. The Roots of Social Justice in Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Salazar, Carmen F.

    2010-01-01

    This article revisits the history of group work, highlighting elements of empowerment and advocacy in the work of some key figures, and noting events and movements that nourished group work's social justice roots.

  6. Social identity and the recognition of creativity in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adarves-Yorno, Inmaculada; Postmes, Tom; Haslam, S. Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops an analysis of creativity that is informed by the social identity approach. Two studies are reported that support this analysis. Study I (N = 73) manipulated social identity salience and the content of group norms. The group norm was either conservative (i.e. promoted no change)

  7. A Method for Group Extraction in Complex Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bródka, Piotr; Musial, Katarzyna; Kazienko, Przemysław

    The extraction of social groups from social networks existing among employees in the company, its customers or users of various computer systems became one of the research areas of growing importance. Once we have discovered the groups, we can utilise them, in different kinds of recommender systems or in the analysis of the team structure and communication within a given population.

  8. Effectiveness of Small Group Social Skills Lessons with Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupp, Amy I.; Boes, Susan R.

    2012-01-01

    This action research study (ARS) describes the effectiveness of small group social skills lessons with elementary students, using "Too Good for Violence: A Curriculum for Non-violent Living" by the Mendez Foundation. The school counselor and school social worker taught the curriculum in a structured small group of 4th grade students in 8…

  9. Psychodynamic group treatment for generalized social phobia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Zippin Knijnik; Flávio Kapczinski; Eduardo Chachamovich; Regina Margis; Claudio Laks Eizirik

    2004-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo é verificar a efetividade do tratamento psicodinâmico em grupo de pacientes com fobia social generalizada. MÉTODOS: 30 pacientes foram incluídos em um estudo randomizado, simples-cego, comparando Terapia Psicodinâmica de Grupo (TPG) com um Grupo de Controle Placebo com Credibilidade (CPC). A TPG foi conduzida em 12 sessões de terapia de orientação psicodinâmica em grupo. Os pacientes do grupo controle receberam um pacote de aulas-discussões e tratamento de a...

  10. Social Rejection Magnifies Impulsive Behavior Among Individuals With Greater Negative Urgency: An Experimental Test of Urgency Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, David S; Lynam, Donald R; Milich, Richard; DeWall, C Nathan

    2017-04-03

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted trait with substantial implications for human well-being. One facet of impulsivity is negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively in response to negative affect. Correlational evidence suggests that negative affect magnifies impulsive behavior among individuals with greater negative urgency, yet causal evidence for this core pillar of urgency theory is lacking. To fill this gap in the literature, participants (N = 363) were randomly assigned to experience social rejection (a situation shown to induce negative affect) or acceptance. Participants then reported their subjective negative affect, completed a behavioral measure of impulsivity, and reported their negative urgency. Among individuals with relatively high and average negative urgency, social rejection increased their impulsive behavior through greater experiences of negative affect. These indirect effects were not observed among individuals relatively low in negative urgency. These findings suggest that negative urgency exists at the nexus of urgent dispositions and situations that elicit negative affect, which offers novel support for urgency theory. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Designing Group Examinations to Decrease Social Loafing and Increase Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Lee; Elden, Max; Bartsch, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This study examines a method to decrease social loafing in a group examination. Students who met in teams during the semester took an exam in groups. Rules for the exam, based on the Jeopardy game show, facilitated both group and individual accountability. Feedback from students indicated that compared to a class that did not have group exams,…

  12. Peer Groups, Social Identity, and Children's Bullying Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Amanda L.; Nesdale, Drew

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on social identity theory, this study explored the impact of the peer group on childhood bullying. Participants were 351 students, aged 8 to 13 years. Involvement in bullying, friendship group membership, norms of particular groups, and intra-group positions (prototypical vs. peripheral) were determined using peer reports. Results revealed…

  13. Social immunity and the evolution of group living in insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Joël

    2015-05-26

    The evolution of group living requires that individuals limit the inherent risks of parasite infection. To this end, group living insects have developed a unique capability of mounting collective anti-parasite defences, such as allogrooming and corpse removal from the nest. Over the last 20 years, this phenomenon (called social immunity) was mostly studied in eusocial insects, with results emphasizing its importance in derived social systems. However, the role of social immunity in the early evolution of group living remains unclear. Here, I investigate this topic by first presenting the definitions of social immunity and discussing their applications across social systems. I then provide an up-to-date appraisal of the collective and individual mechanisms of social immunity described in eusocial insects and show that they have counterparts in non-eusocial species and even solitary species. Finally, I review evidence demonstrating that the increased risks of parasite infection in group living species may both decrease and increase the level of personal immunity, and discuss how the expression of social immunity could drive these opposite effects. By highlighting similarities and differences of social immunity across social systems, this review emphasizes the potential importance of this phenomenon in the early evolution of the multiple forms of group living in insects.

  14. Dynamics of social positioning patterns in group-robot interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Vroon, Jered; Joosse, Michiel; Lohse, Manja; Kolkmeier, Jan; Kim, Jaebok; Truong, Khiet; Englebienne, Gwenn; Heylen, Dirk; Evers, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    When a mobile robot interacts with a group of people, it has to consider its position and orientation. We introduce a novel study aimed at generating hypotheses on suitable behavior for such social positioning, explicitly focusing on interaction with small groups of users and allowing for the temporal and social dynamics inherent in most interactions. In particular, the interactions we look at are approach, converse and retreat. In this study, groups of three participants and a telepresence r...

  15. The Dimensions of Social Justice Model: Transforming Traditional Group Work into a Socially Just Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratts, Manivong J.; Anthony, Loni; Santos, KristiAnna Nicole T.

    2010-01-01

    Social justice is a complex and abstract concept that can be difficult to discuss and integrate within group work. To address this concern, this article introduces readers to the Dimensions of Social Justice Model. The model provides group leaders with a conceptual framework for understanding the degree to which social justice is integrated within…

  16. Effects of a music therapy group intervention on enhancing social skills in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, A Blythe

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that music therapy can improve social behaviors and joint attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, more research on the use of music therapy interventions for social skills is needed to determine the impact of group music therapy. To examine the effects of a music therapy group intervention on eye gaze, joint attention, and communication in children with ASD. Seventeen children, ages 6 to 9, with a diagnosis of ASD were randomly assigned to the music therapy group (MTG) or the no-music social skills group (SSG). Children participated in ten 50-minute group sessions over a period of 5 weeks. All group sessions were designed to target social skills. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and video analysis of sessions were used to evaluate changes in social behavior. There were significant between-group differences for joint attention with peers and eye gaze towards persons, with participants in the MTG demonstrating greater gains. There were no significant between-group differences for initiation of communication, response to communication, or social withdraw/behaviors. There was a significant interaction between time and group for SRS scores, with improvements for the MTG but not the SSG. Scores on the ATEC did not differ over time between the MTG and SSG. The results of this study support further research on the use of music therapy group interventions for social skills in children with ASD. Statistical results demonstrate initial support for the use of music therapy social groups to develop joint attention. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Broly

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated.

  18. Behavioural Contagion Explains Group Cohesion in a Social Crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broly, Pierre; Deneubourg, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-01

    In gregarious species, social interactions maintain group cohesion and the associated adaptive values of group living. The understanding of mechanisms leading to group cohesion is essential for understanding the collective dynamics of groups and the spatio-temporal distribution of organisms in environment. In this view, social aggregation in terrestrial isopods represents an interesting model due to its recurrence both in the field and in the laboratory. In this study, and under a perturbation context, we experimentally tested the stability of groups of woodlice according to group size and time spent in group. Our results indicate that the response to the disturbance of groups decreases with increases in these two variables. Models neglecting social effects cannot reproduce experimental data, attesting that cohesion of aggregation in terrestrial isopods is partly governed by a social effect. In particular, models involving calmed and excited individuals and a social transition between these two behavioural states more accurately reproduced our experimental data. Therefore, we concluded that group cohesion (and collective response to stimulus) in terrestrial isopods is governed by a transitory resting state under the influence of density of conspecifics and time spent in group. Lastly, we discuss the nature of direct or indirect interactions possibly implicated.

  19. Conserving the Greater Sage-grouse: A social-ecological systems case study from the California-Nevada region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Alison L; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) continues to serve as one of the most powerful and contested federal legislative mandates for conservation. In the midst of heated debates, researchers, policy makers, and conservation practitioners champion the importance of cooperative conservation and social-ecological systems approaches, which forge partnerships at multiple levels and scales to address complex ecosystem challenges. However, few real-world examples exist to demonstrate how multifaceted collaborations among stakeholders who share a common goal of conserving at-risk species may be nested within a systems framework to achieve social and ecological goals. Here, we present a case study of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) conservation efforts in the “Bi-State” region of California and Nevada, United States. Using key-informant interviews, we explored dimensions and drivers of this landscape-scale conservation effort. Three themes emerged from the interviews, including 1) ESA action was transformed into opportunity for system-wide conservation; 2) a diverse, locally based partnership anchored collaboration and engagement across multiple levels and scales; and 3) best-available science combined with local knowledge led to “certainty of effectiveness and implementation”—the criteria used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate conservation efforts when making listing decisions. Ultimately, collaborative conservation through multistakeholder engagement at various levels and scales led to proactive planning and implementation of conservation measures and precluded the need for an ESA listing of the Bi-State population of Greater Sage-grouse. This article presents a potent example of how a systems approach integrating policy, management, and learning can be used to successfully overcome the conflict-laden and “wicked” challenges that surround at-risk species conservation.

  20. Life in groups: the roles of oxytocin in mammalian sociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacker, Allison M J; Beery, Annaliese K

    2013-12-11

    In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin (OT) in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair-bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that OT influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of OT to life in mammalian social groups. We provide background on the functions of OT in maternal attachments and the early social environment, and give an overview of the role of OT circuitry in support of different mating systems. We then introduce peer relationships in group-living rodents as a means for studying the importance of OT in non-reproductive affiliative behaviors. We review species differences in oxytocin receptor (OTR) distributions in solitary and group-living species of South American tuco-tucos and in African mole-rats, as well as singing mice. We discuss variation in OTR levels with seasonal changes in social behavior in female meadow voles, and the effects of OT manipulations on peer huddling behavior. Finally, we discuss avenues of promise for future investigation, and relate current findings to research in humans and non-human primates. There is growing evidence that OT is involved in social selectivity, including increases in aggression toward social outgroups and decreased huddling with unfamiliar individuals, which may support existing social structures or relationships at the expense of others. OT's effects reach beyond maternal attachment and pair bonds to play a role in affiliative behavior underlying "friendships", organization of broad social structures, and maintenance of established social relationships with individuals or groups.

  1. Life in groups: the roles of oxytocin in mammalian sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison eAnacker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, scientific understanding of the many roles of oxytocin in social behavior has advanced tremendously. The focus of this research has been on maternal attachments and reproductive pair-bonds, and much less is known about the substrates of sociality outside of reproductive contexts. It is now apparent that oxytocin influences many aspects of social behavior including recognition, trust, empathy, and other components of the behavioral repertoire of social species. This review provides a comparative perspective on the contributions of oxytocin to life in mammalian social groups. We provide background on the functions of oxytocin in maternal attachments and the early social environment, and give an overview of the role of oxytocin circuitry in support of different mating systems. We then introduce peer relationships in group-living rodents as a means for studying the importance of oxytocin in non-reproductive affiliative behaviors. We review species differences in oxytocin receptor distributions in solitary and group-living species of South American tuco-tucos and in African mole-rats, as well as singing mice. We discuss variation in oxytocin receptor levels with seasonal changes in social behavior in female meadow voles, and the effects of oxytocin manipulations on peer huddling behavior. Finally, we discuss avenues of promise for future investigation, and relate current findings to research in humans and non-human primates. There is growing evidence that oxytocin is involved in social selectivity, including increases in aggression toward social outgroups and decreased huddling with unfamiliar individuals, which may support existing social structures or relationships at the expense of others. Oxytocin’s effects reach beyond maternal attachment and pair bonds to play a role in affiliative behavior underlying friendships, organization of broad social structures, and maintenance of established social relationships with individuals

  2. The Multiple Meanings of Peer Groups in Social Cognitive Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Neal, Zachary P.

    2013-01-01

    Social cognitive mapping (SCM) is a common approach to identifying peer groups in developmental research. However, this approach involves three stages that each implies a unique conception of peer group. This article aims to bring conceptual clarity to the identification of peer groups using SCM by demonstrating how the meaning of peer groups…

  3. Group membership and social status modulate joint actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Antonio; Paolini, Daniele; Pagliaro, Stefano; Migliorati, Daniele; Wolff, Annemarie; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Costantini, Marcello

    2015-08-01

    The ability to form shared task representations is considered a keystone of social cognition. It remains, however, contentious if, and to what extent, social categorization impacts on shared representations. In the present study, we address the possibility of the modulation of action co-representation by social categorization, such as group membership and social status, as indexed by the social Simon effect. Italian participants were requested to perform a social Simon task, along with either an Italian (high-status in-group) or an Albanian (low-status out-group) participant. Results show that Italian participants co-represented the action of their partner when paired with a high-status in-group participant. Conversely, this effect was absent when they performed the task with a low-status out-group participant. Furthermore, the Albanian participants co-represented the action of their partner when paired with an Italian participant. These results suggest that group membership modulates action co-representation through the varying of the groups' relative status. The impact of this issue is boundless given the increasing multicultural nature of our society. Indeed, if multiculturalism fails, modern society does likewise.

  4. Reducing Social Loafing in Group-Based Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Social loafing in group-based projects is a common problem for college teachers. This problem has received great attention, including a Quick Fix article by Stevens (2007), whose recommendations remain useful today, particularly the mechanism for peer evaluations--a key strategy for reducing social loafing. Since the publication of Stevens's…

  5. Who Is Blameworthy? Social Identity and Inter-Group Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gini, Gianluca

    2007-01-01

    Using social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel and Turner, 1979) and social identity development theory (SIDT; Nesdale, 1999) as a framework, this study investigated attitudes towards inter-group bullying at school. Preadolescent boys and girls (n = 314) participated in a study, utilizing the short story technique, in which they were induced to…

  6. Trolling New Media: Violent Extremist Groups Recruiting Through Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    14. SUBJECT TERMS violent extremist groups, terrorism, al Qaeda, Islamic State of Iraq and Syria, ISIS, recruiting, Internet , new media, social...MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (HOMELAND SECURITY AND DEFENSE) from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL December 2015 Approved by...of Nicholas J. Rasmussen, National Counterterrorism Center Director). 2 Internet access and social media use continues to grow. According to a

  7. Individuality and social influence in groups : Inductive and deductive routes to group identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Lee, AT; Novak, RJ

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between forms of social identity formation in small interactive groups is investigated. In groups in which a common identity is available or given, norms for individual behavior may be deduced; from group properties (deductive identity). In groups in which interpersonal relations are c

  8. Simulating social dilemmas: promoting cooperative behavior through imagined group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleady, Rose; Hopthrow, Tim; Crisp, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    A robust finding in social dilemmas research is that individual group members are more likely to act cooperatively if they are given the chance to discuss the dilemma with one another. The authors investigated whether imagining a group discussion may represent an effective means of increasing cooperative behavior in the absence of the opportunity for direct negotiation among decision makers. Five experiments, utilizing a range of task variants, tested this hypothesis. Participants engaged in a guided simulation of the progressive steps required to reach a cooperative consensus within a group discussion of a social dilemma. Results support the conclusion that imagined group discussion enables conscious processes that parallel those underlying the direct group discussion and is a strategy that can effectively elicit cooperative behavior. The applied potential of imagined group discussion techniques to encourage more socially responsible behavior is discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  9. Group Size Predicts Social but Not Nonsocial Cognition in Lemurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan L Maclean

    Full Text Available The social intelligence hypothesis suggests that living in large social networks was the primary selective pressure for the evolution of complex cognition in primates. This hypothesis is supported by comparative studies demonstrating a positive relationship between social group size and relative brain size across primates. However, the relationship between brain size and cognition remains equivocal. Moreover, there have been no experimental studies directly testing the association between group size and cognition across primates. We tested the social intelligence hypothesis by comparing 6 primate species (total N = 96 characterized by different group sizes on two cognitive tasks. Here, we show that a species' typical social group size predicts performance on cognitive measures of social cognition, but not a nonsocial measure of inhibitory control. We also show that a species' mean brain size (in absolute or relative terms does not predict performance on either task in these species. These data provide evidence for a relationship between group size and social cognition in primates, and reveal the potential for cognitive evolution without concomitant changes in brain size. Furthermore our results underscore the need for more empirical studies of animal cognition, which have the power to reveal species differences in cognition not detectable by proxy variables, such as brain size.

  10. Effects of group socialization procedures on the social interactions of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W H; Ragland, E U; Fox, J J

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group socialization procedures on the social behavior of preschool children in two studies. Group socialization procedures consisted of teachers using antecedent and consequent events to promote social interaction during children's games. During intervention, teachers discussed friendship with the children and then prompted and praised child-child social responding within the context of games. Children's social behavior was assessed during two sessions, group game periods (i.e., intervention sessions) and nonintervention play periods (i.e., generalization sessions). In both studies, a multiple baseline design across two target children and peers in their respective group was used to evaluate the effects of group socialization procedures. During group game periods, after intervention, target children increased their rates of both prompted and unprompted social interactions with peers. Also, in nonintervention play periods, target children improved both the rate and the duration of their social responding with peers. Results indicated that group socialization procedures were a practical and effective method for improving young children's social interaction during both structured games and unstructured play activities.

  11. Oxytocin enhances implicit social conformity to both in-group and out-group opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Kendrick, Keith M; Zheng, Huimin; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-10-01

    People often alter their own preferences when facing conflicting opinions expressed by others. This is known as the social conformity effect and tends to be stronger in response to opinions expressed by in-group relative to out-group members. The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin promotes in-group favoritism, elicits parochial altruism, and stimulates in-group conformity under explicit social pressure. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design experiment using a facial attractiveness judgment task, we therefore investigated whether social conformity to either in-group or out-group opinions is influenced by intranasal oxytocin treatment when social pressure is implicit. After oxytocin or placebo treatment, male participants were asked to rate the attractiveness of unfamiliar Chinese female faces, and then they were informed of ratings given by peers from an in-group (Chinese) and out-group (Japanese) simultaneously. They were subsequently asked unexpectedly to re-rate the same faces. Results showed that oxytocin increased conformity to both in- and out-group opinions. Thus oxytocin promotes conformity to opinions of both in- and out-group members when social pressure is implicit, suggesting that it facilitates 'tend and befriend' behaviors by increasing the general level of social conformity.

  12. Beyond one-size-fits-all: Tailoring diversity approaches to the representation of social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbaum, Evan P; Stephens, Nicole M; Reagans, Ray E

    2016-10-01

    When and why do organizational diversity approaches that highlight the importance of social group differences (vs. equality) help stigmatized groups succeed? We theorize that social group members' numerical representation in an organization, compared with the majority group, influences concerns about their distinctiveness, and consequently, whether diversity approaches are effective. We combine laboratory and field methods to evaluate this theory in a professional setting, in which White women are moderately represented and Black individuals are represented in very small numbers. We expect that focusing on differences (vs. equality) will lead to greater performance and persistence among White women, yet less among Black individuals. First, we demonstrate that Black individuals report greater representation-based concerns than White women (Study 1). Next, we observe that tailoring diversity approaches to these concerns yields greater performance and persistence (Studies 2 and 3). We then manipulate social groups' perceived representation and find that highlighting differences (vs. equality) is more effective when groups' representation is moderate, but less effective when groups' representation is very low (Study 4). Finally, we content-code the diversity statements of 151 major U.S. law firms and find that firms that emphasize differences have lower attrition rates among White women, whereas firms that emphasize equality have lower attrition rates among racial minorities (Study 5). (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Group cohesion in cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taube-Schiff, Marlene; Suvak, Michael K; Antony, Martin M; Bieling, Peter J; McCabe, Randi E

    2007-04-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for Social Phobia is effective in both group and individual formats. However, the impact of group processes on treatment efficacy remains relatively unexplored. In this study we examined group cohesion ratings made by individuals at the midpoint and endpoint of CBT groups for social phobia. Symptom measures were also completed at the beginning and end of treatment. We found that cohesion ratings significantly increased over the course of the group and were associated with improvement over time in social anxiety symptoms, as well as improvement on measures of general anxiety, depression, and functional impairment. In conclusion, findings are consistent with the idea that changes in group cohesion are related to social anxiety symptom reduction and, therefore, speak to the importance of nonspecific therapeutic factors in treatment outcome.

  14. Narrative-collaborative group coaching develops social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital....

  15. Socialized charismatic leadership, values congruence, and deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael E; Treviño, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The authors conducted a field study to investigate the relationship between socialized charismatic leadership and deviance in work groups. Because socialized charismatic leaders are thought to play an ethical leadership role, the authors hypothesized that the socialized charismatic leadership style would be associated with reduced deviance in the leader's work group. This prediction was supported for both the interpersonal and the organizational dimensions of deviance. Next, the authors examined the mediating role of values congruence. The results were partially supportive of the values congruence mediating hypothesis. Implications for future research and for management are discussed.

  16. Appreciative Socialization Group. A Model of Personal Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PONEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we want to present o new of form of group, which we consider as being important for the process of personal development. Groups are a form of gathering more people united by a common purpose. We believe that through their group, members can develop new skills and also can obtain the change in the direction they want. Socialization is the processthat we “share” along with others, by communicating and also by having close views towards different things in life. Appreciative socialization involves placing emphasis on those elements that have value to us, which are positive. We consider appreciative group socialization as a model of good practice that aims the development among group members and increasesempowerment process.

  17. Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy and traditional cognitive behavioral group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovski, Nancy L; Fleming, Jan E; Hawley, Lance L; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Antony, Martin M

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated mechanisms of change for two group treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD): cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) and mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy (MAGT). Participants were treatment completers (n = 37 for MAGT, n = 32 for CBGT) from a randomized clinical trial. Cognitive reappraisal was the hypothesized mechanism of change for CBGT. Mindfulness and acceptance were hypothesized mechanisms of change for MAGT. Latent difference score (LDS) analysis results demonstrate that cognitive reappraisal coupling (in which cognitive reappraisal is negatively associated with the subsequent rate of change in social anxiety) had a greater impact on social anxiety for CBGT than MAGT. The LDS bidirectional mindfulness model (mindfulness predicts subsequent change in social anxiety; social anxiety predicts subsequent change in mindfulness) was supported for both treatments. Results for acceptance were less clear. Cognitive reappraisal may be a more important mechanism of change for CBGT than MAGT, whereas mindfulness may be an important mechanism of change for both treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The management of social problems talk in a support group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Gomes Peretti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of the health-disease process from a multifactorial perspective has allowed important transformations in the healthcare practices. In this article, we discuss the use of the support group as a resource for mental health care, analyzing how conversations about social issues are managed in this context. Based on contributions from the social constructionist movement, we analyzed the transcripts of the conversations developed in meetings of a support group offered to patients of a mental health outpatient clinic. The analysis of the process of meaning making indicates that the discourse of the social influence on mental health is not legitimized, due to a predominant individualistic discourse, which psychologizes care and is centered on the emotional analysis of the problems of the quotidian. We argue that this mode of management brings limits to the construction of the group as a device for promoting autonomy and encouraging the social transformation processes.

  19. Social Group Dynamics and Patterns of Latin American Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Dubé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to incorporate social psychology elements with mainstream political science and international relations theories to help understand the contradictions related to the integration processes in Latin America. Through a theoretical analysis, it contributes to the challenge proposed by Dabène (2009 to explain the “resilience” of the Latin American regional integration process in spite of its “instability and crises.” Our main proposition calls for considering Latin America as a community and its regional organizations as “social groups.” In conclusion, three phenomena from the field of social psychology and particularly social group dynamics shed light on these contradictory patterns: the value of the group and the emotional bond, groupthink, and cognitive dissonance.

  20. Nonapeptides and the Evolution of Social Group Sizes in Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Goodson

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Species-typical patterns of grouping have profound impacts on many aspects of physiology and behavior. However, prior to our recent studies in estrildid finches, neural mechanisms that titrate species-typical group size preferences, independent of other aspects of social organization (e.g., mating system and parental care, have been wholly unexplored, likely because species-typical group size is typically confounded with other aspects of behavior and biology. An additional complication is that components of social organization are evolutionarily labile and prone to repeated divergence and convergence. Hence, we cannot assume that convergence in social structure has been produced by convergent modifications to the same neural characters, and thus any comparative approach to grouping must include not only species that differ in their species-typical group sizes, but also species that exhibit convergent evolution in this aspect of social organization. Using five estrildid finch species that differ selectively in grouping (all biparental and monogamous we have demonstrated that neural motivational systems evolve in predictable ways in relation to species-typical group sizes, including convergence in two highly gregarious species and convergence in two relatively asocial, territorial species. These systems include nonapeptide (vasotocin and mesotocin circuits that encode the valence of social stimuli (positive-negative, titrate group-size preferences, and modulate anxiety-like behaviors. Nonapeptide systems exhibit functional and anatomical properties that are biased towards gregarious species, and experimental reductions of nonapeptide signaling by receptor antagonism and antisense oligonucleotides significantly decrease preferred group sizes in the gregarious zebra finch. Combined, these findings suggest that selection on species-typical group size may reliably target the same neural motivation systems when a given social structure evolves

  1. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Group processes in medical education: learning from social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burford, Bryan

    2012-02-01

    The clinical workplace in which doctors learn involves many social groups, including representatives of different professions, clinical specialties and workplace teams. This paper suggests that medical education research does not currently take full account of the effects of group membership, and describes a theoretical approach from social psychology, the social identity approach, which allows those effects to be explored. The social identity approach has a long history in social psychology and provides an integrated account of group processes, from the adoption of group identity through a process of self-categorisation, to the biases and conflicts between groups. This paper outlines key elements of this theoretical approach and illustrates their relevance to medical education. The relevance of the social identity approach is illustrated with reference to a number of areas of medical education. The paper shows how research questions in medical education may be usefully reframed in terms of social identity in ways that allow a deeper exploration of the psychological processes involved. Professional identity and professionalism may be viewed in terms of self-categorisation rather than simply attainment; the salience of different identities may be considered as influences on teamwork and interprofessional learning, and issues in communication and assessment may be considered in terms of intergroup biases. Social identity theory provides a powerful framework with which to consider many areas of medical education. It allows disparate influences on, and consequences of, group membership to be considered as part of an integrated system, and allows assumptions, such as about the nature of professional identity and interprofessional tensions, to be made explicit in the design of research studies. This power to question assumptions and develop deeper and more meaningful research questions may be increasingly relevant as the nature and role of the medical profession change

  3. Randomized comparative trial of a social cognitive skills group for children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soorya, Latha V; Siper, Paige M; Beck, Todd; Soffes, Sarah; Halpern, Danielle; Gorenstein, Michelle; Kolevzon, Alexander; Buxbaum, Joseph; Wang, A Ting

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a targeted social skills training group in school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The intervention, Seaver-NETT (Nonverbal communication, Emotion recognition, and Theory of mind Training), is a 12-session cognitive-behavioral intervention (CBI) for verbal, school-aged children targeting ASD-specific social behavioral impairments. Sixty-nine children with ASD, 8 to 11 years of age, with verbal IQs greater than 70, participated in a randomized comparative trial to examine the efficacy of NETT relative to a facilitated play group. Treatment outcomes included caregiver reports of social behavior and neuropsychological assessments of social cognition conducted by blinded raters. Outcomes were collected at baseline, endpoint, and 3 months posttreatment. Significant improvements were found on social behavior outcomes such as nonverbal communication, empathic responding, and social relations in the NETT condition relative to the active control at endpoint. Verbal IQ moderated the interaction effect on social behavior, with higher verbal IQ associated with improvements in the CBI condition. No significant improvements were found on social cognitive outcomes. No significant group differences were found at 3-month follow-up conducted with approximately half the sample (n = 34). These data indicate that targeted CBI social skills groups such as NETT improve social communication deficits in verbal, school-aged children with ASD. The moderating effects of high verbal IQ suggest a need to consider participant and treatment characteristics associated with outcomes in future studies. Clinical trial registration information-Neural and Behavioral Outcomes of Social Skills Groups in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder; https://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01190917. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Skills Training Augments the Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, James D.; Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Myers, Valerie H.; Dalrymple, Kristy; Nolan, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) is the most widely researched intervention program for social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as social phobia), with a number of studies demonstrating its effectiveness. Another common treatment, social skills training (SST), has also been shown to be efficacious for SAD. The present study compared the…

  5. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Hock

    Full Text Available Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  6. Systems approach to studying animal sociality: individual position versus group organization in dynamic social network models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H

    2010-12-23

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness.

  7. Systems Approach to Studying Animal Sociality: Individual Position versus Group Organization in Dynamic Social Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Karlo; Ng, Kah Loon; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2010-01-01

    Social networks can be used to represent group structure as a network of interacting components, and also to quantify both the position of each individual and the global properties of a group. In a series of simulation experiments based on dynamic social networks, we test the prediction that social behaviors that help individuals reach prominence within their social group may conflict with their potential to benefit from their social environment. In addition to cases where individuals were able to benefit from improving both their personal relative importance and group organization, using only simple rules of social affiliation we were able to obtain results in which individuals would face a trade-off between these factors. While selection would favor (or work against) social behaviors that concordantly increase (or decrease, respectively) fitness at both individual and group level, when these factors conflict with each other the eventual selective pressure would depend on the relative returns individuals get from their social environment and their position within it. The presented results highlight the importance of a systems approach to studying animal sociality, in which the effects of social behaviors should be viewed not only through the benefits that those provide to individuals, but also in terms of how they affect broader social environment and how in turn this is reflected back on an individual's fitness. PMID:21203425

  8. Movement Synchrony Forges Social Bonds Across Group Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eTuncgenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Group dynamics play an important role in the social interactions of both children and adults. A large amount of research has shown that merely being allocated to arbitrarily defined groups can evoke disproportionately positive attitudes toward one’s in-group and negative attitudes toward out-groups, and that these biases emerge in early childhood. This prompts important empirical questions with far-reaching theoretical and applied significance. How robust are these inter-group biases? Can biases be mitigated by behaviors known to bond individuals and groups together? How can bonds be forged across existing group divides? To explore these questions, we examined the bonding effects of interpersonal synchrony on minimally constructed groups in a controlled experiment. In-group and out-group bonding were assessed using questionnaires administered before and after a task in which groups performed movements either synchronously or non-synchronously in a between-participants design. We also developed an implicit behavioral measure, the Island Game, in which physical proximity was used as an indirect measure of interpersonal closeness. Self-report and behavioral measures showed increased bonding between groups after synchronous movement. Bonding with the out-group was significantly higher in the condition in which movements were performed synchronously than when movements were performed non-synchronously between groups. The findings are discussed in terms of their importance for the developmental social psychology of group dynamics as well as their implications for applied intervention programs.

  9. Association for Specialists in Group Work: Multicultural and Social Justice Competence Principles for Group Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Merchant, Niloufer; Skudrzyk, Bogusia; Ingene, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) is committed to understanding how issues of multiculturalism and social justice affect all aspects of group work. This document reflects the updating and revision of a previous document entitled, "Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers," which was endorsed by ASGW in 1998 and published…

  10. Group Rumination: Social Interactions Around Music in People with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Sandra; Eerola, Tuomas; McFerran, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important roles that music serves in human society is the promotion of social relationships and group cohesion. In general, emotional experiences tend to be amplified in group settings through processes of social feedback. However, previous research has established that listening to sad music can intensify negative emotions in people with tendencies to rumination and depression. This study therefore investigated the phenomenon of ruminating with music, and the question of whether listening to sad music in group settings provides social benefits for emotionally vulnerable listeners, or whether it further exaggerates depressive tendencies. Participants recruited via online depression groups and mental health websites were surveyed as to music listening habits. Results revealed that people with depression were more likely to engage in “group rumination” using music, and that this behavior could be partially explained by a general tendency to ruminate using music. Both affective states and coping styles were found to be related to the affective outcomes of group interactions around music. These findings go some way toward clarifying the situations in which group interactions around music are able to provide important social benefits for those involved, and situations in which negative emotions can be amplified by the group context. PMID:28421014

  11. Understanding Groups in Outdoor Adventure Education through Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jostad, Jeremy; Sibthorp, Jim; Paisley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Relationships are a critical component to the experience of an outdoor adventure education (OAE) program, therefore, more fruitful ways of investigating groups is needed. Social network analysis (SNA) is an effective tool to study the relationship structure of small groups. This paper provides an explanation of SNA and shows how it was used by the…

  12. Testing Group Supervision in Fieldwork Training for Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeira, Anat; Schiff, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    This study monitors group supervision for students' field training in a Bachelor's Degree in Social Work (BSW) program and compares it with the experience of the students receiving the traditional individual supervision. The experimental group supervision model is implemented in two consecutive years. Students' experiences are compared at three…

  13. Testing Group Supervision in Fieldwork Training for Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeira, Anat; Schiff, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    This study monitors group supervision for students' field training in a Bachelor's Degree in Social Work (BSW) program and compares it with the experience of the students receiving the traditional individual supervision. The experimental group supervision model is implemented in two consecutive years. Students' experiences are compared at three…

  14. Integrating Social Justice in Group Work: The Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Arredondo, Patricia; Gladding, Samuel T.; Toporek, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Group work can be an effective outlet for facilitating client empowerment at individual and systemic levels. This article outlines strategies for increasing attention to social justice issues in group work over the next decade within education, training, supervision, practice, and research. Drawing from historical perspectives, current literature,…

  15. Integrating Social Justice in Group Work: The Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Arredondo, Patricia; Gladding, Samuel T.; Toporek, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Group work can be an effective outlet for facilitating client empowerment at individual and systemic levels. This article outlines strategies for increasing attention to social justice issues in group work over the next decade within education, training, supervision, practice, and research. Drawing from historical perspectives, current literature,…

  16. Communication and Social Exchange Processes in Community Theater Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael W.

    2005-01-01

    This study explores the communication experiences of two volunteer groups involved in the production of community theater musicals. Based on social exchange theory, it examined what group members perceived to be the positive benefits (primarily meeting people and having an opportunity to perform) and the negative costs (primarily disorganization,…

  17. PROBLEMS OF TEAM FUNCTIONING AS SPECIAL TYPE OF SOCIAL GROUP

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. VASILYEV

    2016-01-01

    In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article...

  18. Social prophylaxis: group interaction promotes collective immunity in ant colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugelvig, Line V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2007-11-20

    Life in a social group increases the risk of disease transmission. To counteract this threat, social insects have evolved manifold antiparasite defenses, ranging from social exclusion of infected group members to intensive care. It is generally assumed that individuals performing hygienic behaviors risk infecting themselves, suggesting a high direct cost of helping. Our work instead indicates the opposite for garden ants. Social contact with individual workers, which were experimentally exposed to a fungal parasite, provided a clear survival benefit to nontreated, naive group members upon later challenge with the same parasite. This first demonstration of contact immunity in Social Hymenoptera and complementary results from other animal groups and plants suggest its general importance in both antiparasite and antiherbivore defense. In addition to this physiological prophylaxis of adult ants, infection of the brood was prevented in our experiment by behavioral changes of treated and naive workers. Parasite-treated ants stayed away from the brood chamber, whereas their naive nestmates increased brood-care activities. Our findings reveal a direct benefit for individuals to perform hygienic behaviors toward others, and this might explain the widely observed maintenance of social cohesion under parasite attack in insect societies.

  19. Towards identifying Collaborative Learning groups using Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selver Softic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This work reports about the preliminary results and ongoing research based upon profiling collaborative learning groups of persons within the social micro-blogging platforms like Twitter that share potentially common interests on special topic. Hereby the focus is held on spontaneously initiated collaborative learning in Social Media and detection of collaborative learning groups based upon their communication dynamics. Research questions targeted to be answered are: are there any useful data mining algorithms to fulfill the task of pre-selection and clustering of users in social networks, how good do they perform, and what are the metrics that could be used for detection and evaluation in the realm of this task. Basic approach presented here uses as preamble hypothesis that users and their interests in Social Networks can be identified through content generated by them and content they consume. Special focus is held on topic oriented approach as least common bounding point. Those should be also the basic criteria used to detect and outline the learning groups. The aim of this work is to deliver first scientific pre-work for successfully implementation of recommender systems using social network metrics and content features of social network users for the purposes of better learning group communication and information consumption.

  20. Investigating social discrimination of group members by laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyesinghe, Siobhan M; McLeman, Morven A; Owen, Rachael C; McMahon, Claire E; Wathes, Christopher M

    2009-05-01

    Social relationships in domestic fowl are commonly assumed to rely on social recognition and its pre-requisite, discrimination of group-mates. If this is true, then the unnatural physical and social environments in which commercial laying hens are typically housed, when compared with those in which their progenitor species evolved, may compromise social function with consequent implications for welfare. Our aims were to determine whether adult hens can discriminate between unique pairs of familiar conspecifics, and to establish the most appropriate method for assessing this social discrimination. We investigated group-mate discrimination using two learning tasks in which there was bi-directional exchange of visual, auditory and olfactory information. Learning occurred in a Y-maze task (psocial discrimination or to the response task. Learning also failed to occur in this familiar/unfamiliar social discrimination task (p=0.001; n=1/10). Our findings demonstrate unequivocally that adult laying hens kept in small groups, under environmental conditions more consistent with those in which sensory capacities evolved, can discriminate group members: however, appropriate methods to demonstrate discrimination are crucial.

  1. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Content analysis of neurodegenerative and mental diseases social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Bargiela-Flórez, Beatriz; López-Coronado, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2015-12-01

    This article aims to characterize the different types of Facebook and Twitter groups for different mental diseases, their purposes, and their functions. We focused the search on depressive disorders, dementia, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases and examined the Facebook (www.facebook.com) and Twitter (www.twitter.com) groups. We used four assessment criteria: (1) purpose, (2) type of creator, (3) telehealth content, and (4) free-text responses in surveys and interviews. We observed a total of 357 Parkinson groups, 325 dementia groups, 853 Alzheimer groups, and 1127 depression groups on Facebook and Twitter. Moreover, we analyze the responses provided by different users. The survey and interview responses showed that many people were interested in using social networks to support and help in the fight against these diseases. The results indicate that social networks are acceptable by users in terms of simplicity and utility. People use them for finding support, information, self-help, advocacy and awareness, and for collecting funds.

  3. Social identity and the development of children's group attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, D; Flesser, D

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed predictions drawn from social identity theory (SIT; Tajfel & Turner) concerning the acquisition of young children's intra- and intergroup attitudes and cognitions. In a minimal group study, 5- and 8-year-old children (N = 258) were arbitrarily assigned to teams that varied in their drawing ability (social status). In addition, the study varied the extent to which the children believed they could change teams (social mobility) and whether the team had additional positive qualities beyond their drawing skill (social change). The children subsequently rated their liking for, and similarity to, the ingroup and the outgroup and the extent to which they wished to change groups. Consistent with SIT and research with adults, the results indicated that children as young as 5 years of age were sensitive to the status of their social group, and that ingroup status has important implications for both their desire to remain group members as well as their perceived similarity to other group members. The extent to which the findings provide support for SIT and the intergroup similarities between adults and children are discussed.

  4. Defining Social Class Across Time and Between Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dov; Shin, Faith; Liu, Xi; Ondish, Peter; Kraus, Michael W

    2017-08-01

    We examined changes over four decades and between ethnic groups in how people define their social class. Changes included the increasing importance of income, decreasing importance of occupational prestige, and the demise of the "Victorian bargain," in which poor people who subscribed to conservative sexual and religious norms could think of themselves as middle class. The period also saw changes (among Whites) and continuity (among Black Americans) in subjective status perceptions. For Whites (and particularly poor Whites), their perceptions of enhanced social class were greatly reduced. Poor Whites now view their social class as slightly but significantly lower than their poor Black and Latino counterparts. For Black respondents, a caste-like understanding of social class persisted, as they continued to view their class standing as relatively independent of their achieved education, income, and occupation. Such achievement indicators, however, predicted Black respondents' self-esteem more than they predicted self-esteem for any other group.

  5. China to Establish the Standardization Working Group of Social Accountability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In 2002,on the proposition of ISO/COPOLCO,ISO/Council required ISO/TMB to consider whether ISO should make the international standard in the field of social accountability. At the beginning of 2003, ISO/TMB established the consulting group,studied the subject of social accountability standardization, and submitted the technology draft report about the latest development trend of social accountability at the end of April in 2004. On 21-22 of June in 2004, ISO held the workshop on the standardization of social accountability in Stockholm of Sweden. On the 31st ISO TMB Conference held on 13-14in September in Geneva, members participating in the conference have discussed and passed the proposed working project of social accountability standard (NWIP). It is estimated that the new working project of ISO will be finished in three years from the day of sanction.

  6. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is

  7. Wii Social Skills Group and Inter-School Tournament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Johnson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two schools in separate cites used the Nintendo Wii gaming system to assist selected boys in developing social skills. Using Skype and Twitter, the two groups collaborated at different stages of the project. The pilot project investigated the benefits of incorporating video games into traditional social skills programming, as well as the benefits of online collaboration between teachers in different school boards and students from different communities.

  8. The effects of social pressure on group recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysen, Matthew B

    2003-12-01

    In two experiments, individual subjects worked in conjunction with two perceived group members to recall six 30-item categorized word lists. The perceived group members' recall levels were manipulated to establish either high or low group standards. After participating in the perceived group, subjects completed a surprise final individual recall test that covered all of the presented material. On the basis of the hypothesis that the subjects' performance would be affected by social pressure, it was predicted that subjects working in high-performing groups would recall more words than subjects working in low-performing groups on both the group recall tests and the final individual recall test. These predicted results were observed. Thus, a complete analysis of the group recall environment should include a consideration of conformity theory whereby subjects' memories can be affected by their group members' output levels.

  9. Changes in sexual signals are greater than changes in ecological traits in a dichromatic group of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael D; Mendelson, Tamra C

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which phenotypic divergence occurs is central to speciation research. These mechanisms can be revealed by measuring differences in traits that are subject to different selection pressures; greater influence of different types of selection can be inferred from greater divergence in associated traits. Here, we address the potential roles of natural and sexual selection in promoting phenotypic divergence between species of snubnose darters by comparing differences in body shape, an ecologically relevant trait, and male color, a sexual signal. Body shape was measured using geometric morphometrics, and male color was measured using digital photography and visual system-dependent color values. Differences in male color are larger than differences in body shape across eight allopatric, phylogenetically independent species pairs. While this does not exclude the action of divergent natural selection, our results suggest a relatively more important role for sexual selection in promoting recent divergence in darters. Variation in the relative differences between male color and body shape across species pairs reflects the continuous nature of speciation mechanisms, ranging from ecological speciation to speciation by sexual selection alone.

  10. Narrative-collaborative group coaching develops social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelter, Reinhard; Nielsen, Glen; Wikman, Johan Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of narrative-collaborative group coaching on career development, self-reflection and the general functioning of young sports talents with the goal of achieving integration of their sports careers, educational demands and private lives. The in......-collaborative group coaching can be understood as a community psychological intervention that helps to support the development of durable social networks and the increase of social capital....... study included six participants. The group-coaching intervention had a significant effect on the scores for social recovery and general well-being. The qualitative study showed that groupcoaching participants valued the shared process of meaning-making as especially valuable. Narrative...

  11. Health inequalities and social group differences: what should we measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C. J.; Gakidou, E. E.; Frenk, J.

    1999-01-01

    Both health inequalities and social group health differences are important aspects of measuring population health. Despite widespread recognition of their magnitude in many high- and low-income countries, there is considerable debate about the meaning and measurement of health inequalities, social group health differences and inequities. The lack of standard definitions, measurement strategies and indicators has and will continue to limit comparisons--between and within countries, and over time--of health inequalities, and perhaps more importantly comparative analyses of their determinants. Such comparative work, however, will be essential to find effective policies for governments to reduce health inequalities. This article addresses the question of whether we should be measuring health inequalities or social group health differences. To help clarify the strengths and weaknesses of these two approaches, we review some of the major arguments for and against each of them. PMID:10444876

  12. Dominance Weighted Social Choice Functions for Group Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia ROSSI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In travel domains, decision support systems provide support to tourists in the planning of their vacation. In particular, when the number of possible Points of Interest (POI to visit is large, the system should help tourists providing recommendations on the POI that could be more interesting for them. Since traveling is, usually, an activity that involves small groups of people, the system should take simultaneously into account the preferences of each group's member. At the same time, it also should model possible intra-group relationships, which can have an impact in the group decision-making process. In this paper, we model this problem as a multi-agent aggregation of preferences by using weighted social choice functions, whereas such weights are automatically evaluated by analyzing the interactions of the group's members on Online Social Networks.

  13. Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Future. Ad hoc working group report, Key Biscayne, Florida, October 26-28, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorhaug, A. (ed.)

    1980-01-01

    This report of Workshop I (presented in outline form) by the Greater Caribbean Energy and Environment Foundation begin an intensive focus on the energy problems of the Caribbean. The process by which environmental assessments by tropical experts can be successfully integrated into energy decisions is by: (1) international loan institutions requiring or strongly recommending excellent assessments; (2) engineering awareness of total effects of energy projects; (3) governmental environmental consciousness-raising with regard to natural resource value and potential inadvertent and unnecessary resource losses during energy development; and (4) media participation. Section headings in the outline are: preamble; introduction; research tasks: today and twenty years hence; needed research, demonstration and information dissemination projects to get knowledge about Caribbean energy-environment used; summary; recommendations; generalized conclusions; and background literature. (JGB)

  14. Experiencing aggression in clubs: social group and individual level predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brenda A; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2015-05-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N = 986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3 %) and sexual aggression (12.6 %) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high-risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs.

  15. The Purpose of Tutorial Groups: Social Influence and the Group as Means and Objective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosander, Michael; Chiriac, Eva Hammar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how first-year students view the purpose of tutorial groups in problem-based learning. In all, 147 students from 24 groups participated, providing 399 statements. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed a focus on both learning and social influence. Learning involved the tutorial as…

  16. Applying Social Justice to Oppression and Marginalization in Group Process: Interventions and Strategies for Group Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnes, Theodore R.; Ross, Katherine L.

    2010-01-01

    A call from the group counseling literature (Brown, 2009) recognizes the need for theoretical and empirical writings that explore the intersection of social justice and counseling practice, as many counselors are unprepared to address the impact of oppression and privilege on group process. The authors explore these issues by making…

  17. Collective learning and optimal consensus decisions in social animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Albert B; Miller, Noam; Torney, Colin; Hartnett, Andrew; Couzin, Iain D

    2014-08-01

    Learning has been studied extensively in the context of isolated individuals. However, many organisms are social and consequently make decisions both individually and as part of a collective. Reaching consensus necessarily means that a single option is chosen by the group, even when there are dissenting opinions. This decision-making process decouples the otherwise direct relationship between animals' preferences and their experiences (the outcomes of decisions). Instead, because an individual's learned preferences influence what others experience, and therefore learn about, collective decisions couple the learning processes between social organisms. This introduces a new, and previously unexplored, dynamical relationship between preference, action, experience and learning. Here we model collective learning within animal groups that make consensus decisions. We reveal how learning as part of a collective results in behavior that is fundamentally different from that learned in isolation, allowing grouping organisms to spontaneously (and indirectly) detect correlations between group members' observations of environmental cues, adjust strategy as a function of changing group size (even if that group size is not known to the individual), and achieve a decision accuracy that is very close to that which is provably optimal, regardless of environmental contingencies. Because these properties make minimal cognitive demands on individuals, collective learning, and the capabilities it affords, may be widespread among group-living organisms. Our work emphasizes the importance and need for theoretical and experimental work that considers the mechanism and consequences of learning in a social context.

  18. Older adolescents' motivations for social network site use: the influence of gender, group identity, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Valerie

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed motives for social network site (SNS) use, group belonging, collective self-esteem, and gender effects among older adolescents. Communication with peer group members was the most important motivation for SNS use. Participants high in positive collective self-esteem were strongly motivated to communicate with peer group via SNS. Females were more likely to report high positive collective self-esteem, greater overall use, and SNS use to communicate with peers. Females also posted higher means for group-in-self, passing time, and entertainment. Negative collective self-esteem correlated with social compensation, suggesting that those who felt negatively about their social group used SNS as an alternative to communicating with other group members. Males were more likely than females to report negative collective self-esteem and SNS use for social compensation and social identity gratifications.

  19. Social Information Processing and Group-Induced Response Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    shifts when initial individual tendencies are cautious, and a more general label for the shift, group polarization ( Moscovici ’ & Zavalloni, 1969), is...attitudes (e.g., Doise, 1969; Moscovici & Zavalloni, 1969). One earlier article (Cummings and Chertkoff, 1971) proposed management implications of...Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology, 1978, 11, 145-195. I , Moscovici , S., & Zavolloni, M. The group as a polarizer of

  20. Social groups and children´s intergroup prejudice: Just how influential are social group norms?

    OpenAIRE

    Nesdale, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Teniendo como referencia la Teoría Evolutiva de la Identidad Social (SIDT, Nesdale, 2007), en este trabajo se presenta una serie de estudios en los que se examina la influencia de las normas grupales sobre el prejuicio intergrupal de los miembros del grupo. Los estudios 1 al 3, realizados en niños desde Educación Infantil hasta 9 años, mostraron que una norma interna de exclusión promueve la antipatía hacia el exogrupo mientras que una norma de inclusión promueve la simpatía por el exogrupo. ...

  1. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  2. Impact of Education on the Income of Different Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Changjun; Liu, Yanping

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates, statistically and econometrically, the income level, income inequality, education inequality, and the relationship between education and income of different social groups, on the basis of the Chinese Urban Household Survey conducted in 2005, the Gini coefficient and the quartile regression method. Research findings…

  3. Academic Discourse Socialization through Small-Group Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Mei-ching

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the nature of small-group discussion and explores how it fosters oral academic discourse socialization in a TESOL postgraduate course. The participants included four native-English speaking and six non-native English Speaking postgraduate students at a state university in the U.S. The findings revealed that small-group…

  4. Perception of Groups, Size of Opposition, and Social Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, David A.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the relationship between social influence and the number of persons attempting influence. Findings suggest that the manner in which persons are initially organized into groups and aggregates of individuals affects their persuasive impact on observers. (Editor/RK)

  5. Social prophylaxis: group interaction promotes collective immunity in ant colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugelvig, Line V; Cremer, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    challenge with the same parasite. This first demonstration of contact immunity in Social Hymenoptera and complementary results from other animal groups and plants suggest its general importance in both antiparasite and antiherbivore defense. In addition to this physiological prophylaxis of adult ants...

  6. Stress, illness, and the social environment: depressive symptoms among first generation mandarin speaking Chinese in greater Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueling; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irving, Veronica; Chhay, Doug; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2014-12-01

    This study documents the indirect effects of social and environmental variables as mediated by immigrant stress and physical health. Using data from a large dual frame sample of first generation mandarin speaking Chinese immigrants in metropolitan Los Angeles counties with the largest groups of Chinese immigrants, this study uses a path analytic approach to trace how predictors are related to depressive symptoms and to measure direct and indirect influences of variables. Although bivariate analyses suggested that many predictors were associated with depressive symptoms, multivariate path analysis revealed a more complex structure of mediated associations. In the multivariate path analysis only reports of physical health and immigrant stress were directly related to depressive symptoms (P citizenship, and distance of persons on whom one could rely were related to stress (but not to physical health status) and only to depressive symptoms as mediated by stress. Age and educational attainment were related to health status (and to stress as mediated by physical health) and to depressive symptoms as mediated by both health and stress. These variables were also unrelated directly to health status and to depressive symptoms. Associations were evaluated using statistical significance, P < 0.05. This study demonstrates the significance of stress and health as mediators of variables in the larger context of the physical environment and suggests that the mechanisms linking ecological characteristics of immigrants to depressive symptoms may be stress and physical health among immigrants.

  7. Low-status monkeys "play dumb" when learning in mixed social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drea, C M; Wallen, K

    1999-10-26

    Many primates, including humans, live in complex hierarchical societies where social context and status affect daily life. Nevertheless, primate learning studies typically test single animals in limited laboratory settings where the important effects of social interactions and relationships cannot be studied. To investigate the impact of sociality on associative learning, we compared the individual performances of group-tested rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) across various social contexts. We used a traditional discrimination paradigm that measures an animal's ability to form associations between cues and the obtaining of food in choice situations; but we adapted the task for group testing. After training a 55-member colony to separate on command into two subgroups, composed of either high- or low-status families, we exposed animals to two color discrimination problems, one with all monkeys present (combined condition), the other in their "dominant" and "subordinate" cohorts (split condition). Next, we manipulated learning history by testing animals on the same problems, but with the social contexts reversed. Monkeys from dominant families excelled in all conditions, but subordinates performed well in the split condition only, regardless of learning history. Subordinate animals had learned the associations, but expressed their knowledge only when segregated from higher-ranking animals. Because aggressive behavior was rare, performance deficits probably reflected voluntary inhibition. This experimental evidence of rank-related, social modulation of performance calls for greater consideration of social factors when assessing learning and may also have relevance for the evaluation of human scholastic achievement.

  8. The evolution of altruistic social preferences in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joan B; House, Bailey R

    2016-02-05

    In this paper, we consider three hypotheses to account for the evolution of the extraordinary capacity for large-scale cooperation and altruistic social preferences within human societies. One hypothesis is that human cooperation is built on the same evolutionary foundations as cooperation in other animal societies, and that fundamental elements of the social preferences that shape our species' cooperative behaviour are also shared with other closely related primates. Another hypothesis is that selective pressures favouring cooperative breeding have shaped the capacity for cooperation and the development of social preferences, and produced a common set of behavioural dispositions and social preferences in cooperatively breeding primates and humans. The third hypothesis is that humans have evolved derived capacities for collaboration, group-level cooperation and altruistic social preferences that are linked to our capacity for culture. We draw on naturalistic data to assess differences in the form, scope and scale of cooperation between humans and other primates, experimental data to evaluate the nature of social preferences across primate species, and comparative analyses to evaluate the evolutionary origins of cooperative breeding and related forms of behaviour.

  9. Measuring unemployment persistence of different labor force groups in the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Gomes da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of ARFIMA models and unit root tests with structural breaks to examine the unemployment persistence of different labor forces in the Greater Metropolitan Area of São Paulo. To this purpose, not only is the region's open unemployment rate analyzed but it is also disaggregated by gender, age, color and position within the household. The period ranges from January 1985 to November 2008 and, despite using a range of estimation methods, the presence of a unit root cannot be rejected in general. The exceptions are the series related to Age 15-17 and over 40. But even in these cases the parameter "d" lies above 0.5. This is an indication that the unemployment rates in São Paulo can be defined as non stationary and the majority of the series are not mean-reverting. Therefore, the disinflation policies implemented by the Brazilian policymakers in the last two decades, as well as changes in real variables, have had long-lasting effects on the unemployment rates in São Paulo.Este artigo usa modelos ARFIMA e testes de raiz unitária com quebra estrutural para examinar o grau de persistência do desemprego de diferentes estratos da força de trabalho na Região Metropolitana de São Paulo. Para tanto, a taxa agregada desta região é examinada, como também sua desagregação por gênero, idade, raça e posição dentro da família. O período de análise vai de janeiro de 1985 a novembro 2008 e, apesar do uso de diferentes métodos de estimação, a hipótese de raiz unitária não é rejeitada em geral. As duas exceções são as séries relacionadas aos trabalhadores entre 15 e 17 anos e acima dos 40 anos. Mas, mesmo nestes dois casos, o parâmetro "d" fica acima de 0,5. Isso indica que não há estacionariedade e também não há reversão a uma média de longo prazo para a maioria das séries analisadas. Portanto, as políticas econômicas de combate à inflação das últimas duas décadas, assim como mudanças em vari

  10. Sport psychology group consultation using social networking web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Frederick; Shipherd, Amber M; Gershgoren, Lael; Filho, Edson Medeiros; Basevitch, Itay

    2012-08-01

    A social networking Web site, Facebook, was used to deliver long-term sport psychology consultation services to student-athletes (i.e., soccer players) in 30- to 60-min weekly sessions. Additional short-term team building, group cohesion, communication, anger management, injury rehabilitation, mental toughness, commitment, and leadership workshops were provided. Cohesion and overall relationships between both the student-athletes and the sport psychology consultants benefited from this process. Social networking Web sites offer a practical way of providing sport psychology consulting services that does not require use of major resources. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Ged® Completers' Perceptions of College Readiness and Social Capital: Linking Adult Literacy to a Greater Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Donalyn; O'Dell, Jade

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of general education development (GED®) acquisition and GED® completers' perceptions of college readiness and social capital using a quantitative methodology. Also, the study used a descriptive, cross-sectional research design framed by the social capital theoretical perspective. The conceptual framework developed…

  12. Moderating effects of group status, cohesion, and ethnic composition on socialization of aggression in children's peer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-09-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3 group features moderated the strength of group socialization on physical aggression with the exception of group status on girls' physical aggression. Stronger socialization of physical aggression occurred in higher status, more cohesive, or ethnically more homogeneous groups. In contrast, only group cohesion moderated the strength of group socialization on social aggression among girls. These findings suggest that somewhat different processes may be involved in peer group influences on different forms of aggression. Future intervention and prevention efforts for adolescent aggression should consider peer group membership and group features simultaneously.

  13. Group remembering: does social loafing underlie collaborative inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, M S; Blair, C; Huebsch, P D

    2000-11-01

    When people collaborate to recall information, they experience collaborative inhibition, a deficit in recall relative to nominal groups (the pooled, nonredundant recall of individuals working alone). That is, people recalling in groups do not perform up to their potential. Collaborative inhibition may be due to retrieval interference (e.g., B. H. Basden, D. R. Basden, S. Bryner, & R. L. Thomas, 1997) or to motivational factors such as social loafing in the group situation. Five experiments examined the role of motivational factors by varying monetary incentives, recall criterion, personal accountability, group cohesion, and group gender. Increasing motivation sometimes increased the overall level of recall but failed to eliminate the collaborative inhibition effect. The results suggest that collaboration interferes with an individual's ability to reconstruct his or her knowledge.

  14. Averting group failures in collective-risk social dilemmas

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xiaojie; Perc, Matjaz; 10.1209/0295-5075/99/68003

    2012-01-01

    Free-riding on a joint venture bears the risk of losing personal endowment as the group may fail to reach the collective target due to insufficient contributions. A collective-risk social dilemma emerges, which we here study in the realm of the spatial public goods game with group-performance-dependent risk levels. Instead of using an overall fixed value, we update the risk level in each group based on the difference between the actual contributions and the declared target. A single parameter interpolates between a step-like risk function and virtual irrelevance of the group's performance in averting the failure, thus bridging the two extremes constituting maximal and minimal feedback. We show that stronger feedback between group performance and risk level is in general more favorable for the successful evolution of public cooperation, yet only if the collective target to be reached is moderate. Paradoxically, if the goals are overambitious, intermediate feedback strengths yield optimal conditions for coopera...

  15. Reactions to group devaluation and social inequality: A comparison of social identity and system justification predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuma Kevin Owuamalam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available System justification theory (SJT proposes that support for social inequality should be stronger among members of devalued groups than among members of higher status groups; that embracing the system in this way soothes anger and leads to a withdrawal of support for social change; and that these effects should occur when group interest is weak. We compared these SJT predictions with identity management and hope for group advancement accounts that we deduced from social identity theory (SIT and that suggest that both system justification and support for social change will be significant when group interest is strong. Consistent with the SIT-based accounts, Study 1 (N = 116, Malaysia, Mage =19.09 years showed that strong identifiers were more concerned about their ingroup’s reputation than weak identifiers, and that this concern increased system justification but only before an outgroup audience to whom a need to present one’s group in good light is normally strong. Study 2 (N = 375, Australia, Mage = 23.59 years conceptually replicated Study 1’s results and further revealed that strong identifiers justified the system due to the hope that their ingroup status would improve in the future. Finally, Study 3 (N = 132, Germany, Mage = 20.34 years revealed that system justification soothed anger and reduced support for social protest but only when group interest was strong (not weak. We did not find evidence in support of SJT predictions.

  16. Group choice: the ideal free distribution of human social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, J R; Baum, W M

    2001-07-01

    Group choice refers to the distribution of group members between two choice alternatives over time. The ideal free distribution (IFD), an optimal foraging model from behavioral ecology, predicts that the ratio of foragers at two resource sites should equal the ratio of obtained resources, a prediction that is formally analogous to the matching law of individual choice, except that group choice is a social phenomenon. Two experiments investigated the usefulness of IFD analyses of human group choice and individual-based explanations that might account for the group-level events. Instead of nonhuman animals foraging at two sites for resources, a group of humans chose blue and red cards to receive points that could earn cash prizes. The groups chose blue and red cards in ratios in positive relation to the ratios of points associated with the cards. When group choice ratios and point ratios were plotted on logarithmic coordinates and fitted with regression lines, the slopes (i.e., sensitivity measures) approached 1.0 but tended to fall short of it (i.e., undermatching), with little bias and little unaccounted for variance. These experiments demonstrate that an IFD analysis of group choice is possible and useful, and suggest that group choice may be explained by the individual members' tendency to optimize reinforcement.

  17. Characterising informal groups of knowledge transfer with social network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Maria Sallan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most prominent areas in the two last decades of intangible assets research has been, doubtlessly, the issues related to the creation and exploitation of organizational knowledge. But organizational knowledge is a complex process indeed, where multiple levels of analysis coexist. This fact is the origin of several methodological problems in organizational knowledge research. The aim of this paper is adapting the social network analysis techniques to the task of detecting groups of individuals in organizations, and to asses the role of individuals in these groups. This assessment is undertaken using data representative of the relationships between individuals in organizations. The procedure has been applied to a social network of faculty working in the same college.

  18. A Group Awaiting Death: The Social Systems Perspective on a Naturally Occurring Group Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starker, Steven; Starker, Joan E.

    1982-01-01

    Uses social systems theory to analyze the interaction of an informal group of family and friends formed around an individual in an intensive care unit. Discusses contributors to dissension including ambiguity of the task structure, fluidity of leadership and power, and failure of a utopian defense. (Author/JAC)

  19. Student attitudes towards socially acceptable and unacceptable group working practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jean D M

    2003-08-01

    While there is much support for co-operative learning among learning theorists, not all learners exhibit the same enthusiasm for groupwork. A number of factors such as sex, group size and ability mix, subject domain, task type and organization have been shown to influence the effectiveness of co-operative and collaborative learning. This study established learners' attitudes to various shared working scenarios. In this mixed design, 140 post-graduate teacher trainees were asked to imagine their responses to seven groupwork scenarios presented as a series of short vignettes. The vignettes varied on the degree of co-operation required; the sex of the prospective co-worker(s) including single and mixed-sex groups; type of assessment, including no assessment at all; and on academically acceptable and unacceptable 'shared' working practices. Anticipated attitudinal and behavioural responses of the students were assessed by questionnaire. On the whole, students were cautiously willing to be involved in groupwork. There were caveats, however. Factors such as the characteristics of the group members, the level and type of assessment procedures in operation, and individual differences, including sex and self-reported social deviance, also governed their responses. There was very limited agreement to be involved in socially undesirable collaborative group activities at a personal level or to condone such activities by others. Those students who showed a tendency towards mild anti-social behaviour were more willing to take direct punitive action against non-contributors than their peers. Female students were more willing to invoke the help of the tutor than their male counterparts, but only if the anti-social behaviour impacted on them personally.

  20. Why and how people engage in social comparison while learning social skills in groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Cohen-Schotanus, J; Nek, R.H.

    This study was conducted among 269 medical students who participated in educational training groups. Self-evaluation was the most important motive to engage in social comparison with other group members, followed by, respectively, self-enhancement and self-improvement. Upward comparisons (i.e., with

  1. Constructing Social Networks from Unstructured Group Dialog in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Fahad; Sukthankar, Gita

    Virtual worlds and massively multi-player online games are rich sources of information about large-scale teams and groups, offering the tantalizing possibility of harvesting data about group formation, social networks, and network evolution. However these environments lack many of the cues that facilitate natural language processing in other conversational settings and different types of social media. Public chat data often features players who speak simultaneously, use jargon and emoticons, and only erratically adhere to conversational norms. In this paper, we present techniques for inferring the existence of social links from unstructured conversational data collected from groups of participants in the Second Life virtual world. We present an algorithm for addressing this problem, Shallow Semantic Temporal Overlap (SSTO), that combines temporal and language information to create directional links between participants, and a second approach that relies on temporal overlap alone to create undirected links between participants. Relying on temporal overlap is noisy, resulting in a low precision and networks with many extraneous links. In this paper, we demonstrate that we can ameliorate this problem by using network modularity optimization to perform community detection in the noisy networks and severing cross-community links. Although using the content of the communications still results in the best performance, community detection is effective as a noise reduction technique for eliminating the extra links created by temporal overlap alone.

  2. Averting group failures in collective-risk social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-09-01

    Free-riding on a joint venture bears the risk of losing personal endowment as the group may fail to reach the collective target due to insufficient contributions. A collective-risk social dilemma emerges, which we here study in the realm of the spatial public goods game with group-performance-dependent risk levels. Instead of using an overall fixed value, we update the risk level in each group based on the difference between the actual contributions and the declared target. A single parameter interpolates between a step-like risk function and virtual irrelevance of the group's performance in averting the failure, thus bridging the two extremes constituting maximal and minimal feedback. We show that stronger feedback between group performance and risk level is in general more favorable for the successful evolution of public cooperation, yet only if the collective target to be reached is moderate. Paradoxically, if the goals are overambitious, intermediate feedback strengths yield optimal conditions for cooperation. This can be explained by the propagation of players that employ identical strategies but experience different individual success while trying to cope with the collective-risk social dilemma.

  3. Interactivity in Second Language via Social Identity and Group Cohesiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rojas Alfaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Se describen y analizan la influencia de la identidad y la unión de grupo como factores que facilitan o dificultan los procesos interactivos en el aprendizaje del inglés como segunda lengua. Se señala la conexión entre el aprendizaje interactivo de un idioma y factores como identidad social, personal, y unión de grupo. El efecto de la integración del grupo y la identidad en el aprendizaje de un segundo idioma son esenciales dado que pocos estudios se han referido al efecto de tales variables en la interacción de grupo. Con el estudio de un caso realizado en dos grupos de estudiantes adultos se diagnosticó el estado de cohesión del grupo y su impacto en el aprendizaje interactivo. This research explores the influence of identity and group cohesion as factors that facilitate or hinder interactive processes in ESL classrooms. In particular, this paper addresses the connection between interactive language learning, social and personal identity, and group cohesiveness. The effect of group cohesion and identity in second language learning has been addressed in relatively few studies on the impact of those membership variables in determining interactivity in communicative language teaching. A case study carried out in two college level classes diagnosed the status of group membership and its impact on interactivity.

  4. Audience design through social interaction during group discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Shane L; Fay, Nicolas; Maybery, Murray

    2013-01-01

    This paper contrasts two accounts of audience design during multiparty communication: audience design as a strategic individual-level message adjustment or as a non-strategic interaction-level message adjustment. Using a non-interactive communication task, Experiment 1 showed that people distinguish between messages designed for oneself and messages designed for another person; consistent with strategic message design, messages designed for another person/s were longer (number of words) than those designed for oneself. However, audience size did not affect message length (messages designed for different sized audiences were similar in length). Using an interactive communication task Experiment 2 showed that as group size increased so too did communicative effort (number of words exchanged between interlocutors). Consistent with a non-strategic account, as group members were added more social interaction was necessary to coordinate the group's collective situation model. Experiment 3 validates and extends the production measures used in Experiment 1 and 2 using a comprehension task. Taken together, our results indicate that audience design arises as a non-strategic outcome of social interaction during group discussion.

  5. The Social Profiles of Occupational Therapy Students’ Educational Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Bonsaksen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today’s occupational therapy models emphasize that a person’s choice of, satisfaction with, and performance in occupations are markedly influenced by the context. For students undergoing a group-based study module, the group is an important context factor. Until recently, there has been a lack of instruments available for the assessment of functioning and participation at the group level. This mixed methods pilot study aimed to examine occupational therapy students’ perceptions of their group’s level of functioning and course of development during one study module. Methods: The students’ perceptions of their group’s functioning were assessed in two ways: by examining their scores on the Social Profile (SP, a new instrument, and by examining their qualitative descriptions of the groups and how the groups developed over time. The sample consisted of four occupational therapy students. Results: Two students perceived their group functioning as stable over time. One student’s scores indicated an increase in group functioning over time, whereas one student’s showed a decrease. The interview statements showed varying degrees of connectedness with the SP items. Conclusions: Descriptions of stability and change corresponded very well with the students’ SP trajectories, indicating content validity of the assessment as a whole.

  6. Social exclusion: the interplay of group goals and individual characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cameron B; Hitti, Aline; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie

    2014-08-01

    Past research has shown that adolescents justify social exclusion based on concerns for group functioning, and yet, to date, no study has evaluated whether group functioning justifications shift or remain stable across different exclusion contexts. In this study, we systematically manipulated exclusion context (i.e., competitive or noncompetitive soccer groups) and individual characteristics of the target of exclusion to test the nature of the interaction between these factors during exclusion judgments. Adolescents' (N = 201; 61% Female) exclusion judgments differed across contexts only when an individual's ability was under consideration. Intergroup (i.e., gender, nationality) and interpersonal (i.e., aggression, shyness) characteristics overwhelmed contextual considerations. Results indicate the complexity of factors weighed by adolescents when making exclusion judgments, and suggest the need for extension of the present findings to understand more fully the interaction between the context of exclusion and individual characteristics in exclusion judgments.

  7. Composition, concentration and deprivation: exploring their association with social cohesion among different ethnic groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia; Stafford, Mai; Laurence, James; Nazroo, James

    2011-01-01

    Although studies in the US have shown an association between the ethnic residential composition of an area and reports of decreased social cohesion among its residents, this association is not clear in the UK, and particularly for ethnic minority groups. The current study analyses a merged dataset from the 2005 and 2007 Citizenship Survey to assess the evidence for an association between social cohesion and ethnic residential concentration, composition and area deprivation across different ethnic groups in the UK. Results of the multilevel regression models show that, after adjusting for area deprivation, increased levels of social cohesion are found in areas of greater ethnic residential heterogeneity. Although different patterns emerge across ethnic groups and the measure of social cohesion used, findings consistently show that it is area deprivation, and not ethnic residential heterogeneity, which erodes social cohesion in the UK.

  8. Understanding crowd-powered search groups: a social network perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpeng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crowd-powered search is a new form of search and problem solving scheme that involves collaboration among a potentially large number of voluntary Web users. Human flesh search (HFS, a particular form of crowd-powered search originated in China, has seen tremendous growth since its inception in 2001. HFS presents a valuable test-bed for scientists to validate existing and new theories in social computing, sociology, behavioral sciences, and so forth. METHODOLOGY: In this research, we construct an aggregated HFS group, consisting of the participants and their relationships in a comprehensive set of identified HFS episodes. We study the topological properties and the evolution of the aggregated network and different sub-groups in the network. We also identify the key HFS participants according to a variety of measures. CONCLUSIONS: We found that, as compared with other online social networks, HFS participant network shares the power-law degree distribution and small-world property, but with a looser and more distributed organizational structure, leading to the diversity, decentralization, and independence of HFS participants. In addition, the HFS group has been becoming increasingly decentralized. The comparisons of different HFS sub-groups reveal that HFS participants collaborated more often when they conducted the searches in local platforms or the searches requiring a certain level of professional knowledge background. On the contrary, HFS participants did not collaborate much when they performed the search task in national platforms or the searches with general topics that did not require specific information and learning. We also observed that the key HFS information contributors, carriers, and transmitters came from different groups of HFS participants.

  9. Using focus groups and social marketing to strengthen promotion of group prenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonderheid, Susan C; Carrie, S Klima; Norr, Kathleen F; Grady, Mary Alice; Westdahl, Claire M

    2013-01-01

    Centering Pregnancy, an innovative group model of prenatal care, shows promise to reduce persistent adverse maternal-infant outcomes and contain costs. Because this innovation requires systemwide change, clinics reported needing support enrolling women into groups and obtaining organizational buy-in. This study used the 3-step social marketing communication strategy to help clinic staff identify key customers and customer-specific barriers to adopting or supporting Centering Pregnancy. They developed targeted information to reduce barriers and built skills in communicating with different customers through role-playing. Findings provide practical information for others to use this communication strategy to improve implementation of Centering Pregnancy.

  10. Personality, Parasites, Political Attitudes, and Cooperation: A Model of How Infection Prevalence Influences Openness and Social Group Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Fincher, Corey L; Walasek, Lukasz

    2016-01-01

    What is the origin of individual differences in ideology and personality? According to the parasite stress hypothesis, the structure of a society and the values of individuals within it are both influenced by the prevalence of infectious disease within the society's geographical region. High levels of infection threat are associated with more ethnocentric and collectivist social structures and greater adherence to social norms, as well as with socially conservative political ideology and less open but more conscientious personalities. Here we use an agent-based model to explore a specific opportunities-parasites trade-off (OPTO) hypothesis, according to which utility-maximizing agents place themselves at an optimal point on a trade-off between (a) the gains that may be achieved through accessing the resources of geographically or socially distant out-group members through openness to out-group interaction, and (b) the losses arising due to consequently increased risks of exotic infection to which immunity has not been developed. We examine the evolution of cooperation and the formation of social groups within social networks, and we show that the groups that spontaneously form exhibit greater local rather than global cooperative networks when levels of infection are high. It is suggested that the OPTO model offers a first step toward understanding the specific mechanisms through which environmental conditions may influence cognition, ideology, personality, and social organization. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Topics in Cognitive Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Cognitive Science Society.

  11. A Comparison of Two Group-Delivered Social Skills Programs for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K. A.; Schultz, Janet R.; Newsom, Crighton

    2007-01-01

    A social skills group intervention was developed and evaluated for young children with autism. Twenty-five 4- to 6-year-old (diagnosed) children were assigned to one of two kinds of social skills groups: the direct teaching group or the play activities group. The direct teaching group used a video-modeling format to teach play and social skills…

  12. A maximum entropy model for opinions in social groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sergio; Navarrete, Yasmín; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2014-04-01

    We study how the opinions of a group of individuals determine their spatial distribution and connectivity, through an agent-based model. The interaction between agents is described by a Hamiltonian in which agents are allowed to move freely without an underlying lattice (the average network topology connecting them is determined from the parameters). This kind of model was derived using maximum entropy statistical inference under fixed expectation values of certain probabilities that (we propose) are relevant to social organization. Control parameters emerge as Lagrange multipliers of the maximum entropy problem, and they can be associated with the level of consequence between the personal beliefs and external opinions, and the tendency to socialize with peers of similar or opposing views. These parameters define a phase diagram for the social system, which we studied using Monte Carlo Metropolis simulations. Our model presents both first and second-order phase transitions, depending on the ratio between the internal consequence and the interaction with others. We have found a critical value for the level of internal consequence, below which the personal beliefs of the agents seem to be irrelevant.

  13. Identidade social em movimento: a comunidade japonesa na grande Vitória (ES Social identity in motion: the japanese community at the greater Vitória Area (ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Rumi Suda

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou identificar a identidade social de japoneses residentes na Grande Vitória (ES a partir de informações sobre o próprio grupo e suas relações cotidianas, verificando-se também a existência de indícios de preconceito ou de tratamento discriminatório. Participaram da pesquisa 20 sujeitos, japoneses ou descendentes, de ambos os sexos, jovens e adultos. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas que exploraram os seguintes temas: namoro e conjugalidade, padrões estéticos, preconceito e estereótipo, identidade social e adaptação. Os resultados indicaram a existência de semelhanças e diferenças no que diz respeito à identidade do japonês capixaba, definida através da comparação com as características identitárias de japoneses de outros Estados.The objective of the present work was to identify the social identity of Japanese residents in the Greater Vitória area (State of Espírito Santo, Brazil, from discourses about the group itself and its everyday relations, also verifying the existence of indications of prejudice or discriminatory treatment. Twenty subjects, Japanese or descendants, from both sexes, young and adult, participated in the research. Data was collected through interviews that explored the following themes: dating and conjugality, aesthetic patterns, prejudice and stereotype, social identity and adaptation. The results indicated the existence of similarities and differences with respect to the identity of Capixaba Japanese (Capixaba being the designation of people from Espírito Santo state, defined through comparison with the identitarian characteristics of Japanese in other states.

  14. A Pilot Study Examining Physical and Social Warmth: Higher (Non-Febrile) Oral Temperature Is Associated with Greater Feelings of Social Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Inagaki, Tristen K.; Irwin, Michael R.; Mona Moieni; Ivana Jevtic; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging literature suggests that experiences of physical warmth contribute to social warmth-the experience of feeling connected to others. Thus, thermoregulatory systems, which help maintain our relatively warm internal body temperatures, may also support feelings of social connection. However, the association between internal body temperature and feelings of connection has not been examined. Furthermore, the origins of the link between physical and social warmth, via learning during earl...

  15. Radiology and social media: are private practice radiology groups more social than academic radiology departments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, McKinley; Choy, Garry; Boland, Giles W; Saini, Sanjay; Prabhakar, Anand M

    2015-05-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of use of the most commonly used social media sites among private radiology groups (PRGs) and academic radiology departments (ARDs). The 50 largest PRGs and the 50 ARDs with the highest level of funding from the National Institutes of Health were assessed for presence of a radiology-specific social media account on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Pinterest, YouTube, and LinkedIn. Measures of organizational activity and end-user activity were collected, including the number of posts and followers, as appropriate; between-group comparisons were performed. PRGs adopted Facebook 12 months earlier (P = .02) and Twitter 18 months earlier (P = .02) than did ARDs. A total of 76% of PRGs maintained ≥1 account on the social media sites included in the study, compared with 28% of ARDs (P social media sites for PRGs was: Facebook, 66%; LinkedIn, 56%; Twitter, 42%; YouTube, 20%; Pinterest, 4%; and Instagram, 2%. The prevalence of radiology-specific social media accounts for ARDs was: Facebook, 18%; LinkedIn, 0%; Twitter, 24%; YouTube, 6%; Pinterest, 0%; and Instagram, 0%. There was no significant difference between ARDs and PRGs in measures of end-user or organizational activity on Facebook or Twitter. Use of social media in health care is emerging as mainstream, with PRGs being early adopters of Facebook and Twitter in comparison with ARDs. Competitive environments and institutional policies may be strong factors that influence how social media is used by radiologists at the group and department levels. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. PROBLEMS OF TEAM FUNCTIONING AS SPECIAL TYPE OF SOCIAL GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. VASILYEV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of different concepts of "team" from the point of view of sociology, which today can be divided into two large groups. The first affects his symptoms and descriptions, and the second structure of the definition. Summarizing them all, the author highlighted that currently the "team" can only be called an effectively functioning social group. Despite the fact that "command" is a kind of small social group, described the differences between these concepts. The article examines the question about correlation of concepts "team" and "team". A comparison of their characteristics reveals that they are extremely close to each other. Identified problems in the functioning of the team as a special type of social group. The features of leadership in the team, in particular, the possibility and feasibility of a divided leadership. Divided leadership implies that at different stages of achieving the team purpose leadership position is given to those team members who are most competent in solving a particular task, but the final decisions are made by joint efforts of the group. The presence of a clearly defined leader in the team is imperative. On the other hand, many teams are able to function effectively using only one type of influence ‒ vertical, when a mutual influence on each other have a leader and his associate, boss and employee. The presence of horizontal influence that occurs in the process of interaction between team members (excluding leader among themselves, it is necessary to perform tasks that require synchronous operation of several (or all team members. In the end, formulated the following conclusion: the presence of vertical interactions is a necessary condition for the existence of the team.

  17. Violence in social networks: an exploration of the online expressions of teens from marginalized areas of Greater Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Linne

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo explora las expresiones online de violencia ejercida o padecida por las y los adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados del Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Desde una metodología cualitativa, se indagan cuatro fenómenos específicos: las amenazas, los “bondis”, el cyberbullying y los duelos, para lo cual se realizaron veinte entrevistas en profundidad y 3.000 observaciones virtuales de perfiles de la red social Facebook entre 2013 y 2014. Entre los principales resultados, se observa que la mayoría de las expresiones de violencia se enmarcan en una dinámica offline-online. Asimismo, se ofrece evidencia empírica a partir de la cual es posible afirmar que las expresiones de violencia de estos adolescentes se despliegan en torno a la cultura del “aguante”. El artículo se pregunta si en la plataforma icónica del “me gusta” estas expresiones resultan implícitamente funcionales a la red social o si, por el contrario, permiten desplazamientos y reapropiaciones significativas de los usuarios. En definitiva, se abren nuevos interrogantes acerca de la utilización de estas herramientas por parte de adolescentes de sectores populares marginalizados y se propone complejizar los enfoques en torno a estos fenómenos.

  18. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…

  19. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses.…

  20. American Muslims’ Anger and Sadness about In-group Social Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Mosquera, Patricia M.; Khan, Tasmiha; Selya, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    We present a novel study on the role of gender in perceptions of and emotions about in-group social image among American Muslims. Two hundred and five (147 females, 58 males) American Muslims completed a questionnaire on how Muslims feel in U.S. society. The study measured both stereotypical (i.e., ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed’) as well as non-stereotypical in-group social images (i.e., ‘powerful,’ ‘honorable’). In particular, participants were asked how much they believe Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ ‘oppressed,’ ‘honorable,’ and ‘powerful’ in U.S. society, and how much anger and sadness they feel about the way U.S. society views Muslims. Participants believed Muslims are seen in stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘frightening’ and ‘oppressed’) more than in non-stereotypical ways (i.e., as ‘powerful’ and ‘honorable’). Moreover, perceived in-group social image as ‘powerful’ or ‘honorable’ did not predict the intensity of felt anger or sadness. In contrast, the more participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘frightening,’ the more intense their anger and sadness. Furthermore, responses to perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ were moderated by gender. American Muslim female participants believed that Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed’ in U.S. society to a greater extent than male participants did. In addition, perceived social image as ‘oppressed’ only predicted anger for female participants: the more female participants believed Muslims are seen as ‘oppressed,’ the more intense their anger. This study contributes to the scarce literature on American Muslims in psychology, and shows that both anger and sadness are relevant to the study of perceived social image. PMID:28123374

  1. When good neighbors don't need fences: Temporal landscape partitioning among baboon social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, A Catherine; Guttal, Vishwesha; Alberts, Susan C; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-06-01

    Intraspecific competition is a key factor shaping space-use strategies and movement decisions in many species, yet how and when neighbors utilize shared areas while exhibiting active avoidance of one another is largely unknown. Here we investigated temporal landscape partitioning in a population of wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus). We used global positioning system (GPS) collars to synchronously record the hourly locations of 5 baboon social groups for ~900 days, and we used behavioral, demographic, and life history data to measure factors affecting use of overlap areas. Annual home ranges of neighboring groups overlapped substantially, as predicted (baboons are considered non-territorial), but home ranges overlapped less when space use was assessed over shorter time scales. Moreover, neighboring groups were in close spatial proximity to one another on fewer days than predicted by a null model, suggesting an avoidance-based spacing pattern. At all time scales examined (monthly, biweekly, and weekly), time spent in overlap areas was greater during time periods when groups fed on evenly dispersed, low-quality foods. The percent of fertile females in social groups was negatively correlated with time spent in overlap areas only during weekly time intervals. This suggests that broad temporal changes in ecological resources are a major predictor of how intensively overlap areas are used, and groups modify these ecologically driven spacing patterns at short time scales based on female reproductive status. Together these findings offer insight into the economics of territoriality by highlighting the dynamics of spacing patterns at differing time scales.

  2. Classification of group behaviors in social media via social behavior grammars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Getoor, Lise; Smith, Marc

    2014-06-01

    The increasing use of online collaboration and information sharing in the last decade has resulted in explosion of criminal and anti-social activities in online communities. Detection of such behaviors are of interest to commercial enterprises who want to guard themselves from cyber criminals, and the military intelligence analysts who desire to detect and counteract cyberwars waged by adversarial states and organizations. The most challenging behaviors to detect are those involving multiple individuals who share actions and roles in the hostile activities and individually appear benign. To detect these behaviors, the theories of group behaviors and interactions must be developed. In this paper we describe our exploration of the data from collaborative social platform to categorize the behaviors of multiple individuals. We applied graph matching algorithms to explore consistent social interactions. Our research led us to a conclusion that complex collaborative behaviors can be modeled and detected using a concept of group behavior grammars, in a manner analogous to natural language processing. These grammars capture constraints on how people take on roles in virtual environments, form groups, and interact over time, providing the building blocks for scalable and accurate multi-entity interaction analysis and social behavior hypothesis testing.

  3. Teaching Standards-Based Group Work Competencies to Social Work Students: An Empirical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Vakharia, Sheila P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Accreditation standards and challenges in group work education require competency-based approaches in teaching social work with groups. The Association for the Advancement of Social Work with Groups developed Standards for Social Work Practice with Groups, which serve as foundation competencies for professional practice. However, there…

  4. False security or greater social inclusion? Exploring perceptions of CCTV use in public and private spaces accessed by the homeless.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Laura

    2010-03-01

    It has been well documented that owing to the vulnerability inherent in their situation and status, the homeless experience high rates of harassment and criminal victimization. And yet, the question of whether CCTV surveillance of public and private spaces - so frequently viewed by the middle classes as a positive source of potential security - might also be viewed by the homeless in similar ways. Within the present paper, I address this issue by considering the possibility that CCTV might be seen by some homeless men and women as offering: a) a measure of enhanced security for those living in the streets and in shelters, and; b) to the extent that security is conceived of as a social good, the receipt of which marks one as a citizen of the state, a means by which they can be reconstituted as something more than 'lesser citizens'. To test these ideas, I rely on data from interviews conducted with homeless service users, service providers for the homeless, and police personnel in three cities. What is revealed is a mixed set of beliefs as to the relative security and meaning of CCTV.

  5. The impact of size of cooperative group on achievement, social support, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Andrea; Conte, Stella; Johnson, David W; Johnson, Roger T

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooperative learning in pairs and groups of 4 and in individualistic learning were compared on achievement, social support, and self-esteem. Sixty-two Italian 7th-grade students with no previous experience with cooperative learning were assigned to conditions on a stratified random basis controlling for ability, gender, and self-esteem. Students participated in 1 instructional unit for 90 min for 6 instructional days during a period of about 6 weeks. The results indicate that cooperative learning in pairs and 4s promoted higher achievement and greater academic support from peers than did individualistic learning. Students working in pairs developed a higher level of social self-esteem than did students learning in the other conditions.

  6. Manufacturing Phenomena or Preserving Phenomena? Core Issues in the Identification of Peer Social Groups with Social Cognitive Mapping Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Xie, Hongling

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary on the "Multiple Meanings of Peer Groups in Social Cognitive Mapping," Thomas W. Farmer and Hongling Xie discuss core issues in the identification of peer social groups in natural settings using the social cognitive mapping (SCM) procedures. Farmer and Xie applaud the authors for their efforts to advance the study of…

  7. Manufacturing Phenomena or Preserving Phenomena? Core Issues in the Identification of Peer Social Groups with Social Cognitive Mapping Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Xie, Hongling

    2013-01-01

    In this commentary on the "Multiple Meanings of Peer Groups in Social Cognitive Mapping," Thomas W. Farmer and Hongling Xie discuss core issues in the identification of peer social groups in natural settings using the social cognitive mapping (SCM) procedures. Farmer and Xie applaud the authors for their efforts to advance the study of…

  8. Environmental and social determinants of human risk during a West Nile virus outbreak in the greater Chicago area, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Connie

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of West Nile Virus (WNV in and around Chicago in 2002 included over 680 cases of human illness caused by the virus within this region. The notable clustering of the cases in two well-defined areas suggests the existence of specific environmental and social factors that increase the risk for WNV infection and/or illness in these locations. This investigation sought to create an empirically based model to account for these factors and to assess their importance in explaining the possible processes that may have led to this pattern. Results The cluster pattern of high incidence of cases was statistically significant. The risk factors that were found to be important included the presence of vegetation, age, income, and race of the human population, distance to a WNV positive dead bird specimen, age of housing, mosquito abatement and geological factors. The effect of different mosquito abatement efforts was particularly notable. About 53 percent of the variation of the location of WNV clusters was explained by these factors. Conclusion The models developed indicate that differential mosquito abatement efforts are especially important risk factors, even when controlling for key environmental factors. Human population characteristics play a role in risk that is measurable in this ecological study but would require further research to associate causality with risk. The analysis of spatial clusters of case incidence indicates that this approach provides more insight into the focal nature of differential risk factors that tend to be associated with WNV than an analysis of all individual cases.

  9. Social Network Analysis of an Online Melanoma Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Kathleen T.; McCray, Alexa T.; Safran, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We have developed tools to explore social networks that share information in medical forums to better understand the unmet informational needs of patients and family members facing cancer treatments. We define metrics that demonstrate members discussing interleukin-2 receive a stronger response from the melanoma discussion group than a typical topic. The interleukin-2 network has a different topology than the melanoma network, has a higher density, and its members are more likely to have a higher intimacy level with another member and a lower inquisitiveness level than a typical melanoma user. Members are more likely to join the interleukin-2 network to answer a question than in the melanoma network (probability =.2 ±.05 p-value=.001). Within the melanoma network 20% of the questions posed to the community do not get an answer. In the interleukin-2 network, 1.3% of the questions (one question) do not get a response. PMID:21347134

  10. Staff working in hospital units with greater social capital experience less work-home conflict: Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzsche, Anika; Kuntz, Ludwig; Miedaner, Felix

    2017-07-31

    When the interplay between work and private life does not function correctly (work-home conflict), this constitutes a well-known risk factor for poorer health, increased absenteeism and lower work performance. Information about influencing factors of work-home conflict is therefore indispensable in order to avoid it. In this study, we analyse whether a good working atmosphere that fosters mutual trust, support and a 'sense of unity' (organizational social capital) can reduce an employee's conflict between work and private life. This study investigates the link between organizational social capital and work-home conflict in health professionals. This issue was investigated using a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013. Data from questionnaires completed by physicians and nurses (n=1733) were linked with structural data from 66 neonatal intensive care units in Germany. Using multi-level analyses, we investigated associations between organizational social capital at the ward level and work-home conflict at the level of individual employees, taking into account additional structural and individual characteristics. Employees on wards with greater social capital reported significantly less work-home conflict. Our results support the hypothesis that organizational social capital is an important collective resource. As such, more attention should be given to establishing a good working atmosphere that fosters mutual trust, support and a 'sense of unity', and this should be encouraged in a targeted fashion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Children's responses to social atypicality among group members - advantages of a contextualized social developmental account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Rutland, Adam; Palmer, Sally B; Purewal, Kiran

    2014-09-01

    Abrams, Rutland, Palmer, Ferrell, and Pelletier (2014) showed that better second-order mental state understanding facilitates 6-7-year-olds' ability to link a partially disloyal child's atypicality to inclusive or exclusive reactions by in-group or outgroup members. This finding is interpreted in terms of predictions from the developmental subjective group dynamics model. We respond to thoughtful commentaries by Rhodes and Chalik, Patterson, and Rakoczy. Children face a significant developmental challenge in becoming able to recognize and interpret social atypicality in intergroup contexts. Researching that ability to contextualize judgements raises new questions about the nature of peer inclusion and exclusion, about children's social cognition, and about the way that social cognitive development and social experience combine. Rather than individual-focused cognition taking priority over category-based cognition, we argue the two become more systematically integrated during development. We note that loyalty is but one example of typicality, and we also consider the role of more advanced perspective taking among older children, and the role of multiple classification skill among younger children, as well as potential implications for intervention to reduce peer victimization and prejudice.

  12. Being immersed in social networking environment: Facebook groups, uses and gratifications, and social outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namsu; Kee, Kerk F; Valenzuela, Sebastián

    2009-12-01

    A Web survey of 1,715 college students was conducted to examine Facebook Groups users' gratifications and the relationship between users' gratifications and their political and civic participation offline. A factor analysis revealed four primary needs for participating in groups within Facebook: socializing, entertainment, self-status seeking, and information. These gratifications vary depending on user demographics such as gender, hometown, and year in school. The analysis of the relationship between users' needs and civic and political participation indicated that, as predicted, informational uses were more correlated to civic and political action than to recreational uses.

  13. Who do we think we are? The effects of social context and social identification on in-group stereotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswijk, van W.; Haslam, S.A.; Ellemers, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, in-group stereotyping was examined as a function of variations in social context and perceiver factors. The social context consisted of different comparison groups and different domains of comparison. Comparison group and comparative domain were expected to interact in determining the

  14. Renegotiation of Identity: The Social Context of Aphasia Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadden, Barbara B.; Agan, Joseph P.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses identity as it relates to aphasia and the resulting impact on life participation. The relationships among social identity, language, and social interaction are considered from the sociocultural perspective. Core social identity concepts are identified and used to examine the broad classifications of aphasia intervention.…

  15. A Neural Marker for Social Bias Toward In-group Accents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestelmeyer, Patricia E G; Belin, Pascal; Ladd, D Robert

    2015-10-01

    Accents provide information about the speaker's geographical, socio-economic, and ethnic background. Research in applied psychology and sociolinguistics suggests that we generally prefer our own accent to other varieties of our native language and attribute more positive traits to it. Despite the widespread influence of accents on social interactions, educational and work settings the neural underpinnings of this social bias toward our own accent and, what may drive this bias, are unexplored. We measured brain activity while participants from two different geographical backgrounds listened passively to 3 English accent types embedded in an adaptation design. Cerebral activity in several regions, including bilateral amygdalae, revealed a significant interaction between the participants' own accent and the accent they listened to: while repetition of own accents elicited an enhanced neural response, repetition of the other group's accent resulted in reduced responses classically associated with adaptation. Our findings suggest that increased social relevance of, or greater emotional sensitivity to in-group accents, may underlie the own-accent bias. Our results provide a neural marker for the bias associated with accents, and show, for the first time, that the neural response to speech is partly shaped by the geographical background of the listener.

  16. Social networking in online support groups for health: how online social networking benefits patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Eun

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of online support groups (OSGs) have embraced the features of social networking. So far, little is known about how patients use and benefit from these features. By implementing the uses-and-gratifications framework, the author conducted an online survey with current users of OSGs to examine associations among motivation, use of specific features of OSG, and support outcomes. Findings suggest that OSG users make selective use of varied features depending on their needs, and that perceptions of receiving emotional and informational support are associated more with the use of some features than others. For example, those with strong motivation for social interaction use diverse features of OSG and make one-to-one connections with other users by friending. In contrast, those with strong motivation for information seeking limit their use primarily to discussion boards. Results also show that online social networking features, such as friending and sharing of personal stories on blogs, are helpful in satisfying the need for emotional support. The present study sheds light on online social networking features in the context of health-related OSGs and provides practical lessons on how to improve the capacity of OSGs to serve the needs of their users.

  17. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara B Aknin

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  18. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I

    2011-02-10

    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  19. Is Group Singing Special? Health, Well-Being and Social Bonds in Community-Based Adult Education Classes Group singing, well-being and social bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, E; Launay, J.; A. Machin; Dunbar, RIM

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (fo...

  20. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  1. Effects of community-based collaborative group characteristics on social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cheryl L; Fernandez-Gimenez, Maria E

    2009-10-01

    Recent research suggests that community-based collaboration may build social capital-defined as trust, norms of reciprocity, and networks. Social capital may improve a group's ability to collaborate, manage risk, innovate, and adapt to change. We used mail surveys of group participants and key informant interviews to assess whether the following collaborative group characteristics affected social capital built within 10 collaborative groups in northwest Colorado: perceived success, conflict, activeness, stakeholder diversity, previous collaboration experience, similar values and beliefs, group size, group age, and initial social capital. Perceived success and initial levels of social capital were the strongest predictors of current levels of and changes in social capital over time. Collaboration experience negatively influenced current levels of trust. Our results suggest that collaborative groups may need to consider the outcomes of collaborative interactions in order to build social capital.

  2. Personality composition alters the transmission of cuticular bacteria in social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Carl N; Howell, Kimberly A; Pinter-Wollman, Noa; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2016-07-01

    The initial stages of a disease outbreak can determine the magnitude of the ensuing epidemic. Though rarely tested in unison, two factors with important consequences for the transmission dynamics of infectious agents are the collective traits of the susceptible population and the individual traits of the index case (i.e. 'patient zero'). Here, we test whether the personality composition of a social group can explain horizontal transmission dynamics of cuticular bacteria using the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola We exposed focal spiders of known behavioural phenotypes with a GFP-transformed cuticular bacterium (Pantoea sp.) and placed them in groups of 10 susceptible individuals (i.e. those with no experience with this bacterium). We measured bacterial transmission to groups composed of either all shy spiders, 10% bold spiders or 40% bold spiders. We found that colonies with 40% bold spiders experienced over twice the incidence of transmission compared to colonies with just 10% bold individuals after only 24 h of interaction. Colonies of all shy spiders experienced an intermediate degree of transmission. Interestingly, we did not detect an effect of the traits of the index case on transmission. These data suggest that the phenotypic composition of the susceptible population can have a greater influence on the degree of early transmission events than the traits of the index case. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. BCVPP chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin's disease: evidence for greater duration of complete remission, greater survival, and less toxicity than with a MOPP regimen. Results of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakemeier, R F; Anderson, J R; Costello, W; Rosner, G; Horton, J; Glick, J H; Hines, J D; Berard, C W; DeVita, V T

    1984-10-01

    Two chemotherapy regimens for treatment of patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease, BCVPP (carmustine, cyclophosphamide, vinblastine, procarbazine, and prednisone) and MOPP (mechlorethamine hydrochloride, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone), were compared in a randomized prospective study. Two hundred ninety-three patients were evaluable in the induction phase of this study. The complete remission rate with BCVPP was 76% (112/147) and with MOPP, 73% (106/146) (p = 0.51). The duration of complete remissions for previously untreated patients given BCVPP was significantly longer than that for previously untreated patients given MOPP (p = 0.02). Although hematologic toxicities were similar, BCVPP caused less gastrointestinal (p = 0.0001) and neurologic toxicity (p = 0.01) than MOPP. Previously untreated patients achieving complete remission with BCVPP survived significantly longer than those receiving MOPP (p = 0.03). As primary induction chemotherapy for advanced Hodgkin's disease, BCVPP is an effective alternative to MOPP, having equal or greater therapeutic benefit with less toxicity.

  4. Early Adolescents' Social Standing in Peer Groups: Behavioral Correlates of Stability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Killeya-Jones, Ley A.; Miller, Shari; Costanzo, Philip R.

    2009-01-01

    Sociometric nominations, social cognitive maps, and self-report questionnaires were completed in consecutive years by 327 students (56% girls) followed longitudinally from grade 7 to grade 8 to examine the stability of social standing in peer groups and correlates of changes in social standing. Social preference, perceived popularity, network…

  5. Social Capital and the Repayment of Microfinance Group Lending. A Case Study of Pro Mujer Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postelnicu, Luminita; Hermes, Niels

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how social networks of group borrowers come into play in joint liability group lending. We use a large and original dataset containing 802 mapped social networks of borrowers from Pro Mujer Mexico. This is the first paper to look at external ties, i.e. social ties with indivi

  6. A Programmatic Description of a Social Skills Group for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social skills are a common problem for children with autism. One method of developing appropriate social skills in children with autism has been group instruction. To date, however, group instruction has produced mixed results. The purpose of this article is to describe a promising method of teaching social skills to children in small…

  7. Building Relationships and Combating Bullying: Effectiveness of a School-Based Social Skills Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosier, Melissa E.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a generic social skills intervention, Social Skills GRoup INtervention (S.S.GRIN), for children experiencing peer dislike, bullying, or social anxiety. Third-grade children were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 187) or no-treatment control (CO; n = 194) groups. Examination of the direction and magnitude of…

  8. A Programmatic Description of a Social Skills Group for Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Dotson, Wesley H.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Sherman, James A.; Sheldon, Jan B.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in social skills are a common problem for children with autism. One method of developing appropriate social skills in children with autism has been group instruction. To date, however, group instruction has produced mixed results. The purpose of this article is to describe a promising method of teaching social skills to children in small…

  9. Social influence in computer-mediated communication : The effects of anonymity on group behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Spears, R; Sakhel, K; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    Two studies examined hypotheses derived from a Social Identity model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) as applied to social influence in computer-mediated communication (CMC) in groups. This model predicts that anonymity can increase social influence if a common group identity is salient. In a first

  10. The language of change? Characterizations of in-group social position, threat, and the deployment of 'distinctive' group attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, Andrew G.; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    2009-01-01

    A considerable body of research has shown that group members establish and emphasize characteristics or attributes that define their in-group in relation to comparison out-groups. We extend this research by exploring the range of ways in which members of the same social category (Welsh people) deplo

  11. The language of change? Characterizations of in-group social position, threat, and the deployment of 'distinctive' group attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livingstone, Andrew G.; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.

    2009-01-01

    A considerable body of research has shown that group members establish and emphasize characteristics or attributes that define their in-group in relation to comparison out-groups. We extend this research by exploring the range of ways in which members of the same social category (Welsh people) deplo

  12. Has Group Work Education Lost Its Social Group Work Essence? A Content Analysis of MSW Course Syllabi in Search of Mutual Aid and Group Conflict Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweifach, Jay Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a content analysis of MSW group work course syllabi in an effort to better understand the extent to which mutual aid and group conflict, two important dimensions of social group work, are included and featured as prominent elements in MSW-level group work instruction.

  13. Has Group Work Education Lost Its Social Group Work Essence? A Content Analysis of MSW Course Syllabi in Search of Mutual Aid and Group Conflict Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweifach, Jay Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of a content analysis of MSW group work course syllabi in an effort to better understand the extent to which mutual aid and group conflict, two important dimensions of social group work, are included and featured as prominent elements in MSW-level group work instruction.

  14. Comparative effectiveness of peripheral vascular intervention versus surgical bypass for critical limb ischemia in the Vascular Study Group of Greater New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Andrew J; Sedrakyan, Art; Isaacs, Abby; Connolly, Peter H; Schneider, Darren B

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the effectiveness of peripheral vascular intervention (PVI) was compared with surgical bypass grafting (BPG) for critical limb ischemia (CLI) in the Vascular Study Group of Greater New York (VSGGNY). Patients undergoing BPG or PVI for CLI at VSGGNY centers (2011-2013) were included. The Society for Vascular Surgery objective performance goals for CLI were used to directly compare the safety and effectiveness of PVI and BPG. Propensity score matching was used for risk-adjusted comparisons of PVI with BPG. A total of 414 patients (268 PVI, 146 BPG) were treated for tissue loss (69%) or rest pain (31%). Patients undergoing PVI were more likely to have tissue loss (74.6% vs 57.5%; P PVI was associated with improved freedom from major adverse limb events and postoperative death at 1 year (95.6% vs 88.5%; P PVI. However, risk-adjusted comparison underscores the safety and effectiveness of PVI in the treatment of CLI. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Sequences of Socially Regulated Learning on Group Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, I.; Chiu, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research shows that regulative activities (metacognitive or relational) can aid learning and that sequences of cognitive, metacognitive and relational activities affect subsequent cognition. Extending this research, this study examines whether sequences of socially regulated learning differ

  16. Effects of Sequences of Socially Regulated Learning on Group Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, I.; Chiu, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research shows that regulative activities (metacognitive or relational) can aid learning and that sequences of cognitive, metacognitive and relational activities affect subsequent cognition. Extending this research, this study examines whether sequences of socially regulated learning differ acr

  17. Social Network Influence on Online Behavioral Choices: Exploring Group Formation on Social Network Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, KH; Stefanone, MA; Barnett, GA

    2014-01-01

    Social media communication is characterized by reduced anonymity and off-to-online social interactions. These characteristics require scholars to revisit social influence mechanisms online. The current study builds on social influence literature to explore social network and gender effects on online behavior. Findings from a quasi-experiment suggest that both network-related variables and gender are significantly associated with online behavior. Perceived social environment, measured by perso...

  18. The present and the future of the social role of Group-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Lo Piccolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises questions about the new social demands of psychotherapy, thoughts on the feeling of trust, and considerations on historical events such as recent paradigms of unresolved social grief and trauma. It is proposed that the therapeutic group is a place in which processing trauma and grief, inducing trust and hope in a possible future.Keywords: Social demand of psychotherapy; Social trauma processing; group psychotherapy

  19. Characteristics of work groups and their relationship with social and task cohesion in student teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, William R; Tashchian, Armen

    2004-08-01

    Results of an exploratory study of relationships between work-group characteristics and the social and task cohesion of 18 business students engaged in team class projects. Regression analysis of scores on workload sharing, team spirit, task flexibility, and team cohesiveness for scales of the Work Group Characteristics Inventory indicated sharing of the workload was significantly associated with both task and social cohesion; team spirit with task cohesion but not social cohesion; and task flexibility with social cohesion but not task cohesion.

  20. Forming implicit and explicit attitudes toward individuals: social group association cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Allen R; Rydell, Robert J; Strain, Laura M; Mackie, Diane M

    2008-05-01

    The authors explored how social group cues (e.g., obesity, physical attractiveness) strongly associated with valence affect the formation of attitudes toward individuals. Although explicit attitude formation has been examined in much past research (e.g., S. T. Fiske & S. L. Neuberg, 1990), in the current work, the authors considered how implicit as well as explicit attitudes toward individuals are influenced by these cues. On the basis of a systems of evaluation perspective (e.g., R. J. Rydell & A. R. McConnell, 2006; R. J. Rydell, A. R. McConnell, D. M. Mackie, & L. M. Strain, 2006), the authors anticipated and found that social group cues had a strong impact on implicit attitude formation in all cases and on explicit attitude formation when behavioral information about the target was ambiguous. These findings obtained for cues related to obesity (Experiments 1 and 4) and physical attractiveness (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, parallel findings were observed for race, and participants holding greater implicit racial prejudice against African Americans formed more negative implicit attitudes toward a novel African American target person than did participants with less implicit racial prejudice. Implications for research on attitudes, impression formation, and stigma are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  1. How Peer Pressure Shapes Consensus, Leadership, and Innovations in Social Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto; Vargas-Estrada, Eusebio

    2013-10-01

    What is the effect of the combined direct and indirect social influences--peer pressure (PP)--on a social group's collective decisions? We present a model that captures PP as a function of the socio-cultural distance between individuals in a social group. Using this model and empirical data from 15 real-world social networks we found that the PP level determines how fast a social group reaches consensus. More importantly, the levels of PP determine the leaders who can achieve full control of their social groups. PP can overcome barriers imposed upon a consensus by the existence of tightly connected communities with local leaders or the existence of leaders with poor cohesiveness of opinions. A moderate level of PP is also necessary to explain the rate at which innovations diffuse through a variety of social groups.

  2. The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy in Social Phobia of Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Pourfaraj Omran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acceptance and commitment therapy is a third generation behavior therapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment group therapy in social phobia of students. Methods: This investigation is an experimental study. Twenty students with social phobia were selected based on clinical interview and social phobia and anxiety inventory from Shomal University of Amol and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Acceptance and commitment group therapy was administered to the experimental group in ten 90- minute sessions and control group did not receive any therapy. Pretest, posttest and one-month fallow up scores of the two groups were analyzed by multiple analyses of variance and independent t-test.Results: The result of analyses showed that in final of treatment social anxiety score of experimental group significantly decreased (P0.05.Conclusion: Acceptance and commitment group therapy is effective in the treatment of social phobia of students.

  3. Empirical studies on the network of social groups: the case of Tencent QQ

    CERN Document Server

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Lü, Linyuan; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2014-01-01

    Participation in social groups are important but the collective behaviors of human as a group are difficult to analyze due to the difficulties to quantify ordinary social relation, group membership, and to collect a comprehensive dataset. Such difficulties can be circumvented by analyzing online social networks. In this paper, we analyze a comprehensive dataset obtained from Tencent QQ, an instant messenger with the highest market share in China. Specifically, we analyze three derivative networks involving groups and their members -- the hypergraph of groups, the network of groups and the user network -- to reveal social interactions at microscopic and mesoscopic level. Our results uncover interesting behaviors on the growth of user groups, the interactions between groups, and their relationship with member age and gender. These findings lead to insights which are difficult to obtain in ordinary social networks.

  4. Social Skills Group Training in High-Functioning Autism: A Qualitative Responder Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training.…

  5. Social Skills Group Training in High-Functioning Autism: A Qualitative Responder Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training.…

  6. Reconstruction of social group networks from friendship networks using a tag-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yuan-Pan; You, Zhi-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Pu

    2016-12-01

    Social group is a type of mesoscopic structure that connects human individuals in microscopic level and the global structure of society. In this paper, we propose a tag-based model considering that social groups expand along the edge that connects two neighbors with a similar tag of interest. The model runs on a real-world friendship network, and its simulation results show that various properties of simulated group network can well fit the empirical analysis on real-world social groups, indicating that the model catches the major mechanism driving the evolution of social groups and successfully reconstructs the social group network from a friendship network and throws light on digging of relationships between social functional organizations.

  7. Appreciative Group Socialization. Model PresentationAppreciative Group Socilaization. Model Presentation [Grupul de socializare apreciativ. Prezentarea modelului

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona PONEA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Appreciative group socialization appeared of the active collaboration of specialists from the Bureau of Support and Advice for Disabled People, the Diecesan Centre of Caritas (www.caritas-iasi.ro, active volunteers and service users involved.It added that an important role in the process of analyzing the needs of beneficiaries to participate in group. The analysis was conducted in a pragmatic manner as their experiences of beneficiaries involved as volunteers, other volunteers involved in practical and analyzing records of beneficiaries, especially the social surveys. An important role was played by the views of beneficiaries and the desire to involve volunteers.Apprecitive group socialization comprised of a number of elements taken from the literature that treats this subject, and a number of elements of appreciative inquiry, the process of socialization, the process of empowerment and also the partnership process.

  8. Territory quality determines social group composition in Ethiopian wolves Canis simensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallents, Lucy A; Randall, Deborah A; Williams, Stuart D; Macdonald, David W

    2012-01-01

    1. We contrast the value of four different models to predict variation in territory size as follows: resource density (the ideal free distribution), population density, group size and intruder pressure (relative resource-holding potential). In the framework of the resource dispersion hypothesis, we test the effect of resource abundance and spatial variation in resource distribution on the age/sex composition of social groups. 2. We explore these drivers of territory size and group size/composition in Ethiopian wolves Canis simensis in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia, using fine-scale distribution maps of their major prey species based on satellite-derived vegetation maps. 3. The number of adult males is correlated with territory size, while prey density, wolf population density and intruder pressure are not associated with territory size. On average, each additional adult male increases territory size by 1.18 km(2). 4. Prey abundance increases with territory size (average biomass accumulation of 6.5 kg km(-2)), and larger territories provide greater per capita access to prime foraging habitat and prey. 5. The age/sex composition of wolf packs is more closely related to territory quality than territory size. Subordinate adult females are more likely to be present in territories with greater proportions of prime giant molerat Tachyoryctes macrocephalus habitat (i.e. >80% of Web Valley territories and >20% in Sanetti/Morebawa), and more yearlings (aged 12-23 months) occur in territories with greater overall prey biomass. 6. Wolf packs with restricted access to good foraging habitat tend to defend more exclusive territories, having a lower degree of overlap with neighbouring packs. 7. The greater per capita access to prey in large groups suggests a strong evolutionary advantage of collaborative territorial defence in this species, although the relative costs of territorial expansion vs. exclusion depend upon the spatial distribution of resources. We propose a model

  9. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    .... Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification...

  10. The Effects of Social Network Centrality on Group Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Marketing Theory, 3(4), 447. Tuckman , Bruce W. (1977). Stages of Small-Group Development. Group and Organizational Management, 2(4), 419. Wallin... Model Summary....................................................................................................18 3. The Research Model ...2. Two-level Model of the Influence of Task Centrality and Density on Normalized Group Satisfaction, Hypothesis 1a

  11. Motivated information processing, social tuning, and group creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtoldt, Myriam N.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; Choi, Hoon-Seok

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which groups are creative has wide implications for their overall performance, including the quality of their problem solutions, judgments, and decisions. To further understanding of group creativity, we integrate the motivated information processing in groups model (De Dreu, Nijstad,

  12. Motivated information processing, social tuning, and group creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bechtoldt, M.N.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.; Choi, H.-S.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which groups are creative has wide implications for their overall performance, including the quality of their problem solutions, judgments, and decisions. To further understanding of group creativity, we integrate the motivated information processing in groups model (De Dreu, Nijstad,

  13. Perceptions of Social Responsibility of Prominent Animal Welfare Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Morgan, Carissa J; Croney, Candace C

    2017-08-28

    Nonhuman animal welfare is an increasingly important component of consumer expectations of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The extent to which prominent animal welfare or protection organizations may influence people's perceptions of food industry CSR may be related to an organization's perceived social responsibility. Data from an online survey of 300 U.S. residents were used to explore relationships between demographics/lifestyle choices and perceptions of prominent animal welfare organizations (using best-worst scaling methodology). Overall, the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals was perceived to be the most socially responsible organization analyzed, followed by the Humane Society of the United States and the American Humane Association (AHA). Results suggest that the perceived social responsibility of animal protection organizations in this study was not strongly linked to personally (financially) supporting them, with 2 exceptions: the perceptions of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals and AHA. Improved understanding of the perception of animal welfare or protection organizations can inform decision making by organizations interested in furthering animal welfare causes.

  14. Social capital as norms and resources: Focus groups discussing alcohol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Järvinen, Margaretha

    2011-01-01

    some forms of drinking (‘controlled drunkenness’) while restricting others (drinking alone, drinking ‘for the wrong reason’, losing control often). Furthermore, the idea behind this article is that social capital is both a background factor influencing participants’ relationship to alcohol...

  15. Developing social-ecological system indicators using group model building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugteveen, P.; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Stouten, H.J.; Katwijk, M.M. van; Hanssen, L.S.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In many coastal regions, activities of multiple users present a growing strain on the ecological state of the area. The necessity of using integrative system approaches to understand and solve coastal problems has become obvious in the last decades. Integrated management strategies for social-ecolog

  16. Social Group Membership Increases STEM Engagement among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2017-01-01

    The American educational system currently yields disappointing levels of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement and achievement among students. One way to remedy this may be to increase children's motivation in STEM from an early age. This study examined whether a social cue--being part of an experimental "minimal…

  17. The Identification of Talents in Socially Underprivileged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bertoni, Alicia Lucino; de Carranza, Maria Cristina Vesco

    Maintaining that the environment in general and schools in particular largely influence whether an individual's talents will be identified/encouraged or ignored/discouraged, the document focuses on ways to identify and stimulate talents in socially underprivileged individuals. The study was based on two approaches. The first approach, systems…

  18. Social Group Membership Increases STEM Engagement among Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Allison; Cheryan, Sapna; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2017-01-01

    The American educational system currently yields disappointing levels of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) engagement and achievement among students. One way to remedy this may be to increase children's motivation in STEM from an early age. This study examined whether a social cue--being part of an experimental "minimal…

  19. Social, Mental, Academic and Physical Development in Groups Doing Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Kazim; Temel, Veysel; Akpinar, Selahattin; Akpinar, Oznur

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show whether sport has an effect on education/academic success and social, mental and physical development or not. The search involves 160 students studying at Physical Education and Sports High School at Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University. Graded quintet likert type questionnaire was used as a measuring means. The first…

  20. The Identification of Talents in Socially Underprivileged Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bertoni, Alicia Lucino; de Carranza, Maria Cristina Vesco

    Maintaining that the environment in general and schools in particular largely influence whether an individual's talents will be identified/encouraged or ignored/discouraged, the document focuses on ways to identify and stimulate talents in socially underprivileged individuals. The study was based on two approaches. The first approach, systems…

  1. Smart Video Communication for Social Groups - The Vconect Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursu, M.; Stollenmayer, P.; Williams, D.; Torres, P.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Farber, N.; Geelhoed, E.

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the Vconect project. Vconect (Video Communications for Networked Communities) is a collaborative European research and development project dealing with high-quality enriched video as a medium for mass communication within social communities. The technical capabilities where V

  2. The Social Construction of Policy Targets and the Interest Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminița Gabriela POPESCU

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Frequently the major pressures on the political system are generated by groups that project their objectives and interventions – private interest groups. The presence of these groups in the public arena is considered destructive, and the influences they exercise on the political system are deemed similar to those of corruption. However, political analysts consider that, effects notwithstanding, the presence of interest groups represents an unavoidable cost in any democratic system. A reason for maintaining interest groups is the connection established between citizens and public officials through unions and business, trade or professional associations. The value of such a link may be equivalent to the actual price of the unavoidable distortion that occurs when interest groups are active within the public policy process. The interest groups are certainly too important to be eliminated under the pressure of the myth of corruption.

  3. A comparison of two group-delivered social skills programs for young children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K A; Schultz, Janet R; Newsom, Crighton

    2007-05-01

    A social skills group intervention was developed and evaluated for young children with autism. Twenty-five 4- to 6-year-old (diagnosed) children were assigned to one of two kinds of social skills groups: the direct teaching group or the play activities group. The direct teaching group used a video-modeling format to teach play and social skills over the course of the intervention, while the play activities group engaged in unstructured play during the sessions. Groups met for 5 weeks, three times per week, 1 h each time. Data were derived and coded from videotapes of pre- and post-treatment unstructured play sessions. Findings indicated that while members of both groups increased prosocial behaviors, the direct teaching group made more gains in social skills.

  4. Inter-Group and Intra-Group Assertiveness: Adolescents' Social Skills Following Cultural Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korem, Anat; Horenczyk, Gabriel; Tatar, Moshe

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine intra-group and inter-group assertiveness among adolescents, and to compare these two domains of assertiveness between cultural groups in Israel. Measures of intra-group and inter-group assertiveness were developed, and questionnaires were administrated to 441 immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU),…

  5. Review of Social Skills Training Groups for Youth with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social skills deficits represent core symptoms of Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, there is limited research investigating the empirical validity of social skills interventions currently being used with these populations. This literature review compares three types of social skills training groups: traditional, cognitive…

  6. CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN RUSSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarko, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of

  7. Review of Social Skills Training Groups for Youth with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social skills deficits represent core symptoms of Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, there is limited research investigating the empirical validity of social skills interventions currently being used with these populations. This literature review compares three types of social skills training groups: traditional, cognitive…

  8. What's in a Name: Dimensions of Social Learning in Teacher Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrieling, E.; van den Beemt, A.; de Laat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Induced by a literature review, this paper presents a framework of dimensions and indicators highlighting the underpinning aspects and values of social learning within teacher groups. Notions of social networks, communities of practice and learning teams were taken as the main perspectives to influence this social learning framework. The review…

  9. CULTURAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL CAPITAL OF ETHNIC GROUPS IN RUSSIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tatarko, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of m

  10. From Social Exclusion to Supported Inclusion: Adults with Intellectual Disability Discuss Their Lived Experiences of a Structured Social Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J.; Jaques, Hayden; Johnson, Amanda; Brotherton, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability often have few friends and experience social exclusion. Recognising this gap, supported social groups with the aim of inclusion and interdependence were created by a supported employment provider. Methods: Interviews were undertaken with 10 adults with intellectual disability exploring their lived…

  11. Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B. J.; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of “local ethnicity” on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  12. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coia, Valentina; Capocasa, Marco; Anagnostou, Paolo; Pascali, Vincenzo; Scarnicci, Francesca; Boschi, Ilaria; Battaggia, Cinzia; Crivellaro, Federica; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Brisighelli, Francesca; Busby, George B J; Capelli, Cristian; Maixner, Frank; Cipollini, Giovanna; Viazzo, Pier Paolo; Zink, Albert; Destro Bisol, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet to be understood

  13. Demographic histories, isolation and social factors as determinants of the genetic structure of Alpine linguistic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Coia

    Full Text Available Great European mountain ranges have acted as barriers to gene flow for resident populations since prehistory and have offered a place for the settlement of small, and sometimes culturally diverse, communities. Therefore, the human groups that have settled in these areas are worth exploring as an important potential source of diversity in the genetic structure of European populations. In this study, we present new high resolution data concerning Y chromosomal variation in three distinct Alpine ethno-linguistic groups, Italian, Ladin and German. Combining unpublished and literature data on Y chromosome and mitochondrial variation, we were able to detect different genetic patterns. In fact, within and among population diversity values observed vary across linguistic groups, with German and Italian speakers at the two extremes, and seem to reflect their different demographic histories. Using simulations we inferred that the joint effect of continued genetic isolation and reduced founding group size may explain the apportionment of genetic diversity observed in all groups. Extending the analysis to other continental populations, we observed that the genetic differentiation of Ladins and German speakers from Europeans is comparable or even greater to that observed for well known outliers like Sardinian and Basques. Finally, we found that in south Tyroleans, the social practice of Geschlossener Hof, a hereditary norm which might have favored male dispersal, coincides with a significant intra-group diversity for mtDNA but not for Y chromosome, a genetic pattern which is opposite to those expected among patrilocal populations. Together with previous evidence regarding the possible effects of "local ethnicity" on the genetic structure of German speakers that have settled in the eastern Italian Alps, this finding suggests that taking socio-cultural factors into account together with geographical variables and linguistic diversity may help unveil some yet

  14. "The bullets sound like music to my ears" : socialization of child soldiers within African rebel groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on over 400 in-depth interviews with child soldiers and their commanders, this research reveals how rebel group socialization leads to allegiance among child soldiers and how this contributes to the creation of a cohesive group.

  15. "The bullets sound like music to my ears" : socialization of child soldiers within African rebel groups

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeij, L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on over 400 in-depth interviews with child soldiers and their commanders, this research reveals how rebel group socialization leads to allegiance among child soldiers and how this contributes to the creation of a cohesive group.

  16. Social network modeling: a powerful tool for the study of group scale phenomena in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Armand; Petit, Odile

    2011-08-01

    Social Network Analysis is now a valuable tool to study social complexity in many animal species, including primates. However, this framework has rarely been used to implement quantitative data on the social structure of a group within computer models. Such approaches allow the investigation of how social organization constrains other traits and also how these traits can impact the social organization in return. In this commentary, we discuss the powerful potential of social network modeling as a way to study group scale phenomena in primates. We describe the advantages of using such a method and we focus on the specificity of this approach in primates, given the particularities of their social networks compared with those of other taxa. We also give practical considerations and a list of examples as for the choice of parameters that can be used to implement the social layer within the models.

  17. Trends in Education for Social Work Practice with Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euster, Gerald L.

    1979-01-01

    A survey study of groupwork educators which indicates that group process and groupwork methods courses continue to attract large numbers of students is reported. Problems facing groupwork educators include lack of methodological specificity in groupwork, knowledge explosion in group methods, and poorly developed groupwork courses. (Author/MLW)

  18. Multiple-membership multiple-classification models for social network and group dependences

    OpenAIRE

    Tranmer, Mark; Steel, David; Browne, William J

    2014-01-01

    The social network literature on network dependences has largely ignored other sources of dependence, such as the school that a student attends, or the area in which an individual lives. The multilevel modelling literature on school and area dependences has, in turn, largely ignored social networks. To bridge this divide, a multiple-membership multiple-classification modelling approach for jointly investigating social network and group dependences is presented. This allows social network and ...

  19. The Role of Communication and Cohesion in Reducing Social Loafing in Group Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examines previously untested variables that influence social loafing in professional and technical communication group projects by determining the influence of communication quality and task cohesion on social loafing. A set-up factors model, which included group size, peer review, project scope, and method of team formation, was also…

  20. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  1. The Role of Communication and Cohesion in Reducing Social Loafing in Group Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examines previously untested variables that influence social loafing in professional and technical communication group projects by determining the influence of communication quality and task cohesion on social loafing. A set-up factors model, which included group size, peer review, project scope, and method of team formation, was also…

  2. Signed directed social network analysis applied to group conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Quan; Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Real-world social networks contain relationships of multiple different types, but this richness is often ignored in graph-theoretic modelling. We show how two recently developed spectral embedding techniques, for directed graphs (relationships are asymmetric) and for signed graphs (relationships...... are both positive and negative), can be combined. This combination is particularly appropriate for intelligence, terrorism, and law enforcement applications. We illustrate by applying the novel embedding technique to datasets describing conflict in North-West Africa, and show how unusual interactions can...

  3. Migratory Homes: Redesigning Group Identity, Prototyping Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traganou, Jilly

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Migratory Homes, two collaborative projects that investigate the notion of home/land and belonging in conditions of displacement. The fundamental question that Migratory Homes asks is “how can the disparate identities that constitute mixed societies collectively and equally participate in the creation of a common ‘home/land’ that would be co-designed, co-produced, and co-owned”? Through iterative engagements with conditions of everyday materiality, and by activating processes of co-design as research, Migratory Homes attempt to prototype conditions for social change.

  4. Lodging Update: Greater Boston

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Roginsky

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnacle Advisory Group provides an update of lodging industry performance in New England and Boston for the first half of 2012. While the New England region outpaced the nation, the specific story varies from state to state. Only Massachusetts and Vermont achieved REVPAR performance better than the national average. A review of the Greater Boston lodging market reveals that a healthy local economy and strong convention calendar, combined with a number of one-time events and limited new supply, boosted the local market in 2012. The outlook for 2013 in Greater Boston remains positive, with expectations of a 4.7% growth in REVPAR.

  5. Group level effects of social versus individual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei

    2013-06-01

    We study the effects of learning by imitating others within the framework of an iterated game in which the members of two complementary populations interact via random pairing at each round. This allows us to compare both the fitness of different strategies within a population and the performance of populations in which members have access to different types of strategies. Previous studies reveal some emergent dynamics at the population level, when players learn individually. We here investigate a different mechanism in which players can choose between two different learning strategies, individual or social. Imitating behavior can spread within a mixed population, with the frequency of imitators varying over generation time. When compared to a pure population with solely individual learners, a mixed population with both individual and social learners can do better, independently of the precise learning scheme employed. We can then search for the best imitating strategy. Imitating the neighbor with the highest payoff turns out to be consistently superior. This is in agreement with findings in experimental and model studies that have been carried out in different settings.

  6. The influence of social comparison and peer group size on risky decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the influence of different social reference points and different comparison group sizes on risky decision-making. Participants were presented with a scenario describing an exam, and presented with the opportunity of making a risky decision in the context of different information provided about the performance of their peers. We found that behavior was influenced, not only by comparison with peers, but also by the size of the comparison group. Specifically, the larger the reference group, the more polarized the behavior it prompted. In situations describing social loss, participants were led to make riskier decisions after comparing themselves against larger groups, while in situations describing social gain, they become more risk averse. These results indicate that decision making is influenced both by social comparison and the number of people making up the social reference group.

  7. Group Participation in the Organization: Social Loafing as a Limitation of Group Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmark, James R.; Downs, Timothy M.

    Organizational studies traditionally take the position that the more people involved in group decision making the more ideas will be generated. Recent studies demonstrate that people have a tendency to "loaf" in group situations and thus decrease the level of effort exerted by individual group members. This paper first reviews the…

  8. Children's Subjective Identification with Social Groups: A Group-Reference Effect Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Mark; Sani, Fabio

    2008-01-01

    A study is reported that seeks to examine 5-, 7-, and 10-year-old children's internalization of in-groups within the self-concept. Methodologically, the study draws upon the self-reference effect, extending it to the group-level identity. In particular, it was found that participants' encoding of information with reference to in-groups (family,…

  9. Common marmosets show social plasticity and group-level similarity in personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Sonja E; Burkart, Judith M

    2015-03-06

    The social environment influences animal personality on evolutionary and immediate time scales. However, studies of animal personality rarely assess the effects of the social environment, particularly in species that live in stable groups with individualized relationships. We assessed personality experimentally in 17 individuals of the common marmoset, living in four groups. We found their personality to be considerably modified by the social environment. Marmosets exhibited relatively high plasticity in their behaviour, and showed 'group-personality', i.e. group-level similarity in the personality traits. In exploratory behaviour this was maintained only in the social environment but not when individuals were tested alone, suggesting that exploration tendency is subjected to social facilitation. Boldness, in contrast, showed higher consistency across the social and solitary conditions, and the group-level similarity in trait scores was sustained also outside of the immediate social environment. The 'group-personality' was not due to genetic relatedness, supporting that it was produced by social effects. We hypothesize that 'group-personality' may be adaptive for highly cooperative animals through facilitating cooperation among individuals with similar behavioural tendency.

  10. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  11. Warring arthropod societies: Social spider colonies can delay annihilation by predatory ants via reduced apparency and increased group size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Carl N; Wright, Colin M; Pruitt, Jonathan N

    2015-10-01

    Sociality provides individuals with benefits via collective foraging and anti-predator defense. One of the costs of living in large groups, however, is increased apparency to natural enemies. Here, we test how the individual-level and collective traits of spider societies can increase the risk of discovery and death by predatory ants. We transplanted colonies of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola into a habitat dense with one of their top predators, the pugnacious ant Anoplolepis custodiens. With three different experiments, we test how colony-wide survivorship in a predator-dense habitat can be altered by colony apparency (i.e., the presence of a capture web), group size, and group composition (i.e., the proportion of bold and shy personality types present). We also test how spiders' social context (i.e., living solitarily vs. among conspecifics) modifies their behaviour toward ants in their capture web. Colonies with capture webs intact were discovered by predatory ants on average 25% faster than colonies with the capture web removed, and all discovered colonies eventually collapsed and succumbed to predation. However, the lag time from discovery by ants to colony collapse was greater for colonies containing more individuals. The composition of individual personality types in the group had no influence on survivorship. Spiders in a social group were more likely to approach ants caught in their web than were isolated spiders. Isolated spiders were more likely to attack a safe prey item (a moth) than they were to attack ants and were more likely to retreat from ants after contact than they were after contact with moths. Together, our data suggest that the physical structures produced by large animal societies can increase their apparency to natural enemies, though larger groups can facilitate a longer lag time between discovery and demise. Lastly, the interaction between spiders and predatory ants seems to depend on the social context in which spiders reside

  12. Revisiting the use of focus group in social research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Freidin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodological reflections on focus groups presented in this article draw from a research project on middle-class people living in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. The study addresses health discourses and practices in the contemporary scenario characterized by the diversification of specialists, the growing media coverage of recommendations of healthy living and wellbeing, the implementation of public policies on health promotion, and the expansion of the industry of related products and services.  The objective of the article is to reflect, based on our fieldwork experience, on two aspects that have received special attention in the recent methodological literature: the criteria to compose the groups and their consequences on the conversational dynamic, and the strategies to account for the group interaction in data analysis. Included in the latter, we explore the potential of GF research to observe health identity work. We frame our study and the decisions about design issues into the current debates on the variety of uses of the research group methodology.

  13. A contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group: who is the best judge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M

    2012-09-01

    Using a contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group, this study examined the criterion-related validity of contextually relevant social skills and the incremental validity of peers and teachers as judges of children's social skills. Study participants included 342 (180 male and 162 female) students and their classroom teachers (N = 22) from rural communities. As expected, contextually relevant social skills were significantly related to a variety of social status indicators (i.e., likability, peer- and teacher-assessed popularity, reciprocated friendships, clique centrality) and positive school functioning (i.e., school liking and academic competence). Peer-assessed social skills, not teacher-assessed social skills, demonstrated consistent incremental validity in predicting various indicators of social status outcomes; peer- and teacher-assessed social skills alike showed incremental validity in predicting positive school functioning. The relation between contextually relevant social skills and study outcomes did not vary by child gender. Findings are discussed in terms of the significance of peers in the assessment of children's social skills in the peer group as well as the usefulness of a contextual approach to social skills assessment.

  14. Neural correlates of out-group bias predict social impairment in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, J U; Williams, L E; Heckers, S

    2015-05-01

    Social impairments are a hallmark feature of schizophrenia and are a key predictor of functional disability. Deficits in social information processing likely underlie social impairment; however, this relationship is understudied. We previously demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia fail to habituate to neutral faces, providing evidence for an alteration in basic social information processing. It remains unknown whether patients with schizophrenia also show deficits in processing of more complex social information. Out-group bias provides an excellent opportunity to test complex social information processing because the bias requires basic face processing skills, the ability to discriminate between groups, as well as the ability to categorize oneself into a salient social group. Study participants were 23 patients with schizophrenia and 21 controls. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, habituation of response to 120 s of repeated presentations of faces was assessed in participants who viewed either same-gender faces or opposite-gender faces. The interaction between face gender (same/opposite) and group was examined in three key regions: amygdala, hippocampus, and visual cortex. Social impairment was measured using the PANSS and correlations between social impairment and out-group effect (main effect of face type) were performed in patients. Patients with schizophrenia had aberrant neural responses to opposite-gender faces (interaction, psocial impairment. Patients with no social impairment showed a heightened neural response to opposite-gender faces after 30s, whereas patients with mild-moderate social impairment failed to ever show a heightened response. Alterations in neural responses during out-group processing predicted degree of social impairment in patients with schizophrenia; thus, neural responses to opposite-gender faces may provide a novel measure for studies of treatment response and disease outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Appreciative Group Socialization. Model PresentationAppreciative Group Socilaization. Model Presentation [Grupul de socializare apreciativ. Prezentarea modelului

    OpenAIRE

    Simona PONEA; Antonio SANDU

    2010-01-01

    Appreciative group socialization appeared of the active collaboration of specialists from the Bureau of Support and Advice for Disabled People, the Diecesan Centre of Caritas (www.caritas-iasi.ro), active volunteers and service users involved.It added that an important role in the process of analyzing the needs of beneficiaries to participate in group. The analysis was conducted in a pragmatic manner as their experiences of beneficiaries involved as volunteers, other volunteers involved in pr...

  16. Applied Protocol for Appreciative Group Socialization [Protocol de aplicare a grupului de socializare apreciativ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio SANDU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we aim to outline a protocol for the implementation of favorable social group, aiming to highlight a number of specific factors such as number of persons, type of group, which features the most important steps such as introduction, conduct etc. group. It will also enhance the models and techniques for applying the basic methods appreciative of this group. To achieve this subchapter shall follow the defining characteristics of a group as they are presented in the literature. Besides theoretical directions emphasis will be placed on how to implement in practice by mixing methodological relizat appreciative group socialization.

  17. Social Determinants of Health: Perspective of the ALAMES Social Determinants Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Escudero

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The recent discussion of the social determinants of health, which has been promoted by the WHO as a way to approach global health conditions is neither a new nor a foreign subject for Latin American social medicine or collective health. Indeed, this approach to health derives from the principles of 19th century European social medicine which accepted that the health of the population is a matter of social concern, that social and economic conditions have an important bearing on health and disease, and that these relationships should be subjected to scientific enquiry. (Rosen, 1985:81 The specific socio-historical conditions of Latin America in the 1970’s fostered the development of an innovative, critical, and socially-based based health analysis, which was seen in an evolving theoretical approach with deep social roots. (Cohn, 2003 This analysis calls for scientific work which is committed to changing living and working conditions and to improving the health of the popular classes. (Waitzkin y col. 2001; Iriart y col. 2002. From its beginning, this school of socio-medical thought recognized that collective health has two main areas of research: 1 the distribution and determinants of health and disease and 2 the interpretation, technical knowledge, and specialized practices concerning health, disease, and death. The goal is to understand health and disease as differentiated moments in the human lifecycle, subject to permanent change, and expressing the biological nature of the human body under specific forms of social organization, all this in such a way as to allow discussion of causality and determination. (Breilh y Granda,1982; Laurell, 1982. Latin American social medicine criticized biomedical and conventional epidemiological approaches for isolating health and disease from social context, misinterpreting social processes as biological, conceptualizing health phenomena in individualistic terms, and adopting the methodological

  18. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  19. Fairness, intrinsic motivations and social identity in group decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspari, Diana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is a collection of three studies concerning behavioral economics in group decision contexts. Laboratory experiments are our main tool to maintain control over the specific settings that we want to analyze and they allow us to isolate the phenomena we are interested in. In the first chapter, we look at how fairness influences trust between two individuals. A relationship frequently begins with the act of splitting a common endowment. The fairness of this division may influence t...

  20. Empirical study of the influence of social groups in evacuation scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    von Krüchten, Cornelia; Svachiy, Anton; Wohak, Oliver; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The effects of social groups on pedestrian dynamics, especially in evacuation scenarios, have attracted some interest recently. However, due to the lack of reliable empirical data, most of the studies focussed on modelling aspects. It was shown that social groups can have a considerable effect, e.g. on evacuation times. In order to test the model predictions we have performed laboratory experiments of evacuations with different types and sizes of the social groups. The experiments have been performed with pupils of different ages. Parameters that have been considered are (1) group size, (2) strength of intra-group interactions, and (3) composition of the groups (young adults, children, and mixtures). For all the experiments high-quality trajectories for all participants have been obtained using the PeTrack software. This allows for a detailed analysis of the group effects. One surprising observation is a decrease of the evacuation time with increasing group size.

  1. The language of change? Characterizations of in-group social position, threat, and the deployment of distinctive group attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Andrew G; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S R

    2009-06-01

    A considerable body of research has shown that group members establish and emphasize characteristics or attributes that define their in-group in relation to comparison out-groups. We extend this research by exploring the range of ways in which members of the same social category (Welsh people) deploy a particular attribute (the Welsh language) as a flexible identity management resource. Through a thematic analysis of data from interviews and two public speeches, we examine how the deployment of the Welsh language is bound up with characterizations of the in-group's wider intergroup position (in terms of power relations and their legitimacy and stability), and one's position within the in-group. We focus in particular on the rhetorical and strategic value of such characterizations for policing in-group boundaries on the one hand, and for the in-group's intergroup position on the other. We conclude by emphasizing the need to (1) locate analyses of the uses and importance of group-defining attributes within the social setting that gives them meaning and (2) to appreciate such characterizations as attempts to influence, rather than simply reflect that setting.

  2. Social learning of fear and safety is determined by the demonstrator's racial group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golkar, Armita; Castro, Vasco; Olsson, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social learning offers an efficient route through which humans and other animals learn about potential dangers in the environment. Such learning inherently relies on the transmission of social information and should imply selectivity in what to learn from whom. Here, we conducted two observational learning experiments to assess how humans learn about danger and safety from members ('demonstrators') of an other social group than their own. We show that both fear and safety learning from a racial in-group demonstrator was more potent than learning from a racial out-group demonstrator.

  3. Forming identities in residential care for children: Manoeuvring between social work and peer groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Anja

    2009-01-01

    The general goal of Danish residential care institutions with a therapeutic objective is to change children's behaviour and redirect their identity formation. This goal is pursued through an individualized focus on development. Dynamics of the resident group is rarely targeted directly...... in the pedagogical work. This article challenges the implicit understanding that social work is the primary source of identity transformation and that peer group interaction is mainly an obstacle to overcome. On the contrary, this article argues that learning about the social dynamics of the children's group...... is a precondition for understanding how social work influences individual children. © The Author(s), 2009....

  4. Social Information on Fear and Food Drives Animal Grouping and Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Michael A; Emberts, Zachary; Jones, Harrison; St Mary, Colette M

    2017-03-01

    Empirical studies in select systems suggest that social information-the incidental or deliberate information produced by animals and available to other animals-can fundamentally shape animal grouping behavior. However, to understand the role of social information in animal behavior and fitness, we must establish general theory that quantifies effects of social information across ecological contexts and generates expectations that can be applied across systems. Here we used dynamic state variable modeling to isolate effects of social information about food and predators on grouping behavior and fitness. We characterized optimal behavior from a set of strategies that included grouping with different numbers of conspecifics or heterospecifics and the option to forage or be vigilant over the course of a day. We show that the use of social information alone increases grouping behavior but constrains group size to limit competition, ultimately increasing individual fitness substantially across various ecological contexts. We also found that across various contexts, foraging in mixed-species groups is generally better than foraging in conspecific groups, supporting recent theory on competition-information quality trade-offs. Our findings suggest that multiple forms of social information shape animal grouping and fitness, which are sensitive to resource availability and predation pressure that determine information usefulness.

  5. The Group-lending Model and Social Closure: Microcredit, Exclusion, and Health in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities throu...

  6. Perceiving social inequity: when subordinate-group positioning on one dimension of social hierarchy enhances privilege recognition on another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby; Tost, Leigh Plunkett

    2013-08-01

    Researchers have suggested that viewing social inequity as dominant-group privilege (rather than subordinate-group disadvantage) enhances dominant-group members' support for social policies aimed at lessening such inequity. However, because viewing inequity as dominant-group privilege can be damaging to dominant-group members' self-images, this perspective is frequently resisted. In the research reported here, we explored the circumstances that enhance the likelihood of dominant-group members' viewing inequity as privilege. Because social hierarchies have multiple vertical dimensions, individuals may have high status on one dimension but low status on another. We predicted that occupying a subordinate position on one dimension of social hierarchy could enhance perceptions of one's own privilege on a different dimension of hierarchy, but that this tendency would be diminished among individuals who felt they had achieved a particularly high level of success. Results from three studies that considered gender-based and race-based hierarchies in organizational settings supported our hypothesis.

  7. An Evaluation of a Behaviorally Based Social Skills Group for Individuals Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Justin B.; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Milne, Christine; Taubman, Mitchell; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty; Torres, Norma; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Leaf, Ronald; McEachin, John; Yoder, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In this study we evaluated a social skills group which employed a progressive applied behavior analysis model for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. A randomized control trial was utilized; eight participants were randomly assigned to a treatment group and seven participants were randomly assigned to a waitlist control group. The…

  8. Peer monitoring, social ties and moral hazard in group lending programs : Evidence from Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, N; Lensink, R; Mehrteab, HT

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of monitoring and social ties on moral hazard behavior within group lending programs. Our study is based on data from an extensive questionnaire held in Eritrea among participants of 102 groups. We separately analyze the impact of group leaders and other grou

  9. Let's Face(book) It: Analyzing Interactions in Social Network Groups for Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rap, Shelley; Blonder, Ron

    2016-01-01

    We examined how social network (SN) groups contribute to the learning of chemistry. The main goal was to determine whether chemistry learning could occur in the group discourse. The emphasis was on groups of students in the 11th and 12th grades who learn chemistry in preparation for their final external examination. A total of 1118 discourse…

  10. Building Social Capital in Groups: Facilitating Skill Development for Natural Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the experiences of four farmer groups set up to learn how to jointly manage local natural resource issues shows that the groups are going though two simultaneous processes. One builds technical competency in natural resource management and the other is the underpinning social process that allows the groups to make decisions and work…

  11. Effects of within-class ability grouping on social interaction, achievement and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, de Ton

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate

  12. Evidence for the social role theory of stereotype content: observations of groups' roles shape stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Anne M; Eagly, Alice H

    2014-09-01

    In applying social role theory to account for the content of a wide range of stereotypes, this research tests the proposition that observations of groups' roles determine stereotype content (Eagly & Wood, 2012). In a novel test of how stereotypes can develop from observations, preliminary research collected participants' beliefs about the occupational roles (e.g., lawyer, teacher, fast food worker, chief executive officer, store clerk, manager) in which members of social groups (e.g., Black women, Hispanics, White men, the rich, senior citizens, high school dropouts) are overrepresented relative to their numbers in the general population. These beliefs about groups' typical occupational roles proved to be generally accurate when evaluated in relation to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Then, correlational studies predicted participants' stereotypes of social groups from the attributes ascribed to group members' typical occupational roles (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c), the behaviors associated with those roles (Study 2), and the occupational interest profile of the roles (Study 3). As predicted by social role theory, beliefs about the attributes of groups' typical roles were strongly related to group stereotypes on both communion and agency/competence. In addition, an experimental study (Study 4) demonstrated that when social groups were described with changes to their typical social roles in the future, their projected stereotypes were more influenced by these future roles than by their current group stereotypes, thus supporting social role theory's predictions about stereotype change. Discussion considers the implications of these findings for stereotype change and the relation of social role theory to other theories of stereotype content.

  13. Head rubbing and licking reinforce social bonds in a group of captive African lions, Panthera leo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Matoba

    Full Text Available Many social animals have a species-specific repertoire of affiliative behaviours that characterise individualised relationships within a group. To date, however, quantitative studies on intragroup affiliative behaviours in social carnivores have been limited. Here, we investigated the social functions of the two most commonly observed affiliative behaviours in captive African lions (Panthera leo: head rubbing and licking. We conducted behavioural observations on a captive group of lions composed of 7 males and 14 females, and tested hypotheses regarding three social functions: tension reduction, social bonding, and social status expression. Disproportionately frequent male-male and female-to-male head rubbing was observed, while more than 95% of all licking interactions occurred in female-female dyads. In accordance with the social bond hypothesis, and in disagreement with the social status expression hypothesis, both head rubbing and licking interactions were reciprocal. After controlling for spatial association, the dyadic frequency of head rubbing was negatively correlated with age difference while licking was positively correlated with relatedness. Group reunion after daily separation did not affect the frequencies of the affiliative behaviours, which was in disagreement with the predictions from the tension reduction hypothesis. These results support the social bond hypothesis for the functions of head rubbing and licking. Different patterns of affiliative behaviour between the sexes may reflect differences in the relationship quality in each sex or the differential predisposition to licking due to its original function in offspring care.

  14. A Psychoeducational School-Based Group Intervention for Socially Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Damer, Diana E.; Mellou, Angeliki; Mitropoulou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational group for social anxiety aimed at elementary children. An 8-week psychoeducational program based on empirically validated risk factors was designed. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, anxiety management techniques, and social skills training. Pre-and posttest data from 3 groups…

  15. Social Influence in Online Health Discussions: An Evaluation of Online Graduate Student Support Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Erin Kay

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of a field experimental design assessing online support groups testing hypotheses derived from the social identification model of deindividuation effects (SIDE; Lea & Spears, 1992) and social information processing theory (SIP; Walther, 1992). Specifically, it is predicted that individuals in an online support…

  16. 7 CFR 761.208 - Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.208 Target participation rates for socially disadvantaged groups. (a) General. (1) The Agency establishes target participation rates for providing FO and OL...

  17. Social Justice and Cultural Responsiveness: Innovative Teaching Strategies for Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a teaching strategy for group work that enhances the social justice consciousness of course participants by increasing their knowledge of their own cultural identity, worldview, acculturation, privilege, and oppression to improve their cultural responsiveness and understanding of social justice issues. The focus is on group…

  18. Social Interaction Rules in Cooperative Learning Groups for Students at Risk for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuester, Deitra A.; Zentall, Sydney S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of providing social participation rules on the performance and social behavior of a school-based sample of 10-14-year-old students at risk for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 34) who worked cooperatively in same-gender triads with typical peers (n = 92). The design was primarily a 2 (population group)…

  19. The Minimal Group Paradigm and its maximal impact in research on social categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    One of the most influential paradigms in research on intergroup relations is the Minimal Group Paradigm. Initially motivated by an interest in understanding the basic determinants of social discrimination, this paradigm investigates the impact of social categorization on intergroup relations in the

  20. The Play Factor: Effect of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on Adolescent African-American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earls, Melissa K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Social Skills Group Play Therapy on remedying the social skills deficits of adolescent African-American males. Additionally, the study investigated whether age and grade level impacted the outcome of the intervention. The participants were adolescent African-American males ages 10 to…

  1. The Benefits of Social Skills Groups for Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rachel; Anketell, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    A number of recent publications have highlighted the need for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to be offered "timely" and "appropriate" support in relation to the development of their social skills. One such reported method is the utilisation of social skills groups, although only a small evidence base currently exists demonstrating…

  2. A Phenomenological Exploration of Children's Experiences in a Social Skills Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jenifer N.; Ohrt, Jonathan H.; Swank, Jacqueline M.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the perspectives of 6 children who participated in a social skills group. The children were identified as having significant social skills delays and 4 of the children had a disorder on the autism spectrum. Seven themes emerged: mutual acceptance and support, improved interpersonal skills, positive feelings…

  3. Task Groups in the School Setting: Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Velsor, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Through social and emotional learning (SEL), individuals develop skill in negotiating relationships successfully and expressing emotions appropriately. The socially and emotionally intelligent child reaps benefits in school and later life. Counselors are best qualified to promote children's SEL and the task group in the classroom provides an…

  4. The Minimal Group Paradigm and its maximal impact in research on social categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    One of the most influential paradigms in research on intergroup relations is the Minimal Group Paradigm. Initially motivated by an interest in understanding the basic determinants of social discrimination, this paradigm investigates the impact of social categorization on intergroup relations in the

  5. BJSP and the changing face of the group in social psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, Russell

    2011-01-01

    I reflect on the contribution that BJSP has made to the conceptualization of the group within social psychology by highlighting two cases studies from the social identity tradition published in 1990. These illustrate BJSP's distinctive strength and openness to theoretical innovation over the last de

  6. The Social Group Influences of US Health Journalists and Their Impact on the Newsmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, M. P.; Blake, K. D.; Meissner, H. I.; Viswanath, K.

    2013-01-01

    The news media play a vital role in disseminating health information, yet little is known about the social characteristics of health journalists or the impact they have on the newsmaking process. This study examines how the social group influences of US health journalists impact two important aspects of news production--"media agenda-setting" and…

  7. BJSP and the changing face of the group in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Russell

    2011-09-01

    I reflect on the contribution that BJSP has made to the conceptualization of the group within social psychology by highlighting two cases studies from the social identity tradition published in 1990. These illustrate BJSP's distinctive strength and openness to theoretical innovation over the last decades.

  8. Promoting Resilience through Social Work Practice with Groups: Implications for the Practice and Field Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Alex; Knight, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The realities of contemporary social work practice often push social workers toward a deficit-focused orientation. The article begins with an overview of the major tenets of resiliency and adversarial growth theories and related research findings. We suggest that the group modality epitomizes the application of resiliency theory and adversarial…

  9. The Walking Behaviour of Pedestrian Social Groups and Its Impact on Crowd Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Perozo, Niriaska; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its “non-aerodynamic” shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals. PMID:20383280

  10. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Moussaïd

    Full Text Available Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behaviour consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We show that the V-like walking pattern facilitates social interactions within the group, but reduces the flow because of its "non-aerodynamic" shape. Therefore, when crowd density increases, the group organization results from a trade-off between walking faster and facilitating social exchange. These insights demonstrate that crowd dynamics is not only determined by physical constraints induced by other pedestrians and the environment, but also significantly by communicative, social interactions among individuals.

  11. EFFECTS OF GROUP SIZE AND EXPECTANCY OF REWARD ON SOCIAL LOAFING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philip C Mefoh; Chinonso L Nwanosike

    2012-01-01

    There is a large body of evidence which have shown that monitoring personal effort on group projects reduces social loafing effects, but as the world gets more complex with several co-operative tasks...

  12. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Indiana based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Indiana census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  13. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Maine based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Maine census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  14. Effects of social comparison on aggression and regression in groups of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santrock, J W; Smith, P C; Bourbeau, P E

    1976-09-01

    The influence of negative, equal, and positive social comparison and of nonsocial comparison upon 4- and 5-year-old black children's subsequent aggressive and regressive behavior in 3-member groups was investigated. The group behavior of boys included more physical agression following negative social comparison than the other treatments, and their group behavior also consisted of more nonverbal teasing behavior following the negative comparison treatment than that of the equal and nonsocial comparison groups. When the behavior of the nontarget partners was controlled, children initiated more physical aggression, nonverbal teasing, and regression after experiencing negative social comparison with the partners than after following the other treatments. There was some evidence to support the reciprocal influence of children's aggressive behavior on each other, particularly for boys following imbalanced social comparison treatments.

  15. Basic Science of the Fundamentals and Dynamics of Social-Fringe Group Formation and Sustainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Counseling Psychology Ph ilosophy (3) Mathemancs Human Fact ors (2) Civil Engineering Secondary Political Science (2) Religious St udies ... Mexico , S. Korea). Study of Social Fringe Group Formation Processes: Crystallization vs. Transformation This proposes to use case study analysis to

  16. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Alabama based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Alabama census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  17. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Alaska based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Alaska census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  18. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Illinois based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Illinois census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  19. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Maryland based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Maryland census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  20. Social Skills Groups for Asperger's Disorder and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Countryman, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    .... This article focuses on social skills therapy, looking at research that has been completed in a group therapy format and then using composite case examples to review basic techniques that have been...

  1. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Mississippi based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Mississippi census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  2. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  3. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for New Jersey based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of New Jersey census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  4. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Hawaii based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Hawaii census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  5. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Massachusetts based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Massachusetts census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  6. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Rhode Island based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Rhode Island census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  7. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for New Hampshire based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of New Hampshire census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  8. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Ohio based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Ohio census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  9. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Coastal States based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of coastal states census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  10. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for New York based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of New York census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  11. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Louisiana based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Louisiana census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  12. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for California based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of California census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  13. Integration of individual and social information for decision-making in groups of different sizes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seongmin A Park; Sidney Goïame; Jean-Claude Dreher

    2017-01-01

    ... (individual information) with those of others (social information). Here, we investigated the neurocomputational mechanisms of how we adapt our judgments to those made by groups of different sizes, in the context of jury decisions for a criminal...

  14. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Pennsylvania based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Pennsylvania census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  15. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for South Carolina based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of South Carolina census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  16. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Washington based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Washington census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  17. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Minnesota based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Minnesota census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  18. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Oregon based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Oregon census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  19. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Florida based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Florida census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  20. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for North Carolina based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of North Carolina census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  1. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Texas based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Texas census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  2. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Connecticut based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Connecticut census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  3. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Virginia based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Virginia census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  4. Identidad social de un grupo de altos ingresos económicos. Social identity of a group of high income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dujarric Bermúdez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available La investigación indaga la existencia de una relación entre los ingresos económicos y la identidad, para lo cual se trabajó con un grupo de altos ingresos de la provincia de La Habana. Desde el Enfoque de Identidades Sociales se intenta comprender la configuración subjetiva de este grupo, así como su proyección ante la situación actual del país. Utilizamos un enfoque mixto, procesando la información a partir del Statistical Packetfor Social Sciencies (SPSS y el análisis de contenido. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian que los ingresos modelan una identidad social y constituyen un referente sobre cómo se está moviendo la subjetividad de este grupo social, así como de su proyección ante la situación actual del país. The research investigates the existence of a relationship between economic income and social identity, for which we worked with a group of high incomes in the province of Havana. From the Social Identity Perspective we try to understand the subjectivity of this group and its projection to the current situation. We worked with a mixed methodology and processed the information using the Statistical Packet for Social Sciencies (SPSS and the content analysis. The results show that incomes shape an identity and give some hints about the movement ofthis group social subjectivity, in this period of reforms.

  5. Health Social Networks as Online Life Support Groups for Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, Edhelmira Lima, E-mail: edhyly@ic.uff.br; Loques, Orlando Filho [Instituto de Computação - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil); Mesquita, Cláudio Tinoco [Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro - Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-15

    The number of patients who use the internet in search for information that might improve their health conditions has increased. Among them, those looking for virtual environments to share experiences, doubts, opinions, and emotions, and to foster relationships aimed at giving and getting support stand out. Therefore, there is an increasing need to assess how those environments can affect the patients' health. This study was aimed at identifying scientific studies on the proliferation and impact of virtual communities, known as health social networks or online support groups, directed to cardiovascular diseases, which might be useful to patients with certain conditions, providing them with information and emotional support. A systematic review of the literature was conducted with articles published from 2007 to 2012, related to cardiovascular diseases and collected from the following databases: PubMed; Association for Computing Machinery(ACM); and Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were selected. The results were interesting and relevant from the health viewpoint, identifying therapeutic benefits, such as provision of emotional support, greater compliance to treatment, and information sharing on diseases and on life experiences.

  6. Social medicine in Latin America: productivity and dangers facing the major national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, H; Iriart, C; Estrada, A; Lamadrid, S

    2001-07-28

    There is little knowledge about Latin American social medicine in the English-speaking world. Social medicine groups exist in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, and Mexico. Dictatorships have created political and economic conditions which are more adverse in some countries than others; in certain instances, practitioners of social medicine have faced unemployment, arrest, torture, exile, and death. Social medicine groups have focused on the social determinants of illness and early death, the effects of social policies such as privatisation and public sector cutbacks, occupational and environmental causes of illness, critical epidemiology, mental health effects of political trauma, the impact of gender, and collaborations with local communities, labour organisations, and indigenous people. The groups' achievements and financial survival have varied, depending partly on the national context. Active professional associations have developed, both nationally and internationally. Several groups have achieved publication in journals and books, despite financial and technical difficulties that might be lessened through a new initiative sponsored by the US National Library of Medicine. The conceptual orientation and research efforts of these groups have tended to challenge current relations of economic and political power. Despite its dangers, Latin American social medicine has emerged as a productive field of work, whose findings have become pertinent throughout the world.

  7. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  8. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  9. The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants

    OpenAIRE

    Archie, Elizabeth A.; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Many social animals live in stable groups. In contrast, African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) live in unusually fluid, fission–fusion societies. That is, ‘core’ social groups are composed of predictable sets of individuals; however, over the course of hours or days, these groups may temporarily divide and reunite, or they may fuse with other social groups to form much larger social units. Here, we test the hypothesis that genetic relatedness predicts patterns of group fission and fu...

  10. EEG reveals an early influence of social conformity on visual processing in group pressure situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann-Lengsfeld, Sina Alexa; Herrmann, Christoph Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Humans are social beings and often have to perceive and perform within groups. In conflict situations, this puts them under pressure to either adhere to the group opinion or to risk controversy with the group. Psychological experiments have demonstrated that study participants adapt to erroneous group opinions in visual perception tasks, which they can easily solve correctly when performing on their own. Until this point, however, it is unclear whether this phenomenon of social conformity influences early stages of perception that might not even reach awareness or later stages of conscious decision-making. Using electroencephalography, this study has revealed that social conformity to the wrong group opinion resulted in a decrease of the posterior-lateral P1 in line with a decrease of the later centro-parietal P3. These results suggest that group pressure situations impact early unconscious visual perceptual processing, which results in a later diminished stimulus discrimination and an adaptation even to the wrong group opinion. These findings might have important implications for understanding social behavior in group settings and are discussed within the framework of social influence on eyewitness testimony.

  11. The neural network associated with lexical-semantic knowledge about social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piretti, Luca; Carnaghi, Andrea; Campanella, Fabio; Ambron, Elisabetta; Skrap, Miran; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2015-09-01

    A person can be appraised as an individual or as a member of a social group. In the present study we tested whether the knowledge about social groups is represented independently of the living and non-living things. Patients with frontal and temporal lobe tumors involving either the left or the right hemisphere performed three tasks--picture naming, word-to-picture matching and picture sorting--tapping the lexical semantic knowledge of living things, non-living things and social groups. Both behavioral and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses suggested that social groups might be represented differently from other categories. VLSM analysis carried out on naming errors revealed that left-lateralized lesions in the inferior frontal gyrus, amygdala, insula and basal ganglia were associated with the lexical-semantic processing of social groups. These findings indicate that the social group representation may rely on areas associated with affective processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Media as Catalyzer for Connected Health: Hype or Hope? Perspectives from IMIA Working Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Vilmarlund, Vivian; Borycki, Elizabeth; Schulz, Stefan; Kuziemsky, Craig; Marschollek, Michael; Kulikowski, Casimir A

    2016-01-01

    The Internet and social media are becoming ubiquitous technologies that are transforming the health sector. Social media has become an avenue for accessing, creating and sharing health information among patients and healthcare professionals. Furthermore, social media has become a key feature in many eHealth solutions, including wearable technologies, Big Data solutions, eLearning systems, Serious Games, Medical imaging, etc. These hyper-connected technologies are facilitating a paradigm shift towards more connected health. In this panel, representatives of different IMIA Working Groups will explore how both hope and hype contribute to social media's catalyzing role in creating connected health solutions.

  13. Effectiveness of Group Training of Assertiveness on Social Anxiety among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Daramadi, Parviz Sharifi; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Givtaj, Hamed; Sani, Mohammad Reza Mahmoudian

    2017-06-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on social anxiety (SAD) between deaf and hearing impaired adolescents. Forty eight (24 deaf and 24 hearing impaired) people participated in this study. First, participants with SAD, i.e. attaining the scores above 40 for Connor's Social Inventory Scale 2000 (SPIN), were selected according to convenience sampling and randomly assigned to two groups, i.e. intervention and control. Then, assertiveness group training was conducted for intervention group within 10 sessions, and immediately after completion of the training sessions, SPIN was re-administered to the two groups. ANCOVA showed that the effectiveness of assertiveness group training on SAD is different between deaf and hearing impaired participants, i.e. assertiveness group training was effective on improvement of SAD in hearing impaired participants but not deaf ones. Therefore, it is recommended to incorporate assertiveness group training in the educational programs developed for adolescents with ear disorders especially hearing impairment.

  14. Natural Interactions in Artifical Situations: Focus Groups as an Active Social Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    the interactions going on in the group can be described as natural occurring data (cf. Silverman, 2007). Thus this approach comes to terms with some of the problems addressed within both positivistic as well as constructivist uses of focus group methods. Secondly, framing focus groups as social experiments also......This chapter discuss the question of how the validity of focus group data can be reframed when approaching focus groups as social experiments in a science and technology approach. By using this frame we first of all comes to perceive the focus group discussion as an artificial situation, while...... highlights possibilities of a more active use of groups (by intervention) that resembles the interviewing situations as an active ethnomethodological breaching. It is within this framework of “stimulated or irritated” natural occurring data that focus groups will be discussed....

  15. Survival benefits select for group living in a social spider despite reproductive costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Coates, K.S.; Birkhofer, K.;

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation requires benefits of group living to exceed costs. Hence, some components of fitness are expected to increase with increasing group size, whereas others may decrease because of competition among group members. The social spiders provide an excellent system...... to investigate the costs and benefits of group living: they occur in groups of various sizes and individuals are relatively short-lived, therefore life history traits and Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS) can be estimated as a function of group size. Sociality in spiders has originated repeatedly...... in phylogenetically distant families and appears to be accompanied by a transition to a system of continuous intra-colony mating and extreme inbreeding. The benefits of group living in such systems should therefore be substantial. We investigated the effect of group size on fitness components of reproduction...

  16. A Life-Cycle Model of Human Social Groups Produces a U-Shaped Distribution in Group Size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gul Deniz Salali

    Full Text Available One of the central puzzles in the study of sociocultural evolution is how and why transitions from small-scale human groups to large-scale, hierarchically more complex ones occurred. Here we develop a spatially explicit agent-based model as a first step towards understanding the ecological dynamics of small and large-scale human groups. By analogy with the interactions between single-celled and multicellular organisms, we build a theory of group lifecycles as an emergent property of single cell demographic and expansion behaviours. We find that once the transition from small-scale to large-scale groups occurs, a few large-scale groups continue expanding while small-scale groups gradually become scarcer, and large-scale groups become larger in size and fewer in number over time. Demographic and expansion behaviours of groups are largely influenced by the distribution and availability of resources. Our results conform to a pattern of human political change in which religions and nation states come to be represented by a few large units and many smaller ones. Future enhancements of the model should include decision-making rules and probabilities of fragmentation for large-scale societies. We suggest that the synthesis of population ecology and social evolution will generate increasingly plausible models of human group dynamics.

  17. A pilot study of clonazepam versus psychodynamic group therapy plus clonazepam in the treatment of generalized social anxiety disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knijnik, Daniela Z.; Blanco, Carlos; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Moraes, Carolina U.; Mombach, Clarissa; Almeida, Ellen; Pereira, Marília; Strapasson, Atahualpa; Manfro, Gisele G.; Eizirik, Cláudio L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Both Psychodynamic Group Therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are used as treatment strategies in reducing symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). However, many individuals remain symptomatic after treatment with PGT or clonazepam. Method Fifty-eight adult outpatients with a diagnosis of GSAD according to DSM-IV were randomized to 12 weeks PGT plus clonazepam or clonazepam. The Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) Scale was the primary efficacy measure. Secondary efficacy measures included the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) total score, the World Health Organization Instrument to Assess Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQOL-Bref) Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results CGI-I data from 57 patients (intent-to-treat population) showed that patients who received PGT plus clonazepam presented significantly greater improvement than those who received clonazepam (p=0.033). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the secondary efficacy measures. Conclusion/Discussion Our study suggests that the combination of PGT with clonazepam may be a promising strategy for the treatment of GSAD, regarding gains in the global functioning. However the present study failed to detect more specific changes in social anxiety symptomatology between the two groups. PMID:18774274

  18. Sympatric woodland Myotis bats form tight-knit social groups with exclusive roost home ranges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A August

    Full Text Available The structuring of wild animal populations can influence population dynamics, disease spread, and information transfer. Social network analysis potentially offers insights into these processes but is rarely, if ever, used to investigate more than one species in a community. We therefore compared the social, temporal and spatial networks of sympatric Myotis bats (M. nattereri (Natterer's bats and M. daubentonii (Daubenton's bats, and asked: (1 are there long-lasting social associations within species? (2 do the ranges occupied by roosting social groups overlap within or between species? (3 are M. daubentonii bachelor colonies excluded from roosting in areas used by maternity groups?Using data on 490 ringed M. nattereri and 978 M. daubentonii from 379 colonies, we found that both species formed stable social groups encompassing multiple colonies. M. nattereri formed 11 mixed-sex social groups with few (4.3% inter-group associations. Approximately half of all M. nattereri were associated with the same individuals when recaptured, with many associations being long-term (>100 days. In contrast, M. daubentonii were sexually segregated; only a quarter of pairs were associated at recapture after a few days, and inter-sex associations were not long-lasting. Social groups of M. nattereri and female M. daubentonii had small roost home ranges (mean 0.2 km2 in each case. Intra-specific overlap was low, but inter-specific overlap was high, suggesting territoriality within but not between species. M. daubentonii bachelor colonies did not appear to be excluded from roosting areas used by females.Our data suggest marked species- and sex-specific patterns of disease and information transmission are likely between bats of the same genus despite sharing a common habitat. The clear partitioning of the woodland amongst social groups, and their apparent reliance on small patches of habitat for roosting, means that localised woodland management may be more important to

  19. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. Objective We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members’ conversations. Methods Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. Results We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. Conclusions (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck

  20. Adjusting to living with multiple sclerosis: The role of social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuteau-Harrison, Sophie L; Haslam, Catherine; Mewse, Avril J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is typically associated with life-long adjustment to wide-ranging, changeable symptoms and psychosocial disruption as all relationships are changed or lost. Despite accumulating evidence, the therapeutic impact of harnessing social group factors in MS management and rehabilitation remains largely unexplored. We investigated their role specific to adjusting to MS. A qualitative approach was used with thematic analysis to induce a rich and developing account of the impact of social groups on adjustment for 15 individuals with MS. An adjustment questionnaire was used to provide a framework for its organisation and discussion. The analysis revealed three themes associated with loss, change and social processes that influenced adjustment. These features distinguished between those who were more or less able to adjust, and resonated well with processes previously identified as central to identity loss and change. Social factors enhanced adjustment through easing transition between pre- and post-MS diagnosis lives. Notably, maintenance of pre-existing social roles and relationships was critical in providing a meaningful basis for integrating the old with new senses of self. The capacity to join new social groups was as key in adjustment as was awareness of having access to multiple social groups to avoid being solely defined by MS. These concepts provided a more stable grounding upon which to nurture value systems and employ collective support to counter the negative consequences of living with MS.

  1. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  2. Young children's inclusion decisions in moral and social-conventional group norm contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Michael T; Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2017-06-20

    Being a member of a peer group involves making decisions about whom to include in or exclude from the group. Sometimes these decisions are related to whether members of the group support or challenge the norms of the group. To examine how young children weigh concerns for group norms and group membership in both moral and social-conventional norm contexts, children (3- to 6-year-olds; N=73) were asked to decide between including an ingroup member who challenged the group's norm or an outgroup member who supported the norm. Groups held either moral (equal or unequal resource allocation) or social-conventional (traditional or nontraditional) norms. In the moral contexts, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the moral concern for equality regardless of the peer's group membership or their group's specific norm. In the social-conventional contexts, however, children were more likely to include the peer who advocated for the conventional concern for maintaining traditions but only at the group-specific level. Furthermore, with age children increasingly based their inclusion decisions on normative concerns, rather than on group membership concerns, and differed in their inclusion decisions for ingroups and outgroups. Finally, children reasoned about their decisions by referencing concerns for fairness, group norms, and group membership, suggesting that preschool children weigh multiple concerns when deciding whom to include in their groups. Overall, the current study revealed differences in how preschool children weigh moral and social-conventional concerns in intergroup contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The walking behaviour of pedestrian social groups and its impact on crowd dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Moussaid, Mehdi; Garnier, Simon; Helbing, Dirk; Theraulaz, Guy

    2010-01-01

    Human crowd motion is mainly driven by self-organized processes based on local interactions among pedestrians. While most studies of crowd behavior consider only interactions among isolated individuals, it turns out that up to 70% of people in a crowd are actually moving in groups, such as friends, couples, or families walking together. These groups constitute medium-scale aggregated structures and their impact on crowd dynamics is still largely unknown. In this work, we analyze the motion of approximately 1500 pedestrian groups under natural condition, and show that social interactions among group members generate typical group walking patterns that influence crowd dynamics. At low density, group members tend to walk side by side, forming a line perpendicular to the walking direction. As the density increases, however, the linear walking formation is bent forward, turning it into a V-like pattern. These spatial patterns can be well described by a model based on social communication between group members. We ...

  4. Social comparison framing in health news and its effect on perceptions of group risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigman, Cabral A

    2014-01-01

    News about health disparities often compares health risks faced by different demographic groups. Does this social comparison produce a contrast effect? It was hypothesized that when two racial groups are compared, people would perceive the relatively more at-risk group to be more, and the less at-risk group to be less, at-risk than if the same risk information was presented without the comparative reference group. Three experiments with Black and White respondents tested effects of intergroup social comparison framing (SCF) on perceptions of risk for sexually transmitted infections and skin cancer. SCF (including one White and two Black disparity frames) did not raise respondents' perceived risk regarding the more at-risk racial group, but consistently lowered respondents' risk ratings for the less at-risk racial group. The finding that the same statistic was perceived differently in comparative and noncomparative contexts underscores the importance of considering effects of communication about disparities.

  5. Social Identity Mapping: A procedure for visual representation and assessment of subjective multiple group memberships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruwys, Tegan; Steffens, Niklas K; Haslam, S Alexander; Haslam, Catherine; Jetten, Jolanda; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2016-12-01

    In this research, we introduce Social Identity Mapping (SIM) as a method for visually representing and assessing a person's subjective network of group memberships. To provide evidence of its utility, we report validating data from three studies (two longitudinal), involving student, community, and clinical samples, together comprising over 400 participants. Results indicate that SIM is easy to use, internally consistent, with good convergent and discriminant validity. Each study also illustrates the ways that SIM can be used to address a range of novel research questions. Study 1 shows that multiple positive group memberships are a particularly powerful predictor of well-being. Study 2 shows that social support is primarily given and received within social groups and that only in-group support is beneficial for well-being. Study 3 shows that improved mental health following a social group intervention is attributable to an increase in group compatibility. In this way, the studies demonstrate the capacity for SIM to make a contribution both to the development of social-psychological theory and to its practical application.

  6. Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Nikolai W F; Holl, Stefan; Mehner, Wolfgang; Seyfried, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Crowd evacuations are paradigmatic examples for collective behaviour, as interactions between individuals lead to the overall movement dynamics. Approaches assuming that all individuals interact in the same way have significantly improved our understanding of pedestrian crowd evacuations. However, this scenario is unlikely, as many pedestrians move in social groups that are based on friendship or kinship. We test how the presence of social groups affects the egress time of individuals and crowds in a representative crowd evacuation experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of social groups increases egress times and that this is largely due to differences at two stages of evacuations. First, individuals in social groups take longer to show a movement response at the start of evacuations, and, second, they take longer to move into the vicinity of the exits once they have started to move towards them. Surprisingly, there are no discernible time differences between the movement of independent individuals and individuals in groups directly in front of the exits. We explain these results and discuss their implications. Our findings elucidate behavioural differences between independent individuals and social groups in evacuations. Such insights are crucial for the control of crowd evacuations and for planning mass events.

  7. Disentangling the impact of social groups on response times and movement dynamics in evacuations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai W F Bode

    Full Text Available Crowd evacuations are paradigmatic examples for collective behaviour, as interactions between individuals lead to the overall movement dynamics. Approaches assuming that all individuals interact in the same way have significantly improved our understanding of pedestrian crowd evacuations. However, this scenario is unlikely, as many pedestrians move in social groups that are based on friendship or kinship. We test how the presence of social groups affects the egress time of individuals and crowds in a representative crowd evacuation experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of social groups increases egress times and that this is largely due to differences at two stages of evacuations. First, individuals in social groups take longer to show a movement response at the start of evacuations, and, second, they take longer to move into the vicinity of the exits once they have started to move towards them. Surprisingly, there are no discernible time differences between the movement of independent individuals and individuals in groups directly in front of the exits. We explain these results and discuss their implications. Our findings elucidate behavioural differences between independent individuals and social groups in evacuations. Such insights are crucial for the control of crowd evacuations and for planning mass events.

  8. A content analysis of chronic diseases social groups on Facebook and Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco Javier; Antón-Rodríguez, Míriam

    2012-01-01

    Research on the use of social networks for health-related purposes is limited. This study aims to characterize the purpose and use of Facebook and Twitter groups concerning colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and diabetes. We searched in Facebook ( www.facebook.com ) and Twitter ( www.twitter.com ) using the terms "colorectal cancer," "breast cancer," and "diabetes." Each important group has been analyzed by extracting its network name, number of members, interests, and Web site URL. We found 216 breast cancer groups, 171 colorectal cancer groups, and 527 diabetes groups on Facebook and Twitter. The largest percentage of the colorectal cancer groups (25.58%) addresses prevention, similarly to breast cancer, whereas diabetes groups are mainly focused on research issues (25.09%). There are more social groups about breast cancer and diabetes on Facebook (around 82%) than on Twitter (around 18%). Regarding colorectal cancer, the difference is less: Facebook had 62.23%, and Twitter 31.76%. Social networks are a useful tool for supporting patients suffering from these three diseases. Regarding the use of these social networks for disease support purposes, Facebook shows a higher usage rate than Twitter, perhaps because Twitter is newer than Facebook, and its use is not so generalized.

  9. Social Loafing on Group Projects: Structural Antecedents and Effect on Student Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Praveen; O'Brien, Connie L.

    2008-01-01

    To respond to the expectations of the industry and business school accreditation bodies, marketing faculty have been making extensive use of group projects in their curricula. A common problem with the use of student groups, however, is that of social loafing. In this study, we identify some easy-to-implement project set-up factors and examine…

  10. Rescuing exclusion from the poverty debate : Group disparities and social transformation in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Haan (Arjan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses the conceptualisation of group deprivation - particularly of Dalits and Adivasis - in recent poverty analyses in India. While the poverty debate highlights the severe inequalities that groups based on social identity are exposed to, it pays insufficient attention to

  11. Rescuing exclusion from the poverty debate : Group disparities and social transformation in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. de Haan (Arjan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis paper discusses the conceptualisation of group deprivation - particularly of Dalits and Adivasis - in recent poverty analyses in India. While the poverty debate highlights the severe inequalities that groups based on social identity are exposed to, it pays insufficient attention to

  12. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and

  13. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  14. Bullying and Social Identity: The Effects of Group Norms and Distinctiveness Threat on Attitudes towards Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Kris; Nesdale, Drew

    2004-01-01

    Drawing from social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1979), an experiment was carried out to determine the extent to which children's attitudes towards bullying could be moderated by in-group norms and perceived threat to group distinctiveness. The study investigated the responses of 120 male primary school students aged 10-13 years from five…

  15. Young Children Enforce Social Norms Selectively Depending on the Violator's Group Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marco F. H.; Rakoczy, Hannes; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To become cooperative members of their cultural groups, developing children must follow their group's social norms. But young children are not just blind norm followers, they are also active norm enforcers, for example, protesting and correcting when someone plays a conventional game the "wrong" way. In two studies, we asked whether young children…

  16. Both information and social cohesion determine collective decisions in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Noam; Garnier, Simon; Hartnett, Andrew T; Couzin, Iain D

    2013-03-26

    During consensus decision making, individuals in groups balance personal information (based on their own past experiences) with social information (based on the behavior of other individuals), allowing the group to reach a single collective choice. Previous studies of consensus decision making processes have focused on the informational aspects of behavioral choice, assuming that individuals make choices based solely on their likelihood of being beneficial (e.g., rewarded). However, decisions by both humans and nonhuman animals systematically violate such expectations. Furthermore, the typical experimental paradigm of assessing binary decisions, those between two mutually exclusive options, confounds two aspects common to most group decisions: minimizing uncertainty (through the use of personal and social information) and maintaining group cohesion (for example, to reduce predation risk). Here we experimentally disassociate cohesion-based decisions from information-based decisions using a three-choice paradigm and demonstrate that both factors are crucial to understanding the collective decision making of schooling fish. In addition, we demonstrate how multiple informational dimensions (here color and stripe orientation) are integrated within groups to achieve consensus, even though no individual is explicitly aware of, or has a unique preference for, the consensus option. Balancing of personal information and social cues by individuals in key frontal positions in the group is shown to be essential for such group-level capabilities. Our results demonstrate the importance of integrating informational with other social considerations when explaining the collective capabilities of group-living animals.

  17. Group Work Education in Social Work: A Review of the Literature Reveals Possible Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocque, Sarah E.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the growing concerns in the literature that traditional group work education in social work is not providing the foundational knowledge, skills, evidence-based practice, professional uses of self, and adherence to practice standards necessary for effective group practice. An exploration of the best available evidence on group…

  18. The Inclusion of Siblings in Social Skills Training Groups for Boys with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castorina, Lia L.; Negri, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    This pilot investigation evaluated the effectiveness of siblings as generalisation agents in an 8-week social skills training (SST) program designed for boys with Asperger syndrome (AS). Twenty-one boys aged 8-12 participated in a SST group alone, with a sibling, or remained in a wait-list control group. After training, participants'…

  19. Knowing me, knowing you : Anonymity effects on social identity processes within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lea, M; Spears, R; de Groot, D

    2001-01-01

    The Social Identity Model of Deindividuation Effects (SIDE) proposes that depersonalization of self and others is responsible for the effects of visual anonymity on group behavior The authors investigated these mediating processes by assessing the effects of group-based self-categorization and stere

  20. Professional Co-Development Groups: Addressing the Teacher Training Needs of Social Work Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Valérie; Genest Dufault, Sacha; Châteauvert, Joanie

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a professional development initiative organized by two junior university social work teachers. Along with three experienced colleagues, the two teachers experimented with a professional co-development group. The purpose of this group modality, which has much in common with peer supervision, is to reflect on professional…

  1. Cochrane review: social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Steiner, Amanda M; Volkmar, Fred

    2013-03-07

    Since autism was first described, major difficulties in social interaction have been a defining feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Social skills groups are a common intervention for individuals with ASD. Although a frequently recommended practice, the few studies that have addressed the efficacy of social skills groups have shown mixed results. To determine the effectiveness of social skills groups for improving social competence, social communication, and quality of life for people with ASD who are six to 21 years of age. We searched the following databases in December 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 50, 2011), PsycINFO (1887 to December Week 2, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), OCLC WorldCat (12 December 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 16 December 2011), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (20 December 2011). We also searched the reference lists of published papers. Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing treatment (social skills groups) with a control group who were not receiving the treatment for participants aged six to 21 years with ASD. The control group could be no intervention, wait list, or treatment as usual. Outcomes sought were standardized measures of social competence, social communication, quality of life, emotion recognition, and any other specific behaviors. Two review authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous and standardized mean difference effect sizes (ES) with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible. We included five RCTs evaluating the effects of social skills groups in 196 participants with ASD aged 6 to 21 years old. The results show there is some evidence that social skills groups improve overall

  2. Social skills groups for people aged 6 to 21 with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Brian; Steiner, Amanda M; Volkmar, Fred

    2012-07-11

    Since autism was first described, major difficulties in social interaction have been a defining feature of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Social skills groups are a common intervention for individuals with ASD. Although a frequently recommended practice, the few studies that have addressed the efficacy of social skills groups have shown mixed results. To determine the effectiveness of social skills groups for improving social competence, social communication, and quality of life for people with ASD who are six to 21 years of age. We searched the following databases in December 2011: CENTRAL (2011 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1948 to November Week 3, 2011), EMBASE (1980 to Week 50, 2011), PsycINFO (1887 to December Week 2, 2011), CINAHL (1937 to current), ERIC (1966 to current), Sociological Abstracts (1952 to current), OCLC WorldCat (12 December 2011), Social Science Citation Index (1970 to 16 December 2011), and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (20 December 2011). We also searched the reference lists of published papers. Randomized control trials (RCTs) comparing treatment (social skills groups) with a control group who were not receiving the treatment for participants aged six to 21 years with ASD. The control group could be no intervention, wait list, or treatment as usual. Outcomes sought were standardized measures of social competence, social communication, quality of life, emotion recognition, and any other specific behaviors. Two review authors independently selected and appraised studies for inclusion and assessed the risk of bias in each included study. All outcome data were continuous and standardized mean difference effect sizes (ES) with small sample correction were calculated. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis where possible. We included five RCTs evaluating the effects of social skills groups in 196 participants with ASD aged 6 to 21 years old. The results show there is some evidence that social skills groups improve overall

  3. The Effects of Social Misdirection on Magic Tricks: How Deceived and Undeceived Groups Differ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Tachibana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of perception and cognition in our daily lives can be elucidated through studying misdirection, a technique used by magicians to manipulate attention. Recent findings on the effects of social misdirection induced by joint attention have been disputed, and differences between deceived (failed to detect the magic trick and undeceived (detected the magic trick groups remain unclear. To examine how social misdirection affects deceived and undeceived groups, we showed participants movie clips of the “cups & balls,” a classic magic trick, and measured participants' eye positions (i.e. where participants looked while viewing the clips using an eye tracker. We found that the undeceived group looked less at the magician's face than the deceived group. These results indicate that deceived individuals have difficulty trying not to allocate attention to the face. We conclude that social misdirection captures attention, influencing the emergence of deception.

  4. The Effects of Cognitive Behavorial Therapy Group and Social Support Group on the Self Esteem among Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namora Lumongga Lubis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to determine the main effects of CBT group, social support group (DS and control group (KK on the self esteem among breast cancer patients. Rosemberg self esteem scale (RSE was used to measure self-esteem. The treatment group consisted of CBT and DS groups. Each treatment group received 12 counselling sessions within six weeks. Quantitative analysis general linear model (GLM repeated measures was used to identify the groups’ (CBT, DS, and KK main effect, the repeated test RSE scale (pre test, post test 1, post test 2, and post test 3 main effect and the interaction effect (CBT, DS, and KK, and repeated tests RSE scale (pre test, post test 1,post test 2, post test 3. There was no significant difference in the groups (CBT, DS, and KK main effect on the Rosenberg Self Esteem (RSE scores. There was a significant difference (F (3.10 = 66.823,p = 0.0001 (Wilk's Lambda on the repeated test RSE scale (pre test, post test 1, post test 2, and post test 3 main effects on self esteemscore. Overall findings showed an increase in RSE scores between the pre test, post test 1, post test 2 and post test 3.

  5. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai W. F. BODE, A. Jamie WOOD, Daniel W. FRANKS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Group navigation is of great importance for many animals, such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish. One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders (“Many-wrongs principle”. Here, we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connections as preferential interactions between individuals. Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion. We use network summary statistics, in particular network motifs, to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements. It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered, but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups. We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2: 329-341, 2012].

  6. Social networks improve leaderless group navigation by facilitating long-distance communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikolai W.F.BODE; A.Jamie WOOD; Daniel W.FRANKS

    2012-01-01

    Group navigation is of great importance for many animals,such as migrating flocks of birds or shoals of fish.One theory states that group membership can improve navigational accuracy compared to limited or less accurate individual navigational ability in groups without leaders ("Many-wrongs principle").Here,we simulate leaderless group navigation that includes social connectious as preferential interactions between individuals.Our results suggest that underlying social networks can reduce navigational errors of groups and increase group cohesion.We use network summary statistics,in particular network motifs,to study which characteristics of networks lead to these improvements.It is networks in which preferences between individuals are not clustered,but spread evenly across the group that are advantageous in group navigation by effectively enhancing long-distance information exchange within groups.We suggest that our work predicts a base-line for the type of social structure we might expect to find in group-living animals that navigate without leaders [Current Zoology 58 (2):329-341,2012].

  7. The group-lending model and social closure: microcredit, exclusion, and health in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurmann, Anna T; Johnston, Heidi Bart

    2009-08-01

    According to social exclusion theory, health risks are positively associated with involuntary social, economic, political and cultural exclusion from society. In this paper, a social exclusion framework has been used, and available literature on microcredit in Bangladesh has been reviewed to explore the available evidence on associations among microcredit, exclusion, and health outcomes. The paper addresses the question of whether participation in group-lending reduces health inequities through promoting social inclusion. The group-lending model of microcredit is a development intervention in which small-scale credit for income-generation activities is provided to groups of individuals who do not have material collateral. The paper outlines four pathways through which microcredit can affect health status: financing care in the event of health emergencies; financing health inputs such as improved nutrition; as a platform for health education; and by increasing social capital through group meetings and mutual support. For many participants, the group-lending model of microcredit can mitigate exclusionary processes and lead to improvements in health for some; for others, it can worsen exclusionary processes which contribute to health disadvantage.

  8. The Governance Features of Social Enterprise and Social Network Activities of Collective Food Buying Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Dedeurwaerdere, Tom; de Schutter, Olivier; Hudon, Marek; Mathijs, Erik; Annaert, Bernd; Avermaete, Tessa; Bleeckx, Thomas; de Callatay, Charlotte; De Snijder, Pepijn; Fernandez-Wulff, Paula; Joachain, Helene; Vivero, Jose-Luis

    2017-01-01

    Collective food buying groups, such as community supported agriculture or self-organized citizen groups for delivery of food baskets, have emerged throughout the world as an important niche innovation for promoting more sustainable agri-food systems. These initiatives seek to bring about societal change. They do so, however, not through protest or interest-based lobbying, but by organizing a protected space for learning and experimentation with lifestyle changes for sustainable food consumpti...

  9. Social behaviour in pervasive developmental disorders: effects of informant, group and "theory-of-mind".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, C; Soares-Boucaud, I; Hochmann, J; Frith, U

    1997-12-01

    Theory of mind skills and a range of social behaviour in everyday life were assessed in a sample of 21 children with pervasive developmental disorders and 22 normally-developing preschoolers. Parents, teachers and therapists were interviewed using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales and a new supplementary scale, the "Echelle d'Adaptation Sociale pour Enfants" (EASE). Teachers and therapists were able to differentiate subtle forms of social problems in everyday life between subgroups of children diagnosed later to have either autism (n = 13) or PDDNOS (n = 8), according to DSM-III-R (1) criteria. This study offers a (small) cross-cultural replication of recent work suggesting that differences in the mentalising skills of children with autism are reflected in the everyday social behaviour of this group. A significant effect of informant was found for the PDD group, and this effect was particularly pronounced when children with autism were considered separately. The implications of informant differences are discussed.

  10. Social status and aggressive and disruptive behavior in girls: individual, group, and classroom influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, David B; Farmer, Thomas W; Pearl, Ruth; Van Acker, Richard; Rodkin, Philip C

    2008-04-01

    Recent studies have found distinct subtypes of aggressive youth, marked by either high social status or social marginalization, and that various measures of status differentially associate with aggression. The majority of these studies, however, focused on boys, adolescents, and/or relational aggression in girls. The current research examined how the kind of status measured and the social ecology affect the association between overt aggression and social status in a sample of 187 3rd grade girls. Cluster analysis uncovered aggressive-popular, aggressive-unpopular, and prosocial-popular configurations. Although likeability was related solely to prosocial behavior, other measures of status co-occurred with both prosocial and aggressive behavior. Peer-group behavior complemented that of individuals, though peer-group and classroom acceptance of aggression were not related to cluster prevalence.

  11. SOCIAL COMPETENCE FORMATION AMONG TEENAGERS FROM HUMANIST TREND MULTIPLE-AGED GROUPS

    OpenAIRE

    Larisa A. Krapivina

    2015-01-01

    The paper studies the problems of social development of adolescents in multiple-aged groups (MAG).Methods. The methods involve socio-personal approach, consideration of the subject in a certain ideological humanistic orientation, comparative analysis, and comparison of historical facts, the study of social phenomena of different ages, long-term scientific observations, reflections, a retrospective analysis of personal experience.Results. The author describes objective conditions for the upris...

  12. An investigation into the new emerging social sub group of professional Muslim women in Sierra Leone

    OpenAIRE

    Taqi, Fatmatta, B.

    2010-01-01

    Sierra Leone is in transition to peace and development, from a previous decade long civil war. Educated Muslim women appear to have a great deal of expression, interest and passion to offer the process. The study investigates the new emerging social sub group of professional Muslim women in Sierra Leone society and explores their views and experiences of identifying and attempting to overcome the burdens of patriarchy, oppression and exploitation perpetrated by religious, social and cultural ...

  13. Social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Fabiana Swain; Silva, Isilia Aparecida

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to get to know the social representations about support for breastfeeding in a group of breastfeeding women, as well as to identify the actions in their social environment these women perceive as supportive in their breastfeeding processes. Data were collected through a qualitative approach, using recorded semistructured interviews, organized in accordance with the Collective Subject Discourse and analyzed under the premises of Social Representations Theory. Results showed that the representations of women in this study about support for breastfeeding consist of actions available in the hospital, family and work contexts. In these women's perspective, support is a broad phenomenon that involves aspects of encouragement, promotion and protection to breastfeeding.

  14. Unveiling Collaborative Group Identities in Social Synthetic Environments from Interaction Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grappiolo, Corrado

    identities, to populations of socially driven individuals, by solely analysing the ongoing levels of cooperation of the interactions. Our group modelling framework is intended to be used in computer-mediated interaction scenarios, for simplicity called social synthetic environments, which can be effectively...... used to simulate aspects of real-life, yet by maintaining a customisable level of control of the phenomena under investigation. Examples of social synthetic environments are theoretical games and cooperative computer games. The proposed framework is composed of two pipelined modules. The first one...

  15. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their Responses to Playback of Anthropogenic and Natural Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Social Ecology and Group Cohesion in Pilot Whales and their...or competitors, the size, composition and cohesion of the natal group as well as the dive activity of group members likely plays an important role in...context, by simultaeously tagging multiple individuals within the same group to study social coordination and group cohesion and how these social dynamics

  16. Transdiagnostic group CBT vs. standard group CBT for depression, social anxiety disorder and agoraphobia/panic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie Hemmingsen; Aharoni, Ruth; Pedersen, Morten Hvenegaard

    2017-01-01

    , Social Anxiety Disorder and Agoraphobia/Panic Disorder. In total, 248 patients are recruited from three regional MHS centers across Denmark and included in two intervention arms. The primary outcome is patient-ratings of well-being (WHO Well-being Index, WHO-5), secondary outcomes include level...... Disorders” (UP-CBT) for group delivery in Mental Health Service (MHS), and shown effects comparable to traditional CBT in a naturalistic study. As the use of one manual instead of several diagnosis-specific manuals could simplify logistics, reduce waiting time, and increase therapist expertise compared...

  17. Prevalence of primary headache disorders diagnosed according to ICHD-3 beta in three different social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebedeva, Elena R; Kobzeva, Natalia R; Gilev, Denis

    2016-01-01

    .5% in blood donors. Age-adjusted prevalence of tension-type headache (TTH) among females was almost the same in students and blood donors (68.8% and 66.7%) but female workers had a lower prevalence of TTH (57%). Age-adjusted prevalence of TTH among males did not differ significantly between students and blood...... prevalence was high and differed markedly among the three social groups. It is important that headache epidemiology also focus on socially defined groups in order to target future preventive efforts.......BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to estimate the one-year prevalence of primary headache disorders in three different social groups using the third edition beta of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study population included a total...

  18. Social groups have a representation of their own: Clues from neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiati, Raffaella I; Carnaghi, Andrea; Improta, Erika; Diez, Ana Laura; Silveri, Maria Caterina

    2014-01-01

    The most relevant evidence for the organization of the conceptual knowledge in the brain was first provided by the patterns of deficits in brain-damaged individuals affecting one or another semantic category. Patients with various etiologies showed a disproportionate impairment in producing and understanding names of either living (fruits, vegetables, animals) or nonliving things (tools, vehicles, clothes). These double dissociations between spared and impaired recognition of living and nonliving things led to suggest that these categories are discretely represented in the brain. Recently social groups were found to be represented independently of traditional living and nonliving categories. Here we tested 21 patients with different types of primary dementia with three word sorting tasks tapping their conceptual knowledge about living and nonliving entities and social groups. Patients double dissociated in categorizing words belonging to the three categories. These findings clarify that knowledge about social groups is distinct from other semantic categories.

  19. Social capital and HIV competent communities: the role of community groups in managing HIV/AIDS in rural Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine; Scott, Kerry; Nhamo, Mercy; Nyamukapa, Constance; Madanhire, Claudius; Skovdal, Morten; Sherr, Lorraine; Gregson, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Community involvement is increasingly identified as a "critical enabler" of an effective HIV/AIDS response. We explore pathways between community participation and HIV prevention, treatment and impact mitigation in Zimbabwe, reviewing six qualitative studies in Manicaland. These find that community group membership is often (not always) associated with decreased HIV incidence, reduced stigma and improved access to some services, particularly amongst women. Participation in formal community groups (e.g., church or women's groups) and informal local networks (e.g., neighbours, families) provides opportunities for critical dialogue about HIV/AIDS, often facilitating renegotiation of harmful social norms, sharing of previously hidden personal experiences of HIV/AIDS, formulation of positive action plans and solidarity to action them. However, implementation of new plans and insights is constrained by poverty, social uncertainty and poor service delivery. Furthermore, dialogue may have negative effects, spreading false information and entrenching negative norms. The extent that formal groups and informal networks facilitate externally imposed HIV/AIDS interventions varies. They potentially provide vital practical and emotional support, facilitating service access, treatment adherence and AIDS care. However, they may sometimes play a negative role in prevention activities, challenging stereotypes about sexuality or gender. There is an urgent need for greater recognition of the role of indigenous community groups and networks, and the inclusion of "strengthening local responses" as a key element of interventions and policy. Such efforts require great sensitivity. Heavy-handed external interference in complex indigenous relationships risks undermining the localism and bottom-up initiative and activism that might be central to their effectiveness. Cautious efforts might seek to enhance the potentially beneficial effects of groups, especially for women, and limit potentially

  20. Social learning and the development of individual and group behaviour in mammal societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Alex; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2011-04-12

    As in human societies, social learning may play an important role in shaping individual and group characteristics in other mammals. Here, we review research on non-primate mammals, concentrating on work at our long-term meerkat study site, where longitudinal data and field experiments have generated important insights into the role of social learning under natural conditions. Meerkats live under high predation pressure and occupy a difficult foraging niche. Accordingly, pups make extensive use of social information in learning to avoid predation and obtain food. Where individual learning is costly or opportunities are lacking, as in the acquisition of prey-handling skills, adults play an active role in promoting learning through teaching. Social learning can also cause information to spread through groups, but our data suggest that this does not necessarily result in homogeneous, group-wide traditions. Moreover, traditions are commonly eroded by individual learning. We suggest that traditions will only persist where there are high costs of deviating from the group norm or where skill development requires extensive time and effort. Persistent traditions could, theoretically, modify selection pressures and influence genetic evolution. Further empirical studies of social learning in natural populations are now urgently needed to substantiate theoretical claims.

  1. Perception of Life as Stressful, Not Biological Response to Stress, Is Associated with Greater Social Disability in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Minshew, Nancy J.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences between adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD; N = 40) and typical community volunteers (N = 25) on measures of stressful life events, perceived stress, and biological stress response (cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity) during a novel social stress task. Additional analyses examined the relationship between…

  2. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Mathias; Schmid, Katharina; Lolliot, Simon; Al Ramiah, Ananthi; Hewstone, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals’ Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753), Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948), and England (Study 5; N = 594). Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO). Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1–5), but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5), the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact. PMID:26751203

  3. Intergroup Contact Effects via Ingroup Distancing among Majority and Minority Groups: Moderation by Social Dominance Orientation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Kauff

    Full Text Available Five studies tested whether intergroup contact reduces negative outgroup attitudes through a process of ingroup distancing. Based on the deprovincialization hypothesis and Social Dominance Theory, we hypothesized that the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup identification is moderated by individuals' Social Dominance Orientation (SDO, and occurs only for members of high status majority groups. We tested these predictions in three different intergroup contexts, involving conflictual relations between social groups in Germany (Study 1; N = 150; longitudinal Study 2: N = 753, Northern Ireland (Study 3: N = 160; Study 4: N = 1,948, and England (Study 5; N = 594. Cross-group friendship was associated with reduced ingroup identification and the link between reduced ingroup identification and improved outgroup attitudes was moderated by SDO (the indirect effect of cross-group friendship on outgroup attitudes via reduced ingroup only occurred for individuals scoring high, but not low, in SDO. Although there was a consistent moderating effect of SDO in high-status majority groups (Studies 1-5, but not low-status minority groups (Studies 3, 4, and 5, the interaction by SDO was not reliably stronger in high- than low-status groups. Findings are discussed in terms of better understanding deprovincialization effects of contact.

  4. Educational Possibilities of Social Networks and Group Work. University Students' Perceptions/Posibilidades educativas de las redes sociales y el trabajo en grupo. Percepciones de los alumnos universitarios

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cabero, Julio

    2014-01-01

    ... (mainly social networks). The development of a constructivist approach focused on group work means that students' training can be improved by this type of resources as they foster important aspects such as socialization...

  5. Village fairs (panigyria, dance and social groups in the village of Faraklita, Kefalonia, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosmatou Varvara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to understand the small community of Faraklata, a village on the Ionian island of Kefalonia, Greece, by studying the village fairs (community festivities in honour of individual saints of Agia Paraskevi and Profiti Ilia and their dance practice. Dance constitutes a major element of the village fairs. The observation of the dancers at each fair leads unavoidably to the question: to which social group do they belong to. The participation of inter-families in the village fair and the dances that take place, reveal a coexistence and competition between two social groups as defined by their family origins.

  6. Learned fear to social out-group members are determined by ethnicity and prior exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armita eGolkar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans, like other animals, have a tendency to preferentially learn and retain some associations more readily than others. In humans, preferential learning was originally demonstrated for certain evolutionary prepared stimuli, such as snakes and angry faces and later extended to human social out-groups based on race (Olsson, Ebert, Banaji, & Phelps, 2005. To address the generality of this social learning bias, we examined if this learning bias extended to two separate classes of social out-groups represented by neutral Black and Middle-Eastern faces in 38 White, (Swedish participants. We found that other-ethnicity alone was not sufficient to induce an out-group learning bias; it was observed for Black, but not Middle-Eastern, out-group faces. Moreover, an exploratory analysis showed that growing up in an ethnically diverse environment was inversely related to the learning bias towards Middle-Eastern, but not Black, out-groups faces, suggesting that learned fears towards Middle-Eastern faces might be more permeable to environmental factors. Future research should address how both the quantity and quality of inter-group contact modulate out-group learning.

  7. The effect of group play therapy on social-emotional skills in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Kamalian, Mehrnoush; Eltemasi, Masoumeh; Chinekesh, Shirin; Alavi, Manijeh

    2013-12-24

    Childhood is important and critical period in human life. The foundation of ego is shaped in childhood. Play therapy is one of the successful strategies to help children with inner conflicts problems. This method of psychotherapy is base on the normal learning processes of children, provides solutions to relieve feelings of stress, and expands self-expression. Group play therapy can enhance the self-awareness, self- regulation, social communication, empathy and adoptability in children. Present study investigated the effects of play therapy on relational and emotional skills of pre-school children. For this purpose, the total numbers of 372 pre-school children were randomly selected, and divided into two equal groups (case and control). In next step, the BUSSE-SR methodology was used for evaluation and comparison of self-awareness, self-regulation, social interaction, empathy, adoptability, and control groups. Pre-test were performed for both groups and case group was involved in-group play therapy. According to the results of post-test, correlation of variables between case-control groups was examined by multivariate analysis of covariance. Frequency of boys and girls in our sample were 51.3 and 48.7 percent, respectively. The mean age of children was 5.1±0.6 year. According to the results of present study, play therapy significantly enhanced the social-emotional skills (Pskills and communicate with others.

  8. Social status and housing factors affect reproductive performance of pregnant sows in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak-Johnson, Janeen L

    2017-08-01

    Group-housing systems for pregnant sows are considered a welfare-promoting alternative to the individual stall. A major concern associated with pregnant sows housed in group pens is increased aggression at mixing and at feeding, which may cause chronic stress among some of the sows in the group due to low feed intake and social stress. Prolonged activation of the stress axis, based on elevated cortisol levels, may inhibit or impair reproductive success via disruption of the reproductive axis. Mixing sows into groups shortly after insemination evokes a stress response, which may affect fertilization and implantation due to sustained, elevated cortisol levels that disrupt reproductive processes. Yet, most studies reported minimal effects of group housing sows during pregnancy on reproduction or cortisol-related stress response. Differences between housing systems-in terms of group size, floor-space allowance, feeding system, and genetics-could account for these unexpected results. Indeed, interrupted feed intake, especially in early pregnancy, and sustained aggression in late pregnancy are two unfavorable social stresses that deserve special attention in order to achieve good reproductive performance. Unfortunately, most studies do not consider other factors, such as social rank and parity, which may interactively affect reproductive success and aggressive behavior of sows, especially in group-pen systems. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Using the Diary Method to Deal with Social Loafers on the Group Project: Its Effects on Peer Evaluations, Group Behavior, and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommeyer, Curt J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the use of group and individual diaries to control social loafing on the group project. Although both forms of the diary were designed to prevent social loafing, neither appeared to do so. An unexpected result of the individual diaries is that they appeared to make the majority of the class, namely the "nonloafers," more…

  10. Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapais, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Human social evolution has most often been treated in a piecemeal fashion, with studies focusing on the evolution of specific components of human society such as pair-bonding, cooperative hunting, male provisioning, grandmothering, cooperative breeding, food sharing, male competition, male violence, sexual coercion, territoriality, and between-group conflicts. Evolutionary models about any one of those components are usually concerned with two categories of questions, one relating to the origins of the component and the other to its impact on the evolution of human cognition and social life. Remarkably few studies have been concerned with the evolution of the entity that integrates all components, the human social system itself. That social system has as its core feature human social structure, which I define here as the common denominator of all human societies in terms of group composition, mating system, residence patterns, and kinship structures. The paucity of information on the evolution of human social structure poses substantial problems because that information is useful, if not essential, to assess both the origins and impact of any particular aspect of human society.

  11. Intersubjectivity, social microcosm, and the here-and-now in a support group for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, W

    1996-12-01

    Intersubjectivity, a concept from Watson's nursing model is interwoven with the group dynamics of social microcosm and the here-and-now. Examples from a graduate nursing student's clinical experience illustrate the application of a transpersonal dynamic, formerly associated with dyads, to interactions between a nurse and a support group. A psychiatric consultation liaison nurse specialist student facilitates a support group for registered nurses in a neurological intensive care unit, in response to a group-perceived need to improve communications between nurses, nurses and patients, and nurses and physicians. Discovery and processing of hidden anger and pain activates healing for these nurses.

  12. Outcomes of a Social and Vocational Skills Support Group for Adolescents and Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Ashleigh; Fish, Tom; Cloppert, Patricia; Beversdorf, David Q.

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently experience social isolation and vocational failure. Although social skills groups are vital, relatively few model programs have been developed for this age group. This article reviews the model and evaluation of the Aspirations program, an 8-week social and vocational…

  13. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...

  14. Intimate relationships among adolescents in different social groups in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Carmichael, Gordon; Banwell, Cathy; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-11-01

    With the influence of modernization, there is evidence of increasing Thai adolescent sexual activity. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the intimate relationships of adolescents in different social groups in northern Thailand, and to note the health implications of their behavior. Quantitative and qualitative data from more than 1,750 unmarried young people aged 17-20 years revealed that adolescents from different social and educational backgrounds had significantly different types of intimate relationships. In the Thai context, social class differences are mostly based on young people's educational backgrounds and their families' financial power. Perceptions of love and relationships were interpreted according to social strata and sex. Notably, less well-off young people were likely to engage in much riskier sexual relationships. The present study provides detailed and constructive information to help plan and improve sexual and reproductive health counselling, programs and services for young people in northern Thailand.

  15. Networking the seceder model: Group formation in social and economic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Andreas; Holme, Petter

    2004-09-01

    The seceder model illustrates how the desire to be different from the average can lead to formation of groups in a population. We turn the original, agent based, seceder model into a model of network evolution. We find that the structural characteristics of our model closely match empirical social networks. Statistics for the dynamics of group formation are also given. Extensions of the model to networks of companies are also discussed.

  16. Networking the seceder model: Group formation in social and economic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Grönlund, A

    2004-01-01

    The seceder model illustrates how the desire to be different than the average can lead to formation of groups in a population. We turn the original, agent based, seceder model into a model of network evolution. We find that the structural characteristics our model closely matches empirical social networks. Statistics for the dynamics of group formation are also given. Extensions of the model to networks of companies are also discussed.

  17. Group differences in the legitimization of inequality: Questioning the role of social dominance orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, Samuel; Carvacho, Héctor; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-03-01

    Social dominance orientation (SDO) is conceived as an individual's level of support for group-based hierarchy in general that causes support for more specific group hierarchies. According to social dominance theory, group differences in SDO underpin ideological and behavioural group differences related to specific group hierarchies. Using representative 5-year longitudinal panel data from New Zealand (N = 3,384), we test whether SDO mediates effects of sex and ethnicity on legitimizing myths (LMs) relating to gender and ethnic hierarchy over time. The SDO mediation hypothesis is supported in the case of hostile sexism. However, it is unsupported in the case of benevolent sexism and LMs relating to ethnic hierarchy, where there was no cross-lagged effect of SDO. Moreover, being in the dominant ethnic group is associated with more legitimization of ethnic hierarchy but less legitimization of gender hierarchy, which is inconsistent with the notion of a general orientation underpinning group differences in legitimation. There was mixed evidence for a reverse path whereby specific LMs mediate group differences in SDO across time. We argue for the need to find alternative ways to theorize ideological consensus and difference between groups.

  18. Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…

  19. THE REALIZATION PROBLEMS OF SOME SOCIALLY VULNERABLE GROUPS' OF POPULATION POTENTIAL IN THE OUTLYING DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patimat Alieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the consideration and analysis of the main problems, concerning the realization of socially vulnerable groups' of the population potential. The problem of women and youth employment development takes on a special acuteness and actualite in the outlying district with a labour redundant labour market.

  20. Critical Classrooms: Using Artists' Lives to Teach Young Students Social Groups, Power, and Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janelle M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from a 9-month ethnography in California to illustrate how elementary teacher's decision to reenact Jane Elliott's "A Class Divided" experiment, in conjunction with an artist-centered multicultural curriculum, shifted classroom conversations to a more critical dialogue of social groups, power, and privilege. Data illustrate…

  1. Inter-Group Contact at School and Social Attitudes: Evidence from Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joanne; Campbell, Andrea; Lolliot, Simon; Hewstone, Miles; Gallagher, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Debate continues about the relationship between schools divided on ethno-religious lines and their implications for social cohesion. One argument against the existence of separate schools is that they limit opportunities for children from different groups to engage with each other, promoting intergroup suspicion and sectarianism. Using intergroup…

  2. Gifted Students' Perceptions of the Academic and Social/Emotional Effects of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Grouping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Byers, Jan; Whitsell, Sara Squiller; Moon, Sidney M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated student perceptions of differences in academic and social effects that occur when gifted and talented youth are grouped homogeneously (i.e., in special classes for gifted students) as contrasted with heterogeneously (i.e., in classes with many ability levels represented). Forty-four students in grades 5-11 completed…

  3. Giving in to Group Pressure: The Impact of Socialization and Risk on Perceived Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Katharine A.; Platania, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The current study applies the perspective of decision theory to understanding how choices are made in an in-group setting involving social pressure and risk. Two hundred sixty-one undergraduate students provided assessments of consequences associated with illegally consuming alcohol in different environments with differing degrees of risk. In…

  4. Professional School Counselors as Social Justice Advocates for Undocumented Immigrant Students in Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric C.; Budianto, Lina; Wong, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Due to cultural and linguistic barriers, as well as a fear of deportation, undocumented immigrant students have remained an invisible group face in the existing school system. We provide specific strategies for school counselors to consider in advocating social justice and in facilitating empowerment of undocumented immigrant students through…

  5. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  6. Locus of Control and Other Psycho-Social Parameters in Successful American Age-Group Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund J., Jr.; Straub, William F.

    Psycho-social factors in successful age-group swimmers were explored in this study. The subjects were 50 female and 39 male participants in the 1975 Amateur Athletic Union National Junior Olympics who were asked to answer a set of questions from an open-ended questionnaire. The results support a picture of young persons who invest a great deal of…

  7. Sacrifice for the Cause: Group Processes, Recruitment, and Commitment in a Student Social Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric L.

    1990-01-01

    Surveys participants in the 1985 Columbia University divestment protest to develop a perspective on recruitment and commitment to social movements, emphasizing the importance of political solidarity. Group processes such as consciousness raising, collective empowerment, polarization, and collective decision making influence movement participants…

  8. Professional School Counselors as Social Justice Advocates for Undocumented Immigrant Students in Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eric C.; Budianto, Lina; Wong, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Due to cultural and linguistic barriers, as well as a fear of deportation, undocumented immigrant students have remained an invisible group face in the existing school system. We provide specific strategies for school counselors to consider in advocating social justice and in facilitating empowerment of undocumented immigrant students through…

  9. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  10. Social Skills and Leadership Abilities among Children in Small-Group Literature Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Janine L.

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood educators are attempting to shift from the dominant "recitation" format of discussions found in today's classrooms. This study draws on reader response, and sociocognitive and sociocultural theories to investigate children's perceptions of social skills and leadership moves after participating in small-group discussions of…

  11. Group Cohesion and Social Support in Exercise Classes: Results from a Danish Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jorgensen, Esben; Avlund, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod approach was used, analyzing both survey data and…

  12. Evaluation of a group-based social skills training for children with problem behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, E.S.; Deković, M.; Prinzie, P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; Asscher, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a group-based training program in social skills targeting reduction of problem behaviors in N = 161 children between 7 and 13 years of age. The effects of the intervention were tested in a quasi-experimental study, with a follow-up assessment 12 months after an optional

  13. Group Social Skills Instruction for Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Koenig, Kathleen; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Given the increased recognition of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the chronic and pervasive nature of associated deficits, there is a pressing need for effective treatments. The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a structured, group social skills training program for high-functioning youth with ASD was examined in this study. Fifteen…

  14. Video Mediated Social Interaction Between Groups: System Requirements and Technology Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, D.; Usrsu, M.F.; Meenowa, J.; Cesar Garcia, P.S.; Kegel, I.; Bergström, K.; Bergström, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses results from research related to the use of television as a device that supports social interaction between close-knit groups in settings that include more than two locations, each location being potentially equipped with more than one camera. The paper introduces the notion of

  15. Effects of Achievement Motivation, Social Identity, and Peer Group Norms on Academic Conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masland, Lindsay C.; Lease, A. Michele

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether academic achievement motivation and social identity explain variation in children's conformity to positive academic behaviors (n = 455 children in grades three through five). Structural equation modeling suggested that academic value and peer group academic norms were positively related to academic conformity.…

  16. Critical Classrooms: Using Artists' Lives to Teach Young Students Social Groups, Power, and Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Janelle M.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from a 9-month ethnography in California to illustrate how elementary teacher's decision to reenact Jane Elliott's "A Class Divided" experiment, in conjunction with an artist-centered multicultural curriculum, shifted classroom conversations to a more critical dialogue of social groups, power, and privilege. Data…

  17. Income Distribution across Ethnic Groups in Malaysia : Results from a New Social Accounting Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart

    2014-01-01

    A new social accounting matrix is constructed for Malaysia for the year 2000 to analyze sources of income inequality among ethnic groups in Malaysia. The analysis reveals that income inequality can be decomposed into the interaction of: (i) hourly wages; (ii) working hours per week; and (iii) number

  18. Group Emotions: The Social and Cognitive Functions of Emotions in Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Claire; Lund, Kristine; Plantin, Christian; Niccolai, Gerald P.

    2016-01-01

    The learning sciences of today recognize the tri-dimensional nature of learning as involving cognitive, social and emotional phenomena. However, many computer-supported argumentation systems still fail in addressing the socio-emotional aspects of group reasoning, perhaps due to a lack of an integrated theoretical vision of how these three…

  19. Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An Open Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovski, Nancy L.; Fleming, Jan E.; Rector, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness and Acceptance-Based Group Therapy (MAGT) for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is based largely on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes et al., 1999), with enhanced mindfulness mostly from Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal et al., 2002). The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and initial…

  20. Psicoterapia psicodinâmica em grupo para fobia social generalizada Psychodynamic group treatment for generalized social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Zippin Knijnik

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo é verificar a efetividade do tratamento psicodinâmico em grupo de pacientes com fobia social generalizada. MÉTODOS: 30 pacientes foram incluídos em um estudo randomizado, simples-cego, comparando Terapia Psicodinâmica de Grupo (TPG com um Grupo de Controle Placebo com Credibilidade (CPC. A TPG foi conduzida em 12 sessões de terapia de orientação psicodinâmica em grupo. Os pacientes do grupo controle receberam um pacote de aulas-discussões e tratamento de apoio por 12 semanas, que foi comparado à TPG. Todos os participantes preencheram a Escala de Liebowitz para Ansiedade Social (LSAS, a Escala Hamilton de Ansiedade (HAM-A e a Escala de Impressão Clínica Global (CGI, na entrevista inicial e na 12ª semana de tratamento. Os dados foram analisados com uma ANOVA de medidas repetidas. Pacientes em vigência de tratamento farmacológico ou psicoterápico foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora na maioria das medidas. Na LSAS, os pacientes da TPG obtiveram melhora superior aos do grupo controle, ao cabo de 12 semanas (F1,28=4.84, p=0.036. Nas medidas basais dos sujeitos que completaram o estudo, não houve diferença entre os grupos em variáveis demográficas e de desfecho. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, a TPG foi superior ao tratamento placebo com credibilidade no tratamento da fobia social generalizada, em um ensaio clínico randomizado, simples-cego, de 12 semanas.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of psychodynamic group therapy in patients with generalized social phobia. METHODS: Thirty patients were included in a randomized single-blind clinical trial comparing psychodynamic group treatment (PGT with a credible placebo control group (CPC. PGT was carried out within a 12-session psychodynamically-oriented group psychotherapy. Control patients received a treatment package of lecture-discussion and support group for 12 weeks which was compared to PGT

  1. The ties that bind: genetic relatedness predicts the fission and fusion of social groups in wild African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archie, Elizabeth A; Moss, Cynthia J; Alberts, Susan C

    2006-03-07

    Many social animals live in stable groups. In contrast, African savannah elephants (Loxodonta africana) live in unusually fluid, fission-fusion societies. That is, 'core' social groups are composed of predictable sets of individuals; however, over the course of hours or days, these groups may temporarily divide and reunite, or they may fuse with other social groups to form much larger social units. Here, we test the hypothesis that genetic relatedness predicts patterns of group fission and fusion among wild, female African elephants. Our study of a single Kenyan population spans 236 individuals in 45 core social groups, genotyped at 11 microsatellite and one mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) locus. We found that genetic relatedness predicted group fission; adult females remained with their first order maternal relatives when core groups fissioned temporarily. Relatedness also predicted temporary fusion between social groups; core groups were more likely to fuse with each other when the oldest females in each group were genetic relatives. Groups that shared mtDNA haplotypes were also significantly more likely to fuse than groups that did not share mtDNA. Our results suggest that associations between core social groups persist for decades after the original maternal kin have died. We discuss these results in the context of kin selection and its possible role in the evolution of elephant sociality.

  2. The decision model of the intuitionistic fuzzy group bid evaluation for urban infrastructure projects considering social costs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Bingsheng; Huo, Tengfei; Wang, Xueqing; Shen, Qiping; Chen, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    ... loss, thus social costs are formed. The current bid evaluation mechanism has not yet taken social costs into account, while the present bid evaluation model for construction projects has ignored experts' group character and fuzziness...

  3. Effective leadership in salient groups: revisiting leader-member exchange theory from the perspective of the social identity theory of leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Michael A; Martin, Robin; Epitropaki, Olga; Mankad, Aditi; Svensson, Alicia; Weeden, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Two studies compared leader-member exchange (LMX) theory and the social identity theory of leadership. Study 1 surveyed 439 employees of organizations in Wales, measuring work group salience, leader-member relations, and perceived leadership effectiveness. Study 2 surveyed 128 members of organizations in India, measuring identification not salience and also individualism/collectivism. Both studies provided good support for social identity predictions. Depersonalized leader-member relations were associated with greater leadership effectiveness among high-than low-salient groups (Study 1) and among high than low identifiers (Study 2). Personalized leadership effectiveness was less affected by salience (Study 1) and unaffected by identification (Study 2). Low-salience groups preferred personalized leadership more than did high-salience groups (Study 1). Low identifiers showed no preference but high identifiers preferred depersonalized leadership (Study 2). In Study 2, collectivists did not prefer depersonalized as opposed to personalized leadership, whereas individualists did, probably because collectivists focus more on the relational self.

  4. Social Exclusion Based on Group Membership is a Form of Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Shelby; Elenbaas, Laura; Killen, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Children around the world are affected by bias, prejudice, and discrimination. In this chapter, we argue that intergroup social exclusion-exclusion of peers on the basis of group membership-is a form of prejudice. As such, research efforts should be directed at uncovering the negative intergroup attitudes that sustain these behaviors, and encouraging the development of children's capacity to resist biases in favor of inclusion and just treatment of others. In order to interpret what is known about intergroup social exclusion in childhood, as well as identify compelling issues for current investigation, we introduce our integrative social reasoning developmental model, which emphasizes how children weigh moral and social concerns in everyday peer contexts. This chapter emphasizes three areas of research that have contributed to understanding social inclusion and exclusion decisions in childhood which include the roles of: (1) intergroup contact and friendship, (2) peer group norms, and (3) messages from parents and teachers. While providing a background on the state of research to date, this chapter also pinpoints recent work, shedding new light on the complex interplay of moral reasoning and intergroup attitudes in children's inclusion and exclusion decisions.

  5. Social identity, peer group rejection, and young children's reactive, displaced, and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Duffy, Amanda

    2011-11-01

    The effects of peer group rejection on 7- and 9-year-old children's (N= 192) reactive, displaced, and proactive aggression were examined in a group simulation study. Children were assigned membership in a pretend social group for a drawing competition and were then rejected or accepted by their group. Their direct and indirect aggressive intentions towards either the ingroup or outgroup were assessed. Analysis of their aggressive intentions revealed enhanced indirect aggression but less direct aggression. Peer group rejection, in comparison with acceptance, instigated reactive aggression towards the ingroup, and displaced reactive aggression towards the outgroup. Accepted children displayed proactive aggression towards the outgroup but not the ingroup. The implications of the findings for peer group rejection and aggression research are discussed.

  6. Together we cry: Social motives and preferences for group-based sadness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Roni; Halperin, Eran; Mannheim, Ittay; Tamir, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Group-based emotions play an important role in helping people feel that they belong to their group. People are motivated to belong, but does this mean that they actively try to experience group-based emotions to increase their sense of belonging? In this investigation, we propose that people may be motivated to experience even group-based emotions that are typically considered unpleasant to satisfy their need to belong. To test this hypothesis, we examined people's preferences for group-based sadness in the context of the Israeli National Memorial Day. In two correlational (Studies 1a and 1b) and two experimental (Studies 2 and 3) studies, we demonstrate that people with a stronger need to belong have a stronger preference to experience group-based sadness. This effect was mediated by the expectation that experiencing sadness would be socially beneficial (Studies 1 and 2). We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding motivated emotion regulation and intergroup relations.

  7. The development of stereotype content: The use of warmth and competence in assessing social groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussos, Gina; Dunham, Yarrow

    2016-01-01

    Past research suggests that warmth and competence are primary dimensions of social perception used by adults to understand social groups. The current study investigated whether children use these two dimensions to structure their representations of familiar groups. Results indicated that adult warmth and competence judgments were independent from one another and placed groups in warmth by competence space in ways consistent with past work. However, children showed some sensitivity to both dimensions but did not treat them as independent. Children's judgments of competence were closely aligned with adult judgments, but their judgments of warmth were influenced by factors that solely influenced adult judgments of competence. These data suggest that children develop an understanding of competence as an independent dimension prior to developing an understanding of warmth as an independent dimension and that their judgments of warmth may reflect a more general summing of all available evaluative information. Implications for children's developing understanding of the broader intergroup landscape are discussed.

  8. Evolution of opinions on social networks in the presence of competing committed groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jierui; Emenheiser, Jeffrey; Kirby, Matthew; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw K; Korniss, Gyorgy

    2012-01-01

    Public opinion is often affected by the presence of committed groups of individuals dedicated to competing points of view. Using a model of pairwise social influence, we study how the presence of such groups within social networks affects the outcome and the speed of evolution of the overall opinion on the network. Earlier work indicated that a single committed group within a dense social network can cause the entire network to quickly adopt the group's opinion (in times scaling logarithmically with the network size), so long as the committed group constitutes more than about 10% of the population (with the findings being qualitatively similar for sparse networks as well). Here we study the more general case of opinion evolution when two groups committed to distinct, competing opinions A and B, and constituting fractions pA and pB of the total population respectively, are present in the network. We show for stylized social networks (including Erdös-Rényi random graphs and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks) that the phase diagram of this system in parameter space (pA,pB) consists of two regions, one where two stable steady-states coexist, and the remaining where only a single stable steady-state exists. These two regions are separated by two fold-bifurcation (spinodal) lines which meet tangentially and terminate at a cusp (critical point). We provide further insights to the phase diagram and to the nature of the underlying phase transitions by investigating the model on infinite (mean-field limit), finite complete graphs and finite sparse networks. For the latter case, we also derive the scaling exponent associated with the exponential growth of switching times as a function of the distance from the critical point.

  9. Reaching the Socially Isolated Person with Alzheimer's Disease Through Group Music Therapy - A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Vicky Abad

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a case on John, an 82 year old man with Alzheimer's disease, who resides in a dementia specific unit of a nursing home. People with dementia who require institutional care are often at risk of social isolation, due to the regressive nature of the disease, and the potential of developing behavioural disturbances. This case story demonstrates how group music therapy can be individually tailored to meet the needs of people with dementia who are socially i...

  10. Reaching the Socially Isolated Person with Alzheimer's Disease Through Group Music Therapy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky Abad

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to present a case on John, an 82 year old man with Alzheimer's disease, who resides in a dementia specific unit of a nursing home. People with dementia who require institutional care are often at risk of social isolation, due to the regressive nature of the disease, and the potential of developing behavioural disturbances. This case story demonstrates how group music therapy can be individually tailored to meet the needs of people with dementia who are socially isolated as a result of behavioural challenges, including aggressive and agitating behaviours, and therefore improve the quality of the person's life.

  11. Perceptions of the activity, the social climate, and the self during group exercise classes regulate intrinsic satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E

    2015-01-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.

  12. [Effects of group psychological counseling on self-confidence and social adaptation of burn patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Rui; Wang, Yishen; Li, Na; He, Ting; Shi, Mengna; Liang, Yanyan; Zhu, Chan; Zhou, Yongbo; Qi, Zongshi; Hu, Dahai

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effects of group psychological counseling on the self-confidence and social adaptation of burn patients during the course of rehabilitation. Sixty-four burn patients conforming to the inclusion criteria and hospitalized from January 2012 to January 2014 in Xijing Hospital were divided into trial group and control group according to the method of rehabilitation, with 32 cases in each group. Patients in the two groups were given ordinary rehabilitation training for 8 weeks, and the patients in trial group were given a course of group psychological counseling in addition. The Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale was used to evaluate the changes in self-confidence levels, and the number of patients with inferiority complex, normal feeling, self-confidence, and over self-confidence were counted before and after treatment. The Abbreviated Burn-Specific Health Scale was used to evaluate physical function, psychological function, social relationship, health condition, and general condition before and after treatment to evaluate the social adaptation of patients. Data were processed with t test, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and Wilcoxon test. (1) After treatment, the self-confidence levels of patients in trial group were significantly higher than those in control group (Z = -2.573, P inferiority complex was 17 (53.1%) before treatment, which was decreased to 6 (18.8%) after treatment; the number of patients with normal feeling and that of self-confidence were 8 (25.0%) and 4 (12.5%) before treatment, which were respectively increased to 13 (40.6%) and 10 (31.3%) after treatment. The overall difference in trial group was obvious between before and after treatment (Z = -4.123, P 0.05). (2) After treatment, the scores of psychological function, social relationship, health condition, and general condition were (87 ± 3), (47.8 ± 3.6), (49 ± 3), and (239 ± 10) points in trial group, which were significantly higher than those in control group [(79 ± 4), (38

  13. The effect of device number and role assignment on social group dynamics in location-based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Jørgensen, Nicolai Melgaard; Poulsen, Mark Kronborg

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of being disengaged in group work is commonly defined as social loafing. This disengagement can be reduced by various factors, such as group members having individual accountability in the form of unique tasks. This paper examines social loafing in a collaborative mobile game in groups...... was tested on 41 students from 7th to 8th grade. Using a tablet each showed significantly more instances of social loafing compared to sharing one. The results show no significant difference for role assignment....

  14. Dynamics of Social Group Competition: Modeling the Decline of Religious Affiliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel M.; Yaple, Haley A.; Wiener, Richard J.

    2011-08-01

    When social groups compete for members, the resulting dynamics may be understandable with mathematical models. We demonstrate that a simple ordinary differential equation (ODE) model is a good fit for religious shift by comparing it to a new international data set tracking religious nonaffiliation. We then generalize the model to include the possibility of nontrivial social interaction networks and examine the limiting case of a continuous system. Analytical and numerical predictions of this generalized system, which is robust to polarizing perturbations, match those of the original ODE model and justify its agreement with real-world data. The resulting predictions highlight possible causes of social shift and suggest future lines of research in both physics and sociology.

  15. Evaluation of Public E-Services and Information Technology Accessibility in Different Social Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutė Naujikienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an approach based on the social quality evaluation square model for evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. Componential view to the accessibility of e-services including IT means providing the possibility to research the influences of different life conditions to usage of the public e-services. The task of this empirical study is directed towards revealing the differences of e-inclusion and e-services accessibility for social groups of citizens of Lithuania, and to compare this accessibility data with other EU countries.Design/methodology/approach—the approach is based on the square model of social quality evaluation of information technology usage in different social groups. The social division square model includes an assessment of quality according to the evaluation of socioeconomic security, social inclusion, social cohesion, and empowerment. Empowerment can be defined as consisting of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life.Findings—the results are demonstrated by the accessibility of public e-services data, which are evaluated by the quality of social group development according to IT applications. The hypothesis was confirmed that the e-government activities can be realized by properly selecting and installing technologies, and using technology facilities. E-services influence the capabilities of state officials to apply modern technology and increase the availability of e-services for social groups. Results consist of individual or collective decisions to act on one’s own life, to implementation of effective information technologies in the e-government activities and using of e-services. An important indicator is the implementation of e-services in the activity of citizens. It is submitted as the index of e-participation in dealing with the activities of citizens and the possibilities of authorities directly related with providing services

  16. Let's Face(book) It: Analyzing Interactions in Social Network Groups for Chemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rap, Shelley; Blonder, Ron

    2016-02-01

    We examined how social network (SN) groups contribute to the learning of chemistry. The main goal was to determine whether chemistry learning could occur in the group discourse. The emphasis was on groups of students in the 11th and 12th grades who learn chemistry in preparation for their final external examination. A total of 1118 discourse events were tallied in the different groups. We analyzed the different events that were found in chemistry learning Facebook groups (CLFGs). The analysis revealed that seven types of interactions were observed in the CLFGs: The most common interaction (47 %) dealt with organizing learning (e.g., announcements regarding homework, the location of the next class); learning interactions were observed in 22 % of the posts, and links to learning materials and social interactions constituted about 20 % each. The learning events that were ascertained underwent a deeper examination and three different types of chemistry learning interactions were identified. This examination was based on the theoretical framework of the commognitive approach to learning (Sfard in Thinking as communicating. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008), which will be explained. The identified learning interactions that were observed in the Facebook groups illustrate the potential of SNs to serve as an additional tool for teachers to advance their students' learning of chemistry.

  17. Recommendations for the design, implementation and evaluation of social support in online communities, networks, and groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jacob B; Berner, Eta S; Johnson, Kevin B; Giuse, Dario A; Murphy, Barbara A; Lorenzi, Nancy M

    2013-12-01

    A new model of health care is emerging in which individuals can take charge of their health by connecting to online communities and social networks for personalized support and collective knowledge. Web 2.0 technologies expand the traditional notion of online support groups into a broad and evolving range of informational, emotional, as well as community-based concepts of support. In order to apply these technologies to patient-centered care, it is necessary to incorporate more inclusive conceptual frameworks of social support and community-based research methodologies. This paper introduces a conceptualization of online social support, reviews current challenges in online support research, and outlines six recommendations for the design, evaluation, and implementation of social support in online communities, networks, and groups. The six recommendations are illustrated by CanConnect, an online community for cancer survivors in middle Tennessee. These recommendations address the interdependencies between online and real-world support and emphasize an inclusive framework of interpersonal and community-based support. The applications of these six recommendations are illustrated through a discussion of online support for cancer survivors.

  18. Lending Groups and Different Social Capitals in Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. B. Marconatto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lending groups (LGs and social capital are two central elements to the many microfinance solutions operating around the world. However, LG effectiveness in reducing transaction costs and lending risks for microfinance institutions (MFIs is mediated by institutional environments. Starting from this assumption, we discuss the existent interactions between the institutional environments of developed (Anglo-Saxon and communitarian and developing countries with different stocks of social capital (individual, network and institutional and the influences of this interaction on LG effectiveness. In order to do so, we applied the institutional perspective of O. Williamson to build a theoretical framework to examine the interaction of all these conditions, allowing for analysis of their main relations within the microfinance context. Based on this framework, we propose on the one hand that in developing and Anglo-Saxon developed nations, stocks of both individual and network social capital are the most important for an LG’s effectiveness. However, in Anglo-Saxon countries, these two stocks of social capital are complemented by formal contracting devices. In communitarian developed countries, on the other hand, the stocks of institutional social capital have a stronger positive impact on LG dynamics.

  19. EFNEP graduates' perspectives on social media to supplement nutrition education: focus group findings from active users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak, Tashara M; Benavente, Lisa; Goodell, L Suzanne; Lassiter, Annie; Jones, Lorelei; Bowen, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    To identify ways to effectively use social media to communicate nutrition-related information to low-income populations. The authors conducted 4 focus groups with female Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program graduates who used social media at least twice a week (n = 26 total). Transcripts were analyzed using the constant comparative method to identify key themes. For participants, page content, page maintenance, and networking opportunities with others were important aspects of a nutrition education social media page. Trust emerged as a central theme, because participants expressed a need for reliable information from known, credible sources and safe places to share ideas. Using social media to provide nutrition-related messages may be an effective way to encourage sustained positive behavior changes resulting from educational programming and to engage participants beyond class time. Establishing the trustworthiness of the social media site is essential to its use among low-income participants. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using group supervision and social annotation systems to support students’ academic writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pargman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this best practice paper, we present how we have used a Social annotation system (SAS in a bachelor’s thesis course in media technology to support students’ academic writing. In the paper, we reflect on both technical and social practices with using SAS. Despite limited instructional support and despite the fact that different groups used SAS in different ways, there have been a high completion rate, good quality of the theses and satisfied students. The combination of group supervision and the use of SAS has been successful, especially when taking into consideration that this was the first year we broadly introduced SAS in the bachelor’s thesis course. 

  1. Social Integration of 6-7 Year-Old Children in a Handball Initiation Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sburlan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is observatory and aims at approaching the training process in 6-7-year-old children in handball in terms of socialization and its main objective is the creation of interpersonal relationships between the team players. By using the bibliographic study, sociometric test, analysis and interpretation of the data collected from 20 children (10 girls and 10 boys aged 6-7 years who were enrolled in a training program in which the group formation was intended to be achieved, we managed to validate the hypothesis according to which if we use in a 6-7-year-old group of children exercises for teaching handball, the level of social integration is improved. The conclusion emphasizes that the results to the second test prove the efficiency of the means of a collective nature.

  2. Wellbeing and Work: Social Inclusion of Vulnerable Groups in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available All the current policies and actions offered from the various bodies and organizations in the area of social protection against exclusion, including the European Union, are directed towards achieving the objective and concentrate on the people involved obtaining employment. The great heterogeneity noticeable in these processes shows the necessity of providing responses, actions and programmes that are differentiated and specific.This study, from a qualitative methodological design, analyse the multiple factors that make people belonging to certain groups at risk of exclusion. Among them are women at risk, the disabled, immigrants, the population of drug addicts and former addicts, and other groups such as the homeless or ethnic minorities, mainly Gypsy people. On the basis of an analysis of the data, a range of tools, strategies and competencies is outlined for consideration so as to achieve their social inclusion through the world of work

  3. Group Behavior Learning in Multi-Agent Systems Based on Social Interaction Among Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Kun; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2011-01-01

    Research on multi-agent systems, in which autonomous agents are able to learn cooperative behavior, has been the subject of rising expectations in recent years. We have aimed at the group behavior generation of the multi-agents who have high levelsof autonomous learning ability, like that of human beings, through social interaction between agents to acquire cooperative behavior. The sharing of environmentstates can improve cooperative ability, andthe changing state of the environment in the i...

  4. Changing social patterns of relation to work - Qualitative approach through biographies and group interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Vendramin, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This report gathers the analyses that have been conducted in each country in the framework of the SPREW project (social patterns of relationship to work)in a common qualitative approach, consisting in a total of 163 narrative interviews and 18 group interviews. A common methodological design supports this in-depth empirical study. The first chapter proposes a synthesis overview of all contributions. The report provides a renewed perspective on the meaning of work for different generations

  5. Instructional Strategies for Group and Independent Learning: Social Media for Business Education

    OpenAIRE

    Ephraim Okoro, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Electronic channels of communication and social networking are effective tools in the process of teaching and learning and have increasingly improved the quality of students’ learning outcomes in higher education in recent years. The process encourages students’ active engagement, collaboration, and participation in class activities and group work and provides a flow of information dissemination in a sophisticated method that yields measurable results. Faculty can monitor collaborative and in...

  6. Adaptive Radiation in Socially Advanced Stem-Group Ants from the Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Phillip; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-02-22

    Across terrestrial ecosystems, modern ants are ubiquitous. As many as 94 out of every 100 individual arthropods in rainforests are ants, and they constitute up to 15% of animal biomass in the Amazon. Moreover, ants are pervasive agents of natural selection as over 10,000 arthropod species are specialized inquilines or myrmecomorphs living among ants or defending themselves through mimicry. Such impact is traditionally explained by sociality: ants are the first major group of ground-dwelling predatory insects to become eusocial, increasing efficiency of tasks and establishing competitive superiority over solitary species. A wealth of specimens from rich deposits of 99 million-year-old Burmese amber resolves ambiguity regarding sociality and diversity in the earliest ants. The stem-group genus Gerontoformica maintained distinct reproductive castes including morphotypes unknown in solitary aculeate (stinging) wasps, providing insight into early behavior. We present rare aggregations of workers, indicating group recruitment as well as an instance of interspecific combat; such aggression is a social feature of modern ants. Two species and an unusual new genus are described, further expanding the remarkable diversity of early ants. Stem-group ants are recovered as a paraphyletic assemblage at the base of modern lineages varying greatly in size, form, and mouthpart structure, interpreted here as an adaptive radiation. Though Cretaceous stem-group ants were eusocial and adaptively diverse, we hypothesize that their extinction resulted from the rise of competitively superior crown-group taxa that today form massive colonies, consistent with Wilson and Hölldobler's concept of "dynastic succession."

  7. Improving Social Competence in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders through a Combined-Strategy Group Intervention: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Marlene

    2009-01-01

    This applied dissertation investigated whether a combined-strategy group intervention improved social competence among children with autism spectrum disorders. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders exhibit deficits in social behaviors that may negatively impact all aspects of their lives. Social competence for individuals with autism spectrum…

  8. The influence of social structure on the propagation of social information in artificial primate groups: a graph-based simulation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkl, Bernhard; Noë, Ronald

    2008-05-01

    Observations of primate groups have shown that social learning can lead to the development of temporal stable traditions or even proto-culture. The social structure of primate groups is highly diverse and it has been proposed that differences in the group structure shall influence the patterns of social information transmission. While empirical studies have mainly focused on the psychological mechanisms of social learning in individuals, the phenomenon of information propagation within the group has received relatively little attention. This might be due to the fact that formal theories that allow actual testing have not been formulated, or were kept too simple, ignoring the social dynamics of multi-agent societies. We want to propose a network approach to social information transmission that (1) preserves the complexity of the social structure of primate groups and (2) allows direct application to empirical data. Results from simulation experiments with artificial group structures confirm that association patterns of group-members influence the expected speed of information transmission during the propagation process. Introducing a forgetting rate shows that under certain conditions the proportion of informed individuals will reach a stable rate in some systems while it will drop to zero in others. This suggests that the likelihood to observe temporal stable traditions shall differ between social systems with different structure.

  9. Eating in groups: Do multiple social influences affect intake in a fast-food restaurant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Wilson, Carlene; Mohr, Philip; Wittert, Gary

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated multiple social influences to determine whether they affect amount eaten at a fast-food environment. Using observational methods, data on meal duration, foods eaten and personal characteristics were collected for 157 McDonald's patrons. Analysis of covariance revealed that female diners ate less kilojoules when eating in mixed- versus same-sex groups (adjusted difference = 967 kJ, p groups compared to pairs (adjusted difference = 1067 kJ, p = .019). Influences to increase and restrict the amount eaten can operate simultaneously in an eating environment with gender a critical factor for consideration.

  10. Significance of grooming behavior in two polygynous groups of western black crested gibbons: Implications for understanding social relationships among immigrant and resident group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhen-Hua; Huang, Bei; Ning, Wen-He; Ni, Qing-Yong; Sun, Guo-Zheng; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2013-12-01

    In primates, grooming is considered among the most common behaviors for maintaining social bonds; however, to date, few studies have examined grooming behavior in gibbon species in detail. We used both a 5-min interval scan method and social network analysis to study grooming in two groups of polygynous western black-crested gibbon (Nomascus concolor) in Wuliang Mountain, Central Yunnan, China. Individuals in both groups spent little time in social grooming (1.45% and 1.97% of active time). We compared the two groups' grooming networks and found that the group that maintained a more stable social unit had a more complex grooming network while the group with new immigrants had a grooming network characterized by fewer grooming pairs. Females in both groups played important roles in the grooming network. A newly immigrant female spent the most time grooming others and chose the resident adult female as her main adult grooming partner. Other females from both groups chose the adult male as their primary grooming partner (except their offspring). A sub-adult male who had resided in his natal group for 2 years after maturing into an adult also groomed more and was at the center of the network. This male finally replaced the breeding male in his group 3 years after our data collection period ended. We hypothesize that the immigrant female and the resident young adult male engaged in more extensive grooming interactions as a behavioral strategy to gain tolerance from long-term residents. Our results suggest that female gibbons in polygynous groups actively cooperate in maintaining social relationships rather than co-exist through tolerance or avoidance. Our observations indicate that grooming networks in crested gibbons reflect individual dynamics and partly support the social cohesion hypothesis for primate grooming. In this regard, we suggest that changes in gibbon grooming networks can be used to predict social change.

  11. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    . Nineteen persons either did not return the questionnaire or had missing values in confounding variables. RESULTS: Cancer patients who were motivated to participate in internet support groups belong to higher socioeconomic groups (based on household income and employment) compared to non-participants. We......PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...

  12. Three "quantum" models of competition and cooperation in interacting biological populations and social groups

    CERN Document Server

    Vol, E D

    2012-01-01

    In present paper we propose the consistent statistical approach which appropriate for a number of models describing both behavior of biological populations and various social groups interacting with each other.The approach proposed based on the ideas of quantum theory of open systems (QTOS) and allows one to account explicitly both discreteness of a system variables and their fluctuations near mean values.Therefore this approach can be applied also for the description of small populations where standard dynamical methods are failed. We study in detail three typical models of interaction between populations and groups: 1) antagonistic struggle between two populations 2) cooperation (or, more precisely, obligatory mutualism) between two species 3) the formation of coalition between two feeble groups in their conflict with third one that is more powerful . The models considered in a sense are mutually complementary and include the most types of interaction between populations and groups. Besides this method can ...

  13. FEATURES OF SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CLIMATE OF INCLUSIVE GROUP OF SCHOOLKIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kurmyshova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of actual problems of modern education ‒ the problem of improving the education of students with disabilities and special needs in inclusive schools Based on the results of theoretical analysis the author puts forward the hypothesis that in an inclusive student group the overall level of team cohesion is significantly lower than in normal student group; Secondly, the attitude to disability and persons with HIA among students in inclusive classrooms characterized by greater tolerance than the normal students, the base class; Third, related to a particular trainee with the HIA depends on the characteristics of the nosology and personality traits of both the learner with the HIA and the formal and the informal leader of inclusive student groups. The author reviews the hypotheses in the empirical study, where we study the socio-psychological climate in inclusive student groups reveal communication and the relationship between its performances. In an empirical study involved 44 class groups, in 22 of them, along with the usual students, trained young people with HIA, mainly deficiency of type dizontogenez (experimental group. The other 22 student groups trained teenagers HIA without (control group. A total of 880 students attended 8-9 classes, that is, between the ages of 13 to 15 years.

  14. A group-mediated physical activity intervention in older knee osteoarthritis patients: effects on social cognitive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focht, Brian C; Garver, Matthew J; Lucas, Alexander R; Devor, Steven T; Emery, Charles F; Hackshaw, Kevin V; Fairman, Ciaran M; Bowman, Jessica; Rejeski, W Jack

    2017-01-20

    The objective of the present study was to compare a group-mediated cognitive behavioral (GMCB) physical activity intervention with traditional exercise therapy (TRAD) upon select social cognitive outcomes in sedentary knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) patients. A total of 80 patients (mean age = 63.5 years; 84% women) were recruited using clinic and community-based strategies to a 12-month, single-blind, two-arm, randomized controlled trial. Mobility-related self-efficacy, self-regulatory self-efficacy (SRSE), and satisfaction with physical function (SPF) were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months. Results of intent-to-treat 2 (Treatment: GMCB and TRAD) × 2 (Time: 3 and 12 month) analyses of covariance yielded significantly greater increases in SRSE and SPF (P physical activity and mobility at 3 and 12-months. The GMCB intervention yielded more favorable effects on important social cognitive outcomes than TRAD; these effects were related to improvements in physical activity and mobility.

  15. Comorbid ADHD and anxiety affect social skills group intervention treatment efficacy in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antshel, Kevin M; Polacek, Carol; McMahon, Michele; Dygert, Karen; Spenceley, Laura; Dygert, Lindsay; Miller, Laura; Faisal, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    To assess the influence of psychiatric comorbidity on social skill treatment outcomes for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A community sample of 83 children (74 males, 9 females) with an ASD (mean age = 9.5 yr; SD = 1.2) and common comorbid disorders participated in 10-week social skills training groups. The first 5 weeks of the group focused on conversation skills and the second 5 weeks focused on social problem solving skills. A concurrent parent group was also included in the treatment. Social skills were assessed using the Social Skills Rating System. Ratings were completed by parents at pre- and posttreatment time periods. Children with ASD and children with an ASD and comorbid anxiety disorder improved in their parent reported social skills. Children with ASD and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder failed to improve. Psychiatric comorbidity affects social skill treatment gains in the ASD population.

  16. Incipient Social Groups: An Analysis via In-Vivo Behavioral Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Jamin; Jackson, Joshua Conrad; Bilkey, David; Jong, Jonathan; Whitehouse, Harvey; McNaughton, Craig; Zollmann, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Social psychology is fundamentally the study of individuals in groups, yet there remain basic unanswered questions about group formation, structure, and change. We argue that the problem is methodological. Until recently, there was no way to track who was interacting with whom with anything approximating valid resolution and scale. In the current study we describe a new method that applies recent advances in image-based tracking to study incipient group formation and evolution with experimental precision and control. In this method, which we term "in vivo behavioral tracking," we track individuals' movements with a high definition video camera mounted atop a large field laboratory. We report results of an initial study that quantifies the composition, structure, and size of the incipient groups. We also apply in-vivo spatial tracking to study participants' tendency to cooperate as a function of their embeddedness in those crowds. We find that participants form groups of seven on average, are more likely to approach others of similar attractiveness and (to a lesser extent) gender, and that participants' gender and attractiveness are both associated with their proximity to the spatial center of groups (such that women and attractive individuals are more likely than men and unattractive individuals to end up in the center of their groups). Furthermore, participants' proximity to others early in the study predicted the effort they exerted in a subsequent cooperative task, suggesting that submergence in a crowd may predict social loafing. We conclude that in vivo behavioral tracking is a uniquely powerful new tool for answering longstanding, fundamental questions about group dynamics.

  17. Incipient Social Groups: An Analysis via In-Vivo Behavioral Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamin Halberstadt

    Full Text Available Social psychology is fundamentally the study of individuals in groups, yet there remain basic unanswered questions about group formation, structure, and change. We argue that the problem is methodological. Until recently, there was no way to track who was interacting with whom with anything approximating valid resolution and scale. In the current study we describe a new method that applies recent advances in image-based tracking to study incipient group formation and evolution with experimental precision and control. In this method, which we term "in vivo behavioral tracking," we track individuals' movements with a high definition video camera mounted atop a large field laboratory. We report results of an initial study that quantifies the composition, structure, and size of the incipient groups. We also apply in-vivo spatial tracking to study participants' tendency to cooperate as a function of their embeddedness in those crowds. We find that participants form groups of seven on average, are more likely to approach others of similar attractiveness and (to a lesser extent gender, and that participants' gender and attractiveness are both associated with their proximity to the spatial center of groups (such that women and attractive individuals are more likely than men and unattractive individuals to end up in the center of their groups. Furthermore, participants' proximity to others early in the study predicted the effort they exerted in a subsequent cooperative task, suggesting that submergence in a crowd may predict social loafing. We conclude that in vivo behavioral tracking is a uniquely powerful new tool for answering longstanding, fundamental questions about group dynamics.

  18. Social Media as a Platform for Information About Diabetes Foot Care: A Study of Facebook Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedin, Tasnima; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Lasker, Mohammad A A; Ahmed, Syed Walid; Shommu, Nusrat; Rumana, Nahid; Turin, Tanvir C

    2017-02-01

    Diabetes is one of the most challenging chronic health conditions in the current era. Diabetes-related foot problems need proper patient education, and social media could a play role to disseminate proper information. A systematic search was performed on Facebook groups using the key words "diabetes foot care", "diabetes foot", "diabetes foot management" and "podiatric care". The search resulted in 57 groups and detailed activity information was collected from those groups. Usefulness of each relevant post was determined. Regression analysis was performed to explore the factors associated with the level of usefulness of diabetes foot care-related Facebook groups. Our search resulted in a total of 16 eligible diabetes foot care-related Facebook groups with a total of 103 eligible posts. The average number of group members for the selected groups were 265.75 with an interquartile range of 3.5-107.75. Of the total 103 timeline posts, 45.6% posts were categorized as useful, while the remaining posts were not useful. Top mentioned diabetes foot care practice was "Checking feet daily". Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the level of usefulness of diabetes foot care-related Facebook groups were significantly associated with the type of posts and no association was found with presence of "likes" and presence of comment. Facebook being a widely used social networking system, patient welfare organizations, doctors, nurses and podiatrists could use this platform to provide support to educating diabetes patients and their caregivers by disseminating useful and authentic knowledge and information related to diabetes foot care. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interpersonal and group processes in long-term spaceflight crews: perspectives from social and organizational psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dion, Kenneth L

    2004-07-01

    The issues of interpersonal and group processes in long-term spacecrews from the perspectives of social and organizational psychology are considered here. A contrast between the Amundsen vs. Scott expeditions to the South Pole 90 yrs. ago highlights the importance of personnel selection and attention to interpersonal and group dynamics in expeditions to extreme and dangerous environments, such as long-term spaceflights today. Under the rubric of personnel selection, some further psychological "select-in" and "select-out" criteria are suggested, among them implicit measures of human motivation, intergroup attitudes ("implicit" and "explicit" measures of prejudice, social dominance orientation, and right-wing authoritarianism), attachment styles, and dispositional hardiness. The situational interview and the idea of "selection for teams," drawn from current advances in organizational psychology, are recommended for selecting members for future spacecrews. Under the rubrics of interpersonal and group processes, the social relations model is introduced as a technique for modeling and understanding interdependence among spacecrew members and partialling out variance in behavioral and perceptual data into actor/perceiver, partner/target, and relationship components. Group cohesion as a multidimensional construct is introduced, along with a consideration of the groupthink phenomenon and its controversial link to cohesion. Group composition issues are raised with examples concerning cultural heterogeneity and gender composition. Cultural value dimensions, especially power distance and individual-collectivism, should be taken into account at both societal and psychological levels in long-term space missions. Finally, intergroup processes and language issues in crews are addressed. The recategorization induction from the common ingroup identity model is recommended as a possible intervention for overcoming and inhibiting intergroup biases within spacecrews and between space

  20. Performance of human groups in social foraging: the role of communication in consensus decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Narraway, Claire; Hodgson, Lindsay; Weatherill, Aidan; Sommer, Volker; Sumner, Seirian

    2011-04-23

    Early hominids searched for dispersed food sources in a patchy, uncertain environment, and modern humans encounter equivalent spatial-temporal coordination problems on a daily basis. A fundamental, but untested assumption is that our evolved capacity for communication is integral to our success in such tasks, allowing information exchange and consensus decisions based on mutual consideration of pooled information. Here we examine whether communication enhances group performance in humans, and test the prediction that consensus decision-making underlies group success. We used bespoke radio-tagging methodology to monitor the incremental performance of communicating and non-communicating human groups (small group sizes of two to seven individuals), during a social foraging experiment. We found that communicating groups (n = 22) foraged more effectively than non-communicating groups (n = 21) and were able to reach consensus decisions (an 'agreement' on the most profitable foraging resource) significantly more often than non-communicating groups. Our data additionally suggest that gesticulations among group members played a vital role in the achievement of consensus decisions, and therefore highlight the importance of non-verbal signalling of intentions and desires for successful human cooperative behaviour.